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Sample records for mnster germany 4-9

  1. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  2. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  3. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  4. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  5. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  6. 17 CFR 4.9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 4.9 Section 4.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.9...

  7. 17 CFR 4.9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 4.9 Section 4.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.9...

  8. 17 CFR 4.9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 4.9 Section 4.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.9...

  9. 17 CFR 4.9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 4.9 Section 4.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.9...

  10. 17 CFR 4.9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 4.9 Section 4.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.9...

  11. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  12. 16 CFR 4.9 - The public record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Commission Organization and Procedures (16 CFR part 0 and §§ 4.14 through 4.15, 4.17). (i) A current index of... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The public record. 4.9 Section 4.9... RULES § 4.9 The public record. (a) General. (1) Materials on the public record of the Commission...

  13. 16 CFR 4.9 - The public record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The public record. 4.9 Section 4.9... RULES § 4.9 The public record. (a) General. (1) Materials on the public record of the Commission are... § 4.11 of this part, or as provided in §§ 4.10 (d) through (g), 4.13, and 4.15(b)(3) of this part,...

  14. 16 CFR 4.9 - The public record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Commission Organization and Procedures (16 CFR part 0 and §§ 4.14 through 4.15, 4.17). (i) A current index of... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The public record. 4.9 Section 4.9... RULES § 4.9 The public record. (a) General. (1) Materials on the public record of the Commission...

  15. 43 CFR 1610.4-9 - Monitoring and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-9 Monitoring and evaluation. The proposed plan shall establish intervals...

  16. 77 FR 45558 - 4.9 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...The Commission allocated the 4940-4990 MHz (4.9 GHz) band in 2002 for fixed and mobile use and dedicated the band for public safety broadband communications. In the ten years since, the band has gone underutilized. The purpose of these proposed rules is to invigorate and maximize use of the 4.9 GHz band and attract more users while improving spectrum efficiency. The Commission seeks comment on......

  17. Energy Conservation Education. An Action Approach. Grades 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamm, Michael; Samuel, Barry C.

    Seventeen lessons are provided in this curriculum designed to involve students (grades 4-9) in energy conservation. The lessons are presented in four parts. The three lessons in part I are intended to give students a preliminary conceptual framework for energy conservation and to motivate them to participate in the conservation-action projects…

  18. 4.9 Doses to Infants From Breastfeeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.9 Doses to Infants From Breastfeeding' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  19. 2012 BATTERIES GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, MARCH 4-9, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Harris

    2012-03-09

    The Gordon Research Conference on BATTERIES was held at Four Points Sheraton / Holiday Inn Express, Ventura, California, March 4-9, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 176 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  20. 77 FR 45503 - 4.9 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... No. 07-100; PS Docket No. 06-229; WT Docket No. 06-150; FCC 12-61] 4.9 GHz Band AGENCY: Federal...) 418-7233, or via email at Thomas.Eng@fcc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This is a summary of the... copying during normal business hours in the FCC Reference Information Center, Portals II, 445 12th...

  1. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria. 4.9 Section 4.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications § 4.9 Outage reporting...

  2. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  3. Music Training in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special-issue volume examines music education in the two Germanies and how music has had a great influence in the culture of the nations. The presentation is a professional and objective portrayal of music training and cultivation in Germany in the last decade of the present century. The articles attempt to outline the problems and tasks that…

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-9 - Plan aggregation and restructuring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan aggregation and restructuring. 1.401(a)(4)-9 Section 1.401(a)(4)-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)(4)-9 Plan aggregation and restructuring....

  5. Enterocin F4-9, a Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Maky, Mohamed Abdelfattah; Ishibashi, Naoki; Zendo, Takeshi; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Doud, Jehan Ragab; Karmi, Mohamed; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis F4-9 isolated from Egyptian salted-fermented fish produces a novel bacteriocin, termed enterocin F4-9. Enterocin F4-9 was purified from the culture supernatant by three steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5,516.6 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid and DNA sequencing showed that the propeptide consists of 67 amino acid residues, with a leader peptide containing a double glycine cleavage site to produce a 47-amino-acid mature peptide. Enterocin F4-9 is modified by two molecules of N-acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to Ser37 and Thr46. The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties are essential for the antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9. Further analysis of the enterocin F4-9 gene cluster identified enfC, which has high sequence similarity to a glycosyltransferase. The antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9 covered a limited range of bacteria, including, interestingly, a Gram-negative strain, Escherichia coli JM109. Enterocin F4-9 is sensitive to protease, active at a wide pH range, and moderately resistant to heat.

  6. 24 CFR 4.9 - Disclosure requirements for assistance subject to section 102(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure requirements for assistance subject to section 102(b). 4.9 Section 4.9 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Accountability in the Provision of HUD...

  7. Enterocin F4-9, a Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Bacteriocin

    PubMed Central

    Maky, Mohamed Abdelfattah; Ishibashi, Naoki; Zendo, Takeshi; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Doud, Jehan Ragab; Karmi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis F4-9 isolated from Egyptian salted-fermented fish produces a novel bacteriocin, termed enterocin F4-9. Enterocin F4-9 was purified from the culture supernatant by three steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5,516.6 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid and DNA sequencing showed that the propeptide consists of 67 amino acid residues, with a leader peptide containing a double glycine cleavage site to produce a 47-amino-acid mature peptide. Enterocin F4-9 is modified by two molecules of N-acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to Ser37 and Thr46. The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties are essential for the antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9. Further analysis of the enterocin F4-9 gene cluster identified enfC, which has high sequence similarity to a glycosyltransferase. The antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9 covered a limited range of bacteria, including, interestingly, a Gram-negative strain, Escherichia coli JM109. Enterocin F4-9 is sensitive to protease, active at a wide pH range, and moderately resistant to heat. PMID:25956765

  8. Career Development in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Hubert

    In Germany, after elementary school, the school system splits into three branches, with students either preparing for an apprenticeship or continuing in school. A second system exists, parallel to this education system, which combines general education with basic professional training. The first key career decision point is in Grade 4, when…

  9. Germany knows mining

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-15

    Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

  10. Promoting Literacy in Grades 4-9: A Handbook for Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Karen D., Ed.; Dickinson, Thomas S., Ed.

    This comprehensive handbook focuses on literacy issues in grades 4-9. It is a reference guide that covers everything from the role of the principal and the characteristics of the learners to teaching the gifted and motivating the reluctant learner. Chapters offer an array of examples of student work, classroom vignettes, sample lessons, and…

  11. Studies on the possible central effects in man of a neuropeptide (ACTH 4-9 analogue).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, A N; Stone, B M; Jones, S J

    1984-01-01

    The central effects of a neuropeptide, ACTH 4-9 analogue (Organon 2766), were studied in man using digit symbol substitution (DSS), symbol copying, digit span, electroencephalography and auditory evoked potentials, critical flicker fusion (CFF) and pupillary response to light. Performance was measured overnight, and each of 6 subjects ingested 300 mg caffeine, 40 mg ACTH 4-9 analogue and matching placebo. With placebo there was a marked deterioration in performance overnight. The number of substitutions on DSS and the numbers of symbols copied fell, and the threshold for CFF and number of errors on the vigilance task increased. These effects were not seen after ingestion of caffeine (300 mg), though caffeine may have led to some deterioration in the ability to remember digits. The neuropeptide did not attenuate the decrements in performance overnight.

  12. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  13. [Prenatal care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M

    2013-12-01

    Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness.

  14. Vocational Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Research Branch.

    This report describes vocational education in West Germany from a Canadian viewpoint. Chapter 1 discusses education in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1949, including findings and govermental agencies/departments. A resume of the school system is provided in chapter 2. It covers kindergarten and preschool facilities, primary school, three…

  15. Update: Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Nessa P.

    The Federal Republic of Germany is widely respected for its highly developed economy, rich cultural life, and significant contributions to science, mathematics, and the arts. Designed for families or individuals planning to move to or live in Germany for extended periods of time, this book provides guidance in such practical matters as entry…

  16. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  17. Phytomedicine research in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, H

    1999-01-01

    In Germany since 1980, more than 300 clinical studies have been carried out with standardized phytopharmaceuticals, including Crataegus, Silybum, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Sabal, Urtica, Kava-Kava, Allium sativum, Valeriana, Aesculus, Echinacea, and Viscum drugs. These studies assessed the efficacy of phytopharmaceuticals for the treatment of moderate or moderately severe diseases and prevention. Several comparative clinical trials showed that these phytopharmaceuticals had full therapeutic equivalence with chemotherapeutics and had the simultaneous advantage of being devoid of any adverse effects. The mechanism of action of herbal drugs and their extract preparations, which differ in many respects from that of synthetic drugs or mono substances, can be characterized as a polyvalent action and interpreted as additive or, in some cases, potentiating. Currently, a rationale for the observed reversal effects and optimal effects with very low doses after a long-term application has not been developed, but is under investigation by systematic research at the molecular level. PMID:10504142

  18. Metabolism of 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide by rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, D.D.; Cysyk, R.L.; Gormley, P.E.; DeSouza, J.J.; Malspeis, L.

    1984-05-01

    4'-(9-Acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide (m-AMSA) is metabolized by a hepatic microsomal enzyme system composed of rat liver microsomes, a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-generating system, cytosolic protein (or glutathione), and oxygen. Omission of any one of the components, or incubation under an atmosphere of CO or N/sub 2/, results in inhibition of the reaction. Also, the addition of inhibitors of microsomal metabolism (alpha-naphthoflavone, metyrapone, or SKF 525-A) decreases m-AMSA metabolism. Metabolism of m-AMSA is more rapid with microsomes prepared from rats pretreated with phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene. Two microsomal oxidation products of m-AMSA were isolated and identified as N1'-methanesulfonyl-N4'-(9-acridinyl)-3'-methoxy-2',5'-cyclohex adiene-1', 4'-dimine (m-AQDI) and 3'-methoxy-4'-(9-acridinylamino-2',5'-cyclohexadien-1'-one (m-AQI). m-AQDI reacts with glutathione to form a product previously identified in in vivo studies as the principal rat biliary metabolite and which is not cytotoxic to cultured L1210 cells. Thus, the end result of the microsomal metabolism of m-AMSA is detoxification. However, the two primary oxidation products (m-AQDI and m-AQI) are considerably more cytotoxic to L1210 cells in vitro than is m-AMSA. The concentration of m-AMSA required to produce a 5-log kill is 1.0 microgram/ml compared to 0.01 microgram/ml for m-AQDI and m-AQI. These results indicate that m-AMSA might undergo bioactivation to form the active cytotoxic species of the drug.

  19. Epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator system placed in a 4.9-kg infant.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Roosevelt; Aboutalebi, Amir; Kim, Jeffrey J; Kertesz, Naomi; Morales, David L S

    2011-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have aided the prevention of sudden cardiac death in adults. The hope is to provide similar benefits to the pediatric population as the devices become smaller. Herein, we present the case of a 4.9-kg, 5-week-old infant boy who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. After emergency defibrillation, conventional treatment options included long-term hospitalization for later cardioverter-defibrillator implantation, or installation of an external defibrillator with subsequent home telemetry. On the basis of the infant's body dimensions, we decided that an epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was feasible and the best option. We performed a median sternotomy and placed a Vitality® implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with a 25-cm defibrillator coil and a 35-cm bipolar ventricular lead. The patient experienced no postoperative morbidity or rhythm disturbances and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5. He was placed on β-blocker therapy and has remained well for 3 years.Although external devices can be placed in a small patient, we believe that they are too susceptible to lead damage and lead migration, and that the defibrillator thresholds are less reliable. We think that dysrhythmias even in very small children can be treated effectively and safely with use of an epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. To our knowledge, this 4.9-kg infant is the smallest patient to have undergone a successful implantation of this kind.

  20. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, J D

    1976-09-01

    The concept of cardiac reconditioning centers for the prevention and rehabilitation of coronary patients has been tremendously successful in Germany over the past 20 years. At least 40 such centers are located throughout the country. Physicians, nurses, and physical therapists work closely together in the various facets of the rehabilitation process. The financial backing for these facilities is primarily through governmental and regional insurance companies, whose officials are apparently convinced that in the long run supporting preventive measures is financially sound. Objective data supporting their convictions come from studies such as that of Brusis, who showed that such as that of 1,500 employees was diminished by nearly 70 percent during a two-year period after cardiac reconditioning, as compared to a similar time period before the rehabilitation experience. Subjective benefits, which are extremely difficult to quantitate in meaningful terms, were nonetheless expressed by nearly all the patients with whom I conversed. Perhaps they have experienced the same feelings that Mark Twain did when he observed that "all frets and worries and chafings sank to sleep in the presence of the benignant serenity of the Alps; the Great Spirit of the Mountains breathed his own peace upon their hurt minds and sore hearts and healed them."

  1. Occupational cancer in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Brüske-Hohlfeld, I

    1999-01-01

    As in probably mostly all other European countries, the incidence of occupational cancer in Germany increased steadily after World War II. In 1994 about 1,600 cases of occupational cancer were compensated--more than ever before. More than half of these cases were lung cancer, most caused either by asbestos (n=545) or by ionizing radiation ((italic)n(/italic)=306). Other frequent target organs of asbestos were the pleura and the peritoneum with 495 cases of mesotheliomas. Asbestos was the single most important risk factor for occupational cancer, causing more than 1000 deaths per year. All other malignant diseases, such as bladder cancer, leukemia, angiosarcoma of the liver, adenocarcinoma of the nose or nasal sinuses, and skin cancer, were comparatively rare. Although primary exposure to ionizing radiation in uranium ore mining occurred in the 1950s and attributable lung cancers seem to be on the decline, this is not true for asbestos, where the peak incidence in lung cancer and mesothelioma has not been reached yet. Images Figure 2 PMID:10350508

  2. Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The population of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was an estimated 61 million (including West Berlin) in 1986 and is in the process of declining gradually as a result of low birth rates. The infant mortality rate is 11/1000, while life expectancy is 73.4 years for women and 67.2 years for men. Of the work force of 27.6 million, 5.4% are engaged in agriculture, 41.6% work in industry and commerce, 10% are employed by the government, and 42.7% are in the service sector. The gross national product was US$898.8 billion in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.6% and a per capita income of $10,680. The government is parliamentary and based on a democratic constitution emphasizing protection of individual liberty and divided power in a federal structure. Political life since the establishment of the FRG in 1949 has been characterized by remarkable stability and orderly succession. The FRG ranks among the most important economic powers in the world. The economy is largely export oriented, with 25-30% of the gross national product shipped abroad each year. Competition and free enterprise are fostered, but the state participates in the ownership and management of major sections of the economy, including public services. A major concern at present is the country's ability to adapt to new markets and to develop sophisticated technologies.

  3. [Asylum and immigration in Germany].

    PubMed

    Angenendt, S

    1994-01-01

    "Germany, which used to be one of the most tolerant countries in matters concerning asylum, has, since the eighties, been confronted by very large migratory flows. Immigration to [West Germany] consisted every year of hundreds of thousands of asylum-seekers, a similar number of...Germans from Russia, Kazakhstan, Romania and Poland, as well as a large number of East Germans. On May 26th 1993, the Bundestag adopted a new law making asylum and immigration to Germany increasingly difficult. The problem of immigration has not been resolved, however, as is shown by the situation in the East European countries, Germany's neighbours, who are suffering the consequences of the new asylum policy...." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  4. Altered Striatal Synaptic Function and Abnormal Behaviour in Shank3 Exon4-9 Deletion Mouse Model of Autism.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Speed, Haley E; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2016-03-01

    Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼ 0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients. We find that homozygous deletion of exons 4-9 (Shank3(e4-9) KO) results in loss of the two highest molecular weight isoforms of Shank3 and a significant reduction in other isoforms. Behaviorally, both Shank3(e4-9) heterozygous (HET) and Shank3(e4-9) KO mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in novel and spatial object recognition learning and memory, and abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations. Shank3(e4-9) KO mice also display abnormal social interaction when paired with one another. Analysis of synaptosome fractions from striata of Shank3(e4-9) KO mice reveals decreased Homer1b/c, GluA2, and GluA3 expression. Both Shank3(e4-9) HET and KO demonstrated a significant reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio at excitatory synapses onto striatal medium spiny neurons. Furthermore, Shank3(e4-9) KO mice displayed reduced hippocampal LTP despite normal baseline synaptic transmission. Collectively these behavioral, biochemical and physiological changes suggest Shank3 isoforms have region-specific roles in regulation of AMPAR subunit localization and NMDAR function in the Shank3(e4-9) mutant mouse model of autism.

  5. The Beni Haoua, Algeria, Mw 4.9 earthquake: source parameters, engineering, and seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbes, Khadidja; Dorbath, Louis; Dorbath, Catherine; Djeddi, Mohamed; Ousadou, Farida; Maouche, Said; Benkaci, Nassima; Slimani, Abdennasser; Larbes, Said; Bouziane, Djillali

    2016-04-01

    A moderate Mw 4.9 earthquake struck the Beni Haoua (Algeria) coastal area on April 25, 2012. The mainshock was largely recorded by the accelerograph network of the Centre National de Recherche Appliquée en Génie Parasismique (CGS). The same day the earthquake occurred, eight mobile short period stations were deployed through the epicentral area. In this study, we use accelerogram and seismogram data recorded by these two networks. We combined the focal mechanism built from the first motion of P waves and from waveform inversion, and the distribution of aftershocks to well constrain the source parameters. The mainshock is located with a shallow focal depth, ˜9 km, and the focal mechanism shows a nearly pure left lateral strike slip motion, with total seismic moment of 2.8 × 1016 N.m (Mw = 4.9). The aftershocks mainly cluster on a narrow NS strip, starting at the coast up to 3-4 km inland. This cluster, almost vertical, is concentrated between 6 and 10 km depth. The second part of this work concerns the damage distribution and estimated intensity in the epicentral area. The damage distribution is discussed in connection with the observed maximum strong motion. The acceleration response spectrum with 5 % damping of the mainshock and aftershocks give the maximum amplitude in high frequency which directly affects the performance of the high-frequency structures. Finally, we tie this earthquake with the seismotectonic of the region, leading to conclude that it occurred on a N-S transform zone between two major compressional fault zones oriented NE-SW.

  6. Neurotrophic ACTH4-9 analogue therapy normalizes electroencephalographic alterations in chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Duckers, H J; van Dokkum, R P; Verhaagen, J; van Luijtelaar, E L; Coenen, A M; Lopes da Silva, F H; Gispen, W H

    1998-12-01

    Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CEAE) is an established experimental model for multiple sclerosis (MS). The demyelinating lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system observed in CEAE and in MS are accompanied by various neurophysiological alterations. Among the best defined electrophysiological abnormalities are the changes in event-related potentials, in particular evoked potentials involving the spinal cord, i.e. motor and sensory evoked potentials. Less familiar are the changes observed in the electroencephalogram of CEAE-affected animals, which are also encountered in the human equivalent, MS. In the present experiment we evaluated the therapeutic value of a neurotrophic peptide treatment [H-Met(O2)-Glu-His-Phe-D-Lys-Phe-OH, an ACTH4-9 analogue] and its effect on the delayed flash visual evoked potentials (VEP) and power spectra of the electroencephalogram, during a 17-week follow-up of CEAE. CEAE animals treated with the neurotrophic peptide were protected against the development of neurological symptoms during the course of the demyelinating syndrome. VEPs of animals suffering from CEAE showed a delay of the latencies of the late components which was significantly counteracted by peptide treatment. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the VEP afterdischarge recorded from CEAE animals was significantly increased during the course of CEAE and correlated closely with the progression of the myelinopathy. Furthermore, CEAE animals showed an increase of electroencephalogram (EEG) beta activity of up to 500% as compared with the age-matched control group. This increase in beta power mainly consisted of a prevailing 20-21 Hz peak, a frequency that normally is not dominant in control EEG recordings of the rat during passive wakefulness. All these electrophysiological phenomena were absent in ACTH4-9 analogue-treated animals. The present findings underscore the potential importance of a neurotrophic peptide treatment in the pharmacotherapy of

  7. Interaction of alkali metals with perylene-3,4,9,10- tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wuesten, J.; Berger, S.; Heimer, K.; Lach, S.; Ziegler, Ch.

    2005-07-01

    n doping of the molecular organic semiconductor perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) is often achieved by use of alkali metals as dopants. This doping process is commonly performed in two steps. In the first the dopant is evaporated onto the surface of the PTCDA film. As it has been believed that the dopant shows an inhomogeneous diffusion profile through the layer with most of the dopant accumulated in the first few layers, a subsequent annealing step has been performed in order to reach a homogeneous distribution of the dopant in the whole layer. In this paper experimental results concerning chemical composition ((angle resolved) X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), electronic structure (ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy), as well as electrical properties (conductivity, Seebeck coefficient) are shown before and after doping and before and after annealing. These results suggest that the deposited dopant is redistributed and partially removed during the annealing step. A model for the dopant distribution is suggested.

  8. Anticancer properties of new synthetic hybrid molecules combining naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione or benzo[f]indole-4,9-dione motif with phosphonate subunit.

    PubMed

    Gach, Katarzyna; Modranka, Jakub; Szymański, Jacek; Pomorska, Dorota; Krajewska, Urszula; Mirowski, Marek; Janecki, Tomasz; Janecka, Anna

    2016-09-14

    In this paper we report an efficient and general synthesis of substituted 3-diethoxyphosphorylnaphtho [2,3-b]furan-4,9-diones and 3-diethoxyphosphorylbenzo [f]indole-4,9-diones which integrate the natural 1,4-naphtalenedione scaffold, present in several anticancer agents with the phosphonate moiety. The cytotoxicity of such hybrid molecules was tested against two leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and NALM-6 and against a breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell line. Selected compounds were also tested on normal human cells: HUVEC and MCF-10A. In general, naphthofuran-4,9-diones showed much higher cytotoxic activity (IC50 values below 10 μM) than benzoindole-4,9-diones. The most promising 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-diethoxyphosphorylnaphtho [2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, with the highest cytotoxic activity in the MTT test, was chosen for further evaluation of its anticancer potential. This compound, tested on HL-60 and MCF-7 cells inhibited cell proliferation, generated DNA damage and induced apoptosis. The suggested mechanism of its cytotoxic activity was the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the induction of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation.

  9. Lise Meitner's escape from Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1990-03-01

    Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

  10. English Teaching Profile (Provisional): Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English instruction in West Germany is outlined. The regions of West Berlin, Hesse, and North Rhine-Westphalia are highlighted. The role of English and English instruction in the country as a whole, English instruction in the educational system, the demand for and qualifications of English teachers, textbook selection and…

  11. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  12. Radiographic contrast media alterate the localization of actin/band4.9 in the membrane cytoskeleton of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Franke, R P; Scharnweber, T; Fuhrmann, R; Mrowietz, C; Wenzel, F; Krüger, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    Different radiographic contrast media (RCM) were shown to induce morphological changes of blood cells (e.g. erythrocytes or thrombocytes) and endothelial cells. The echinocytic shape change of erythrocytes, particularly, affords alterations of the membrane cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton plays a crucial role for the shape and deformability of the red blood cell. Disruption of the interaction between components of the red blood cell membrane cytoskeleton may cause a loss of structural and functional integrity of the membrane. In this study band4.9 and actin as components of the cytoskeletal junctional complex were examined in human erythrocytes after suspension in autologous plasma or in plasma RCM mixtures (30% v/v Iodixanol-320 or Iopromide-370) followed by a successive double staining with TRITC-/FITC-coupled monoclonal antibodies. After adding Iopromide-370 to the plasma in practically none of the cells the rounded conformation of the membrane cytoskeleton - as it appeared in cells suspended in autologous plasma - was found. In addition, Iopromide-370 induced thin lines and coarse knob-like structures of band4.9 at the cell periphery while most cell centers were devoid of band4.9, and a box-like arrangement of bands of band4.9. A dissociation between colours red (actin) and green (band4.9) occurred as well. In contrast, erythrocytes suspended in a plasma/Iodixanol-320 mixture showed a membrane cytoskeleton comparable to cells suspended in autologous plasma, Similar results were found with respect to the distribution of actin. This study revealed for the first time RCM-dependent differences in band4.9 activities as possible pathophysiological mechanism for the chemotoxicity of radiographic contrast media.

  13. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years), clinical science (3 years) and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany. PMID:19675742

  14. Computerized Writing and Reading Instruction for Students in Grades 4-9 with Specific Learning Disabilities Affecting Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanimoto, S.; Thompson, R.; Berninger, V. W.; Nagy, W.; Abbott, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computer scientists and educational researchers evaluated effectiveness of computerized instruction tailored to evidence-based impairments in specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in students in grades 4-9 with persisting SLDs despite prior extra help. Following comprehensive, evidence-based differential diagnosis for dysgraphia (impaired…

  15. Behavioral Effects of Org 2766, a Synthetic Analog of the Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (4-9), in 14 Outpatient Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buitelaar, Jan K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen autistic children (ages 5-13) were administered Org 2766 (a synthetic analog of the adrenocorticotrophic hormone 4-9) or a placebo for 4 weeks. The hormone appeared to decrease stereotypic behavior and increase such behaviors as "change toys,""locomote," and "talk," though Aberrant Behavior Checklist ratings…

  16. Measurements in the wake of blunt aerobrake models at 1.8 and 4.9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Davy, W. C.; Kruse, R.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of upper and lower shear turning angles and the wake-neck location that were obtained in the NASA Ames' ballistic range are presented. The upper shear turning angles measured in the ballistic range at velocities of 1.8 and 4.9 km/s are compared to the wind tunnel results.

  17. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  18. [Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany].

    PubMed

    Edelmann, E

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany is managed by rheumatologists in private practice (n = 557), by authorized rheumatism outpatient centers (n = 116), by rheumatism centers according to §116b (n = 43) and by university outpatient departments. A total number of 975 rheumatologists were registered by the end of 2012 of whom approximately 830 were active in outpatient care. With this number of rheumatologists Germany is in the middle range in comparison to eight industrial nations including the USA. This number is not sufficient to provide adequate medical care and the consequences are too long waiting times for an appointment with a rheumatologist. Statistical data of the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians) showed 688,000 general insurance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As some 68.9 % of the population are in this insurance scheme there are some 770,000 RA patients in Germany (almost 1 % of the population). One way to improve rheumatology care in spite of the lack of rheumatologists could be special agreements with the general health insurance providers to improve cooperation and division of responsibilities between rheumatologists and general practitioners, to implement patient education, tighter control and treat to target in rheumatology care. Another way could be a new treatment level called "ambulant specialist care", with no budget for medical care and no budget for the number of patients treated and therefore the chance for rheumatologists to treat more patients and have a better income. To achieve that more young doctors receive approval as a specialist in rheumatology, more chairs of rheumatology at universities and a nationwide stipendium for training assistants are needed.

  19. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  20. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  1. History of modern genetics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Friederike

    2002-01-01

    The history of modern genetics in Germany during the 20th century is a story of missed chances. In the USA the genetic revolution opened a fascinating new field for ambitious scientists and created a rapidly growing new industry. Meanwhile Germany stood aside, combating with political and social restrictions. Promising young scientists who wanted to work in the field left Germany for the US, and big companies moved their facilities out of the country. Up until the middle of the 1990s molecular biology in Germany remained a "sleeping beauty" even though many brilliant scientists did their jobs very well. Then a somewhat funny idea changed everything: the German minister for education and science proclaimed the BioRegio contest in order to award the most powerful biotechnology region in Germany concerning academia and especially industry. Since then Germany's biotechnology industry has grown constantly and rapidly due to the foundation of a number of small biotech companies; big companies have returned their interests and their investments to Germany, paralleled by an improvement in academic research because of more funding and better support especially for younger scientists. In respect to biotechnology and molecular biology, Germany is still a developing country, but it has started to move and to take its chances in an exciting global competition.

  2. Children's "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda; O'Donnell, Alison J

    2009-12-01

    Children with disabilities were killed during the Nazi era, often by nurses. Some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders. Propaganda about the need for "racial purity" was all pervasive and influenced much of the population, including nurses. The German people accepted the "mercy" killing of children with disabilities. We describe the children's "euthanasia" program, explore the influence of propaganda, ask why it was acceptable to kill children, and provide historical context demonstrating "slippery slopes" which can lead to abrogation of ethical principles. Discussion of such history is essential as the ethical principles which were breached are still the cornerstone of nursing practice today. Only by openly discussing past wrongs can we attempt to ensure that they do not happen again. Archival documents from Germany and Israel, including trial depositions and transcripts, provided material, supplemented by secondary classic sources.

  3. Complex spatiotemporal evolution of the 2008 Mw 4.9 Mogul earthquake swarm (Reno, Nevada): Interplay of fluid and faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Smith, K. D.; Zaliapin, I.

    2016-11-01

    After approximately 2 months of swarm-like earthquakes in the Mogul neighborhood of west Reno, NV, seismicity rates and event magnitudes increased over several days culminating in an Mw 4.9 dextral strike-slip earthquake on 26 April 2008. Although very shallow, the Mw 4.9 main shock had a different sense of slip than locally mapped dip-slip surface faults. We relocate 7549 earthquakes, calculate 1082 focal mechanisms, and statistically cluster the relocated earthquake catalog to understand the character and interaction of active structures throughout the Mogul, NV earthquake sequence. Rapid temporary instrument deployment provides high-resolution coverage of microseismicity, enabling a detailed analysis of swarm behavior and faulting geometry. Relocations reveal an internally clustered sequence in which foreshocks evolved on multiple structures surrounding the eventual main shock rupture. The relocated seismicity defines a fault-fracture mesh and detailed fault structure from approximately 2-6 km depth on the previously unknown Mogul fault that may be an evolving incipient strike-slip fault zone. The seismicity volume expands before the main shock, consistent with pore pressure diffusion, and the aftershock volume is much larger than is typical for an Mw 4.9 earthquake. We group events into clusters using space-time-magnitude nearest-neighbor distances between events and develop a cluster criterion through randomization of the relocated catalog. Identified clusters are largely main shock-aftershock sequences, without evidence for migration, occurring within the diffuse background seismicity. The migration rate of the largest foreshock cluster and simultaneous background events is consistent with it having triggered, or having been triggered by, an aseismic slip event.

  4. A halochromic stimuli-responsive reversible fluorescence switching 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid dye for fabricating rewritable platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, P. S.; Pitchaimani, J.; Madhu, Vedichi; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2017-02-01

    3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA), a strongly fluorescent water soluble dye with halochromic functionality showed pH dependent reversible fluorescence switching. The strong fluorescence of PTCA (Φf = 0.67) in basic medium was completely quenched upon acidification. The fluorescent PTCA has been transferred on to a solid substrate (filter paper and glass plate) that also showed reversible off-on fluorescence switching by acid/base and drying/water vapor exposure. The reversible fluorescence switching of PTCA could be of potential interest for fabricating rewritable fluorescent medium.

  5. Possible cause for an improbable earthquake: The 1997 MW 4.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Wolf, L.

    1999-01-01

    Circumstantial and physical evidence indicates that the 1997 MW 4.9 earthquake in southern Alabama may have been related to hydrocarbon recovery. Epicenters of this earthquake and its aftershocks were located within a few kilometers of active oil and gas extraction wells and two pressurized injection wells. Main shock and aftershock focal depths (2-6 km) are within a few kilometers of the injection and withdrawal depths. Strain accumulation at geologic rates sufficient to cause rupture at these shallow focal depths is not likely. A paucity of prior seismicity is difficult to reconcile with the occurrence of an earthquake of MW 4.9 and a magnitude-frequency relationship usually assumed for natural earthquakes. The normal-fault main-shock mechanism is consistent with reactivation of preexisting faults in the regional tectonic stress field. If the earthquake were purely tectonic, however, the question arises as to why it occurred on only the small fraction of a large, regional fault system coinciding with active hydrocarbon recovery. No obvious temporal correlation is apparent between the earthquakes and recovery activities. Although thus far little can be said quantitatively about the physical processes that may have caused the 1997 sequence, a plausible explanation involves the poroelastic response of the crust to extraction of hydrocarbons.

  6. Possible cause for an improbable earthquake: The 1997 Mw 4.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, Joan; Wolf, Lorraine

    1999-04-01

    Circumstantial and physical evidence indicates that the 1997 Mw 4.9 earthquake in southern Alabama may have been related to hydrocarbon recovery. Epicenters of this earthquake and its aftershocks were located within a few kilometers of active oil and gas extraction wells and two pressurized injection wells. Main shock and aftershock focal depths (2 6 km) are within a few kilometers of the injection and withdrawal depths. Strain accumulation at geologic rates sufficient to cause rupture at these shallow focal depths is not likely. A paucity of prior seismicity is difficult to reconcile with the occurrence of an earthquake of Mw 4.9 and a magnitude-frequency relationship usually assumed for natural earthquakes. The normal-fault main-shock mechanism is consistent with reactivation of preexisting faults in the regional tectonic stress field. If the earthquake were purely tectonic, however, the question arises as to why it occurred on only the small fraction of a large, regional fault system coinciding with active hydrocarbon recovery. No obvious temporal correlation is apparent between the earthquakes and recovery activities. Although thus far little can be said quantitatively about the physical processes that may have caused the 1997 sequence, a plausible explanation involves the poroelastic response of the crust to extraction of hydrocarbons.

  7. Fascioloides magna--epizootiology in a deer farm in Germany.

    PubMed

    Plötz, Cornelia; Rehbein, Steffen; Bamler, Helmut; Reindl, Hubert; Pfister, Kurt; Scheuerle, Miriam C

    2015-01-01

    After initial observations of suspicious cases in 2009, the occurrence of Fascioloides (F.) magna in deer of a deer farm located in northeastern Bavaria, Germany, at the border to the Czech Republic was confirmed in autumn 2011. In March 2012, the deer were treated for fascioloidosis with triclabendazole. To monitor the epizootiology of fascioloidosis in the farm, 80-100 faecal samples were examined for Fascioloides eggs at monthly intervals from June 2012 to June 2013 inclusive. In addition, livers of 27 red deer and one sika deer collected during winter 2012/2013 were examined for gross lesions suspicious for F. magna infection and 21 of the 28 livers were dissected for F. magna recovery. Fascioloides eggs were recorded in 63 (4.9%) of 1280 faecal samples (range 0.4 to 355 eggs per gram). Both, number of Fascioloides-egg positive samples and egg counts were low during the first eight months of the study but increased notably since February 2013. While Fascioloides egg-positive faecal samples were obtained from red deer (46/948,4.9%) and fallow deer (17/166, 10.2%), no Fascioloides eggs were demonstrated in the 166 samples obtained from sika deer. Livers of five red deer and the sika deer showed gross lesions characteristic for fascioloidosis, and F. magna were recovered from three of the five affected red deer livers (range, five to seven flukes). Results of this study confirm that F. magna is endemic in the deer farm, and measures should be implemented to minimize the transmission of the parasite.

  8. Imported furuncular myiasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Robert, Leon; Yelton, John

    2002-12-01

    Furuncular myiasis is a parasitic infestation of human and other vertebrate tissues by fly larvae of primarily two species: Dermatobia hominis (human botfly, t6rsalo, or berne) in Mexico and South and Central America and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly or mango fly) in Africa. Cuterebra species (rabbit and rodent botflies) are also rarely reported to cause furuncular myiasis only within the United States. Although these species inhabit different geographic regions and have different life cycles, their clinical presentations can be similar. We describe a case of "imported" human botfly (D. hominis) furuncular myiasis in a U.S. Army soldier stationed in Germany. We review the life cycles of human botflies and key aspects of their clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and various therapeutic modalities. Most physicians may never encounter myiasis and attribute a patient's complaints to an insect bite or skin infection that will heal without treatment. However, the diagnosis of furuncular myiasis should be considered by remembering the basic elements of this condition: recent travel history to the tropics and a sterile, persistent furuncle with sensations of movement and pain.

  9. Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 is focused in part on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas) from coal gasification. This art has been practiced for many years in Germany, South Africa, and the US. The conversion of coal gasification products to commercially valuable alcohols will provide an important new market for current and future gasification plants. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. This support for the active metal is a mixed oxide capable of interaction with the metal sites for catalysis of carbon monoxide reductions. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed and one catalyst was tested under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, this catalyst with low metal loading was inactive. Therefore, a catalyst with a high metal loading and additional metal sites (cobalt, potassium) is now being tested.

  10. Reduction of the 3,4,9,10-perylenediimides and the formation of eletrodeposited films based on their radical anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Gu, Shuang-Xi

    2014-09-01

    The reduction of the two 3,4,9,10-perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives in the mixture of hydrazine hydrate and N,N-dimethylformamide was investigated by the UV-vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra (FL) and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The time dependence of the PDI content, as well as the structure of PDI aggregates were also investigated and discussed. Combining the electro-migration behavior of PDI-· with the molecular self-assembly properties, the films of two PDI derivatives (PDI-32 and PDI-123) were successfully fabricated via anode electro-deposition (AED). The difference of aggregation state between the two PDI films was studied by UV-vis absorption spectra, XRD and SEM. Based on these, the formation mechanism of PDI films was also deduced.

  11. Precursory signatures in the radon and geohydrological borehole data for M4.9 Kharsali earthquake of Garhwal Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Choubey, V M; Kumar, Naresh; Arora, B R

    2009-11-01

    Continuous recording of different geophysical parameters incorporated at a single location as a unified effort for earthquake precursory through geodynamical changes initiated for the first time in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. A 68 m deep borehole, penetrating into the water table is operated for continuous radon monitoring along with meteorological/geohydrological observations at two points, one at 10 m (in the air column) and the second one at 50 m (within water column) depths from surface. Preliminary studies reveal diagnostic short duration anomalies in radon concentration recorded few days before the occurrence of a nearby moderate M4.9 earthquake at Kharsali on the 23rd of July, 2007. For nearly half of the year, radon emanation at 10 m depth in the closed air column showed definite pattern of daily variations that may be due to the influence of tidal forces, meteorological and other geodynamical phenomena. This pattern is totally missing during June and July, 2007 when few anomalies for small durations were observed out of which two are unique. These two anomalies exceed 2 sigma (standard deviation) from average radon concentration in both positive and negative sides. However, its emanation at 50 m depth (water radon) is almost constant throughout the year 2007 except some disturbances observed to the ending of June and during July. These abnormalities in radon emanation and other parameters in the borehole may be considered precursory to the M4.9 Kharsali earthquake of July 23, 2007 having an epicenter distance of 60 km. The empirical relation used for amount of radon anomaly with the epicenter distance predicts an earthquake of M4.6 and M4.7 with the observed anomaly at 10 m and 50 m observation points respectively after taking a 60 km epicenter distance.

  12. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  13. Electrical conductivity, optical properties and mechanical stability of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhidride based organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Mayank; Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim; Nath Ghosh, Narendra; Nambi Raj, N. Arunai

    2015-05-01

    The 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) doped polymer films were prepared with Polypyrrole (PPy) and Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymers by solution-casting. The change in structure and chemical composition of samples was identified by XRD and FTIR respectively. The UV-visible spectroscopy demonstrates the optical characteristics and band gap properties of sample. The homogeneous morphology of sample for higher wt% of PTCDA was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrate the decrease in melting temperature (Tm) and degree of crystallinity (χc%) of polymeric organic semiconductor. The mechanical property demonstrates the high tensile strength and improved plasticity nature. Impedance spectroscopy was evaluated to determine the conductivity response of polymeric organic semiconductor. The highest DC conductivity (2.08×10-3 S/m) was obtained for 10 wt% of PTCDA at 140 °C. The decrease in activation energy (Ea) represents the non-Debye process and was evaluated from the slope of ln σdc vs. 103/T plot.

  14. Study of inundation events along the southern coast of Java and Bali, Indonesia (case studies 4-9 June 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraheni, I. R.; Wijayanti, D. P.; Sugianto, D. N.; Ramdhani, A.

    2017-02-01

    It is important to understand the causes of costal inundation in order to supporting coastal hazard mitigation strategies, especially for the island nation like Indonesia. We investigated the interaction of waves, swell, tides and sea level variability at the coastal inundation events that occurred along southern coast of Java and Bali on June 4 to 9, 2016. The increase of high water level and low water level clearly seen compared to the same astronomic phase tides data before and after the inundation events. The high value of sea level anomaly (SLA) also indicates that there is sea level variability. The wave and swell analysis suggests that extreme waves and swell which occurs during the early of June 2016 has a contribution to the rising of the sea level during the inundation time span. Swell has a major contribution in the wave action that triggering this inundation event given that the significant waves that occur in the time span of the inundation were not affected by wind, but by the swell. This research has shown that the interaction of astronomical tides, SLA height, and high waves and swell along the southern coast of Java and Bali was causing the inundation events at 4-9 June 2016.

  15. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    PubMed

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2014-04-01

    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  16. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    PubMed

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  18. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content. PMID:26718635

  19. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Christian; Baby, Anu; Gruenewald, Marco; Verwüster, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Oliver T; Forker, Roman; Fratesi, Guido; Brivio, Gian Paolo; Zojer, Egbert; Fritz, Torsten

    2016-02-23

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content.

  20. Has East Germany overtaken West Germany? Recent trends in order-specific fertility.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joshua R; Kreyenfeld, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Some 20 years after reunification, the contrast between East and West Germany offers a natural experiment for studying the degree of persistence of Communist-era family patterns, the effects of economic change, and fertility postponement. After reunification, period fertility rates plummeted in the former East Germany to record low levels. Since the mid-1990s, however, period fertility rates have been rising in East Germany, in contrast to the nearly constant rates seen in the West. By 2008, the TFR of East Germany had overtaken that of the West. We explore why fertility in East Germany is higher than in West Germany, despite unfavorable economic circumstances in the East. We address this and related questions by (a) presenting an account of the persisting East/West differences in attitudes toward and constraints on childbearing, (b) conducting an order-specific fertility analysis of recent fertility trends, and (c) projecting completed fertility for the recent East and west German cohorts. In addition to using the Human Fertility Database, perinatal statistics allow us to calculate a tempo-corrected TFR for East and West Germany.

  1. Growing Up in Germany: A National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krappmann, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes a Federal Ministry of Youth report on the conditions under which children grow up in Germany. Notes manifold problems that children face under today's living conditions. Presents recommendations and suggestions for providing a network of measures, relationships, and institutions to support children's development and education in family,…

  2. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  3. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  4. Higher Education in Germany: Problems and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The contribution focuses on the process of merging the East German system of higher education with that of West Germany in the context of German unification in 1990/91. The impact of German unification on East German higher education is described as consisting of five basic measures: (a) de-politicisation; (b) reorganisation and evaluation of…

  5. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  6. Becoming Adults in England and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen, Ed.; Heinz, Walter R., Ed.

    A comparison study of the school-to-work transitions of young people aged 16-19 in Germany and England was followed up several years later when the former subjects were in their early twenties. Research was conducted through interviews, case studies, and studies of labor market trends. The analysis of the transition of the young people studied…

  7. Playscapes of Germany--A Quick Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    While playgrounds in many parts of the world are limited to "fixed" equipment and surfacing, certain progressive countries have made a point to rise above this dull standard and create playscapes filled with sculpture, gardens, and wild elements of the natural world. This article talks about the playscapes of Germany as leader in the…

  8. Germany Looks Towards U.S. Bicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Information Center, New York, NY.

    This bulletin discusses and describes four projects constituting Germany's contribution to the American Bicentennial: (1) the establishment of the John J. McCloy Foundation for German-American exchange, (2) the permanent endowment of the Theodor Heuss chair at the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science at the New School for Social…

  9. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Markus; Groll, Andreas H; Mayser, Peter; Ullmann, Andrew J; Mendling, Werner; Hof, Herbert; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1980's, the incidence of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Germany was estimated with 36.000 IFDs per year. The current number of fungal infections (FI) occurring each year in Germany is still not known. In the actual analysis, data on incidence of fungal infections in various patients groups at risk for FI were calculated and mostly estimated from various (mostly national) resources. According to the very heterogenous data resources robust data or statistics could not be obtained but preliminary estimations could be made and compared with data from other areas in the world using a deterministic model that has consistently been applied in many countries by the LIFE program ( www.LIFE-worldwide.org). In 2012, of the 80.52 million population (adults 64.47 million; 41.14 million female, 39.38 million male), 20% are children (0-14 years) and 16% of population are ≥65 years old. Using local data and literature estimates of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, about 9.6 million (12%) people in Germany suffer from a fungal infection each year. These figures are dominated (95%) by fungal skin disease and recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis. In general, considerable uncertainty surrounds the total numbers because IFDs do not belong to the list of reportable infectious diseases in Germany and most patients were not hospitalised because of the IFD but a distinct underlying disease.

  10. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  11. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  12. Education in Germany. Bulletin, 1919, No. 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, I. L.

    1919-01-01

    The development of education in Germany during the past two years must necessarily remain obscure until the sources of direct information are again opened up. From extracts and references here and there the educational situation does not appear to have been very happy, and, if reports such as the ones cited in this bulletin may be trusted, the…

  13. Germany Provides Higher Education without the Frills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, tuition is low because state governments shoulder a much higher percentage of university budgets than in the United States. As a result, most German universities provide far fewer amenities and services, and require their professors to teach longer hours to larger numbers of students than their American counterparts. Because they are…

  14. Salmonella Agona Outbreak from Contaminated Aniseed, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schrauder, Annette; Alpers, Katharina; Werber, Dirk; Frank, Christina; Prager, Rita; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Broll, Susanne; Feil, Fabian; Roggentin, Peter; Bockemühl, Jochen; Tschäpe, Helmut; Ammon, Andrea; Stark, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    A nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona caused by aniseed-containing herbal tea occurred from October 2002 through July 2003 among infants in Germany. Consumers should adhere strictly to brewing instructions, although in exceptional cases this precaution may not be protective, particularly when preparing tea for vulnerable age groups. PMID:16022796

  15. Gifted Education and Talent Support in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christian; Müller, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    While the focus in Germany was initially on disabled children only, the promotion of gifted and talented children has become increasingly important. Different organisations and institutions, ranging from parents' associations to foundations, offer a large variety of measures catering for the special demands of gifted and talented children,…

  16. Education in Germany. Bulletin, 1938, No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindegren, Alina M.

    1939-01-01

    While educational developments in Germany have always been of interest to the people of this country, educators and laymen in the United States have shown particular interest since 1933 because of the relationship which the school system there has had to the central government and its evolving political, economic, racial, and social doctrines. The…

  17. School-to-Work Transition in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauner, Felix

    1997-01-01

    Of four models for school-to-work transition (direct, deregulated, regulated overlapping, and shifted), Germany's dual vocational training system is a regulated overlapping system that offers learners a smooth bridge from the role of pupil to that of qualified skilled worker. (SK)

  18. "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Gregory A.

    The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes…

  19. Implications of Germany’s Declining Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    security policy, defense spending is an important indicator. This thesis demonstrates that Germany’s defense expenditure seems to be inconsistent with its...Germany’s declining defense spending , it examines the reasons for and effects of Germany’s shrinking defense budget and suggests solutions for coping...Germany does not reverse the trend of declining defense spending it will probably decrease its political significance in Europe and in the world.

  20. Is Germany a model for managers?

    PubMed

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success.

  1. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  2. Education in Germany: A Bibliography of English Language Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    This bibliography cites bibliographies, journals, books, essays, journal articles, and monographs on education in Germany. All publications cited are in English. The three major sections of the bibliography are education in Germany up to 1945, education in the Federal Republic of Germany, and education in the German Democratic Republic. Topics…

  3. Selective blocking effects of 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin, purified from a crude mixture of tetrodotoxin analogues, on NaV1.6 channels and its chemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Noriyoshi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-02-12

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin found in a number of marine creatures including the pufferfish, where it is synthesized by bacteria and accumulated through the food chain. It is a potent and selective blocker of some types of voltage-gated Na+ channel (NaV channel). 4,9-Anhydrotetrodotoxin (4,9-anhydroTTX) was purified from a crude mixture of TTX analogues (such as TTX, 4-epiTTX, 6-epiTTX, 11-oxoTTX and 11-deoxyTTX) by the use of liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) techniques. Recently, it has been reported that 4,9-anhydroTTX selectively blocks the activity of NaV1.6 channels with a blocking efficacy 40-160 times higher than that for other TTX-sensitive NaV1.x channel isoforms. However, little attention has been paid to the molecular properties of the α-subunit in NaV1.6 channels and the characteristics of binding of 4,9-anhydroTTX. From a functional point of view, it is important to determine the relative expression of NaV1.6 channels in a wide variety of tissues. The aim of this review is to discuss briefly current knowledge about the pharmacology of 4,9-anhydroTTX, and provide an analysis of the molecular structure of native NaV1.6 channels. In addition, chemical aspects of 4,9-anhydroTTX are briefly covered.

  4. Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rübsamen, Nicole; Castell, Stefanie; Horn, Johannes; Karch, André; Ott, Jördis J.; Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Zoch, Beate; Krause, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred during the past 5 decades, but none has affected European countries like the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. We used an online questionnaire to investigate risk perceptions in Germany during this epidemic peak. Our questionnaire covered risk perceptions, knowledge about transmission routes, media use, reactions to the outbreak, attitudes toward measures to prevent the spread of EVD and vaccination against EVD, and willingness to volunteer for aid missions. Of 974 participants, 29% indicated that they worried about EVD, 4% correctly stated virus transmission routes, and 75% incorrectly rated airborne transmission and transmission by asymptomatic patients as possible. Many indicated that if a patient were flown to Germany for treatment in a nearby hospital, they would adapt preventive behavior. Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes. PMID:25989020

  5. Investigating an airborne tularemia outbreak, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauri, Anja M; Hofstetter, Iris; Seibold, Erik; Kaysser, Philip; Eckert, Juergen; Neubauer, Heinrich; Splettstoesser, Wolf D

    2010-02-01

    In November 2005, an outbreak of tularemia occurred among 39 participants in a hare hunt in Hesse, Germany. Previously reported tularemia outbreaks in Germany dated back to the 1950s. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among participants and investigated the environment to identify risk factors for infection. Ten participants had serologic evidence of acute Francisella tularensis infection; 1 other participant died before laboratory confirmation was obtained. Presence within 5 meters of the place where disemboweled hares were rinsed with a water hose was the risk factor most strongly associated with infection (risk ratio 22.1; 95% confidence interval 13.2-154.3). Swabs taken at the game chamber and water samples were PCR negative for F. tularensis. Eleven of 14 hare parts showed low-level concentrations of F. tularensis, compatible with cross-contamination. More than half of case-patients may have acquired infection through inhalation of aerosolized droplets containing F. tularensis generated during rinsing of infected hares.

  6. Topographies of forensic practice in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the topography and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes.

  7. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  8. INFRARED STUDIES OF HUMAN SALIVA. IDENTIFICATION OF A FACTOR IN HUMAN SALIVA PRODUCING AN INFRARED ABSORBANCE MAXIMUM AT 4.9 MICRONS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An absorption maximum was observed at 4.9 microns in infrared spectra of human parotid saliva. The factor causing this absorbance was found to be a...nitrate, and heat stability. Thiocyanate was then determined in 16 parotid saliva samples by a spectrophotometric method, which involved formation of

  9. Germany sees profits collapse as doldrums persist

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1993-02-10

    Traditionally the strongman of Europe, Germany's chemical sector had a miserable time in 1992, as profits skidded 30%. Further declines in production and sales for the first half of 1993 are predicted by industry association VCI (Frankfurt). Output, usually spurred after the summer break, dropped drastically in the fourth quarter. Developments are alarming, says Wolfgang Hilger, president of the VCI and chairman of Hoechst (Frankfurt). Production in the 11 western states rose 1% in 1992, but chemical industry sales fell. In the second half of the year, the high value of the Germany mark - against the US dollar, sterling, lira, and peseta - compounded difficulties already experienced as a result of overcapacity and lower prices. Hilger says overall prices declined 2% last year. Meanwhile, costs for labor and environmental protection continued to increase. VCI figures show a decline in many sectors. In western Germany, organic base chemical production was down 4%, and, while organic chemical production rose 3%, prices were 8% lower, giving unsatisfactory results. Similarly, plastics production was up 0.5% at midyear, but weak prices hurt earnings.

  10. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  11. [Telemedicine in Germany. Status, Barriers, Perspectives].

    PubMed

    Brauns, H-J; Loos, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Telemedicine as a subject has reached politics, doctors and patients, but it has still not been able to make the leap from research, development, and testing into real practice. This is generally because of the great barriers to implementation, mainly the lack of telematics infrastructure and of payment regulations in Germany. Telemedicine projects are mainly isolated applications and it has not been possible to integrate them in to nationwide regular health services. Other challenges along the path to standard care include that research-based small-medium enterprise (SME) companies usually face high barriers hindering access to this market, because it is imposible for them to finance all the required evidence-based studies to verify the medical benefits and the econimic efficiency. Additionally, a high market nontransparency is noted. However, the signs of progress are visible, e.g., the E-health initiative of the German government or recent legislative initiatives. However, long processes are observed that do not facilitate the use of telemedicine. Although some federal states, e.g., North Rhine Westphalia, Bavaria, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, and Saxony, show exemplary activities, there are still many white areas on the telemedicine map of Germany. The road to standard care will be long, but is not unattainable. The reasons for supporting telemedicine are still strong. The future development of telemedicine applications will contribute to sustainable and high-quality patient care in Germany.

  12. Energy R and D in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  13. Luminescence and application of red-emitting phosphors of Eu3+-activated R2Zr3(MoO4)9 ( R = La, Sm, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuyun; Huang, Yanlin; Cheng, Han; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-01-01

    New red-emitting phosphors R2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ ( R = La, Sm, Gd) were prepared using the convenient solid-state reaction method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements and structural refinements. The luminescence properties were investigated by photoluminescence spectra, decay curves, and absolute internal quantum efficiency (QE). The phosphors exhibited bright red luminescence corresponding to the electric dipole transition 5D0→7F2 at 615 nm under near UV light excitation. The thermal stability of the luminescence was investigated using temperature-dependent intensities at temperatures from 20 to 170°C. The results indicate that Gd2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ could be potentially considered for lighting due to its qualities, including their excitation spectra, QEs, red color coordinates, and thermal stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of 1-substituted 2-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-g]phthalazine-4,9-dione derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sung Kim, Jin; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Suh, Myung-Eun; Choo, Hea-Young Park; Lee, Sang Kook; Park, Hyen Joo; Kim, Choonmi; Park, Sang Woo; Lee, Chong-Ock

    2004-07-01

    A series of 1-substituted 2-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-g]phthalazine-4,9-dione derivatives 8 was synthesized from 6,7-dichlorophthalazine-5,8-dione 5 and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines. Most of the tested compounds showed potential cytotoxic activity considerably higher than that of the reference compounds, ellipticine and doxorubicin.

  15. [Jewish veterinarians in Germany, 1918-1945].

    PubMed

    Möllers, G; Schaffer, J

    2005-10-01

    In 1998 there were only twelve Jewish veterinarians known who practised in Germany between 1918 and 1945. 133 of them have now been found. Most of the Jewish veterinarians had their roots in merchant families and were general practitioners in the countryside. To be "Jewish" did not concern until 1933. Compared with the other medical professionals like human medical professionals (10,9 %), in 1933 the number of Jewish veterinarians was low (1,6 %, whole German Jewish population 0,77 %). Right with the beginning of the National Socialistic rule Jewish veterinarians were exposed to different forms of harassment. Soon after, on April 7th 1933, with the so-called Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums (BBG; law for the restoration of civil service), the prosecution took on an official quality. The Reichstierärztekammer (Chamber of veterinary service) was very eager to Aryanize the German veterinary service. The BBG made the Jewish veterinarians who worked in public positions lose their jobs with the single exception of those who had the status of a so-called "Frontkämpfer" (a soldier who fought at the frontline during World War I). Many of the Jewish veterinarians who were still in Germany in November 1938 were arrested after the pogrom of November 9/10th and kept in concentration camps and prisons for about one month. The few students of veterinary medicine who already had started their studies in 1933 still could make their exams in Germany, but they did not get a licence. On January 31st 1939 all Jewish veterinarians in Germany lost their licence. 55 Jewish vets managed to emigrate in time. Nineteen German Jewish Veterinarians died in concentration camps and ghettos. Two are known to have committed suicide. Until 1997, there was no act of appreciation or rehabilitation of German Jewish veterinarians. In 2003 the degrees of two Jewish veterinarians, Hermann Cussel and Paul Stern, were renewed posthumously by the Hanover School of Veterinary Medicine

  16. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  17. Dielectron measurements in p+p and p+d interactions from E{sub beam} = 1.0 to 4.9 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.; DLS collaboration

    1993-02-01

    The first measurements of dielectron production in p+p and p+d interactions at incident kinetic energies from 1.0--4.9 GeV are summarized. The dielectron yield at 4.9 GeV is found to be in excess of that expected from hadronic decays. The beam energy and invariant mass dependence of the dielectron yield in p+d interactions relative to the yield in p+p interactions are also presented. The ratio of the yield in p+d to that in p+p interactions decreases from nearly 9 at 1.0 GeV to {approx} 2 at 4.9 GeV. The large ratio at 1.0 GeV suggests that dielectron production in the p+d system is dominated by a p+n process. The beam energy dependence of the ratio indicates that this p+n contribution decreases with respect to the other dielectron sources as the incident energy is increased.

  18. New 1H-Benzo[f]indazole-4,9-diones Conjugated with C-Protected Amino Acids and Other Derivatives: Synthesis and in Vitro Antiproliferative Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Aurora; Oliva, Alfonso; Arismendi-Macuer, Marlene; Guzmán, Leda; Fuentealba, Mauricio; Knox, Marcela; Vinet, Raúl; San Feliciano, Arturo

    2015-12-08

    1H-Benzo[f]indazole-4,9-dione derivatives conjugated with C-protected amino acids (glycine, l-alanine, l-phenylalanine and l-glutamic acid) 6a-l were prepared by chemically modifying the prenyl substituent of 3-methyl-7-(4-methylpent-3-enyl)-1H-benzo[f]indazole-4,9-dione 2 through epoxidation, degradative oxidation, oxidation and N-acyl condensation reactions. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by analyzing their IR, ¹H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectral data together with elemental analysis for carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. The preliminary in vitro antiproliferative activity of the synthesized derivatives was evaluated on KATO-III and MCF-7 cell lines using a cell proliferation assay. The majority of the derivatives exhibited significant antiproliferative activity with IC50 values ranging from 25.5 to 432.5 μM. These results suggest that 1H-benzo[f]indazole-4,9-dione derivatives are promising molecules to be researched for developing new anticancer agents.

  19. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  20. Status of wind energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K.

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Maternal employment and childhood overweight in Germany.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sophie-Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from other countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. We further explore potential underlying mechanisms that might explain this relationship. In order to address the selection into maternal full-time employment, we use an instrumental variable strategy exploiting the number of younger siblings in the household as an instrument. While the OLS models suggest that maternal full-time employment is related to a 5 percentage point higher probability of the child to be overweight, IV estimates indicate a 25 percentage points higher overweight probability due to maternal full-time employment. Exploring various possible pathways, we find that maternal full-time employment promotes unhealthy dietary and activity behavior which might explain the positive effect of maternal employment on child overweight to some extent. Although there are limitations to our IV approach, several sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of our findings.

  2. Environmental medicine in Germany--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hans Joachim

    2002-01-01

    In this review I describe the development of environmental medicine as a specialized field of clinical medicine in Germany. New scientific societies were founded, based on traditions of public hygiene and occupational medicine, as a reaction to environmental issues concerning human health. Environmental medicine issues were also addressed by independent "critical" physicians. The first institutions to accept patients were centers for environmental medicine affiliated with research institutions and/or with the public health service. Medical professional organizations, particularly the German General Medical Council, described the need for and formulated conditions for additional qualification for doctors in environmental medicine, including a 200-hr course. This course and a qualifying exam were passed by about 3,000 doctors, mainly from the public health service and from occupational medicine. Unfortunately, few general physicians in primary outpatient care were similarly trained. To date, no representative study has been conducted on environmental patients, but I include in this review a typical list of patients' complaints. I also summarize research activities typical for environmental medicine in Germany. Present problems concern accounting systems and, for example, diagnosis and treatment of patients with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). A coordinated research program on MCS has been started. PMID:11834469

  3. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted.

  4. Germany and America: Crisis of confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, R.D.

    1991-02-01

    The paper examines the deterioration in German-American relations. The reasons for this downturn in German-American relations are quite simple. Washington views the Persian Gulf crisis as a defining moment in European-American relations and in the creation of a new world order. It is also the first diplomatic test of a unified Germany and a new German-American relationship. It is a test that Germany is thus far seen as having failed for three reasons. First, from the outset many Americans sensed that Germans did not comprehend what this crisis meant for the United States. A second and, in many ways, more worrying factor was the growing sense that the Germans were not being good Europeans. The third and most serious American concern, however, was the unsettling appearance of a very selective German definition of collective defense and common security. The result has been a crisis of confidence in the performance of the German political elite that goes beyond the problems in German-American relations during the early 1980s and the INF debate.

  5. An Active Old Age--Senior Citizens in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    Life expectancies are rising all over the world, leading to higher proportions of older adults in the population. This is especially true in Japan and Germany. In Germany today, "old" no longer means necessarily "poor and frail." Through volunteer work, lifelong learning, study tours, and participation in sports, older Germans…

  6. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  7. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  8. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  10. Education and Youth Employment in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Dohnanyi, Klaus

    The education/employment situation of young people in West Germany is examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in contemporary industrialized societies. To place problems of West German youth in a broader context, it is necessary to consider socioeconomic developments in West Germany since…

  11. Multicultural Education in Germany: Historical Development and Current Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Gerd R.

    Multicultural education in Germany has been profoundly affected by history and the consequences and burdens of war. As Germany has always understood itself to be a monocultural country, there was initially little room for unpopular multicultural approaches to school organization and curriculum. Depending on the political orientation of state…

  12. The Search for Specialists and Managers. Staff Shortage in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Klaus, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Despite its high unemployment level, Germany is experiencing a shortage of specialists and managers. Germany's need for highly qualified information technology (IT) workers and engineers is particularly great. Approximately 10,000 posts for computer scientists and IT specialists remained vacant in 1998. Because of the shortage of such specialists,…

  13. Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakleppa, Hans

    The Federal Republic of Germany uses its development aid policy to support the growth of manpower resources in developing countries by means of a broad spectrum of training and further training programs of foreign specialists. In planning these programs and arranging scholarships, Germany tries to orient itself toward the educational policy…

  14. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  15. Labor, Business, and Change in Germany and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wever, Kirsten S., Ed.

    This book explores how two nations with widely divergent political economies, Germany and the United States (U.S.), embraced change in four contemporary settings. "Mutual Learning with Trade-Offs" (Kirsten Wever) discusses mutual learning and the distinguishing characteristics of the political economies of Germany and the U.S.…

  16. National Student Governance in Germany: The Case of fzs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungblut, Jens; Weber, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organizational development of freier zusammenschluss von studentInnenschaften (fzs), the national union of students in Germany from its foundation until 2010. It situates it within the variety of student organizations acting on behalf of students within the multi-level system of higher education governance in Germany.…

  17. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Germany: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Germany's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. Data were collected through meetings with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, an analysis of data from a national questionnaire, and a review of pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: reviewing the role of Germany's…

  18. An American Social Worker in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…

  19. The Changing Family in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohn, Charlotte; Luscher, Kurt

    1988-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the family in West Germany. Examines family demographics; provides an overview of the main institutional forces, laws, and family policy; and refers to the organizational aspects of demography. Describes trend in Germany of shrinking household size and increasing share of one-person households. Describes statistics…

  20. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ˜2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm-2 sr-1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum.

  1. Regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser with a repetition rate stability of 4.9x10-15 using a hydrogen maser phase-locked loop.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masato; Hirayama, Toru; Nakazawa, Masataka; Hagimoto, Ken; Ikegami, Takeshi

    2007-07-01

    We demonstrate an ultrastable regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser that employs a phase-locked loop (PLL) circuit with a hydrogen maser. The stability for an integration time of 1s was 6.2x10(-13), which is 16 times better than that of a conventional PLL laser. For an integration time of 1000s, the stability reached as high as 4.9x10(-15). The repetition-rate stability was limited by the synthesizer used for the PLL operation, and there was no additional fluctuation induced by the laser operation.

  2. 76 FR 42137 - Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings AGENCY: United States...-1127 concerning certain lightweight thermal paper (``LWTP'') from Germany. For further information... certain lightweight thermal paper from Germany that the Department of Commerce found were sold at...

  3. First detection of Hyalomma rufipes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Nava, Santiago; Bestehorn, Malena; Dobler, Gerhard; Wölfel, Silke

    2016-10-01

    Hyalomma rufipes, a two-host tick, is the most widespread Hyalomma species in Africa. In December 2015, an ixodid tick male with an unusual morphology was detected on a horse in a stable near Mainz in the Federal State Rhineland-Palatine. For identification purposes, the tick was preserved in alcohol and sent to our laboratory. The morphology of the tick showed specific characteristics of H. rufipes. The 16S rDNA sequence of H. rufipes from Germany was identical to the corresponding 16S rDNA sequence of H. rufipes from Tanzania, and they both were closely related to Hyalomma marginatum. The tick was tested with a real-time PCR for rickettsiae and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus with negative results.

  4. [Chronic pain. Epidemiology and management in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M

    2004-05-01

    At least 5 million patients with chronic and severely debilitating pain exist among the adult population in Germany, i.e. 8% of this population. Various biological and psychosocial risk factors contribute to the continuing chronicity of pain, resulting in enormous direct and indirect costs totalling an estimated 38 billion euro annually. The introduction of a medical specialty for pain treatment in 1998 has not appreciably affected the quality of outpatient pain management. In contrast, more recent approaches of multimodal treatment, including medical, psychological and behavioral components, have shown a significant and lasting effect in patients with a high incidence of workplace incapacitation and sick leave. In particular, the GRIP pilot project (Göttingen Intensive Back Project) has resulted in an increased rate (to 200%) of return to the workplace and in a decrease in health system expenses to 50% of the pretreatment level.

  5. Estimating the prevalence of nonpaternity in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael; Musch, Jochen; Enczmann, Juergen; Fischer, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of nonpaternity in human societies is difficult to establish. To obtain a current and fairly unbiased estimate of the nonpaternity rate in Germany, we analysed a dataset consisting of 971 children and their parents in whom human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing had been carried out in the context of bone marrow transplantation. In this sample, nine exclusions (0.93%) could be identified on the basis of more than 300 HLA-haplotypes defined by four HLA genes. Given this number of exclusions, a maximum likelihood estimate of the nonpaternity rate in the population of 0.94% was obtained with asymptotic 95% confidence limits of 0.33% and 1.55%, respectively. This result is in accordance with recent surveys as well as findings from Switzerland for a comparable sample, and it suggests that earlier estimates of the nonpaternity rate which were often in excess of 10% may have been largely exaggerated.

  6. Ejecta of the Ries Crater, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the light which may be shed by the ejecta surrounding the 26-km diameter Ries Crater in West Germany on the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Event. Moldavites represent early high speed ejecta originating at the projectile-target interface. Bunte breccia reflects the major excavation and ejection phase, comprising more than 90 percent of all ejecta beyond the rim crest. Suevite is deposited last, and is derived from the deepest target stratum. Using various scaling laws that relate the bolide's kinetic energy to crater geometry or volume, and assuming a 25 km/sec impact velocity, a 1-2 km projectile diameter is obtained for a stony object. Geochemical studies reveal that projectile dissemination is heterogeneous, and that maximum extraterrestrial contamination modeled as a C1 chondrite is 0.004 wt pct. Observations from this and other terrestrial craters show that tektites and microtectites provide the sole evidence for widespread impact deposits.

  7. Dow agrees on pipeline in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-05-01

    The often fragile relationship between Dow Europe and eastern Germany strengthened this week with an agreement to build a feedstock pipeline from the Baltic Sea to the Buna BSL petrochemical complex at Boehlen. Dow recently agreed to go ahead with its 80% investment in the BSL venture following fears it might withdraw from the project because of European Commission cuts in the amount of state aid available. The multi-feedstock liquid pipeline is expected to transport naphtha, crude oil, and, possibly, liquid petroleum gas from Rostock on the Baltic to the Boehlen site. Besides Dow, the participants are BSL Olefinverbund and Elf subsidiary Mider. Dow is expected to contribute DM450 million toward the investment.

  8. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  9. River habitat monitoring and assessment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Ulrich; Binder, Walter; Hölzl, Konrad

    2007-04-01

    Whereas assessing the biological and chemical quality of water is a standard environmental procedure in many countries, the use of habitat survey methods that assess the ecomorphological quality of rivers is relatively new. In Europe, the EC Water Framework Directive requires such assessment from all EU Member States. In Germany, the first river habitat assessments were introduced in the late 1990 s. Each federal state develops its own river habitat map using the 'On-site Survey' and/or the 'Overview Survey'. The assessment describes the difference of the actual condition from a previously defined reference condition. In practice, a defined 'potential for restoration', a more realistic condition, makes restoration activities much easier and more successful. In Germany, the first River Habitat Map 2001 was published in 2002. The survey covered 33,000 km of river length, which equates to 10% of all rivers. A wide range from 'Undisturbed' (class 1) to 'Totally Disturbed' (class 7) river units exists; 77% of them are 'Clearly Disturbed' (class 4) or in worse condition. These result reflects extensive anthropogenic impact on the environment in general, but also past intense technical river 'improvements' that focused on the protection of settlements and traffic routes from flooding, better shipping conditions, the use of water power, and drainage of floodplains for agriculture and urban development. For comparability of survey results between EU Member States, a harmonization of national survey methods is in progress. A crucial point here is the definition of the reference condition for each river (near-natural conditions), since it influences the survey results.

  10. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  11. Socioeconomic deprivation and cancer survival in Germany: an ecological analysis in 200 districts in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Gondos, Adam; Holleczek, Bernd; Kajüter, Hiltraud; Maier, Werner; Nennecke, Alice; Pritzkuleit, Ron; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-06-15

    Although socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival have been demonstrated both within and between countries, evidence on the variation of the inequalities over time past diagnosis is sparse. Furthermore, no comprehensive analysis of socioeconomic differences in cancer survival in Germany has been conducted. Therefore, we analyzed variations in cancer survival for patients diagnosed with one of the 25 most common cancer sites in 1997-2006 in ten population-based cancer registries in Germany (covering 32 million inhabitants). Patients were assigned a socioeconomic status according to the district of residence at diagnosis. Period analysis was used to derive 3-month, 5-year and conditional 1-year and 5-year age-standardized relative survival for 2002-2006 for each deprivation quintile in Germany. Relative survival of patients living in the most deprived district was compared to survival of patients living in all other districts by model-based period analysis. For 21 of 25 cancer sites, 5-year relative survival was lower in the most deprived districts than in all other districts combined. The median relative excess risk of death over the 25 cancer sites decreased from 1.24 in the first 3 months to 1.16 in the following 9 months to 1.08 in the following 4 years. Inequalities persisted after adjustment for stage. These major regional socioeconomic inequalities indicate a potential for improving cancer care and survival in Germany. Studies on individual-level patient data with access to treatment information should be conducted to examine the reasons for these socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in more detail.

  12. First record of Aedes koreicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Zielke, Dorothee E; Kampen, Helge

    2016-03-01

    Within the framework of a national mosquito monitoring programme, a mosquito specimen collected in mid-2015 in southern Germany was identified as Aedes koreicus, a non-endemic species originating from East Asia. After the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus, which is already established in Germany and widely distributed, and the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, which is increasingly often introduced from southern Europe, A. koreicus is the third demonstrated invasive mosquito species in Germany supposed to have significant vector potential for disease agents.

  13. Morphology and molecular arrangement of perylene-3,4,9,10-(n-pentylester) in thin layers obtained by zone-casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamski, Adrian; Nowicka, Ariadna B.; Barszcz, Bolesław; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Piosik, Emilia; Wolarz, Eryk

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-crystalline perylene-3,4,9,10-tetra-(n-pentylester) zone-casted on hydrophilic glass substrates forms characteristic belt-like structures which are observed under optical microscope and atomic force microscope. Polarised Raman scattering spectra reveal the presence of anisotropic alignment of the molecules inside the obtained structures. Moreover, the absorption and fluorescence spectra confirm molecular aggregation in the belt-like structures. The research shows, that the belt-like structures are created by columns of molecules with the edge-on alignment on the glass substrate. Such organisation of the molecules is confirmed by spectroscopic methods. These structures can be interesting from the point of view of organic electronics.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations, and computational study of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaani, Ayoub; Ajloo, Davood; Kiyani, Hamzeh; Vakili, Mohamad; Farahani, Mahnaz; Amiri, Majid

    2016-08-01

    4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde has been synthesized in an attempt to obtain a new photochromic compound. The optimized molecular structure, mole fractions of title compound in trans and ana forms have been investigated. UV-visible spectra of the compound were also recorded. Upon irradiation with 300 nm light, the camel solid turned orange, in which a visible absorption band was observed at 475 nm. The electronic properties, such as HOMO, LUMO and band gap energies were obtained by the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The predicted nonlinear optical properties of the title compound are much greater than those of urea. Transition structures were calculated by QST3 and IRC methods which yielded the potential energy surface and activation energy.

  15. Estimate of Interference from the Aeronautical Mobile Services of the Cities of Glendale and Pasadena to Goldstone Radio Astronomy Stations at 4.9 Gigahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; Sue, M.; Manshadi, F.

    2006-05-01

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) recently allocated the 4.9-GHz band to public safety telecommunications services. Radio Astronomy Services (RAS) also has been using this frequency. NASA will primarily use Deep Space Station 28 (DSS 28) at Goldstone, California, for radio astronomy services that are sensitive to radio-frequency interference (RFI). This study is to determine the RFI potential of airborne transmission from two cities to radio astronomy sites in Goldstone. Propagation losses over the terrain between both cities and Goldstone are estimated using the Trans-Horizon Interference Propagation Loss (THIPL) software recently developed at JPL and high-resolution terrain data. The necessary coordination area for protecting the Goldstone radio astronomy station has been defined based on the minimum propagation loss required. Study results and suggestions for modification to the airborne areas proposed by both cities' police departments are presented.

  16. Search for heavy bottom-like quarks in 4.9 fb-1 of pp collisions at √{s} = 7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hormann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schofbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Teischinger, F.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Cerny, K.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Rios, A. A. Ocampo; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Junior, M. Correa Martins; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Júnior, W. L. Ald; Carvalho, W.; Custodio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Figueiredo, D. Matos; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Silva do Amaral, S. M.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, S.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Dzelalija, M.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Kamel, A. Ellithi; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Harkonen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Maenpaä, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; de Cassagnac, R. Granier; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Karim, M.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Brun, H.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Rurua, L.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klimkovich, T.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Lanske, D.; Lingemann, J.; Magass, C.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Davids, M.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Ahmad, W. Haj; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Linn, A.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Rennefeld, J.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Martin, M. Aldaya; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Fischer, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Kramer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Cipriano, P. M. Ribeiro; Riedl, C.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Autermann, C.; Blobel, V.; Bobrovskyi, S.; Draeger, J.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Gorner, M.; Hermanns, T.; Hoing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Mura, B.; Nowak, F.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schroder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Barth, C.; Berger, J.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Honc, S.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Rocker, S.; Saout, C.; Scheurer, A.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmanau, M.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Ziebarth, E. B.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Mavrommatis, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Patras, V.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Krajczar, K.; Radics, B.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Jindal, M.; Kaur, M.; Kohli, J. M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J.; Singh, S. P.; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Sarkar, S.; Abdulsalam, A.; Choudhury, R. K.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi, A.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Mehdiabadi, S. Paktinat; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Lusito, L.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Sala, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellan, P.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Nespolo, M.; Perrozzi, L.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Bilei, G. M.; Fan, L.; Lariccia, P.; Lucaroni, A.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Fo, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Pandolfi, F.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Sigamani, M.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Botta, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Castello, R.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Graziano, A.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Belforte, S.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Heo, S. G.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Chung, J.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Ro, S. R.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Jo, H. Y.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Seo, E.; Choi, M.; Kang, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Cho, Y.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; La Cruz, I. Heredia-de; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. 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G.; Gallinaro, M.; Musella, P.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Belotelov, I.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Kossov, M.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Sarycheva, L.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. 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W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Engh, D.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Yohay, R.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Don, C. Kottachchi Kankanamge; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Bachtis, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2012-05-01

    Results are presented from a search for heavy bottom-like quarks, pair-produced in pp collisions at √{s} = 7 TeV, undertaken with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The b' quarks are assumed to decay exclusively to tW. The {{b}}' overline {{b}} ' → {{t}}{{{W}}^{ - }}overline {{t}} {{{W}}^{ + }} process can be identified by its distinctive signatures of three leptons or two leptons of same charge, and at least one b-quark jet. Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb-1, observed events are compared to the standard model background predictions, and the existence of b' quarks having masses below 611 GeV/ c 2 is excluded at 95% confidence level.

  17. Co-existence of 9p deletion and Silver-Russell syndromes in a patient with maternally inherited cryptic complex chromosome rearrangement involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Sathanoori, Malini; Kochmar, Sally; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; McGuire, Marianne; Surti, Urvashi

    2013-01-01

    We report a patient with a maternally inherited unbalanced complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11 detected by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This patient presents with clinical features of 9p deletion syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Chromosome analysis performed in 2000 showed what appeared to be a simple terminal deletion of chromosome 9p22.1. aCGH performed in 2010 revealed a 1.63 Mb duplication at 4q28.3, a 15.48 Mb deletion at 9p24.3p22.3, and a 1.95 Mb duplication at 11p15.5. FISH analysis revealed a derivative chromosome 9 resulting from an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 9 and 11, a chromosome 4 fragment inserted near the breakpoint of the translocation. The 4q28.3 duplication does not contain any currently known genes. The 9p24.3p22.3 deletion region contains 36 OMIM genes including a 3.5 Mb critical region for the 9p-phenotype. The 11p15.5 duplication contains 49 OMIM genes including H19 and IGF2. Maternal aCGH was normal. However, maternal chromosomal and FISH analyses revealed an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with maternally inherited trans-duplication of the entire imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) among the 11p15.5 duplications reported in SRS patients. This report supports the hypothesis that the trans-duplication of the maternal copy of ICR1 alone is sufficient for the clinical manifestation of SRS and demonstrates the usefulness of combining aCGH with karyotyping and FISH for detecting cryptic genomic imbalances.

  18. Functional and neurophysiological evidence of the efficacy of trophic pharmacotherapy using an adrenocorticotrophic hormone4-9 analog in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Duckers, H J; van Dokkum, R P; Verhaagen, J; Lopes da Silva, F H; Gispen, W H

    1996-03-01

    Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CEAE) is a well-established animal model for the human syndrome, multiple sclerosis. CEAE has striking histological, electrophysiological and clinical analogies with multiple sclerosis and is a valuable animal model for the preclinical pharmacotherapeutical development of new putative therapeutic agents. In this paper, we describe a neurotrophic repair approach in Lewis rats suffering from CEAE. The neurotrophic peptide used is a degradation resistant adrenocorticotrophic hormone4-9 analog. The development of CEAE was examined using a combination of clinical, functional and electrophysiological parameters including somatosensory and motor evoked potentials. The latencies and amplitudes of the various evoked potentials can provide quantitative, objective data regarding the involvement of different nerve tracts in CEAE and the effectiveness of the neurotrophic peptide. Repeated subcutaneous injections of the neurotrophic peptide suppressed the development of CEAE-related clinical symptoms, markedly improved motor performance and reduced the reaction time upon thermal stimulation as compared to saline-treated CEAE animals during a 17 week follow-up study. Prolonged onset latencies of corticomotor evoked potentials and peak latencies of somatosensory evoked potentials due to the demyelination were normalized upon peptide treatment. In addition, peptide treatment substantially prevented total blocking of the corticomotor pathway in CEAE-animals and reduced the attenuation of sensory evoked potentials-related peak amplitudes as compared to saline-treated animals. The functional and electrophysiological improvements observed in CEAE-animals treated with the adrenocorticotrophic hormone4-9 analog, suggest that a neurotrophic repair approach could be of great value to promote the restoration of function in a disabling demyelinating disorder.

  19. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    PubMed

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  20. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term.

  1. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  2. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    PubMed

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  3. Early retirement and mortality in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühntopf, Stephan; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2012-02-01

    Differences in mortality by retirement age have an important impact on the financing of pension insurance, yet no clear-cut results for Germany exist so far. We calculate mortality rates by retirement age from microdata on all German old-age pensioners and 1.84 million deceases. The life expectancies and survival probabilities at age 65 are estimated for population subgroups according to creditable periods because of disease and pension income. Early-retired men who reach the age of 65 years live significantly longer the later early retirement occurs; the life expectancy at age 65 ranges from 13 to 17.8 years. For each retirement age, mortality of men is higher the more periods of disease are credited in the pension insurance system. For a given length of credited periods of disease, mortality of early retirees decreases with the retirement age. 'Healthy worker selection effects' operating in the labour market may contribute to these results. The 'work longer, live longer'-result is found for each pension income quintile, which resolves the J-curve pattern found in the literature. The mortality of female old-age pensioners varies little with retirement age.

  4. Women in Physics in Germany, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Hanna

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics in Germany has not changed dramatically in the three years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference was held in 2005. The salary of a woman remains approximately 25% lower than that of a man in a comparable professional position. The number of female professors is growing slowly. The number of young women beginning to study physics is around 20%. There is, however, a noticeable increase in organization and societal acceptance of female physicists, and an increasing amount of men taking part in this process. There is also increased acceptance and support of dual-career couples. The Helmholtz Alliance for "Physics at the Terascale" founded a dual-career option program. In 2008, the annual Conference of German Female Physicists (DPT) held in Muenster became an official conference of the DPG (German Physical Society). Various scientific groups working for equal opportunity have formed a "network of networks." At the DESY (German Electron Synchrotron), a group of women led by an equal opportunity officer is involved in the entire process of hiring new staff members in all positions, including directors.

  5. Continuous solar UV monitoring in Germany.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, M

    1997-11-01

    Early in 1993, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS, Salzgitter) together with the Federal Environmental Office (UBA, Berlin) established an overall UV monitoring network for the continuous measurement of spectrally resolved UV radiation. Every 6 min the solar UV spectrum is measured by a Bentham DM 150 double monochromator system in a wavelength ranging from 290 to 450 nm. Every night, UV data are automatically transferred via modem to the reference station in Munich where they are quality controlled and then stored in a host computer. Human health assessment of the exposure is documented in 1/2 h MED (minimal erythemal dose) values. The selected sites of Zingst (1 m, 54 degrees N, Baltic Sea), Offenbach (110 m, 50 degrees N, Rhine rift valley), Schauinsland (1205 m, 48 degrees N, Black Forest) and Neuherberg (493 m, 48 degrees N, Munich) provide a good overview of the UV radiation situation in Germany and therefore an ideal supplement to more detailed biological effect research, especially of comparison measurements with biosensors under environmental conditions. Preliminary investigations have already been started.

  6. Space Radar Image of Munich, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  7. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on.

  8. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  9. Decommissioning and dismantling strategies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Brennecke, P.; Berg, H.P.; Weil, L.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the following aspects of decommissioning and dismantling strategies in the federal republic of germany: legal requirements, nuclear installations to be decommissioned, reactor dismantling techniques, and radioactive waste management.

  10. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  11. Arms control and the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrieder, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    These essays explore the implications of arms control negotiations for the FRG and consider why Germany has traditionally found it impossible to divorce considerations of arms control from their larger political context.

  12. Albedo neutron dosimetry in Germany: regulations and performance.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Zimbal, A; Busch, F; Eichelberger, A; Engelhardt, J; Figel, M; Frasch, G; Günther, K; Jordan, M; Martini, E; Haninger, T; Rimpler, A; Seifert, R

    2014-12-01

    Personal neutron dosimetry has been performed in Germany using albedo dosemeters for >20 y. This paper describes the main principles, the national standards, regulations and recommendations, the quality management and the overall performance, giving some examples.

  13. Recruitment of Civil Engineering Students in Germany: Shortage or Overflow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothert, Heinrich

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the recruitment and demand for civil engineering students in Germany. Described is the German engineering education system and the possibility of a joint-venture building industry between the two German states. (KR)

  14. Safety features of future LWR in Germany - regulatory view

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H.P.; Weil, L.

    1997-12-01

    The present state of advances in safety considerations regarding future PWR and BWR in the Federal Republic of Germany is described from the regulatory point of view. The role of deterministic and, in particular, probabilistic methods to be applied in the design process is explained. A further topic is the special situation of the ongoing harmonization process between France and Germany concerning safety objectives and requirements for future pressurized water reactors especially the EPR project. 11 refs.

  15. The evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    In the past five years, the climate for commercial biotechnology in Germany has improved significantly and has resulted in an increase in the number of biotechnology companies. On examination of the underlying factors of the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany, and against the background of the current situation, it is predicted that many German biotech companies will have to change their business models to focus on product development rather than on platform technologies.

  16. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  17. A case of autochthonous human Dirofilaria infection, Germany, March 2014.

    PubMed

    Tappe, D; Plauth, M; Bauer, T; Muntau, B; Dießel, L; Tannich, E; Herrmann-Trost, P

    2014-05-01

    In March 2014, an infection with the nematode Dirofilaria repens was diagnosed in a German citizen in the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt. The patient had developed an itching subcutaneous nodule containing a female worm, which was identified as D. repens by 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing. Autochthonous human D. repens infections have not been described in Germany so far, but this finding is consistent with the recent detection of D. repens in mosquitoes from east Germany.

  18. The Geography of Germany: Lessons for Teaching the Five Themes of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This activity guide contains five lessons. Lesson 1 deals with "Location of Germany on the Earth's Surface" with two activities: (1) "Germany's Location in the World"; and (2) "Germany's Location in Europe." Lesson 2 is on the "Physical and Human Characteristics of Germany" with four activities on: (1)…

  19. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  20. [A report on clinical PET activities in Germany].

    PubMed

    Tashiro, M; Kubota, K; Itoh, M; Sasaki, H; Moser, E

    1999-09-01

    Clinical diagnostic procedure using positron emission tomography (PET) requires high costs. To promote clinical use of PET, sociomedical evaluation is necessary. In this paper, sociomedical situations concerning clinical use of PET in Germany is reported. Some comparisons are made between Japan and this country putting emphases on several points such as 1) number of cyclotron and PET facilities, 2) social restriction to transportation of radioisotopes, 3) activities of satellite PET facilities, and 4) clinical indications for PET studies. Number of cyclotron was larger in Japan (29) than in Germany (17), but number of PET facilities was larger in Germany (47) than in Japan (29). The reason seems that in Germany transportation and buying of radioisotopes is less restricted. Hence, more than half of PET facilities in Germany are "satellite facilities" which do not have their own cyclotrons. Radioisotope distribution seems to serve as a backbone of "satellite concept." Additionally in Germany, list of clinical indications for PET study is almost completed and now is widely in applied to most cases. To promote clinical use of PET in Japan, the German system might serve as an important socioeconomic model in Europe instead of the United States.

  1. Specified data for tonsil surgery in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Windfuhr, Jochen P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonsillectomy rates vary considerably among different states, regions, and times. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence of “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, hypertrophy of the tonsils with and without adenoids in absolute and relative numbers in an 80 million people nation. Moreover, the number and rates of different surgical procedures to resolve either “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, or upper airway obstruction due to (adeno)tonsillar hypertrophy over several years was evaluated in this study (tonsillectomy, adenotonsillectomy, tonsillotomy, abscess tonsillectomy, transoral incision and drainage). Finally, the post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage rate was calculated and analyzed in relation to age and gender. Material and methods: Calculations were based on data as published by the Federal Institute of Statistics or on request, if needed. The latest data were provided for 2013. Results: The total number of the aforementioned diseases (stratified by ICD-10) decreased from 142,574 (in 2000) to 87,624 in 2013 (38.5%). Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, was performed in a total of 833,896 patients between 2006 and 2013 in Germany. The yearly number decreased continually from 120,993 in 2006 to 84,332 procedures in 2013 (30.3%). The most significant decrease was registered in patients younger than 20 years of age for this time period: 70.92 per 10,000 in 2010 to 58.68 per 10,000 in 2013. If all age groups were included, the rate decreased from 13.34 per 10,000 to 10.90 per 10,000. In contrast, an increasing number of tonsillotomies was observed between 2007 (4,659 procedures) and 2013 (11,493). The cumulated number of procedures was 59,049. A constant number of 15,000 cases with peritonsillar abscess were diagnosed per year in Germany (19 patients per 100,000). The prevalence increased significantly at an age of 15 years and there was a preponderance of female patients below that age. Compared to the

  2. Excited singlet states of covalently bound, cofacial dimers and trimers of perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide)s.

    PubMed

    Giaimo, Jovan M; Lockard, Jenny V; Sinks, Louise E; Scott, Amy M; Wilson, Thea M; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2008-03-20

    Perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) and its derivatives are robust organic dyes that strongly absorb visible light and display a strong tendency to self-assemble into ordered aggregates, having significant interest as photoactive materials in a wide variety of organic electronics. To better understand the nature of the electronics states produced by photoexcitation of such aggregates, the photophysics of a series of covalent, cofacially oriented, pi-stacked dimers and trimers of PDI and 1,7-bis(3',5'-di-t-butylphenoxy)perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PPDI) were characterized using both time-resolved absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The covalent linkage between the chromophores was accomplished using 9,9-dimethylxanthene spacers. Placing n-octyl groups on the imide nitrogen atoms at the end of the PDI chromophores not attached to the xanthene spacer results in PDI dimers having near optimal pi-stacking, leading to formation of a low-energy excimer-like state, while substituting the more sterically demanding 12-tricosanyl group on the imides causes deviations from the optimum that result in slower formation of an excimer-like excited state having somewhat higher energy. By comparison, PPDI dimers having terminal n-octyl imide groups have two isomers, whose photophysical properties depend on the ability of the phenoxy groups at the 1,7-positions to modify the pi stacking of the PPDI molecules. In general, disruption of optimal pi-stacking by steric interactions of the phenoxy side groups results in excimer-like states that are higher in energy. The corresponding lowest excited singlet states of the PDI and PPDI trimers are dimer-like in nature and suggest that structural distortions that accompany formation of the trimers are sufficient to confine the electronic interaction on two chromophores within these systems. This further suggests that it may be useful to build into oligomeric PDI and PPDI systems some degree of flexibility that allows the

  3. An amplified electrochemiluminescent aptasensor using Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites as a signal enhancement tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Meng-Nan; Zhang, Xia; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal tag fabrication, the C60 nanoparticles (C60NPs) were prepared and then coated with 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA) by π-π stacking interactions. Afterwards, thiosemicarbazide (TSC) was linked with PTCA functionalized C60NPs via amidation for further assembling Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Finally, detection aptamer of thrombin (TBA 2) was labeled on the ECL signal amplification tag of AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs. Herein, TSC, with the active groups of -NH2 and -SH, was selected and introduced into the ECL S2O82-/O2 system for the first time, which could not only offer the active groups of -SH to absorb AuNPs for TBA 2 anchoring but also remarkably enhance the ECL signal of the S2O82-/O2 system by the formation of TSC-PTC/C60NPs for signal amplification. Meanwhile, the sensing interface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by AuNPs/graphene (AuNPs/GR) nanocomposites with the large specific surface area and the active sites, followed by immobilization of thiol-terminated thrombin capture aptamer (TBA 1). With the formation of the sandwich-type structure of TBA 1, TB, and TBA 2 signal probes, a desirable enhanced ECL signal was measured in the testing buffer of an S2O82-/O2 solution for detecting TB. The aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship for TB detection in the range of 1 × 10-5-10 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 fM.A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal

  4. Charge transfer optical absorption and fluorescence emission of 4-(9-acridyl)julolidine from long-range-corrected time dependent density functional theory in polarizable continuum approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kityk, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    A long-range-corrected time-dependent density functional theory (LC-TDDFT) in combination with polarizable continuum model (PCM) have been applied to study charge transfer (CT) optical absorption and fluorescence emission energies basing on parameterized LC-BLYP xc-potential. The molecule of 4-(9-acridyl)julolidine selected for this study represents typical CT donor-acceptor dye with strongly solvent dependent optical absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The result of calculations are compared with experimental spectra reported in the literature to derive an optimal value of the model screening parameter ω. The first absorption band appears to be quite well predictable within DFT/TDDFT/PCM with the screening parameter ω to be solvent independent (ω≈0.245 Bohr-1) whereas the fluorescence emission exhibits a strong dependence on the range separation with ω-value varying on a rising solvent polarity from about 0.225 to 0.151 Bohr-1. Dipolar properties of the initial state participating in the electronic transition have crucial impact on the effective screening.

  5. Gamma and pizero production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation. [4. 9 to 7. 4 GeV (c. m. )

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, A.

    1980-01-01

    Inclusive cross sections of ..gamma..'s and ..pi../sup 0/ mesons in hadronic events produced by electron-positron annihilation for the center-of-mass energy range 4.9 to 7.4 GeV are presented. Scale invariance of the inclusive spectra is exhibited in this energy range, and their normalization and shape are seen to be consistent with those of spectra arising from the decay of the ..pi../sup 0/. The fraction of center-of-mass energy carried away by the ..gamma..'s at high energies is found to be < E/sub ..gamma..//E/sub c.m./> = 0.24 +- 0.01. The ..pi../sup 0/ inclusive cross section is seen to be consistent in normalization and shape with half the charged-..pi.. cross section between x = 0.15 and 0.75, with an integrated inclusive cross-section ratio of sigma(..pi../sup 0/)/(sigma(..pi../sup +/) + sigma(..pi../sup -/)) = 0.48 +- 0.05. 60 figures, 7 tables.

  6. Determination of the individual atomic site contribution to the electronic structure of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S. W.; Newby, D.; DeMasi, A.; Smith, K. E.; Piper, L. F. J.; Jones, T. S.

    2013-11-01

    We have studied the element and orbital-specific electronic structure of thin films of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) using a combination of synchrotron radiation-exited resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as density functional theory calculations. Resonant and non-resonant x-ray emission spectroscopies were used to measure the C and O 2p partial densities of state in PTCDA. Furthermore, resonant x-ray emission at the C and O K-edges is shown to be able to measure the partial densities of states associated with individual atomic sites. The flat molecular orientation of PTCDA on various substrates is explained in terms of the carbonyl O atom acting as a hydrogen-bond acceptor leading to multiple in-plane intermolecular C=O...H-C hydrogen bonding between carbonyl groups and the perylene core of the neighboring PTCDA molecules. We support this conclusion by comparison of our calculations to measurements of the electronic structure using element-, site-, and orbital-selective C and O K-edge resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, and photoemission spectroscopy.

  7. N-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine for blue organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Dong Young; Lee, Song Eun; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have synthesized two blue fluorescent materials based on anthracene derivatives with electron-donating diphenylamine moieties by Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. To explore their electroluminescent properties as blue emitting materials, multilayer devices were fabricated in following sequence: indium-tin-oxide (180 nm)/4,4‧-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl (50 nm)/blue emitters (30 nm)/bathophenanthroline (30 nm)/lithium quinolate (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). Among them, a device using N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine exhibited efficient blue emission with a luminous, power and external quantum efficiency of 3.11 cd/A, 2.39 lm/W, and 1.82% at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. The Commission International de L’Eclairage coordinates of this device were (x,y) = (0.14,0.15) at 6.0 V.

  8. Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bär, A; Biermann, C

    1992-03-01

    The dietary intake of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin was evaluated in Germany (FRG) in 1988/89. In the first part of the study the sweetener intake was evaluated in a representative sample of the population. Complete 24-h records of the amount and type of all foods and drinks consumed were obtained from 2,291 individuals. The total daily intake was calculated for each person from the sweetener content of each product and was expressed in mg/kg body weight (bw). 35.9% of the participants ingested one or more sweeteners on the examination day. Cyclamate and saccharin were the prominent sweeteners because aspartame was at that time permitted only under special regulatory exemption, and products containing acesulfame were not yet available. For users of intense sweeteners the mean intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.15, 2.62, and 0.250 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. At the 90th percentile of intake, i.e., for the heavy consumer, the ingestion of cyclamate and saccharin was about 2.5 times higher. Persons who adhered to a diet (diabetes, weight control) did not ingest sweeteners in substantially higher amounts. Tabletop sweeteners and beverages were the most important sources of sweeteners, and they contributed more than 80% of the total intake. Consumption of sweeteners in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was rarely observed (saccharin: one person, cyclamate: 16 persons). In the second part of the study, the sweetener intake was further evaluated during a 7-day period in those subjects who in the 1-day study ingested any of the sweeteners in excess of 75% of the ADI. Complete 7-day food records were available from 40 out of the 41 subjects who fulfilled this criterium. In this selected subgroup in which 19 subjects were less than 19 years old, the mean daily intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.13, 4.53, and 0.42 mg/kg body weight (bw), respectively. These levels correspond to 0.33, 41 and 17% of the corresponding ADI

  9. [The hospital at Hillersleben Germany, April 1945].

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Varda

    2014-01-01

    On 6th April 1945, nine days before the liberation of the Bergen Belsen Concentration Camp, about 2,500 Jewish prisoners were ordered to prepare to leave the camp on the next day. On 7th April, the prisoners left through the gates of the camp and began to walk about 10 kilometers to the train station near the city of Celle. There they were ordered to board a train that would take them to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. After six days of travel, the train stopped near the village of Farsleben, Germany, where it was liberated by the 743rd Tank Battalion of the 30th Infantry Division, of the U.S. 9th Army, on 13th April 1945. The 105th Medical Battalion of the same Division was the primary care provider for the survivors, who were then taken in vehicles available from the 30th Infantry Division, and organized into a convoy by the Division's Liaison Officer, Lt. Frank W. Towers, to the town of Hillersleben. A former German Air Force Base was located at Hillersleben with a small hospital that could not provide medical attention to all the survivors. On 21st April, Company C of the 95th Medical Battalion, received an order to go to Hillersleben. Colonel Dr. William W. Hurteau, the Commanding Officer of this Battalion, determined that the biggest task given to the Battalion during World War II, was establishing another hospital in the town of Hillersleben and providing additional beds in the existing hospital, which was a structure that had served as a boarding school. Furthermore, they needed to acquire hospital equipment which was obtained from German equipment and supplies that had been captured by the U.S. MiLitary. Also, they took care of obtaining food supplies from German warehouses, and meat and milk from local dairy farms. The lives of the prisoners on this train were saved by the heroism and dedicated work of those brave soldiers of the 30th Infantry Division and the 95th Medical Battalion.

  10. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score <-2 was categorised as underweight, height-for-age-z-score <-2 as stunted, and BMI-z-score >+1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all P<0.01). Stunting and underweight were related to lower birth weight, being breastfed for 6 months or more, having parents who were underweight or had short stature, and mothers who never attended formal education. Stunting was also higher in rural areas. Being at-risk, or overweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  11. 17β-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone) exhibits tissue selective anabolic activity: effects on muscle, bone, adiposity, hemoglobin, and prostate.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; McCoy, Sean C; Lipinska, Judyta A; Santillana, Cesar A; Hance, John M; Cannady, Darryl F; VanPelt, Tisha D; Sanchez, Joshua; Conrad, Bryan P; Pingel, Jennifer E; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E

    2011-04-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) now under development can protect against muscle and bone loss without causing prostate growth or polycythemia. 17β-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone), a potent testosterone analog, may have SARM-like actions because, unlike testosterone, trenbolone does not undergo tissue-specific 5α-reduction to form more potent androgens. We tested the hypothesis that trenbolone-enanthate (TREN) might prevent orchiectomy-induced losses in muscle and bone and visceral fat accumulation without increasing prostate mass or resulting in adverse hemoglobin elevations. Male F344 rats aged 3 mo underwent orchiectomy or remained intact and were administered graded doses of TREN, supraphysiological testosterone-enanthate, or vehicle for 29 days. In both intact and orchiectomized animals, all TREN doses and supraphysiological testosterone-enanthate augmented androgen-sensitive levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle mass by 35-40% above shams (P ≤ 0.001) and produced a dose-dependent partial protection against orchiectomy-induced total and trabecular bone mineral density losses (P < 0.05) and visceral fat accumulation (P < 0.05). The lowest doses of TREN successfully maintained prostate mass and hemoglobin concentrations at sham levels in both intact and orchiectomized animals, whereas supraphysiological testosterone-enanthate and high-dose TREN elevated prostate mass by 84 and 68%, respectively (P < 0.01). In summary, low-dose administration of the non-5α-reducible androgen TREN maintains prostate mass and hemoglobin concentrations near the level of shams while producing potent myotrophic actions in skeletal muscle and partial protection against orchiectomy-induced bone loss and visceral fat accumulation. Our findings indicate that TREN has advantages over supraphysiological testosterone and supports the need for future preclinical studies examining the viability of TREN as an option for androgen replacement therapy.

  12. Tobacco industry influence on science and scientists in Germany.

    PubMed

    Grüning, Thilo; Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Using tobacco industry documents, we examined how and why the tobacco industry sought to influence science and scientists in Germany as a possible factor in explaining the German opposition to stricter tobacco regulation. Smoking and health research programs were organized both separately by individual tobacco companies and jointly through their German trade organization. An extensive network of scientists and scientific institutions with tobacco industry links was developed. Science was distorted in 5 ways: suppression, dilution, distraction, concealment, and manipulation. The extent of tobacco industry influence over the scientific establishment in Germany is profound. The industry introduced serious bias that probably influenced scientific and public opinion in Germany. This influence likely undermined efforts to control tobacco use.

  13. [Dental education in Germany: new concepts for the dental curriculum].

    PubMed

    Hugger, A; Hugger, S; Kordass, B

    2011-09-01

    In Germany, the dental curriculum is still based on dental licensing regulations ("Approbations-/Prüfungsordnung für Zahnärzte") from 1955. Essential changes of the dental licensing regulations have not been made for over 50 years-unlike the medical licensing regulations in Germany. Teaching and learning concepts have, nevertheless, changed considerably in medical and dental education over time. The present study delivers an analysis about reform initiatives in dental education in Germany and introduces examples of innovative projects. To be able to establish long-term and broad reforms in dental education, new licensing regulations for dentists are required. This should create a contemporary framework for education, which assigns resources and enables occupational profile development at specific locations. Thereby, compatibility with the medical curriculum has to be guaranteed just as required adaptations of admission and curricular capacity regulations for dentistry.

  14. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  15. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR

  16. Measles incidence and reporting trends in Germany, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Ole; Rieck, Thorsten; Matysiak-Klose, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective We aimed to quantify progress towards measles elimination in Germany from 2007 to 2011 and to estimate any potential underreporting over this period. Methods We determined the annual incidence of notified cases of measles – for each year – in northern, western, eastern and southern Germany and across the whole country. We then used measles-related health insurance claims to estimate the corresponding incidence. Findings In each year between 2007 and 2011, there were 6.9–19.6 (mean: 10.8) notified cases of measles per million population. Incidence decreased with age and showed geographical variation, with highest mean incidence – 20.3 cases per million – in southern Germany. Over the study period, incidence decreased by 10% (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.85–0.95) per year in western Germany but increased by 77% (IRR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.62–1.93) per year in eastern Germany. Although the estimated incidence of measles based on insurance claims showed similar trends, these estimates were 2.0- to 4.8-fold higher than the incidence of notified cases. Comparisons between the data sets indicated that the underreporting increased with age and was generally less in years when measles incidence was high than in low-incidence years. Conclusion Germany is still far from achieving measles elimination. There is substantial regional variation in measles epidemiology and, therefore, a need for region-specific interventions. Our analysis indicates underreporting in the routine surveillance system between 2007 and 2011, especially among adults. PMID:25378728

  17. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  18. Increased Prevalence of Trichinella spp., Northeastern Germany, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Nöckler, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a Trichinella spp. outbreak occurred on a small family-owned pig farm in Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania in northeastern Germany. To obtain epidemiologic information on this outbreak, we determined that after 2005 the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boars has increased in this region of Germany. We discuss the potential role of the raccoon dog in the increase in Trichinella spp. prevalence in the sylvatic cycle in this region. We believe that this increase could pose a threat to pigs kept in back yard conditions, and we provide recommendations to ensure public health safety. PMID:20507743

  19. Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Johne, Reimar; Heckel, Gerald; Plenge-Bönig, Anita; Kindler, Eveline; Maresch, Christina; Reetz, Jochen; Schielke, Anika

    2010-01-01

    Human hepatitis E virus infections may be caused by zoonotic transmission of virus genotypes 3 and 4. To determine whether rodents are a reservoir, we analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence of a hepatitis E–like virus from 2 Norway rats in Germany. The sequence suggests a separate genotype for this hepatotropic virus. PMID:20735931

  20. Home Education in Germany: An Overview of the Contemporary Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegler, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the situation of home education in Germany. The first results from a predominantly qualitative research project are presented. This combines participant observation, content analysis and qualitative interviews for a thorough sociological analysis of the German home education movement. Compulsory school attendance…

  1. Respite Care Services for the Family in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadler, Johannes B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an overall network of respite care services in the Federal Republic of Germany, the need for respite care services, efforts of a national organization called Lebenshilfe, evolution of the concept of respite care, and future tasks. (Author/JDD)

  2. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info 3-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This paper explores the importance and impact of sport in Germany from a variety of perspectives. Topics include: (1) the social function of sport; (2) popular sport, focusing on exercise and self-development rather than competition; (3) sport's role in the leisure activities of the handicapped; (4) top sport performers; (5) drugs and sport; (6)…

  3. Searching for Their Own Identity: Young People in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen; Stahl, Klaus, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of "young people" and asserts there is no clear-cut social description of this group with societal expectations differing from culture to culture. The article analyzes the changes affecting the lives of "youth" in Germany and assesses their social attitudes and values. The contents include…

  4. Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

  5. A Model for Intercultural Training for Study Abroad in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Yvonne A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an intercultural workshop designed for American students from the University of Rhode Island's International Engineering Program who are going to Germany to work and to study. The activities and goals of the workshop are explained. The outcomes and findings show that participation in the pre-departure intercultural workshop…

  6. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  7. Kids in Germany: Comparing Students from Different Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This unit of study, intended for intermediate grade students, focuses on comparing students from different cultures: Germany and the United States. The unit addresses National Social Studies Standards (NCSS) standards; presents an introduction, such as purpose/rationale; cites a recommended grade level; states objectives; provides a time…

  8. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    PubMed

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  9. Education in Germany since Unification. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to education in Germany since its unification. The papers include: "The Legacy of Unification" (David Phillips); "Change and Continuity in Education After the 'Wende'" (E. J. Neather); "A Study of Teachers' Perceptions in Brandenburg 'Gesamtschulen'" (Stephanie…

  10. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  11. "Who Photographs Us?" The Workers' Photography Movement in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Karin B.; Hardt, Hanno

    In a discussion of the attempts of the organized workers' photography movement in Weimar Germany to redirect the use of photographs in everyday life, this paper analyzes photographs published in the "Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung," (AIZ) a large and successful picture magazine that emphasized a left-wing, humanitarian approach. The paper…

  12. Library Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Hans-Albrecht

    1984-01-01

    Report on current state of research in academic and research librarianship in Federal Republic of Germany highlights projects concerning acquisition of books; work procedure investigations; personnel requirements; cost accounting; investigations of library use (user research, user education); public relations work; librarianship; and subject…

  13. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  14. Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 in Squirrels, Germany and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schlottau, Kore; Jenckel, Maria; van den Brand, Judith; Fast, Christine; Herden, Christiane; Höper, Dirk; Homeier-Bachmann, Timo; Thielebein, Jens; Mensing, Niels; Diender, Bert; Hoffmann, Donata; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Koopmans, Marion; Tappe, Dennis; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M.; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    We screened squirrels in Germany and the Netherlands for the novel zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1). The detection of VSBV-1 in 11 squirrels indicates a considerable risk for transmission to humans handling those animals. Therefore, squirrels in contact with humans should routinely be tested for VSBV-1. PMID:28221112

  15. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  16. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  17. 22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS THE ENGINE IS FOR THE VFR'S (VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT) 4 STICK REPULSOR. ENGINE IN PHOTOS IS BEING TANKED WITH LOX (NOTICE THE FROST FORMING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK BEHIND THE LADDER. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  19. Multiple Synchronous Outbreaks of Puumala Virus, Germany, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Jakob; Hofmann, Jorg; Enders, Martin; Tewald, Friedemann; Oehme, Rainer M.; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M.; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Schlegel, Mathias; Essbauer, Sandra; Osterberg, Anja; Jacob, Jens; Reil, Daniela; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate 2,017 cases of hantavirus disease in Germany, we compared 38 new patient-derived Puumala virus RNA sequences identified in 2010 with bank vole–derived small segment RNA sequences. The epidemic process was driven by outbreaks of 6 Puumala virus clades comprising strains of human and vole origin. Each clade corresponded to a different outbreak region. PMID:22932394

  20. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  1. Attitudes toward nuclear weapons: France, Great Britain, and Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this report is to explore current attitudes in the major European countries (France, Great Britain, and Germany) toward the possession of nuclear weapons and the eventual pooling of existing national nuclear capabilities in a European nuclear force, as part of an emerging European security structure under the aegis of the European community (EC).

  2. Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nolde, E

    2005-01-01

    Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available.

  3. Das Deutschlandspiegelvideo (The View-of-Germany-Videos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentecost, Gislind E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes View-of-Germany-Videos, published by the Goethe Institute. The videos are authentic, entertaining, and very versatile in usefulness. In addition they are short, thus easily incorporated into a lesson plan, and free of charge, making them accessible to any educational establishment. (AB)

  4. Germany and Europe Since World War II: Resources for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James F., Ed.; Metcalf, Fay, Ed.

    Designed as a resource for teachers to help high school students understand the new Germany, six background papers and nine lessons provide information on the difficult transition from the Third Reich to defeat and military occupation, on the establishment of two successor states, and on revolution and reunification. The six background papers…

  5. Development and Prospects of Academic Entrepreneurship Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klandt, Heinz; Volkmann, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This contribution deals with the development of entrepreneurship education at university level in Germany. Starting with a definition of the concept, the article focuses on relevant issues of entrepreneurship education, such as target groups and teaching formats. With particular emphasis on empirical studies carried out by the German Association…

  6. Renewable Electricity Policy in Germany, 1974 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauber, Volkmar; Mez, Lutz

    2006-01-01

    Of the large industrial countries, Germany is clearly leading with regard to new renewable energy sources, occupying first rank in terms of installed capacity for wind energy and second for photovoltaics. This is not because of an exceptional natural resource base but because of public policy in this area, despite the fact that this policy was…

  7. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  8. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  9. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US.

  10. Differential risk for Lyme disease along hiking trail, Germany.

    PubMed

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

    2011-09-01

    To estimate relative risk for exposure to ticks infected with Lyme disease-causing spirochetes in different land-use types along a trail in Germany, we compared tick density and spirochete prevalence on ruminant pasture with that on meadow and fallow land. Risk was significantly lower on pasture than on meadow and fallow land.

  11. Comparing Empirically Historical Awareness in East and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borries, Bodo von; Lehmann, Rainer H.

    A study compared the historical awareness of 2,000 East and West German children in the sixth, ninth, and twelfth grades. Because of differing school systems and the general design of the study, researchers analyzed ninth grade data. The study was conducted during the disintegration and reunification of Germany. Students from the two regions…

  12. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  13. Searching for Telecollaboration in Secondary Geography Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutscher, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The majority of studies on telecollaboration for educational purposes focus on language-related aspects. Therefore, a qualitative explorative research project was set up at the RuhrUniversity Bochum, Germany, dealing with telecollaboration from the perspective of a non-language discipline; it is based on the approach of transferring…

  14. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada.

    PubMed

    von Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health "to a strong degree," 35.3% that weather had "some influence on their health" (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32% of the

  15. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  16. A hypervariable genomic island identified in clinical and environmental Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis isolates from Germany.

    PubMed

    Sanchini, Andrea; Semmler, Torsten; Mao, Lei; Kumar, Narender; Dematheis, Flavia; Tandon, Kshitij; Peddireddy, Vidyullatha; Ahmed, Niyaz; Lewin, Astrid

    2016-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an opportunistic human pathogen widespread in the environment. Genomic islands (GI)s represent a part of the accessory genome of bacteria and influence virulence, drug-resistance or fitness and trigger bacterial evolution. We previously identified a novel GI in four MAH genomes. Here, we further explored this GI in a larger collection of MAH isolates from Germany (n=41), including 20 clinical and 21 environmental isolates. Based on comparative whole genome analysis, we detected this GI in 39/41 (95.1%) isolates. Although all these GIs integrated in the same insertion hotspot, there is high variability in the genetic structure of this GI: eight different types of GI have been identified, designated A-H (sized 6.2-73.3kb). These GIs were arranged as single GI (23/41, 56.1%), combination of two different GIs (14/41, 34.1%) or combination of three different GIs (2/41, 4.9%) in the insertion hotspot. Moreover, two GI types shared more than 80% sequence identity with sequences of M. canettii, responsible for Tuberculosis. A total of 253 different genes were identified in all GIs, among which the previously documented virulence-related genes mmpL10 and mce. The diversity of the GI and the sequence similarity with other mycobacteria suggests cross-species transfer, involving also highly pathogenic species. Shuffling of potential virulence genes such as mmpL10 via this GI may create new pathogens that can cause future outbreaks.

  17. East Germany's System of State Planning Faces a Thorough Free Market Shake-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latka-Johring, Sigrid

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties of educational reform in what was formerly East Germany. Describes the educational system in East Germany as uniform and military in nature. Criticizes the one-sidedness of socialist education and its politicalization. Compares classroom atmospheres before and after the Germanies were united. (DK)

  18. Germany's Persistent Balance-of-Payments Disequilibrium Revisited. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindleberger, Charles P.

    This essay compares Germany's persistent financial disequilibrium with the balance of payments situation in the United States. Delivered at a Symposium on German Economic Growth and Stability, the author concentrates on Germany's balance of payments surplus and presents U.S. figures mainly as a point of comparison. The material on Germany has been…

  19. 75 FR 62763 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of... bearings and parts thereof from Germany. See SKF USA Inc. v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT 2010). The... bearings and parts thereof from Germany covering the period of review May 1, 2006, through April 30,...

  20. 78 FR 29702 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping... order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011... September 15, 2011, the Department revoked the order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany as...

  1. Lessons on Policing Terrorism: Studying Police Effectiveness in Italy and Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    efforts to combat transnational terrorism is magnified. The increase in domestic cooperation in Italy and international cooperation in Germany further...Today Germany still sees a terrorist threat from extremism characteristic of transnational terrorism, especially as Germany has become more and...demarcation,” where ideas of fascism, feminism , internationalism, separatism, and communism are used by multiple, often mutually antagonistic

  2. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  3. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313,...

  4. Learning for the Working World: Vocational Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the past, present, and future of vocational training (VT) in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following topics are discussed: place of VT among the various institutions constituting Germany's education system; Germany's dual system of on-the-job and school VT (historical development, training regulations,…

  5. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  6. Herpes zoster in Germany: Quantifying the burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by a reactivation of the varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥ 50 years. Vaccines have been licensed or are under development that can protect against HZ and its main complication postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). In Germany, the burden of disease caused by HZ is not well known. To support the decision making process related to a potential vaccination recommendation, we estimated annual HZ disease burden in people aged ≥ 50 years in Germany by utilizing various data sources. Methods We assessed for 2007 and 2008 HZ-outpatient incidence (number of cases per 1,000 person-years, PY) by utilizing the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (ASHIP) database, which contains nationwide routine outpatient data. For the same time period annual number of HZ-inpatients and HZ-associated deaths were identified by using the Federal Health Monitoring System (FHM). PHN-incidence and loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) caused by HZ were calculated by multiplying number of identified HZ-patients with upper and lower limit estimates for proportion of HZ-cases developing PHN and HZ-related QALY, respectively. Results For the study period we identified an annual average of 306,511 HZ-outpatients aged 50+, resulting in a HZ-incidence of 9.6/1,000 PY. A total 14,249 HZ-associated inpatients and 66 deaths were reported in both years on average. HZ-incidence increased by age from 6.21 in people 50-54 years to 13.19 per 1,000 PY in people aged ≥ 90 years. Females were significantly more frequently affected than males in terms of outpatient HZ-incidence (11.12 vs. 7.8 per 1,000 PY), inpatient HZ-incidence (0.51 vs. 0.38 per 1,000 PY) and mortality (0.29 vs. 0.10 per 100,000 PY). PHN-incidence was estimated to range between 0.43 and 1.33 per 1,000 PY. Based on these figures, there were between 3,065 to 24,094 QALYs lost due to HZ in persons aged ≥ 50 years in Germany per annum. Conclusion Our study

  7. Design and synthesis of 4-[3,5-dioxo-11-oxa-4,9-diazatricyclo[5.3.1.0(2,6)]undec-4-yl]-2-trifluoromethyl-benzonitriles as androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hai-Yun; Balog, Aaron; Attar, Ricardo M; Fairfax, David; Fleming, Linda B; Holst, Christian L; Martin, Gregory S; Rossiter, Lana M; Chen, Jing; Cvjic, Mary-Ellen; Dell-John, Janet; Geng, Jieping; Gottardis, Marco M; Han, Wen-Ching; Nation, Andrew; Obermeier, Mary; Rizzo, Cheryl A; Schweizer, Liang; Spires, Thomas; Shan, Weifang; Gavai, Ashvinikumar; Salvati, Mark E; Vite, Gregory

    2010-08-01

    A novel series of 4-[3,5-dioxo-11-oxa-4,9-diazatricyclo[5.3.1.0(2,6)]undec-4-yl]-2-trifluoromethyl-benzonitriles has been synthesized. The ability of these compounds to act as antagonists of the androgen receptor was investigated and several were found to have potent activity in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Ankylosaur Remains from the Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) of Northwestern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Sven; Hornung, Jahn J.

    2013-01-01

    A fragmentary cervico-pectoral lateral spine and partial humerus of an ankylosaur from the Early Cretaceous (early Valanginian) of Gronau in Westfalen, northwestern Germany, are described. The spine shows closest morphological similarities to the characteristic cervical and pectoral spines of Hylaeosaurus armatus from the late Valanginian of England. An extensive comparison of distal humeri among thyreophoran dinosaurs supports systematic differences in the morphology of the distal condyli between Ankylosauria and Stegosauria and a referral of the Gronau specimen to the former. The humerus fragment indicates a rather small individual, probably in the size range of H. armatus, and both specimens are determined herein as ?Hylaeosaurus sp.. A short overview of other purported ankylosaur material from the Berriasian-Valanginian of northwest Germany shows that, aside from the material described herein, only tracks can be attributed to this clade with confidence at present. PMID:23560099

  9. A new neolithic circular enclosure in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzer, Olaf

    2015-08-01

    Today we know about 130 neolithic enclosures in Central Europe. About 20 of them are located in Germany. In the last years, there was a great discussion about the function of the openings: Are the openings aligned with points of the solstices? Or are the openings aligned with points of rising stars?Four years ago, a new neolithic circular enclosure was found in the northern part of Thuringia. With a diameter of about 50 meters it was not so large but it was the first evidence of a neolithic culture in Thuringia: the central part of Germany!7000 years ago, people with unknown identity built up three rings with three or four openings.With the help of various measurements we were able to determine in which directions the openings were aligned. We found a link between these directions and very interesting landmarks - an amazing connection between sky and landscape.

  10. [Prevalence and socio-economic relevance of allergies in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böcking, C; Renz, H; Pfefferle, P I

    2012-03-01

    Within the last five decades, the worldwide prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever, or food allergies has increased dramatically. Germany follows a similar trend; several studies have shown increased numbers of allergic diseases in this period. Although allergic diseases do not exhibit high mortality rates, the loss of quality of life as shown by studies conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) is considerable. Additional health-economical analyses documented that allergic patients more frequently occupy services of the health care system in Germany. The treatment of allergies and the increasing consultation rates cause rising costs and an increasing burden for the national economy. Currently it is possible to control allergic diseases such as asthma by a precise diagnosis or identification of the causative allergen. However, a considerable reduction in the prevalence of allergic disease and its therapy costs can only be expected if causative therapies and effective prevention strategies are available.

  11. Epidemiology of hepatitis A virus infections, Germany, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mirko S; Stark, Klaus; Behnke, Susanne C; Schreier, Eckart; Frank, Christina

    2009-11-01

    Approximately 60% of hepatitis A virus infections in Germany occur in persons without a travel history to disease-endemic areas and for whom sources of infection are unknown. Recommendation of pretravel vaccination fails to prevent the remaining imported infections. Using enhanced surveillance in 2007-2008, we analyzed epidemiologic patterns of hepatitis A in Germany and appropriateness and adequacy of current immunization recommendations. Young patients with a migration background who had visited friends and family in their ancestral countries accounted for most imported cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed high diversity of sequence data and clustering of strains with similar regions of origin or patient migration backgrounds. Virologic findings are compatible with those of low-incidence countries, where virtually all infections are directly or indirectly imported from other regions. Germans with a migration background are seen as a special risk group so far insufficiently reached by pretravel vaccination advice.

  12. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F.

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    PubMed

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy.

  14. Electronic health records within integrated care in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jähn, Karl; Gärtig-Daugs, Anja; Nagel, Eckhard

    2005-04-01

    The planned introduction of an electronic health card is seen as a milestone in the dissemination of extended electronic health records in Germany. This paper deals with the main issues likely to result from the use of the electronic health insurance card. The role of the patient in the health care process and the patients enhanced access to his or her personal medical record are reflected. A high level of acceptance of the electronic health insurance card and extended electronic documentation procedures can be expected if ethical, legal, and technological concerns of the public are addressed and appropriate incentives are established. Finally, the electronic health insurance card can serve as a useful aid to support the ongoing implementation of disease management programs for the most important chronic conditions in Germany.

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed cultivation in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Koebke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suárez Quiñones, Teresa; Walter, Katja; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    About 12 % of Germany's agricultural area is used for rapeseed cultivation and two third of the harvest is converted to biodiesel. Due to requirements of the EU Renewables Directive the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of rapeseed cultivation must be reported and sustainability criteria and GHG savings compared to fossil fuel must be achieved and certified. Current certified methodology estimates N2O field emissions from rapeseed cultivation using the IPCC Tier 1 approach based on a global emission factor (N2O emission per unit nitrogen fertilizer input) of 1 %, which is not specific for the crop. We present results from three years of measurements (2013 - 2015) on five field trials in Germany, which combined with data from a meta-analysis suggest that GHG emission factors of German rapeseed cultivation are lower than thought previously. Furthermore, results suggest that substitution of mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizers is a valid mitigation option since it avoids GHG emissions during production of mineral fertilizers.

  16. [How do citizens in Germany assess their own Health Literacy?].

    PubMed

    Messer, M; Vogt, D; Quenzel, G; Hurrelmann, K; Schaeffer, D

    2015-04-01

    Health literacy is a relatively recent concept in Europe. First international investigations indicate that a substantial part of the population has significantly impaired subjective health literacy. In Germany there is a lack of meaningful data. Therefore, 2 comprehensive studies have been started that will provide population representative results, as well as take the health literacy level of vulnerable groups such as older people and migrants into consideration.

  17. Indoor development of Aedes aegypti in Germany, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Kampen, Helge; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Walther, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    In spring 2016, a German traveller returning from Martinique cultivated imported plant offsets in her home, and accidentally bred Aedes aegypti. Thirteen adult mosquito specimens submitted for identification and the traveller were tested for Zika, dengue and chikungunya virus infections, with negative results. The detection of Ae. aegypti by the ‘Mueckenatlas’ project demonstrates the value of this passive surveillance scheme for potential public health threats posed by invasive mosquitoes in Germany. PMID:27918261

  18. Plasmodium knowlesi infection imported to Germany, January 2013.

    PubMed

    Orth, H; Jensen, B O; Holtfreter, M C; Kocheril, S J; Mallach, S; MacKenzie, C; Müller-Stöver, I; Henrich, B; Imwong, M; White, N J; Häussinger, D; Richter, J

    2013-10-03

    Plasmodium knowlesi was known as a plasmodium of macaques until P. knowlesi transmission to humans was recognised in Borneo and later throughout South-East Asia. We describe here a case of a P. knowlesi infection imported to Germany from Thailand. The patient had not taken antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and suffered from daily fever attacks. Microscopy revealed trophozoites and gametocytes resembling P. malariae. P. knowlesi malaria was confirmed by PCR.

  19. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  20. Anaerobic waste digestion in Germany--status and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Weiland, P

    2000-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes are especially suited for the utilization of wet organic wastes from agriculture and industry as well as for the organic part of source-separated household wastes. Anaerobic degradation is a very cost-effective method for treating biogenic wastes because the formed biogas can be used for heat and electricity production and the digester residues can be recycled to agriculture as a secondary fertilizer. Anaerobic technology will also be used for the common treatment of wastes together with renewable energy crops in order to reduce the CO2-emissions according the Kyoto protocol. Various process types are applied in Germany which differ in material, reaction conditions and in the form of the used reactor systems. The widespread introduction of anaerobic digestion in Germany has shown that biogenic organic wastes are a valuable source for energy and nutrients. Anaerobic waste treatment is done today in approx. 850 biogas plants on small farm scale as well as on large industrial scale with the best beneficial and economic outcome. Due to some new environmental protection acts which promote the recycling of wastes and their utilization for renewable energy formation it can be expected that several hundreds new biogas plants will be built per year in Germany. In order to use the synergetic effects of a combined fermentation of wastes and energy crops new process types must be developed in order to optimize the substrate combinations and the process conditions for maximum biodegradation.

  1. Germany wide seasonal flood risk analysis for agricultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Kuhlmann, Bernd; Merz, Bruno; Schröter, Kai

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, large-scale flood risk analysis and mapping has gained attention. Regional to national risk assessments are needed, for example, for national risk policy developments, for large-scale disaster management planning and in the (re-)insurance industry. Despite increasing requests for comprehensive risk assessments some sectors have not received much scientific attention, one of these is the agricultural sector. In contrast to other sectors, agricultural crop losses depend strongly on the season. Also flood probability shows seasonal variation. Thus, the temporal superposition of high flood susceptibility of crops and high flood probability plays an important role for agricultural flood risk. To investigate this interrelation and provide a large-scale overview of agricultural flood risk in Germany, an agricultural crop loss model is used for crop susceptibility analyses and Germany wide seasonal flood-frequency analyses are undertaken to derive seasonal flood patterns. As a result, a Germany wide map of agricultural flood risk is shown as well as the crop type most at risk in a specific region. The risk maps may provide guidance for federal state-wide coordinated designation of retention areas.

  2. Evidence for an independent third Usutu virus introduction into Germany.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ute; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Bock, Sabine; Schulze, Christoph; Hoeper, Dirk; Ochs, Andreas; Schlieben, Patricia; Keller, Markus; Zielke, Dorothee E; Luehken, Renke; Cadar, Daniel; Walther, Doreen; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-08-30

    Usutu virus (USUV) is an arbovirus within the genus flavivirus, which was first introduced to Southern Europe approximately twenty years ago causing epizootics among wild and captive birds. In Germany USUV was initially discovered in wild birds, mainly Common blackbirds (Turdus merula), in the Upper Rhine valley in southwest of the country in 2011 and has not spread much northwards since. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the still ongoing USUV epidemic is caused by two different USUV strains, USUV-Germany belonging to the USUV Europe 3 lineage and USUV-Bonn belonging to the USUV Africa 3 lineage. The two strains were introduced independently. In August 2015 a new USUV strain, named USUV-Berlin, was isolated in Vero cells from two carcasses of juvenile Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) kept in the Zoological Garden Berlin, which had suffered from a hyperacute fatal systemic infection. Both owls carried high USUV genome loads. Full-length USUV genomes sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship with a Spanish mosquito-derived sequence from 2006. Immunohistochemical antigen detection in organ samples of the owls showed the typical USUV infection patterns. According to the phylogenetic analysis, USUV-Berlin belongs to the Africa 2 lineage, and can thus be distinguished from the other strains circulating in Germany. Repeated findings of different USUV strains suggest more frequent introductions into Central Europe and a higher mobility of this virus than assumed to date.

  3. Mud flat frac. [North Sea coastline of West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In a region of shallow water, sandbars, and tidal flats off the far northwest coast of W. Germany, Halliburton Co. Germany took unusual steps to successfully perform a large fracturing treatment in June, 1980. The job required pumping for 7 hr at pressures expected to exceed 11,000 psi, using 200,000 gal of gelled water and 300,000 lb of super prop proppant. The wellhead, without any working area around it, no platform or such, was in the North Sea near the coast west of the town of Norden where the sea comes in to meet the Ems River. To do the job, Halliburton would need 16 ht-400 skid units, 4 ht-1000 intensifiers, two 50-bbl blenders, a 25-bbl blender, four 20,000-gal horizontal tanks, a 10,000-gal horizontal tank, eight 16,000-gal vertical tanks, and 2 bulk sand silos. Nearly 1-1/4 acres of pontoon barge were used by Halliburton Germany to assemble equipment at the site of the shallow-water North Sea well.

  4. [WINHO quality indicators for outpatient oncology care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hermes-Moll, Kerstin; Klein, Gudrun; Buschmann-Maiworm, Regina E; Baumann, Walter; Otremba, Burkhard; Lebahn, Herbert; Steinmetz, H Tilmann; Geraedts, Max; Kleeberg, Ulrich R; Schmitz, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the WINHO indicators project is to describe and enhance the quality of outpatient oncology care in Germany with indicators. This paper deals with the development of a set of evidence- and consensus-based meaningful indicators to assess the quality of outpatient oncology care in Germany. These indicators are intended to be applied in assessments of quality of patient care in oncology practices, in quality reports and in peer-to-peer benchmarking. A set of 272 already existing indicators was identified through internet and literature searches. After redundancy reduction and addition of newly developed indicators for areas of ambulatory oncology care that were not yet covered, a preliminary set of 67 indicators was established. The further development of the indicator set was based on a modified version of the two-step RAND/UCLA expert evaluation method, which has been internationally established for developing quality indicator sets. The indicators were modified after the first round of ratings. After completing and assessing the second round of ratings, a set of 46 homogeneously positively rated quality indicators is now available for outpatient oncology care in Germany.

  5. Post-diagnostic abortion in Germany: reproduction gone awry, again?

    PubMed

    Erikson, Susan L

    2003-05-01

    Routine use of prenatal diagnostic technologies (PDTs) such as ultrasound and amniocentesis result in the detection of a small percentage of fetal anomalies. For those women faced with the diagnosis of fetal disability, a decision must be made to continue or terminate the pregnancy. When the diagnosis is merely hypothetical, the discursive specter of post-diagnostic abortion is shaped by social and historical contexts in which interested discourses (regional, political, ethical, and religious) weigh in with varying degrees of authority and influence. However, when the diagnosis is actual, in this sample population of women, an estimated minimum of 90% opt to terminate their pregnancies. Data collected at two German hospitals-one in former East Germany, one in former West Germany-illuminate rates of PDT use and provide data with which to discuss the specter of post-diagnostic abortion in relation to mainstream medical discourses, Germany's divided history, abortion politics, feminism, disability activism, and religion. These data demonstrate how reproductive discourses are shaped by ideological and historical contingencies, even when women's ultimate reproductive decisions are not.

  6. Alaria alata mesocercariae in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida Melina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Michler, Frank-Uwe; Michler, Berit Annika; Lücker, Ernst; Stier, Norman; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Riehn, Katharina

    2013-10-01

    Alaria alata is a trematode of carnivores from Europe. The mesocercarial stage was recently identified in wild boar meat from Europe. Previous histopathologic studies showed the presence of unidentified parasitic cysts within the tongues of raccoons from northern Germany. For identification of the parasite species, tissue samples of 105 raccoons originating from a National Park in northern Germany and from Berlin metropolitan area were collected. Histological examination of cryotome sections of frozen as well as paraffin-embedded tongues were used to identify parasite cysts. These were located in the connective and adipose tissue and in close proximity to small arterioles, suggesting a hematogenous spread of the parasite. Often, cysts were surrounded with mild infiltration by inflammatory cells. Additionally, mesocercariae were isolated from defrosted tongue samples of 11 raccoons. Molecular-biology assays confirmed the parasite species as A. alata. Except for one positive raccoon from Berlin City, all other positive raccoons originated from the sylvan Müritz National park, indicating an abundance of intermediate hosts in this area. Our results show that raccoons can act as paratenic hosts for A. alata and extend the broad host range of this parasite to a species introduced into Germany.

  7. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of some 2-arylnaphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione derivatives on androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC3) human prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Brandy, Yakini; Ononiwu, Innocent; Adedeji, Dolapo; Williams, Vonetta; Mouamba, Claudia; Kanaan, Yasmine; Copeland, Robert L; Wright, Dwayne A; Butcher, Ray J; Denmeade, Samuel R; Bakare, Oladapo

    2012-08-01

    The synthesis of five 2-arylnaphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione derivatives was accomplished by refluxing 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone with appropriate benzoyl chloride analogs at elevated temperatures. In vitro anticancer evaluation of these compounds was performed on androgen-dependent, LNCaP, and androgen-independent, PC3, human prostate cancer cell lines. In general, these compounds displayed slightly stronger cytotoxicity on the androgen-dependent LNCaP than on the androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. The meta-substituted 2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-naphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione (10) appear to display the best cytotoxicity on both cell lines with an IC(50) of 0.03 μM on LNCaP and 0.08 μM on PC3 after 5 days of exposure.

  8. A review of multiple natural hazard risks in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Bubeck, Philip; Parolai, Stefano; Khazai, Bijan; Daniell, James; Kunz, Michael; Mahlke, Holger; Lakes, Tobia

    2013-04-01

    Germany is experiencing various natural hazards and their impacts are expected to increase due to socio-economic and climatic changes, if an efficient risk management is not able to counteract. The international disaster database EM-DAT lists 79 events, namely earthquakes (3), extreme temperatures (9), floods (18), wet mass movement (1), storms (47) and wildfire (1) between 1950 and 2011; all together causing more than 10.000 fatalities and more than 40 billion US damage in Germany. The event with the highest human loss was the heat wave of 2003 with more than 9.000 fatalities. The event with the highest economic damage was the flood in 2002 causing €11.600 million damage. The aim of this paper is to offer a new perspective on multiple risk assessments in Germany by giving a systematic and comprehensive review on existing hazards and risk management strategies. Such a multiple risk assessment is particularly important because the potential for a natural event to cause a disaster depends on how vulnerable an exposed community is to such hazards. Human actions can reduce the damage to people and property but can at the same time increase the exposure to risks and exacerbate the impacts of hazardous events. To significantly improve risk management, i.e. decrease vulnerability and increase resilience of a region, more effort is needed than the well-established hazard-specific risk assessments. Planners and decision-makers need to be aware of and informed about all pertinent hazards in a region. Thus, to compare different hazards and to evaluate changes in risk, we propose the need of a consistent multi risk assessment.

  9. Pathogenic vibrios in environmental, seafood and clinical sources in Germany.

    PubMed

    Huehn, Stephan; Eichhorn, Christin; Urmersbach, Sara; Breidenbach, Janina; Bechlars, Silke; Bier, Nadja; Alter, Thomas; Bartelt, Edda; Frank, Christina; Oberheitmann, Boris; Gunzer, Florian; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone; Appel, Bernd; Dieckmann, Ralf; Strauch, Eckhard

    2014-10-01

    Bacteria of the family Vibrionaceae naturally occur in marine and estuarine environments. Only few species of Vibrionaceae are associated with human cases of gastroenteritis, ear and wound infections, caused by ingestion of seafood or contact with Vibrio containing water. Increasing consumption of seafood (fish, fishery products and shellfish) poses a possible source of Vibrio infections in Germany. Additionally, there is a growing concern that abundances of pathogenic vibrios may increase in German coastal waters as a result of e.g. climate change resulting in probably rising surface water temperatures. According to the One Health concept the VibrioNet consortium started in 2010 to investigate the occurrence and relevance of non-cholera vibrios of human concern in Germany. Vibrios from environmental, seafood and clinical sources were analyzed with the aim to find connections between different reservoirs or sources and to identify potential ways of transmission of these pathogens to assess the risk of infections associated with them. Potentially pathogenic strains mostly belong to the species Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. Investigations on imported seafood and mussels from primary production areas confirmed the frequent occurrence of these species. Moreover, studies of German coastal waters and sediments showed the presence and seasonality of these marine bacteria. So far the incidence of clinical cases of vibriosis in Germany is low. Between 1994 and 2013 thirteen cases of Vibrio spp. associated wound infections and/or septicaemia have been reported. However, the high prevalence of vibrios in aquatic environments and aquatic organisms is of concern and demands continued control of food and surveillance for clinical infections with pathogenic vibrios.

  10. Changing health inequalities in east and west Germany since unification.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Ellen; McKee, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The unification of Germany in 1990 brought about substantial social and economic changes in its eastern part, with new uncertainties and, despite increasing overall income, rising inequality. This paper explores the potential impact on health of these changes during the 1990s, looking specifically at income-related health inequalities in east and west Germany and its modulation by psychosocial factors. We used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) for the years 1992 and 1997, including individuals aged 25+. We investigated changes in self-perceived health in the two parts of Germany and its socio-economic and psychosocial determinants. Analyses estimated odds ratios of less than good health using logistic regression. In 1992, 47% of east Germans rated their health worse than good compared with 54% in the west. By 1997, the east-west gap in self-rated health had disappeared, with the prevalence of poor health increasing to 56% in both parts. Income and education were important determinants of health in east and west, with, in the age-sex-adjusted model, those having available less than 60% of median equivalent income being at increased risk of poor health in 1992 (OR(east) 2.39, 1.45-3.94; OR(west) 2.04, 1.65-2.52). Addition of education reduced the strength of this relationship only slightly. In the west, income-related health inequalities widened between 1992 and 1997 yet the initially stronger gradient declined in the east, despite an overall increase in income inequality (OR(east) 1.63, 1.04-2.56; OR(west) 2.65, 2.19-3.21). The impact of education remained stable. Psychosocial variables were important determinants, mediating the effects of income, with leisure-cultural social involvement exerting the strongest effect in both east and west.The results show that, unlike in the west, the overall increase in income inequality in east Germany between 1992 and 1997 was not accompanied by a simultaneous increase in income-related health inequalities. This

  11. [Primary care practices in Germany: a model for the future].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    In its 2009 report the Federal Advisory Council on the Assessment of Developments in the Health Care System developed a model of Primary Care Practices for future general practice-based primary care. This article presents the theoretical background of the model. Primary care practices are seen as developed organisations requiring changes at all system levels (interaction, organisation, and health system) to ensure sustainability of primary care functions in the future. Developments of the elements comprising the health care system may be compared to the developments and proposals observed in other countries. In Germany, however, the pace of these developments is relatively slow.

  12. Total quality management in dermato-mycology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Korting, H C

    2003-02-01

    Mycoses of the skin are extremely frequent. The clinical presentation often resembles the one of other frequent inflammatory skin diseases not caused by fungi. Adequate diagnostics are critical for the establishment of proper treatment. A total quality management system has been devised in Germany during the last 5 years. There are several guidelines addressing various aspects of the management of various types of disease as well as structure quality of laboratory diagnostics. Continuous medical education and so-called ring trials are major aspects of implementation.

  13. Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Kai D.

    2007-07-01

    During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF{sub 6} is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete

  14. Voting preferences of outpatients with chronic mental illness in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bullenkamp, Jens; Voges, Burkhard

    2004-12-01

    Outpatients with chronic mental illness living in therapeutic residential facilities in Mannheim, Germany (N=110) responded to an opinion poll to determine their voting preferences for the 2002 federal election to the Bundestag. The poll found that the outpatients were significantly more likely than the general population in Mannheim to prefer left-wing parties (78 percent compared with 56 percent). This finding is in contrast to earlier reports; however, it seems to better reflect common beliefs about the political preferences of this population. In conclusion, persons with chronic mental illness seem to prefer political parties that they believe will best serve their perceived specific interests.

  15. Wartime nuclear weapons research in Germany and Japan.

    PubMed

    Grunden, Walter E; Walker, Mark; Yamnazaki, Masakatsu

    2005-01-01

    This article compares military research projects during the Second World War to develop nuclear weapons in Germany and Japan, two countries who lost the war and failed to create nuclear weapons. The performance and motivations of the scientists, as well as the institutional support given the work, is examined, explaining why, in each case, the project went as far as it did-but no further. The story is carried over into the postwar period, when the two cultures and their scientists had to deal with the buildup of nuclear weapons during the cold war and the new nuclear power industry.

  16. Competition policy for health care provision in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kifmann, Mathias

    2017-02-01

    Since the 1990s, Germany has introduced a number of competitive elements into its public health care system. Sickness funds were given some freedom to sign selective contracts with providers. Competition between ambulatory care providers and hospitals was introduced for certain diseases and services. As competition has become more intense, the importance of competition law has increased. This paper reviews these areas of competition policy. The problems of introducing competition into a corporatist system are discussed. Based on the scientific evidence on the effects of competition, key lessons and implications for future policy are formulated.

  17. [The introduction of the electronic health card in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bales, S

    2005-07-01

    From 2006 onwards all members of the health insurance system in Germany will be issued an electronic health card which will replace the current health insurance card. The new health card will be technically upgraded to also include patient-related health data or provide access to such data in addition to its administrative functions. Therefore, it is evident that the health card be fitted with a microprocessor that permits authentication (electronic identity check), encryption and the electronic digital signature, thus ensuring maximum data safety and security. For easy identification of the insured person, the electronic health card will bear a photograph of the card holder.

  18. Klimanavigator - Climate Navigator - Gateway to climate knowledge in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck-Zöller, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Objective More than 50 German research institutions and networks are represented on www.klimanavigator.de, a common platform, where information about their work, and the latest findings from climate research and adaptation can be found. Thus Klimanavigator as a gateway to climate knowledge provides a information portal for those who have to respond to climate change. The internet portal gives an overview of the present state of research and is estimated as a decision support tool for appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures. Target Groups The portal collects the German climate research institutions to publish their scientific knowledge in a non-scientific language. Economists, policymakers, administration and the media are bound to find the names of scientific experts and institutions by an elaborated research tool. Methodology The chapter "Dossiers" is edited by the Klimanavigator-Coordinator CSC. It gathers information to a special issue looked upon from various points of view. Publications of outstanding German scientists are presented side by side, current knowledge is being synthesized, scientifically reviewed and disseminated. The latest news from climate and adaptation research is presented in an own chapter, dedicated to the press releases of the portal members. Via RSS-feed the press releases are collected from the different partner institutions. Thirdly, portraits of the member institutions, that are individually edited by themselves, draw a map of science in Germany and help to find appropriate cooperation partners. For the future further development is being planned. Common Management Klimanavigator is being managed by the partners in common. The main decisions concerning the concept and shape of the portal are made by the partners' assembly. An elected editorial committee decides about the content between the assemblies. The Climate Service Center (part of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht) concentrates on facilitating the cooperation, and

  19. [Multimodal pain therapy in Germany: structure and quality].

    PubMed

    Casser, Hans-Raimund; Nagel, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal Pain Management is a comprehensive treatment of complex chronic pain syndromes. In addition to medical therapy various other specialized therapeutical interventions based on the biopsychosocial model of pain origin and chronic pain development are added.Medical indications are given for patients with chronic pain syndromes, but also if there is an elevated risk of chronic pain in the early stadium of the disease and aiming at delaying the process of chronification. Multimodal pain management has been included in the official catalogue of the recognized medical procedure for day clinic units as well as for inpatients pain management. As there is still a lack of clarity and of consistency about the implementation of multimodal pain management the ad-hoc-Kommission on multimodal interdisciplinary pain management of the German Pain Society has proposed a position paper that has been worked out in a multilevel and interdisciplinary consensus process. Moreover a basic tool for documentation and quality management of pain therapy was developed by the German Pain Society (KEDOQ-Schmerz) as the data basis for nationwide, cross-sectional and independent scientific research in health services in Germany. In future KEDOQ-Schmerz will also used as a method for external quality management in chronic pain therapy in Germany.

  20. [Regionalisation of Germany by data of agricultural structures].

    PubMed

    Merle, Roswitha; Busse, Marc; Rechter, Galina; Meer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    In order to simplify the design of representative studies in animal populations the structural differences of animal husbandry (cattle, pigs and laying hens) in Germany were characterised. Several regions were defined and thus districts identified which are typical for the respective region and can be regarded as representatives for the whole region. Data on animal husbandry as well as human population per district originated from the Federal Statistical Office and were linked to the geometric data of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy. By this, data of "livestock units/square kilometre area" and "farms/square kilometre area" per district were calculated using methods of the spatial statistics Global Moran's Index, Anselin Local Moran's Index and Getis-Ord Gi*. With the help of these analyses six clusters could be identified which resulted in four large (Middle, Northwest, East, and South) and one smaller region (Northern Upper-Rhine) respecting the federal state borders. These regions differed significantly regarding animal and farm densities. The selection of typical districts was carried out with the help of the respective animal and farm data of the species pigs, dairy cattle and laying hens. The means of the selected districts (three to six per region) were within the 60%- and the 80%-percentile of at least two of the analysed variables. Concerning the region Northern Upper-Rhine no representative district was selected. This presented regionalisation including representative districts can be used for the design of scientific studies that are associated with animal husbandry in Germany.

  1. Prevalence of selected rickettsial infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended.

  2. Gambling market and individual patterns of gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Albers, N; Hübl, L

    1997-01-01

    In this paper individual patterns of gambling in Germany are estimated for the first time. The probit technique is used to test the influence of a set of individual characteristics on the probability of participating in each of the various legal games. A sample size of 1,586 adults collected for the pool of German lotteries provides a reliable set of data. All disaggregated estimations of participation are statistically significant at least at the 5 percent level. The basic findings suggest that gambling is a widespread normal (superior) consumption good because gambling participation tends to rise with income. Moreover, no demand anomaly can be found to justify assessing gambling as a social demerit. Only the participation in gaming machines is higher for younger, unemployed and less educated adults. While a moral evaluation of gambling is beyond the scope of this paper, the legislator's preference for a highly taxed state monopoly in gambling markets is to be rejected, at least for Germany. Additional statistical findings suggest distinct consumer perceptions of the characteristics of the various games and may be used for market segmentation. The paper starts with a descriptive introduction to the German gambling market.

  3. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries.

  4. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  5. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in dogs from Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Luge, Enno; Draeger, Angelika; Nöckler, Karsten; Kohn, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis in which dogs can act as a reservoir for human infection. The annual vaccination of dogs can prevent leptospirosis caused by serovars included in the vaccine. To date, all available vaccines in Germany include only the serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola, the most commonly found serovars prior to the introduction of the leptospirosis vaccines. Yet, the involvement of additional serovars in the clinical presentation of leptospirosis in dogs has been described. The objective of this sero-epidemiological study was to examine the different Leptospira serovars currently circulating in a population of dogs suspicious for leptospirosis from Berlin. In 329 dogs presenting at the Small Animal Clinic in Berlin, the predominant serogroup was Australis (24%), followed by Grippotyphosa (20%) and Pomona (9%). A total of 18% of the dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis; here the most prevalent serogroups were also Australis (28%), Grippotyphosa (18%), and Pomona (14%). The serovar prevalence data presented here confirm that a change of pattern of infecting Leptospira serovars in dogs has taken place in Berlin. This data corresponds to further sero-epidemiological studies from other regions in Germany. To ensure human and canine health, available vaccines should be adapted to include the most important circulating serovars.

  6. Direct costs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy control measures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Probst, C; Gethmann, J M; Heuser, R; Niemann, H; Conraths, F J

    2013-12-01

    On 26 November 2000, the first autochthonous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in Germany. Since then, a total of 413 BSE cases have been confirmed, resulting in the culling and destruction of 17 313 heads of cattle. In view of the possible risks for human and animal health, Germany has adopted EU regulations along with some additional requirements concerning active surveillance and response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal. In this study, we used a stochastic model to estimate the costs incurred by the ensuing legislative amendments responding to BSE between November 2000 and December 2010. The total costs were estimated to range between 1847 and 2094 million Euros. They peaked in 2001 (about 394 million Euros) and declined since. About 54% of the costs (approximately 1000 million Euros) were incurred by the extension of the feed ban for animal protein to all farmed livestock. Active surveillance accounted for 21% (405 million Euros), the incineration of animal protein for 13% (249 million Euros) and the removal of specified risk material for 11% (225 million Euros). Only 1% of the costs was related to response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal, including indemnity payments for culled cattle and confiscated carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

  7. Seasonal fluctuations of head lice infestation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eline; Jahnke, Claudia; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    Pediculosis capitis is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in childhood. If not diagnosed and treated rapidly, considerable clinical pathology may develop. The ubiquitous parasitic skin disease is characterized by a lack of sound epidemiological data, and factors which influence disease occurrence are still enigmatic. To investigate whether, in Germany, head lice infestation follows a seasonal pattern, we analyzed the weekly head lice consultations at the Health Department of Braunschweig City, Lower Saxony, for a period of 5 years, and compared the data with the units of pediculocides sold by two wholesalers to German pharmacies during a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively. The number of consultations did not show a clear seasonality, although there was a tendency of fewer consultations during school holidays, and an increase when schools opened again after Christmas, Easter, summer, and autumn holidays. In contrast, the number of packages of pediculocides sold followed a distinct seasonal rhythm with a maximum between calendar week 34 and 40, i.e., from mid September to end of October. In Germany, occurrence of pediculosis capitis varies according to the season of the year with a maximum in late summer and early autumn.

  8. [Current concepts in diagnosing brain death in Germany].

    PubMed

    Thömke, F; Weilemann, L S

    2000-02-15

    Diagnosis of brain death requires definite evidence of an acute CNS catastrophe and exclusion of complicating medical conditions that may confound clinical assessment. Acute CNS catastrophe may be due to direct ("primary") brain damage (e.g., intracerebral hemorrhage, severe concussion, brain tumors), or indirect ("secondary") brain damage (e.g., cerebral hypoxia following cardio-pulmonary resuscitation). The cardinal findings in brain death are coma, absence of brainstem reflexes, and apnea. Persistence of these clinical signs determines brain death. In Germany, the intervals of a repeat clinical evaluation are at least 12 hours in patients with primary, and at least 72 hours in those with secondary brain damage. Electroencephalographically documented absence of electrical activity for at least 30 minutes or by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography or isotope angiography documented intracranial circulatory arrest also confirm brain death. Under such conditions, a repeat clinical evaluation is unnecessary in patients with clinical brain death signs. First of all, brain death is a clinical diagnosis. Confirmatory tests are not mandatory in most situations. In Germany, confirmatory tests are required in newborns, infants below the age of 2 years, and patients with infratentorial brain damage.

  9. Emissions of heavy metals into river basins of Germany.

    PubMed

    Scherer, U; Fuchs, S; Behrendt, H; Hillenbrand, T

    2003-01-01

    The input of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) into the large river basins of Germany via various point and diffuse pathways were estimated for the period of 1985 through 2000. To quantify the emissions via point sources a nationwide survey on heavy metal data of municipal wastewater treatment plants and industrial direct discharges was carried out. The input via diffuse pathways was calculated using an adapted version of the model MONERIS. This model accounts for the significant transport processes, and it includes a Geographical Information System (GIS) that provides digital maps as well as extensive statistical information. For a comparison of the calculated heavy metal emission with the measured heavy metal load at monitoring stations the losses of heavy metals due to retention processes within the river systems have to be considered. Therefore heavy metal retention was calculated according to the retention functions given by Vink and Behrendt. For the large river basins a good correspondence could be found between estimated and measured heavy metal loads in rivers. The total emission into the North Sea decreased for each metal during the period of 1986 to 2000. The reduction varies between 87% for Hg and 41% for Ni mainly caused by the decline via point sources. Today's emissions of heavy metals into river basins of Germany are dominated by the input via diffuse pathways. The most important diffuse emission pathways are "paved urban areas" and "erosion".

  10. Systematic account of animal poisonings in Germany, 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    McFarland, S E; Mischke, R H; Hopster-Iversen, C; von Krueger, X; Ammer, H; Potschka, H; Stürer, A; Begemann, K; Desel, H; Greiner, M

    2017-04-01

    A systematic retrospective study on animal poisonings in Germany (wildlife excluded) between January 2012 and December 2015 was conducted. Data were collected on animal exposure calls to German poison centres, poisoning cases presenting to the University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover Small Animal and Equine Clinics, cases involving off-label use of veterinary medicinal products reported to the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety and toxicological submissions to the Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise animal type, exposure reason, type and substance, year/month of exposure, case severity and outcome. An evaluation of the data and data sources was also carried out. Variation in poisoning patterns was seen. However, dogs and cats were the most frequently reported species and medicinal products, pesticides and plants were consistently implicated as top causes of poisoning. Advantages and disadvantages were associated with each data source; bias was found to be an important consideration when evaluating poisoning data. This study provided useful information on animal poisonings in Germany and highlights the need for standardised approaches for the collection, evaluation and integration of poisoning data from multiple sources.

  11. Seroprevalence study of Francisella tularensis among hunters in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jenzora, Andrea; Jansen, Andreas; Ranisch, Heidrun; Lierz, Michael; Wichmann, Ole; Grunow, Roland

    2008-07-01

    In 2005 and 2006, Francisella tularensis unexpectedly reemerged in western Germany, when several semi-free-living marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in a research facility died from tularemia and a group of hare hunters became infected. It is believed that hunters may have an elevated risk to be exposed to zoonotic pathogens, including F. tularensis. A previous cross-sectional study of the German population (n=6883) revealed a prevalence of 0.2%. Here, we investigated 286 sera from individuals mainly hunting in districts with emerging tularemia cases (group 1) and 84 sera from a region currently not conspicuous for tularemia (group 2). Methods included standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis and indirect immunofluorescence assay. We found five out of the 286 hunters (1.7%; 95% CI 0.6-4.0%) in group 1 positive with standard ELISA and Western blot, but none in the Berlin area (group 2; 95% CI 0-0.04%). Group 1 showed an elevated risk for hunters to be seropositive for F. tularensis compared with the cross-sectional study (OR=7.7; P<0.001). This indicates a higher prevalence for tularemia in hunters of a suspected endemic region of Germany.

  12. [Psychiatric psychotherapeutic research in Germany: taking stock and international comparison].

    PubMed

    Falkai, P; Schneider, F; Sauer, H; Amlacher, J; Schneller, C; Maier, W

    2013-11-01

    This article is based on an evaluation carried out by the DGPPN in 2011 surveying 50 German university and non-university institutions about the scientific research output focussing on psychiatric and psychotherapeutic research. The results of the survey show that on average there are 1 to 2 professors with 12 assistants scientifically active per institution. According to self-disclosure an estimated 1.8 million Euros of external funds are raised each year.Compared to international standards regarding the illnesses major depression, schizophrenia and alcohol abuse, Germany ranks second and third place behind the USA and the UK or Canada in terms of publication output. In terms of authors and institutions, German scientists and universities rank in the upper third to upper tenth for these illnesses. These data show that psychiatric research in Germany is not only internationally competitive but outstanding in its excellent achievements in these fields. Unfortunately, many funding programmes are limited to a 3-6 year period. In view of this fact and in order to achieve a long-term improvement in the translation of funding structures, as in the US (NIMH) or the UK (MRC) to benefit the mentally ill the implementation of a German centre for mental disorders is inevitable.

  13. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  14. [Education, birth cohort, and marriage age: a comparative analysis of marriage age in West Germany, East Germany, and the United States].

    PubMed

    Bruderl, J; Diekmann, A

    1994-02-01

    "This paper investigates how education influences marriage behavior in three countries: the United States, West Germany, and former East Germany. Following family economics we postulate that for women a longer education decreases marriage rates both during education (institutional effect) and after the degree has been obtained (human capital effect). For men family economics predicts the delaying institutional effect, too, but the human capital effect is expected to increase marriage rates. Further considerations lead to the additional hypothesis that for younger birth cohorts these sex differences should attenuate.... For the United States and West Germany the observed marriage patterns confirm our hypotheses for the most part. For East Germany, however, we observe different marriage patterns. This was expected because the institutional context in this former socialist country was a very different one." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  15. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) research. (iii) Requestors who are representatives of the news media. The Commission will provide documents... use. A request for records supporting the news dissemination function of the requestor shall not be... Commission will notify the requestor of the likely cost and, where the requestor has a history of...

  16. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) research. (iii) Requestors who are representatives of the news media. The Commission will provide documents... use. A request for records supporting the news dissemination function of the requestor shall not be... Commission will notify the requestor of the likely cost and, where the requestor has a history of...

  17. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) research. (iii) Requestors who are representatives of the news media. The Commission will provide documents... use. A request for records supporting the news dissemination function of the requestor shall not be... Commission will notify the requestor of the likely cost and, where the requestor has a history of...

  18. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) research. (iii) Requestors who are representatives of the news media. The Commission will provide documents... use. A request for records supporting the news dissemination function of the requestor shall not be... Commission will notify the requestor of the likely cost and, where the requestor has a history of...

  19. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOIA request. (2) Free computer search time. For purposes of this paragraph, the term search time is based on the concept of a manual search. To apply this to a search conducted by a computer, the... according to paragraph (c)(4) of this section, in computer search time. Computer search time is...

  20. 17 CFR 210.4-9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND...

  1. 17 CFR 210.4-9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND...

  2. 28 CFR 4.9 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959, AND THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT... person or signs a paper in practice before the Commission, his personal appearance or signature...

  3. Measurement of cross section and electron asymmetry of the p (e(pol), e-prime pi+) n reaction in the Delta(1232) and higher resonances for Q**2 <= 4.9-(GeV/c)**2

    SciTech Connect

    Kijun Park; Inna Aznauryan; Volker Burkert; Wooyoung Kim

    2006-06-01

    The cross section and beam asymmetry were measured in channel of (pol)ep --> e'pi^+n using 5.754 GeV electron beam with CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer(CLAS). This measurement covers 4 pi angular coverage and high Q^2 up to 4.9 GeV^2 under various resonance mass regions. The structure functions sigmaT + epsilonLsigmaL, sigmaTT, sigmaLT and sigmaLT/ were extracted from fit angular distribution of cross section and asymmetry.

  4. Modification of a new polymer photorecording material based on PMMA doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-antracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborine by ultrashort pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kulchin, Yu N; Mayor, A Yu; Proschenko, D Yu; Zhizhchenko, A Yu; Golik, S S; Babiy, M Yu; Mirochnik, A G

    2015-05-31

    Specific features of modification of a new photorecording material based on PMMA doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-antracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborine are studied. The recording of the filament distribution in the studied material occurs at the expense of two-photon photochemical processes. The three-dimensional modification of the material is achieved in the filamentation regime without supercontinuum generation. It is possible to order the volume structure by preliminary photo-modification of the near-surface layer of the material. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  5. Fractal Fragmentation triggered by meteor impact: The Ries Crater (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes Marino, Joali; Perugini, Diego; Rossi, Stefano; Kueppers, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    FRACTAL FRAGMENTATION TRIGGERED BY METEOR IMPACT: THE RIES CRATER (GERMANY) Joali Paredes (1), Stefano Rossi (1), Diego Perugini (1), Ulrich Kueppers (2) 1. Department of Physics and Geology, University of Perugia, Italy 2. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Munich, Germany The Nördlinger Ries is a large circular depression in western Bavaria, Germany. The depression was caused by a meteor impact, which occurred about 14.3 million-14.5 million years ago. The original crater rim had an estimated diameter of 24 kilometers. Computer modeling of the impact event indicates that the impact or probably had diameters of about 1.5 kilometers and impacted the target area at an angle around 30 to 50 degrees from the surface in a west- southwest to east-northeast direction. The impact velocity is thought to have been about 20 km/s. The meteor impact generated extensive fragmentation of preexisting rocks. In addition, melting of these rocks also occurred. The impact melt was ejected at high speed provoking its extensive fragmentation. Quenched melt fragments are ubiquitous in the outcrops. Here we study melt fragment size distributions with the aim of understanding the style of melt fragmentation during ejection and to constrain the rheological properties of such melts. Digital images of suevite (i.e. the rock generated after deposition and diagenesis of ash and fragments produced by the meteor impact) were obtained using a high-resolution optical scanner. Successively, melt fragments were traced by image analysis and the images segmented in order to obtain binary images on which impact melt fragments are in black color, embedded on a white background. Hence, the size of fragments was determined by image analysis. Fractal fragmentation theory has been applied to fragment size distributions of melt fragments in the Ries crater. Results indicate that melt fragments follow fractal distributions indicating that fragmentation of melt generated by the

  6. Climatology of damage-causing hailstorms over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, M.; Puskeiler, M.; Schmidberger, M.

    2012-04-01

    In several regions of Central Europe, such as southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and northern Italy, hailstorms often cause substantial damage to buildings, crops, or automobiles on the order of several million EUR. In the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, for example, most of the insured damage to buildings is caused by large hailstones. Due to both their local-scale extent and insufficient direct monitoring systems, hail swaths are not captured accurately and uniquely by a single observation system. Remote-sensing systems such as radars are able to detect convection signals in a basic way, but they lack the ability to discern a clear relation between measured intensity and hail on the ground. These shortcomings hamper statistical analysis on the hail probability and intensity. Hail modelling thus is a big challenge for the insurance industry. Within the project HARIS-CC (Hail Risk and Climate Change), different meteorological observations are combined (3D / 2D radar, lightning, satellite and radiosounding data) to obtain a comprehensive picture of the hail climatology over Germany. The various approaches were tested and calibrated with loss data from different insurance companies between 2005 and 2011. Best results are obtained by considering the vertical distance between the 0°C level of the atmosphere and the echo top height estimated from 3D reflectivity data from the radar network of German Weather Service (DWD). Additionally, frequency, intensity, width, and length of hail swaths are determined by applying a cell tracking algorithm to the 3D radar data (TRACE3D; Handwerker, 2002). The hailstorm tracks identified are merged with loss data using a geographical information system (GIS) to verify damage-causing hail on the ground. Evaluating the hailstorm climatology revealed that hail probability exhibits high spatial variability even over short distances. An important issue is the spatial pattern of hail occurrence that is considered to be due to

  7. Communication Patterns and Intellectual Traditions in Educational Sciences: France and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jurgen; Keiner, Edwin

    1991-01-01

    Examines patterns of institutional organization and communication in education in France and Germany. The science of education is autonomous and philosophically oriented in Germany but is intertwined with sociology, psychology, and other social sciences and is positivistic in nature in France. Overlap between the cognitive textures of the French…

  8. Modularisation: Aspects of the Debate in Germany and the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedler, Reinhard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "Some Remarks on Modular Training in the Federal Republic of Germany" (Zedler); "Modular Initial and Continuing Education and Training: A Comparative Survey of the Education System in the United Kingdom and Germany" (Hammer); "Modules in Vocational Training" (Wiegand); and…

  9. Much Ado about Something? James Bryant Conant, Harvard University, and Nazi Germany in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.; Smith, Marybeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the actions of noted Harvard University president James Bryant Conant, taken in regard to the Nazi government in Germany, from the time of Conant's becoming president of Harvard University in 1933 to the time of the widespread pogrom in Germany of 9-10 November 1938, known as Kristallnacht. Conant's attitudes and actions…

  10. Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Screened for Pharyngeal and Rectal Infection, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Wisplinghoff, Fabian; Sailer, Andrea; Jansen, Klaus; Henrich, Birgit; Marcus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    To determine prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Germany, we conducted a multicenter study during 2009–2010 and found high rates of rectal and pharyngeal infection in men positive for the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. Many infections were asymptomatic. An adjusted C. trachomatis screening policy is justified in Germany. PMID:23621949

  11. Press and Broadcasting in the Federal Republic of Germany. Special Report No. 7, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellack, Georg

    This special report provides a survey of media in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and attempts to answer questions such as: what freedoms the mass media enjoy, the nature of their finances, what problems they have to deal with, and what their future in competition with new modes of communication will be like. Chapter 1 discusses the…

  12. 78 FR 9674 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of...) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts..., 2011, the Department revoked the order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany as...

  13. 76 FR 10335 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...-circumstances review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany with respect.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Department published an antidumping duty order on ball bearings...

  14. 75 FR 3444 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany with respect to myonic GmbH... (the Department) published antidumping duty orders on ball bearings, cylindrical roller bearings,...

  15. 78 FR 39316 - Sodium Nitrite From China and Germany; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... (Review)] Sodium Nitrite From China and Germany; Institution of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on sodium nitrite from China and the antidumping duty order on sodium nitrite from Germany would be likely to lead to...

  16. A Survey of Secondary Mathematics Teacher Training Practices in West Germany and the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansson, Lars C.

    The survey, conducted during 1979-80, focused on practices in the professional component of preservice teacher education in West Germany and the Netherlands. The report is divided into four major sections: (1) the structure of the questionnaire (included in the appendix), (2) the West Germany results, (3) the Dutch results, and (4) concluding…

  17. Continuing Vocational Education in Germany: Foundations, Sponsors, the New Media, Quality Assurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue focuses on continuing vocational education (CVE) in Germany. Articles are: "Lifelong Learning in the Knowledge Society;""The Foundations of CVE in Germany"; "Who Takes Part in Continuing Education?"; "Hail Maria! A Helping Hand for Female Academics Seeking Promotion"; "Sponsors and Forms of…

  18. Zur Soziolinguistik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Sociolinguistics in the Federal Republic of Germany)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jachnow, Helmut

    1975-01-01

    Traces the history of sociolinguistic studies in West Germany from the early nineteenth century with Humboldt and reports on the state and purposes of sociolinguistic studies in present-day Federal Republic of Germany. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden (Text is in German.) (TL)

  19. Communication Indicators. II. 100 Years of Mass Communication in Germany. Communication and Society 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Anton; Vogler, Kurt

    This report summarizes the findings of a Unesco-sponsored study designed to identify quantitative relationships between mass communication and economic growth in the Federal Republic of Germany. The first and second sections of the report outline the most important economic and social lines of development in Germany from the end of the nineteenth…

  20. Childhood Adversities and Delinquency in Early Adolescence: Analyses of Samples from the Former Germanies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others

    Risk factors for early adolescents' (700 between the ages of 10 to 13) delinquency were compared between groups of children high and low in childhood adversities. The samples represented young people from the two former Germanies (200 from former East and 500 from West Germany) who were interviewed in person. Additional information was gathered…

  1. Welcome to the Land of the Ideas: The Goethe Institute Fellowship Tour of Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    There are many valid reasons for participating in an educators' tour of Germany. It is a nation that has a legacy of literary and political thought that has had a profound impact on the evolution of Western civilization. Germany has offered the world artistic and scientific genius and been the source of devastating war and unprecedented genocide.…

  2. Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000…

  3. 77 FR 54926 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation or... 2012), entitled Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from...

  4. 77 FR 19711 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of..., ] and pressure pipe and tube not more than 4.5 inches in outside diameter, and including redraw...

  5. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a…

  6. 76 FR 20951 - Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper (thermal paper) from Germany for the period of review (POR) November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010....

  7. 78 FR 78335 - Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... thermal paper (LWTP) from Germany. The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2011, through October 31... order is lightweight thermal paper. The merchandise subject to the order is currently classified...

  8. 77 FR 73615 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...] Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010... duty order on lightweight thermal paper (LWTP) from Germany for the period November 1, 2010, through... covered by the order is lightweight thermal paper. The merchandise subject to the order is...

  9. 75 FR 11135 - Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper (thermal paper) from Germany for the period of review (POR), November 20, 2008, through October 31,...

  10. 76 FR 76360 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Preliminary Results of... review of the antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper from Germany. For the period November 1... received a timely request from Appleton Papers, Inc. (petitioner) for the Department to conduct...

  11. 77 FR 22560 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Notice of Partial Rescission of... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper (thermal paper) from Germany for the period of review (POR) November 1, 2010, through October 31,...

  12. The Right to Education: The Case of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufner, Klaus

    This paper investigates the extension of educational rights to girls, working class children, and the children of migrant workers in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The first section discusses the theoretical basis of affirmative action in West Germany, legal provisions for attaining equality in education, and basic features of the West…

  13. The Role of Craft Industry in Germany's Social Market Economy. Social Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Karsten

    1992-01-01

    Social market economy success in the Federal Republic of Germany is due to free competition, enterprise in the business community, and employees' social security. Craft industries play a major role in Germany's market economy. The craft industry is second only to the manufacturing industry, comprising 23 percent of German firms. There are seven…

  14. 75 FR 30437 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY:...

  15. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy,...

  16. 78 FR 15376 - Determinations: Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... COMMISSION Determinations: Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea On the basis...)), that revocation of the countervailing duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Germany...

  17. Education after and about Auschwitz in Germany: Towards a Theory of Remembrance in the European Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boschki, Reinhold; Reichmann, Bettina; Schwendemann, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of education after and about Auschwitz (Holocaust education) in Germany in both theory and practice, with particular attention to three critical areas. The first is the status of research in, as Adorno famously phrased it, "education after Auschwitz" within the context of contemporary Germany. German…

  18. The Human Right to Education as a Right to Literacy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motakef, Mona

    2007-01-01

    There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a human rights-based…

  19. The Skilled Crafts in Germany. Education and Science (Bildung and Wissenschaft) BW 1/95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    This publication focuses on the skilled crafts in Germany, including the training system and professional prospects. It includes the following articles: "A Valuable Tradition" (Dieter W. Benecke) and "The Skilled Crafts in Germany: Training System and Professional Prospects" (Volker Thomas). The latter article covers the…

  20. Changing Traditions in Germany's Public Schools. International Studies in Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichanz, Horst; Zahorik, John A.

    Understanding German elementary and secondary schools requires knowledge of political, geographic, economic, and social aspects of Germany. German schools have developed in accordance with the prevailing influences of their times. People and events, throughout the past 400 years, are discussed. The legal status of education in Germany is similar…

  1. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  2. Working Women in Contemporary Germany. Roles, Attitudes, and a Handful of Success Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Susan

    1997-01-01

    In 1977, when women in West Germany (the Fedeal Republic of Germany) got the legal right to be employed outside the family against their husband's will, paragraph 1356 of the Civil Code, defining housework as the woman's duty, was abolished. Until then, heavy social pressure kept women close to home; in most cases, the choice of an outside…

  3. Images of Germany: Past and Present. A Film Collection, Series II Instructional Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Hutcheson, Gwen

    This booklet offers classroom activities for use with 15 social studies-related films for teaching about Germany. The series of 25-minute films are made available by Deutsche Welle Television and Goethe House New York. Lessons in the booklet include: (1) "Germany Since 1945: A Focus on Berlin"; (2) "'I'll Get You All Out of Here!' A…

  4. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages.

  5. Climatic change evidence and lacustrine waves from maar lakes, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zolitschka, B.

    1992-01-01

    Annually laminated, non-glacial lake sediments from Lake Holzmaar (Eifel, western Germany) were investigated using large {open_quotes}Merkt{close_quotes} thin sections. The absolute age of varve intervals with variations in thickness and composition were correlated to climatic changes recorded by glacier fluctuations in the Alps. Back to 8800 years VT (vuarve time = varve years before 1950) glacier advances coincide with sedimentation rate minima; prior to 8800 years VT they coincide with sedimentation rate maxima. The early and middle Holocene sediments suggest a periodicity of about 1000 years for cold/warm cycles. A sequence of 512 varve-thickness measurements was subjected to spectral analysis. These provide apparent evidence for a 11-year sun-spot cycle. 30 refs., 3 fig.

  6. Regional quasigeoid determination in Northern Germany and comparison with GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denker, Heiner

    1989-01-01

    For the northern part of the Federal Republic of Germany, new quasigeoid solutions were computed by least squares collocation and fast Fourier transformation (FFT) techniques using point and mean gravity data, a digital terrain model, and a global geopotential model. As severe accuracy limitations for precise regional quasigeoid determination come from global model uncertainties, different geopotential models were investigated by combining them with gravimetric data and comparing the quasigeoid heights with GPS and leveling. Optimum results were obtained by a global model tailored to gravity data in Europe. Collocation and FFT results based on this model agree well. The comparison with GPS and leveling yields rms discrepancies of + or - 2 cm over approximately 400 km range.

  7. [Fatal child abuse in Japan and Germany. Comparative retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuji, M; Ohshima, T; Kondo, T; Godoy, M R; Oehmichen, M

    1998-01-01

    In this study a record for comparative international epidemiological studies on autopsy cases of child abuse is introduced. The form was proved in a retrospective comparative survey of cases of fatal child abuse at the Department of Legal Medicine in Kanazawa (Japan) and Institute of Legal Medicine of Lübeck (Germany). A total of 33 cases were included. The following data were evaluated: age and gender of victims and assailants, relationship between victims and assailants, causes and methods of abuse, chief autopsy findings, and causes of death. The results were leading into two directions between Kanazawa and Lübeck: (1) In the years of 1981-1996 in Kanazawa 23 cases of fatal child abuse were autopsied while during the same period in Lübeck only 10 cases were registered. (2) While sexual abuse was not registered in Kanazawa, it was recorded twice in Lübeck.

  8. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank; Pease, John; Scholz, Cristian; Erbring, Hans-Peter; Schlunke, Stephan; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to compare and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.

  9. Traditional 'air-dried' fermented sausages from Central Germany.

    PubMed

    Lücke, Friedrich-Karl; Vogeley, Ingo

    2012-04-01

    Traditional varieties of fermented pork sausages from Central Germany are different from related meat products in various aspects. First, they are prepared from "warm" pork immediately after slaughter. The meat is then minced, mixed with spices and minimal amounts of sugars, salt and nitrate, and the stuffed sausages ripen for a minimum of 6-8 weeks at temperatures below 15 °C. Second, surface mould growth during ripening is regularly removed or suppressed. The manufacturing methods require a minimum of investments and labour and reflect the socio-economic situation in the manufacturing area. The sausages have a good record of safety, and a preliminary risk assessment indicates that pathogens are kept under sufficient control by the extended ripening at low temperatures. Small-scale (artisanal) manufacture of these products is only possible with a flexible interpretation of the hygienic principles set up in current legislation.

  10. Disease management programmes in Germany: a fundamental fault.

    PubMed

    Felder, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    In 2001 Germany introduced disease management programmes (DMPs) in order to give sick funds an incentive to improve the treatment of the chronically ill. By 1 March 2005, a total of 3275 programmes had been approved, 2760 for diabetes, 390 for breast cancer and 125 for coronary heart disease, covering roughly 1 million patients. German DMPs show a major fault regarding financial incentives. Sick funds increase their transfers from the risk adjustment scheme when their clients enroll in DMPs. Since this money is a lump sum, sick funds do not necessarily foster treatment of the chronically ill. Similarly, reimbursement of physicians is also not well targeted to the needs of DMPs. Preliminary evidence points to poor performance of German DMPs.

  11. Business evolution or revolution? Mail-order pharmacies in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gersch, Martin

    2004-01-01

    It is an interesting detail of the present reform of national public health service in Germany that mail-order and internet pharmacies will be founded in future as new (e-commerce) business models. Main points of conceivable business systems can be characterised as well as critical success factors. No potential participant can ever have all the necessary resources and competences to implement a competitive business system without external support. This is why cooperation seems to be a useful tool for competence management. The Resource-based View will serve as theoretical background for analysis. The required and available competences of conceivable players can be identified. Features of resources can be described that recommend special types of cooperation with the intention of establishing and operate a business system. Especially German and international pharmaceutical wholesalers can be identified as conceivable "parents" of mail-order pharmacies in the future.

  12. Temperature Trends over Germany from Homogenized Radiosonde Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecht, W.; Pattantyús Ábráham, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present homogenization procedure and results for Germany's historical radiosonde records, dating back to the 1950s. Our manual homogenization makes use of the different RS networks existing in East and West-Germany from the 1950s until 1990. The largest temperature adjustments, up to 2.5K, are applied to Freiberg sondes used in the East in the 1950s and 1960s. Adjustments for Graw H50 and M60 sondes, used in the West from the 1950s to the late 1980s, and for RKZ sondes, used in the East in the 1970s and 1980s, are also significant, 0.3 to 0.5K. Small differences between Vaisala RS80 and RS92 sondes used throughout Germany since 1990 and 2005, respectively, were not corrected for at levels from the ground to 300 hPa. Comparison of the homogenized data with other radiosonde datasets, RICH (Haimberger et al., 2012) and HadAT2 (McCarthy et al., 2008), and with Microwave Sounding Unit satellite data (Mears and Wentz, 2009), shows generally good agreement. HadAT2 data exhibit a few suspicious spikes in the 1970s and 1980s, and some suspicious offsets up to 1K after 1995. Compared to RICH, our homogenized data show slightly different temperatures in the 1960s and 1970s. We find that the troposphere over Germany has been warming by 0.25 ± 0.1K per decade since the early 1960s, slightly more than reported in other studies (Hartmann et al., 2013). The stratosphere has been cooling, with the trend increasing from almost no change near 230hPa (the tropopause) to -0.5 ± 0.2K per decade near 50hPa. Trends from the homogenized data are more positive by about 0.1K per decade compared to the original data, both in troposphere and stratosphere. References: Haimberger, L., C. Tavolato, and S. Sperka, 2012. J. Climate, 25, 8108-8131, doi:10.1175/ JCLI-D-11-00668.1. Hartmann, D., et al., 2013: Observations: Atmosphere and surface in IPCC AR5, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. [Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/.] McCarthy, M., et al., 2008. J. Climate

  13. Impact of climate extremes on wildlife plant flowering over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, J. F.; Wiedermann, M.; Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.

    2015-11-01

    Ongoing climate change is known to cause an increase in the frequency and amplitude of local temperature and precipitation extremes in many regions of the Earth. While gradual changes in the climatological conditions are known to strongly influence plant flowering dates, the question arises if and how extremes specifically impact the timing of this important phenological phase. In this study, we systematically quantify simultaneities between meteorological extremes and the timing of flowering of four shrub species across Germany by means of event coincidence analysis, a novel statistical tool that allows assessing whether or not two types of events exhibit similar sequences of occurrences. Our systematic investigation supports previous findings of experimental studies by highlighting the impact of early spring temperatures on the flowering of wildlife plants. In addition, we find statistically significant indications for some long-term relations reaching back to the previous year.

  14. "Be fruitful and multiply": genesis and generation in reformation Germany.

    PubMed

    Crowther-Heyck, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    This essay analyzes vernacular texts on reproduction from sixteenth-century Germany. It examines religious texts, including sermons and devotional treatises for pregnant women, as well as medical texts, such as midwifery manuals, books on the "secrets of nature," and anatomical treatises. Vernacular authors, both medical and clerical, ascribed enormous spiritual and symbolic significance to human generation. Conception, pregnancy, and birth were linked to the biblical account of the creation and fall of mankind. In the creation of the child in the womb, sixteenth-century Germans saw an echo of the original divine act of creation. And in the sufferings of a woman in labor they saw a reenactment of Christ's Passion. Discussions of reproduction thus served as a starting point for meditations on original sin, human mortality, and the relationship between body and soul.

  15. Importance and impact of veterinary virology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Horzinek, M C

    1999-01-01

    The causative agent of tobacco mosaic and of foot and mouth disease (FMD) were recognized in 1898 as "filterable" or "invisible"--and eventually termed "virus". Four years later the viral aetiology of yellow fever was established, and the new discipline took off. Thus animal virology started with a veterinary problem, and Germany's contribution during the following decades came mainly from the chairs of veterinary teaching and research establishments in Giessen, Munich and Hanover, the Riems Institute, and the Federal Research Institute for Animal Virus Diseases in Tübingen. From a superficial bibliometric analysis, a wide divergence in impact figures is noted, with excellent contributions in international virology journals and lesser papers in German veterinary journals. The publications in the observed time frame reveal a fascination by virion structure, physical characteristics and structure-function relationships with little work published in journals dedicated to immunology and pathogenesis.

  16. [The use of cannabis in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    PubMed

    Tossmann, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Since more than 30 years cannabis is the most common illicit drug in Germany and other European countries. According to different Studies conducted in representative community samples, it can be assumed, that every fifth woman and about every third man, aged 18 to 59 years had used cannabis at least once. Epidemiologic studies also show that cannabis use is strongly associated with adolescence and young adulthood, though. Thus, cannabis consumption significantly increases from age 15, while beginning with the age 23 the proportion of cannabis consumers continuously decreases. Following the results of current studies the majority of consumers uses cannabis rather occasional. Nevertheless about 10-15% of the current consumers show patterns of cannabis dependence according to international diagnostic criteria. Although counselling centres note an increasing demand for addiction specific treatment, cannabis users still remain a small group in treatment centre statistics.

  17. Changing epidemiology of Q fever in Germany, 1947-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Hellenbrand, W.; Breuer, T.; Petersen, L.

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiology of Q fever in Germany was examined by reviewing relevant studies since 1947 and by analyzing available surveillance data since 1962. The average annual Q fever incidence nationwide from 1979 to 1989 was 0.8 per million and from 1990 to 1999, 1.4 per million. The mean annual incidence from 1979 to 1999 ranged from a minimum of 0.1 per million in several northern states to 3.1 per million in Baden-Württemberg, in the South. We identified 40 documented outbreaks since 1947; in 24 of these sheep were implicated as the source of transmission. The seasonality of community outbreaks has shifted from predominantly winter- spring to spring-summer, possibly because of changes in sheep husbandry. The location of recent outbreaks suggests that urbanization of rural areas may be contributing to the increase in Q fever. Prevention efforts should focus on reducing sheep-related exposures, particularly near urban areas. PMID:11747689

  18. Modeling nitrogen fluxes in Germany - where does the nitrogen go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    According to the latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive, 26.3% of German groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. Additionally, the EU initiated infringement proceedings against Germany for not meeting the quality standards of the EU Nitrate Directive. Agriculture has been determined as the main source of nitrate pollution due to over-fertilization and regionally high density of livestock farming. The nitrogen balance surplus is commonly used as an indicator characterizing the potential of nitrate leaching into groundwater bodies and thus also serves as a foundation to introduce legislative restrictions or to monitor the success of mitigation measures. Currently, there is an ongoing discussion which measures are suitable for reducing the risk of nitrate leaching and also to what extent. However, there is still uncertainty about just how much the nitrogen surplus has to be reduced to meet the groundwater quality standards nationwide. Therefore, the aims of our study were firstly to determine the level of the nitrogen surplus that would be acceptable at the utmost and secondly whether the currently discussed target value of 30 kg N per hectare agricultural land for the soil surface nitrogen balance would be sufficient. The models MONERIS (Modeling Nutrient Emissions in River System) and MoRE (Modelling of Regionalized Emissions), the latter based on the first, are commonly used for estimating nitrogen loads into the river system in Germany at the mesoscale, as well as the effect of mitigation measures in the context of the EU directive 2008/105/EC (Environmental quality standards applicable to surface water). We used MoRE to calculate nitrate concentration for 2759 analytical units in Germany. Main factors are the surplus of the soil surface nitrogen balance, the percolation rate and an exponent representing the denitrification in the vadose zone. The modeled groundwater nitrate concentrations did not correspond to the regional

  19. Status of mid-infrared superlattice technology in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Fleissner, Joachim; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, InAs/GaSb superlattice detector technology for the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range has been intensively developed in recent years. Mid-IR InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes achieve a very high quantum efficiency. The world's first high-performance infrared imagers based on InAs/GaSb superlattices were realized offering high spatial and excellent thermal resolution at short integration times. Additionally, the technology for dual-color superlattice detectors featuring simultaneous, pixel-registered detection of two separate spectral regimes in the mid-IR has been developed. Due to the ability to detect signatures of hot carbon dioxide, dual-color superlattice detectors are ideally suited for missile alerting sensors. The capability for small volume production of InAs/GaSb superlattice detectors has been established.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  1. [Long-term trends of the demographic aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Birg, Herwig; Flöthmann, E J

    2002-10-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, Germany is experiencing the highest demographic aging after Japan. The aging process was first initiated by the increase of life expectancy, especially at the age above 60 years which caused an increase in the number of old people. During the next phase (1970-2000) the aging process was additionally affected by decreasing birth rates. Since the end of the 1960s the total fertility rate in Germany has been below the replacement level. As a consequence the number of children is decreasing and the number of old people has been increasing for 30 years. Various population projections published by the Institute for Population Research and Social Policy (IBS) demonstrate that the aging process will intensify during the next 50 years: the number of the oldest old population will triple, and the dependancy ratio will at least double. This process cannot be stopped or considerably diminished by an increasing number of young immigrants. After 2050 the cohorts born after the second world war (the baby boom cohorts) will be dead. But the decreasing number of old people beyond 2050 will not automatically lead to a lower dependancy ratio, because the age group 0-20 is diminishing continuously. Only a rise of the total fertility rate to the replacement level of 2.1 children per women could stop the aging process effectively in the long run (i.e., after two generations or after 60 years, respectively). In this case, the dependancy ratio will not double or triple but increase by a factor of 1.5.

  2. High-resolution grids of hourly meteorological variables for Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krähenmann, S.; Walter, A.; Brienen, S.; Imbery, F.; Matzarakis, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a 1-km2 gridded German dataset of hourly surface climate variables covering the period 1995 to 2012. The dataset comprises 12 variables including temperature, dew point, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, global and direct shortwave radiation, down- and up-welling longwave radiation, sea level pressure, relative humidity and vapour pressure. This dataset was constructed statistically from station data, satellite observations and model data. It is outstanding in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and in the number of climate variables. For each variable, we employed the most suitable gridding method and combined the best of several information sources, including station records, satellite-derived data and data from a regional climate model. A module to estimate urban heat island intensity was integrated for air and dew point temperature. Owing to the low density of available synop stations, the gridded dataset does not capture all variations that may occur at a resolution of 1 km2. This applies to areas of complex terrain (all the variables), and in particular to wind speed and the radiation parameters. To achieve maximum precision, we used all observational information when it was available. This, however, leads to inhomogeneities in station network density and affects the long-term consistency of the dataset. A first climate analysis for Germany was conducted. The Rhine River Valley, for example, exhibited more than 100 summer days in 2003, whereas in 1996, the number was low everywhere in Germany. The dataset is useful for applications in various climate-related studies, hazard management and for solar or wind energy applications and it is available via doi: 10.5676/DWD_CDC/TRY_Basis_v001.

  3. Low-threshold support for families with dementia in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low-threshold support services are a part of the German health care system and help relieving family caregivers. There is limited information available on how to construct and implement low-threshold support services for people with dementia and their families in Germany. Some studies describe separately different perspectives of experiences and expectations, but there is no study combining all the different perspectives of those involved and taking the arrangements and organisation as well as their opinions on supporting and inhibiting factors into consideration. Findings This protocol describes the design of the study on low-threshold support services for families with a person with dementia in two German regions. The aim is to develop recommendations on how to build up these services and how to implement them in a region. A quantitative as well as a qualitative approach will be used. The quantitative part will be a survey on characteristics of service users and providers, as well as health care structures of the two project regions and an evaluation of important aspects derived from a literature search. Group discussions and semi-structured interviews will be carried out to get a deeper insight into the facilitators and barriers for both using and providing these services. All people involved will be included, such as the people with dementia, their relatives, volunteers, coordinators and institution representatives. Discussion Results of this study will provide important aspects for policymakers who are interested in an effective and low-threshold support for people with dementia. Furthermore the emerging recommendations can help staff and institutions to improve quality of care and can contribute to developing health and social care structures in Germany. PMID:22721553

  4. Direct nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Köbke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suarez, Teresa; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heiner

    2014-05-01

    The production of first generation biofuels has increased over the last decade in Germany. However, there is a strong public and scientific debate concerning ecological impact and sustainability of biofuel production. The EU Renewables Directive requires biofuels to save 35 % of GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels. Starting in 2017, 50 % mitigation of GHG emissions must be achieved. This presents challenges for production of biofuels from rapeseed, which is one of the major renewable resources used for fuel production. Field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and GHG emissions during production of fertilizers contribute strongest to the GHG balance of rapeseed biofuel. Thus, the most promising GHG mitigation option is the optimization of nitrogen fertilization. Since 2012, field trials are conducted on five German research farms to quantify direct GHG emissions. The sites were selected to represent the main rapeseed production regions in Germany as well as climatic regions and soil types. Randomized plot designs were established, which allow monitoring (using manual chambers) impact of fertilization intensity on direct emissions and yield of the typical crop sequence (winter rape - winter wheat - winter barley). The effect of substituting mineral fertilizer with biogas digestate with and without addition of a nitrification inhibitor is also studied. Here we present results from the first cropping season. In 2013, annual direct N2O emissions as well as yield normalized N2O emissions from rape were low. This can be explained with the weather conditions as 2013 was characterized by a cold and long winter with snow until mid spring. As a result, emissions were smaller than predicted by the IPCC emission factors or by the Global Nitrous Oxide Calculator (GNOC). However, emissions still depend on nitrogen input.

  5. [Salmonella in free living snakes of Northern Germany (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wuthe, H H; Rohde, R; Aleksić, S; Schubert, C; Wuthe, S

    1979-04-01

    Fourty-nine adders (Vipera berus L.) and thirty-one grass-snakes (Nitrix natrix L.) from northern Germany were investigated by cloacal swabs. The samples were usually taken in the field and preenriched in peptone water and further-on processed in three steps of tetrathionate. After each step of enrichment the material was transfered to salmonella shigella agar and fuchsine lactose agar (acc. to Endo). Salmonella screening was done by inoculation of lactose positive and lactose negative colonies into lysine iron agar (acc. to Edwards and Fife). Salmonella excretion was found in 59% of the adders and in 68% of the grass-snakes. Some specimens excreted several Salmonella species. 22 different species resp. variants were detected, of which 19 species belonged to subgenus III (Arizona). Subgenus I occured infrequently and was represented by S. duesseldorf, S. heidelberg and S. sunnycove. Three new triphasic variants S. III 17:Z10: e, n, x, z15: z56, S. III 38: (k): z35:z56 and S. III 50:z10:z:z56 of species already known and four so far unknown species S. III (6), 14: 1,v:z (Ar. 7a, 7c:23-31), S. III 21:1,v:z57 (Ar. 22:23-40a,40c), S. III 43:1,v:z56 (Ar. 21:23-38) and S. III 28:z10:z57 (Ar. 35:27-40a,40c) were discovered. The present results suggest that adders and grass-snakes in northern Germany represent autonomous reservoirs of salmonellae. There exist only few relations between the Salmonella species in these kinds of snakes and other European snakes.

  6. Warm-season severe wind events in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzen, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    A 15-year data set of wind measurements was analyzed with regard to warm season severe wind gusts in Germany. For April to September of the years 1997 to 2011, 1035 wind measurements of 26 m/s or greater were found. These wind reports were associated with 268 wind events. In total, 252 convective wind events contributed to 837 (81%) of the wind reports, 16 non-convective synoptic-scale wind events contributed to 198 reports (19%). Severe wind events were found with synoptic situations characterized by rather strong mid-level flow and advancing mid-level troughs. Severe convective wind events were analyzed using radar images and classified with respect to the observed radar structure. The most important convective mode was squall lines that were associated with one third of all severe wind gusts, followed by groups, bow echo complexes, and bow echoes. Supercells and cells were not associated with many wind reports. The low contribution of isolated cells indicates that rather large-scale forcing by synoptic-scale features like fronts is important for German severe wind events. Bow echoes were found to be present for 58% of all wind reports. The movement speed of bow echoes indicated a large variation with a maximum speed of 33 m/s. Extreme wind events as well as events with more than 15 wind reports were found to be related to higher movement speeds. Concentrating on the most intense events, derechos seem to be very important to the warm season wind threat in Germany. Convective events with a path length of more than 400 km contributed to 36% of all warm-season wind gusts in this data set. Furthermore, eight of nine extreme gusts exceeding 40 m/s were recorded with derecho events.

  7. Evaluation of pharmaceutical concerns in Germany: frequency and potential reasons

    PubMed Central

    Gradl, Gabriele; Krieg, Eva-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generic substitution can have unintended consequences. In Germany, brand name to generic or generic to generic switching is mainly driven by rebate contracts. Frequent switching may raise concerns about bio- and therapeutic equivalence. Expected patient confusion may result in compromised medication adherence or new onset of other drug-related problems. Since 2008, pharmacists are allowed to deviate from rebate contracts by denying substitution due to pharmaceutical concerns on an individual basis. Objectives: To explore the frequency of documented pharmaceutical concerns in Germany between July 2011 and December 2013 and to identify the medicines most frequently related to pharmaceutical concerns in 2013. Methods: We analyzed documented pharmaceutical concerns in all prescribed drugs at the expense of any statutory health insurance company requiring pharmacies’ generic substitution according to rebate contracts. Results: Since July 2011, the frequency of documented pharmaceutical concerns in relation to prescribed drug products with rebate contracts requiring substitution increased consistently and doubled between July 2011 and July 2013. Overall in 2013, the trend of the two previous years continued and reached approximately 1.5%. The most affected drugs/drug classes were thyroid hormones (in particular combinations with iodide; 15.9%) followed by ondansetron (12.5%), and levothyroxine (11.3%). For all drugs/drug classes under investigation, product-, patient- or disease-related aspects could be identified which are potential reasons to deny substitution and to document pharmaceutical concerns. Conclusions: Although there is no electronic recording of the specific reasons for pharmaceutical concerns in claims data, our analyses support the assumption that pharmacists make use of this instrument based on individual clinical decisions and as required by contract. Pharmaceutical concerns are, therefore, an important instrument for pharmacies to refuse

  8. Molybdenum intake of adults in Germany and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, S; Anke, M; Röhrig, B; Gonzalez, D

    1998-03-01

    Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. It plays a complex role in the ecosystem, because the metal is a part of a cofactor for several important enzymes in human, animal and plant metabolism. The physiological requirement for this element is relatively low. Our investigations were aimed at determining the Mo intake of adults in Germany and Mexico by means of duplicate portion technique. Molybdenum was estimated in the food duplicate samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In 1988, 1992 and 1996 the Mo consumption of humans was investigated in 14 test groups of persons with mixed diets. Each test population consisted of seven men and seven women. Furthermore, in 1996 the Mo intake of 10 female and 10 male vegetarians and of two Mexican test groups was also determined. Different factors, such as sex, time of investigation, location and eating habits have an effect on the individual Mo intake, Molybdenum intake of adults with mixed diets has increased significantly from 1988 to 1996. Furthermore, results of our study showed that Mo intake of German adults differs depending on location and the kind of diet. German women with a mixed diet consumed 89 micrograms d-1 in 1996 and men 100 micrograms d-1. In comparison, female and male vegetarians consumed 179 micrograms d-1 and 170 micrograms d-1, respectively. There was a significant difference in Mo consumption between German and Mexican test persons. Mexican women consumed on average 162 micrograms d-1 and Mexican men 208 micrograms d-1. The Mo requirement of adults amounts to about 25 micrograms d-1. Our investigations showed that the Mo requirement is met by normal intake. An intake of 150 micrograms kg-1 body weight may be toxic for humans. Therefore, people in Germany and Mexico are not endangered by Mo exposure.

  9. Biotechnica 󈨚. International Congress for Biotechnology (2nd) Held in Hannover, Germany, F.R. on 23-25 September 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    BIOCHEMISTRY, * GENETIC ENGINEERING , *BIOENGINEERING, CONGRESS, DETECTORS, MEDICINE, CHEMICAL REACTIONS, QUALITY CONTROL, INTERNATIONAL, BIOLOGICAL DETECTION, BIOTECHNOLOGY, FOOD, GERMANY(EAST AND WEST), WEST GERMANY.

  10. 77 FR 32507 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on brass sheet and strip from Germany for the period of review (``POR... review of the following ten producers/exporters of brass sheet and strip from Germany: Aurubis...

  11. 78 FR 52759 - Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Rescission of Antidumping Duty... review of the antidumping duty order on brass sheet and strip from Germany for the period March 1, 2012... review of brass sheet and strip from Germany covering the period March 1, 2012, through February 28,...

  12. 76 FR 42681 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on brass sheet and strip from Germany. The review covers one producer/exporter of brass sheet and strip from Germany, Wieland-Werke...

  13. 75 FR 47548 - Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... International Trade Administration A-428-602 Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Notice of Rescission of... and strip from Germany. The review covers one producer/exporter of brass sheet and strip from Germany... and German manufacturer of brass sheet and strip, we are now ] rescinding this administrative...

  14. 76 FR 15940 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... and parts thereof from ] France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1... thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom. See Ball Bearings and Parts...

  15. 75 FR 69402 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United... duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the...

  16. 77 FR 73415 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final... ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. On October 16, 2012, the Department... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy.\\1\\ The period...

  17. 76 FR 52937 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. The period of... bearings and parts thereof from Germany. DATES: Effective Date: August 24, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  18. 76 FR 58299 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation...

  19. 76 FR 35910 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Review)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission... from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely...

  20. 76 FR 36901 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary... brass sheet and strip from Germany. See Memorandum to Edward C. Yang, Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary... of the Antidumping Duty Order on Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany'' (June 7, 2011). Extension...

  1. [Implementation of the influenza vaccination recommendation in nursing homes in Germany : results of a survey as part of the national influenza immunization campaign].

    PubMed

    Bödeker, B; Wichmann, O; Mertens, B; Seefeld, L; Pott, E

    2014-11-01

    Residents and staff of nursing homes are important target groups for influenza vaccination in Germany. The aim of this study was to gain the first insights into whether nursing homes organize activities with respect to vaccination against influenza and whether there is a demand for further information. In the context of the national influenza immunization campaign-which is jointly carried out by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA) on an annual basis-influenza information kits were sent to the management of 10,700 nursing homes in September 2013. Along with the information material, the institutions also received a questionnaire to which they were able to respond via mail, fax, or online. Data from 988 homes were included in the analysis. The majority of institutions informed both residents (88.9 %) and nursing staff (81.2 %) about influenza vaccination. However, only 64.7 % of nursing homes carried out specific immunization activities for their residents and only half (49.3 %) offered a flu shot to their staff. When asked why the institutions do not provide influenza-specific information and vaccination to their staff, the majority had the opinion that this is the responsibility of each individual's general practitioner. Overall, only 4.9 % of nursing homes assessed influenza vaccination coverage among their staff annually. A third of all surveyed institutions (33.6 %) expressed a demand for additional influenza vaccine-related information. In conclusion, improved health education is needed to raise awareness about the importance of influenza vaccination among residents and employees of nursing homes in Germany so as to prevent influenza-associated morbidity and mortality in this risk group.

  2. The impact of deindustrialization and unemployment on family formation and fertility in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Fleischhacker, J

    1995-01-01

    With the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, East Germany entered a process of transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Since then, the number of marriages and births in former East Germany have declined by 65% and 1.3 million people have migrated west. 0.36 million have migrated from West to East Germany. Indeed, the demographic situation in East Germany has fundamentally changed in many ways since 1989. The author analyzes these changes, noting that trends toward deindustrialization and a high level of unemployment especially among women are now basic features of demography in the East. The dismantling of industrial capacities accompanying the economic transformation process in East Germany was not only the result of differences in productivity between East and West Germany, but also of regional strains upon the environment. The author also points out that the economic policy of the former government of East Germany and the resulting environmental damage to the region have not lead to major changes in birth and mortality rates.

  3. Modeling the habitat suitability for the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Koch, Lisa K; Cunze, Sarah; Werblow, Antje; Kochmann, Judith; Dörge, Dorian D; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes raise the risk of re-emergence of arthropod-borne virus outbreaks globally. These viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors, often mosquitoes. Due to increasing worldwide trade and tourism, these vector species are often accidentally introduced into many countries beyond their former distribution range. Aedes albopictus, a well-known disease vector, was detected for the first time in Germany in 2007, but seems to have failed establishment until today. However, the species is known to occur in other temperate regions and a risk for establishment in Germany remains, especially in the face of predicted climate change. Thus, the goal of the study was to estimate the potential distribution of Ae. albopictus in Germany. We used ecological niche modeling in order to estimate the potential habitat suitability for this species under current and projected future climatic conditions. According to our model, there are already two areas in western and southern Germany that appear suitable for Ae. albopictus under current climatic conditions. One of these areas lies in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the other in North-Rhine Westphalia in the Ruhr region. Furthermore, projections under future climatic conditions show an increase of the modeled habitat suitability throughout Germany. Ae. albopictus is supposed to be better acclimated to colder temperatures than other tropical vectors and thus, might become, triggered by climate change, a serious threat to public health in Germany. Our modeling results can help optimizing the design of monitoring programs currently in place in Germany.

  4. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Uehleke, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats. PMID:27054192

  5. [Epidemiological cancer data online: an overview of information service in Germany and Europe].

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, I; Kraywinkel, K

    2014-01-01

    Finding reliable data about cancer epidemiology on the World Wide Web is not an easy task. Information is often scattered, and sources are not always clear. This article gives a short overview of the most important websites that provide reliable data for Germany and Europe. Four internet sites are presented: The German Centre for Cancer Registry Data (ZfKD), the Association of Population-Based Cancer Registries in Germany (GEKID), and two different websites created by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In combination, they provide comprehensive information about the distribution of cancer in Germany and Europe.

  6. [Experience with prevention and control of legionellosis in Germany : plea for proactive risk management].

    PubMed

    Exner, M; Pleischl, S; Grummt, H-J; Engelhart, S

    2011-06-01

    Legionellosis is meanwhile the most important specific water-associated infectious disease in developed countries, which is completely preventable, if water distribution systems are correctly planned and operated. This assumes clear criteria for risk regulation and for verification, including microbiological monitoring for Legionella. There are different reactive and proactive strategies in the USA and in Europe. The common premises for prevention and control of legionellosis in Germany, relevant facts for risk regulation, experience in Germany toward proactive risk regulation, and the current approach of the amended drinking water ordinance are discussed. The article concludes with a short discussion of the controversial approaches for the prevention of legionellosis in Germany.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous samples from Germany and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Umer; Schulze, Stefanie; Slawik, Christian; Böhme, Alexander; Paschke, Albrecht; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-06-22

    Continuous monitoring of chemicals in the environment is important to control their fate and to protect human health, flora, and fauna. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected frequently in different environmental compartments during the last 15 years and have drawn much attention because of their environmental persistence, omnipresence, and bioaccumulation potential. Water is an important source of their transport. In the present study, distributions of PFAAs in river water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and tap water from eastern part of Germany and western part of Kenya were investigated. Eleven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and five perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Sum of mean concentrations of eight PFAAs detected in drinking tap water from Leipzig was 11.5 ng L(-1), dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 6.2 ng L(-1)). Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs detected in Pleiße/White Elster, Saale, and Elbe (Germany) were 24.8, 54.3, and 26.8 ng L(-1), respectively. Annual flux of PFAAs from River Saale was estimated to be 164 ± 23 kg a(-1). The effluent of WWTP in Halle was found to contain four times higher levels of PFAAs than river water and was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) with 32 times higher concentration than the riverine level. It advocates that WWTPs are the point source of contaminating water bodies with PFAAs, and short-chain PFAAs are substituting long-chain homologues. Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs in Sosiani (Kenya) in samples from sparsely populated and densely populated areas were 58.8 and 109.4 ng L(-1), respectively, indicating that population directly affected the emissions of PFAAs to surface waters. The discussion includes thorough review and comparison of recently published literature reporting occurrence of PFAAs in aqueous matrices. Graphical abstract Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous

  8. Soil Moisture as an Estimator for Crop Yield in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Michael; Meyer, Volker; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Annual crop yield depends on various factors such as soil properties, management decisions, and meteorological conditions. Unfavorable weather conditions, e.g. droughts, have the potential to drastically diminish crop yield in rain-fed agriculture. For example, the drought in 2003 caused direct losses of 1.5 billion EUR only in Germany. Predicting crop yields allows to mitigate negative effects of weather extremes which are assumed to occur more often in the future due to climate change. A standard approach in economics is to predict the impact of climate change on agriculture as a function of temperature and precipitation. This approach has been developed further using concepts like growing degree days. Other econometric models use nonlinear functions of heat or vapor pressure deficit. However, none of these approaches uses soil moisture to predict crop yield. We hypothesize that soil moisture is a better indicator to explain stress on plant growth than estimations based on precipitation and temperature. This is the case because the latter variables do not explicitly account for the available water content in the root zone, which is the primary source of water supply for plant growth. In this study, a reduced form panel approach is applied to estimate a multivariate econometric production function for the years 1999 to 2010. Annual crop yield data of various crops on the administrative district level serve as depending variables. The explanatory variable of major interest is the Soil Moisture Index (SMI), which quantifies anomalies in root zone soil moisture. The SMI is computed by the mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM, www.ufz.de/mhm). The index represents the monthly soil water quantile at a 4 km2 grid resolution covering entire Germany. A reduced model approach is suitable because the SMI is the result of a stochastic weather process and therefore can be considered exogenous. For the ease of interpretation a linear functionality is preferred. Meteorological

  9. Antibiotic consumption and resistance: data from Europe and Germany.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Elisabeth; Gastmeier, Petra; Deja, Maria; Schwab, Frank

    2013-08-01

    The use of antibiotics - including the over- and misuse - in human and veterinary practices selected for resistant pathogens and led to their emergence and dissemination along with the transmission of resistant bacteria. The aim of this article is to prescribe the prerequisites for the surveillance of antibiotic use and bacterial resistance, to explain advantage and disadvantage of surveillance parameters used, to present new data from a surveillance network of intensive care units focusing on antibiotic use and resistance and to discuss the impact of antibiotic use on resistance. The Surveillance System of Antibiotic Use and Bacterial Resistance in Intensive Care Units (SARI) is an on-going project that collects data from its network of intensive care units (ICU) in Germany. Antimicrobial use was expressed as daily defined doses (DDD) and normalized per 1000 patient-days (pd). ICU decided either to provide monthly data on antibiotic and resistant pathogens or they decided to provide only yearly data on antibiotic use without resistance data. 85% of all antibiotics used in Germany are administered in animals; 85% of the antibiotics used in humans are prescribed in the outpatient setting and 85% of the antibiotics used in hospitals are prescribed on non-ICUs wards. The mostly widely used parameter for the surveillance of resistance is the percentage of resistant pathogens which is important to guide empirical therapy but does not measure the burden of resistance which is of interest to the public health perspective. The burden of MRSA did not increase over the last 11 years in ICUs and was 4.2MRSA/1000pd in 2011. The burden of 3rd generation resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae more than quintupled (up to 2.6 and 1.2 respectively) and was followed by a three times increased use of carbapenems and correlated with quinolone and 3rd generation cephalosporin use. The burden VRE faecium also increased dramatically from 0.1 to 0.8 within 11 years; VRE faecium showed no

  10. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in the Diphoton Decay Channel with 4.9fb-1 of pp Collision Data at s=7TeV with ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.

    2012-03-01

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson is performed in the diphoton decay channel. The data used correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.9fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of s=7TeV. In the diphoton mass range 110-150 GeV, the largest excess with respect to the background-only hypothesis is observed at 126.5 GeV, with a local significance of 2.8 standard deviations. Taking the look-elsewhere effect into account in the range 110-150 GeV, this significance becomes 1.5 standard deviations. The standard model Higgs boson is excluded at 95% confidence level in the mass ranges of 113-115 GeV and 134.5-136 GeV.

  11. Search for the standard model Higgs boson in the diphoton decay channel with 4.9 fb(-1) of pp collision data at √s=7 TeV with ATLAS.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abouzeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Akiyama, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; 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Schäfer, U; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Schamov, A G; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Scherzer, M I; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schlereth, J L; Schmidt, E; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, M; Schöning, A; Schott, M; Schouten, D; Schovancova, J; Schram, M; Schroeder, C; Schroer, N; Schuler, G; Schultens, M J; Schultes, J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, J W; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwartzman, A; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwierz, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Schwoerer, M; Scifo, E; Sciolla, G; Scott, W G; Searcy, J; Sedov, G; Sedykh, E; Segura, E; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekula, S J; Selbach, K E; Seliverstov, D M; Sellden, B; Sellers, G; Seman, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sevior, M E; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shan, L Y; Shank, J T; Shao, Q T; 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Soni, N; Sopko, V; Sopko, B; Sosebee, M; Soualah, R; Soukharev, A; Spagnolo, S; Spanò, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spila, F; Spiwoks, R; Spousta, M; Spreitzer, T; Spurlock, B; St Denis, R D; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staude, A; Stavina, P; Steele, G; Steinbach, P; Steinberg, P; Stekl, I; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stevenson, K; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoerig, K; Stoicea, G; Stonjek, S; Strachota, P; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strang, M; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Strong, J A; Stroynowski, R; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stumer, I; Stupak, J; Sturm, P; Styles, N A; Soh, D A; Su, D; Subramania, Hs; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Suhr, C; Suita, K; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Sushkov, S; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Sviridov, Yu M; Swedish, S; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Szeless, B; Sánchez, J; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A; Tamsett, M C; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, Y; Tanasijczuk, A J; Tani, K; Tannoury, N; Tappern, G P; Tapprogge, S; Tardif, D; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tassi, E; Tatarkhanov, M; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, C; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teinturier, M; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Thadome, J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thioye, M; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Y A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tique Aires Viegas, F J; Tisserant, S; Tobias, J; Toczek, B; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokunaga, K; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, G; Tonoyan, A; Topfel, C; Topilin, N D; Torchiani, I; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, T N; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trivedi, A; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiakiris, M; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tua, A; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuggle, J M; Turala, M; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Tzanakos, G; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Uhrmacher, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Underwood, D G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Usai, G; Uslenghi, M; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Vahsen, S; Valenta, J; Valente, P; Valentinetti, S; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Poel, E; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vandoni, G; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Vegni, G; Veillet, J J; Vellidis, C; Veloso, F; Veness, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinek, E; Vinogradov, V B; Virchaux, M; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Viti, M; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vlasov, N; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobiev, A P; Vorwerk, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Voss, T T; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahlen, H; Wakabayashi, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, J C; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Warsinsky, M; Wasicki, C; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Weber, M; Weber, M S; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Wellenstein, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Wendler, S; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Weydert, C; Whalen, K; Wheeler-Ellis, S J; Whitaker, S P; White, A; White, M J; Whitehead, S R; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicek, F; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, M G; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wong, W C; Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, C; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wunstorf, R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xie, S; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, G; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamaoka, J; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, Y; Yasu, Y; Ybeles Smit, G V; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Young, C; Youssef, S; Yu, D; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaets, V G; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zajacova, Z; Zanello, L; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeller, M; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zendler, C; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, L; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, S; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhou, Y; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zieminska, D; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zolnierowski, Y; Zsenei, A; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2012-03-16

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson is performed in the diphoton decay channel. The data used correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb(-1) collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s=7 TeV. In the diphoton mass range 110-150 GeV, the largest excess with respect to the background-only hypothesis is observed at 126.5 GeV, with a local significance of 2.8 standard deviations. Taking the look-elsewhere effect into account in the range 110-150 GeV, this significance becomes 1.5 standard deviations. The standard model Higgs boson is excluded at 95% confidence level in the mass ranges of 113-115 GeV and 134.5-136 GeV.

  12. A theoretical study of charge-transport parameters for a hydrogen-bonded organic semiconductor: the indigo and s-indaceno [1,2-b:5,6-b‧] dithiophene-4,9-dione derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hui-Ling; Shi, Ya-Rui; Liu, Yu-Fang

    2016-06-01

    The properties of synthesized ambipolar organic semiconductor (OSC) materials, containing hydrogen bonding, i.e. the 6,6‧-dibromoindigo and the three s-indaceno [1, 2-b:5, 6-b‧] dithiophene-4,9-dione derivatives, have been systematically studied using a density functional theory. The hydrogen bonding formed between the interlayer molecules, though it does not affect the charge mobility in the same layer, influences the interorbital overlapping of HOMO and LUMO states between the layers, and influences the charge mobility directly. In addition, the hydrogen bonding between the layers may reinforce the π-π stacking and make the center-to-center distance closer, which indirectly enhances charge mobility, and can turn a monopole OSC into an ambipolar one.

  13. Photoimaging of the multiple filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-anthracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborine

    SciTech Connect

    Kulchin, Yu N; Vitrik, O B; Chekhlenok, A A; Zhizhchenko, A Yu; Proschenko, D Yu; Mirochnik, A G; Lyu Guohui

    2013-12-31

    We have studied the filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses (λ = 800 nm, ∼42 fs pulse duration) in poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-anthracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2- dioxaborine and the associated photomodification of the material. The results demonstrate that multiple filamentation occurs at pulse energies above 5 μJ. At a pulse energy of 1.5 mJ, it is accompanied by supercontinuum generation. The average filament length in PMMA is 9 mm and the filament diameter is ∼10 μm. An incident power density of ∼10{sup 12} W cm{sup -2} ensures inscription of the filament pattern owing to two-photon photochemical processes. Preliminary exposure to continuous light at λ = 400 nm enables an ordered filament pattern to be written. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  14. Experimental determination of ground and excited state dipole moments of N, N-bis (2, 5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3, 4:9, 10-perylenebis (dicarboximide) (DBPI) a photostable laser dye.

    PubMed

    El-Daly, S A; Asiri, A M; Alamry, K A

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, the absorption, emission spectra and dipole moments(μ(g), μ(e)) of N, N-bis (2, 5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3, 4:9, 10- perylenebis (dicarboximide) (DBPI) have been studied in solvents of various polarities at room temperature. Using the methods of solvatochromism, the difference between the first excited singlet state (μ(e)) and ground state (μ(g)) dipole moments was estimated from Lippert - Mataga,, Bakhshiev, Kawski - Chamma - Viallet equations. The change in dipole moment (Δμ) was also calculated using the variation of the Stokes shift with microscopic solvent polarity parameter (E(T)(N)). It was observed that the value of excited singlet state dipole moment is higher (3.53 Debye) than the ground state one (1.92Debye), showing that the excited state of DBPI is more polar than the ground state.

  15. Low pH hydrothermal synthesis and properties of lanthanide-organic frameworks with (4(10),6(5))(4(9),6(6)) topology constructed from Ln-Hbptc building blocks.

    PubMed

    Weng, Danfeng; Zheng, Xiangjun; Li, Licun; Yang, Wenwen; Jin, Linpei

    2007-11-14

    Two novel lanthanide-organic frameworks (LnOFs) with (4(10),6(5))(4(9),6(6)) topology, [Ln(Hbptc)(H(2)O)](n) (Ln = Eu(1), Gd(2); H(4)bptc = 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic acid) were synthesized via the hydrothermal in situ reaction between lanthanide salts and 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (bpta) under low pH conditions. In complexes 1 and 2, homohelix bundles with opposite chirality are assembled alternately and result in pillar-like 3D extended networks incorporated with coordinated water molecules, which show high thermal stability. The luminescence properties are illustrated by the Eu(III) complex (1) and its Gd-doped compound, which are intensive red emitters. The magnetic properties of complexes 1 and 2 are also investigated.

  16. Competition between singlet fission and charge separation in solution-processed blend films of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene with sterically-encumbered perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide)s.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Charusheela; Smeigh, Amanda L; Anthony, John E; Marks, Tobin J; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2012-01-11

    The photophysics and morphology of thin films of N,N-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (1) and the 1,7-diphenyl (2) and 1,7-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl) (3) derivatives blended with 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-Pn) were studied for their potential use as photoactive layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Increasing the steric bulk of the 1,7-substituents of the perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) impedes aggregation in the solid state. Film characterization data using both atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that decreasing the PDI aggregation by increasing the steric bulk in the order 1 < 2 < 3 correlates with a decrease in the density/size of crystalline TIPS-Pn domains. Transient absorption spectroscopy was performed on ~100 nm solution-processed TIPS-Pn:PDI blend films to characterize the charge separation dynamics. These results showed that selective excitation of the TIPS-Pn results in competition between ultrafast singlet fission ((1*)TIPS-Pn + TIPS-Pn → 2 (3*)TIPS-Pn) and charge transfer from (1*)TIPS-Pn to PDIs 1-3. As the blend films become more homogeneous across the series TIPS-Pn:PDI 1 → 2 → 3, charge separation becomes competitive with singlet fission. Ultrafast charge separation forms the geminate radical ion pair state (1)(TIPS-Pn(+•)-PDI(-•)) that undergoes radical pair intersystem crossing to form (3)(TIPS-Pn(+•)-PDI(-•)), which then undergoes charge recombination to yield either (3*)PDI or (3*)TIPS-Pn. Energy transfer from (3*)PDI to TIPS-Pn also yields (3*)TIPS-Pn. These results show that multiple pathways produce the (3*)TIPS-Pn state, so that OPV design strategies based on this system must utilize this triplet state for charge separation.

  17. Self-discharge suppression of 4.9 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode by using tris(trimethylsilyl)borate as an electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaolin; Huang, Qiming; Mai, Shaowei; Wang, Xianshu; Xu, Mengqing; Xing, Lidan; Liao, Youhao; Li, Weishan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, tris(trimethylsilyl)borate (TMSB) is evaluated as an electrolyte additive for the self-discharge suppression of 4.9 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode for lithium ion battery. The effect of TMSB on the surface properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is investigated via linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), charge-discharge test, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is found that the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode charged to 4.9 V (vs. Li/Li+) suffers a serious self-discharge in 1 mol L-1 LiPF6-EC/DMC (1:2, in weight), which can be suppressed effectively by adding 1 wt.% TMSB into the electrolyte. After storage for 20 days, the voltage of the charged cathode decreases from 4.7 to 0.5 V (vs. Li/Li+) in the additive-free electrolyte, while that remains almost unchanged in the TMSB-containing electrolyte. The self-discharge suppression of the charged LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode results from the preferential oxidation of TMSB and the subsequent formation of a protective solid electrolyte interphase film, which prevents electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 from destruction.

  18. The essence of alternative medicine. A dermatologist's view from Germany.

    PubMed

    Happle, R

    1998-11-01

    In Germany, alternative medicine is presently very popular and is supported by the federal government. When deliberating on the essence of alternative medicine we should simultaneously reflect on the intellectual and moral basis of regular medicine. To provide an epistemological demarcation of the 2 fields, the following 12 theses are advanced: (1) alternative and regular medicine are speaking different languages; (2) alternative medicine is not unconventional medicine; (3) the paradigm of regular medicine is rational thinking; (4) the paradigm of alternative medicine is irrational thinking; (5) the present popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by romanticism; (6) some concepts of alternative medicine are falsifiable and others are not; (7) alternative medicine and evidence-based medicine are mutually exclusive; (8) the placebo effect is an important factor in regular medicine and the exclusive therapeutic principle of alternative medicine; (9) regular and alternative medicine have different aims: coming of age vs faithfulness; (10) alternative medicine is not always safe; (11) alternative medicine is not economic; and (12) alternative medicine will always exist. The fact that alternative methods are presently an integral part of medicine as taught at German universities, as well as of the physician's fee schedule, represents a collective aberration of mind that hopefully will last for only a short time.

  19. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  20. The second Team Haemophilia Education Meeting, 2016, Frankfurt, Germany.

    PubMed

    Berntorp, Erik; Dargaud, Yesim; Hart, Daniel; Lobet, Sébastien; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; d'Oiron, Roseline; Perry, David; Pollard, Debra; van den Berg, Marijke; Blatný, Jan; Chambost, Hervé; Doria, Andrea S; Holme, Pål André; Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Mantovani, Lorenzo; McLaughlin, Paul; Nanayakkara, Lochana; Petrini, Pia; Sannié, Thomas; Laane, Edward; Maia, Raquel; Dettoraki, Athina; Farrell, Anna; Halimeh, Susan; Raza, Sayma; Taylor, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The first Team Haemophilia Education (THE) Meeting was held on 7-8 May 2015 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. It aimed to promote the optimal care of patients with haemophilia through education of the multidisciplinary treatment team. This was achieved by reviewing the latest developments in haemophilia management, considering how these can be implemented in the clinic to improve patient care and providing a platform for networking and debate for all haemophilia treatment team members. The second THE Meeting was held on 19-20 May in Frankfurt, Germany, and participants included doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, patient representatives and data management staff from 20 different countries. Topics covered the role of the multidisciplinary team in delivering the best haemophilia care, challenges in the management of haemophilia across Europe, available clotting factor treatments, future treatments and the use of genetics in advising carriers of haemophilia. This report is a summary of the key developments in haemophilia care presented by various investigators and healthcare professionals at THE Meeting 2016.

  1. Schleswig: medieval leprosy on the boundary between Germany and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Riis, Thomas; Dittmar, Manuela; Weise, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy was a well-recognized and dreaded disease in medieval Europe. The disease is reported to have reached Germany with the Roman invasion and it was present in Scandinavia in the first centuries AD. This paper estimates and analyzes the frequency of leprosy among adult people buried in one of five medieval cemeteries in the city of Schleswig. Seven different dichotomous osteological lesions indicative of leprosy were analyzed, and it was possible to score at least one of these conditions on 350 adult skeletons (aged 15 or older). The scores were transformed to a statistic indicating the likelihood that the person to whom the skeleton belonged suffered from leprosy. It was found that the frequency of leprosy in the five cemeteries varied between 9 and 44%. Four of the five cemeteries showed frequencies ranging from 35 and 44% and with no statistically significant differences among them. The fifth cemetery showed a significantly lower frequency of leprosy (9%). The distribution of female age at death does not appear to be affected by leprosy status. This means that females experienced a considerably elevated risk of dying once they had contracted leprosy as the disease usually has a mid-adulthood age of onset. In four of the five cemeteries males with leprosy died in higher ages than men without leprosy--in two of the cemeteries the difference was statistically significant. This indicates that leprosy usually added less to the risk of dying among men than among women in medieval Schleswig.

  2. Economic evaluation of human papillomavirus screening in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mittendorf, T; Petry, K U; Iftner, T; Greiner, W; von der Schulenburg, J M

    2003-09-01

    Cytology-based screening programs for cervical cancer have been effective in reducing cancer incidence and preventing premature deaths worldwide. However, there is concern about the relatively low sensitivity of current screening procedures. Although the causal association between infection with certain high-risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV) and the development of cervical cancer has been clearly established, testing for the major risk factor is not part of current screening practice. We created a tree decision model over time to evaluate different policy choices for implementing a population-based screening program. Results of the economic analysis indicate that testing with any implemented HPV DNA testing (stand alone or in combination with the Papanicolaou smear) is superior to cytology and measures presently in use. Additional costs per life-years gained cannot be reported because the HPV branches had fewer discounted overall costs (euro 222 million vs. euro 82 and euro 76 million, respectively), and they saved more life years (19,599 vs. 19,163 and 903, respectively) then the smear alternative. Any HPV DNA testing is preferable over the current state of the art performed in Germany. This is true not only for economic reasons but also for life-years gained. Therefore HPV DNA testing must become an essential component to back up the relatively weak sensitivity of the standard procedure.

  3. Description of Eimeria pavonina (coccidia) of peafowl in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-03-01

    There are only a few reports about the occurrence of coccidia in peafowl and no reports about the occurrence of Eimeria spp. in peafowl kept in Europe. Here, we describe the occurrence of Eimeria pavonina in diseased peafowl from Germany. In January 2011, one young peacock kept in an aviary showed a marked depression. No parasites were detected in samples from the diseased bird, but in samples of birds from the same and other aviaries, coccidian counts were between 400/g and 66,000/g. All peacocks were treated with toltrazuril. After treatment, the clinical condition of the diseased bird improved but, two weeks afterwards, other birds in the aviary were still shedding coccidia in their feces. Based on morphology, the coccidia were identified as E. pavonina. Parts of the 18s rRNA gene and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree based on the 18s rRNA sequence placed the Eimeria sp. from peafowl closest to Eimeria spp. found in pheasants and partridges as well as to Eimeria meleagrimitis. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence of cox-1 in contrast suggested a closer relationship to Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria tenella.

  4. Setting up a veterinary medicine skills lab in Germany.

    PubMed

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m(2) under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare.

  5. Clostridium difficile Genotypes in Piglet Populations in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Heinrich; Schmoock, Gernot; Baier, Sylvia; Harlizius, Jürgen; Nienhoff, Hendrik; Brase, Katja; Zimmermann, Stefan; Seyboldt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile was isolated from 147 of 201 (73%) rectal swabs of piglets from 15 farms of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. In 14 farms, 14 to 100% (mean, 78%) of the animals tested were culture positive. The rate of isolation was 68% postpartum, increased to 94% in animals 2 to 14 days of age, and declined to 0% for animals 49 days of age and older. There was no link between isolation and antibiotic treatment or diarrhea of piglets. Strains were assigned to 10 PCR ribotypes, and up to 4 PCR ribotypes were found to be present at the same time on a farm. The closely related PCR ribotypes 078 (55%) and 126 (20%) were most frequently recovered and were present in 13 of the 14 positive farms. The comparison of multilocus VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) analysis (MLVA) data from this study and previously published data on human, porcine, and bovine PCR ribotype 078 isolates from 5 European countries revealed genetic differences between strains of different geographic origin and confirmed the relatedness of human and porcine C. difficile isolates. This study demonstrated that the human-pathogenic PCR ribotypes 078 and 126 are predominant in piglets in Germany. The results suggest that presence of C. difficile is correlated with animal age but not with antibiotic treatment or clinical disease. MLVA indicated that strains of the same geographical origin are often genetically related and corroborated the hypothesis of a close epidemiological connection between human and porcine C. difficile isolates. PMID:24025903

  6. Faculty development in general practice in Germany: experiences, evaluations, perspectives.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Markus; Lichte, Thomas; Von Unger, Hella; Gulich, Markus; Waechtler, Hannelore; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Wilm, Stefan

    2007-03-01

    From 1999 to 2001, the German Society of General Practice and Family Medicine (DEGAM) pioneered a faculty development programme to help general practitioners (GPs) interested in an academic career to develop their skills in teaching, primary care, quality assurance and research. The programme involves five weekend-training sessions over 18 months and applies a learner-centred approach. Participants choose the learning formats and switch between the roles of learners, teachers, chair persons and programme organizers. This article evaluates the acceptability and feasibility of the programme. Data were collected over a two-year period from the 16 participants who completed the first training programme. The evaluation involved a focus group, telephone interviews and email questionnaires. Participants appreciated the learner centred format of the programme and gained new teaching and research skills. They also learned to better assess and critically reflect on their professional work as GPs and reported improved academic 'survival skills' due to collaborative networks with colleagues. The faculty development programme proved advantageous for the personal and professional development of the participating GPs. It constitutes a promising tool for the further development of General Practice as an academic discipline that is still in the process of establishing itself at medical schools in Germany.

  7. Putative cryptoendolithic life in Devonian pillow basalt, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany.

    PubMed

    Peckmann, J; Bach, W; Behrens, K; Reitner, J

    2008-03-01

    Middle Devonian (Givetian) pillow basalt and inter-pillow breccia from the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge in Germany were found to contain putative biogenic filaments that indicate that life once proliferated within these volcanic rocks. Mineralized filaments are found in carbonate amygdules (vesicles filled by carbonate cement) in the volcanic rock, where they started to form on the internal surface of the once water-filled vesicles. Biogenicity of the filaments is indicated by (1) their size and shape resembling modern microorganisms including a constant diameter along the length of curved filaments, (2) their independence of crystal faces or cleavage planes, (3) branching patterns reminiscent of modern microorganisms, and (4) their spatial clustering and preferential occurrence close to the margin of pillows and in the inter-pillow breccias. A time lag between the deposition of pillow basalt and the activity of endoliths is revealed by the sequence of carbonate cements filling the amygdules. The putative filamentous microorganisms thrived after the formation of early fibrous rim cement, but before later equant calcite spar filled most of the remaining porosity. Microbial clay authigenesis analogous to the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments led to the preservation of filaments. The filaments predominantly consist of the clay minerals chamosite and illite. Having dwelled in water-filled vesicles, the Devonian basalt-hosted filaments apparently represent cryptoendoliths. This finding suggests that a previously unrecognized niche for life exists within volcanic rock.

  8. Characterization program for the Gorleben site in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.

    1988-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the radioactive waste disposal policy in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) has been based on the decision that all types of radioactive waste are to be disposed of in the deep subsoil, priority being given to the disposal in rock salt formations. Since 1979, the Gorleben salt dome, situated in the northeastern part of the FRG, has been investigated as a candidate repository site for all types of radioactive waste, especially heat-generating waste. The objectives of the investigations and the requirements concerning the site characterization program, essentially derived from the safety criteria, are to provide all necessary data for the site-specific safety assessment, the complete documentation of geological data, and the pertinent information for the detailed layout and optimization of the disposal mine as well as the safe operation of the repository. The site characterization and assessment at Gorleben is expected to last several years, after which the license application documents will be prepared and submitted to the licensing authority. It is scheduled to start up repository operation around the year 2005.

  9. [Global warming: trailblazer for tropical infections in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Hemmer, C J; Frimmel, S; Kinzelbach, R; Gürtler, L; Reisinger, E C

    2007-11-01

    Since 1850, the CO (2) content of the atmosphere has increased from 280 to 360 ppm, and the average surface temperature has risen from 14.6 to 15.3 C . A further increase between 1.8 and 4.0 C is expected for the 21st century. Temperate and cold climate zones are affected predominantly, but tropical regions are not spared. At the same time, the world wide climate effects of the "El Niño Southern Oscillation" are amplified. Global warming enhances the growth of tropical pathogens (malarial plasmodia, leishmania, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, Vibrio cholerae) and vectors (anopheles, aedes, culex, and phlebotomus mosquitos; hard ticks). Global warming may lead to the emergence of diseases which at present are not endemic in Germany, like West Nile fever, Dengue fever, or Leishmaniases, and to enhanced transmission of borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Malaria and cholera, in contrast, are influenced more strongly by socioeconomic factors. Improved surveillance and intensified research on the relationship between climate change and infectious diseases is needed.

  10. Heavy metals in aquatic bryophytes from the Ore mountains (Germany).

    PubMed

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A

    2002-07-01

    Concentration of the metals Ni, Cr, Co, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ba, Al, and V as well as the macronutrients Ca, Mg, and K were measured in water and in the aquatic bryophytes Platyhypnidium riparioides, Scapania sp., and Fontinalis antipyretica sampled from streams in the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains, eastern Germany). These plants, as used to evaluate the spatial distribution of elements in the examined streams, contained elevated levels of all the investigated metals except Sr. The highest levels of Cd (195 mg/kg), Cu (233 mg/kg), Zn (22500 mg/kg), Pb (595 mg/kg), and Co (140 mg/kg) seriously exceed background values. In recent years input of pollutants has decreased in the Erzgebirge area and the deposition can now be addressed as being comparable to that of rural areas without major local or regional influences. This investigation indicates that the studied aquatic mosses reflect part of the pollutant loadings released in the past in the Erzgebirge area of which remnants are still present in the environment. Two models describing the con-centrations of Fe and Zn in aquatic bryophytes in relation to concentrations of some elements in water are presented.

  11. Incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Joachim; Wöhrle, Johannes C; Palm, Frederick; Nix, Wilfred A; Maschke, Matthias; Safer, Anton; Becher, Heiko; Grau, Armin J

    2014-06-01

    There is a lack of prospective and population based epidemiological data on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Germany to date. The ALS registry Rhineland-Palatinate was established to investigate the incidence, course and phenotypic variety of ALS in this south-west German state of about 4 million inhabitants. During the period 2010-2011, consecutive incident patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the revised El Escorial criteria were included and followed up using multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment. One hundred and forty-six patients were enrolled. The annual crude incidence for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate was 1.8/100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.6-2.2). Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Incidence increased with age reaching a peak in the 70-74 years age group and declined thereafter. Late-onset ALS (≥ 75 years) was found in 14.4% of patients. About 32% of patients presented with bulbar onset. In conclusion, incidence rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate is within the range of other prospective population based registers in Europe and North America. Gender ratio is nearly balanced.

  12. Prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Opitz-Welke, Annette; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Konrad, Norbert; Welke, Justus

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, suicide is the most frequent cause of prison deaths; moreover, the respective national penal suicide rates are consistently several times higher than the suicide rates in the general population. To assess the situation in German prisons, an assessment of all suicides in German prisons by means of a survey was carried out for the time from 2000 to 2011. The mean rate per year of prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011 was 105.8 per 100,000 male inmates and 54.7 per 100,000 female inmates. Male prisoner suicide rates significantly declined during the period under investigation; no significant trend was evident for female prisoners in pre-trial detention but a noteworthy increase was apparent in the suicide rate of female sentenced prisoners. A significant positive relationship can be demonstrated between occupation density and the suicide rate for both men and women. These results should be taken as a challenge for further research on the reasons for the unexpected increase of suicide rate in female sentenced prisoners and as well on the effect of population density on prison suicide rate.

  13. Orientation of megalithic monuments in Germany and the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, C.; Ferrer, L.

    The Western Group of the Trichterbecherkultur (TRB Culture) built the megalithic monuments in Northwest Germany and The Netherlands. These monuments include different types of megaliths belonging to the TRB-West group, among which the most common are Passage Graves. We have obtained data for 163 monuments in this area in three campaigns. The present study completes two previous communications at SEAC meetings. We consider that the measured sample is largely competed and therefore we attempt a full analysis of the data. We have measured the orientation of the chamber and passages (where possible) for the Passage Graves, and for the so-called Langebetten. The general orientation of the chamber of the Passage Graves is east west, with another concentration of monuments at azimuths around 70 degrees. The passage is always located to the southern or eastern sides of the chamber. Possible astronomical explanations involving the Sun and the Moon are attempted. We find a preference towards lunar orientations. The general orientation of the Langebetten is similar to the Passage Graves although a preference to significant positions of the Sun and Moon is detected. Finally we perform a comparison with data from the literature of other TRB groups and give a tentative explanation for the evolution of the megaliths and their orientation.

  14. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish.

  15. Facing the greenhouse effect: Communication about energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Henschel, C.; Wiedemann, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Energy policy in Germany has been characterized by an irreconcilable debate about nuclear power and the potentials of renewable energy sources and energy-saving activities for more than 15 years. The question is whether the emerging greenhouse effect has changed or at least influenced this conflict. In this study the authors screened the publications of various stakeholders in the energy debate and investigated their standpoints, values, and attitudes towards energy policy after the emergence of the greenhouse effect. The study reveals that the focus of the communication is no longer nuclear power. Moreover, communication with the public tries to hide the still virulent conflict among the agents. Every agent argues for the protection of the global climate and environment. But despite this superficial consensus and the [open quotes]green[close quotes] arguments, the various agents draw different conclusions. Thus communication not only minimizes clarity, but also fails to produce any consensus on how to realize the ambitious goals of global environmental protection. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. External quality assessment scheme for haematology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heller, S

    1995-01-01

    Quality control in haematology is performed in Germany for 20 years. Both cell count, haemoglobin measurement and differential count on smear with morphology exercise and probably diagnosis will be demanded by the participants. Until now this quality control is not mandatory, even efforts are done to change this circumstance, given by the main input of diagnostic value due to haematology results. So this regulation will be changed very soon, in order to submit haematological laboratories to governmental control, effected by the BAK (Bundesärztekammer), as already is done in clinical chemistry. For this EQA the participants cannot expected any financial support by any organization, nor public health, nor private assurance. The role of referee laboratories and reference values as well as difficulties for the adequate reference material are discussed. For the differential count other limits have to be established: recognition of pathological blood films is one of the most important point (in sense of morphological exercise) to ensure broad knowledge of "flag interpretation". Since the last year quality control for reticulocyte count and flow cytometry for immune status and leukemia-differentiation has been established.

  17. Driver secondary tasks in Germany: using interviews to estimate prevalence.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Anja Katharina; Vollrath, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Secondary tasks while driving are frequently found in different types of studies from all over the world. For a profound understanding of secondary tasks' impact on road safety it is essential to know in detail what kind of tasks drivers are doing in which situations. In contrast to costly observational studies, interviews may be a suitable access to these data if reporting biases are minimized. In 2009, 289 drivers were interviewed in face-to-face interviews on German motorway service areas as well as in the city of Braunschweig about their secondary task engagement in the last 30 min of driving. Five groups of drivers were examined: (1) truck drivers at the motorway (N=90), (2) car drivers on private trips at the motorway (N=71), (3) car drivers on business trips at the motorway (N=29), (4) car drivers on private trips in town (N=85), (5) car drivers on business trips in town (N=12). The pattern and frequency of engagement in secondary tasks differed between these groups. Overall, about 80% of all drivers conducted one to three secondary tasks. Thus, secondary task engagement is a serious issue in Germany and accident studies are needed to estimate drivers' risk.

  18. [PRRSV-eradication: an option for pig herds in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Bätza, Hans-Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The problem of successfully controling PRRS with traditional methods has led to a growing interest in eradication. This review summarizes the current literature on topics of PRRS-eradication, including the relevant routine diagnostic procedures, routes of virus transmission between pig herds (as i.e. pig movement, semen, aerosols, insects, fomites, transport vehicles) and eradication by close&rollover and test&removal, respectively. On the basis of this knowledge and experiences it can be concluded that PRRS eradication in Germany with its intensive pig production and remarkably high pig density in several regions may only be possible through a national eradication program. The lack of potent marker vaccines that reduce the virus spread significantly, combined with the lack of differentiating diagnostic tests for routine laboratory use leads to the recommendation not to launch a national eradication program under the given circumstances. For the future it should be taken into account that the situation after reintroduction of PRRSV in a free region could only be managed by stamping-out which is generally poorly accepted by the majority of pig producers.

  19. [Development of Social Medicine and Public Health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wildner, M; Niehoff, J-U; Hoffmann, W

    2016-02-01

    Social medicine in Germany has multiple lines of tradition, which are marked by the presence of 2 German states and their re-unification and by the (re-)establishment of multidisciplinary public health by the end of the twentieth century. At the same time, a differentiation within the applied fields of social medicine into several thematic topics can be observed. These can be grouped in a first step into the domains of clinical social medicine, of social medicine for social insurance purposes and of a population-oriented social medicine. For social medicine as a scientific discipline within the broad context of medicine, the requirement of a context-adequate development, which encompasses the special methods of multidisciplinary public health, poses big challenges. For successfully meeting these challenges and going beyond population-oriented public health and for bridging the gap between the individual and the social medical institutions of the health system, it is indispensable for social medicine to be independent of other disciplines within the array of medical specialties. The present study argues for strengthening social medicine within the medical faculties. Chairs for social medicine and public health are not only in the interest of the applied fields of social medicine, but represent also an indispensable scientific discipline which can relate and contribute to all specialties of medicine.

  20. Species of flea (siphonaptera) infesting pets and hedgehogs in Germany.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Rehbein, S; Wiedemann, C

    2001-04-01

    The species of flea infesting pets and hedgehogs in Germany were investigated through a survey of small animal practitioners throughout the country who were asked to collect specimens at their veterinary practices. A total of 625 veterinarians/veterinary practices responded and provided 2445 intact anti identifiable flea specimens. These fleas originated from 294 dogs (795 fleas), 334 cats (1152 fleas), 76 hedgehogs (481 fleas), five domestic rabbits (10 fleas), one golden hamster (four fleas) and one ferret (three fleas). Dogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Chaetopsylla globiceps, Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Paraceras melis and Pulex irritans. From cats, Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae, Ceratophyllus garei, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus assimilis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Monopsyllus sciurorum, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi and Typhloceras poppei were collected. In both dogs and cats the most prevalent species were Ctenocephalides felis (78.9% and 91.6%, respectively) and Archaeopsylla erinacei (21.1% and 12.6%, respectively) followed by Ctenocephalides canis in dogs (5.8%) and Hystrichopsylla talpae in cats (1.2%). The fleas isolated from rabbits were Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae and Spilopsyllus cuniculi. Nosopsyllus fasciatus and Ctenocephalides felis were recovered from the golden hamster and the ferret, respectively. The hedgehogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae and Ctenocephalides felis.

  1. Immigrants' initial steps in Germany and their later economic success.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Irena; Weißmann, Markus

    2013-09-01

    In line with the emerging research that acknowledges the importance of the process character of immigrants' labour market integration, this paper examines the existence of path dependencies of early employment trajectories on later labour market outcomes. Theoretically we are interested in establishing whether career trajectories provide a distinct signal, used by both employers and employees: a signal that operates apart and beyond the accumulation of host-country relevant resources, especially, host-country labour market experience or training. The analyses are performed with the help of a unique dataset comprised of recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Germany. Sequence analysis techniques and multivariate regressions are applied. Results show that starting in higher-status employment leaves a distinguishable imprint on immigrants' later occupational standings, even after the returns to the skills associated with early trajectories are taken into account. At the same time, initial career trajectories do not have any direct effect on wages, apart from the pay-off to relevant skills acquired while pursuing these careers. The findings are discussed in concurrence with the human capital and signalling theories.

  2. Leptospira spp. in rodents and shrews in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-07-24

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified.

  3. A complex investigation of building sandstones from Saxony (Germany)

    SciTech Connect

    Goetze, Jens Siedel, Heiner

    2007-11-15

    The present paper provides a methodology for the investigation and characterization of building sandstones. This analytical scheme was designed for distinguishing mature arenites, which in general show very similar properties and are difficult to distinguish. This is shown for Cretaceous sandstones from various occurrences in Saxony (Germany), which have been used for centuries as building materials. The procedure is mainly based on the combination of macroscopic rock description, thin section polarizing microscopy (phase composition, texture, grain-size distribution) and cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy (quartz types, feldspar and kaolinite content) coupled with image analysis, scanning electron microscopy (accessories, pore cement, diagenetic grain surface features), and analysis of pore space data. Sometimes, additional data from X-ray diffraction or chemical analyses (major and trace elements) can be used. Especially in the case of quartz rich arenites, CL is a powerful tool for provenance analysis. The detailed analysis of sandstone material in most cases allows us to assign historically used building material to a specific sandstone occurrence. These results are important for both interpreting the weathering behaviour of the building material and the conservation, reconstruction and stone replacement of historical monuments.

  4. On the clustering of winter storm loss events over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karremann, M. K.; Pinto, J. G.; von Bomhard, P. J.; Klawa, M.

    2014-03-01

    During the last decades, several windstorm series hit Europe leading to large aggregated losses. Such storm series are examples of serial clustering of extreme cyclones, presenting a considerable risk for the insurance industry. Clustering of events and return periods of storm series for Germany are quantified based on potential losses using empirical models. Two reanalysis datasets and observations from German weather stations are considered for 30 winters. Histograms of events exceeding selected return levels (1, 2 and 5 year) are derived. Return periods of historical storm series are estimated based on the Poisson and the negative Binomial distributions. Over 4000 years of global circulation model simulations forced with current climate conditions are analysed to provide a better assessment of historical return periods. Estimations differ between distributions, for example 40 to 65 years for the 1990 series. For such less frequent series, estimates obtained with the Poisson distribution clearly deviate from empirical data. The negative Binomial distribution provides better estimates, even though a sensitivity to return level and dataset is identified. The consideration of GCM data permits a strong reduction of uncertainties. The present results support the importance of considering explicitly clustering of losses for an adequate risk assessment for economical applications.

  5. On the clustering of winter storm loss events over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karremann, M. K.; Pinto, J. G.; von Bomhard, P. J.; Klawa, M.

    2014-08-01

    During the last decades, several windstorm series hit Europe leading to large aggregated losses. Such storm series are examples of serial clustering of extreme cyclones, presenting a considerable risk for the insurance industry. Clustering of events and return periods of storm series for Germany are quantified based on potential losses using empirical models. Two reanalysis data sets and observations from German weather stations are considered for 30 winters. Histograms of events exceeding selected return levels (1-, 2- and 5-year) are derived. Return periods of historical storm series are estimated based on the Poisson and the negative binomial distributions. Over 4000 years of general circulation model (GCM) simulations forced with current climate conditions are analysed to provide a better assessment of historical return periods. Estimations differ between distributions, for example 40 to 65 years for the 1990 series. For such less frequent series, estimates obtained with the Poisson distribution clearly deviate from empirical data. The negative binomial distribution provides better estimates, even though a sensitivity to return level and data set is identified. The consideration of GCM data permits a strong reduction of uncertainties. The present results support the importance of considering explicitly clustering of losses for an adequate risk assessment for economical applications.

  6. RISKS AND RADIATION DOSES DUE TO RESIDENTIAL RADON IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Beck, T R

    2017-01-10

    The population-averaged risk rate and the annual average effective dose due to residential radon in Germany were calculated. The calculations were based on an epidemiological approach taking into account the age- and gender-specific lung cancer incidence rates for the German population and the excess relative risk of 0.16 per 100 Bq·m(-3) for residential radon. In addition, the risk estimates adjusted for the smoking habits were determined. The population-averaged risk rate for the whole population was estimated with 4.1·10(-5) y(-1) (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4·10(-5)-7.6·10(-5) y(-1)). Residential radon causes a detriment per year of 3.3·10(-5) y(-1) (95% CI 1.1·10(-5)-6.0·10(-5) y(-1)), which corresponds to an annual average effective dose of 0.6 mSv (95% CI 0.2-1.1 mSv). Annually, ~3400 lung cancer incidences are attributed to residential radon. The results from the epidemiological approach exercised in this study are considerably lower than the effective dose, which would be obtained from the dose conversion coefficient calculated using biokinetic and dosimetric models.

  7. Tritium Based Water Balance Modelling In The Weser Catchment, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeniger, P.; Krause, W.; Leibundgut, Ch.; Reisewitz, R.

    The Institute of Hydrology of the Freiburg University (IHF) in conjunction with the German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) are to integrating tritium data for a water balance model. Tritium observations in precipitation and river water covering a period of 30 years are used to establish a tritium aided water balance for a 46.300 km2 area in Germany (Weser catchment). Environmental tritium in precipitation, that was mainly introduced into the water cycle by nuclear weapon testing in the 60s, and wastewater from nuclear power plants located in the catchment area are sources of the tritium input. The model is established in combination with a software routine (TRIBIL), which was developed for semi distributed water and tritium balance calculations. A mesoscale, physically based model approach with spatial classification of sub areas is used and will consider evaporation, transpiration, soil characteristics, vegetation and different runoff components. The modelling is performed in monthly time steps. Hydrological, meteorological and land use data are available from different German authorities. An outline of the project, model structure and input data as well as first results for the tributary river systems Fulda and Werra will be presented. Including the conser- vative tracer tritium into large scale modelling is a rather new approach. Feasibilities and possibilities will be tested within this project. Balancing of solutes in catchment studies can be improved and this approach can serve as an additional validation tool for water balance models.

  8. A proposal for an anonymous living organ donation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rittner, Christian K; Besold, Andrea; Wandel, Evelyn

    2003-03-01

    In Germany, living organ donation of paired and usually not regenerating organs is restricted by law to related individuals, as well as persons who 'obviously entertain an especially intimate personal relationship'. When this law was adopted in 1997, the intention of the legislator was to guarantee the free will of the donor and to exclude any trade of organs. Since then the transplantation of cadaveric organs has not increased. Additional organs were donated from living donors. However, for a number of reasons only a limited array of transplantation centers use living organ donation as a supply facing a steadily increasing number of patients with chronic renal failure. Living organ donation raises a variety of medical, ethical and legal questions. Although transplantation is a generally accepted therapeutic approach for impaired organ function, doctors do not promote it actively. Prospective donor-recipient pairs use the information obtained via internet and other sources before they contact the clinician. Doctors are hesitant to operate a healthy individual for allowing her or him to profit from this organ loss only emotionally or in an altruistic sense. Often a complex relationship between donor and recipient, as well as tissue incompatibility (ABO, HLA) may be additional reasons to restrain from carrying out living organ transplantation. To improve the chances for good organ function and better life quality of the patients we here propose a model for anonymous living organ donation with special reference to kidney transplantation.

  9. Electromagnetic investigation at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; Benson, M.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Glennon, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    Electromagnetic surveys were conducted at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Germany to detect zones where solution cavities develop within lowland areas of the karst valley systems. Geologic models indicate that solution activity occurs at the loess-bedrock interface, and is concentrated along loess-filled fracture trends within the underlying carbonate bedrock. Soil arches that develop along these fracture trends have the potential to fail catastrophically, posing a considerable degree of danger to current training activities. Rapid, continuously recording electromagnetic instruments provide an economical solution for locating zones of high conductivity associated with loess-filled fractures. The electromagnetic surveys delineated high-conductivity trends interpreted to be fracture-controlled. In many instances dolines were observed either along or immediately adjacent to these conductivity lineaments. Analysis of anomaly maps indicate that high-conductivity lineaments are aligned subparallel to fracture and joint orientations measured in nearby outcrops. These associations are the basis for predicting locations where solution cavity collapse and doline development will occur in the future. Information derived from the EM data can be extended directly to hydrologic modeling and to safety programs for military training at the CMTC.

  10. Setting Up a Veterinary Medicine Skills Lab in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m² under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare. PMID:24872855

  11. [Science and research in academic plastic surgery in Germany].

    PubMed

    Giunta, R E; Machens, H-G

    2009-12-01

    Plastic surgery has passed through a very positive evolution in the last decades on the solid fundament of constantly developing academic plastic surgery. Aim of this paper is an objective evaluation of the current status of academic plastic surgery regarding research topics, currently available ressources and scientific outcome based on a questionnaire. The return rate of the questionnaire in academic departments was 92%. Main topics in research besides wound healing were topics from regenerative medicine such as tissue engineering, biomaterials, genetherapy and angiogenesis with the main focus on skin and fat tissues. In the past five years a total of 25 million Euros of third party research grants were raised. Research relied mainly on interdisciplinary research facilities. Regarding the scientific outcome more than 200 scientific papers were published in basic science research journals having an impactfactor higher than two. These results clearly demonstrate that plastic surgery is scientifically highly productive in academic surroundings where independent departments are established. Considering that independent units of plastic surgery exist in a relatively small number of all 36 university hospitals in germany, it has to be claimed for further independent departments so to provide adequate research facilities for further evolution of academic plastic surgery.

  12. Incorporating efficiency in hospital-capacity planning in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Ludwig; Scholtes, Stefan; Vera, Antonio

    2007-09-01

    Hospital occupancy is a key metric in hospital-capacity planning in Germany, even though this metric neglects important drivers of economic efficiency, for example treatment costs and case mix. We suggest an alternative metric, which incorporates economic efficiency explicitly, and illustrate how this metric can be used in the hospital-capacity planning cycle. The practical setting of this study is the hospital capacity planning process in the German federal state of Rheinland-Pfalz. The planning process involves all 92 acute-care hospitals of this federal state. The study is based on standard hospital data, including annual costs, number of cases--disaggregated by medical departments and ICD codes, respectively--length-of-stay, certified beds, and occupancy rates. Using the developed metric, we identified 18 of the 92 hospitals as inefficient and targets for over-proportional capacity cuts. On the upside, we identified 15 efficient hospitals. The developed model and analysis has affected the federal state's most recent medium term planning cycle.

  13. The environmental magnetic fingerprint of periglacial loess in Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Philipp; Hambach, Ulrich; Meszner, Sascha; Faust, Dominik

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of a comprehensive stratigraphic study of loess Eastern Germany, a detailed rock magnetic study was carried out of four last glacial/interglacial loess-palaeosol sequences. Magnetic susceptibility and laboratory-induced remanences have been determined to compare individual sections and to identify the specific rock magnetic characteristics of the Saxonian Loess Province. According to the model of pedogenic magnetic enhancement, an increasing neoformation of ferrimagnetic minerals in the course of pedogenesis was observed only in the uppermost Late Weichselian lithological units consisting of almost unweathered loess and indicating dryer climatic conditions. In contrast, the rock magnetic characteristics of the lower Middle and Early Weichselian units exhibit a significant destruction of primary magnetic minerals caused by such secondary processes as climatically controlled waterlogging and reworking. The main observation, an increasing ?fd with decreasing ? with stratigraphic depth, argues for a general magnetic depletion in conjunction with decreasing magnetic grain sizes caused by weathering of larger primary particles. The magnetic fingerprint of the Saxonian loess is characterised by prevailing magnetic depletion processes, which effectively rules out the application of the wind vigour model. Moreover, the observed magnetic characteristics differ significantly from that of other loess regions. Therefore, we propose a new magnetic facies model for more humid (Central European) loess provinces dominated by typical periglacial conditions, including widespread permafrost, which control the intense reworking and waterlogging (gleyification) processes.

  14. [Flight and migration : A challenge for medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fölsch, U R; Hasenfuß, G; Spies, H-F; Wesiack, W; Faulbaum, F

    2016-08-01

    In 2015 about 1.1 million refugees came to Germany. As a consequence public health authorities as well as physicians in hospitals and surgeries were faced with considerable challenges and problems. Between January and March 2016 the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) and the Professional Organisation of German Internists (BDI) initiated a survey among their members in order to ascertain which diseases and problems physicians were confronted with. A total of 28,063 members of the DGIM and BDI participated in the survey of which 3626 members answered all questions. This equals a response rate of 11.31 %. Of the respondents, 1865 (51.9 %) stated holding employment positions and 987 (27.4 %) were self-employed. The predominant number of physicians were under the impression that the composition of diseases needing treatment did not change within the time period under survey (55.7 % of employed and 73.7 % of self-employed physicians). Typical disease patterns of internal medicine were mentioned here. Most significant problems when treating migrants and refugees were linguistic communication, cultural affiliation, and psychological traumatic experiences. Little or nothing is known about the modalities of reimbursement for the respective health care areas, especially by physicians in employed positions (84.6 %). In agreement with the vote of the 119th Deutscher Ärztetag, DGIM and BDI recommend the introduction of a nationwide health insurance card for migrants and refugees.

  15. [Tuberculous Otitis media - a rare differential diagnosis in Germany].

    PubMed

    Teschner, M; Kramer, S; Donnerstag, F; Länger, F; Lenarz, Th; Schwab, B

    2008-07-01

    A 28-year-old female patient with a migrant background presented for surgery with a suspected cholesteatoma in the left ear. The patient reported having had an aural discharge for several months; otoscopic examination revealed a runny ear, and discrete granulation tissue was seen. Pure-tone audiometry showed conduction hearing loss of 30-40 dB across all frequencies in the left ear; high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone revealed that the mastoid and tympanic cavity were completely obscured. The intraoperative finding showed a caseous space-occupying mass that completely filled the tympanic cavity. The suspected diagnosis of tuberculosis was corroborated by pathohistological, microbiological and molecular biological tests. Tuberculostatic therapy was initiated at a different location. Although tuberculosis of the middle ear is a rare condition in Germany, it should nevertheless be considered when making a differential diagnosis, especially in high-risk patients where cholesteatoma is suspected on clinical and radiological evidence or in patients with a chronic middle ear process.

  16. Aerospace medicine in Germany: from the very beginnings.

    PubMed

    Harsch, V

    2000-04-01

    The roots of German Aerospace Medicine are in Berlin. High altitude research was performed by physiologists like Nathan Zuntz and the very first Army flight surgeons, Koschel and Flemming. With the founding of the Scientific Society for Aeronautics in 1912, a medical committee was established to determine guidelines for the physical examination of flyers. In World War I aviation medicine became a military science, which came to an end with the Treaty of Versailles. In 1927, with the establishment of the first Aeromedical Institute in Hamburg, Ludolph Brauer restarted the civilian academic aeromedical research effort, which, thereafter, fell more and more under military influence. At the end of World War II, German scientists were invited to work at the USAAF Aero Medical Center (AMC) in Heidelberg (1945-47), to gather the results of German aeromedical research performed before and during the war. Some of this group of German scientists were invited to work in the USA. In Germany, on the other hand, the effect of this "brain drain" was a period of stagnation. In the 1950's, a new civilian institute of aviation medicine was established in Bonn. It grew to be the nucleus of the DLR Institute of Aviation Medicine in Cologne. The German Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine was founded in Fuerstenfeldruck in 1959, and in the GDR the Institute of Aviation Medicine was established in 1961: the first East German cosmonaut S. Jaehn 1978 (Soyuz-31), was succeeded by the first West German astronaut, U. Merbold in 1983 (Spacelab).

  17. Analysis of physical activity and acculturation among Turkish migrants in Germany and England (.).

    PubMed

    Koca, Canan; Lapa, Tennur Yerlisu

    2014-12-01

    Recent literature shows that migrant populations in Western countries are generally less physically active than their host populations. The purpose of the present study was to expand research investigating associations between physical activity (PA) and acculturation and their relationship with several socio-demographic factors among Turkish migrants in Germany and England. The sample consisted of 521 Turkish migrants. Migrant generation, length of residence, and language proficiency were used as indicators of acculturation. Acculturation was not associated with PA among migrants in Germany and England. PA of migrants was significantly associated with migrant's host country, age, sex, marital status, and education. The total PA of migrants in Germany was higher than that of migrants in England; the large majority of females in both Germany and England had low PA, whereas most males had moderate PA. Seemingly, PA in Turkish migrant populations will not necessarily increase as a result of greater acculturation to the host society.

  18. The Desirability of Medieval Germany: Some Observations on an Introductory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jillings, Lewis G.; Murdoch, Brian O.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems and advantages of a course in Medieval Germany, including history, culture and literature along with language. Attention is given to issues and texts to be studied. (CHK)

  19. Young People and Popular Music in East Germany: Focus on a Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Points out a great preference for Western-style rock music among young people (ages 14-25) in East Germany despite social, political, and cultural differences, suggesting the global nature of music as communication. (PD)

  20. CHRONICLE: Fifth International School on Coherent Optics, Jena, East Germany, September 10-15, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhenskiĭ, M. F.; Semenov, A. S.

    1985-04-01

    A brief review is given of lectures and papers presented at the Fifth International School on Coherent Optics (Jena, East Germany, 1984). The program was divided into three sections: fiber optics, integrated optics, fiber-optic sensors.

  1. Tularaemia in southwest Germany: Three cases of tick-borne transmission.

    PubMed

    Boone, I; Hassler, D; Nguyen, T; Splettstoesser, W D; Wagner-Wiening, C; Pfaff, G

    2015-07-01

    Tularaemia, caused by Francisella tularensis, is an endemic zoonosis frequently occurring in southwest Germany. Since 2005 there is an increase in the number of reported cases of tularaemia in Germany. We report on two cases of ulceroglandular tularaemia and one case of glandular tularaemia that occurred in the summer of 2012 and 2013 in two counties in the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Bacteria were transmitted through tick bites, which to date has only rarely been reported in Germany. Inadequate treatment of the patients and an aggravation of clinical symptoms were caused by a delay between disease onset and the detection of the pathogen. Although contact to or consumption of infected hares are the most often reported transmission routes of tularaemia in Germany, tick-bites should also be taken into account. Health professionals should include Francisella tularensis in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever and/or ulcerative lymphadenopathy following a tick bite.

  2. [A Contribution to the Current Debate on Public and Global Health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hommes, F; von Philipsborn, P; Geffert, K; Karduck, L

    2016-02-01

    In June 2015 the German Academies of Science and Technology published a report on the structures, developments and challenges in the field of public and global health in Germany. Its call for a strengthening of public and global health in Germany was well received among researchers and practitioners in the field. At the same time criticism arose. Key controversies relate to the future institutional set-up of public and global health research in Germany, the consideration of the social determinants of health versus biomedical and technological approaches, the need for further research versus the need for political implementation of what is already known, and the consideration of the political context, such as intellectual property rights. This contribution provides an overview on the debate and lays down the perspective of the German Medical Students' Association (bvmd) and the Globalisation and Health Initiative (GandHI), putting forward demands regarding the role of public and global health in medical education in Germany.

  3. America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Japanese to succeed. Yet Rand treats the two losers of World War II as democratic tabula rasa scraped clean of memories of political parties, electoral...America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq, by James Dobbins Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 2 (February 2004) Reviewed by...or the U.S. Government. Click here for a PDF version of this article. America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq, by James Dobbins, et

  4. The Federal Republic of Germany an example of implementing the reactor safety goals

    SciTech Connect

    Schoels, H.

    1993-12-31

    The conerstone of the nuclear safety concept is the danger potentials hidden in the fission products. The main goal is the protection of the public and personnel from radiation. Four safety levels implemented in the Federal Republic of germany`s reactor safety program are described. The particular physics laws of the fission process make our technology a highly dangerous one whose use calls for extraordinary intellectual and technical efforts as well as investments.

  5. Germany, Europe and the Euro Crisis: Economy, State and Society in the Past and Present

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    THE EURO CRISIS : ECONOMY, STATE AND SOCIETY IN THE PAST AND PRESENT by Gerard M. Mauer III December 2013 Co-Advisor: Donald Abenheim Co...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GERMANY, EUROPE AND THE EURO CRISIS : ECONOMY, STATE AND SOCIETY IN THE PAST AND...as its policies toward the European economic crisis from 2007 through 2013. As of 2013, most Euro area members consider Germany as the economic

  6. Elimination of terrestrial rabies in Germany using oral vaccination of foxes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Freuling, Conrad; Kliemt, Anke; Kliemt, Jeannette; Heuser, Rolf; Schlüter, Hartmut; Selhorst, Thomas; Vos, Adriaan; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2012-01-01

    Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) has become the method of choice in fox rabies control in Europe. During the past three decades fox-mediated rabies virtually disappeared from Western and Central Europe. Following Switzerland, Germany was the second European country to launch ORV field trials on its territory in 1983. This paper provides a historical overview on the emergence of fox rabies in Germany; describing the basic principles and milestones of the German rabies eradication programme and presenting results of two decades of efforts to control the disease in foxes. Also, setbacks as well as country-specific differences and particularities on Germany's long way to rabies elimination in comparison to other European countries are addressed. Since the first field trials in Germany the number of rabies cases steadily decreased from 10 484 in 1983 to three cases recorded in 2006. On February 3rd 2006 the last case of terrestrial rabies in Germany was detected in a fox near the town of Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate. In 2008, ORV ceased after 25 years and Germany was officially declared as free from terrestrial rabies. The German rabies eradication programme did cost approximately 100 million euro of which 37 million euro were covered by the EU. For the future, efforts should focus on maintaining a rabies free status by implementing measures to prevent reintroduction of terrestrial rabies from endemic countries.

  7. Trichinella nativa in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Germany and Poland: possible different origins.

    PubMed

    Chmurzyńska, E; Różycki, M; Bilska-Zając, E; Nöckler, K; Mayer-Scholl, A; Pozio, E; Cencek, T; Karamon, J

    2013-11-15

    In Germany and Poland, the high population density of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered a public health risk since this wild canid is one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. In 2010 in Poland, a program to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in the red fox population was launched. After two years, Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 44 (2.7%) out of 1634 foxes tested. In Germany in the period 2002-2011, Trichinella spp. larvae were in 27 foxes. The Trichinella species detected were: T. spiralis in 15 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella britovi and one with Trichinella pseudospiralis) and in 9 foxes from Poland; T. britovi in 8 and 32 foxes from Germany and Poland, respectively; and T. pseudospiralis in 1 fox from Germany. The arctic species Trichinella nativa was detected in 3 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella spiralis) and in 1 fox from Poland. The detection of T. nativa outside its known distribution area opens new questions on the ability of this Trichinella species to colonize temperate regions.

  8. PCR identification and distribution of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kronefeld, Mandy; Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2014-06-01

    Based primarily on nucleotide polymorphisms in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA, Anopheles daciae was recently described as an additional member of the Maculipennis Group of species, separate from Anopheles messeae with which it had previously been confused due to morphological and genetic similarity. Species differentiation between A. messeae and A. daciae was possible only by ITS2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA sequencing or RFLP analysis. In addition to its siblings, Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles atroparvus and A. messeae, A. daciae has been shown to occur in Germany, although with limited distribution. We here describe additional collection sites for this species in Germany, showing concentrations in East Germany and the northern Upper Rhine Valley in Southwest Germany. A species-specific multiplex PCR assay is presented that is able to differentiate the four Maculipennis Group sibling species occurring in Germany plus Anopheles sacharovi, Anopheles melanoon and Anopheles labranchiae. The correct identification and detailed knowledge of the biology of A. daciae are of relevance since it might be a vector of disease agents, as suggested by the vector potential of its siblings and the recent finding of an A. daciae female infected with Dirofilaria repens in southern Germany.

  9. Molecular evidence for Bartonella spp. in cat and dog fleas from Germany and France.

    PubMed

    Just, F T; Gilles, J; Pradel, I; Pfalzer, S; Lengauer, H; Hellmann, K; Pfister, K

    2008-10-01

    Nine hundred and fifty-two fleas were collected from 148 cats and 133 dogs at 18 widely distributed geographic locations in Germany and France and examined for the presence of six different Bartonella spp. (Bartonella bacilliformis, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii) by PCR. Thirty-five specimens (3.7%) tested positive for either B. henselae (14 positive fleas) or B. clarridgeiae (21 positive fleas). DNA of other Bartonella spp. were not detected. Bartonella clarridgeiae was the dominating species in samples from France (19 out of 22 positive fleas), whereas B. henselae was more frequent in Germany (11 out of 13 positive fleas). With 3.5% (22 out of 632 fleas) in France and 4.1% (13 out of 320 fleas) in Germany, the overall prevalences of pathogen did not vary significantly between the flea populations of both countries. 5.4% of cats in France versus 16.1% of cats from Germany were infested by fleas carrying Bartonella, whereas 9.5% of dogs in France but none of the examined dogs from Germany were infested by Bartonella positive fleas. The molecular evidence of Bartonella infections reveals that agents of zoonotic potential are established in flea populations in Germany and France and that the spectrum of species can vary significantly from country to country.

  10. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945.

  11. 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, Rebecca; Quedenau, Jörn; Kuik, Friderike; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Schmale, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. At the same time, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects, like decreased lung function and exacerbated asthma. Globally, anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, while the dominant natural emission sources are wildfires. Despite the various adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union. Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter smaller 10 μm and 2.5 μm). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the European Union in 2005 and 2015, respectively, 'black smoke', a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 μg m-3 from 1995 and 8 μg m-3 from 1998 onwards. Many 'black smoke' measurements were stopped in 2004, with the repeal of the regulations obtaining at the time. However, in most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. Here we present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include locations classified as background, urban-background, industrial and traffic among other types. Raw data in many different formats has been modelled and integrated in a relational database, allowing various options for further data analysis. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 30 stations. In

  12. Acculturation and depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-09-12

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  13. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland.

    PubMed

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-12-01

    Defining a phenomenon as a political problem could be considered a crucial part of any political process. Body weight, when categorised as obesity, has been defined as a political problem since the beginning of the 21st century and has entered the political agenda in many countries. In this article, I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible for the development? What are the suggested remedies and who is considered responsible for acting? All plans state that obesity is a political issue because it causes health problems; in fact, weight is almost equated to health. The English and Scottish plans present a bio-political argument, characterising obesity as a serious threat to the countries' economies. So does the German plan, but not with the same emphasis. The plans portray people with obesity as being economically harmful to their fellow citizens. The French plan expresses another concern by focussing on the discrimination and stigmatization of obese people. All plans define the physical and food environment as a crucial factor in the obesity development, but only the Scottish Government is prepared to use statutory means towards industry and other actors to achieve change. The policies convey an unresolved dilemma: To govern or not to govern? The Governments want individuals to choose for themselves, yet they try to govern the populations to choose as the Governments find appropriate. The plans have a legitimising function, showing that the Governments take the issue seriously. Accordingly, in this case, the actual problematisations seem to be less crucial.

  14. Diseases in free-ranging bats from Germany

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of important viral diseases and their potential threat to humans has increased the interest in bats as potential reservoir species. Whereas the majority of studies determined the occurrence of specific zoonotic agents in chiropteran species, little is known about actual bat pathogens and impacts of disease on bat mortality. Combined pathological and microbiological investigations in free-ranging bats are sparse and often limited by small sample sizes. In the present study about 500 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae) were subjected to a post-mortem examination followed by histo-pathological and bacteriological investigations. The bat carcasses originated from different geographical regions in Germany and were collected by bat researchers and bat rehabilitation centers. Results Pathological examination revealed inflammatory lesions in more than half of the investigated bats. Lung was the predominantly affected organ (40%) irrespective of bat species, sex and age. To a lesser extent non-inflammatory organ tissue changes were observed. Comparative analysis of histo-pathology and bacteriology results identified 22 different bacterial species that were clearly associated with pathological lesions. Besides disease-related mortality, traumatic injuries represented an additional major cause of death. Here, attacks by domestic cats accounted for almost a half of these cases. Conclusions The present study shows that free-ranging bats not only serve as a reservoir of infectious agents, they are also vulnerable to various infectious diseases. Some of these microbial agents have zoonotic potential, but there is no evidence that European bats would pose a higher health hazard risk to humans in comparison to other wildlife. PMID:22008235

  15. [Hepatitis E--a new zoonotic disease in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Bächlein, Christine; Grummer, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most frequent pathogen of a fecal-oral transmitted hepatitis in humans in many developing countries. It is endemic in the Middle East, in India, in Southeast Asia, central Asia as well as in Central and South America. It can be predominantly found in young adults. The mortality rate comes up to 2% whereas in pregnant women death rate can reach about 25%. Until a few years ago, acute hepatitis E was thought to be rare in industrialized countries: most cases were found in persons with a corresponding travel history. However, after improvement of the diagnostic possibilities, an increasing number of autochthonous cases with acute hepatitis E have become evident. Besides, a relatively high seroprevalence of 1 to 5% in the population in industrialized countries is noticeable which is converse to the only sporadic occurrence of acute hepatitis E. As a reason for this an animal reservoir for HEV is being discussed. The first HEV recovering from an animal succeeded in 1997 from a pig in the USA. Genetic typing showed close relationship between the porcine HEVand human HEV types. This confirmed the suspicion on a zoonotic potential of HEV. Transmission experiments revealed that non-human primates were sensitive to the porcine HEV and pigs could be infected with human HEV. Besides, occupational groups with close contact to pigs evidently have an increased risk for HEV infections. In addition, reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked wild boar meat supported the zoonotic potential of HEV. In the domestic pig and wild boar population in several European countries the virus is ubiquitous. In Germany a high percentage of the wild boars was proven to be infected with HEV. In contrast, studies of HEV circulation in domestic pigs are still pending.

  16. Right-wing extremist violence among adolescents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And although it is emphasized that approval of and willingness to use violence do not automatically lead to actual acts of violence, this article suggests that the existence of these convictions in society helps to legitimize attitudes that become expressed in violence, in particular among youths.This article presents a five-stage process model that portrays the underlying preconditions for acts of right-wing extremist violence, the contexts in which such violence takes place, and the factors that cause it to escalate. This structural model is used to outline central empirical findings of recent German quantitative and especially qualitative studies about right-wing extremist violent offenders. For analytical reasons, the basic elements of the process model (socialization, organization, legitimation, interaction, and escalation) are treated separately. The authors also examine right-wing extremist violence from a disintegrative perspective. Given that intersubjective recognition is an existential human need, right-wing extremist violence is understood as a "productive" way of dealing with individual recognition deficits. On the basis of the integration dimensions of social disintegration theory, three fundamental recognition needs are distinguished. Right-wing extremist violence can best be explained as a consequence of recognition deficits in all three central integration dimensions.

  17. Clinical findings and diagnosis in genetic prion diseases in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krasnianski, Anna; Heinemann, Uta; Ponto, Claudia; Kortt, Jasmine; Kallenberg, Kai; Varges, Daniela; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Zerr, Inga

    2016-02-01

    To describe the clinical syndrome and diagnostic tests in patients with genetic prion diseases (gPD) in Germany. Clinical features, MRI, EEG, and CSF markers were studied in 91 patients (28 D178N, 20 E200K, 17 inserts, 13 V210I, 8 P102L, 5 E196K). Dementia (35 %) and ataxia (29 %) were the most common initial symptoms and signs. A wide variety and high frequency of neurological/psychiatric symptoms and signs was found during disease course in all patients independently of the type of the mutation. Psychiatric manifestations were frequent (87 %). Neuropsychological abnormalities were observed in 67 %, and aphasia was the most common disturbance (45 %). In E200K, V210I and D178N patients, visual/oculomotor deficits were followed by ataxia early in the disease. Dementia followed by ataxia at onset was common in patients with insert and E196K mutation. P102L patients had isolated ataxia over a longer time period followed by pyramidal signs. Dementia was present only late in the disease course. All clinical routine tests such as MRI, EEG and CSF tests were less sensitive than in sporadic CJD. We provide the first detailed analysis of clinical signs and symptoms in a large group of patients with gPD. Frequency of clinical symptoms and signs was similar in different mutations in a later disease course, but the sequence of occurrence may be of great diagnostic importance. CSF markers were shown to be more sensitive than MRI and EEG.

  18. Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms among Turkish Immigrants in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health. PMID:25222474

  19. Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right. The Rhine, one of the largest and most used waterways in central Europe, winds its way through five countries from the Swiss-Austrian Alps to the North Sea coast of the Netherlands. The river valley is densely populated, as seen in this image, which shows the French city of Strasbourg, the light blue and orange area in the upper left center; and the German cities of Kehl, across the river from Strasbourg and Offenburg, the bright area in right center. The fertile valley is famous for its wine production and most of the agricultural areas in the image, shown in purple patches, are vineyards. The light green areas are forest. Scientists can use radar images like this one to monitor the effects of urban and agricultural development on sensitive ecosystems such as the Rhine River valley. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is 34.2 kilometers by 33.2 kilometers (21.2 miles by 20.6 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 7.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  20. Imidazole receptors. 22-24 July 1998, Bonn, Germany.

    PubMed

    Head, G A

    1998-10-01

    This two-day symposium was the third international meeting on imidazoline receptors and an official satellite of the XIIIth International Congress of Pharmacology, held the following week in Munich. The meeting was very well-organized by the local hosts, Manfred Gothert and Gert Molderings (Pharmacology Department, Bonn University, Germany). With approximately 100 participants from 13 countries, representing Europe, North and South America, and Australia, the symposium was slightly smaller than the 1994 meeting in New York, but similar in size to the 1992 inaugural meeting in Paris. What stood out from this meeting was the considerable maturation in the confidence that imidazoline-binding sites are functional receptors. Also, the therapeutic implications have dramatically diversified in the last four years. It is now thought that these receptors play a role in hypertension, pancreatic function, cell proliferation, regulation of body fat, neuroprotection, inflammation and some psychiatric disorders, such as depression. This may partly explain the reluctance to further classify imidazoline subtypes, while the previous I1 and I2 classification is now clearly inadequate to satisfy the four to five subtypes that were described. The format of the meeting was similar to those held previously with 27 invited state of the art presentations divided into seven sessions covering topics from molecular and cellular biology, endogenous ligands, receptor identification and classification through functional studies and pathophysiology and their relevance. Over 40 submitted posters were displayed for the entire meeting and a new addition to the format was an evening set aside for three concurrent poster discussion sessions, which provided each participant with the opportunity to present work to a wider audience. This review will focus on the major developments presented at the symposium following the thematic outline of the program.

  1. Antibiotics for the common cold: expectations of Germany's general population.

    PubMed

    Faber, M S; Heckenbach, K; Velasco, E; Eckmanns, T

    2010-09-02

    Physicians mention patients' expectations as a reason for prescribing antibiotics for common (viral) upper respiratory tract infections despite clinical evidence against their use and the physicians' better judgement. We aimed to assess the prevalence of such expectations and factors of influence (knowledge and attitudes) in Germany's general population. In November 2008, 1,778 persons registered with a large market research company were invited to complete an online questionnaire on expectations concerning prescription of antibiotics and on knowledge and attitudes regarding the effectiveness and use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections. A total of 1,076 persons aged 15-78 years participated (response: 61%), of whom 91.8% reported using antibiotics 'only if absolutely necessary'. Prescription of antibiotics was expected by 113 (10.5%) of the 1,076 respondents for the common cold and by 997 (92.7%) for pneumonia. In a logistic regression analysis, predictors for expecting a prescription for antibiotics for the common cold included the following opinions: 'common cold or flu can effectively be treated with antibiotics' (prevalence: 37.6%; odds ratio (OR): 9.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8 to 24.3) and 'antibiotics should be taken when having a sore throat to prevent more serious illness' (prevalence 8.6%; OR: 7.6; 95% CI: 3.9 to 14.5). Among those expecting a prescription (n=113), 80 (71%) reported that they would trust their physician when he or she deems a prescription unnecessary; a further eight (7%) would be unsatisfied, but would accept the decision. Our results suggest that only a minority expects antibiotics for the treatment of cold symptoms. Physicians should be educated that their decisions not to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold, even when against patients' expectations, are apparently accepted by the majority.

  2. Late Holocene eolian fossilization of Podzols in Northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas; Schneider, Anna; Wechler, Klaus-Peter

    2016-04-01

    The North European lowland has been formed by glacial and periglacial processes in the Late Pleistocene. Multiple reshaping since the Late Glacial considerably changed the landscape up to and including especially historic times. Sediment sequences and (fossilized) soils can improve our understanding of Late Quaternary landscape development, but mapping of buried soils and surfaces is often limited to single outcrops. Ongoing archaeological rescue excavations in the pre-field of the open-cast mine Cottbus-Nord (northeastern Germany) with dense excavation trenches in an about 10 ha dune and drift sand area reveal multilayered sediment sequences with fossilized soils and sediments from the Late Pleistocene to the Late Holocene. Archaeological findings ranging from Mesolithic flint stones to an about 200 year old ceramics in eolian sediments covering plow horizons and wheel tracks suggest that eolian relocation of sandy material was intensive about 200 years ago. Still unpublished OSL dating underline the intense eolian activity. Recent studies showed that between the 15Th to the 19Th century an iron smelter 5 km to the west of our study site was supplied with charcoal, which was produced in a forest 5 km east to our study site. Our current findings about Late Holocene eolian activity raise the question if this eolian reshaping of the landscape is connected with the operation of the iron smelter either directly by transport or bog iron ore winning or indirectly by population pressure caused by the prospering iron smelter. Our ongoing research indicates, that already for historic land-use off-site effects causing further landscape changes have to be considered.

  3. A Copernicus downstream service for surface displacement monitoring in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyadi Kalia, Andre; Frei, Michaela; Lege, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    SAR Interferometry is a powerful technique able to detect and monitor various surface displacements caused by e.g. gravitative mass movement, subrosion, groundwater extraction, fluid injection, natural gas extraction. These processes can e.g. cause damage to buildings, infrastructure, affect ecosystems, agriculture and the economic use of the geological underground by influencing the hydro(geo)logical setting. Advanced techniques of interferometric processing (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry, PSI) allow highly precise displacement measurements (mm precision) by analyzing stacks of SAR imagery. The PSI mapping coverage can be increased to entire nations by using several adjacent satellite tracks. In order to assist the operational use of this technique a German-wide, officially approved, PSI dataset is under development. The intention of this presentation is to show i) the concept of the Copernicus downstream service for surface displacement monitoring in Germany and ii) a pilot study to exemplarily demonstrate the workflow and potential products from the Copernicus downstream service. The pilot study is focusing on the built up of an officially approved wide-area PSI dataset. The study area covers an area of more than 30.000 km² and is located in the Northwest German Basin. Several natural processes (e.g. compaction of marine sediments, peat loss) and anthropogenic activities (e.g. natural gas extraction, rock salt mining) are causing surface displacements in the study area. The PSI analysis is based on six ERS-1/-2 data stacks covering the timespan from 1992 until 2001. Each data stack consists of 49 to 73 ERS-1/-2 SAR images. A comparison of the PSI results with thematic data (e.g. volume and location of extracted natural gas) strongly indicates that a part of the detected land subsidence is caused by natural gas extraction. Furthermore, land subsidence caused by e.g. fluid injection and rock salt mining were successfully detected by the PSI analysis.

  4. Fluorite-related one-dimensional units in natural bismuth oxysulfates: the crystal structures of Bi14O16(SO4)5 and Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Daniela; Garavelli, Anna; Bindi, Luca

    2015-10-01

    The crystal structures of two new natural Bi oxysulfates with the formula Bi14O16(SO4)5 [labelled new phase I; monoclinic, space group C2, a = 21.658 (4), b = 5.6648 (9), c = 15.092 (3) Å, β = 119.433 (11)° and Z = 2] and Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2 [labelled new phase II; triclinic, space group P1, a = 5.670 (3), b = 13.9408 (9), c = 22.7908 (18) Å, α = 80.903 (5), β = 82.854 (14), γ = 78.27 (2)° and Z = 1] from the high-temperature fumarole deposit of the La Fossa crater at Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) are reported. The structures are built up by a combination of fluorite-related Bi-O units and isolated (SO4)(2-) tetrahedra (new phase I) or both (SO4)(2-) and (AsO4)(3-) tetrahedra (new phase II). Owing to the effect of stereoactive lone pairs of Bi(3+), Bi-O units in both the structures can be suitably described in terms of oxo-centered OBi4 tetrahedra. The structure of Bi14O16(SO4)5 is based upon one-dimensional [O16Bi14](10+) ribbons formed by six chains of edge-sharing OBi4 tetrahedra extending along [010]. In the structure of Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2 the same ribbon type coexists with another one-dimensional ribbon formed by seven chains of edge-sharing OBi4 tetrahedra and with the composition [O17Bi16](14+). Ribbons of the same type are joined by (SO4)(2-) and (AsO4)(3-) tetrahedra along [010] – if a reduced triclinic unit-cell setting is considered – so forming two different (001) slabs which alternate to each other along [001] and are joined by additional (SO4)(2-) tetrahedra. New phase I represents the natural analogues of synthetic Bi14O16(SO4)5, but with an ordered structure model.

  5. Education after Auschwitz in a United Germany: A Comparative Analysis of the Teaching of the History of National Socialism in East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meseth, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the teaching of the history of National Socialism in East and West Germany. Against the backdrop of the dual politics of memory that existed before reunification, the article examines how the divergent value systems of the two German nations came together to produce a single national conception of "Education after…

  6. Labour Market Policy in Germany: Job Placement, Unemployment Insurance and Active Labour Market Policy in Germany. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blien, Uwe; Walwei, Ulrich; Werner, Heinz

    Job placement, unemployment insurance, and active labor market policy in Germany were reviewed. The following were among the review's main conclusions: (1) measures of active and passive labor market policy are still regarded as important to combating unemployment and improving the matching function of the German labor market; (2) the many…

  7. European Forum on Educational Administration. Report on the Intervisitation Programme in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. (Mainz, West Germany, August 24-31, 1980.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopes, Clive, Ed.

    A number of educators formed a network and established the European Forum on Educational Administration. The Forum's program described in this publication had a duration of one week consisting of a day of intensive orientation to the Federal Republic of Germany's education system, two and a half days of visits to educational institutions in the…

  8. Combined search for the Standard Model Higgs boson using up to 4.9 fb-1 of pp collision data at √{ s} = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.

    2012-03-01

    A combined search for the Standard Model Higgs boson with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC using datasets corresponding to integrated luminosities from 1.04 fb-1 to 4.9 fb-1 of pp collisions collected at √{ s} = 7 TeV is presented. The Higgs boson mass ranges 112.9-115.5 GeV, 131-238 GeV and 251-466 GeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level (CL), while the range 124-519 GeV is expected to be excluded in the absence of a signal. An excess of events is observed around mH ˜ 126 GeV with a local significance of 3.5 standard deviations (σ). The local significances of H → γγ, H → ZZ (*) →ℓ+ℓ-ℓ‧+ℓ‧- and H → WW (*) →ℓ+ νℓ‧-νbar, the three most sensitive channels in this mass range, are 2.8σ, 2.1σ and 1.4σ, respectively. The global probability for the background to produce such a fluctuation anywhere in the explored Higgs boson mass range 110-600 GeV is estimated to be ˜ 1.4% or, equivalently, 2.2σ.

  9. A Novel Four-Way Complex Variant Translocation Involving Chromosome 46,XY,t(4;9;19;22)(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2) in a Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patient

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Muhammad; Jamal, Mohammad Sarwar; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Abrar; Choudhry, Hani; Malik, Arif; Khan, Shahida Aziz; Mahmoud, Maged Mostafa; Ali, Ashraf; Iram, Saima; Kamran, Kashif; Iqbal, Asim; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Rasool, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome (9;22)(q34;q11) is well established in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, and the remaining 5–8% of CML patients show variant and complex translocations, with the involvement of third, fourth, or fifth chromosome other than 9;22. However, in very rare cases, the fourth chromosome is involved. Here, we found a novel case of four-way Ph+ chromosome translocation involving 46,XY,t(4;9;19;22)(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2) with CML in the chronic phase. Complete blood cell count of the CML patient was carried out to obtain total leukocytes count, hemoglobin, and platelets. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used for the identification of BCR–ABL fusion gene, and cytogenetic test for the confirmation of Ph (9;22)(q34;q11) and the mechanism of variant translocation in the bone marrow. The patient is successfully treated with a dose of 400 mg/day imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). We observed a significant decrease in white blood cell count of 11.7 × 109/L after 48-month follow-up. Patient started feeling better generally. There was a reduction in the swelling of the body, fatigue, and anxiety. PMID:27303656

  10. Combined search for the Standard Model Higgs boson using up to 4.9 fb⁻¹ of pp collision data at √s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2012-03-01

    A combined search for the Standard Model Higgs boson with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC using datasets corresponding to integrated luminosities from 1.04 fb⁻¹ to 4.9 fb⁻¹ of pp collisions collected at √s=7 TeV is presented. The Higgs boson mass ranges 112.9–115.5 GeV, 131–238 GeV and 251–466 GeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level (CL), while the range 124–519 GeV is expected to be excluded in the absence of a signal. An excess of events is observed around mH~126 GeV with a local significance of 3.5 standard deviations (σ ). The local significances of H → γγ, Hmore » → ZZ(⁎) → ℓ⁺ℓ⁻ℓ′⁺ℓ′⁻ and H → WW(⁎) → ℓ⁺νℓ′⁻ν¯, the three most sensitive channels in this mass range, are 2.8σ, 2.1σ and 1.4σ, respectively. The global probability for the background to produce such a fluctuation anywhere in the explored Higgs boson mass range 110–600 GeV is estimated to be ~1.4% or, equivalently, 2.2σ.« less

  11. Investigation of 9-(2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-6-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-yl)-3,3-dimethyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-xanthen-1-one: Crystal structure, AIM and NBO analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, Mani; Jagatheeswaran, Kothandapani; Ganesan, Subramaniapillai Selva; Venkataramanan, Natarajan S.; Madan Kumar, Shankar; Byrappa, Kullaiah; Thamotharan, Subbiah

    2017-04-01

    Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that the 9-(2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-6-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-yl)-3,3-dimethyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-xanthen-1-one, crystallizes in the centrosymmetric space group P21/c. In the crystal, molecules form as a dimer through a keto-enol type hydrogen-bonding pattern along with intermolecular Csbnd H⋯O interactions. The crystal structure of the title compound is further stabilized by intermolecular H⋯H interactions. Various intermolecular interactions present in the crystal structure are quantified by Hirshfeld surface analysis, PIXEL energy, NBO, AIM and DFT calculations. The energetics of the title compound is also compared with that of the two closely related analogs. Further, the vibrational modes of the interacting groups are characterized using both the experimental and simulated FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The experimental and calculated UV-visible spectra are compared and agree well. The time-dependent DFT spectra suggest that the ligand-to-ligand charge transfer within the molecule is responsible for the intense absorbance.

  12. Synthesis of 1-/2-substituted-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-g]phthalazine-4,9-diones and evaluation of their cytotoxicity and topoisomerase II inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sung; Rhee, Hee-Kyung; Park, Hyen Joo; Lee, Sang Kook; Lee, Chong-Ock; Park Choo, Hea-Young

    2008-04-15

    Studies on antitumor heterocyclic quinones containing nitrogens revealed that the number and position of nitrogens on the heterocyclic ring have significance on cytotoxicity of quinones. In our continuous effort to find more cytotoxic quinone compounds, we designed triazolophthalazine analogues in order to introduce more nitrogens on the heterocyclic quinones. 1-/2-Substituted-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-g]phthalazine-4,9-diones were synthesized by 1,3-dipolar addition of phthalazine-5,8-dione and 4-methoxybenzyl azide by modification of previously reported method. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by a SRB (sulforhodamine B) assay against nine types of human cancer cell lines and inhibition against topoisomerase II (Topo II) of them was assessed by a decatenation assay. Most of the synthesized compounds showed considerably higher cytotoxicity than that of doxorubicin. Also, topoisomerase II inhibitory activity of the tested compounds was higher than that of etoposide and IC(50) values of the compounds were 19.4-64.5 microM.

  13. Highly sensitive and selective dopamine biosensor based on 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid functionalized graphene sheets/multi-wall carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid composite film modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiuli; Yang, Wu; Guo, Hao; Ren, Jie; Gao, Jinzhang

    2013-03-15

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of dopamine (DA) was fabricated based on 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid functionalized graphene sheets, multi-wall carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid modified glass carbon electrode and the properties of modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of DA. Meanwhile, a possible reaction mechanism related to the oxidation of DA was proposed. The differential pulse voltammetry was used for the determination of DA in the presence of 500 μM ascorbic acid and 330 μM uric acid under the optimum conditions and a good linear relationship between peak current and the concentration of DA was obtained in the concentration range from 0.03 μM to 3.82 mM with a detection limit of 1.2×10(-9) M (S/N=3). Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine DA in real sample and satisfactory results were obtained. The results showed that the modified electrode exhibits an excellent catalytic activity, good sensitivity, reproducibility and long-term stability.

  14. Parasites of sheep herding dogs in central Germany.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kaulfuß, Karl-heinz; Visser, Martin; Sommer, Maria Franziska; Grimm, Felix; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on endoparasite infections diagnosed in 2012 by standard coproscopical techniques and coproantigen Giardia ELISA in 165 dogs used for sheep herding in 36 farms in central Germany. The overall prevalence of dogs with evidence of endoparasite infections was 27.3% (95% CI 20.6-34.7). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 6.7%; Toxascaris 3.6%), hookworms (5.5%) and taeniid cestodes (4.2%), followed by those of Trichuris whipworms (3.0%), Capillaria aerophila (1.8%), Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma lungworms (1.2% each) and Cystoisospora canis coccidians (0.6%). Molecular identification demonstrated the seven dogs shedding taeniid eggs positive for Taenia (T.) species tapeworms (five, T. hydatigena; one, T. ovis; one Taenia sp.). Screening of the faeces with the coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia specific antigen in 5.5% of the samples. The majority of the dogs had evidence of single endoparasite infections (22.4%) while evidence for infection with two or three parasites concurrently was found in six (3.6%) and two (1.2%) of the dogs, respectively. Dogs ≤ 1 year (n = 19) were parasitized more frequently (p < 0.05) with overall gastrointestinal parasites (63.2% vs. 20.5%), ascarids (36.8% vs. 6.8%) and Giardia spp. (21.1% vs. 3.4%) than older dogs (n = 146). Dogs which had been wormed within six months of examination tested less frequently positive for gastrointestinal helminths compared to dogs not wormed (11.1% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.0567). In addition, ear swabs taken from 43 sheep dogs in 2012 were examined, and Otodectes cynotis mites were extracted from one dog. Identification of ectoparasites collected by full body search and combing from 113 sheep dogs in the years 2011 to 2013 revealed infestation of fleas and ticks (each up to five specimens per dog) on 13 and 108 dogs, respectively, with nine dogs carrying both fleas and ticks. Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ctenocephalides (C) canis, C. felis and Pulex irritans

  15. Identification of a Novel Hepacivirus in Domestic Cattle from Germany

    PubMed Central

    Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Alawi, Malik; Indenbirken, Daniela; Postel, Alexander; Baron, Anna Lena; Offinger, Jennifer; Becker, Kathrin; Beineke, Andreas; Rehage, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to represent one of the most significant threats to human health. In recent years, HCV-related sequences have been found in bats, rodents, horses, and dogs, indicating a widespread distribution of hepaciviruses among animals. By applying unbiased high-throughput sequencing, a novel virus of the genus Hepacivirus was discovered in a bovine serum sample. De novo assembly yielded a nearly full-length genome coding for a polyprotein of 2,779 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the virus represents a novel species within the genus Hepacivirus. Viral RNA screening determined that 1.6% (n = 5) of 320 individual animals and 3.2% (n = 5) of 158 investigated cattle herds in Germany were positive for bovine hepacivirus. Repeated reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of animals from one dairy herd proved that a substantial percentage of cows were infected, with some of them being viremic for over 6 months. Clinical and postmortem examination revealed no signs of disease, including liver damage. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR from different organs and tissues, together with the presence of an miR-122 binding site in the viral genome, strongly suggests a liver tropism for bovine hepacivirus, making this novel virus a promising animal model for HCV infections in humans. IMPORTANCE Livestock animals act as important sources for emerging pathogens. In particular, their large herd size and the existence of multiple ways of direct and food-borne infection routes emphasize their role as virus reservoirs. Apart from the search for novel viruses, detailed characterization of these pathogens is indispensable in the context of risk analysis. Here, we describe the identification of a novel HCV-like virus in cattle. In addition, determination of the prevalence and of the course of infection in cattle herds provides valuable insights into the biology of this novel virus. The results presented here form a basis for future

  16. Incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder after traffic accidents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Petri, Maximilian; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is possibly an overlooked diagnosis of victims suffering from traffic accidents sustaining serious to severe injuries. This paper investigates the incidence of PTSD after traffic accidents in Germany. Data from an accident research unit were analyzed in regard to collision details, and preclinical and clinical data. Preclinical data included details on crash circumstances and estimated injury severity as well as data on victims' conditions (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, breath rate). Clinical data included initial assessment in the emergency department, radiographic diagnoses, and basic life parameters comparable to the preclinical data as well as follow-up data on the daily ward. Data were collected in the German-In-Depth Accident Research study, and included gender, type of accident (e.g. type of vehicle, road conditions, rural or urban area), mental disorder, and AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) head score. AIS represent a scoring system to measure the injury severity of traffic accident victims. A total 258 out of 32807 data sets were included in this analysis. Data on accident and victims was collected on scene by specialized teams following established algorithms. Besides higher AIS Head scores for male motorcyclists compared to all other subgroups, no significant correlation was found between the mean maximum AIS score and the occurrence of PTSD. Furthermore, there was no correlation between higher AIS head scores, gender, or involvement in road traffic accidents and PTSD. In our study the overall incidence of PTSD after road traffic accidents was very low (0.78% in a total of 32.807 collected data sets) when compared to other published studies. The reason for this very low incidence of PTSD in our patient sample could be seen in an underestimation of the psychophysiological impact of traffic accidents on patients. Patients suffering from direct experiences of traumatic events such as a traffic accident

  17. XIXth century earthquakes in Belgium, the Netherlands and western Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuts, Elisabeth; Dost, Bernard; Alexandre, Pierre; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Graben, at the border between Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. Keywords: historical seismicity, doubtful earthquake, fake earthquake, macroseismic map.

  18. White Paper: Radiological Curriculum for Undergraduate Medical Education in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ertl-Wagner, B; Barkhausen, J; Mahnken, A H; Mentzel, H J; Uder, M; Weidemann, J; Stumpp, P

    2016-11-01

    : • Ertl-Wagner B, Barkhausen J, Mahnken AH et al. White Paper: Radiological Curriculum for Undergraduate Medical Education in Germany. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2016; 188: 1017 - 1023.

  19. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  20. U-Pb Geochronology of Hydrous Silica (Siebengebirge, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschek, Frank; Nemchin, Alexander; Geisler, Thorsten; Heuser, Alexander; Merle, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Low-temperature, hydrous weathering eventually leads to characteristic products such as silica indurations. Elevated U concentrations and the ability of silica to maintain a closed system permits silica to be dated by the U-Pb method, which, in turn, will potentially allow constraining the timing of near-surface processes. To test the feasibility of silica U-Pb geochronology, we sampled opal and chalcedony from the Siebengebirge, Germany. This study area is situated at the terminus of the Cenozoic Lower Rhine Basin on the Rhenish Massif. The investigated samples include silicified gravels from the Mittelbachtal locality, renowned for the embedded wood opal. Structural characterization of the silica phases (Raman spectroscopy) was combined with in situ isotopic analyses, using ion microprobe and LA-ICPMS techniques. In the Siebengebirge area fluviatile sediments of Upper Oligocene age were covered by an extended trachyte tuff at around 25 Ma. Silica is known to indurate some domains within the tuff and, in particular, certain horizons within the subjacent fluviatile sediments ('Tertiärquarzite'). Cementation of the gravels occurred during at least three successive growth stages: early paracrystalline silica (opal-CT), fibrous chalcedony, and late microcrystalline quartz. It has traditionally been assumed that this silica induration reflects intense weathering, more or less synchronous with the deposition of the volcanic ashes. Results from U-Pb geochronology returned a range of discrete 206Pb-238U ages, recording a protracted silicification history. For instance, we obtained 22 ± 1 Ma for opal-CT cement from a silicified tuff, 16.6 ± 0.5 Ma for silicified wood and opal-CT cement in the fluviatile gravels, as well as 11 ± 1 Ma for texturally late chalcedony. While silicification of the sampled tuff might be contemporaneous with late-stage basalts, opaline silicification of the subjacent sediments and their wood in the Mittelbachtal clearly postdates active

  1. Tobacco policies in Nazi Germany: not as simple as it seems

    PubMed Central

    Bachinger, Eleonore; McKee, Martin; Gilmore, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective Reluctance to develop effective tobacco control measures in Germany has been attributed to the anti-smoking stance taken by the Nazis, which has encouraged pro-smoking groups to equate tobacco control advocacy with totalitarianism. This paper reassesses the scale and nature of tobacco control in Germany during the Third Reich. Design Analysis of documents and reports about the situation in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s supplemented by a review of Reich legal ordinances, party newspapers, health behaviour guidelines issued by Nazi party organizations, and interviews with expert informants. Results While there was considerable opposition to smoking in Nazi Germany, there was no consistent Nazi policy to combat smoking, and what did exist built on pre-existing policies. Although extreme measures were taken in isolated localities or by overzealous party members, there was a marked ambivalence to tobacco control at the highest levels. Many policies were contradictory; measures were often not enforced, and cigarettes were actively distributed to ‘deserving’ groups. Conclusion Policies on tobacco in Nazi Germany are much more complex than is often represented by those who invoke them to condemn those seeking to reduce the burden of disease caused by smoking. PMID:18222506

  2. Dealing with the mentally ill in the criminal justice system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert; Lau, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Mentally disordered prisoners in Germany are subject to special legal regulations, which can be traced back to the 1933 "Dangerous Habitual Offenders and their Detention and Rehabilitation Act". There are no special diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. In recent years the number of occupied beds in forensic psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. At the same time the number of people in prisons has slightly decreased while there has been a slight increase in the number of available beds in general psychiatry. Germany experienced public and media concern about the risk posed by conditionally released mentally ill offenders and other perceived inadequacies in the criminal justice system. Therefore the way in which prisoners or forensic patients are supervised after they have been discharged was reformed in 2007 in order to assure a more efficient control of their conduct after their release from custody by means of mandatory treatment and monitoring. Special outpatient clinics were to assist discharged patients in complying with the conditions of probation and parole. However organisational structures for these specialised outpatient institutions vary within Germany because of its federal administration. This results in regional differences in conditions of treatment and probably in differences in quality as well, but surveys about the effects, efficacy or effectiveness of forensic outpatient treatment in Germany are scarce.

  3. Reconstruction of two colonisation pathways of Mantis religiosa (Mantodea) in Germany using four mitochondrial markers.

    PubMed

    Linn, Catherine Anne; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2015-02-01

    Past and recent climatic changes induced shifts in species ranges. Mantis religiosa has also expanded its range across Germany within the past decades. To determine the ancestry of German M. religiosa we sequenced four mitochondrial genes (COI, COII, Cyt b, ND4) of European M. religiosa populations. We found an east, central and west European lineage of M. religiosa. These distinct lineages are consistent with genetic isolation by distance during glacial periods, and the re-colonization of northern parts of Europe by species from different refugia. Within Germany, we found haplotypes clustering to the central and west European lineage suggesting that M. religiosa immigrated from two directions into Germany. Mismatch distributions, and negative Tajima's D and Fu's Fs values indicate a current range expansion of the central and west European lineage. We hypothesise that ongoing global warming which increases the availability of thermally favourable areas in Germany for M. religiosa adds to its current range expansion. In conclusion, M. religiosa colonized Germany via two directions: west German populations descended from French populations and east German populations from Czech populations.

  4. Jung's views of Nazi Germany: the first year and Jung's transition.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William; Schoenl, Linda

    2016-09-01

    This article first considers Jung's response to the coming to power of the Nazis in Germany. It brings forth evidence that, besides wanting to preserve psychotherapy in Germany and maintain the international connection between the German and other communities of psychotherapists, he wanted to advance Jungian psychology - his psychology - in Germany. It also presents evidence that, although he occasionally made some anti-Semitic statements during this early period, he was not anti-Semitic in the way the Nazis were. The paper then argues that after Gustav Bally's criticisms in the Neue Zuercher Zeitung in February 1934, Jung entered into a transitional period that spring during which he became warier both of the Nazis and of making any statements that could be construed as being anti-Semitic. Schoenl and Peck (2012) have shown how Jung's views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. This present article demonstrates very significant changes in Jung's views during the important early part of this period, that is from January 1933 - when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany - through to the spring of 1934. It draws on evidence from archival and other primary sources.

  5. Quantifying erosion over timescales of one million years: A photogrammetric approach on the amount of Rhenish erosion in southwestern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Annette; Strasser, Marcel; Seyfried, Hartmut

    2010-10-01

    The Lein valley in southwestern Germany possesses well-preserved Pliocene to mid Pleistocene land surfaces featuring a gentle relief and sediments accumulated by former tributaries of the Danube. This ancient Danubian land surface was captured and incised by mid Pleistocene to Holocene tributaries of the River Rhine. In a photogrammetric approach we calculated the volume of material extracted by Rhenish erosion providing a first quantification of the effects of stream piracy on timescales of about 1 Ma. Using stereoscopic surface modelling software a DEM was generated with a resolution of 5 m. From borehole data, literature, geological maps, and own field observations we determined the morphometric parameters of the ancient Danubian Ur-Lein valley. The gradient was imported as a 3D-breakline into the model where it controls the reinterpolation of surrounding data points. The result is a high-resolution DEM of the valley of the Ur-Lein. Subtraction of the DEM of the actual landscape from the DEM of the ancient Ur-Lein valley yields a model representing the rock volume eroded by the Rhenish Lein which totals 1.39 km 3 and converts into a rate of erosion between 63 and 74 mm/ka over a period of 700 to 600 ka, respectively, in accordance with figures obtained elsewhere in Central Europe through cosmogenic nuclides. It reflects the dominance of frequent fluctuations in climate and is considered to be mainly a product of strong changes in temperature and related processes during the transitional times between mid to late Pleistocene warm and cold states. A filtering procedure applied to cold and transitional state erosion rates of the Middle and Late Pleistocene yielded peak values between 66 and 77 mm/ka, up to three times higher than the modern rate or the rate of warm-state episodes. An assessment of the contribution of Rhenish stream piracy on long-term mid Pleistocene denudation under changing climate conditions resulted in a maximum 4.9-fold acceleration.

  6. Development of Spiro[cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene-4,9'-fluorene]-Based A-π-D-π-A Small Molecules with Different Acceptor Units for Efficient Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wengong; Shen, Ping; Dong, Xinning; Weng, Chao; Wang, Guo; Bin, Haijun; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Li, Yongfang

    2017-02-08

    Three acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor (A-π-D-π-A) small molecules (STFYT, STFRDN, and STFRCN) with spiro[cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene-4,9'-fluorene] (STF) as the central donor unit, terthiophene as the π-conjugated bridge, indenedione, 3-ethylrhodanine, or 2-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)rhodanine as the acceptor unit are designed, synthesized, and characterized as electron donor materials in solution-processing organic solar cells (OSCs). The effects of the spiro STF-based central core and different acceptors on the molecular configuration, absorption properties, electronic energy levels, carrier transport properties, the morphology of active layers, and photovoltaic properties are investigated in detail. The three molecules exhibit desirable physicochemical features: wide absorption bands (300-850 nm) and high molar absorption coefficients (4.82 × 10(4) to 7.56 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)) and relatively low HOMO levels (-5.15 to -5.38 eV). Density functional theory calculations reveal that the spiro STF central core benefits to reduce the steric hindrance effect between the central donor block and terthiophene bridge and suppress excessive intermolecular aggregations. The optimized OSCs based on these molecules deliver power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 6.68%, 3.30%, and 4.33% for STFYT, STFRDN, and STFRCN, respectively. The higher PCE of STFYT-based OSCs should be ascribed to its better absorption ability, higher and balanced hole and electron mobilities, and superior active layer morphology as compared to the other two compounds. So far, this is the first example of developing the A-π-D-π-A type small molecules with a spiro central donor core for high-performance OSC applications. Meanwhile, these results demonstrate that using spiro central block to construct A-π-D-π-A molecule is an alternative and effective strategy for achieving high-performance small molecule donor materials.

  7. The gadolinium nitride selenides Gd3NSe3 and Gd23N5Se27: Three connectivity types of [NGd4]9+ tetrahedra and fivefold coordinated Gd3+ cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurz, Christian M.; Talmon-Gros, Pia; Lissner, Falk; Schleid, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The gadolinium nitride selenides Gd3NSe3 and Gd23N5Se27 are formed by the reaction of gadolinium metal with its triiodide, cesium azide and selenium along with an excess of cesium iodide as flux within seven days at 900 °C in torch-sealed evacuated silica ampoules. The dominant phase Gd3NSe3 crystallizes isotypically with Sm3NS3 in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (unit cell: a = 1256.71(9) pm, b = 398.65(3) pm, c = 1318.32(9) pm, Z = 4). Thus nitride-centered (Gd4)12+ tetrahedra are linked via two vertices each forming {[}∞1 chains (t = terminal, v = vertex-shared) along [010], which become interconnected by three crystallographically different Se2- anions. Beside C-type of Gd2Se3 and at least another unknown phase powder diffraction experiments show additional reflections indicating the second nitride selenide Gd23N5Se27. This new compound crystallizes non-centrosymmetrically in the monoclinic space group Pc (unit cell: a = 2854.87(19) pm, b = 1227.94(8) pm, c = 747.62(5) pm, β = 94.215(3)°, Z = 2). Here, {(}∞2 and {(}∞2 layers embed the main structural features of isolated [NGd4]9+ tetrahedra and isolated congonial [N2Gd6]12+ bitetrahedra. Another particularity is the fivefold coordination of the (Gd4)3+ cations with one short contact to N3- and four relatively short bonds to four Se2- anions, respectively.

  8. The action of the DNA intercalating agents 4'-(9-acridinylamino) methanesulphon-m-anisidide and 1,4-bis(butylamino) benzo[g]phthalazine in U-937 human promonocytic cells: relationship between cell cycle and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C; Campayo, L; Navarro, P; García-Bermejo, L; Aller, P

    1994-07-05

    The action of two structurally related DNA intercalating agents has been studied and compared, namely 4'-(9-acridinylamino) methanesulphon-m-anisidide (amsacrine, mAMSA) and 1,4-bis(butylamino)benzo[g]phthalazine (ABP) on the cell cycle and differentiation of U-937 human promonocytic leukemia cells. mAMSA (0.1 microM) and ABP (4 microM) reduced the proliferation activity to a similar extent and caused little cell mortality. At these subcytotoxic concentrations mAMSA induced the cells to accumulate at the G2 phase of the cycle, while cycle inhibition provoked by ABP was not phase specific. In addition, mAMSA caused an increase in the cell mass while ABP provoked cell shrinkage. This was consistent with the fact that ABP considerably inhibited protein synthesis, while mAMSA did not significantly affect this activity. SDS/K+DNA precipitation assays indicated that mAMSA, but not ABP, stimulated protein-DNA covalent complex formation. Finally, it was found that mAMSA, but not ABP, elicited the expression of differentiation markers, namely nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, activation of vimentin and leukocyte integrin (CD11b/CD18 and CD11c/CD18) expression, and downregulation of c-myc expression. The DNA intercalators doxorubicin and mitoxantrone, which like mAMSA induced the cells to accumulate at the G2 phase and increased the cell mass, induced the expression of differentiation markers. In contrast, the intercalators aclarubicin and caffeine and the non-intercalator novobiocin, which produced minor alterations on cell-cycle distribution and caused cell shrinkage, did not significantly elicit differentiation. These results support the conclusion that differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells by cytostatic drugs depends on the perturbations of the cell cycle, leading to disproportionate increases in cell mass.

  9. Purification and Characterization of a New Antifungal Compound 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic Acid Methyl Ester from Streptomyces hydrogenans Strain DH16

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kaur, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vishal; Manhas, Rajesh K.

    2016-01-01

    In agriculture, biocontrol agents have been emerged as safe alternative to chemical pesticides where Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites constitute a great potential for their exploration as potent agents for controlling various fungal phytopathogens. The present study reports an antifungal compound purified from Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16, a soil isolate, using silica gel chromatography and semi preparative HPLC. The compound was characterized using various spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H and 13C NMR) and named 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic acid methyl ester (SH2). Compound (SH2) showed significant inhibitory activity against fungal phytopathogens and resulted in severe morphological aberrations in their structure. Minimal inhibitory and minimal fungicidal concentrations of the compound ranged from 6.25 to 25 μg/ml and 25 to 50 μg/ml, respectively. In vivo evaluation of the compound showed strong control efficacy against Alternaria brassicicola, a seed borne pathogen, on radish seeds. In comparison to mancozeb and carbendazim, the compound was more effective in controlling damping off disease. Additionally, it promoted plant growth with increased rate of seed germination, and displayed no phytotoxicity. The compound retained its antifungal activity after its exposure to temperature of 100°C and sunlight for 1 h. Furthermore, the compound (SH2) when tested for its biosafety was found to be non-cytotoxic, and non-mutagenic against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. This compound from S. hydrogenans strain DH16 has not been reported earlier, so this new compound can be developed as an ideal safe and superior biofungicide for the control of various fungal plant diseases. PMID:27446043

  10. Purification and Characterization of a New Antifungal Compound 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic Acid Methyl Ester from Streptomyces hydrogenans Strain DH16.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kaur, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vishal; Manhas, Rajesh K

    2016-01-01

    In agriculture, biocontrol agents have been emerged as safe alternative to chemical pesticides where Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites constitute a great potential for their exploration as potent agents for controlling various fungal phytopathogens. The present study reports an antifungal compound purified from Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16, a soil isolate, using silica gel chromatography and semi preparative HPLC. The compound was characterized using various spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR) and named 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic acid methyl ester (SH2). Compound (SH2) showed significant inhibitory activity against fungal phytopathogens and resulted in severe morphological aberrations in their structure. Minimal inhibitory and minimal fungicidal concentrations of the compound ranged from 6.25 to 25 μg/ml and 25 to 50 μg/ml, respectively. In vivo evaluation of the compound showed strong control efficacy against Alternaria brassicicola, a seed borne pathogen, on radish seeds. In comparison to mancozeb and carbendazim, the compound was more effective in controlling damping off disease. Additionally, it promoted plant growth with increased rate of seed germination, and displayed no phytotoxicity. The compound retained its antifungal activity after its exposure to temperature of 100°C and sunlight for 1 h. Furthermore, the compound (SH2) when tested for its biosafety was found to be non-cytotoxic, and non-mutagenic against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. This compound from S. hydrogenans strain DH16 has not been reported earlier, so this new compound can be developed as an ideal safe and superior biofungicide for the control of various fungal plant diseases.

  11. Controlling Environmental Policy: The limits of public law in Germany and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    In Controlling Environmental Policy: The Limits of public law in Germany and the United States, Yale University Law Professor Susan Rose-Ackerman provides an informative description and critique of environmental policy-making in Germany, with frequent cross-references to the comparable attributes of the American system. As described by Rose-Ackerman, the German system shares many features of its American counterpart, particularly its reliance on engineering-based command-and-control regulatory strategies and a complex division of regulatory responsibility between national and state governments. Yet, these surface similarities mask important differences. According to the author, the German bureaucracy operates with less effective legislative and judicial supervision than its American counterpart, and Germany delegates more authority for both making and implementing environmental policymaking to the state governments.

  12. Immigrants, Germans and national identity in the new Germany: some policy issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, P N

    1996-06-01

    "This paper considers how the role and status of Germany's diverse immigrant population has been affected by its new geopolitical situation, in particular unification, since 1989.... The paper shows how the integration prospects for Germany's older immigrant populations have been dented by the combination of economic restructuring and a huge upsurge in new types of immigration. Prominent among the latter are ethnic German resettlers (or Aussiedler), and the paper examines how these immigrants find themselves in a weak position.... The paper concludes that, although there would appear to be no major labour shortages within the economy, Germany has to develop a more extensive range of migration policies to cater for the huge demand for economically motivated migration. The alternative will inevitably be a further growth in illegal migration, which would not be helpful to the position of established immigrant populations."

  13. [Low seroprevalence of syphilis and HIV in refugees and asylum seekers in Germany in 2015].

    PubMed

    Jablonka, A; Solbach, P; Nothdorft, S; Hampel, A; Schmidt, R E; Behrens, G M N

    2016-07-01

    Background | Currently only estimates exist of seroprevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in refugees arriving in Germany during the current refugee crisis. Objectives | To assess the prevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in refugees arriving in northern Germany in 2015. Materials and methods | In a cross-sectional study in 790 patients from all age groups tests for serological markers of treponema pallidum and in 789 patients for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were performed in August 2015 in reception centers in northern Germany. Results | The overall prevalence of treponema pallidum antibodies was 0.13 % (1/790; [95 % CI: 0 - 0.4]). HIV antibodies were positive in two refugees from sub-Saharan Africa (2/789; 0.25 %, [95 % CI: 0 - 0.6]). Conclusions | This study showed a low prevalence of treponema pallidum antibodies and human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in a German refugee cohort, not significantly different from German controls.

  14. Different contexts, different effects? Work time and mental health in the United States and Germany.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Sibyl; Schunck, Reinhard; Schömann, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    This paper takes a comparative approach to the topic of work time and health, asking whether weekly work hours matter for mental health. We hypothesize that these relationships differ within the United States and Germany, given the more regulated work time environments within Germany and the greater incentives to work long hours in the United States. We further hypothesize that German women will experience greatest penalties to long hours. We use data from the German Socioeconomic Panel and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine hours effects on mental health score at midlife. The results support our initial hypothesis. In Germany, longer work time is associated with worse mental health, while in the United States, as seen in previous research, the associations are more complex. Our results do not show greater mental health penalties for German women and suggest instead a selection effect into work hours operating by gender.

  15. [Screening for intimate partner violence against women. International discussion, considerations for Germany].

    PubMed

    Brzank, P; Blättner, B

    2010-02-01

    Domestic violence and partner violence against women is a serious problem in many countries, including Germany. This type of violence has far-reaching social, economic, and health consequences for victims. The health sector can play a decisive role within intervention and prevention, if healthcare providers discover at an early stage that violence is the cause for injuries and disorders. Screenings can identify victims of domestic and partner violence. In several other countries, recommendations or agreements about screening for domestic and partner violence in the health sector are already in place. In Germany, however, the discussion about this kind of screening is just beginning. This article introduces the debate by referring to a Health Technology Assessment from the UK and giving an overview. The present findings also justify screening for partner violence against women in Germany. However, further research on the screening instruments used with women as well as other victims, such as men or elderly, is recommended.

  16. Germany-US Nuclear Theory Exchange Program for QCD Studies of Hadrons & Nuclei 'GAUSTEQ'

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2016-03-07

    GAUSTEQ was a Germany-U.S. exchange program in nuclear theory whose purpose was to focus research efforts on QCD studies of hadrons and nuclei, centered around the current and future research programs of Jefferson Lab and the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Germany. GAUSTEQ provided travel support for theoretical physicists at US institutions conducting collaborative research with physicists in Germany. GSI (with its Darmstadt and Helmholtz Institute Mainz braches) served as the German “hub” for visits of U.S. physicists, while Jefferson Lab served as the corresponding “hub” for visits of German physicists visiting U.S. institutions through the reciprocal GUSTEHP (German-US Theory Exchange in Hadron Physics) program. GAUSTEQ was funded by the Office of Nuclear Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No.DE-SC0006758 and officially managed through Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. The program ran between 2011 and 2015.

  17. Lessons from public long-term care insurance in Germany and Japan.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John Creighton; Ikegami, Naoki; Gibson, Mary Jo

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Congress is considering the Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act, a voluntary insurance program that would help pay for long-term services and supports to disabled Americans. In Germany and Japan, social insurance programs are universal, support family caregivers, and allow individuals considerable flexibility in securing the services they require. We explored differences between Germany and Japan in program goals, eligibility process, scope, size, and sustainability for possible applications in the United States. Moreover, when we compared public spending on long-term care, we found that spending in the United States is actually higher than in Germany even now, prior to enactment of the CLASS Act, and is only slightly lower than in Japan.

  18. Cover-collapse sinkholes of the Franconian Alb / Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trappe, M.; Heckmann, T.; Mehlhorn, S.; Umstädter, K.; Miedaner, H.; Becht, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recent events of cover-collapse sinkhole formation, the geomorphological, geological and hydrological conditions of selected sinkholes and the spatial and temporal occurrences of such landforms were studied in the Franconian Alb, a karst area located in southeastern Germany. The Franconian Alb consists of karstified limestones and dolomites of Jurassic Age. It is partly covered by Cretaceous and Miocene deposits and a clayey to loamy overburden. The thickness of the loamy cover ranges from a few decimetres up to ten meters. Sinkholes are widely distributed in the area, to some extent they were formed by cover-collapse processes. In order to prepare a geohazard map, historical records from different archives (municipalities, counties, water management agencies, governmental archives, newspapers) were used for a compilation of sinkholes which resulted from collapses. The frequency of occurrence of cover-collapse sinkholes differs in areas with agricultural or forestal use. Farmers often backfill these surficial cavities immediately after their formation, before they can be registered officially. Therefore a documentation of such collapse events may be restricted in terms of detailed statistical analyses. Nevertheless seasonal clusters of collapses can be observed. Recent collapses show close relations to climatic conditions. During winter or spring the majority of collapse events is associated with snow melt or heavy rainfall resulting in an increase of the soil moisture and a decrease of shear strength within the loamy cover. Consequently, loose material overlaying cavities can be washed down, or the sediment itself moves downward. For single events, the antecedent climatic development (precipitation, thickness of snow cover, air temperature, soil temperature) was analysed for identification of the triggering factors. In this context, small-scale surficial karst depressions without outlet (underlain by thick loamy deposits) show an efficient drainage via a few

  19. [Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bekkering, G E; Kleijnen, J

    2008-12-01

    Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) in Germany invites comments on their protocol and preliminary report by posting them on their website, and comments are made public, the individual comments are not evaluated openly, and therefore it remains uncertain whether or not they lead to changes in the reports. The participation of relevant parties in the assessment process as implemented by NICE guarantees a process that is transparent to all relevant parties. Transparency of the whole process is assured by clear reporting of procedures and criteria in all phases undertaken in the benefit assessment. In a scoping process, a draft scope is commented on first in writing and subsequently in the form of a scoping workshop. In this way, all relevant aspects can be heard and included in the final scope. The protocol is then developed, followed by evidence assessment. The methods used should be completely reported to show readers that the assessment has been performed with scientific rigour and that bias has been prevented where possible. All relevant parties should have the opportunity to comment on the draft protocol and the draft preliminary report. Each comment should be evaluated as to whether or not it will lead to changes, and both the comments and the evaluation should be made public to ensure transparency of this process. The same procedure should be used for the peer-review phase. Based on the final report of the evidence assessment, the institute forms recommendations and the FJC appraises the evidence. During the writing of the final report, a separation between the evidence assessment and the evidence appraisal phase should be implemented. Ideally, this separation should be legally enforced to prevent any confusion about conflict of interests. Such a process guarantees a feasible combination of the legal requirements for transparency and involvement of relevant parties with international standards of EBM to ensure that the benefit assessments of medicines in

  20. [Strengthening Public and Global Health in Germany - an Appraisal of the Statement "Public Health in Germany" by the German Scientific Academies from June 16th 2015].

    PubMed

    Gerhardus, A; Blättner, B; Bolte, G; Dierks, M-L; Dockweiler, C; Faller, G; Gusy, B

    2015-09-01

    In June 2015 the scientific academies "Leopoldina" and "acatech" and the union of the German academies of sciences and humanities published a statement on public and global health in Germany. The statement contains many valuable albeit generic and well-known recommendations. The few specific recommendations focus on centralizing research while weakening the role of universities and on the relative increase of research on public health genomics. These recommendations are not based on empirical or theoretical analyses and risk subverting successful developments of the recent past. To actually strengthen public and global health in Germany the existing institutions need to be backed up while designated funding of public and global health needs to be extended.