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Sample records for mnster germany 4-9

  1. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce DISCLOSURE OF GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by...

  2. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  3. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  4. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  5. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial...

  6. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fees. 4.9 Section 4.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL... must meet the criteria listed at 11 CFR 4.1(n) and his or her request must not be made for a commercial...) or (2) of this section apply, the administrative time limits prescribed in 11 CFR 4.7(c) will...

  7. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fees. 4.9 Section 4.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL... must meet the criteria listed at 11 CFR 4.1(n) and his or her request must not be made for a commercial...) or (2) of this section apply, the administrative time limits prescribed in 11 CFR 4.7(c) will...

  8. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fees. 4.9 Section 4.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL... must meet the criteria listed at 11 CFR 4.1(n) and his or her request must not be made for a commercial...) or (2) of this section apply, the administrative time limits prescribed in 11 CFR 4.7(c) will...

  9. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Fees. 4.9 Section 4.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL... must meet the criteria listed at 11 CFR 4.1(n) and his or her request must not be made for a commercial...) or (2) of this section apply, the administrative time limits prescribed in 11 CFR 4.7(c) will...

  10. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  11. 77 FR 45503 - 4.9 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... errors in these provisions. These changes affecting the 4.9 GHz band in particular will improve spectrum... GHz Band AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission adopts...-4990 MHz (4.9 GHz) band applicants from certified frequency coordination. Next, the Commission...

  12. 43 CFR 1610.4-9 - Monitoring and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Monitoring and evaluation. 1610.4-9 Section 1610.4-9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  13. 77 FR 45558 - 4.9 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically..., system configurations, or geographic morphologies that are best suited for fixed use in the 4.9 GHz...

  14. 2012 BATTERIES GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, MARCH 4-9, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Harris

    2012-03-09

    The Gordon Research Conference on BATTERIES was held at Four Points Sheraton / Holiday Inn Express, Ventura, California, March 4-9, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 176 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  15. 4.9 Doses to Infants From Breastfeeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.9 Doses to Infants From Breastfeeding' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  16. Energy Conservation Education. An Action Approach. Grades 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamm, Michael; Samuel, Barry C.

    Seventeen lessons are provided in this curriculum designed to involve students (grades 4-9) in energy conservation. The lessons are presented in four parts. The three lessons in part I are intended to give students a preliminary conceptual framework for energy conservation and to motivate them to participate in the conservation-action projects…

  17. 44 CFR 4.9 - How does the Administrator receive and respond to comments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the Administrator receive and respond to comments? 4.9 Section 4.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL...

  18. 44 CFR 4.9 - How does the Administrator receive and respond to comments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does the Administrator receive and respond to comments? 4.9 Section 4.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL...

  19. 44 CFR 4.9 - How does the Administrator receive and respond to comments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does the Administrator receive and respond to comments? 4.9 Section 4.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL...

  20. 44 CFR 4.9 - How does the Administrator receive and respond to comments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does the Administrator receive and respond to comments? 4.9 Section 4.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF FEDERAL...

  1. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  2. Germany and NATO

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This work includes the following topics: Road to NATO Germany in NATO, Germany and NATO Defense Policy, Evolution of NATO, German Security in NATO-Domestic Considerations, Toward the Future, The Brussels Treaty, The North Atlantic Treaty, The Future Tasks of Alliance (Harmel Report).

  3. Na + concentration dependence of intermolecular distance in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    We have discussed the Na + concentration dependence of the intermolecular distance of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) dimers in aqueous solution of NaOH. We have particularly focused on the S10-S00 transition of the PTCDA dimers which is sensitive to the intermolecular distance and we have found that the S10 state is split for the higher lying sublevel and the lower lying sublevel with the increase of the Na + concentrations. From the energy shift of the lower lying sublevel, we have estimated the intermolecular distance of the PTCDA dimer, that changes from 7.5 to 4.9 Å by the Na + concentration.

  4. Promoting Literacy in Grades 4-9: A Handbook for Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Karen D., Ed.; Dickinson, Thomas S., Ed.

    This comprehensive handbook focuses on literacy issues in grades 4-9. It is a reference guide that covers everything from the role of the principal and the characteristics of the learners to teaching the gifted and motivating the reluctant learner. Chapters offer an array of examples of student work, classroom vignettes, sample lessons, and…

  5. Global update: Germany.

    PubMed

    Lauter, Frank-Roman; Wirsching, Sandra

    2011-11-01

    Researchers are working on key issues in regenerative medicine in many of the over 280 academic institutions in Germany. Moreover, nonuniversity research institutions such as Helmholtz-, Max-Planck-, Fraunhofer- and Leibniz-Centers provide important contributions to the field of regenerative medicine in Germany. Research on stem cells is conducted in the area of pluripotent stem cells (in particular basic research on induced pluripotent stem [iPS] cells, but also embryonic stem cells) and adult (tissue-specific) stem and progenitor cells, as well as cancer stem cells (both on basic science and translational levels).

  6. Leishmaniasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Harms, Gundel; Schönian, Gabriele; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2003-07-01

    In 2000, a reference center was created to systematically record leishmaniases in Germany. We analyzed 58 cases of leishmaniases imported during a 2-year period. These findings will serve as a baseline for the sandfly vector's anticipated northward move because of global warming and as an advisory for immunocompromised persons traveling to leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  7. Teacher Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viebahn, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Applies the concepts of idealism, individualism, and pragmatism from the Association for Teacher Education in Europe's scenario model to Germany's teacher education. Discusses the current German teacher training system's scholarly approach to idealism; notes organizational problems; examines the special psychological demands on students made by…

  8. Germany's Guest Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupte, Pranay

    1984-01-01

    In wake of a recent recession, Turkish "guest workers" are beginning to feel less welcome in West Germany. Many have accepted government cash incentives to return to Turkey, but others have prospered and wish to stay. The Germans themselves are split over whether the Turks threaten job opportunities for native workers or provide crucial support to…

  9. Career Development in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Hubert

    In Germany, after elementary school, the school system splits into three branches, with students either preparing for an apprenticeship or continuing in school. A second system exists, parallel to this education system, which combines general education with basic professional training. The first key career decision point is in Grade 4, when…

  10. Germany in Europe 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    The results of the 10-week National Defense Education Act (NDEA) Third-Level Institute for Secondary School Teachers of German, conducted by Stanford University in Bad Boll, Germany, are compiled in individual reports written in both German and English by the 25 participants. Emphasizing close contact with the residents in their working and home…

  11. Germany's power potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, T.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for independent power projects in Germany after the reunification. The topics discussed in the article include legal questions, pricing regulations, pollution regulations, energy efficiency regulations, the carbon tax, the market for modernization of power plants and construction of new capacity, and the future outlook.

  12. Germany: The Search for Unity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen, Ed.

    The 12 lessons in this collection are designed so that they may be used individually, integrated into the curriculum at appropriate places, or used as a complete unit. The lessons are entitled: (1) Impressions of Germany and Germans; (2) The Location and Population of Germany; (3) Pollution in Germany: A Complex Problems; (4) German Political…

  13. [Tularemia in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany.

  14. Germany knows mining

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-15

    Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

  15. Osnabrucker Schriften Zur Mathematik - Proceedings of the International Conference for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (2nd, Osnabruck, West Germany, September 4-9, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohors-Fresenborg, E., Ed.; Wachsmuth, I., Ed.

    This document contains final versions of papers that were conference contributions. This second conference, held in September 1978, was attended by 70 participants from 11 countries. Lectures were presented under the following five main sections: (1) Acquisition of Arithmetical Concepts; (2) The Learning of Generalization and Proof; (3)…

  16. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Karoff, Marthin; Held, Klaus; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the rehabilitation measures provided for cardiac patients in Germany and to outline its legal basis and outcomes. In Germany the cardiac rehabilitation system is different from rehabilitation measures in other European countries. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany since 1885 is based on specific laws and the regulations of insurance providers. Cardiac rehabilitation has predominantly been offered as an inpatient service, but has recently been complemented by outpatient services. A general agreement on the different indications for offering these two services has yet to be reached. Cardiac rehabilitation is mainly offered after an acute cardiac event and bypass surgery. It is also indicated in severe heart failure and special cases of percutaneous coronary intervention. Most patients are men (>65%) and the age at which events occur is increasing. The benefits obtained during the 3-4 weeks after an acute event, and confirmed in numerous studies, are often later lost under 'usual care' conditions. Many attempts have been made by rehabilitation institutions to improve this deficit by providing intensive aftercare. One instrument set up to achieve this is the nationwide institution currently comprising more than 6000 heart groups with approximately 120000 outpatients. After coronary artery bypass grafting or acute coronary syndrome cardiac rehabilitation can usually be started within 10 days. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation team consists of cardiologists, psychologists, exercise therapists, social workers, nutritionists and nurses. The positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation are also important economically, for example, for the improvement of secondary prevention and vocational integration. PMID:17301623

  17. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD.

  18. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082951

  19. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  20. Medical education in Germany.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, Christoph; Weyrich, Peter; Jünger, Jana; Schrauth, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Following the changes made to the medical licensing regulations of 2002, medical education in Germany has been subject to radical modification, especially at undergraduate level. The implementation of the Bologna Process is still a matter of intense political debate, whilst positive movement has occurred in developing the professionalisation of teaching staff through a Masters Degree in Medical Education. In the area of postgraduate medical education, major restructuring of programmes is occurring, whilst the debate in continuing medical education is related to the amount of practical clinical education that is required.

  1. Altered Striatal Synaptic Function and Abnormal Behaviour in Shank3 Exon4-9 Deletion Mouse Model of Autism.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Speed, Haley E; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2016-03-01

    Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼ 0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients. We find that homozygous deletion of exons 4-9 (Shank3(e4-9) KO) results in loss of the two highest molecular weight isoforms of Shank3 and a significant reduction in other isoforms. Behaviorally, both Shank3(e4-9) heterozygous (HET) and Shank3(e4-9) KO mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in novel and spatial object recognition learning and memory, and abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations. Shank3(e4-9) KO mice also display abnormal social interaction when paired with one another. Analysis of synaptosome fractions from striata of Shank3(e4-9) KO mice reveals decreased Homer1b/c, GluA2, and GluA3 expression. Both Shank3(e4-9) HET and KO demonstrated a significant reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio at excitatory synapses onto striatal medium spiny neurons. Furthermore, Shank3(e4-9) KO mice displayed reduced hippocampal LTP despite normal baseline synaptic transmission. Collectively these behavioral, biochemical and physiological changes suggest Shank3 isoforms have region-specific roles in regulation of AMPAR subunit localization and NMDAR function in the Shank3(e4-9) mutant mouse model of autism. PMID:26559786

  2. The Beni Haoua, Algeria, Mw 4.9 earthquake: source parameters, engineering, and seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbes, Khadidja; Dorbath, Louis; Dorbath, Catherine; Djeddi, Mohamed; Ousadou, Farida; Maouche, Said; Benkaci, Nassima; Slimani, Abdennasser; Larbes, Said; Bouziane, Djillali

    2016-04-01

    A moderate Mw 4.9 earthquake struck the Beni Haoua (Algeria) coastal area on April 25, 2012. The mainshock was largely recorded by the accelerograph network of the Centre National de Recherche Appliquée en Génie Parasismique (CGS). The same day the earthquake occurred, eight mobile short period stations were deployed through the epicentral area. In this study, we use accelerogram and seismogram data recorded by these two networks. We combined the focal mechanism built from the first motion of P waves and from waveform inversion, and the distribution of aftershocks to well constrain the source parameters. The mainshock is located with a shallow focal depth, ˜9 km, and the focal mechanism shows a nearly pure left lateral strike slip motion, with total seismic moment of 2.8 × 1016 N.m (Mw = 4.9). The aftershocks mainly cluster on a narrow NS strip, starting at the coast up to 3-4 km inland. This cluster, almost vertical, is concentrated between 6 and 10 km depth. The second part of this work concerns the damage distribution and estimated intensity in the epicentral area. The damage distribution is discussed in connection with the observed maximum strong motion. The acceleration response spectrum with 5 % damping of the mainshock and aftershocks give the maximum amplitude in high frequency which directly affects the performance of the high-frequency structures. Finally, we tie this earthquake with the seismotectonic of the region, leading to conclude that it occurred on a N-S transform zone between two major compressional fault zones oriented NE-SW.

  3. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  4. Partial purification and characterization of an actin-bundling protein, band 4.9, from human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D L; Branton, D

    1985-03-01

    Band 4.9 (a 48,000-mol-wt polypeptide) has been partially purified from human erythrocyte membranes. In solution, band 4.9 polypeptides exist as trimers with an apparent molecular weight of 145,000 and a Stokes radius of 50 A. Electron microscopy shows that the protein is a three-lobed structure with a radius slightly greater than 50 A. When gel-filtered rabbit muscle actin is polymerized in the presence of band 4.9, actin bundles are generated that are similar in appearance to those induced by "vinculin" or fimbrin. The bundles appear brittle and when they are centrifuged small pieces of filaments break off and remain in the supernatant. At low band 4.9 to actin molar ratios (1:30), band 4.9 lowers the apparent steady-state low-shear falling ball viscosity by sequestering filaments into thin bundles; at higher ratios, the bundles become thicker and obstruct the ball's movement leading to an apparent increase in steady-state viscosity. Band 4.9 increases the length of the lag phase and decreases the rate of elongation during actin polymerization as measured by high-shear Ostwald viscometry or by the increase in the fluorescence of pyrene-labeled actin. Band 4.9 does not alter the critical actin monomer concentration. We hypothesize that band 4.9, together with actin, erythrocyte tropomyosin, and spectrin, forms structures in erythroid precursor cells analogous to those formed by fimbrin, actin, tropomyosin, and TW 260/240 in epithelial brush borders. During erythroid development and enucleation, the actin filaments may depolymerize up to the membrane, leaving a membrane skeleton with short stubs of actin bundled by band 4.9 and cross-linked by spectrin. PMID:3882722

  5. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  6. Mass Media in East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Antje

    This paper focuses on media politics, guidance and control mechanisms, journalism education, various modes of media in use, and coverage of important news in East Germany. The paper gives special consideration to the influence of West German broadcasting in East Germany. The need for such information is that it will give insight into Eastern bloc…

  7. Phytomedicine research in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, H

    1999-01-01

    In Germany since 1980, more than 300 clinical studies have been carried out with standardized phytopharmaceuticals, including Crataegus, Silybum, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Sabal, Urtica, Kava-Kava, Allium sativum, Valeriana, Aesculus, Echinacea, and Viscum drugs. These studies assessed the efficacy of phytopharmaceuticals for the treatment of moderate or moderately severe diseases and prevention. Several comparative clinical trials showed that these phytopharmaceuticals had full therapeutic equivalence with chemotherapeutics and had the simultaneous advantage of being devoid of any adverse effects. The mechanism of action of herbal drugs and their extract preparations, which differ in many respects from that of synthetic drugs or mono substances, can be characterized as a polyvalent action and interpreted as additive or, in some cases, potentiating. Currently, a rationale for the observed reversal effects and optimal effects with very low doses after a long-term application has not been developed, but is under investigation by systematic research at the molecular level. PMID:10504142

  8. Germany: Health system review.

    PubMed

    Busse, Reinhard; Blümel, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This analysis of the German health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. In the German health care system, decision-making powers are traditionally shared between national (federal) and state (Land) levels, with much power delegated to self-governing bodies. It provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits. Since 2009, health insurance has been mandatory for all citizens and permanent residents, through either statutory or private health insurance. A total of 70 million people or 85% of the population are covered by statutory health insurance in one of 132 sickness funds in early 2014. Another 11% are covered by substitutive private health insurance. Characteristics of the system are free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels. A key feature of the health care delivery system in Germany is the clear institutional separation between public health services, ambulatory care and hospital (inpatient) care. This has increasingly been perceived as a barrier to change and so provisions for integrated care are being introduced with the aim of improving cooperation between ambulatory physicians and hospitals. Germany invests a substantial amount of its resources on health care: 11.4% of gross domestic product in 2012, which is one of the highest levels in the European Union. In international terms, the German health care system has a generous benefit basket, one of the highest levels of capacity as well as relatively low cost-sharing. However, the German health care system still needs improvement in some areas, such as the quality of care. In addition, the division into statutory and private health insurance remains one of the largest challenges for the German health care system, as it leads to inequalities. PMID:25115137

  9. Data from the DIRBE obtained at infrared wavelengths of 4.9, 12 and 25 Aum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image combines data from the DIRBE obtained at infrared wavelengths of 4.9, 12 and 25 Aum. The sky brightness at these wavelengths is represented respectively by blue, green, and red colors in the image. The plane of the Milky Way Galaxy lies horizontally across the middle of the image with the Galactic center at the center. Emission from interplanetary dust in our solar system is very prominent, as shown by the orange 'S-shaped' curve which follows the ecliptic plane. The thin lines forming bands within the curve show the structure of streaming dust grains - the result of colliding asteroids. At these wavelengths, the broad plane of the Milky Way, which appears as blue and pink, reveals stars and interstellar cool dust in the disk of the Milky Way. To make the contributions from the Solar System as uniform as possible, the images are made from observations when the Sun angle (solar elongation) was 90 degrees from the viewing direction. DIRBE is the first space instrument designed to make a comprehensive sky survey in the search for an ancient fossil known as the cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation - the remnant from the formation of the earliest objects in the Universe created 5 to 12 billion years ago. Extensive modeling is required to isolate the CIB from the infrared foregrounds from the Solar System and Galaxy.

  10. Interaction of alkali metals with perylene-3,4,9,10- tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wuesten, J.; Berger, S.; Heimer, K.; Lach, S.; Ziegler, Ch.

    2005-07-01

    n doping of the molecular organic semiconductor perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) is often achieved by use of alkali metals as dopants. This doping process is commonly performed in two steps. In the first the dopant is evaporated onto the surface of the PTCDA film. As it has been believed that the dopant shows an inhomogeneous diffusion profile through the layer with most of the dopant accumulated in the first few layers, a subsequent annealing step has been performed in order to reach a homogeneous distribution of the dopant in the whole layer. In this paper experimental results concerning chemical composition ((angle resolved) X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), electronic structure (ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy), as well as electrical properties (conductivity, Seebeck coefficient) are shown before and after doping and before and after annealing. These results suggest that the deposited dopant is redistributed and partially removed during the annealing step. A model for the dopant distribution is suggested.

  11. The Allosteric Mechanism Induced by Protein Kinase A (PKA) Phosphorylation of Dematin (Band 4.9)*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Brown, Jeffrey W.; Mok, Yee-Foong; Hatters, Danny M.; McKnight, C. James

    2013-01-01

    Dematin (band 4.9) is an F-actin binding and bundling protein best known for its role within red blood cells, where it both stabilizes as well as attaches the spectrin/actin cytoskeleton to the erythrocytic membrane. Here, we investigate the structural consequences of phosphorylating serine 381, a covalent modification that turns off F-actin bundling activity. In contrast to the canonical doctrine, in which phosphorylation of an intrinsically disordered region/protein confers affinity for another domain/protein, we found the converse to be true of dematin: phosphorylation of the well folded C-terminal villin-type headpiece confers affinity for its intrinsically disordered N-terminal core domain. We employed analytical ultracentrifugation to demonstrate that dematin is monomeric, in contrast to the prevailing view that it is trimeric. Next, using a series of truncation mutants, we verified that dematin has two F-actin binding sites, one in the core domain and the other in the headpiece domain. Although the phosphorylation-mimicking mutant, S381E, was incapable of bundling microfilaments, it retains the ability to bind F-actin. We found that a phosphorylation-mimicking mutant, S381E, eliminated the ability to bundle, but not bind F-actin filaments. Lastly, we show that the S381E point mutant caused the headpiece domain to associate with the core domain, leading us to the mechanism for cAMP-dependent kinase control of dematin's F-actin bundling activity: when unphosphorylated, dematin's two F-actin binding domains move independent of one another permitting them to bind different F-actin filaments. Phosphorylation causes these two domains to associate, forming a compact structure, and sterically eliminating one of these F-actin binding sites. PMID:23355471

  12. Occupational cancer in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Brüske-Hohlfeld, I

    1999-01-01

    As in probably mostly all other European countries, the incidence of occupational cancer in Germany increased steadily after World War II. In 1994 about 1,600 cases of occupational cancer were compensated--more than ever before. More than half of these cases were lung cancer, most caused either by asbestos (n=545) or by ionizing radiation ((italic)n(/italic)=306). Other frequent target organs of asbestos were the pleura and the peritoneum with 495 cases of mesotheliomas. Asbestos was the single most important risk factor for occupational cancer, causing more than 1000 deaths per year. All other malignant diseases, such as bladder cancer, leukemia, angiosarcoma of the liver, adenocarcinoma of the nose or nasal sinuses, and skin cancer, were comparatively rare. Although primary exposure to ionizing radiation in uranium ore mining occurred in the 1950s and attributable lung cancers seem to be on the decline, this is not true for asbestos, where the peak incidence in lung cancer and mesothelioma has not been reached yet. Images Figure 2 PMID:10350508

  13. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, J D

    1976-09-01

    The concept of cardiac reconditioning centers for the prevention and rehabilitation of coronary patients has been tremendously successful in Germany over the past 20 years. At least 40 such centers are located throughout the country. Physicians, nurses, and physical therapists work closely together in the various facets of the rehabilitation process. The financial backing for these facilities is primarily through governmental and regional insurance companies, whose officials are apparently convinced that in the long run supporting preventive measures is financially sound. Objective data supporting their convictions come from studies such as that of Brusis, who showed that such as that of 1,500 employees was diminished by nearly 70 percent during a two-year period after cardiac reconditioning, as compared to a similar time period before the rehabilitation experience. Subjective benefits, which are extremely difficult to quantitate in meaningful terms, were nonetheless expressed by nearly all the patients with whom I conversed. Perhaps they have experienced the same feelings that Mark Twain did when he observed that "all frets and worries and chafings sank to sleep in the presence of the benignant serenity of the Alps; the Great Spirit of the Mountains breathed his own peace upon their hurt minds and sore hearts and healed them." PMID:959329

  14. [Stroke management in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fritze, J

    2001-12-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality (rank 3) and thus a mass disease. Therefore, immediate access for everybody to stroke treatment services is indispensible. Therapeutic efficacy has been shown for lysis therapy and early rehabilitation in stroke units, respectively. The British-Scandinavian stroke unit concept focusses on immediately starting rehabilitation over 4-6 weeks by a specifically trained and motivated team. Since 1995, so-called stroke units are established in Germany adhering to a specific concept of the German Society for Neurology (DGN). Although referring to the British-Scandinavian concept in terms of efficacy the German concept differs fundamentally by focussing on monitoring as well as lysis therapy and neuroprotection in a short (3-5 days) stay. This is an intensive care unit approach for which scientific evidence is lacking. More essential are reasonable doubts that this concept can ever expand sufficiently to ensure comprehensive care. At least presently, stroke care is provided unevenly, thus contravening legislation (section 70 Social Security Act Vol. V). Acknowledging the restrictions the DGN adapted its concept, now advocating a two-step model comprising intensive care stroke units plus rehabilitative stroke units. PMID:11761782

  15. Behavioral Effects of Org 2766, a Synthetic Analog of the Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (4-9), in 14 Outpatient Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buitelaar, Jan K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen autistic children (ages 5-13) were administered Org 2766 (a synthetic analog of the adrenocorticotrophic hormone 4-9) or a placebo for 4 weeks. The hormone appeared to decrease stereotypic behavior and increase such behaviors as "change toys,""locomote," and "talk," though Aberrant Behavior Checklist ratings did not show significant…

  16. Computerized Writing and Reading Instruction for Students in Grades 4-9 with Specific Learning Disabilities Affecting Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanimoto, S.; Thompson, R.; Berninger, V. W.; Nagy, W.; Abbott, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computer scientists and educational researchers evaluated effectiveness of computerized instruction tailored to evidence-based impairments in specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in students in grades 4-9 with persisting SLDs despite prior extra help. Following comprehensive, evidence-based differential diagnosis for dysgraphia (impaired…

  17. Lise Meitner's escape from Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1990-03-01

    Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

  18. The Volkshochschulen: Germany's Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinhardt, Harry

    1978-01-01

    Compares the Volkshochschulen (VHS) or "People's Universities" of Germany with the community college system in the United States. Discusses enrollment policies, job-related instructional programs, functions of the national association of the VHS, and the advancement of adult education in developing nations. (TP)

  19. Adult Education in Western Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Joachim H.; And Others

    Here are abstracts of three books on adult education in Western Germany, where the institutions and methods of continuing education have been nearly unknown. The first, ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK (ADULT EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC), 167 pages, justifies regarding adult education today as a complete changeover from its forms in…

  20. Cyclic AMP in female mouse brain is altered by the adrenocorticotropic hormone(4-9) analogue organon 2766.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D R; Felt, B T; Murphy, S; Goldman, H

    1981-09-01

    Cyclic AMP content was determined in 12 brain regions of young adult female mice at 30 min and at 24 h following an intraperitoneal injection of the tri-substituted adrenocorticotropic hormone(4-9) [ACTH(4-9)] analogue Organon 2766 [ORG 2766]. Animals were killed by focused 3.5 kW microwave radiation applied for 350 ms. Unlike previously reported responses in male mice, at 30 min post-injection there were no detectable differences in cyclic AMP content between the placebo and ORG 2766-treated animals. By contrast, 24 h after injection, the content of cyclic AMP was changed significantly in 8 of the 12 brain regions examined: medulla-pons, septal area, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and parietal and occipital cortices. In most of the regions examined, differences consisted of 50% or greater reductions of tissue cyclic AMP content. The changes were unrelated to the estrus cycle of these animals.

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases in Germany.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, D; Jappe, U; Hartmann, M; Hamouda, O

    2002-04-01

    In the former West Germany, in specific venereal diseases legislation passed in 1953, only syphilis, gonorrhoea, ulcus molle, and lymphogranuloma venereum were defined as venereal diseases and subject to mandatory notification. The proportion of unreported cases was as high as 75% for syphilis and up to 90% for gonorrhoea. Epidemiological data for the past 10 years exist only on selected populations from research studies and are summarized in this article. In the former East Germany reporting of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was mandatory and, due to the centralized organization, underreporting was considered to be low, although no specific studies have examined this. After the unification in 1990 of the two German states the West German laws were adopted in East Germany. Since 1982 - when the first AIDS case was reported in Germany - information on AIDS cases has voluntarily been collected at the national register at the AIDS Centre of the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin. The law governing the reporting of infectious diseases has recently been revised. Under the new Protection against Infection Act, which became effective on 1 January 2001, clinical diagnoses of STIs (with the exception of hepatitis B) are no longer notifiable diseases. Laboratory reporting of positive test results for Treponema pallidum has been introduced. With T. pallidum and HIV notifications, additional disaggregated data are collected. Since T. pallidum and HIV remain the only notifiable STIs, all other STIs have to be monitored through sentinel surveillance systems. These surveillance systems are currently being established. Under the new legislation, local health authorities have to provide adequate counselling and testing services for STIs, which may be provided free of charge if necessary.

  2. Nutritional behaviour differences in Germany.

    PubMed

    Thiel, C; Heinemann, L

    1996-01-01

    East- and west-German health inequalities that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s centered not only on cardiovascular mortality but also on lifestyle-dependent risk factors, thus a question that should be addressed is whether different dietary behaviours existed in the two sections of Germany. To answer this question, we examined two random-sample population surveys--MONICA in the east and VERA in the west--that were carried out during the late 1980s. In the eastern section of Germany, the consumption of milk, vegetable oil and fat, fresh vegetables and tropical fruits was much lower than that in the west, whereas the intake of sausages and butter was much higher. Consequently, the calorie intake in the east was higher for fat and lower for carbohydrates before reunification. Changes in dietary habits were anticipated in East Germany after reunification because of important changes in the food supply. Analysis of an east-German dietary survey that was carried out after the wall came down revealed that the improved food supply to the east, with more choices for planning a healthy diet, led to a favourable development in both macro- and micro-nutrient intake, more carbohydrates, vitamins, calcium, and potassium were consumed.

  3. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  4. Discovery of Benzo[f]indole-4,9-dione Derivatives as New Types of Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You-Ren; Tseng, Chih-Hua; Chen, Yeh-Long; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tzeng, Cherng-Chyi

    2015-01-01

    Certain benzo[f]indole-4,9-dione derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on superoxide anion generation and neutrophil elastase (NE) release in formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (fMLF)-activated human neutrophils. Results indicated that (Z)-1-benzyl-4-(hydroxyimino)-1H-benzo[f]indol-9(4H)-one (10) showed a potent dual inhibitory effect on NE release and superoxide anion generation with IC50 value of 2.78 and 2.74 μM respectively. The action mechanisms of 10 in human neutrophils were further investigated. Our results showed that compound 10 did not alter fMLF-induced phosphorylation of Src (Src family Y416). Notably, phosphorylation of Akt (S473) and mobilization of [Ca2+]i caused by fMLF was inhibited by compound 10. Further structural optimization of 10 is ongoing. PMID:25807261

  5. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

    1999-07-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO{sub 2} abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO{sub 2}, representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling.

  6. The Mother Centers in Germany--Empowerment Strategies for Community Women in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeckel, Monika

    Mother Centers are a grassroots self-help movement in Germany that help stay-at-home mothers break through the isolation they experience in German society when they have children and are not available for full-time employment. There are about 300 mother center projects currently in Germany, including 40 in the former East Germany. The programs…

  7. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  8. [Epidemiology of malignant melanoma in East Germany and West Germany].

    PubMed

    Jung, H D

    1982-12-01

    Data are given on the incidence of the malignant melanoma in the German Democratic Republic. The latter steadily increased from 1955 to 1975, i.e., from 1.55/100,000 (male) and 1.80/100,000 (female) to 3.1/100,000 (male) and 4.3/100,000 (female). A genuine increase of the incidence can be proven by age standardization from 1968 to 1975. Between 1955 and 1975 the incidence in men and women doubled in the German Democratic Republic. The death rate from malignant melanomas is about stationary. The survival rate in men lies about 50%, that in women is higher. In the Federal Republic of Germany about 1,674 incidences in 1969, about 1,825 in 1974, and more than 2,000 incidences of malignant melanomas in 1975 were to be expected. UV radiation and chemical carcinogens influence the incidence of the malignant melanoma in our area.

  9. History of anesthesia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wawersik, J

    1991-01-01

    The first ether anesthetic was administered in Germany by J.F. Heyfelder (1798-1869) at the Erlangen University Hospital on January 24, 1847. Thereafter, famous discoveries occurred in the field of pharmacology. Albert Niemann isolated cocaine from the coca shrub in 1860; Emil Fischer synthesized the first barbiturate, Veronal, in 1902; and Helmut Weese promoted the first ultra-short-acting barbiturate, hexobarbital (Evipan), in 1932. The local anesthetic effect of cocaine was reported by Koller at the Congress of the German Society for Ophthalmology on September 15, 1884, in Heidelberg. Many new techniques were tried first in German hospitals. Friedrich Trendelenburg carried out, by tracheotomy, the first operation with endotracheal intubation in 1869, and Franz Kuhn promoted and clinically practiced endotracheal intubation in Heidelberg beginning in 1900. August Bier performed the first operation under spinal anesthesia at the Kiel University Hospital on August 16, 1898. Carl Ludwig Schleich (1859-1922) standardized the methods of infiltration anesthesia by using a cocaine solution in sufficient dilution. The development of anesthesia machines was greatly influenced by Heinrich Dräger (1847-1917) and his son Bernhard Dräger (1870-1928). The Dräger Company in Lübeck built the first anesthesia machine with a carbon dioxide (CO2) absorber and circle system in 1925. Paul Sudeck and Helmut Schmidt worked with this system at the Hamburg University Hospital and reported their results in 1926. The first Dräger anesthesia machine was produced in 1902 and introduced into clinical use by Otto Roth (1863-1944) in Lübeck. Before the Second World War, three universities in Germany carried out research in the field of anesthesia: the University of Freiburg with H. Killian, the University of Hamburg with P. Sudeck and H. Schmidt, and the University of Würzburg with C.G. Gauss. Killian and Gauss established the first journals, Der Schmerz and Narkose und Anaesthesie, in

  10. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  11. The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinan, Desmond

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

  12. 2 x Germany; 2 x Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldenhauer, Gebhard

    1991-01-01

    Describes textbooks of both East and West Germany from 1949-56, 1957-62, 1963-69, and 1970 on. Discusses a shift in West German texts from intense antagonism during the Cold War to a more critical comparison by the 1980s. Compares East German text development that increased in hostility over time, viewing West Germany as a negative alternative to…

  13. Germany since 1945: A Focus on Berlin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Smith, Lindsey

    This lesson accompanies a videotape which examines some of the forces, personalities and events which shaped Berlin and the rest of Germany between 1945 and 1994. The lesson is introduced by using the videotape and uses references from the videotape for further classroom work. Worksheets for student use include "Events in Germany, 1945-1994" and…

  14. Transforming Higher Education in East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rudder, Helmut

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in the former German Democratic Republic looks at the common historical roots of central European universities, the different directions higher education took in East and West Germany after 1945, and the current turbulent transformation of higher education in East Germany during German unification. (Author/MSE)

  15. Fascioloides magna--epizootiology in a deer farm in Germany.

    PubMed

    Plötz, Cornelia; Rehbein, Steffen; Bamler, Helmut; Reindl, Hubert; Pfister, Kurt; Scheuerle, Miriam C

    2015-01-01

    After initial observations of suspicious cases in 2009, the occurrence of Fascioloides (F.) magna in deer of a deer farm located in northeastern Bavaria, Germany, at the border to the Czech Republic was confirmed in autumn 2011. In March 2012, the deer were treated for fascioloidosis with triclabendazole. To monitor the epizootiology of fascioloidosis in the farm, 80-100 faecal samples were examined for Fascioloides eggs at monthly intervals from June 2012 to June 2013 inclusive. In addition, livers of 27 red deer and one sika deer collected during winter 2012/2013 were examined for gross lesions suspicious for F. magna infection and 21 of the 28 livers were dissected for F. magna recovery. Fascioloides eggs were recorded in 63 (4.9%) of 1280 faecal samples (range 0.4 to 355 eggs per gram). Both, number of Fascioloides-egg positive samples and egg counts were low during the first eight months of the study but increased notably since February 2013. While Fascioloides egg-positive faecal samples were obtained from red deer (46/948,4.9%) and fallow deer (17/166, 10.2%), no Fascioloides eggs were demonstrated in the 166 samples obtained from sika deer. Livers of five red deer and the sika deer showed gross lesions characteristic for fascioloidosis, and F. magna were recovered from three of the five affected red deer livers (range, five to seven flukes). Results of this study confirm that F. magna is endemic in the deer farm, and measures should be implemented to minimize the transmission of the parasite.

  16. Fascioloides magna--epizootiology in a deer farm in Germany.

    PubMed

    Plötz, Cornelia; Rehbein, Steffen; Bamler, Helmut; Reindl, Hubert; Pfister, Kurt; Scheuerle, Miriam C

    2015-01-01

    After initial observations of suspicious cases in 2009, the occurrence of Fascioloides (F.) magna in deer of a deer farm located in northeastern Bavaria, Germany, at the border to the Czech Republic was confirmed in autumn 2011. In March 2012, the deer were treated for fascioloidosis with triclabendazole. To monitor the epizootiology of fascioloidosis in the farm, 80-100 faecal samples were examined for Fascioloides eggs at monthly intervals from June 2012 to June 2013 inclusive. In addition, livers of 27 red deer and one sika deer collected during winter 2012/2013 were examined for gross lesions suspicious for F. magna infection and 21 of the 28 livers were dissected for F. magna recovery. Fascioloides eggs were recorded in 63 (4.9%) of 1280 faecal samples (range 0.4 to 355 eggs per gram). Both, number of Fascioloides-egg positive samples and egg counts were low during the first eight months of the study but increased notably since February 2013. While Fascioloides egg-positive faecal samples were obtained from red deer (46/948,4.9%) and fallow deer (17/166, 10.2%), no Fascioloides eggs were demonstrated in the 166 samples obtained from sika deer. Livers of five red deer and the sika deer showed gross lesions characteristic for fascioloidosis, and F. magna were recovered from three of the five affected red deer livers (range, five to seven flukes). Results of this study confirm that F. magna is endemic in the deer farm, and measures should be implemented to minimize the transmission of the parasite. PMID:26054221

  17. [Health and justice in Germany].

    PubMed

    Rosenbrock, R

    2007-12-01

    "What do we owe each other?" Variously grounded postulates and theories of social justice try to answer this question with regard to health. Equality of opportunity is widely acclaimed and in Germany also anchored in social security laws. From the perspective of equal opportunity, the author examines the state of affairs and the perspectives of equity in health. Although the deficiencies with regard to access and quality of health care are significant, but relatively moderate, they present serious threats to equity and fairness for the future. Regarding non-medical primary prevention, the reduction of inequality in health has barely begun. The largest obstacles to equity in health are to be found in the distribution and dynamics of opportunities for education, work and income. One of the tasks of public health professionals is to place the health consequences of existing policies on the political agenda.

  18. Children's "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda; O'Donnell, Alison J

    2009-12-01

    Children with disabilities were killed during the Nazi era, often by nurses. Some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders. Propaganda about the need for "racial purity" was all pervasive and influenced much of the population, including nurses. The German people accepted the "mercy" killing of children with disabilities. We describe the children's "euthanasia" program, explore the influence of propaganda, ask why it was acceptable to kill children, and provide historical context demonstrating "slippery slopes" which can lead to abrogation of ethical principles. Discussion of such history is essential as the ethical principles which were breached are still the cornerstone of nursing practice today. Only by openly discussing past wrongs can we attempt to ensure that they do not happen again. Archival documents from Germany and Israel, including trial depositions and transcripts, provided material, supplemented by secondary classic sources.

  19. Electrical conductivity, optical properties and mechanical stability of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhidride based organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Mayank; Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim; Nath Ghosh, Narendra; Nambi Raj, N. Arunai

    2015-05-01

    The 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) doped polymer films were prepared with Polypyrrole (PPy) and Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymers by solution-casting. The change in structure and chemical composition of samples was identified by XRD and FTIR respectively. The UV-visible spectroscopy demonstrates the optical characteristics and band gap properties of sample. The homogeneous morphology of sample for higher wt% of PTCDA was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrate the decrease in melting temperature (Tm) and degree of crystallinity (χc%) of polymeric organic semiconductor. The mechanical property demonstrates the high tensile strength and improved plasticity nature. Impedance spectroscopy was evaluated to determine the conductivity response of polymeric organic semiconductor. The highest DC conductivity (2.08×10-3 S/m) was obtained for 10 wt% of PTCDA at 140 °C. The decrease in activation energy (Ea) represents the non-Debye process and was evaluated from the slope of ln σdc vs. 103/T plot.

  20. Photoinduced singlet charge transfer in a ruthenium(II) perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) complex.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Victoria L; Krieg, Elisha; Vagnini, Michael T; Iron, Mark A; Rybtchinski, Boris; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2011-06-16

    Elucidation of photoinduced charge transfer behavior in organic dye/metal hybrids is important for developing photocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion. We report the synthesis and photophysical characterization of a perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI)-ruthenium(II) complex, bis-PDI-2,2'-bipyridineRu(II)Cl(2)(CN(t)butyl)(2), which has favorable energetics, ΔG(CS) ≈ -1.0 eV, for singlet electron transfer from the Ru complex to PDI. Time-resolved optical spectroscopy reveals that upon selective photoexcitation of PDI, ultrafast charge transfer (<150 fs) from the Ru complex to (1*)PDI generates the Ru(III)-PDI(-•) ion pair. The resulting vibrationally hot Ru(III)-PDI(-•) ion pair exhibits fast relaxation (τ = 3.9 ps) and charge recombination (τ(CR) = 63 ps). Our experimental and computational (DFT and TDDFT) studies show that energy-preserving photodriven singlet electron transfer can dominate in properly designed organic dye/metal complexes, making them of particular interest for use in artificial photosynthetic systems for solar fuels formation. PMID:21598951

  1. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content. PMID:26718635

  2. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Christian; Baby, Anu; Gruenewald, Marco; Verwüster, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Oliver T; Forker, Roman; Fratesi, Guido; Brivio, Gian Paolo; Zojer, Egbert; Fritz, Torsten

    2016-02-23

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content.

  3. Imported furuncular myiasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Robert, Leon; Yelton, John

    2002-12-01

    Furuncular myiasis is a parasitic infestation of human and other vertebrate tissues by fly larvae of primarily two species: Dermatobia hominis (human botfly, t6rsalo, or berne) in Mexico and South and Central America and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly or mango fly) in Africa. Cuterebra species (rabbit and rodent botflies) are also rarely reported to cause furuncular myiasis only within the United States. Although these species inhabit different geographic regions and have different life cycles, their clinical presentations can be similar. We describe a case of "imported" human botfly (D. hominis) furuncular myiasis in a U.S. Army soldier stationed in Germany. We review the life cycles of human botflies and key aspects of their clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and various therapeutic modalities. Most physicians may never encounter myiasis and attribute a patient's complaints to an insect bite or skin infection that will heal without treatment. However, the diagnosis of furuncular myiasis should be considered by remembering the basic elements of this condition: recent travel history to the tropics and a sterile, persistent furuncle with sensations of movement and pain.

  4. Management of plasmapheresis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Müller, N

    1996-05-01

    In Germany, plasmapheresis is carried out for many years in a "mixed" system by private and non-profit organisation. Most of the institutions and blood transfusion service, active in the field of plasmapheresis are members of the "Association for the Establishment, Co-ordination and Working Methods of the Plasmapheresis Centres". All centres are authorized by governmental bodies for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products with regulatory controls regarding licensing and accreditation of blood collection establishment. All parties concerned agree that self-sufficiency of plasma has to be achieved. For this purpose there is a shortage of about 400,000 1 of plasma. In 1994, about 240,000 1 of plasma were collected by plasmapheresis, 91% for fractionation and 8.7% for direct clinical uses. In addition about 970,000 1 of plasma were derived from whole blood donations. The dualism of non-profit making and commercial organisations should be regarded as a chance for diversification in the collection and processing of plasma. A long term increase in plasmapheresis plasma can be achieved by initiating plasmapheresis programmes and co-operation using the existing infrastructures and supports the aim for self-sufficiency.

  5. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  6. Synthesis of new 9-glycosyl-4,9-dihydropyrano [3,4-b]indole-1(3H)-ones as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Kassab, Shaymaa E; Hegazy, Gehan H; Eid, Nahed M; Amin, Kamelia M; El-Gendy, Adel A

    2011-11-01

    A series of new 9-glycosyl-4,9-dihydropyrano[3,4-b]indole-1(3H)-ones 3 was synthesized in moderate to low yields. 4,9-Dihydropyrano[3,4-b]indole-1(3H)-ones (1) were coupled with different acetobromoglycopyranoses 2 in refluxing toluene in the presence of silver oxide to afford one coupling product of the respective N-glycosides. α-L-Arabinopyranosides 3j and 3m were the most active glycosides among the tested compounds against certain Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains.

  7. One Germany, Two Identities? Challenges to Political Education in Germany Following Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussmuth, Hans

    After a discussion of the circumstances that led to the unification of the two German states, this paper then evaluates the challenges to political education in Germany after unification. Beginning with the focus by the media and politics on the effects of East German political changes on the two German states, the revolution in East Germany and…

  8. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic Carbonates from Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachtadse, V.; Settles, E. K.; Soffel, H.

    2014-12-01

    Although the distribution of paleomagnetic data for the Jurassic of stable Europe is notorious for its wide spread and lack of any recognizable age control of pole positions it was only recently that the Jurassic has moved closer to the focus of paleomagnetic research (Kent and Irving, 2010; Muttoni et al. 2013). Here we present paleomagnetic data for carbonate rocks of early and late Jurassic age from southern (Franconia and Swabia) and northern Germany. A total of 406 samples from 37 localities in northern Germany and 180 samples from 19 localities in southern Germany were collected and subjected to detailed demagnetization experiments. All localities are dated biostratigraphically covering the Oxfordian to Tithonian (northern Germany) and the Pliensbachian (southern Germany) in time. After removal of a component of magnetization of secondary origin, stable magnetizations could be identified in 176 samples from 17 sites in northern Germany (D=003.2°, I=53.2°, k=79.4, α95=4.5°). Similar directions (D=001.2°, I=43.3°, k=18.6, α95=13.2°) were isolated in 108 sampled from 8 sites of coeval rocks from southern Germany. Positive fold and reversal tests support our interpretation that the resulting mean direction of is of primary origin e.g. late Jurassic in age. Unfortunately, however, the situation for the early Jurassic of southern Germany is less favourable. Here, only 15 samples from 2 sites yielded magnetizations which were interpreted to be of primary origin (D=025.3°, I=59.4°, k=51.0, α95=11.2°) . The resulting paleo north pole positions for the Lower and Upper Jurassic of Germany plot at comparable latitudes (70°N) but are separated in longitude by roughly 60°. This is compatible with the apparent polar wander path proposed by Kent and Irving (2010). Taking into consideration that the only reliable paleopole for the middle Jurassic of stable Europe is indistinguishable from the late Jurassic paleopole lends additional support to the proposed late

  9. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    PubMed

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  11. Privacy Laws and Biobanking in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Nils

    2016-03-01

    While the possibility of enacting a sui generis Biobank Act has been debated in Germany at great length, as of yet the country has not implemented any biobankspecific legislation. Instead, oversight is available via a network of research and privacy laws, including those of the European Union. The Nationale Kohorte, Germany's large-scale, population-based epidemiological research biobank, is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and there are currently 108 registered bio-banks throughout Germany. The current system, including the structure and study design of the Nationale Kohorte, privileges the protection of personal information even at the cost of socially desirable research; it remains to be seen if forthcoming legislation will shift this balance.

  12. Imported tropical virus infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, H; Emmerich, P; ter Meulen, J

    1996-01-01

    Our routine tests for tropical viruses document that several hundreds of Dengue fever cases are imported into Germany every year. In contrast, hemorrhagic fever cases are rarely diagnosed in Germany. Our investigations suggest that this low number is due to the different living conditions of the local population in the tropics compared with that of travellers from Europe or North America. Improved methods for detecting Dengue virus infections, e.g. three different antibody tests and the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of viral RNA, have been developed.

  13. Vocational Training in Germany: Modernisation and Responsiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume presents a report on recent developments and current policy objectives in vocational education and training in Germany. The study is based on a conceptual and analytical framework jointly elaborated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Secretariat and representatives of member countries. Part I is "The…

  14. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Markus; Groll, Andreas H; Mayser, Peter; Ullmann, Andrew J; Mendling, Werner; Hof, Herbert; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1980's, the incidence of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Germany was estimated with 36.000 IFDs per year. The current number of fungal infections (FI) occurring each year in Germany is still not known. In the actual analysis, data on incidence of fungal infections in various patients groups at risk for FI were calculated and mostly estimated from various (mostly national) resources. According to the very heterogenous data resources robust data or statistics could not be obtained but preliminary estimations could be made and compared with data from other areas in the world using a deterministic model that has consistently been applied in many countries by the LIFE program ( www.LIFE-worldwide.org). In 2012, of the 80.52 million population (adults 64.47 million; 41.14 million female, 39.38 million male), 20% are children (0-14 years) and 16% of population are ≥65 years old. Using local data and literature estimates of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, about 9.6 million (12%) people in Germany suffer from a fungal infection each year. These figures are dominated (95%) by fungal skin disease and recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis. In general, considerable uncertainty surrounds the total numbers because IFDs do not belong to the list of reportable infectious diseases in Germany and most patients were not hospitalised because of the IFD but a distinct underlying disease.

  15. "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Gregory A.

    The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes and their…

  16. Higher Education in Germany: Problems and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The contribution focuses on the process of merging the East German system of higher education with that of West Germany in the context of German unification in 1990/91. The impact of German unification on East German higher education is described as consisting of five basic measures: (a) de-politicisation; (b) reorganisation and evaluation of…

  17. Germany Provides Higher Education without the Frills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, tuition is low because state governments shoulder a much higher percentage of university budgets than in the United States. As a result, most German universities provide far fewer amenities and services, and require their professors to teach longer hours to larger numbers of students than their American counterparts. Because they are…

  18. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  19. Playscapes of Germany--A Quick Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    While playgrounds in many parts of the world are limited to "fixed" equipment and surfacing, certain progressive countries have made a point to rise above this dull standard and create playscapes filled with sculpture, gardens, and wild elements of the natural world. This article talks about the playscapes of Germany as leader in the world of…

  20. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  1. Perspectives of Financing Higher Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frackmann, Edgar

    1991-01-01

    The general structure of higher education finance in Germany and current and possible future developments in German higher education financing are analyzed. A shift from input budgeting to a more output-oriented steering of higher education is identified. Methods of dealing with the problems introduced by new mechanisms of decision making and fund…

  2. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are addressed in the…

  3. Is Germany a model for managers?

    PubMed

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success.

  4. Is Germany a model for managers?

    PubMed

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success. PMID:10121315

  5. Luminescence and application of red-emitting phosphors of Eu3+-activated R2Zr3(MoO4)9 ( R = La, Sm, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuyun; Huang, Yanlin; Cheng, Han; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-01-01

    New red-emitting phosphors R2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ ( R = La, Sm, Gd) were prepared using the convenient solid-state reaction method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements and structural refinements. The luminescence properties were investigated by photoluminescence spectra, decay curves, and absolute internal quantum efficiency (QE). The phosphors exhibited bright red luminescence corresponding to the electric dipole transition 5D0→7F2 at 615 nm under near UV light excitation. The thermal stability of the luminescence was investigated using temperature-dependent intensities at temperatures from 20 to 170°C. The results indicate that Gd2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ could be potentially considered for lighting due to its qualities, including their excitation spectra, QEs, red color coordinates, and thermal stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Acid-Catalyzed Multicomponent Tandem Double Cyclization: A One-pot, Metal-free Route to Synthesize Polyfunctional 4,9-Dihydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolines.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qun; Li, Deng-Kui; Zhou, Rong-Rong; Zhuang, Shi-Yi; Ma, Jin-Tian; Wu, Yan-Dong; Wu, An-Xin

    2016-09-01

    An acid-catalyzed multicomponent tandem double cyclization protocol has been developed for the synthesis of polyfunctional 4,9-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolines from simple and readily available arylglyoxal monohydrates, 2-aminobenzylamine, and trans-β-nitrostyrenes. This practical and metal-free reaction proceeds through an imine formation/cyclization/Michael addition/Henry cyclization protocol, resulting in the construction of four new bonds and two ring moieties directly in one pot.

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252.229-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252.229-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252.229-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  10. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  11. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(2), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  12. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  13. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  14. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252.229-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  15. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  16. Education in Germany: A Bibliography of English Language Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    This bibliography cites bibliographies, journals, books, essays, journal articles, and monographs on education in Germany. All publications cited are in English. The three major sections of the bibliography are education in Germany up to 1945, education in the Federal Republic of Germany, and education in the German Democratic Republic. Topics…

  17. Comprehensive Schools in Germany: Concepts, Developments and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the status of the comprehensive secondary school in Germany looks at its history within the overall educational system, curriculum design, the relatively traditional approach taken by West Germany in comparison to other European countries, and the chances for comprehensive schools in a united Germany. (MSE)

  18. The Definition of Vocational Diplomas in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobus, Martine; Verdier, Eric

    1997-01-01

    In both France and Germany, the government, employers' organizations, and unions all participate in defining vocational diplomas based on a national framework of procedures of elaborating and standardizing titles. Important differences between the diploma definition processes in France and Germany may be identified. In Germany, the issue is…

  19. Dielectron measurements in p+p and p+d interactions from E{sub beam} = 1.0 to 4.9 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.; DLS collaboration

    1993-02-01

    The first measurements of dielectron production in p+p and p+d interactions at incident kinetic energies from 1.0--4.9 GeV are summarized. The dielectron yield at 4.9 GeV is found to be in excess of that expected from hadronic decays. The beam energy and invariant mass dependence of the dielectron yield in p+d interactions relative to the yield in p+p interactions are also presented. The ratio of the yield in p+d to that in p+p interactions decreases from nearly 9 at 1.0 GeV to {approx} 2 at 4.9 GeV. The large ratio at 1.0 GeV suggests that dielectron production in the p+d system is dominated by a p+n process. The beam energy dependence of the ratio indicates that this p+n contribution decreases with respect to the other dielectron sources as the incident energy is increased.

  20. [Future supply of tuberculin in Germany].

    PubMed

    Sagebiel, D; Hauer, B; Haas, W; Magdorf, K; Priwitzer, M; Loddenkemper, R

    2005-04-01

    The manufacturers of the only tuberculin available up to now in Germany for intradermal TB tests according to Mantoux, Chiron Vaccines Behring, in 2004 unexpectedly stopped the production of the tuberculin Behring GT (GT="gereinigtes Tuberkulin"-purified protein derivative tuberculin). Only residual stocks were sold during the preceding months. The stocks of GT 10 were already depleted at the beginning of 2005, while there are small supplies left of GT 100 and GT 1000. As a temporary solution, Chiron Vaccines Behring is offering to import the Italian tuberculin Biocine PPD 5 IE lyophil produced by Chiron S.r.l. in Siena. As this is not licensed for sale in Germany, it is necessary to obtain an exceptional prescription (Einzelverordnung) according to section sign 73 (3) of the Federal Law Relating to the Manufacture and Distribution of Medicine (Arzneimittelgesetz, AMG). In the long term, Chiron Vaccines Behring plan to secure the supply of tuberculin in Germany by importing, starting in the summer of 2006, the tuberculin produced by Chiron Vaccines Evans in the UK (PPD Evans). However, these plans involve changing over to a different type of tuberculin twice within a very short period of time. Another problem is the unresolved issue of bioequivalence. Besides the above-mentioned tuberculins produced by Chiron Vaccines, a further possibility would be the import of the tuberculin PPD RT23 SSI of the Statens Serums Institute (Copenhagen/Denmark), which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the standard tuberculin and which has already been introduced in several European countries, or of other tuberculins such as Tubersol (PPD CT68), which is used in the US. Together with the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI), the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis (DZK) is striving to find a solution, in view of the urgent need for an uninterrupted supply of tuberculin in Germany for diagnostic purposes and contact tracing

  1. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    PubMed

    Glebe, G

    1997-01-01

    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT) PMID:12294167

  2. [The reception of Heinz Kohut in Germany].

    PubMed

    Milch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships. When the differences between Kohutian and classical theory became evident this led increasingly to disillusionment and retreat. De-emphasizing drive and ego psychology had considerable consequences for psychoanalytic technique as well as for the analyst's Menschenbild, his relationship to the patient and his critical self-reflection. In Germany, too, a circle of colleagues emerged, following and elaborating the ideas of Kohut. PMID:27281981

  3. Salt fluoridation in Germany since 1991.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Andreas G

    2005-01-01

    Since 1991, fluoridated salt has been on sale in household-size packages in Germany. Potassium or sodium fluoride is added to iodized salt until the fluoride concentration reaches 250 mg/kg. The use of fluoridated salt to prevent caries is officially recommended by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde (DGZMK) and several other associations and groups interested in public health. In the course of the past thirteen years, the market share of fluoridated and iodized domestic salt rose to 63.1% in Germany. However, this positive development must not obscure the fact that fluoridated and iodized salt is still not allowed to be used in restaurant or cafeteria kitchens. This restriction now needs to be revoked in view of the fact that many children, adolescents and adults take their main meals in cafeterias or restaurants. Scientific studies have demonstrated beyond doubt that using fluoridated and iodized salt in cafeteria kitchens poses no problem whatever.

  4. Prevention among immigrants: the example of Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large and increasing part of the European population has a history of migration. Germany, for example, is home to about 15 million people with migrant background, which amounts to 19% of its population. Migrants may have differences in their lifestyle, health beliefs and risk factors compared to the autochthonous populations. Discussion As for example studies on children's participation in routine prevention activities have shown, these differences can have a relevant impact on the access of migrants to the health care system and are likely to lower their participation in prevention programs compared to the autochthonous population. To increase the uptake of prevention programs, barriers to access must be identified and approaches to reduce them must be developed. Summary Taking the example of Germany, a need exists for prevention programs that include (migrant sensitive) and specifically address (migrant specific) migrants. These should be of sufficient scale, evidence-based, sustainable and evaluated at regular intervals. PMID:20181232

  5. Ebola risk perception in Germany, 2014.

    PubMed

    Rübsamen, Nicole; Castell, Stefanie; Horn, Johannes; Karch, André; Ott, Jördis J; Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Zoch, Beate; Krause, Gérard; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2015-06-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred during the past 5 decades, but none has affected European countries like the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. We used an online questionnaire to investigate risk perceptions in Germany during this epidemic peak. Our questionnaire covered risk perceptions, knowledge about transmission routes, media use, reactions to the outbreak, attitudes toward measures to prevent the spread of EVD and vaccination against EVD, and willingness to volunteer for aid missions. Of 974 participants, 29% indicated that they worried about EVD, 4% correctly stated virus transmission routes, and 75% incorrectly rated airborne transmission and transmission by asymptomatic patients as possible. Many indicated that if a patient were flown to Germany for treatment in a nearby hospital, they would adapt preventive behavior. Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes.

  6. Topographies of forensic practice in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the topography and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes.

  7. Leptospirosis in Germany, 1962–2003

    PubMed Central

    Schöneberg, Irene; Frank, Christina; Alpers, Katharina; Schneider, Thomas; Stark, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic trends of human leptospirosis in Germany were investigated by analyzing national surveillance data from 1962 to 2003 and by conducting a questionnaire-based survey from 1997 to 2000. After a steady decrease of leptospirosis incidence from 1962 to 1997, surveillance data indicate an increase in disease incidence to 0.06 per 100,000 (1998–2003). Of 102 laboratory-confirmed cases in humans from 1997 to 2000, 30% were related to occupational exposures. Recreational exposures were reported in 30% (including traveling abroad in 16%), whereas residential exposure accounted for 37% of the cases. Direct contact with animals, mostly rats and dogs, was observed in 31% of the cases. We conclude that recent changes in transmission patterns of leptospirosis, partially caused by an expanding rat population and the resurgence of canine leptospirosis, may facilitate the spread of the disease in temperate countries like Germany. Preventive measures should be adapted to the changing epidemiology of leptospirosis. PMID:16022779

  8. Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gethmann, Jörn M.; Staubach, Christoph; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, bluetongue disease had not been reported before 2006. During August 2006–August 2008, >24,000 bluetongue virus serotype 8 infections were reported, most (20,635) in 2007. In 2006 and 2007, respectively, case-fatality rates were 6.4% and 13.1% for cattle and 37.5% and 41.5% for sheep. Vaccination in 2008 decreased cases. PMID:19239757

  9. [Health conferences in Germany: an overview].

    PubMed

    Hollederer, A

    2015-03-01

    Health conferences are a special management instrument of health policy. Less is known about the distribution. There is a lack of systematic evaluation methods.This overview is based on comprehensive literature, data base and internet searches about health conferences in Germany.The establishment of structured conferences is derived from funding projects of the federal states or local initiatives which began in different phases and with various emphases. The strategies varied from individual actions to an implementation in the whole state. Currently there are altogether 130 health conferences in Germany for approximately one third of the county and city districts in 13 federal states. The federal states assist health conferences by providing financial support, health policy, support by health authorities and regulations in the law. In the majority of the cases the office is located within the public health service. There is a great diversity in the composition of the stakeholders and in the contents. A systematic monitoring and outcome evaluation was conducted only in a few cases. Those studies predominantly report positive results but also promoting and inhibiting factors. They referred to restrictions.Health conferences are broadly disseminated, especially in west Germany. They offer opportunities for a community health management. There is a need for more intensive exchange and evaluation to improve their development. PMID:24420647

  10. Regional Adaptation Strategies in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge on international, national, and regional scale. It affects the scientific world as well as policymakers, representatives of economy, and the public. Consequently, the need for a dialogue between experts in climate change and the people affected is needed. However, structuring and communicating climate change information on the various scales is challenging and demands coordination. Within the Helmholtz community in Germany, four regional Helmholtz climate offices are founded. One of their major goals is to encourage the communication between science and public. Primarily, this is done by close cooperation to the Helmholtz research centers at which each climate office is hosted. Second, a continuous exchange is supported beyond the Helmholtz research centers towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. Each regional Helmholtz climate office represents regional aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting Helmholtz research institutes. In the Climate Office for central Germany, Land use changes are among the most important factors of climate change driven environmental changes which have to be managed by the society in the next years. Since 1991 UFZ scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. The Climate Office offers information about climate change effects on the environmental compartments, land use strategies as well as regional strategies of adaptation. The three federal states in Central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) handle adaptation to climate change very differently. The presentation focusses on alikeness and differences in the adaptation process.

  11. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ˜2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm-2 sr-1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum.

  12. High efficiency antireflection coating in MWIR region (3.6-4.9 μm) simultaneously effective for Germanium and Silicon optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Meenakshi; Nautiyal, B. B.; Bandyopadhyay, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Antireflection coatings have critical importance in thermal imaging system working in MWIR region (3-5 μm) since optics of high refractive index materials are used. Germanium (Ge) and Silicon (Si) optics are used extensively in the MWIR thermal systems. In this paper a study has been carried out on the design and fabrication of multi-substrate antireflection coating effective for Germanium and Silicon optics in MWIR (3.6-4.9 μm) region. The wave band 3.6-4.9 μm is chosen for the reported work because detector system used in MWIR region has a band selection filter effective in the same wavelength region and atmospheric transmission window in MWIR region is effective in 3-5 μm spectral band. Comprehensive search method was used to design the multilayer stack on the substrate. The coating materials used in the design were Germanium (Ge), Hafnium oxide (HfO 2) and Y-Ba-Fluoride (IR-F625). The fabrication of coating was made in a coating plant fitted with Cryo pump system and residual gas analyzer (RGA). The evaporation was carried out at high vacuum (2-6 × 10 -6 mbar) with the help of electron beam gun system and layer thicknesses were measured with crystal monitor. The result achieved for the antireflection coating was 98.5% average transmission in 3.6-4.9 μm band for Germanium and Silicon optics. This work will be helpful in reducing the plant operation time, material and power consumption, as two different kinds of optics are simultaneously coated in a single coating cycle.

  13. Energy R and D in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  14. Possible cause for an improbable earthquake: The 1997 M{sub w} 4.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberg, J.; Wolf, L.

    1999-04-01

    Circumstantial and physical evidence indicates that the 1997 M{sub w} 4.9 earthquake in southern Alabama may have been related to hydrocarbon recovery. Epicenters of this earthquake and its aftershocks were located within a few kilometers of active oil and gas extraction wells and two pressurized injection wells. Main shock and aftershock focal depths (2--6 km) are within a few kilometers of the injection and withdrawal depths. Strain accumulation at geologic rates sufficient to cause rupture at these shallow focal depths is not likely. A paucity of prior seismicity is difficult to reconcile with the occurrence of an earthquake of M{sub w} 4.9 and a magnitude-frequency relationship usually assumed for natural earthquakes. The normal-fault main-shock mechanism is consistent with reactivation of preexisting faults in the regional tectonic stress field. If the earthquake were purely tectonic, however, the question arises as to why it occurred on only the small fraction of a large, regional fault system coinciding with active hydrocarbon recovery. No obvious temporal correlation is apparent between the earthquakes and recovery activities. Although thus far little can be said quantitatively about the physical processes that may have caused the 1997 sequence, a plausible explanation involves the poroelastic response of the crust to extraction of hydrocarbons.

  15. Even-odd product variation of the C(n)(+) + D(2) (n = 4-9) reaction: complexity of the linear carbon cation electronic states.

    PubMed

    Koyasu, K; Ohtaki, T; Bing, J; Takahashi, K; Misaizu, F

    2015-10-14

    We have studied reactions between linear Cn(+) (n = 4-9) and D2, using ion mobility mass spectrometry techniques and quantum chemical calculations in order to understand the complex reactivity of the linear cluster cations. Only linear CnD(+) products were observed for the odd (n = 5, 7, 9) linear clusters, while CnD2(+) was the main product for the even clusters. For the reaction rate constants determined for these two channels, we obtained the following two features: (1) the rate constant decreases with the size n, and (2) even-sized clusters have lower rate constants than neighboring odd-sized clusters. In the theoretical calculations using the CCSD(T) and B3LYP methods with the cc-pVTZ basis, we found that a low lying (2)Σ state in odd clusters may play an important role in these reactions. This opposes the previous interpretation that the (2)Πg/u state is the dominant electronic state for linear Cn(+) (n = 4-9) clusters. We showed that a barrierless radical abstraction forming CnD(+) occurs through a direct head on approach for the (2)Σ state Cn(+). In contrast, a carbene-like insertion forming CnD2(+) occurs through a sideways approach for the (2)Πg/u state Cn(+). We have concluded that the higher rate constants for the odd clusters come from the existence of symmetry broken (2)Σ states which are absent in even linear clusters.

  16. Even-odd product variation of the C(n)(+) + D(2) (n = 4-9) reaction: complexity of the linear carbon cation electronic states.

    PubMed

    Koyasu, K; Ohtaki, T; Bing, J; Takahashi, K; Misaizu, F

    2015-10-14

    We have studied reactions between linear Cn(+) (n = 4-9) and D2, using ion mobility mass spectrometry techniques and quantum chemical calculations in order to understand the complex reactivity of the linear cluster cations. Only linear CnD(+) products were observed for the odd (n = 5, 7, 9) linear clusters, while CnD2(+) was the main product for the even clusters. For the reaction rate constants determined for these two channels, we obtained the following two features: (1) the rate constant decreases with the size n, and (2) even-sized clusters have lower rate constants than neighboring odd-sized clusters. In the theoretical calculations using the CCSD(T) and B3LYP methods with the cc-pVTZ basis, we found that a low lying (2)Σ state in odd clusters may play an important role in these reactions. This opposes the previous interpretation that the (2)Πg/u state is the dominant electronic state for linear Cn(+) (n = 4-9) clusters. We showed that a barrierless radical abstraction forming CnD(+) occurs through a direct head on approach for the (2)Σ state Cn(+). In contrast, a carbene-like insertion forming CnD2(+) occurs through a sideways approach for the (2)Πg/u state Cn(+). We have concluded that the higher rate constants for the odd clusters come from the existence of symmetry broken (2)Σ states which are absent in even linear clusters. PMID:26344370

  17. Polymorphic homoeolog of key gene of RdDM pathway, ARGONAUTE4_9 class is associated with pre-harvest sprouting in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjit; Singh, Surinder; Randhawa, Harpinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is an important objective for the genetic improvement of many cereal crops, including wheat. Resistance, or susceptibility, to PHS is mainly influenced by seed dormancy, a complex trait. Reduced seed dormancy is the most important aspect of seed germination on a spike prior to harvesting, but it is influenced by various environmental factors including light, temperature and abiotic stresses. The basic genetic framework of seed dormancy depends on the antagonistic action of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) to promote dormancy and germination. Recent studies have revealed a role for epigenetic changes, predominantly histone modifications, in controlling seed dormancy. To investigate the role of DNA methylation in seed dormancy, we explored the role of ARGONAUTE4_9 class genes in seed development and dormancy in wheat. Our results indicate that the two wheat AGO4_9 class genes i.e. AGO802 and AGO804 map to chromosomes 3L and 1L are preferentially expressed in the embryos of developing seeds [corrected]. Differential expressions of AGO802-B in the embryos of PHS resistant and susceptible varieties also relates with DNA polymorphism in various wheat varieties due to an insertion of a SINE-like element into this gene. DNA methylation patterns of the embryonic tissue from six PHS resistant and susceptible varieties demonstrate a correlation with this polymorphism. These results suggest a possible role for AGO802-B in seed dormancy and PHS resistance through the modulation of DNA methylation. PMID:24130825

  18. Ethics-committee authorization in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Graf, H P; Cole, D

    1995-01-01

    On 9 August 1994 the German legislature revised the German Drug Law (AMG). Included in the revision is a passage requiring, for the first time, that the sponsors and investigators of clinical studies involving human subjects first obtain the approval of an ethics committee before carrying out such studies. According to the legislation, which takes effect on 17 August 1995, approval is to come from 'an independent ethics committee, set up and administered according to state law [emphasis added]' (1). Although it is clear according to the text that the 16 federal states have been empowered to establish ethics committees within their jurisdictions, this does not mean that the state governments are free to transfer exclusive authority in the matter to their respective medical associations, a step that would effectively abolish Germany's private ethics committees. First, the legislation does not rule out the authorization of private ethics committees. Second, as legal scholars attest, the exclusive control of ethics committees by the medical associations would constitute an illegal monopoly. Third, it is arguable that medical-association ethics committees fail to meet the one prior federal requirement, that of independence. There is a great deal of confusion in Germany today about which kinds of ethics committees (public and/or private) the states will sanction before 17 August 1995. In an attempt to sort things out we present a brief explanation of how ther came to be two kinds of ethics committees in Germany, review the legal battle between the two over the issue of authorization, point out how the German legislature, in passing the recent bill, has missed an opportunity to clarify the issue and, finally suggest why the administration of ethics committees by the medical associations may be incompatible with the requirement that ethics committees be independent. PMID:7473643

  19. [Postoperative pain therapy in Germany. Status quo].

    PubMed

    Pogatzki-Zahn, E M; Meissner, W

    2015-10-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the field of postoperative pain therapy in the last 20 years. Beginning from clinical trials on the effectiveness of individual procedures, such as epidural anesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia, a wide range of healthcare services research as well as basic research with human and animal experiments has been established. Whereas health services research in the 1980s and 1990s focused more on the implementation of acute pain services, outcome-oriented research approaches are nowadays the center of attention. Acute pain registries and pain certification projects initiated in Germany have to be mentioned particularly in this respect. Basic research papers from recent years increasingly address specific aspects of acute postoperative pain and have provided translational approaches that are applied around the world for studying neurobiological mechanisms of postoperative pain. At the same time, interdisciplinary cooperation in research projects has led to a better understanding of complex correlations regarding predictors and mechanisms (including psychosocial aspects) of acute and in recent times also chronic pain after surgery. In parallel, evidence-based medicine has found its way into acute pain medicine in Germany. In 2007, clinical acute pain therapy in Germany was enhanced by S3 level guidelines for the first time; however, the implementation is still incomplete. In future, questions concerning mechanism-based therapy of acute pain need to be equally in the center of attention of research, such as prevention of persisting pain after surgery and acute pain of different origins. PMID:26289394

  20. Decrease in major amputations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Frans; Moysidis, Theodoros; Kanya, Susanne; Babadagi-Hardt, Zeynep; Luther, Bernd; Kröger, Knut

    2015-06-01

    A decrease in rate of amputation has been reported from many countries. This study aims to study the trends in amputation rates in Germany. On the basis of DRG-system, detailed lists of all amputations coded as minor amputations (OPS 5-864) and major amputations (OPS 5-865) performed between 2005 and 2010 were provided by the Federal Statistical Office. There was a significant decrease in age-adjusted major amputation rates per 100 000 population in Germany from 27·0 in 2005 to 22·9 in 2010 (15·2%, P ≪ 0·001) in males and from 19·7 in 2005 to 14·4 in 2010 (26·9%, P ≪ 0·001) in females. Overall, minor amputation rates did not show such a decrease but increased in males (from 47·4 in 2005 to 57·8 in 2010, 21·9%, P ≪ 0·001) and remained almost unchanged in females (23·1 in 2005 and 23·9 in 2010, not significant). Reduction in major amputation rates were even more pronounced in people above 80 years, especially in males from 216 to 150 (30·5%) and in females from 168 to 117 (30·4%). The present data demonstrate an increasing overall burden of foot lesions as indicated by an increase in incidence of minor amputations but an ongoing success in the fight against amputation, resulting in a significant decrease in major amputation rates in Germany, in the 6-year period from 2005 to 2010.

  1. [Jewish veterinarians in Germany, 1918-1945].

    PubMed

    Möllers, G; Schaffer, J

    2005-10-01

    In 1998 there were only twelve Jewish veterinarians known who practised in Germany between 1918 and 1945. 133 of them have now been found. Most of the Jewish veterinarians had their roots in merchant families and were general practitioners in the countryside. To be "Jewish" did not concern until 1933. Compared with the other medical professionals like human medical professionals (10,9 %), in 1933 the number of Jewish veterinarians was low (1,6 %, whole German Jewish population 0,77 %). Right with the beginning of the National Socialistic rule Jewish veterinarians were exposed to different forms of harassment. Soon after, on April 7th 1933, with the so-called Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums (BBG; law for the restoration of civil service), the prosecution took on an official quality. The Reichstierärztekammer (Chamber of veterinary service) was very eager to Aryanize the German veterinary service. The BBG made the Jewish veterinarians who worked in public positions lose their jobs with the single exception of those who had the status of a so-called "Frontkämpfer" (a soldier who fought at the frontline during World War I). Many of the Jewish veterinarians who were still in Germany in November 1938 were arrested after the pogrom of November 9/10th and kept in concentration camps and prisons for about one month. The few students of veterinary medicine who already had started their studies in 1933 still could make their exams in Germany, but they did not get a licence. On January 31st 1939 all Jewish veterinarians in Germany lost their licence. 55 Jewish vets managed to emigrate in time. Nineteen German Jewish Veterinarians died in concentration camps and ghettos. Two are known to have committed suicide. Until 1997, there was no act of appreciation or rehabilitation of German Jewish veterinarians. In 2003 the degrees of two Jewish veterinarians, Hermann Cussel and Paul Stern, were renewed posthumously by the Hanover School of Veterinary Medicine

  2. Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny: comparative immunology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Cooper, E L; Bosch, T C

    2000-01-01

    The innate immune system is in the spot light of modern immunology. Whenever protists, invertebrates and vertebrates are threatened by pathogens, they rapidly activate highly effective antimicrobial defense reactions. Because this young field develops very dynamically, it is important to ask what we really know about the mechanisms governing the innate immune defense system. This was the topic of a recent meeting entitled 'The Evolution of the Immune System', held at the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Germany. Leading scientists in the field of innate immunity presented their latest data in a historical and friendly setting.

  3. Fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever imported into Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Tenner-Racz, K; Poppert, D; Emmerich, P; Frank, C; Dinges, C; Penning, R; Nerlich, A; Racz, P; Günther, S

    2012-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne virus (family Flaviviridae) causing dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever. Here, we report the first fatal DENV infection imported into Germany. A female traveler was hospitalized with fever and abdominal pain after returning from Ecuador. Due to a suspected acute acalculous cholecystitis, cholecystectomy was performed. After cholecystectomy, severe spontaneous bleeding from the abdominal wound occurred and the patient died. Postmortem analysis of transudate and tissue demonstrated a DENV secondary infection of the patient and a gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) due to an extensive edema.

  4. Environmental medicine in Germany--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hans Joachim

    2002-01-01

    In this review I describe the development of environmental medicine as a specialized field of clinical medicine in Germany. New scientific societies were founded, based on traditions of public hygiene and occupational medicine, as a reaction to environmental issues concerning human health. Environmental medicine issues were also addressed by independent "critical" physicians. The first institutions to accept patients were centers for environmental medicine affiliated with research institutions and/or with the public health service. Medical professional organizations, particularly the German General Medical Council, described the need for and formulated conditions for additional qualification for doctors in environmental medicine, including a 200-hr course. This course and a qualifying exam were passed by about 3,000 doctors, mainly from the public health service and from occupational medicine. Unfortunately, few general physicians in primary outpatient care were similarly trained. To date, no representative study has been conducted on environmental patients, but I include in this review a typical list of patients' complaints. I also summarize research activities typical for environmental medicine in Germany. Present problems concern accounting systems and, for example, diagnosis and treatment of patients with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). A coordinated research program on MCS has been started. PMID:11834469

  5. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted. PMID:11951159

  6. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted.

  7. Status of wind energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K.

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  8. [Cervical cancer screening in Germany. Current status].

    PubMed

    Schneider, V

    2012-07-01

    Cervical cancer screening was introduced in Germany 40 years ago and the incidence of cancer of the cervix has subsequently decreased by close to 70%. The remaining incidence of 5,600 cases per year represents only 2.8% of all newly occurring cases of cancer in women and these cases occur mainly in patients who do not participate in regular screening. Thus, cervical cancer screening by cytological smears has been proven to be successful. The structure of the German cancer screening program is characterized by decentralized organization, exclusive involvement of medical specialists such as gynecologists and pathologists and strict quality assurance. The recruitment is 50% on a yearly basis and the cumulative participation over 3 years reaches 79%. Since 2008 all laboratories are required to report complete data sets to local quality control agencies.The Joint Federal Committee in charge of evaluating new technologies in Germany mandated an inquiry into the possible role of screening by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. According to this report published by the Institute for Quality Assurance and Efficiency in Healthcare there are indications for advantages. There are, however, no data in the literature as to possible disadvantages of HPV testing. A similar study for the US Preventive Services Task Force was published in May 2011 with almost identical conclusions.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations, and computational study of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaani, Ayoub; Ajloo, Davood; Kiyani, Hamzeh; Vakili, Mohamad; Farahani, Mahnaz; Amiri, Majid

    2016-08-01

    4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde has been synthesized in an attempt to obtain a new photochromic compound. The optimized molecular structure, mole fractions of title compound in trans and ana forms have been investigated. UV-visible spectra of the compound were also recorded. Upon irradiation with 300 nm light, the camel solid turned orange, in which a visible absorption band was observed at 475 nm. The electronic properties, such as HOMO, LUMO and band gap energies were obtained by the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The predicted nonlinear optical properties of the title compound are much greater than those of urea. Transition structures were calculated by QST3 and IRC methods which yielded the potential energy surface and activation energy.

  10. Morphology and molecular arrangement of perylene-3,4,9,10-(n-pentylester) in thin layers obtained by zone-casting.

    PubMed

    Adamski, Adrian; Nowicka, Ariadna B; Barszcz, Bolesław; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Piosik, Emilia; Wolarz, Eryk

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-crystalline perylene-3,4,9,10-tetra-(n-pentylester) zone-casted on hydrophilic glass substrates forms characteristic belt-like structures which are observed under optical microscope and atomic force microscope. Polarised Raman scattering spectra reveal the presence of anisotropic alignment of the molecules inside the obtained structures. Moreover, the absorption and fluorescence spectra confirm molecular aggregation in the belt-like structures. The research shows, that the belt-like structures are created by columns of molecules with the edge-on alignment on the glass substrate. Such organisation of the molecules is confirmed by spectroscopic methods. These structures can be interesting from the point of view of organic electronics.

  11. The effect of Hoe-427 (an ACTH sub 4-9 analog) on free-choice ethanol consumption in male and female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, S.; Maickel, R.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol consummatory patterns of individual male and female rats and the effects of Hoe-427 (Ebiratide), and ACTH{sub 4-9} analog, thereon, were studied in a test system using 24 hour, two-bottle free choice consumption between 0.2% saccharin and 10% ethanol in 0.2% saccharin. Single, daily i.p. doses of either ACTH{sub 4-10} or its analog resulted in a significant reduction of daily ethanol consumption with no effects on saccharin consumption. After 4 days of treatment, male rats consistently exhibited a rebound increase in ethanol consumption; this effect was not seen in females. The daily ethanol consummatory patterns of the female animals seemed to exhibit a 4-6 day cyclic rhythymicity, suggesting an interaction with estrous cycles. These results support a role for ACTH{sub 4-10} in the initiation of ethanol consummatory behavior in rats and suggests the existence of sex differences in this phenomenon.

  12. Morphology and molecular arrangement of perylene-3,4,9,10-(n-pentylester) in thin layers obtained by zone-casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamski, Adrian; Nowicka, Ariadna B.; Barszcz, Bolesław; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Piosik, Emilia; Wolarz, Eryk

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-crystalline perylene-3,4,9,10-tetra-(n-pentylester) zone-casted on hydrophilic glass substrates forms characteristic belt-like structures which are observed under optical microscope and atomic force microscope. Polarised Raman scattering spectra reveal the presence of anisotropic alignment of the molecules inside the obtained structures. Moreover, the absorption and fluorescence spectra confirm molecular aggregation in the belt-like structures. The research shows, that the belt-like structures are created by columns of molecules with the edge-on alignment on the glass substrate. Such organisation of the molecules is confirmed by spectroscopic methods. These structures can be interesting from the point of view of organic electronics.

  13. Spectroscopy of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) attached to rare gas samples: clusters vs. bulk matrices. I. Absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Matthieu; Müller, Markus; Knoblauch, Tobias; Bünermann, Oliver; Rydlo, Alexandre; Minniberger, Stefan; Harbich, Wolfgang; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2012-10-28

    The interaction between 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and rare gas or para-hydrogen samples is studied by means of laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The comparison between spectra of PTCDA embedded in a neon matrix and spectra attached to large neon clusters shows that these large organic molecules reside on the surface of the clusters when doped by the pick-up technique. PTCDA molecules can adopt different conformations when attached to argon, neon, and para-hydrogen clusters which implies that the surface of such clusters has a well-defined structure without liquid or fluxional properties. Moreover, a precise analysis of the doping process of these clusters reveals that the mobility of large molecules on the cluster surface is quenched, preventing agglomeration and complex formation.

  14. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a history of substitution

  15. Muslim-Turkish Children in Germany: Sociocultural Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onder, Zehra

    1996-01-01

    The sociocultural problems of Turkish children living in Germany are explored. Turkish immigrant children in Germany must be socialized in two societies, the traditional Turkish culture of their parents and that of German society. Religion and the Islamic-value system are often at odds with German values. (SLD)

  16. The paradigm shift in cervical cancer screening in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hillemanns, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With the adoption of the Cancer Screening and Registration Law (KFRG, 2013) based on the National Cancer Plan, the so far opportunistic cervical cancer screening in Germany is to be converted to an organized screening program. This decision in Germany is consistent with the new EU Guidelines and, in anticipation of the upcoming German S3 guideline for cervical cancer screening.

  17. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  18. National Student Governance in Germany: The Case of fzs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungblut, Jens; Weber, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organizational development of freier zusammenschluss von studentInnenschaften (fzs), the national union of students in Germany from its foundation until 2010. It situates it within the variety of student organizations acting on behalf of students within the multi-level system of higher education governance in Germany.…

  19. Labor, Business, and Change in Germany and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wever, Kirsten S., Ed.

    This book explores how two nations with widely divergent political economies, Germany and the United States (U.S.), embraced change in four contemporary settings. "Mutual Learning with Trade-Offs" (Kirsten Wever) discusses mutual learning and the distinguishing characteristics of the political economies of Germany and the U.S. "Deregulation and…

  20. Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakleppa, Hans

    The Federal Republic of Germany uses its development aid policy to support the growth of manpower resources in developing countries by means of a broad spectrum of training and further training programs of foreign specialists. In planning these programs and arranging scholarships, Germany tries to orient itself toward the educational policy…

  1. An American Social Worker in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... direct benefit of the United States Forces are authorized to be acquired duty-free by the Contractor in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement Between the United States of America and Germany Concerning Tax Relief to be Accorded by Germany to United States Expenditures in the Interest of Common...

  3. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Veterinary Clinics, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Weiss, Reinhard; van der Reijden, Tanny; van den Broek, Peterhans; Baljer, Georg; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2011-01-01

    An increase in prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. in hospitalized animals was observed at the Justus-Liebig-University (Germany). Genotypic analysis of 56 isolates during 2000–2008 showed 3 clusters that corresponded to European clones I–III. Results indicate spread of genotypically related strains within and among veterinary clinics in Germany. PMID:21888812

  4. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  5. The Search for Specialists and Managers. Staff Shortage in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Klaus, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Despite its high unemployment level, Germany is experiencing a shortage of specialists and managers. Germany's need for highly qualified information technology (IT) workers and engineers is particularly great. Approximately 10,000 posts for computer scientists and IT specialists remained vacant in 1998. Because of the shortage of such specialists,…

  6. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  7. An Active Old Age--Senior Citizens in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    Life expectancies are rising all over the world, leading to higher proportions of older adults in the population. This is especially true in Japan and Germany. In Germany today, "old" no longer means necessarily "poor and frail." Through volunteer work, lifelong learning, study tours, and participation in sports, older Germans are changing the…

  8. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  9. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Germany: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Germany's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. Data were collected through meetings with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, an analysis of data from a national questionnaire, and a review of pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: reviewing the role of Germany's…

  10. Dow agrees on pipeline in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-05-01

    The often fragile relationship between Dow Europe and eastern Germany strengthened this week with an agreement to build a feedstock pipeline from the Baltic Sea to the Buna BSL petrochemical complex at Boehlen. Dow recently agreed to go ahead with its 80% investment in the BSL venture following fears it might withdraw from the project because of European Commission cuts in the amount of state aid available. The multi-feedstock liquid pipeline is expected to transport naphtha, crude oil, and, possibly, liquid petroleum gas from Rostock on the Baltic to the Boehlen site. Besides Dow, the participants are BSL Olefinverbund and Elf subsidiary Mider. Dow is expected to contribute DM450 million toward the investment.

  11. West Germany: science and animal protection.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, W

    1985-01-26

    West Germany's animal welfare movement is unusual in its emphasis on "protection" based on the religious concept of "Mitgeschöpflichkeit," which holds that "animals like man, are God's creatures and must all be treated with responsibility." At a hearing on amending the 1972 animal welfare law, protectionists, represented by nine organizations, asked for explicit restrictions on the purposes of research, approval of protocols by ethics committees, and the setting of qualifications for researchers. Their demands were challenged by representatives of major medical disciplines, scientific research societies, zoo directors, pharmaceutical companies, and the farmers' association. Lorenz comments that researchers ought to increase scrutiny of their work, avoid duplication, and give attention to pain relief, while protectionists must guard against "misanthropy" and "enmity to research per se." PMID:11644362

  12. [Population developments in Germany until 2050].

    PubMed

    Osterkamp, R

    2005-01-01

    While the total population in Germany is expected to diminish until 2050, the proportion of old and very old persons will rise considerably. The annual frequency of sicknesses, clinic days, and fatalities of old persons will likewise strongly increase. This raises difficult problems for the future design of the German public health care system. In any case, reforms will contain elements of rationing which will lead to a less expansion of the field of activity for geriatric physicians and surgeons than the purely demographic development would suggest. This dampening effect of rationing reforms on geriatric medical treatment and surgery, however, might possibly be least when done in an age-specific way and combined with long-term individual provisions through savings and health insurance. PMID:15551009

  13. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  14. Interrelationships between mortality and fertility in Germany: rural and urban Prussia and modern Germany.

    PubMed

    Entorf, H; Zimmermann, K F

    1990-01-01

    "The paper investigates the interrelationship between fertility and infant mortality and its economic determinants by time-series methods for historical and modern Germany. It is studied whether the causal effects of infant mortality on fertility have to be considered as hoarding or replacement, and whether the costs of nutrition have an influence on family decision making about demographic variables. Results show that there are indications for replacement motives, and that economic factors matter." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA)

  15. Childhood Leukemia in the Vicinity of the Geesthacht Nuclear Establishments near Hamburg, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Terschueren, Claudia; Richardson, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Background During 1990–1991 a childhood leukemia cluster was observed in the sparsely populated region surrounding two nuclear establishments southeast of Hamburg, Germany. Since then, several new cases have been reported. Recently a possible accidental release of radionuclides in 1986 was hypothesized. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the childhood leukemia incidence in this area since 1990. Methods All incident cases (< 15 years of age) were ascertained during 1990–2005 within a 5-km radius of the Krümmel nuclear power plant. We derived standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using county and national leukemia incidence rates as referents. We stratified analyses by calendar period and attained age, and by subdividing the study region into areas north versus south of the Elbe river. Results Fourteen cases were ascertained in the study area, whereas 4.0 were expected based on national referent rates [1990–2005: SIR = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.9–5.9]. The excess was not confined to the early 1990s; for the more recent time period 1999–2005, the SIR is still elevated (SIR = 2.7; 95% CI, 0.9–6.2). SIRs of greatest magnitude were observed for children 0–4 years of age (SIR = 4.9; 95% CI, 2.4–9.0) and for residents south of the Elbe (SIR = 7.5; 95% CI, 2.8–16.4). Conclusions The incidence in this region is significantly higher than the childhood leukemia incidence for Germany as a whole. To date, no unique hazards have been identified in this population. The fact that the elevated rates have persisted in this community for > 15 years warrants further investigation. PMID:17589605

  16. Gamma and pizero production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation. [4. 9 to 7. 4 GeV (c. m. )

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, A.

    1980-01-01

    Inclusive cross sections of ..gamma..'s and ..pi../sup 0/ mesons in hadronic events produced by electron-positron annihilation for the center-of-mass energy range 4.9 to 7.4 GeV are presented. Scale invariance of the inclusive spectra is exhibited in this energy range, and their normalization and shape are seen to be consistent with those of spectra arising from the decay of the ..pi../sup 0/. The fraction of center-of-mass energy carried away by the ..gamma..'s at high energies is found to be < E/sub ..gamma..//E/sub c.m./> = 0.24 +- 0.01. The ..pi../sup 0/ inclusive cross section is seen to be consistent in normalization and shape with half the charged-..pi.. cross section between x = 0.15 and 0.75, with an integrated inclusive cross-section ratio of sigma(..pi../sup 0/)/(sigma(..pi../sup +/) + sigma(..pi../sup -/)) = 0.48 +- 0.05. 60 figures, 7 tables.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations and computational study of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)benzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaani, A.; Ajloo, D.; Kiyani, H.; Farahani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)benzaldehyde in “trans” and “ana” forms have been investigated by UV-Vis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy as well as density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational analysis of the two forms of cited compound was performed by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy in combination with theoretical simulations. The obtained geometrical parameters and wavenumbers of vibrational normal modes from the DFT method were in good consistency with the experimental values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by GIAO method. Computed molecular orbital and time dependent DFT oscillator renderings agree closely with experimental observations. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. In order to predict the reactive sites, a molecular electrostatic potential map (MEP) for the title compound was obtained. Transition structures were calculated by QST3 and IRC methods which yielded the potential energy surface and activation energy.

  18. N-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine for blue organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Dong Young; Lee, Song Eun; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have synthesized two blue fluorescent materials based on anthracene derivatives with electron-donating diphenylamine moieties by Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. To explore their electroluminescent properties as blue emitting materials, multilayer devices were fabricated in following sequence: indium–tin-oxide (180 nm)/4,4‧-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl (50 nm)/blue emitters (30 nm)/bathophenanthroline (30 nm)/lithium quinolate (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). Among them, a device using N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine exhibited efficient blue emission with a luminous, power and external quantum efficiency of 3.11 cd/A, 2.39 lm/W, and 1.82% at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. The Commission International de L’Eclairage coordinates of this device were (x,y) = (0.14,0.15) at 6.0 V.

  19. Patterned growth of single-crystal 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride nanowire arrays for field-emission and optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huanhuan; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yang, Yang; Shao, Zhibin; Deng, Wei; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yu; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-07-24

    3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) organic nanostructures possess extraordinary electronic and optoelectronic properties. However, it remains a challenge to achieve patterned growth of PTCDA nanowire (NW) arrays for integrated device applications. Here, we demonstrated the high-density, large-area, uniform, and cross-aligned growth of single-crystalline PTCDA NW arrays by using Au nanoparticles (NPs) as the growth templates. The high surface energy of Au NPs led to the cross-aligned growth of organic NWs, enabling the growth of PTCDA NW arrays with any desirable patterns by pre-patterning the Au films on a Si substrate. The PTCDA NW arrays as field emitters show good performance with a large emission current density and high emission stability. Furthermore, photodetectors based on PTCDA NW arrays were constructed via a simple in-situ growth approach, which exhibited high sensitivity to a wideband light ranging from 400-800 nm and surpassed the individual NW-based photodetectors in terms of higher photocurrent and faster response speed. Successful applications of PTCDA NW arrays in field emission and photodetectors show a great potential application of organic NW arrays in future efficient electronic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:26135069

  20. Mechanism of deoxyribonucleic acid breakage induced by 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide and copper: role for cuprous ion and oxygen free radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.; Huang, C.H.; Crooke, S.T.

    1984-06-19

    4-(9-Acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide (mAMSA) interacts with Cu(II) ions, as indicated by changes in the mAMSA absorption spectrum induced by Cu(II). The spectral changes are due to the oxidation of mAMSA by Cu(II), resulting in an oxidized mAMSA product and Cu(I). Cu(I) plays an important role in the mAMSA-Cu(II)-induced DNA breakage, since in the presence of neocuproine the DNA breakage is inhibited. Up to 200 ..mu..M, Cu(I) by itself is virtually ineffective, in contrast to the mixture of mAMSA and Cu(II). This suggests that mAMSA, aside from reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), may play a role in mediating DNA breakage. The DNA breakage was reduced in partially anaerobic conditions, indicating the involvement of molecular oxygen. Catalase and 4,5-dihydroxy-1,2-benzenedisulfonate inhibited the DNA breakage completely, indicating that hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals mediate DNA breakage. 1,3-Diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane partially inhibited the breakage, suggesting that singlet oxygen is involved. The available evidence supports a mechanism indicating the formation of a DNA x mAMSA x Cu(II) ternary complex and the subsequent oxidation-reduction of the complex to form DNA x mAQDI x Cu(I). The oxidation of the complexed Cu(I) may result in reduction of oxygen to oxygen free radicals which induce DNA breaks.

  1. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score <-2 was categorised as underweight, height-for-age-z-score <-2 as stunted, and BMI-z-score >+1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all P<0.01). Stunting and underweight were related to lower birth weight, being breastfed for 6 months or more, having parents who were underweight or had short stature, and mothers who never attended formal education. Stunting was also higher in rural areas. Being at-risk, or overweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties, of a Cu(II) solid state compound derived from the 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylate anion and diethylenetriammine (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes-Martinez, Jesus; Cervantes-Lee, Francisco; ter Haar, Leonard W.

    1993-05-01

    Several strategies have been used to develop novel magnetic materials. One of these is the simultaneous use of at least two different ligands, one an oxygen donor and the other a nitrogen donor. With this approach, using the optically interesting oxygen donor, 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylate anion (petca), and the tridentate nitrogen donor ligand, diethylenetriamine (dien), we recently reported1 the synthesis of the solid state Cu(II) compound, [Cu5(dien)5(petca)2H2O4] (ClO4)2ṡ2H2O (1). This compound contains three different copper species, a chain [Cu2 (dien)2(petca)n, a dimer [Cu2(dien)2(petca)(H2O)2] and a monomer [Cu(dien)(H2O)2] and several exchange pathways. We wish to report, that the dimeric units in 1 have been isolated. The structure of the compound [Cu2(dien)2(petca)H2O)2]ṡ13H2O (2), has been determined by an x-ray single-crystal diffraction study. Two different dimers are present in the unit cell: isolated dimer units, surrounded by water molecules; and dimers connected through hydrogen bonds in a way that resembles the chains in 1. In both cases, the Cu(II) ion is coordinated to one oxygen from the petca anion, the three nitrogen atoms of the dien, and a water molecule, in a nearly square planar geometry. The magnetic properties of this compound relate to these structural features.

  3. [The situation of emergency psychiatry in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pajonk, F-G B

    2015-09-01

    The impact of psychiatric emergencies for the care of patients in preclinical emergency medicine, in emergency departments and in psychiatric hospitals has been underestimated for a long time. There is still insufficient knowledge and a need for further research. There are, however, sufficient reasons to assume that annually approximately 500,000 patients with a psychiatric emergency receive treatment from a preclinical emergency physician and another 1.5 million in emergency departments in Germany. Further, approximately 500,000 patients are admitted to psychiatric hospitals as an emergency. The most frequent reasons are intoxication, agitation, aggressiveness and suicidal ideation, posing a threat of self-harm to the patient or to other persons and evoking other life-threatening conditions. Emergency psychiatry also plays a role in collective injuries, such as mass disasters, catastrophes and rampage situations. There is some evidence that the number of psychiatric emergencies is increasing. Reasons are, among others, changes in the services provided for inpatient and outpatient treatment, a reduction in stabilizing psychosocial factors and a general increase in the utilization of emergency healthcare services. PMID:26099496

  4. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term. PMID:22142877

  5. Women in Physics in Germany, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Hanna

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics in Germany has not changed dramatically in the three years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference was held in 2005. The salary of a woman remains approximately 25% lower than that of a man in a comparable professional position. The number of female professors is growing slowly. The number of young women beginning to study physics is around 20%. There is, however, a noticeable increase in organization and societal acceptance of female physicists, and an increasing amount of men taking part in this process. There is also increased acceptance and support of dual-career couples. The Helmholtz Alliance for "Physics at the Terascale" founded a dual-career option program. In 2008, the annual Conference of German Female Physicists (DPT) held in Muenster became an official conference of the DPG (German Physical Society). Various scientific groups working for equal opportunity have formed a "network of networks." At the DESY (German Electron Synchrotron), a group of women led by an equal opportunity officer is involved in the entire process of hiring new staff members in all positions, including directors.

  6. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of metropolitan Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Krüger, A; Börstler, J; Badusche, M; Lühken, R; Garms, R; Tannich, E

    2014-08-01

    In Europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. A vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. It was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in Germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal changes. This paper is focussing on a densely populated metropolitan region, the federal state of Hamburg and its adjacent environs, taking two historical baseline inventories into consideration, spanning almost 100 years of mosquito research in Hamburg. In the period between 2010 and 2014, more than 10,000 juvenile, neonate and adult mosquito specimens were sampled and trapped at 105 sites in Hamburg and its environs, of which about 60% have been identified to species level, resulting in a total of 33 recorded species. Of these, Anopheles algeriensis, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus nigrinus and Ochlerotatus sticticus are new to the area. The most common species in Hamburg are Culex pipiens/torrentium and Ochlerotatus annulipes/cantans. In contrast, two previously common species, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus excrucians, were not detected. Despite substantial environmental changes due to reconstruction, urbanisation and renaturation in the Hamburg metropolitan region in recent decades, there has been remarkably little change within the mosquito fauna during the last century. PMID:24870250

  7. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    PubMed

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  8. Space Radar Image of Munich, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  9. [The state of outpatient psychotherapy in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zepf, Siegfried; Mengele, Ute; Hartmann, Sebastian

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the state of adult outpatient psychotherapy in Germany after the PTG came into force. 1042 psychotherapists were questioned on certain issues. One result was that patients have to wait 4.6 months for psychotherapy and that every second patient asking for a diagnostic interview and possible treatment was refused. Of those who were given a diagnostic interview 35 % were not taken into treatment, although disturbances were diagnosed--such as tinnitus, pain, organic disturbances with psychic complications, suicidal tendencies, anorexia nervosa, addiction, psychosomatic illnesses, personality disorders, psychotic disorders--would normally demand psychotherapeutic treatment. Furthermore only 56 % of those patients who Löcherbach et al. considered needing and wanting psychotherapeutic treatment were actually in a G IV psychotherapy. Apart from this the possibility of getting psychotherapy as well as the kind of psychotherapy proved to be dependent on the kind of medical insurance. Different payments by the insurance companies caused longer waiting times for patients and determined the choice of psychotherapy by the psychotherapists. PMID:12649759

  10. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on.

  11. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    PubMed

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings. PMID:25324132

  12. The development of human genetics in Germany; a personal view.

    PubMed

    Vogel, F

    2005-07-01

    A personal account is given of the reconstruction and development of human genetics in Germany during the years following World War 2. An important stimulus was funding, as a result of the recognition of the genetic hazards of atomic radiation. Starting from 1960, human genetics institutes were progressively established throughout West Germany; comparable development was later in East Germany because of political factors. The first genetic counselling units were formed in 1972, but molecular biology only became an integral part of human genetics institutes at a relatively late stage. Close international links have characterised post-war human genetics in Germany from the outset and a tradition of close links with developing countries has also been established.

  13. North portal of Culvert No. 1308, High Germany Road Culvert, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North portal of Culvert No. 1308, High Germany Road Culvert, seen from Bill's Place in Little Orleans, MD, looking southeast. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  14. Extraterrestrial research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This German program for basic extraterrestrial research is an essential, successful, and worldwide recognized part of the space program and has the same attributes for basic research in the Federal Republic of Germany. It covers all major scientific disciplines.

  15. [Suicides and Suicid Rates in Germany, Bavaria and Upper Frankonia

    PubMed

    Mauerer, Christian; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Keller, Ferdinand

    2003-05-01

    The authors give an actual survey about suicides and suicide rates in Germany, Bavaria and Upper Frankonia. Their special interest are significant trends in the last years. These trends will be shown and shortly described.

  16. Recruitment of Civil Engineering Students in Germany: Shortage or Overflow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothert, Heinrich

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the recruitment and demand for civil engineering students in Germany. Described is the German engineering education system and the possibility of a joint-venture building industry between the two German states. (KR)

  17. Arms control and the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrieder, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    These essays explore the implications of arms control negotiations for the FRG and consider why Germany has traditionally found it impossible to divorce considerations of arms control from their larger political context.

  18. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  19. Albedo neutron dosimetry in Germany: regulations and performance.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Zimbal, A; Busch, F; Eichelberger, A; Engelhardt, J; Figel, M; Frasch, G; Günther, K; Jordan, M; Martini, E; Haninger, T; Rimpler, A; Seifert, R

    2014-12-01

    Personal neutron dosimetry has been performed in Germany using albedo dosemeters for >20 y. This paper describes the main principles, the national standards, regulations and recommendations, the quality management and the overall performance, giving some examples. PMID:24639589

  20. Culvert No. 1308, High Germany Road Culvert in Little Orleans, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Culvert No. 1308, High Germany Road Culvert in Little Orleans, Maryland. Bill's Place in foreground, looking east. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  1. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  2. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  3. Monitoring of climate change in Germany - data, products and services of Germany's National Climate Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, F.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Penda, E.; Mächel, H.; Zimmermann, K.; Kaiser-Weiss, A.; Deutschländer, T.

    2013-08-01

    Germany's national meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) is the responsible authority for monitoring climate change in Germany. To fulfill this task it operates the National Climate Data Centre ("Nationales KlimaDatenZentrum, NKDZ"). The historical and current instrumental measurements and visual observations of DWD's station network are archived, quality-controlled and used to provide aggregated products, as for example daily and monthly means or climate normals. Gridded data are generated and used to derive time series of national and regional averages. Phenological observations and radiosonde data are also part of the data base. In recent years, additional historical data have been digitized to expand the data base. The products are used for informing the public, e.g. as an element of the German climate atlas (http://www.deutscher-klimaatlas.de). One major recent activity was the provision of information for the new climatological reference interval 1981-2010 and an updated climatological analysis based on the newly digitized data.

  4. Germany's Option for a Moon Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Moon. The developed Moon orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • slewable HDTV camera combined with a high gain antenna that allows receiving lunar television using a commercially available satellite TV dish on Earth • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of lunar silicates and lunar surface temperature measurements • camera for detection and monitoring of impact flashes in visible light (VIS) on lunar night side caused by meteoroid impact events • camera technology test for interplanetary navigation and planetary approach navigation. This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. Due to the fact, that the satellite would be built by the private sector, the mission costs would remain low. Otherwise the scientific and public output would be high using that satellite bus for the instruments

  5. [The hospital at Hillersleben Germany, April 1945].

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Varda

    2014-01-01

    On 6th April 1945, nine days before the liberation of the Bergen Belsen Concentration Camp, about 2,500 Jewish prisoners were ordered to prepare to leave the camp on the next day. On 7th April, the prisoners left through the gates of the camp and began to walk about 10 kilometers to the train station near the city of Celle. There they were ordered to board a train that would take them to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. After six days of travel, the train stopped near the village of Farsleben, Germany, where it was liberated by the 743rd Tank Battalion of the 30th Infantry Division, of the U.S. 9th Army, on 13th April 1945. The 105th Medical Battalion of the same Division was the primary care provider for the survivors, who were then taken in vehicles available from the 30th Infantry Division, and organized into a convoy by the Division's Liaison Officer, Lt. Frank W. Towers, to the town of Hillersleben. A former German Air Force Base was located at Hillersleben with a small hospital that could not provide medical attention to all the survivors. On 21st April, Company C of the 95th Medical Battalion, received an order to go to Hillersleben. Colonel Dr. William W. Hurteau, the Commanding Officer of this Battalion, determined that the biggest task given to the Battalion during World War II, was establishing another hospital in the town of Hillersleben and providing additional beds in the existing hospital, which was a structure that had served as a boarding school. Furthermore, they needed to acquire hospital equipment which was obtained from German equipment and supplies that had been captured by the U.S. MiLitary. Also, they took care of obtaining food supplies from German warehouses, and meat and milk from local dairy farms. The lives of the prisoners on this train were saved by the heroism and dedicated work of those brave soldiers of the 30th Infantry Division and the 95th Medical Battalion. PMID:24791569

  6. Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bär, A; Biermann, C

    1992-03-01

    The dietary intake of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin was evaluated in Germany (FRG) in 1988/89. In the first part of the study the sweetener intake was evaluated in a representative sample of the population. Complete 24-h records of the amount and type of all foods and drinks consumed were obtained from 2,291 individuals. The total daily intake was calculated for each person from the sweetener content of each product and was expressed in mg/kg body weight (bw). 35.9% of the participants ingested one or more sweeteners on the examination day. Cyclamate and saccharin were the prominent sweeteners because aspartame was at that time permitted only under special regulatory exemption, and products containing acesulfame were not yet available. For users of intense sweeteners the mean intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.15, 2.62, and 0.250 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. At the 90th percentile of intake, i.e., for the heavy consumer, the ingestion of cyclamate and saccharin was about 2.5 times higher. Persons who adhered to a diet (diabetes, weight control) did not ingest sweeteners in substantially higher amounts. Tabletop sweeteners and beverages were the most important sources of sweeteners, and they contributed more than 80% of the total intake. Consumption of sweeteners in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was rarely observed (saccharin: one person, cyclamate: 16 persons). In the second part of the study, the sweetener intake was further evaluated during a 7-day period in those subjects who in the 1-day study ingested any of the sweeteners in excess of 75% of the ADI. Complete 7-day food records were available from 40 out of the 41 subjects who fulfilled this criterium. In this selected subgroup in which 19 subjects were less than 19 years old, the mean daily intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.13, 4.53, and 0.42 mg/kg body weight (bw), respectively. These levels correspond to 0.33, 41 and 17% of the corresponding ADI

  7. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  8. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  9. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR

  10. The Integrated Carbon Observation System in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo

    2013-04-01

    will enable the researchers to calculate the European carbon fluxes with a resolution of 10 km. The ICOS-D Atmospheric Observational Network for Germany, when fully established, will comprise 9 atmospheric sites. In the Ocean Program, volunteer observing ships (VOS) plying regular routes in the Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea will be instrumented to make autonomous observations of physical and biochemical parameters (temperature, salinity) and sea surface fugacity of CO2 (fCO2). In addition, two ocean observatories at the Cape Verde Islands and Svalbard ('Hausgarten') will be part of the long-term research infrastructure. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Program will provide continuous measurements of trace gas fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere. The measurements will be conducted in forests, grasslands, croplands and wetlands and will partly build on sites that have been run for a decade or more in the framework of EU-projects such as CarboEuropeIP. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Program will be designed in 5 - 6 clusters. A cluster is a group of sites at close range but under different land use. This will ensure high representativeness for climate, soils properties and regional land use criteria. The CAL will provide calibration gases for the entire network in order to minimize offsets and calibration uncertainties between the measurements at different stations. It will further provide a centralized analysis of grab samples taken within the whole ICOS RI network for additional trace gases and isotope ratios, including radiocarbon which provides an independent method to quantify regional fossil fuel emissions.

  11. Tuning Magnetism of [MnSb4](9-) Cluster in Yb14MnSb11 through Chemical Substitutions on Yb Sites: Appearance and Disappearance of Spin Reorientation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yufei; Chen, Chih-Wei; Cao, Huibo; Makhmudov, F; Grebenkemper, Jason H; Abdusalyamova, M N; Morosan, Emilia; Kauzlarich, Susan M

    2016-09-28

    Single crystals of Yb14-xRExMnSb11 (0 < x < 0.6, RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, and Gd) were synthesized by Sn flux. The compounds are iso-structural with Ca14AlSb11 (I41/acd), and their compositions were determined by wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy. Yb14MnSb11 is described as a partially screened d-metal Kondo system with the isolated [MnSb4](9-) tetrahedral cluster having a d(5) + hole configuration that results in four unpaired electrons measured in the ferromagnetically ordered phase. All of the Yb atoms in Yb14MnSb11 are present as Yb(2+), and the additional RE in Yb14-xRExMnSb11 is trivalent, contributing one additional electron to the structure and altering the magnetic properties. All compounds show ferromagnetic ordering in the range of 39-52 K attributed to the [MnSb4](9-) magnetic moment. Temperature-dependent DC magnetization measurements of Yb14-xPrxMnSb11 (0.44 ≤ x ≤ 0.56) show a sharp downturn right below the ferromagnetic transition temperature. Single-crystal neutron diffraction shows that this downturn is caused by a spin reorientation of the [MnSb4](9-) magnetic moments from the ab-plane to c-axis. The spin reorientation behavior, caused by large anisotropy, is also observed for similar x values of RE = Nd but not for RE = Sm or Gd at any value of x. In Pr-, Nd-, and Sm-substituted crystals, the saturation moments are consistent with ∼4 unpaired electrons attributed to [MnSb4](9-), indicating that local moments of Pr, Nd, and Sm do not contribute to the ferromagnetic order. In the case of RE = Pr, this is confirmed by neutron diffraction. In contrast, the magnetic measurements of RE = Gd show that the moments of Gd ferromagnetically order with the moments of [MnSb4](9-), and reduced screening of moments on Mn(2+) is evident. The sensitive variation of magnetic behavior is attributed to the various RE substitutions resulting in different interactions of the 4f-orbitals with the 3d-orbitals of Mn in the [MnSb4](9-) cluster conducted through 5p

  12. Tuning Magnetism of [MnSb4](9-) Cluster in Yb14MnSb11 through Chemical Substitutions on Yb Sites: Appearance and Disappearance of Spin Reorientation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yufei; Chen, Chih-Wei; Cao, Huibo; Makhmudov, F; Grebenkemper, Jason H; Abdusalyamova, M N; Morosan, Emilia; Kauzlarich, Susan M

    2016-09-28

    Single crystals of Yb14-xRExMnSb11 (0 < x < 0.6, RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, and Gd) were synthesized by Sn flux. The compounds are iso-structural with Ca14AlSb11 (I41/acd), and their compositions were determined by wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy. Yb14MnSb11 is described as a partially screened d-metal Kondo system with the isolated [MnSb4](9-) tetrahedral cluster having a d(5) + hole configuration that results in four unpaired electrons measured in the ferromagnetically ordered phase. All of the Yb atoms in Yb14MnSb11 are present as Yb(2+), and the additional RE in Yb14-xRExMnSb11 is trivalent, contributing one additional electron to the structure and altering the magnetic properties. All compounds show ferromagnetic ordering in the range of 39-52 K attributed to the [MnSb4](9-) magnetic moment. Temperature-dependent DC magnetization measurements of Yb14-xPrxMnSb11 (0.44 ≤ x ≤ 0.56) show a sharp downturn right below the ferromagnetic transition temperature. Single-crystal neutron diffraction shows that this downturn is caused by a spin reorientation of the [MnSb4](9-) magnetic moments from the ab-plane to c-axis. The spin reorientation behavior, caused by large anisotropy, is also observed for similar x values of RE = Nd but not for RE = Sm or Gd at any value of x. In Pr-, Nd-, and Sm-substituted crystals, the saturation moments are consistent with ∼4 unpaired electrons attributed to [MnSb4](9-), indicating that local moments of Pr, Nd, and Sm do not contribute to the ferromagnetic order. In the case of RE = Pr, this is confirmed by neutron diffraction. In contrast, the magnetic measurements of RE = Gd show that the moments of Gd ferromagnetically order with the moments of [MnSb4](9-), and reduced screening of moments on Mn(2+) is evident. The sensitive variation of magnetic behavior is attributed to the various RE substitutions resulting in different interactions of the 4f-orbitals with the 3d-orbitals of Mn in the [MnSb4](9-) cluster conducted through 5p

  13. A Model for Intercultural Training for Study Abroad in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Yvonne A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an intercultural workshop designed for American students from the University of Rhode Island's International Engineering Program who are going to Germany to work and to study. The activities and goals of the workshop are explained. The outcomes and findings show that participation in the pre-departure intercultural workshop…

  14. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  15. Germany and Europe Since World War II: Resources for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James F., Ed.; Metcalf, Fay, Ed.

    Designed as a resource for teachers to help high school students understand the new Germany, six background papers and nine lessons provide information on the difficult transition from the Third Reich to defeat and military occupation, on the establishment of two successor states, and on revolution and reunification. The six background papers…

  16. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  17. Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8 Reemergence in Germany, 2007 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Saßerath, Michael; Thalheim, Sabine; Bunzenthal, Claudia; Strebelow, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Reemerging bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in Germany was detected first in May 2007 in a sentinel cow and in February 2008 in an export heifer. Reemergence was confirmed by retesting the samples, experimental inoculation, fingerprinting analysis, and virus isolation. Overwintering of BTV-8 and continuous low-level infections are assumed. PMID:18760009

  18. Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease, Germany, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Dirk; de Roux, Andrés; Diel, Roland; Hohmann, David; Hickstein, Lennart; Welte, Tobias; Rademacher, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed routine statutory health insurance claim data to determine prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in Germany. Documented prevalence rates of this nonnotifiable disease increased from 2.3 to 3.3 cases/100,000 population from 2009 to 2014. Prevalence showed a strong association with advanced age and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:27191473

  19. Renewable Electricity Policy in Germany, 1974 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauber, Volkmar; Mez, Lutz

    2006-01-01

    Of the large industrial countries, Germany is clearly leading with regard to new renewable energy sources, occupying first rank in terms of installed capacity for wind energy and second for photovoltaics. This is not because of an exceptional natural resource base but because of public policy in this area, despite the fact that this policy was…

  20. Responses of England, Germany and Switzerland to Declining School Enrolments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalski, Catherine

    Results of interviews with educators in England, Germany, and Switzerland are combined with statistical data in this study of the effects of declining enrollment and the development of multicultural programs in those countries. In all three countries, the author encountered a prevailing resistance to program change in the face of declining…

  1. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info 3-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This paper explores the importance and impact of sport in Germany from a variety of perspectives. Topics include: (1) the social function of sport; (2) popular sport, focusing on exercise and self-development rather than competition; (3) sport's role in the leisure activities of the handicapped; (4) top sport performers; (5) drugs and sport; (6)…

  2. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  3. Mass Media Use by Children and Media Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Jurgen; Eschenauer, Barbara

    Efforts to include the mass media in school instruction in Germany date back almost as far as the modern mass media themselves. However, the latter were, at best, nearly always used as an instrumental means and not as a subject of education in their own right. The basic findings of a representative survey of teachers in the Federal Republic of…

  4. Home Education in Germany: An Overview of the Contemporary Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegler, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the situation of home education in Germany. The first results from a predominantly qualitative research project are presented. This combines participant observation, content analysis and qualitative interviews for a thorough sociological analysis of the German home education movement. Compulsory school attendance…

  5. Library Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Hans-Albrecht

    1984-01-01

    Report on current state of research in academic and research librarianship in Federal Republic of Germany highlights projects concerning acquisition of books; work procedure investigations; personnel requirements; cost accounting; investigations of library use (user research, user education); public relations work; librarianship; and subject…

  6. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  7. Innovative energy technologies and climate policy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sands, Ronald D.

    2006-12-01

    Due to the size and structure of its economy, Germany is one of the largest carbon emitters in the European Union. However, Germany is facing a major renewal and restructuring process in electricity generation. Within the next two decades, up to 50% of current electricity generation capacity may retire because of end-of-plant lifetime and the nuclear phase-out pact of 1998. Substantial opportunities therefore exist for deployment of advanced electricity generating technologies in both a projected baseline and in alternative carbon policy scenarios. We simulate the potential role of coal integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), and wind power within a computable general equilibrium of Germany from the present through 2050. These advanced technologies and their role within a future German electricity system are the focus of this paper. We model the response of greenhouse gas emissions in Germany to various technology and carbon policy assumptions over the next few decades. In our baseline scenario, all of the advanced technologies except CCS provide substantial contributions to electricity generation. We also calculate the carbon price where each fossil technology, combined with CCS, becomes competitive. Constant carbon price experiments are used to characterize the model response to a carbon policy. This provides an estimate of the cost of meeting an emissions target, and the share of emissions reductions available from the electricity generation sector.

  8. The Young Generation Takes Root--Foreigners in Germany II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Helga

    1998-01-01

    Although there is no single measure of the degree of integration of the children of immigrants, individual trends and indicators can be interpreted to depict the status and opportunities of young foreigners residing in Germany. Although the standard of school-leaving certificates rose, the number of young foreigners is still disproportionately…

  9. Educational Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    The Federal Republic of Germany's educational system became a matter of major national concern in the early 1960's, drawing new attention to the need for educational research. Sociological and economic questions joined the pedagogical and psychological concerns previously central to research; the character of the educational system was added to…

  10. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  11. Increase in Imported Dengue, Germany, 2001–2002

    PubMed Central

    Schöneberg, Irene; Krause, Gérard; Claus, Hermann; Ammon, Andrea; Stark, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Dengue fever is a reportable disease in Germany. Surveillance data from 2001 and 2002 were analyzed and compared to travel patterns. Imported dengue fever increased strongly in this time. Most infections were acquired in Southeast Asia, specifically Thailand. The 2002 epidemic in Brazil was also reflected in these data. PMID:15200827

  12. Restructuring Schools for Democracy in the Former East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia; Lee, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contentious relationship between educators within the former East Germany and their West German cohorts following reunification. The problems have stemmed from conflicting ideologies and traditions (Marxist versus Christian Democrat and Social Democrat) as well as differences concerning school organization and educational objectives.…

  13. The Division of Household Labor in Germany and Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin-Epstein, Noah; Stier, Haya; Braun, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We compare the patterns of household division of labor in Germany and Israel--two countries that share key elements of the corporatist welfare regime but differ in their gender regimes--and evaluate several hypotheses using data from the 2002 International Social Survey Program. Although time constraints and relative resources affect the division…

  14. Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J.; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P.; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer’s bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus. PMID:21801640

  15. Cowpox Virus Transmission from Pet Rats to Humans, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Campe, Hartmut; Zimmermann, Pia; Glos, Katharina; Bayer, Margot; Bergemann, Hans; Dreweck, Caroline; Graf, Petra; Weber, Bianca Kim; Meyer, Hermann; Büttner, Mathias; Busch, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    We describe a cluster of cowpox virus (CPXV) infections in humans that occurred near Munich, Germany, around the beginning of 2009. Previously, only sporadic reports of CPXV infections in humans after direct contact with various animals had been published. This outbreak involved pet rats from the same litter. PMID:19402967

  16. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  17. Searching for Their Own Identity: Young People in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen; Stahl, Klaus, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of "young people" and asserts there is no clear-cut social description of this group with societal expectations differing from culture to culture. The article analyzes the changes affecting the lives of "youth" in Germany and assesses their social attitudes and values. The contents include seven sections: (1)…

  18. Migration and Marginality: Guestworkers in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Ray C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines migratory movements in Europe since 1954, with particular emphasis on the 13 to 14 million immigrants to the industrial countries of northern Europe. Concludes that the movement of manpower has been critical in sustaining the post-World War II economies of industrialized nations such as Germany and France. (Author/DB)

  19. Education in Germany since Unification. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to education in Germany since its unification. The papers include: "The Legacy of Unification" (David Phillips); "Change and Continuity in Education After the 'Wende'" (E. J. Neather); "A Study of Teachers' Perceptions in Brandenburg 'Gesamtschulen'" (Stephanie Wilde); "Memory and Judgement: How…

  20. [Living kidney transplantation. A comparison of Scandinavian countries and Germany].

    PubMed

    Lück, R; Schrem, H; Neipp, M; Nashan, B; Klempnauer, J

    2003-06-01

    The discussion of compensating for shortages of cadaveric donation with increased living donation often reveals differences between the Scandinavian countries and Germany. Possible adoption of Scandinavian structures to improve the rate of living donations in Germany warrants analysis of the actual differences between these two regions. Close examination reveals that significantly higher rates of living donation are achieved only in Sweden and Norway. In Norway, a frequently postulated negative effect on cadaveric donation due to very high rates of living donation could not be confirmed. In contrast to Germany and as a consequence of Norwegian geography, kidney transplantation has been regarded in Norway as the first-line therapy for endstage renal disease for more than 35 years. Living donation has since been actively pursued and is traditionally the transplantation of first choice. In Germany, living donation is still regarded as the second choice after cadaveric donation, due to legal regulations. Significant improvements in living donation frequencies could be achieved there by adopting the active Norwegian approach to living donor identification.

  1. Das Deutschlandspiegelvideo (The View-of-Germany-Videos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentecost, Gislind E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes View-of-Germany-Videos, published by the Goethe Institute. The videos are authentic, entertaining, and very versatile in usefulness. In addition they are short, thus easily incorporated into a lesson plan, and free of charge, making them accessible to any educational establishment. (AB)

  2. Germany: The Search for Unity. Guide for Workshop Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen

    This document is designed to support teachers in the use of instructional materials related to contemporary Germany. The materials in this guide provide the basis for a one-day, 5 hour inservice session. The workshop agenda begins the guide and sets out the schedule of times for different activities and instruction. The suggested format can be…

  3. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  4. Environmental Education in Germany: Concepts, History, Projects, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document presents the history of environmental education in Germany and reports on the diversions and solutions in the search for sustainable education. Five sections include: (1) "Environmental Education: Learning with All One's Senses"; (2) "Sustainability as the New Model: Knowledge of a New Quality"; (3) "Tomorrow's Education in…

  5. Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

  6. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  7. Influences on Political Education in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Susanne M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses political education in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. Describes a U.S. led reeducation program founded upon principles of denazification and democracy and examines German responses. Identifies the influence of the Soviet Union upon West German education. Analyzes the growth of political education in the 1960s, its maturation,…

  8. School Improvement through Inspections? First Empirical Insights from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedering, Kathrin; Muller, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, broad discussions on education and educational quality have given impetus to the implementation of many new measures aimed at the improvement of schools in Germany. In this context, school inspections have been introduced in all 16 German federal states during the last 6 years. In the meantime, scientific research into the…

  9. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  10. Increase in imported dengue, Germany, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christina; Schöneberg, Irene; Krause, Gérard; Claus, Hermann; Ammon, Andrea; Stark, Klaus

    2004-05-01

    Dengue fever is a reportable disease in Germany. Surveillance data from 2001 and 2002 were analyzed and compared to travel patterns. Imported dengue fever increased strongly in this time. Most infections were acquired in Southeast Asia, specifically Thailand. The 2002 epidemic in Brazil was also reflected in these data.

  11. 22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS THE ENGINE IS FOR THE VFR'S (VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT) 4 STICK REPULSOR. ENGINE IN PHOTOS IS BEING TANKED WITH LOX (NOTICE THE FROST FORMING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK BEHIND THE LADDER. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. Hammer and Compass: Introducing East Germany. An Anthology with Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Elizabeth M.

    This anthology introduces students of German to the life of the people of East Germany. The three-part text describes interrelated cultural and political activities which are characteristic of the republic. Part One explores basic communistic philosophy, "a new myth", particularly through commentary on Walter Ulbricht's "Universe, Earth, and Man."…

  13. Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nolde, E

    2005-01-01

    Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available.

  14. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US.

  15. The Educational System in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    The overview of West Germany's educational system emphasizes administration, organization, admission criteria, objectives, and career training programs. The document is presented in five chapters. Chapter I focuses on various aspects of planning for and administering elementary, secondary, and higher education, with particular attention to (1)…

  16. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  17. [Presence and future of emergency medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Christ, Michael; Dodt, Christoph; Geldner, Götz; Hortmann, Marcus; Stadelmeyer, Uwe; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2010-10-01

    Health care policy has changed duties and responsibilities of hospitals in Germany. The transition zone of in- and outpatient care has been recognized as a critical gateway for the success of hospitals, subsequently leading to the appreciation of the value of professionalized emergency departments. Currently, hospital-based emergency medicine in Germany is organized in a very heterogeneous manner. Due to the key function of emergency departments for the medical and economic success of hospitals, professional expertise in clinical emergency medicine has to be strengthened: We discuss possible models of hospital-based emergency care and present first data that professionalisation of hospital-based emergency medicine in Germany improves treatment quality and outcome of patients presenting with chest-pain or community-acquired pneumonia to the emergency department. Furthermore, those strategies are accompanied with the improvement of economic characteristics. Summing up, professionalisation of hospital-based emergency medicine in Germany is urgently needed and may improve medical and economic success of hospital-based patient care.

  18. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  19. The situation of space education in the unified Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Muldau, Hans H.

    Because of the unique situation of the unified Germany it is worth discussing the state of the art and the future aspects of space education in this country. Two different social and educational systems of the F.R.G. (Federal Republic of Germany) and the G.D.R. (German Democratic Republic) have to be synchronized. The increase of the population by the unification affected the space science related people. So the majorities change. At the moment the severe unemployment situation in eastern Germany hides this fact. But we have to be prepared for this in years to come. The different relation to the space science programs of the U.S.A. and Russia for the German scientist gives a chance for more international understanding and cooperation. This becomes a subject of educational approach to the international cooperation problem. The start of DARA (the German national space administration) in 1989 accompanied by dramatic concentration of space knowledge in DASA (the cooperation of the German national space industry) in the late eighties, shows that Germany has begun to concentrate its capabilities. On such a background, space education for the majority of the population becomes understandable and desirable. European commercial unification on an open market at the beginning of 1993 helps to concentrate the Germans on their historical part and task in the European market. Therefore, many solutions to establish effective space education becomes visible which were hidden behind walls of emotions and prejudices in the past. So the forecast for space education in Germany for the nineties has never been better. The only remaining problem—funding—has to be solved by unconventional ways, e.g. a foundation by the industry as in other countries.

  20. Germany Since Unification. Workshop Leader's Manual. An Introduction to Social Studies Instructional Resource Materials for Teaching about Germany Since Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen

    This manual is designed to offer support for the instructional resources guides on "Germany since Unification." It provides the basis for a full-day inservice training session on the use of those materials. The format can be modified to meet the needs of leaders, audiences, and time frames. Using the materials developed by teachers and sponsored…

  1. Opinion-Makers or Enlighteners? Training and Further Training of Journalists in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Hermann

    1992-01-01

    This special report discusses journalism in Germany, focusing especially on the training of journalists. The report is presented under the following headings: In retrospect (a brief description of journalism in the former East Germany); The media range in the Federal Republic of Germany; Journalist--a dream profession?; Freedom of the press and…

  2. Ubersichten: Overview of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Federal States. Social Studies Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This series of lesson plans provides an overview of the Federal Republic of Germany. Transparencies and instructions are provided for each of the four lessons. Lesson 1 looks at "Culture and Perspective Taking on the Federal Republic of Germany" with five activities relating to: (1) "Impressions of Germany and Germans"; (2) "German National…

  3. Germany's Persistent Balance-of-Payments Disequilibrium Revisited. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindleberger, Charles P.

    This essay compares Germany's persistent financial disequilibrium with the balance of payments situation in the United States. Delivered at a Symposium on German Economic Growth and Stability, the author concentrates on Germany's balance of payments surplus and presents U.S. figures mainly as a point of comparison. The material on Germany has been…

  4. Time Line: An Annotated Chronology of Events in Postwar Germany and the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Dagmar

    1993-01-01

    Presents a selective chronology of three aspects of German history since World War II: the origins of the postwar division of Germany; the effects of two major policy decisions by West Germany after 1949; and the unification process after 1989. Contends that France and Germany will remain the core nations in the evolution of the European…

  5. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  6. Learning for the Working World: Vocational Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the past, present, and future of vocational training (VT) in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following topics are discussed: place of VT among the various institutions constituting Germany's education system; Germany's dual system of on-the-job and school VT (historical development, training regulations,…

  7. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  8. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  9. Risk factors associated with sporadic salmonellosis in children: a case-control study in Lower Saxony, Germany, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Ziehm, D; Rettenbacher-Riefler, S; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A; Pulz, M; Dreesman, J

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a case-control study based on 884 laboratory-confirmed sporadic Salmonella cases reported to the German infectious disease notification system. For controls, we recruited 510 rotavirus cases via the same system. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed separately for children aged 0-3 years and 4-14 years. In both age groups, the highest odds ratios (OR) were found for raw ground pork consumption [0-3 years: OR 8·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·4-30·8; 4-14 years: OR 4·5, 95% CI 1·1-19]. Further risk factors were exposure to animals (OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·1-2·1), consumption of poultry (OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·1-2·1), food items containing eggs (OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·1-2) and black pepper (OR 1·7, 95% CI 1·1-3·5) in children aged 0-3 years, and consumption of uncooked pork sausage (OR 3·6, 95% CI 1·4-9·3) in children aged 4-14 years. This study highlights the significance of raw pork products ('Mett' in German) as risk factors for sporadic salmonellosis in children in Germany.

  10. Risk factors associated with sporadic salmonellosis in children: a case-control study in Lower Saxony, Germany, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Ziehm, D; Rettenbacher-Riefler, S; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A; Pulz, M; Dreesman, J

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a case-control study based on 884 laboratory-confirmed sporadic Salmonella cases reported to the German infectious disease notification system. For controls, we recruited 510 rotavirus cases via the same system. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed separately for children aged 0-3 years and 4-14 years. In both age groups, the highest odds ratios (OR) were found for raw ground pork consumption [0-3 years: OR 8·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·4-30·8; 4-14 years: OR 4·5, 95% CI 1·1-19]. Further risk factors were exposure to animals (OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·1-2·1), consumption of poultry (OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·1-2·1), food items containing eggs (OR 1·5, 95% CI 1·1-2) and black pepper (OR 1·7, 95% CI 1·1-3·5) in children aged 0-3 years, and consumption of uncooked pork sausage (OR 3·6, 95% CI 1·4-9·3) in children aged 4-14 years. This study highlights the significance of raw pork products ('Mett' in German) as risk factors for sporadic salmonellosis in children in Germany. PMID:24886979

  11. Physician payment in Canada, Germany, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Galvin, R S

    1993-01-01

    As the debate about reforming the U.S. health care system intensifies, interest has focused on three alternative delivery systems: the predominantly private-sector model in the United States, the provincial-government health insurance model of Canada, and the social insurance model of Germany. The organization of physician payment is an important part of all these health care systems. To maintain an affordable system that delivers high-quality care, payment to physicians must be sufficient to attract and maintain an able group of doctors, while not exceeding an amount that the country can afford. In this article, these three systems will be examined, and an attempt will be made to apply the lessons learned from Germany and Canada to the direction of physician payment reform in the United States.

  12. [Intentions to return home of foreigners living in Germany].

    PubMed

    Waldorf, B

    1997-01-01

    "This article provides a comparison between intentions to return home and observable return migration behaviour of Italians and Turks living in Germany. It is argued that external factors (economic and legal conditions) and internal factors (assimilation in the host country and ties to home) influence the discrepancies between return intentions and behaviours. Using micro-data from the MARPLAN surveys and macro-data published by the German government for the 1970s and 1980s, the analysis reveals that the return migration behaviour of Italians is by and large consistent with their expressed intentions. In contrast, Turks are less prone to translate their intentions into behaviour. Specifically, Turks are more likely to postpone their intended return and extend their sojourn in Germany." (EXCERPT)

  13. Continuity and change in Germany's treatment of non-Germans.

    PubMed

    O'brien, P

    1988-01-01

    This essay criticizes 2 conventional approaches to migrants in Germany. 1 focuses on racism in German history while the 2nd examines the tradition of repressive laws which exploit and dominate foreigners. This essay finds these approaches appropriate until the 1970s. From that point, German governments tend to accept foreigners and develop new programs of integration. The essay concludes with ways future research can uncover new and subtle forms of control and domination; the goal of integration itself may become a form of control. Future research can investigate 1) the extent to which integration is rhetorical rather than substantial, 2) the extent to which policies create restrictive forms of integration, and 3) how integration forces migrants to make choices they might not choose to make, such as the choice forced by the current debate over which group of Moslems should rule Islam in Germany.

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed cultivation in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Koebke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suárez Quiñones, Teresa; Walter, Katja; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    About 12 % of Germany's agricultural area is used for rapeseed cultivation and two third of the harvest is converted to biodiesel. Due to requirements of the EU Renewables Directive the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of rapeseed cultivation must be reported and sustainability criteria and GHG savings compared to fossil fuel must be achieved and certified. Current certified methodology estimates N2O field emissions from rapeseed cultivation using the IPCC Tier 1 approach based on a global emission factor (N2O emission per unit nitrogen fertilizer input) of 1 %, which is not specific for the crop. We present results from three years of measurements (2013 - 2015) on five field trials in Germany, which combined with data from a meta-analysis suggest that GHG emission factors of German rapeseed cultivation are lower than thought previously. Furthermore, results suggest that substitution of mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizers is a valid mitigation option since it avoids GHG emissions during production of mineral fertilizers.

  15. Implications of structural deficits for patient education in Germany.

    PubMed

    Keller, S; Basler, H

    2001-07-01

    Several changes in health politics and legal settings in recent years have affected the structure and practice of health promotion and patient education in Germany. The current legal background and its implications for patient education are discussed. Based on examples from four selected areas (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, chronic pain, and asthma) the current practice of patient education in Germany is summarized. While many well-structured programs exist that are based on state-of-the-art guidelines, there is a lack of high quality research that documents the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such approaches. Structural problems and an insufficient number of highly trained personnel result in the fact that many patients do not have access to standardized programs. Persisting compliance problems indicate that there is still room for improvement of patient education interventions. As important for the future, necessary changes in the legal settings and possible implications for the education of the educators are discussed.

  16. Synopsis of freshwater aquaculture legislation in Germany since national reunification.

    PubMed

    Schlotfeldt, H J

    1996-06-01

    Under German law, federal ministries are responsible for preparing legislation, while federal states (Länder) are responsible for applying the legislation. The author describes the system, contrasting it with the situation in former East Germany, where preparation and application of legislation were controlled centrally. The author also describes the various inland water fisheries Acts and regulations of the federal states of former West Germany which apply to aquaculture. There is a discussion of the impact on German freshwater aquaculture of the Federal Water Act, the Waste Water Levies Act, the Nature Conservation and Protection Act, the Conservation of Species Regulation, the Animal Welfare Act, the Fisheries Acts of the Länder, the Drug Act, the Animal Epidemic Act and the Fish Epidemics Regulation. The impact of this legislation varies considerably, and the extent of application is discussed. The economic changes in freshwater fish production are briefly summarised and their causes analysed. PMID:8890388

  17. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F.

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. [Interdisciplinary management of a large Legionella outbreak in Germany].

    PubMed

    Freudenmann, M; Kurz, S; von Baum, H; Reick, D; Schreff, A M; Essig, A; Lück, C; Gonser, T; Brockmann, S O; Härter, G; Eberhardt, B; Embacher, A; Höller, C

    2011-11-01

    Between December 2009 and the end of January 2010, the largest hitherto known outbreak of Legionella in Germany took place in the cities of Ulm and Neu-Ulm. Of a total of 64 patients involved, 60 patients had to be hospitalized, and 5 patients died from the infection. This event was caused by a wet cooling tower of a large air conditioning system in the city center of Ulm. The search for the source of the Legionella emission was extremely difficult, since these plants are neither notifiable nor subject to authorization in Germany. We report about the search for the source and the measures to control the outbreak. We also discuss communication and coordination during these investigations. Regulatory measures as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Network for Legionellosis (EWGLI) and already implemented in numerous other European countries would be desirable to prevent such outbreaks in the future. PMID:22015788

  19. Monitoring of West Nile virus infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, U; Seidowski, D; Angenvoort, J; Eiden, M; Müller, K; Nowotny, N; Groschup, M H

    2012-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that is maintained in an enzootic cycle between ornithophilic mosquitoes, mainly of the Culex genus, and certain wild bird species. Other bird species like ravens, jays and raptors are highly susceptible to the infection and may develop deadly encephalitis, while further species of birds are only going through subclinical infection. The objective of this study was to continue in years 2009-2011 the serological and molecular surveillance in wild birds in Germany (see Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 10, 639) and to expand these investigations for the first time also to sera from domestic poultry and horses collected between 2005 and 2009. All three cohorts function as indicators for the endemic circulation of WNV. The presence of WNV-specific antibodies was detected in all samples by virus neutralization test (VNT), indirect immunofluorescence test (IFT) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of WNV genomes was monitored in relevant sera using two qRT-PCRs that amplify lineage 1 and 2 strains. A total of 364 migratory and resident wild bird serum samples (with emphasis on Passeriformes and Falconiformes) as well as 1119 serum samples from domestic poultry and 1282 sera from horses were analysed. With the exception of one hooded crow, antibody carriers were exclusively found in migratory birds, but not in resident birds/domestic poultry or in local horses. Crows are facultative, short-distance winter migrants in Germany. WNV-specific nucleic acids could not be demonstrated in any of the samples. According to these data, there is no convincing evidence for indigenous WNV infections in equines and in wild/domestic birds in Germany. However, since a few years, WNV infections are endemic in other European countries such as Austria, Hungary, Greece and Italy, a state-of-the-art surveillance system for the detection of incursions of WNV into Germany deems mandatory.

  20. Historical perspective on neurosurgery in Germany after World War II.

    PubMed

    Collmann, Hartmut; Vitzthum, Hans-Ekkehart

    2008-11-01

    AFTER THE COLLAPSE of the Third Reich, the specialty of neurosurgery in Germany, although well developed in the late 1930s, had to start anew, and for decades to come, had to deal with the physical and political consequences of World War II. Because of the division of the country, neurosurgery developed separately in the two independent states. In West Germany, the evolution was promoted by a few personalities who represented different schools according to their own training: these "surgical neurologists" emphasized the neurological basis of neurosurgery and were represented by Traugott Riechert and the students of Otfrid Foerster, such as Arist Stender and Hans Kuhlendahl. In contrast, the "neurological surgeons" stressed their origins in general surgery. Their main proponent was Wilhelm Tönnis, who gained particular merit for promoting neurosurgical teaching, the development of new neurosurgical units, and the recognition of neurosurgery as an autonomous specialty. In East Germany, progress was delayed by a weak economy and a repressive political system. Yet several excellent neurosurgeons won international recognition, predominantly Georg Merrem, who came from the school of Fedor Krause. Following a worldwide trend, the number of neurosurgical units in West Germany increased dramatically from 18 in 1950 to 85 in 1988. In 2006, in the unified nation, 1200 certified neurosurgeons in 138 hospital departments and 75 private practices served 82 million people. Since its founding in 1949, the German Neurosurgical Society has promoted the idea of reconciliation and has focused on international collaboration in both science and education. This idea, shared by other European nations, eventually gave rise to the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies. At present, escalating costs in the health sector pose a problem to neurosurgical services and have led to reconsiderations about their structure and financing.

  1. Sexual transmission of Zika virus in Germany, April 2016.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christina; Cadar, Daniel; Schlaphof, Alexander; Neddersen, Neele; Günther, Stephan; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Tappe, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes a mild dengue fever-like illness but has recently been associated with neurological disease and severe birth defects. The virus is currently causing a large epidemic in the Americas. Here, we report a male-to-female sexual transmission of ZIKV in Germany in April 2016, following travel to Puerto Rico of the male patient, demonstrated by subsequent seroconversions and molecular identification of identical virus sequences from both patients. PMID:27311329

  2. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  3. Sexual transmission of Zika virus in Germany, April 2016.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christina; Cadar, Daniel; Schlaphof, Alexander; Neddersen, Neele; Günther, Stephan; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Tappe, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes a mild dengue fever-like illness but has recently been associated with neurological disease and severe birth defects. The virus is currently causing a large epidemic in the Americas. Here, we report a male-to-female sexual transmission of ZIKV in Germany in April 2016, following travel to Puerto Rico of the male patient, demonstrated by subsequent seroconversions and molecular identification of identical virus sequences from both patients.

  4. Germany wide seasonal flood risk analysis for agricultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Kuhlmann, Bernd; Merz, Bruno; Schröter, Kai

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, large-scale flood risk analysis and mapping has gained attention. Regional to national risk assessments are needed, for example, for national risk policy developments, for large-scale disaster management planning and in the (re-)insurance industry. Despite increasing requests for comprehensive risk assessments some sectors have not received much scientific attention, one of these is the agricultural sector. In contrast to other sectors, agricultural crop losses depend strongly on the season. Also flood probability shows seasonal variation. Thus, the temporal superposition of high flood susceptibility of crops and high flood probability plays an important role for agricultural flood risk. To investigate this interrelation and provide a large-scale overview of agricultural flood risk in Germany, an agricultural crop loss model is used for crop susceptibility analyses and Germany wide seasonal flood-frequency analyses are undertaken to derive seasonal flood patterns. As a result, a Germany wide map of agricultural flood risk is shown as well as the crop type most at risk in a specific region. The risk maps may provide guidance for federal state-wide coordinated designation of retention areas.

  5. [WINHO quality indicators for outpatient oncology care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hermes-Moll, Kerstin; Klein, Gudrun; Buschmann-Maiworm, Regina E; Baumann, Walter; Otremba, Burkhard; Lebahn, Herbert; Steinmetz, H Tilmann; Geraedts, Max; Kleeberg, Ulrich R; Schmitz, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the WINHO indicators project is to describe and enhance the quality of outpatient oncology care in Germany with indicators. This paper deals with the development of a set of evidence- and consensus-based meaningful indicators to assess the quality of outpatient oncology care in Germany. These indicators are intended to be applied in assessments of quality of patient care in oncology practices, in quality reports and in peer-to-peer benchmarking. A set of 272 already existing indicators was identified through internet and literature searches. After redundancy reduction and addition of newly developed indicators for areas of ambulatory oncology care that were not yet covered, a preliminary set of 67 indicators was established. The further development of the indicator set was based on a modified version of the two-step RAND/UCLA expert evaluation method, which has been internationally established for developing quality indicator sets. The indicators were modified after the first round of ratings. After completing and assessing the second round of ratings, a set of 46 homogeneously positively rated quality indicators is now available for outpatient oncology care in Germany.

  6. Alaria alata mesocercariae in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida Melina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Michler, Frank-Uwe; Michler, Berit Annika; Lücker, Ernst; Stier, Norman; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Riehn, Katharina

    2013-10-01

    Alaria alata is a trematode of carnivores from Europe. The mesocercarial stage was recently identified in wild boar meat from Europe. Previous histopathologic studies showed the presence of unidentified parasitic cysts within the tongues of raccoons from northern Germany. For identification of the parasite species, tissue samples of 105 raccoons originating from a National Park in northern Germany and from Berlin metropolitan area were collected. Histological examination of cryotome sections of frozen as well as paraffin-embedded tongues were used to identify parasite cysts. These were located in the connective and adipose tissue and in close proximity to small arterioles, suggesting a hematogenous spread of the parasite. Often, cysts were surrounded with mild infiltration by inflammatory cells. Additionally, mesocercariae were isolated from defrosted tongue samples of 11 raccoons. Molecular-biology assays confirmed the parasite species as A. alata. Except for one positive raccoon from Berlin City, all other positive raccoons originated from the sylvan Müritz National park, indicating an abundance of intermediate hosts in this area. Our results show that raccoons can act as paratenic hosts for A. alata and extend the broad host range of this parasite to a species introduced into Germany.

  7. Post-diagnostic abortion in Germany: reproduction gone awry, again?

    PubMed

    Erikson, Susan L

    2003-05-01

    Routine use of prenatal diagnostic technologies (PDTs) such as ultrasound and amniocentesis result in the detection of a small percentage of fetal anomalies. For those women faced with the diagnosis of fetal disability, a decision must be made to continue or terminate the pregnancy. When the diagnosis is merely hypothetical, the discursive specter of post-diagnostic abortion is shaped by social and historical contexts in which interested discourses (regional, political, ethical, and religious) weigh in with varying degrees of authority and influence. However, when the diagnosis is actual, in this sample population of women, an estimated minimum of 90% opt to terminate their pregnancies. Data collected at two German hospitals-one in former East Germany, one in former West Germany-illuminate rates of PDT use and provide data with which to discuss the specter of post-diagnostic abortion in relation to mainstream medical discourses, Germany's divided history, abortion politics, feminism, disability activism, and religion. These data demonstrate how reproductive discourses are shaped by ideological and historical contingencies, even when women's ultimate reproductive decisions are not. PMID:12650734

  8. Evidence for an independent third Usutu virus introduction into Germany.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ute; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Bock, Sabine; Schulze, Christoph; Hoeper, Dirk; Ochs, Andreas; Schlieben, Patricia; Keller, Markus; Zielke, Dorothee E; Luehken, Renke; Cadar, Daniel; Walther, Doreen; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-08-30

    Usutu virus (USUV) is an arbovirus within the genus flavivirus, which was first introduced to Southern Europe approximately twenty years ago causing epizootics among wild and captive birds. In Germany USUV was initially discovered in wild birds, mainly Common blackbirds (Turdus merula), in the Upper Rhine valley in southwest of the country in 2011 and has not spread much northwards since. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the still ongoing USUV epidemic is caused by two different USUV strains, USUV-Germany belonging to the USUV Europe 3 lineage and USUV-Bonn belonging to the USUV Africa 3 lineage. The two strains were introduced independently. In August 2015 a new USUV strain, named USUV-Berlin, was isolated in Vero cells from two carcasses of juvenile Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) kept in the Zoological Garden Berlin, which had suffered from a hyperacute fatal systemic infection. Both owls carried high USUV genome loads. Full-length USUV genomes sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship with a Spanish mosquito-derived sequence from 2006. Immunohistochemical antigen detection in organ samples of the owls showed the typical USUV infection patterns. According to the phylogenetic analysis, USUV-Berlin belongs to the Africa 2 lineage, and can thus be distinguished from the other strains circulating in Germany. Repeated findings of different USUV strains suggest more frequent introductions into Central Europe and a higher mobility of this virus than assumed to date. PMID:27527765

  9. Anaerobic waste digestion in Germany--status and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Weiland, P

    2000-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes are especially suited for the utilization of wet organic wastes from agriculture and industry as well as for the organic part of source-separated household wastes. Anaerobic degradation is a very cost-effective method for treating biogenic wastes because the formed biogas can be used for heat and electricity production and the digester residues can be recycled to agriculture as a secondary fertilizer. Anaerobic technology will also be used for the common treatment of wastes together with renewable energy crops in order to reduce the CO2-emissions according the Kyoto protocol. Various process types are applied in Germany which differ in material, reaction conditions and in the form of the used reactor systems. The widespread introduction of anaerobic digestion in Germany has shown that biogenic organic wastes are a valuable source for energy and nutrients. Anaerobic waste treatment is done today in approx. 850 biogas plants on small farm scale as well as on large industrial scale with the best beneficial and economic outcome. Due to some new environmental protection acts which promote the recycling of wastes and their utilization for renewable energy formation it can be expected that several hundreds new biogas plants will be built per year in Germany. In order to use the synergetic effects of a combined fermentation of wastes and energy crops new process types must be developed in order to optimize the substrate combinations and the process conditions for maximum biodegradation.

  10. Post-diagnostic abortion in Germany: reproduction gone awry, again?

    PubMed

    Erikson, Susan L

    2003-05-01

    Routine use of prenatal diagnostic technologies (PDTs) such as ultrasound and amniocentesis result in the detection of a small percentage of fetal anomalies. For those women faced with the diagnosis of fetal disability, a decision must be made to continue or terminate the pregnancy. When the diagnosis is merely hypothetical, the discursive specter of post-diagnostic abortion is shaped by social and historical contexts in which interested discourses (regional, political, ethical, and religious) weigh in with varying degrees of authority and influence. However, when the diagnosis is actual, in this sample population of women, an estimated minimum of 90% opt to terminate their pregnancies. Data collected at two German hospitals-one in former East Germany, one in former West Germany-illuminate rates of PDT use and provide data with which to discuss the specter of post-diagnostic abortion in relation to mainstream medical discourses, Germany's divided history, abortion politics, feminism, disability activism, and religion. These data demonstrate how reproductive discourses are shaped by ideological and historical contingencies, even when women's ultimate reproductive decisions are not.

  11. Measurement of cross section and electron asymmetry of the p (e(pol), e-prime pi+) n reaction in the Delta(1232) and higher resonances for Q**2 <= 4.9-(GeV/c)**2

    SciTech Connect

    Kijun Park; Inna Aznauryan; Volker Burkert; Wooyoung Kim

    2006-06-01

    The cross section and beam asymmetry were measured in channel of (pol)ep --> e'pi^+n using 5.754 GeV electron beam with CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer(CLAS). This measurement covers 4 pi angular coverage and high Q^2 up to 4.9 GeV^2 under various resonance mass regions. The structure functions sigmaT + epsilonLsigmaL, sigmaTT, sigmaLT and sigmaLT/ were extracted from fit angular distribution of cross section and asymmetry.

  12. Copper(II)-catalyzed sequential C,N-difunctionalization of 1,4-naphthoquinone for the synthesis of benzo[f]indole-4,9-diones under base-free condition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Wei; Wang, Xiang-Shan; Liu, Yun

    2013-10-18

    An efficient synthesis of benzo[f]indole-4,9-diones has been achieved by copper(II)-catalyzed naphthoquinone sequential C,N-difunctionalization reactions with β-enaminones. New C-C and C-N bonds are easily formed in the reaction course. Copper(II) salt plays a dual role as Lewis acid and oxidative catalyst, and O2 acts as the terminal oxidant. The advantage of this reaction is the high atom economy with broad substrate scope and excellent yields. The reaction can be scaled up to using at least grams of substrates. PMID:24070011

  13. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOIA request. (2) Free computer search time. For purposes of this paragraph, the term search time is based on the concept of a manual search. To apply this to a search conducted by a computer, the... according to paragraph (c)(4) of this section, in computer search time. Computer search time is...

  14. Environmental Education: Grades 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    Objectives and sample test items to measure cognitive outcomes in environmental units of study in grades four through nine are presented. The objectives are subdivided into three main groups: (1) natural ecosystem; (2) human environment; and (3) environmental problems. Objectives and test items to measure affective outcomes are also listed.…

  15. 17 CFR 210.4-9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND...

  16. Patterns of orthopox virus wild rodent hosts in South Germany.

    PubMed

    Essbauer, Sandra; Hartnack, Sonja; Misztela, Krystian; Kiessling-Tsalos, Judith; Bäumler, Walter; Pfeffer, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Although cowpox virus (CPXV) infections in a variety of dead-end hosts have been investigated in Germany for more than 50 years, data on species and geographical distribution of CPXV in reservoir hosts are sparse. Here we present the first comprehensive study of 825 rodents that have been collected in Bavaria, Southern Germany. In summary, six different rodent species (Apodemus flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus arvalis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus agrestis, and Arvicola amphibius) were trapped at three main trapping sites and investigated using a serum neutralization test (SNT). Prevalence of orthopox virus (OPV)-neutralizing antibodies was (with exception of one trapping site) highest in bank voles, ranging from 24.5% to 42.4%; often with SNT titers > or =96. Two up to 25% of yellow-necked mice were OPV sero-positive, but wood mice only at one site with 5.5%. Up to 7.7% of common voles were found to be OPV seroreactive, while M. agrestis and A. amphibius only sporadically showed seroreactivity. Further analyses of a subset of 450 bank voles and yellow-necked mice trapped at one site over a 18-month period revealed that male yellow-necked mice and female gravid yellow-necked mice had significantly more OPV-neutralizing antibodies. Mean body weight and OPV-seroreactivity were significantly negatively associated in male A. flavicollis. This was not due to shorter body length or smaller body mass index, but previously OPV-infected male A. flavicollis had dramatically reduced mean kidney weights. Seroreactivity in female bank voles was positively related to lung weights. We also found that both male yellow-necked mice and male bank voles with positive SNT titers had higher infestation rates with ectoparasites. We here show for the first time that A. flavicollis beside M. glareolus is a hypothetic host for CPXV, and that there are big geographical and spatial variations concerning the seroprevalence in rodent populations in South Germany.

  17. A review of multiple natural hazard risks in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Bubeck, Philip; Parolai, Stefano; Khazai, Bijan; Daniell, James; Kunz, Michael; Mahlke, Holger; Lakes, Tobia

    2013-04-01

    Germany is experiencing various natural hazards and their impacts are expected to increase due to socio-economic and climatic changes, if an efficient risk management is not able to counteract. The international disaster database EM-DAT lists 79 events, namely earthquakes (3), extreme temperatures (9), floods (18), wet mass movement (1), storms (47) and wildfire (1) between 1950 and 2011; all together causing more than 10.000 fatalities and more than 40 billion US damage in Germany. The event with the highest human loss was the heat wave of 2003 with more than 9.000 fatalities. The event with the highest economic damage was the flood in 2002 causing €11.600 million damage. The aim of this paper is to offer a new perspective on multiple risk assessments in Germany by giving a systematic and comprehensive review on existing hazards and risk management strategies. Such a multiple risk assessment is particularly important because the potential for a natural event to cause a disaster depends on how vulnerable an exposed community is to such hazards. Human actions can reduce the damage to people and property but can at the same time increase the exposure to risks and exacerbate the impacts of hazardous events. To significantly improve risk management, i.e. decrease vulnerability and increase resilience of a region, more effort is needed than the well-established hazard-specific risk assessments. Planners and decision-makers need to be aware of and informed about all pertinent hazards in a region. Thus, to compare different hazards and to evaluate changes in risk, we propose the need of a consistent multi risk assessment.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Germany.

    PubMed

    Horn, Nicole Nari; Kresken, Michael; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Göttig, Stephan; Wichelhaus, Cornelia; Wichelhaus, Thomas A

    2014-07-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become an increasing public health problem. Hence, surveillance of resistance development is of crucial importance to implement adequate treatment guidelines. Data on the spread of antibiotic resistance among gonococcal isolates in Germany, however, is scarce. In a resistance surveillance study conducted by the Paul Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy between October 2010 and December 2011, 23 laboratories all over Germany were requested to send N. gonorrhoeae isolates to the study laboratory in Frankfurt am Main. Species verification was performed biochemically using ApiNH and with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method. For molecular epidemiological analysis, N. gonorrhoeae strains were genotyped by means of N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. A total of 213 consecutive gonococcal isolates were analyzed in this nationwide study. Applying EUCAST breakpoints, high resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (74%) and tetracycline (41%). Penicillin non-susceptibility was detected in 80% of isolates. The rate of azithromycin resistance was 6%, while all strains were susceptible to spectinomycin, cefixime, and ceftriaxone. Molecular typing of gonococcal isolates revealed a great heterogeneity of 99 different sequence types (ST), but ST1407 predominated (n=39). This is the first comprehensive German multi-centre surveillance study on antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae with implications for antibiotic choice for treatment of gonorrhoea. The World Health Organization supports the concept that an efficacious treatment of gonorrhoea results in at least 95% of infections being cured. Accordingly, as spectinomycin is not available on the German market, only the third generation cephalosporins cefixime and ceftriaxone are regarded as valuable drugs

  19. Klimanavigator - Climate Navigator - Gateway to climate knowledge in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck-Zöller, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Objective More than 50 German research institutions and networks are represented on www.klimanavigator.de, a common platform, where information about their work, and the latest findings from climate research and adaptation can be found. Thus Klimanavigator as a gateway to climate knowledge provides a information portal for those who have to respond to climate change. The internet portal gives an overview of the present state of research and is estimated as a decision support tool for appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures. Target Groups The portal collects the German climate research institutions to publish their scientific knowledge in a non-scientific language. Economists, policymakers, administration and the media are bound to find the names of scientific experts and institutions by an elaborated research tool. Methodology The chapter "Dossiers" is edited by the Klimanavigator-Coordinator CSC. It gathers information to a special issue looked upon from various points of view. Publications of outstanding German scientists are presented side by side, current knowledge is being synthesized, scientifically reviewed and disseminated. The latest news from climate and adaptation research is presented in an own chapter, dedicated to the press releases of the portal members. Via RSS-feed the press releases are collected from the different partner institutions. Thirdly, portraits of the member institutions, that are individually edited by themselves, draw a map of science in Germany and help to find appropriate cooperation partners. For the future further development is being planned. Common Management Klimanavigator is being managed by the partners in common. The main decisions concerning the concept and shape of the portal are made by the partners' assembly. An elected editorial committee decides about the content between the assemblies. The Climate Service Center (part of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht) concentrates on facilitating the cooperation, and

  20. [Quality improvement in acute pain management in Germany].

    PubMed

    Meißner, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, different quality management approaches in postoperative pain management have been established. In this context, quality is distinguished into structure quality (e.g. personnel and equipment resources), process quality (e. g. standardized treatment schemes) and outcome quality (e.g. pain intensity, side effects, satisfaction). While guidelines and recommendations help to set up evidence based structures and processes and offer support for decision making, benchmark projects offer insights in real life conditions. By use of feedback and benchmarking tools, they can be used for outcome-oriented quality improvement. Certification projects assess compliance with or achievement of defined quality criteria on the basis of predefined structure, process, and outcome parameter.

  1. The school-HE interface in West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmithals, F.

    1986-09-01

    The author outlines the history of relationships between schools and higher educational institutions in Germany. He describes the problems caused by a mismatch between the number of educated teachers and the number of posts available for them. He discusses the role of the final school examination (Abitur) in university admission and in indicating general maturity for higher education (Allgemeine Hochschulreife). Attempts to improve the state of preparedness of students entering the universities, including the 1972 reform and the optional 'pre-courses', provided by some universities, are discussed.

  2. Meseritz-Obrawalde: a 'wild euthanasia' hospital of Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Susan; Chelouche, Tessa

    2008-03-01

    In 1939, Hitler authorized a programme of 'euthanasia' of children and adults with physical and psychiatric disorders. Initially, gas chambers were established at six psychiatric institutions in Germany and Austria. This programme was discontinued in August 1941 but the killings continued on an individual basis. Physicians selected patients who were unable to work or who required extensive care, and ordered the nurses to administer lethal doses of sedatives. Meseritz-Obrawalde was a site for 10,000 of these killings. Using documents from the trial of one of Obrawalde's physicians, Hilde Wernicke, the era of 'wild euthanasia' is described and her rationale for participating in the killings is explored. PMID:19127829

  3. Wartime nuclear weapons research in Germany and Japan.

    PubMed

    Grunden, Walter E; Walker, Mark; Yamnazaki, Masakatsu

    2005-01-01

    This article compares military research projects during the Second World War to develop nuclear weapons in Germany and Japan, two countries who lost the war and failed to create nuclear weapons. The performance and motivations of the scientists, as well as the institutional support given the work, is examined, explaining why, in each case, the project went as far as it did-but no further. The story is carried over into the postwar period, when the two cultures and their scientists had to deal with the buildup of nuclear weapons during the cold war and the new nuclear power industry.

  4. Extreme drought events in Germany during the last 60 yrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts are among the most costly natural disasters because they heavily impact on the economy of a region as well as on its social and cultural activities. Droughts do not only occur in arid or semiarid regions but also in humid ones. The year 2007, for example, was the sunniest, hottest and driest in Germany in the last two centuries. In this case, it was too dry too early. As a result, the harvest was cut by half leading to enormous losses in the primary sector. Consumer prices of some agricultural products went up 26 percent. The purpose of this study is to identify the major agricultural and hydrological droughts in Germany since 1950 based on their severity, duration and areal extend. To achieve this goal, a 60-yr retrospective hydrological simulation of the land surface water budget over Germany was carried out with the process-based distributed hydrological model mHM. The model was forced with grided daily precipitation and temperature data at 4x4 km, and the model simulations were carried out at same spatial resolutions. Point measurement data from more than 5600 raingauges and about 1120 meteorological stations (DWD) were interpolated with EDK. Land cover change was also considered during this period. Drought indices were derived as monthly quantiles of the simulated fluxes which include root zone soil moisture and total runoff. A Gaussian kernel smoother was used to estimate these quantiles at each grid cell. A spatio-temporal cluster algorithm was used to consolidate all significant drought events. Main statistics such as magnitude, areal extend, duration, and severity were estimated only on those selected clusters. The mHM model was calibrated in major river basins giving Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies for daily discharge simulations greater than 0.8 in the evaluation period. Plausibility tests between the simulated mHM soil moisture and land surface temperature from MODIS and regional climate model reanalysis data compared well. Results indicated that

  5. OSL Dating of Maar Lake Sediments (Eifel/Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. D.; Sirocko, F.; Frechen, M.; Tsukamoto, S.

    2009-04-01

    OSL Dating of Maar Lake Sediments (Eifel/Germany) Esther D. Schmidt1, Frank Sirocko2, Manfred Frechen1 and Sumiko Tsukamoto1 1Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences, Department for Geochronology and Isotope Hydrology Hannover/ Germany - esther.schmidt@gga-hannover.de 2University of Mainz/Germany, Institute for Geoscience Keywords: Maar lake sediments, luminescence dating, Eifel/Germany. Sediment cores have been drilled by the ELSA project (Eifel Laminated Sediment Archive) in Eifel dry maar lakes to reconstruct the palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental conditions as well as the history of the volcanism in the Eifel/Central Europe during the last glacial cycles (Sirocko et al. 2005). Lake sediments accumulating in relict volcanic craters have undergone continuous deposition since the eruption of the maar volcano, and hence contain unique continuous local records of climate change. The aim of this study is to test the applicability of luminescence dating techniques for the temporal successions of dust storm events. Luminescence dating has been has been significantly improved over recent years and is widely used to establish confident chronologies of glacial/interglacial cycles (Schmidt et al. submitted). Equivalent doses (De) were determined applying the Single Aliquot Regenerative dose (SAR) protocol (Murray and Wintle 2000) using infra red light stimulation for feldspar and blue light stimulation for quartz. In further work other luminescence techniques like thermal transferred OSL (TT-OSL) and Infrared Radiofluorescence (IR-RF) will also be tested on the dust storm events of the maar lake sediments. References Murray, A.S., Wintle, A.G., 2000. Luminescence dating of quartz using an improved single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol. Radiation Measurements, 32: 57-73. Schmidt, E.D., Machalett, B., Marković, S.B., Tsukamoto, S., Frechen, M., submitted. Luminescence chronology of the upper part of the Stari Slankamen loess sequence (Vojvodina, Serbia

  6. [Healthcare services research on pain in Germany. A survey].

    PubMed

    Häuser, W; Neugebauer, E; Petzke, F

    2015-10-01

    Within the last ten years healthcare services research has developed into an independent interdisciplinary field of research. A selective search of the literature was conducted in the database Google Scholar and the database on healthcare services research in Germany (http://versorgungsforschung-deutschland.de) for healthcare services research projects on pain in Germany. Healthcare services research projects were conducted by pharmaceutical companies, patient self-help organizations, scientific societies, statutory health insurance companies and university departments on acute and chronic pain. Valid data on the epidemiology, grading and treatment of chronic pain are available. There was an overuse of opioids and invasive procedures in patients with chronic low back pain, fibromyalgia syndrome and somatoform pain disorders. Databases for patients with chronic pain are currently constructed by pain societies. The fragmentation of data from health insurance companies, old age pension insurances, clinical institutions and population surveys and inconsistencies in diagnosing or encoding chronic pain impede the carrying out of significant longitudinal studies. Based on the data available, the needs of care for patients with chronic pain and the necessary care services cannot be derived. Important topics of future healthcare services research on pain are longitudinal studies on the cost efficacy and risks of inpatient and outpatient pain therapy based on routine data of health insurance companies, old age pension insurances and pain registries, longitudinal studies on "patient careers" (i.e. sequences of healthcare) and the identification of potential starting points for control of healthcare. PMID:26264899

  7. Seasonal fluctuations of head lice infestation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eline; Jahnke, Claudia; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    Pediculosis capitis is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in childhood. If not diagnosed and treated rapidly, considerable clinical pathology may develop. The ubiquitous parasitic skin disease is characterized by a lack of sound epidemiological data, and factors which influence disease occurrence are still enigmatic. To investigate whether, in Germany, head lice infestation follows a seasonal pattern, we analyzed the weekly head lice consultations at the Health Department of Braunschweig City, Lower Saxony, for a period of 5 years, and compared the data with the units of pediculocides sold by two wholesalers to German pharmacies during a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively. The number of consultations did not show a clear seasonality, although there was a tendency of fewer consultations during school holidays, and an increase when schools opened again after Christmas, Easter, summer, and autumn holidays. In contrast, the number of packages of pediculocides sold followed a distinct seasonal rhythm with a maximum between calendar week 34 and 40, i.e., from mid September to end of October. In Germany, occurrence of pediculosis capitis varies according to the season of the year with a maximum in late summer and early autumn. PMID:19015879

  8. [Helmut Schmidt--a protagonist of modern anesthesia in Germany].

    PubMed

    Goerig, M; Schulte am Esch, J

    1996-12-01

    Helmut Schmidt, an assistant of the reputed surgeon Paul Sudeck, who headed the Surgical Department of the University in Hamburg at that time, habilitated in 1928. The title of his monograph was "Merits of nitrous oxide anaesthesia--a comparative study seeking reintroduction and increase of the use of nitrous oxide in Germany". With this paper, Schmidt qualified himself as the first lecturer for anaesthesiology in Germany. He had been eager since the mid-twenties on establishing our special medical discipline separate from surgery. Schmidt's merits also include introducing students and doctors to the practice of anaesthesiology, teaching both a practical approach towards anaesthesia at the operating room, and theory during lectures on general surgery. This method was absolutely new at that time. Due to the resistance by conservative surgeons, he failed to establish a "German Society of Anaesthesia" during the 90th meeting of the "German Society of Natural Scientists and Physicians" held in Hamburg in 1928. In fact, this was accomplished only as late as 1953. The following text recalls a number of contributions to anaesthesiology made by the honorary member of the "German Society for Anaesthesiology" Helmut Schmidt, who was born a hundred years ago and whose name and merits have fallen into oblivion during the past decades. PMID:9081419

  9. [Infectious diseases as a clinical specialty in Germany and Europe].

    PubMed

    Kern, Winfried V; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Tacconelli, Evelina; Ullmann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Clinical infectious diseases have only slowly been established as a medical specialty in Germany. The density of infectious diseases (ID) specialists and the number of ID divisions in general hospitals is still limited when compared with the situation in many other European countries, and there is also a lack of hospital-based medical microbiologists and infection control doctors for many reasons. Often, there is a lack of understanding of the roles and the performance of ID specialists versus microbiologists. Experience in other countries shows that ID specialists are important as clinical experts at the bedside, can help ascertain healthcare quality and patient safety, and are perfectly suited for undertaking strategic tasks in the field of cost-effective antimicrobial therapy algorithms and antibiotic stewardship (ABS) in hospitals. ID specialists are responsible for infection control in several countries, can improve the utility of diagnostic microbiology and are key partners in translational research. We estimate that more than 1,000 additional ID specialists are needed in this country, and believe that specially trained ABS experts can take over parts of their responsibilities and tasks in smaller hospitals. More capacity and flexibility in postgraduate training in infectious diseases, antibiotic stewardship and infection control in Germany will be critical to address the problem of antimicrobial resistance. (As supplied by publisher).

  10. Acidification reversal in low mountain range streams of Germany.

    PubMed

    Sucker, Carina; von Wilpert, Klaus; Puhlmann, Heike

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluates the acidification status and trends in streams of forested mountain ranges in Germany in consequence of reduced anthropogenic deposition since the mid 1980s. The analysis is based on water quality data for 86 long-term monitored streams in the Ore Mountains, the Bavarian Forest, the Fichtelgebirge, the Harz Mountains, the Spessart, the Black Forest, the Thuringian Forest, and the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge of Germany and the Vosges of France. Within the observation period, which starts for the individual streams between 1980 and 2001 and ends between 1990 and 2009, trends in chemical water quality were calculated with the Seasonal Mann Kendall Test. About 87% of the streams show significant (p < 0.05) negative trends in sulfate. The general reduction in acid deposition resulted in increased pH values (significant for 66% of the streams) and subsequently decreased base cation concentrations in the stream water (for calcium significant in 58% and magnesium 49% of the streams). Reaction products of acidification such as aluminum (significant for 50%) or manganese (significant for 69%) also decreased. Nitrate (52% with significant decrease) and chloride (38% with significant increase) have less pronounced trends and more variable spatial patterns. For the quotient of acidification, which is the ratio of the sum of base cations and the sum of acid anions, no clear trend is observed: in 44% of the monitored streams values significantly decreased and in 23% values significantly increased. A notable observation is the increasing DOC concentration, which is significant for 55% of the observed streams.

  11. Transition in cancer patterns among Turks residing in Germany.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, H; Razum, O; Blettner, M; Stegmaier, C

    2002-03-01

    Cancer mortality among the 2.1 million Turks residing in Germany is assumed to change from a pattern typical for a developing country towards one of an industrialised country. To test this hypothesis, we compared age-standardised cancer mortality rates among Turkish residents and (West) Germans using death registration data. In addition, we assessed proportional cancer incidence ratios among Turkish cases (n=144) in a German population-based cancer registry. All-cancer mortality 1992-1997 (per 100000) was 34.8 (n=4192) among Turkish men (Germans: 72.3) and 21.5 (n=1862) among Turkish women (Germans: 52.4). Over time, gastric and lung cancer mortality increased among Turkish men, as did breast cancer mortality among Turkish women. The proportional cancer incidence (PCIR) for stomach cancer among men was 2.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.7-4.8), and that for breast cancer among women was 0.7 (95% CI: 0.4-1.1). Turks had an increased proportional incidence ratio for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Our findings partly support a transition of cancer patterns among Turks in Germany.

  12. Depression risk in patients with coronary heart disease in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, Marcel; Jacob, Louis; Rapp, Michael A; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of depression and its risk factors among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) treated in German primary care practices. METHODS Longitudinal data from nationwide general practices in Germany (n = 1072) were analyzed. Individuals initially diagnosed with CHD (2009-2013) were identified, and 59992 patients were included and matched (1:1) to 59992 controls. The primary outcome measure was an initial diagnosis of depression within five years after the index date among patients with and without CHD. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for confounders. RESULTS Mean age was equal to 68.0 years (SD = 11.3). A total of 55.9% of patients were men. After a five-year follow-up, 21.8% of the CHD group and 14.2% of the control group were diagnosed with depression (P < 0.001). In the multivariate regression model, CHD was a strong risk factor for developing depression (HR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.49-1.59, P < 0.001). Prior depressive episodes, dementia, and eight other chronic conditions were associated with a higher risk of developing depression. Interestingly, older patients and women were also more likely to be diagnosed with depression compared with younger patients and men, respectively. CONCLUSION The risk of depression is significantly increased among patients with CHD compared with patients without CHD treated in primary care practices in Germany. CHD patients should be routinely screened for depression to ensure improved treatment and management. PMID:27721937

  13. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries. PMID:27421794

  14. Prevalence of selected rickettsial infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended. PMID:26387062

  15. Gambling market and individual patterns of gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Albers, N; Hübl, L

    1997-01-01

    In this paper individual patterns of gambling in Germany are estimated for the first time. The probit technique is used to test the influence of a set of individual characteristics on the probability of participating in each of the various legal games. A sample size of 1,586 adults collected for the pool of German lotteries provides a reliable set of data. All disaggregated estimations of participation are statistically significant at least at the 5 percent level. The basic findings suggest that gambling is a widespread normal (superior) consumption good because gambling participation tends to rise with income. Moreover, no demand anomaly can be found to justify assessing gambling as a social demerit. Only the participation in gaming machines is higher for younger, unemployed and less educated adults. While a moral evaluation of gambling is beyond the scope of this paper, the legislator's preference for a highly taxed state monopoly in gambling markets is to be rejected, at least for Germany. Additional statistical findings suggest distinct consumer perceptions of the characteristics of the various games and may be used for market segmentation. The paper starts with a descriptive introduction to the German gambling market.

  16. Direct costs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy control measures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Probst, C; Gethmann, J M; Heuser, R; Niemann, H; Conraths, F J

    2013-12-01

    On 26 November 2000, the first autochthonous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in Germany. Since then, a total of 413 BSE cases have been confirmed, resulting in the culling and destruction of 17 313 heads of cattle. In view of the possible risks for human and animal health, Germany has adopted EU regulations along with some additional requirements concerning active surveillance and response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal. In this study, we used a stochastic model to estimate the costs incurred by the ensuing legislative amendments responding to BSE between November 2000 and December 2010. The total costs were estimated to range between 1847 and 2094 million Euros. They peaked in 2001 (about 394 million Euros) and declined since. About 54% of the costs (approximately 1000 million Euros) were incurred by the extension of the feed ban for animal protein to all farmed livestock. Active surveillance accounted for 21% (405 million Euros), the incineration of animal protein for 13% (249 million Euros) and the removal of specified risk material for 11% (225 million Euros). Only 1% of the costs was related to response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal, including indemnity payments for culled cattle and confiscated carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

  17. Prevalence of selected rickettsial infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended.

  18. [Regionalisation of Germany by data of agricultural structures].

    PubMed

    Merle, Roswitha; Busse, Marc; Rechter, Galina; Meer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    In order to simplify the design of representative studies in animal populations the structural differences of animal husbandry (cattle, pigs and laying hens) in Germany were characterised. Several regions were defined and thus districts identified which are typical for the respective region and can be regarded as representatives for the whole region. Data on animal husbandry as well as human population per district originated from the Federal Statistical Office and were linked to the geometric data of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy. By this, data of "livestock units/square kilometre area" and "farms/square kilometre area" per district were calculated using methods of the spatial statistics Global Moran's Index, Anselin Local Moran's Index and Getis-Ord Gi*. With the help of these analyses six clusters could be identified which resulted in four large (Middle, Northwest, East, and South) and one smaller region (Northern Upper-Rhine) respecting the federal state borders. These regions differed significantly regarding animal and farm densities. The selection of typical districts was carried out with the help of the respective animal and farm data of the species pigs, dairy cattle and laying hens. The means of the selected districts (three to six per region) were within the 60%- and the 80%-percentile of at least two of the analysed variables. Concerning the region Northern Upper-Rhine no representative district was selected. This presented regionalisation including representative districts can be used for the design of scientific studies that are associated with animal husbandry in Germany.

  19. Data safety and drug safety in Germany: a closing gap?

    PubMed

    Rathmann, W

    2001-12-01

    Pharmacoepidemiology and drug utilization research are more and more involved in a fundamental conflict with data privacy regulations in Germany. In an attempt to close this gap, a working group of German data protection commissioners and representatives from epidemiologic research societies published guidelines on epidemiology and data protection, which are briefly reviewed. There are several data sources for drug utilization research and pharmacoepidemiology in Germany (national health surveys, routine data from hospitals, general practitioners, or statutory health insurance companies) allowing descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies. Furthermore, since 1980 a random sample of all prescriptions of patients from statutory health insurances (GKV-Arzneimittelindex) is analysed to produce an annual report on prescription drug use. More intensive use of health insurance data for evaluation of medical care including drug prescriptions is in discussion. The MediPlus (IMS HEALTH) database on 400 general and internal medicine practices provides an example to close the gap between the current demand for drug safety studies and data privacy issues. Finally, large provider systems with enormous data storage and data flow are emerging. Therefore, a further development of policies to guarantee ethically correct use of personally identifiable health data in the changing health care environment is urgently required.

  20. Travel-related vector-borne virus infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, T F; Jäger, G; Gilch, S; Pauli, C; Eisenhut, M; Nitschko, H; Hegenscheid, B

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of imported, vector-borne virus diseases during a 22-month-period in Munich, Germany, is summarized. IN 13/317 Germans returning from the Mediterranean with suspected sandfly fever, acute sandfly fever, serotype Toscana, was confirmed serologically: 84.6% of the infections were acquired in Italy. Of 249 German tourists with febrile disease returning from the tropics, acute infection with dengue virus was diagnosed serologically in 26 (10.4%): most infections were acquired in Thailand (57.7%). In a seroepidemiological study of 670 German aid workers who had spent two years in the tropics, 49 (7.3%) were positive for antibodies to dengue, 9 (1.3%) to chikungunya, and 1 (0.1%) to Sindbis virus. Of 17 Middle Eastern patients with suspected viral haemorrhagic fever, genomic Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus RNA was amplified in 4 (23.5%) by semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and confirmed by molecular characterization of nucleic acid. With the increase in travel to and from endemic areas, imported vector-borne virus infections are increasingly important in Germany.

  1. [The demographic development in Germany : challenge and chances for urology].

    PubMed

    Schneider, A W; Fichtner, J

    2014-08-01

    Urology is affected by the demographic development in Germany more than any other medical discipline. Despite a relatively stable total population, by the year 2040 there will be an absolute and relevant increase in urological diseases caused only by the demographic development in the population. This is particularly true for the increase in oncological treatment just in the field of the discipline of urology. Even now the current numbers for tumor development in Germany (RKI 2014) in the urological oncology segment of all tumor diseases show an increasing trend with more than 23 %. This significant increase in performance is in contrast to the age development of the specialists in this discipline. In total but especially due to the significantly over-aged specialist medical profession in urology, this leads to a substantial bottleneck of specialists in the discipline of urology. This deficiency of personnel resources in urology is aggravated by the requirements of Generation Y for a well-adjusted work-life balance and the associated feminization of the medical profession. This requires intelligent strategies for.

  2. Seasonal fluctuations of head lice infestation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eline; Jahnke, Claudia; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    Pediculosis capitis is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in childhood. If not diagnosed and treated rapidly, considerable clinical pathology may develop. The ubiquitous parasitic skin disease is characterized by a lack of sound epidemiological data, and factors which influence disease occurrence are still enigmatic. To investigate whether, in Germany, head lice infestation follows a seasonal pattern, we analyzed the weekly head lice consultations at the Health Department of Braunschweig City, Lower Saxony, for a period of 5 years, and compared the data with the units of pediculocides sold by two wholesalers to German pharmacies during a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively. The number of consultations did not show a clear seasonality, although there was a tendency of fewer consultations during school holidays, and an increase when schools opened again after Christmas, Easter, summer, and autumn holidays. In contrast, the number of packages of pediculocides sold followed a distinct seasonal rhythm with a maximum between calendar week 34 and 40, i.e., from mid September to end of October. In Germany, occurrence of pediculosis capitis varies according to the season of the year with a maximum in late summer and early autumn.

  3. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  4. [Rare diseases. Funding programs in Germany and Europe].

    PubMed

    Wetterauer, Birgit; Schuster, R

    2008-05-01

    Rare diseases are defined by lifetime prevalence and are a medically heterogeneous group. Treatment options and the state of knowledge about these diseases are also very heterogeneous, as well as the respective needs for research. This article provides an overview on funding programs in Germany, further examples of countries within Europe and the European Commission, and a few examples of research networks. It is one of the goals of the article to show similarities and differences between the funding programs. The funding organizations of most countries and the European Commission (FP7) fund research on rare diseases with programs in which researchers define the contents in bottom up approaches. While, in general, basic science is well established, the translation of knowledge into clinical benefit for the patients is slow. Because of the low prevalence and geographic distribution of patients and researchers, research on rare diseases suffers from infrastructural deficits. While France, Germany, Italy and Spain have implemented research programs which are specific for rare diseases and aim to support networking of scarce resources and to stimulate interdisciplinary collaborations, other countries fund research on rare diseases within the context of general programs.

  5. Photoimaging of the multiple filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-anthracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborine

    SciTech Connect

    Kulchin, Yu N; Vitrik, O B; Chekhlenok, A A; Zhizhchenko, A Yu; Proschenko, D Yu; Mirochnik, A G; Lyu Guohui

    2013-12-31

    We have studied the filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses (λ = 800 nm, ∼42 fs pulse duration) in poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-anthracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2- dioxaborine and the associated photomodification of the material. The results demonstrate that multiple filamentation occurs at pulse energies above 5 μJ. At a pulse energy of 1.5 mJ, it is accompanied by supercontinuum generation. The average filament length in PMMA is 9 mm and the filament diameter is ∼10 μm. An incident power density of ∼10{sup 12} W cm{sup -2} ensures inscription of the filament pattern owing to two-photon photochemical processes. Preliminary exposure to continuous light at λ = 400 nm enables an ordered filament pattern to be written. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  6. A theoretical study of charge-transport parameters for a hydrogen-bonded organic semiconductor: the indigo and s-indaceno [1,2-b:5,6-b‧] dithiophene-4,9-dione derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hui-Ling; Shi, Ya-Rui; Liu, Yu-Fang

    2016-06-01

    The properties of synthesized ambipolar organic semiconductor (OSC) materials, containing hydrogen bonding, i.e. the 6,6‧-dibromoindigo and the three s-indaceno [1, 2-b:5, 6-b‧] dithiophene-4,9-dione derivatives, have been systematically studied using a density functional theory. The hydrogen bonding formed between the interlayer molecules, though it does not affect the charge mobility in the same layer, influences the interorbital overlapping of HOMO and LUMO states between the layers, and influences the charge mobility directly. In addition, the hydrogen bonding between the layers may reinforce the π-π stacking and make the center-to-center distance closer, which indirectly enhances charge mobility, and can turn a monopole OSC into an ambipolar one.

  7. Gold-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization and Diels-Alder Reaction of 1,4,9-Dienyne Esters to 3 a,6-Methanoisoindole Esters with Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Antagonist Activity.

    PubMed

    Susanti, Dewi; Liu, Li-Juan; Rao, Weidong; Lin, Sheng; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Chan, Philip Wai Hong

    2015-06-15

    A synthetic method to prepare 3a,6-methanoisoindole esters efficiently by gold(I)-catalyzed tandem 1,2-acyloxy migration/Nazarov cyclization followed by Diels-Alder reaction of 1,4,9-dienyne esters is described. We also report the ability of one example to inhibit binding of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) to the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) site and TNF-α-induced nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation in cell at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) value of 6.6 μM. Along with this is a study showing the isoindolyl derivative to exhibit low toxicity toward human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells and its possible mode of activity based on molecular modeling analysis. PMID:25982956

  8. Self-discharge suppression of 4.9 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode by using tris(trimethylsilyl)borate as an electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaolin; Huang, Qiming; Mai, Shaowei; Wang, Xianshu; Xu, Mengqing; Xing, Lidan; Liao, Youhao; Li, Weishan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, tris(trimethylsilyl)borate (TMSB) is evaluated as an electrolyte additive for the self-discharge suppression of 4.9 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode for lithium ion battery. The effect of TMSB on the surface properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is investigated via linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), charge-discharge test, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is found that the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode charged to 4.9 V (vs. Li/Li+) suffers a serious self-discharge in 1 mol L-1 LiPF6-EC/DMC (1:2, in weight), which can be suppressed effectively by adding 1 wt.% TMSB into the electrolyte. After storage for 20 days, the voltage of the charged cathode decreases from 4.7 to 0.5 V (vs. Li/Li+) in the additive-free electrolyte, while that remains almost unchanged in the TMSB-containing electrolyte. The self-discharge suppression of the charged LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode results from the preferential oxidation of TMSB and the subsequent formation of a protective solid electrolyte interphase film, which prevents electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 from destruction.

  9. Synthesis and biological activity of novel series of 4-methoxy, and 4,9-dimethoxy-5-substituted furo[2,3-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxide derivatives

    PubMed Central

    El-Sawy, Eslam R.; Ebaid, Manal S.; Abo-Salem, Heba M.; El-Hallouty, Salwa; Kassem, Emad M.; Mandour, Adel H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel series of 4-methoxy, and 4,9-dimethoxy-5-substituted furo[2,3-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxide derivatives 3a,b, 10a–g and 11a–g were prepared in good yields via the reaction of 4-methoxy (1a) and 4,7-dimethoxy-5-acetyl-6-hydroxybenzofurans (1b) and their α,β-unsaturated keto derivatives 6a–g and 7a–g with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI). On the other hand, N-chlorosulfonyl carbamate derivatives 4a,b, 12a,b and 13a,b were prepared and allowed to react with piperidine to give the corresponding N-piperidinosulfonyl carbamate derivatives 5a,b, 14a,b and 15a,b, respectively. Sixteen new target compounds 3a,b, 10a–g, and 11a–g were tested for their DPPH radical-scavenging, and in vitro antiproliferative activity against A-549, MCF7 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines. Compounds 10a, 11c, 11e, and 11g showed moderate DPPH radical-scavenging activity compared to ascorbic acid at 100 μg/mL. 4,9-Dimethoxy-5-substituted styrylfuro[3,2-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxides 11a, 11b, and 11c were found to be highly active against A-549 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.02 to 0.08 μmol/mL compared to doxorubicin with IC50 = 0.04 and 0.06 μmol/mL, respectively. PMID:25685501

  10. A 5.4-9.2 GHz 19.5 dB Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Ultrawide-Band Receiver Front-End Low-Noise Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhari, Afreen; Kubota, Shinichi; Toya, Akihiro; Sasaki, Nobuo; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we present an ultrawide-band (UWB) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) low-noise amplifier (LNA) for wireless communication in the upper UWB band, that is, from 5.4-9.2 GHz bandwidth with a wide-band 50 Ω input matching network in front of the LNA. A three-stage cascode-topology-based LNA with high-transconductance MOS transistors, was employed to improve the voltage gain up to 23 dB at 7.5 GHz, with 4.5-9.2 GHz 3 dB bandwidth. The maximum output power S21 was 19.5 dB at 7.3 GHz, with 5.4-9.2 GHz 3 dB bandwidth. The input matching circuit was designed with a reduced number of passive elements, resulting in an input reflection coefficient S11 of less than -10 dB from 4.5-9.2 GHz. The noise figure of the LNA was as low as 3.5 dB and the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) was -8 dBm. The LNA has output reflection coefficient S22 of less than -10 dB from 5-7 GHz and a good reverse isolation, that is, S12 of < -45 dB in the entire UWB, due to a cascode topology. The LNA was fabricated using 180 nm CMOS technology, which consumes 56 mW power at 1.8 V power supply. In this paper, we also demonstrate a wireless communication of 7 GHz Gaussian monocycle pulse (GMP) by horn antennas and the LNA from 20 cm transmission distance.

  11. Drug utilization patterns and reported health status in ethnic German migrants (Aussiedler) in Germany: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate utilization of healthcare services by migrant populations is an important public health concern. Inadequate drug consumption and poor compliance to the therapeutic regimen are common manifestations of low health-care seeking behavior present in migrants even in the countries with well-established healthcare systems. There are few studies on the use of medicines among the different groups of migrants in Germany. The objective of this study is to investigate drug consumption patterns of ethnic German migrants (Aussiedler) and their current health status. Methods A cross-sectional study nested into a cohort of 18,621 individuals aged 20-70 years who migrated to Germany from the former Soviet Union between 1990 and 2005 was conducted. Data on consumption of drugs, drug handling, major health risk factors, and one-year disease prevalence were obtained for 114 individuals through a self-administered questionnaire and phone interviews. Results were compared to the data on the German population derived from the Disease Analyzer database and Robert Koch Institute (RKI) annual reports. Direct age standardization, test of differences, Chi-square test, and descriptive statistics were applied as appropriate. For drug classification the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) system was used. Results Of the respondents, 97% reported to have at least one disease within a 12-month period. The one-year prevalence of asthma (6.9%), hypertension (26.7%), chronic bronchitis (8.6%), and diabetes (4.9%) in migrants was similar to the general German population. 51% regularly took either over-the-counter (OTC) medication or prescription medicines. Six ATC groups were analyzed. The highest drug consumption was reported for the ATC cardiovascular (22%), nervous (9%), and muskulo-skeletal system (8%). 30% used OTC medicines obtained in the country of origin. Difficulties with drug handling were rare. Alcohol consumption did not differ from the German population (p = 0

  12. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  13. [The development of nursing schools in East and West Germany].

    PubMed

    Moses, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the various nursing schools in East and West Germany. In the 1980s and early 1990s the professionalization of nursing was still in its infancy there compared with Anglo-America. There were attempts to professionalize nursing that were meant to enhance the quality of nursing as well as lead to improved working conditions. As part of the political debates in the field after German reunification, the nursing schools in the former east were also affected by reform efforts. From the 1960s, diploma courses in nursing studies and in the teaching of medicine had been offered in the east and, up into the 1990s, these courses were repeatedly modified and adapted to educational requirements. The study also tries to establish the extent to which the academization of nursing in the reunified Germany was driven by the concurrence of the different training routes in West and East. It analyses above all the diverse study syllabi and lengths of training. What also emerged was that, despite all the positive impulses arising from the East German training models, the continuous changes in training in the GDR not only served to improve the nursing qualifications but also to promote identification with the socialist system and its political ideology. In addition, the teaching of theory was never prominent in East German nursing, while, in the west, theory was increasingly asked for and eventually also implemented. The possibility, in the former east, to study the teaching of medicine definitely made an impact on the nursing training in the west after the reunification and the subject is now offered at universities there, too. Despite all that, the concept of "professional nursing," which needs to be practised in a practical, patient-oriented way, and on a scientific basis, is again being discussed since the introduction of Bachelor and Master study courses. The process of professionalizing and academizing the nursing schools and further training courses clearly

  14. 77 FR 54926 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... FR 19711) and determined on July 6, 2012, that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 42763... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation...

  15. 77 FR 19711 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is... Germany (60 FR 39704). Following the first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective... from Germany (66 FR 37004). Following the second five-year reviews by Commerce and the...

  16. 75 FR 62763 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Reviews and Rescission of Reviews in Part, 73 FR 52823 (September 11, 2008). SKF USA Inc., SKF France S.A... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of... bearings and parts thereof from Germany. See SKF USA Inc. v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT 2010)....

  17. Continuing Vocational Education in Germany: Foundations, Sponsors, the New Media, Quality Assurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue focuses on continuing vocational education (CVE) in Germany. Articles are: "Lifelong Learning in the Knowledge Society;""The Foundations of CVE in Germany"; "Who Takes Part in Continuing Education?"; "Hail Maria! A Helping Hand for Female Academics Seeking Promotion"; "Sponsors and Forms of Continuing Education"; "The New Media the…

  18. The Human Right to Education as a Right to Literacy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motakef, Mona

    2007-01-01

    There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a human rights-based approach.…

  19. Modularisation: Aspects of the Debate in Germany and the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedler, Reinhard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "Some Remarks on Modular Training in the Federal Republic of Germany" (Zedler); "Modular Initial and Continuing Education and Training: A Comparative Survey of the Education System in the United Kingdom and Germany" (Hammer); "Modules in Vocational Training" (Wiegand); and "Modularisation and Qualification Reform in…

  20. Europe's New Center. United Germany in a Uniting Europe, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stassen, Manfred; Kraemer, Dagmar

    1993-01-01

    Introduces part 1 of a special section on teaching about Germany and the European Community. Argues that the end of the Cold War and the movement toward European economic union brought new political realities that will affect the United States. Contends that the data about Germany and Europe presented is timely and more appropriate for classroom…

  1. Images of Germany: Past and Present. A Film Collection, Series II Instructional Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Hutcheson, Gwen

    This booklet offers classroom activities for use with 15 social studies-related films for teaching about Germany. The series of 25-minute films are made available by Deutsche Welle Television and Goethe House New York. Lessons in the booklet include: (1) "Germany Since 1945: A Focus on Berlin"; (2) "'I'll Get You All Out of Here!' A Portrait of…

  2. Changing Traditions in Germany's Public Schools. International Studies in Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichanz, Horst; Zahorik, John A.

    Understanding German elementary and secondary schools requires knowledge of political, geographic, economic, and social aspects of Germany. German schools have developed in accordance with the prevailing influences of their times. People and events, throughout the past 400 years, are discussed. The legal status of education in Germany is similar…

  3. 77 FR 73615 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Thermal Paper from Germany and the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 70959 (November 24, 2008) (Orders...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). Assessment of Antidumping Duties We intend to... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Preliminary Results of...

  4. 76 FR 42137 - Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ..., except to ] the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (Nov... COMMISSION Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings AGENCY: United States...-1127 concerning certain lightweight thermal paper (``LWTP'') from Germany. For further...

  5. 78 FR 23220 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Duty Orders: Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany and the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 70959...; Preliminary Results Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011, 77 FR 73615 (December 11, 2012... International Trade Administration Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping...

  6. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a German Perspective"…

  7. Society and Social Justice: Problems of Political Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Siegfried

    1981-01-01

    Discusses social justice in West Germany within the context of the experience of Nazism, the economic disaster after World War II, and the successful development of the economy and welfare state since 1949. Refers to various textbooks and recent empirical studies on the political attitudes of students in West Germany. (Author/KC)

  8. Political Education in the Schools of the Federal Republic of Germany. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minssen, Friedrich

    This paper examines West Germany's educational system by discussing the status of K-12 political and social studies education. It was not until the late 1960s that social studies education was introduced as a subject on a wide scale into West Germany's school curriculum. The reason for its introduction and development was the desire to supplement…

  9. Education after and about Auschwitz in Germany: Towards a Theory of Remembrance in the European Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boschki, Reinhold; Reichmann, Bettina; Schwendemann, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of education after and about Auschwitz (Holocaust education) in Germany in both theory and practice, with particular attention to three critical areas. The first is the status of research in, as Adorno famously phrased it, "education after Auschwitz" within the context of contemporary Germany. German society is…

  10. Germany in Europe: Enduring Issues. Social Studies Grades 6-12. Update 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Moffitt, Louisa

    This instructional package, consisting of a text and 27 transparencies, is designed for the middle and secondary school classroom. The unit focuses on three topics: (1) "Germany in the European Union (EU)" (four lessons focusing on history of the EU, characteristics of member states, and EU governance); (2) "Economic Issues in Germany and the…

  11. Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000 "Nikkeijin," or people of Japanese…

  12. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... group response to its notice of institution (75 FR 30437, June 1, 2010) was adequate and that the... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy,...

  13. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... France, Germany, and Italy (52 FR 6995; Italy amended at 52 FR 11299 (April 8, 1987)). On August 12, 1988... and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan (71 FR 16552). The Commission is now conducting third... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information...

  14. The Skilled Crafts in Germany. Education and Science (Bildung and Wissenschaft) BW 1/95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    This publication focuses on the skilled crafts in Germany, including the training system and professional prospects. It includes the following articles: "A Valuable Tradition" (Dieter W. Benecke) and "The Skilled Crafts in Germany: Training System and Professional Prospects" (Volker Thomas). The latter article covers the following topics: the…

  15. Communication Patterns and Intellectual Traditions in Educational Sciences: France and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jurgen; Keiner, Edwin

    1991-01-01

    Examines patterns of institutional organization and communication in education in France and Germany. The science of education is autonomous and philosophically oriented in Germany but is intertwined with sociology, psychology, and other social sciences and is positivistic in nature in France. Overlap between the cognitive textures of the French…

  16. Higher Education and Employment in the USSR and in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avakov, R., Ed.; And Others

    Results of two studies on higher education and employment in the USSR and the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) are presented. For both countries, the development of the higher education system as part of the overall system of education is discussed, with emphasis on expansion of higher education, and access to college over the years.…

  17. Much Ado about Something? James Bryant Conant, Harvard University, and Nazi Germany in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.; Smith, Marybeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the actions of noted Harvard University president James Bryant Conant, taken in regard to the Nazi government in Germany, from the time of Conant's becoming president of Harvard University in 1933 to the time of the widespread pogrom in Germany of 9-10 November 1938, known as Kristallnacht. Conant's attitudes and actions…

  18. Welcome to the Land of the Ideas: The Goethe Institute Fellowship Tour of Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    There are many valid reasons for participating in an educators' tour of Germany. It is a nation that has a legacy of literary and political thought that has had a profound impact on the evolution of Western civilization. Germany has offered the world artistic and scientific genius and been the source of devastating war and unprecedented genocide.…

  19. The Role of Craft Industry in Germany's Social Market Economy. Social Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Karsten

    1992-01-01

    Social market economy success in the Federal Republic of Germany is due to free competition, enterprise in the business community, and employees' social security. Craft industries play a major role in Germany's market economy. The craft industry is second only to the manufacturing industry, comprising 23 percent of German firms. There are seven…

  20. Communication Indicators. II. 100 Years of Mass Communication in Germany. Communication and Society 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Anton; Vogler, Kurt

    This report summarizes the findings of a Unesco-sponsored study designed to identify quantitative relationships between mass communication and economic growth in the Federal Republic of Germany. The first and second sections of the report outline the most important economic and social lines of development in Germany from the end of the nineteenth…

  1. 75 FR 3444 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Republic of Germany, 54 FR 20900 (May 15, 1989). The orders on cylindrical roller bearings and spherical... Kingdom, 65 FR 42667 (July 11, 2000). Miniaturkugellager GmbH (MKL) was a respondent in a new-shipper... Parts Thereof, From Germany; Final Results of New Shipper Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 61...

  2. Press and Broadcasting in the Federal Republic of Germany. Special Report No. 7, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellack, Georg

    This special report provides a survey of media in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and attempts to answer questions such as: what freedoms the mass media enjoy, the nature of their finances, what problems they have to deal with, and what their future in competition with new modes of communication will be like. Chapter 1 discusses the…

  3. The neuropathology of morality: Germany 1930-1960.

    PubMed

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes brain scientists' attempts to trace morality in the brain in Germany from 1930 to 1960. The debate around Karl Kleist's localization of the Gemeinschafts-Ich [community-I] in the 1930s is depicted in order to illustrate the central arguments for and against localizations of morality. The focus of this article is on the period 1936-1960 in which experts put forth specific ideas on morality's cerebral underpinnings that mirror the larger theoretical shift from strict localization doctrine to a more holistic understanding of the brain. As a result of this shift, experts avoided exact localizations of morality. Instead, they posited correlations between brain areas and morality. The analysis illustrates the dependence of neuropathological research on morality on general theories of brain functioning and marks a first contribution to the history of the neuroscience of morality for the time after 1930.

  4. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages. PMID:22895651

  5. Germany, garbage, and the green dot: Challenging the throwaway society

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbein, B.K.

    1994-09-01

    For US policymakers and citizens who are grappling with the question of how to handle this country's mounting municipal garbage and commercial wastes, this report offers a revolutionary approach taken by Germany to promote both recycling and source reduction. The sweeping new German legislation is stimulating industry efforts to reduce packaging and product waste by requiring that the businesses producing packages and products be financially responsible for taking back their used materials and recycling, reusing or disposing of them. This report describes what Germans have done in solid waste policies, the difficulties they are confronting and the impact on wastes to date. It discusses the environmental problems that the US and other industrialized countries face, identifies practical solutions: programs and policies that work to conserve our valuable air, land, water and natural resources and enable us to live and do business less wastefully.

  6. Temperature Trends over Germany from Homogenized Radiosonde Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecht, W.; Pattantyús Ábráham, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present homogenization procedure and results for Germany's historical radiosonde records, dating back to the 1950s. Our manual homogenization makes use of the different RS networks existing in East and West-Germany from the 1950s until 1990. The largest temperature adjustments, up to 2.5K, are applied to Freiberg sondes used in the East in the 1950s and 1960s. Adjustments for Graw H50 and M60 sondes, used in the West from the 1950s to the late 1980s, and for RKZ sondes, used in the East in the 1970s and 1980s, are also significant, 0.3 to 0.5K. Small differences between Vaisala RS80 and RS92 sondes used throughout Germany since 1990 and 2005, respectively, were not corrected for at levels from the ground to 300 hPa. Comparison of the homogenized data with other radiosonde datasets, RICH (Haimberger et al., 2012) and HadAT2 (McCarthy et al., 2008), and with Microwave Sounding Unit satellite data (Mears and Wentz, 2009), shows generally good agreement. HadAT2 data exhibit a few suspicious spikes in the 1970s and 1980s, and some suspicious offsets up to 1K after 1995. Compared to RICH, our homogenized data show slightly different temperatures in the 1960s and 1970s. We find that the troposphere over Germany has been warming by 0.25 ± 0.1K per decade since the early 1960s, slightly more than reported in other studies (Hartmann et al., 2013). The stratosphere has been cooling, with the trend increasing from almost no change near 230hPa (the tropopause) to -0.5 ± 0.2K per decade near 50hPa. Trends from the homogenized data are more positive by about 0.1K per decade compared to the original data, both in troposphere and stratosphere. References: Haimberger, L., C. Tavolato, and S. Sperka, 2012. J. Climate, 25, 8108-8131, doi:10.1175/ JCLI-D-11-00668.1. Hartmann, D., et al., 2013: Observations: Atmosphere and surface in IPCC AR5, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. [Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/.] McCarthy, M., et al., 2008. J. Climate

  7. Psychological problems of Turkish migrants in West Germany.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, P T

    1981-04-01

    The path of adjustment for Turkish migrants--young and old, male and female--to a highly industralized Western society is a difficult one fraught with parlous conditions over which they have little control, largely because of Germany attitudes toward and treatment of Gastarbeiter in general and Turks in particular. Holding other variables constant, the psychological problems discerned as unique to Turkish Gastarbeiter are on the rise. These problems are of such a dimension that they clearly show the urgent need for Germans, the German government and its agencies, the Turkish government, and mental health professionals to come to grips with the existing situation. A program should be devised that (1) prepares the Turks for their new life before emigration; (2) educate the host country to lessen prejudice and heighten appreciation of the alien culture.

  8. Business evolution or revolution? Mail-order pharmacies in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gersch, Martin

    2004-01-01

    It is an interesting detail of the present reform of national public health service in Germany that mail-order and internet pharmacies will be founded in future as new (e-commerce) business models. Main points of conceivable business systems can be characterised as well as critical success factors. No potential participant can ever have all the necessary resources and competences to implement a competitive business system without external support. This is why cooperation seems to be a useful tool for competence management. The Resource-based View will serve as theoretical background for analysis. The required and available competences of conceivable players can be identified. Features of resources can be described that recommend special types of cooperation with the intention of establishing and operate a business system. Especially German and international pharmaceutical wholesalers can be identified as conceivable "parents" of mail-order pharmacies in the future. PMID:18048201

  9. Modeling nitrogen fluxes in Germany - where does the nitrogen go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    According to the latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive, 26.3% of German groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. Additionally, the EU initiated infringement proceedings against Germany for not meeting the quality standards of the EU Nitrate Directive. Agriculture has been determined as the main source of nitrate pollution due to over-fertilization and regionally high density of livestock farming. The nitrogen balance surplus is commonly used as an indicator characterizing the potential of nitrate leaching into groundwater bodies and thus also serves as a foundation to introduce legislative restrictions or to monitor the success of mitigation measures. Currently, there is an ongoing discussion which measures are suitable for reducing the risk of nitrate leaching and also to what extent. However, there is still uncertainty about just how much the nitrogen surplus has to be reduced to meet the groundwater quality standards nationwide. Therefore, the aims of our study were firstly to determine the level of the nitrogen surplus that would be acceptable at the utmost and secondly whether the currently discussed target value of 30 kg N per hectare agricultural land for the soil surface nitrogen balance would be sufficient. The models MONERIS (Modeling Nutrient Emissions in River System) and MoRE (Modelling of Regionalized Emissions), the latter based on the first, are commonly used for estimating nitrogen loads into the river system in Germany at the mesoscale, as well as the effect of mitigation measures in the context of the EU directive 2008/105/EC (Environmental quality standards applicable to surface water). We used MoRE to calculate nitrate concentration for 2759 analytical units in Germany. Main factors are the surplus of the soil surface nitrogen balance, the percolation rate and an exponent representing the denitrification in the vadose zone. The modeled groundwater nitrate concentrations did not correspond to the regional

  10. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages.

  11. Recent data on cancer due to asbestos in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rösler, J A; Woitowitz, H J

    1995-01-01

    The Authors evaluate the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma among asbestos workers in Germany. 3,988 workers (3,372 male and 616 female) were included in the study, which took into consideration the branch of the asbestos industry in which they had worked, the duration of their employment and also their smoking habits. At the end of the 12 year follow-up, 3,315 workers were alive and 673 dead. The analysis of cause of death showed an increased risk of dying from lung cancer and pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, in men as well as in women. The risk was shown to be greatest among workers in the asbestos textile industry and among insulators. A probable multiplicative effect of asbestos exposure and smoking on lung cancer causation was noted.

  12. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank; Pease, John; Scholz, Cristian; Erbring, Hans-Peter; Schlunke, Stephan; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to compare and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.

  13. Take Me "Home": Return Migration among Germany's Older Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Yahirun, Jenjira J

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines the determinants of return migration as foreign-born men approach old age in Germany. Return migration in later life engages a different set of conditions than return migration earlier on, including the framing of return as a possible retirement strategy. Using 23 years of longitudinal data from the German Socioeconomic Panel, this paper investigates how social and economic resources of immigrant men influence decisions to return "home." Results suggest that immigrants from former guest worker recruitment countries within the European Union are more likely to return than non-E.U. immigrants. In addition, return migrants are "negatively selected" such that those with the least education and weakest attachments to the labor force are more likely to emigrate. However, findings vary greatly depending on the immigrant's age and country of origin. Results from this paper highlight the heterogeneity of older immigrants and the factors that motivate their return "home."

  14. Genetic diversity of feline cowpox virus, Germany 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Kaysser, Philipp; von Bomhard, Wolf; Dobrzykowski, Linda; Meyer, Hermann

    2010-03-24

    Recent cowpox virus (CPXV) infections of humans in Europe transmitted from cats and pet rats have risen public awareness of this rare zoonosis. Based on serosurveys wild rodents are regarded as primary reservoir hosts. Cats can become infected while hunting and could therefore serve as a sentinel for CPXV strains circulating in wild rodents. In a retrospective study we analysed 73 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded skin samples from cats with a histologically proven CPXV infection. Specimens had been collected in different parts of Germany during 2000-2008. Following DNA extraction part of the hemagglutinin gene was amplified and sequenced from 72 samples. A phylogenetic analysis was inferred resulting in a total of 21 different CPXV genetic variants. The geographic distribution was imposed on a map. PMID:19879071

  15. New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Conard, Nicholas J; Malina, Maria; Münzel, Susanne C

    2009-08-01

    Considerable debate surrounds claims for early evidence of music in the archaeological record. Researchers universally accept the existence of complex musical instruments as an indication of fully modern behaviour and advanced symbolic communication but, owing to the scarcity of finds, the archaeological record of the evolution and spread of music remains incomplete. Although arguments have been made for Neanderthal musical traditions and the presence of musical instruments in Middle Palaeolithic assemblages, concrete evidence to support these claims is lacking. Here we report the discovery of bone and ivory flutes from the early Aurignacian period of southwestern Germany. These finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe, more than 35,000 calendar years ago. Other than the caves of the Swabian Jura, the earliest secure archaeological evidence for music comes from sites in France and Austria and post-date 30,000 years ago. PMID:19553935

  16. [Sex education in practice and science in Germany].

    PubMed

    Sielert, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Sex education in Germany has a history full of conflict and ideological change between emancipatory, reforming, and repressive tendencies. As a science, sex education has only recently gained independence from its mother disciplines theology, medicine, psychology, and sociology and at the same time has taken a critically constructive position towards sexual science. Its topics range from dissemination of knowledge about biological processes and contraception to relationship concerns, sexual orientation, gender issues, sexual transgression, moral, and ethical questions. Sexual socialization happens nearly everywhere. Sexual education takes place mainly in families, elementary education, and school, but increasingly also in all other areas of education, social work, and health service. Its clientèle are no longer exclusively children and adolescents but increasingly adults of every age group. Subjects such as AIDS, sexual abuse, and teenage pregnancy have contributed to governmental funding of projects and training in sex education. Thus, sex education still reaches from mere protection from dangers to fostering or maintaining psychological health.

  17. Climate Modeling in Support of Policy Decisionmaking in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasseur, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    As a reaction to the increasing demand for climate information for adaptation strategies, the Climate Service Center (CSC) has been founded in Germany. The main objective of CSC is bringing together climate change information, impact assessments and economic and policy strategies in one institution and thus facilitating communication between the disciplines and sectors. It became obvious, that bridging the gap between available climate change information and the requirements of the impact, vulnerability and adaptation communities is of utmost importance. Two different aspects have to be considered: the temporal and spatial refinement of biogeophysical quantities, usually done via dynamical or statistical downscaling of the coarse-scale climate information, and the incorporation of uncertainty measures into the decision making process for adaptation policies. For both aspects, communication is the key necessity. Organizing thematic workshops to assemble the disciplines is therefore one keystone of the CSC work. During the presentation, the CSC vision, strategy and methodologies will be explained.

  18. Global budgeting in Germany: lessons for the United States.

    PubMed

    Henke, K D; Murray, M A; Ade, C

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 Germany implemented significant health reform legislation that, among other things, strengthened the global budgeting of physicians and instituted global budgeting of pharmaceutical expenditures. German physician expenditures are now capped at the growth in income of members of the sickness funds, in contrast to prior years, in which some growth above a targeted level was allowed. For the first time, dental services also are subject to the budget cap. The new reform legislation also limits growth in pharmaceutical expenditures by increasing the level of copayments and by placing physicians as a group at financial risk for growth over the limit. This paper examines the effect of these reforms during the first year and offers lessons for reform of the U.S. system.

  19. [Public health ethics. Necessity and discourse in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wehkamp, Karl-Heinz

    2008-02-01

    The international discourse about public health ethics is becoming more intensive and complex. The starting point is bioethics. The debate about public health ethics is simultaneously a debate about an adequate identity of public health, its goals, tasks and standards. In Germany there is a tremendous need to take part in this discourse. German experiences within the traditions of social medicine, social hygiene and medical ethics could significantly contribute to the international discussion. Unfortunately the German speaking public health community has hardly acknowledged the topic of ethics. The reasons for this are not explicitly known. The Anglo-American discourse is much more developed, but the concepts, terms and paradigms should not simply be transferred. They should critically be proven.

  20. Early benefit assessment for pharmaceuticals in Germany: lessons for policymakers.

    PubMed

    Schlette, Sophia; Hess, Rainer

    2013-10-01

    Since 2011, Germany's Pharmaceutical Market Restructuring Act has mandated that all newly introduced drugs are subject to an assessment of their benefits in relation to a comparator, typically the current standard treatment. For drugs found to have some additional benefit, the manufacturer and the statutory health insurers negotiate a price. For drugs found to have no additional benefit, their price is set in reference to the price of the comparator. This new system is intended to reduce spending on expensive new drugs that are no more effective than existing treatments, while encouraging pharmaceutical companies to invest in innovative drugs that improve health outcomes. The German experience provides lessons for the United States, where comparative effectiveness research is publicly funded but public insurance programs are limited in their ability to use its findings to make coverage or pricing decisions.

  1. Contaminated generativity: Holocaust survivors and their children in Germany.

    PubMed

    Grünberg, Kurt

    2007-03-01

    This paper addresses the trauma transfer from survivors of the Shoah to the Second Generation in Germany. What does it mean for both generations to beget children after Auschwitz? This necessarily entails perceiving non-Jewish Germans and their way of dealing with history. Survivors cannot live without their memory, nor is it possible for them to conceive of a life unencumbered by this constant "contaminant". It is not possible to integrate the persecution experiences. On the contrary, decades after liberation, dissociated elements of traumatic memories penetrate everyday experiences, thought, affect and imagination as contaminants. Occasionally, these fragments of persecution experiences, like "encapsulated memories" hidden in crypts suddenly break open and frighten the survivors themselves and even more so the people around them.

  2. Seasonal extreme value statistics for precipitation in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Extreme precipitation has a strong influence on environment, society and economy. It leads to large damage due to floods, mudslides, increased erosion or hail. While standard annual return levels are important for hydrological structures, seasonaly resolved return levels provide additional information for risk managment, e.g., for the agricultural sector. For 1208 stations in Germany, we calculate monthly resolved return levels. Instead of estimating parameters separately for every month in the year, we use a non-stationary approach and benefit from smoothly varying return levels throughout the year. This natural approach is more suitable to characterise seasonal variability of extreme precipitation and leads to more accurate return level estimates. Harmonic functions of different orders are used to describe the seasonal variation of GEV parameters and crossvalidation is used to determine a suitable model forall stations. Finally particularly vulnerable regions and associated month are investigated in more detail.

  3. Status of mid-infrared superlattice technology in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Fleissner, Joachim; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, InAs/GaSb superlattice detector technology for the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range has been intensively developed in recent years. Mid-IR InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes achieve a very high quantum efficiency. The world's first high-performance infrared imagers based on InAs/GaSb superlattices were realized offering high spatial and excellent thermal resolution at short integration times. Additionally, the technology for dual-color superlattice detectors featuring simultaneous, pixel-registered detection of two separate spectral regimes in the mid-IR has been developed. Due to the ability to detect signatures of hot carbon dioxide, dual-color superlattice detectors are ideally suited for missile alerting sensors. The capability for small volume production of InAs/GaSb superlattice detectors has been established.

  4. Attenuation reactions in a multiple contaminated aquifer in Bitterfeld (Germany).

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Susanne; Weiss, Holger; Kaschl, Arno

    2004-05-01

    Large-scale contaminated sites with multiple contaminants in the groundwater present a challenge to risk assessment and remediation. Attenuation reactions take place in the subsurface and act to contain contaminants, but must be thoroughly investigated on a site-specific basis. Field data from monitoring wells at a contaminated industrial site in Bitterfeld, Germany, are presented and analyzed for evidence of the prevalent biodegradation reactions. The groundwater in the Tertiary aquifer is contaminated with large quantities of chlorinated aliphatic compounds, in addition to chlorobenzenes and BTEX. In this strictly anaerobic environment, geochemical indications for several microbial processes were found, including methanogenesis, sulfate and iron reduction as well as reductive dechlorination of the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Direct evidence for the latter degradation reaction was observed along the flowpath due to the appearance of intermediates and an increase in the degree of dechlorination.

  5. Direct nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Köbke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suarez, Teresa; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heiner

    2014-05-01

    The production of first generation biofuels has increased over the last decade in Germany. However, there is a strong public and scientific debate concerning ecological impact and sustainability of biofuel production. The EU Renewables Directive requires biofuels to save 35 % of GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels. Starting in 2017, 50 % mitigation of GHG emissions must be achieved. This presents challenges for production of biofuels from rapeseed, which is one of the major renewable resources used for fuel production. Field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and GHG emissions during production of fertilizers contribute strongest to the GHG balance of rapeseed biofuel. Thus, the most promising GHG mitigation option is the optimization of nitrogen fertilization. Since 2012, field trials are conducted on five German research farms to quantify direct GHG emissions. The sites were selected to represent the main rapeseed production regions in Germany as well as climatic regions and soil types. Randomized plot designs were established, which allow monitoring (using manual chambers) impact of fertilization intensity on direct emissions and yield of the typical crop sequence (winter rape - winter wheat - winter barley). The effect of substituting mineral fertilizer with biogas digestate with and without addition of a nitrification inhibitor is also studied. Here we present results from the first cropping season. In 2013, annual direct N2O emissions as well as yield normalized N2O emissions from rape were low. This can be explained with the weather conditions as 2013 was characterized by a cold and long winter with snow until mid spring. As a result, emissions were smaller than predicted by the IPCC emission factors or by the Global Nitrous Oxide Calculator (GNOC). However, emissions still depend on nitrogen input.

  6. Co-occurring disorders: policy and practice in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hintz, Thomas; Mann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of substance use disorders (SUD) with other mental disorders-what is often referred to as co-occurring disorders (COD)-is a common phenomenon, but for a long time, little attention has been paid to this problem in Germany. During the last 25 years, however, COD awareness has increased due to a shift toward community-based services. Scientific research has also demonstrated the significance and clinical relevance of COD. High prevalence rates and evidence of poor clinical outcomes were found in German studies. Many practitioners as well as policymakers acknowledge that changes in systems of care are necessary to meet the requirements of COD patients. The traditional German system is currently divided into addiction services and mental health services (predominantly in inpatient settings), often resulting in ineffective sequential treatment for COD patients. Research demonstrates that integrative treatment models are more appropriate, and the division of services should be reorganized to help COD patients appropriately. Efforts have already been made to restructure healthcare systems toward a more flexible approach with improved networking between in- and outpatient services. A further issue is the general attitude toward SUD patients. Many practitioners continue to hold negative opinions (eg, "SUD patients are only weak-minded") or feel insecure when confronted with SUD. This results in SUD problems being frequently ignored or depreciated. Educational programs have been intensive over recent years to address this problem (eg, Fachkunde Sucht, an advanced training program on SUD). In general, treatment conditions for COD patients are improving, but further efforts are necessary. Guidelines and treatment strategies for COD patients have been recently published in Germany.

  7. The Shale Gas potential of Lower Carboniferous Sediments in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, D.; Mihailovic, A.; Schulz, H., -M.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Organic-rich Carboniferous sediments are proven source rocks for conventional gas systems in NW Europe and are likely gas shale candidates. Within the framework of GeoEnergie, an initiative to strengthen scientific excellence, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the influence of palaeogeography and basin dynamics on sedimentology and diagenesis is being investigated. Our aim is to unravel the evolution of shale gas-relevant properties which control gas prospectivity and production parameters like porosity, brittleness, etc. for the Lower Carboniferous in Germany. Northern Germany is underlain by thick, mudstone-bearing Carboniferous successions with a wide range of thermal maturities. Some of these mudstone horizons are rich in organic carbon which is either of marine and/or terrigenous origin. During the Carboniferous deposition of fine-grained, TOC-rich basinal sediments changed into shallow marine to paralic siliciclastic sediments (carbonates during the Lower Carboniferous) in the north, and grade into coarse-grained sediments close to the uprising Variscan mountains in the south. As a result different architectural elements including TOC-rich fine-grained sediments like basinal shales, fine-grained parts of turbidites, and shallow marine mudstones occur in both the Lower and the Upper Carboniferous section. A high shale gas potential occurs in basinal shales of Namurian age with marine organic material and TOC contents of up to 8 % (Rhenish Alum Shales). Such sediments with thermal maturities between 1.3 to 3.0 % vitrinite reflectance and sufficient quartz contents occur in wide areas of present-day Central European Basins System (CEBS), and are at favourable depth for shale gas exploration predominantly along the southern CEBS margin.

  8. Molybdenum intake of adults in Germany and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, S; Anke, M; Röhrig, B; Gonzalez, D

    1998-03-01

    Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. It plays a complex role in the ecosystem, because the metal is a part of a cofactor for several important enzymes in human, animal and plant metabolism. The physiological requirement for this element is relatively low. Our investigations were aimed at determining the Mo intake of adults in Germany and Mexico by means of duplicate portion technique. Molybdenum was estimated in the food duplicate samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In 1988, 1992 and 1996 the Mo consumption of humans was investigated in 14 test groups of persons with mixed diets. Each test population consisted of seven men and seven women. Furthermore, in 1996 the Mo intake of 10 female and 10 male vegetarians and of two Mexican test groups was also determined. Different factors, such as sex, time of investigation, location and eating habits have an effect on the individual Mo intake, Molybdenum intake of adults with mixed diets has increased significantly from 1988 to 1996. Furthermore, results of our study showed that Mo intake of German adults differs depending on location and the kind of diet. German women with a mixed diet consumed 89 micrograms d-1 in 1996 and men 100 micrograms d-1. In comparison, female and male vegetarians consumed 179 micrograms d-1 and 170 micrograms d-1, respectively. There was a significant difference in Mo consumption between German and Mexican test persons. Mexican women consumed on average 162 micrograms d-1 and Mexican men 208 micrograms d-1. The Mo requirement of adults amounts to about 25 micrograms d-1. Our investigations showed that the Mo requirement is met by normal intake. An intake of 150 micrograms kg-1 body weight may be toxic for humans. Therefore, people in Germany and Mexico are not endangered by Mo exposure.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  10. Evaluation of pharmaceutical concerns in Germany: frequency and potential reasons

    PubMed Central

    Gradl, Gabriele; Krieg, Eva-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generic substitution can have unintended consequences. In Germany, brand name to generic or generic to generic switching is mainly driven by rebate contracts. Frequent switching may raise concerns about bio- and therapeutic equivalence. Expected patient confusion may result in compromised medication adherence or new onset of other drug-related problems. Since 2008, pharmacists are allowed to deviate from rebate contracts by denying substitution due to pharmaceutical concerns on an individual basis. Objectives: To explore the frequency of documented pharmaceutical concerns in Germany between July 2011 and December 2013 and to identify the medicines most frequently related to pharmaceutical concerns in 2013. Methods: We analyzed documented pharmaceutical concerns in all prescribed drugs at the expense of any statutory health insurance company requiring pharmacies’ generic substitution according to rebate contracts. Results: Since July 2011, the frequency of documented pharmaceutical concerns in relation to prescribed drug products with rebate contracts requiring substitution increased consistently and doubled between July 2011 and July 2013. Overall in 2013, the trend of the two previous years continued and reached approximately 1.5%. The most affected drugs/drug classes were thyroid hormones (in particular combinations with iodide; 15.9%) followed by ondansetron (12.5%), and levothyroxine (11.3%). For all drugs/drug classes under investigation, product-, patient- or disease-related aspects could be identified which are potential reasons to deny substitution and to document pharmaceutical concerns. Conclusions: Although there is no electronic recording of the specific reasons for pharmaceutical concerns in claims data, our analyses support the assumption that pharmacists make use of this instrument based on individual clinical decisions and as required by contract. Pharmaceutical concerns are, therefore, an important instrument for pharmacies to refuse

  11. Warm-season severe wind events in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzen, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    A 15-year data set of wind measurements was analyzed with regard to warm season severe wind gusts in Germany. For April to September of the years 1997 to 2011, 1035 wind measurements of 26 m/s or greater were found. These wind reports were associated with 268 wind events. In total, 252 convective wind events contributed to 837 (81%) of the wind reports, 16 non-convective synoptic-scale wind events contributed to 198 reports (19%). Severe wind events were found with synoptic situations characterized by rather strong mid-level flow and advancing mid-level troughs. Severe convective wind events were analyzed using radar images and classified with respect to the observed radar structure. The most important convective mode was squall lines that were associated with one third of all severe wind gusts, followed by groups, bow echo complexes, and bow echoes. Supercells and cells were not associated with many wind reports. The low contribution of isolated cells indicates that rather large-scale forcing by synoptic-scale features like fronts is important for German severe wind events. Bow echoes were found to be present for 58% of all wind reports. The movement speed of bow echoes indicated a large variation with a maximum speed of 33 m/s. Extreme wind events as well as events with more than 15 wind reports were found to be related to higher movement speeds. Concentrating on the most intense events, derechos seem to be very important to the warm season wind threat in Germany. Convective events with a path length of more than 400 km contributed to 36% of all warm-season wind gusts in this data set. Furthermore, eight of nine extreme gusts exceeding 40 m/s were recorded with derecho events.

  12. [The HBSC Study in Germany--study design and methodology].

    PubMed

    Ottova, V; Hillebrandt, D; Kolip, P; Hoffarth, K; Bucksch, J; Melzer, W; Klocke, A; Richter, M; Ravens-Sieberer, U

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the HBSC-Study is to collect data on the physical and mental health and health behaviour of children and adolescents and to gain a deeper insight into their situation and the specific environment they grow up in. The HBSC-study is an international school-based cross-sectional survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The survey takes place every 4 years since 1982 and is based on a standardised protocol. In Germany the survey was first conducted in 1994 as a pilot study in North Rhine-Westphalia. The German sample is based on a random sample of classes in all public schools in Germany. 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old pupils are surveyed by means of a paper and pencil questionnaire. The questionnaire comprises a broad selection of -topics, including sociodemographics, health and risk behaviours, family, school and peers. The reported trends in the supplement are based on the data from surveys in 2002 (N=5.650), 2006 (N=7.274) and 2010 (N=5.005). The representative samples for each of the survey years are defined as follows: in 2002 the data is based on information collected in 4 Federal States (Berlin, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony); in 2006 5 states define the German data file (Berlin, Hamburg, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony). The data from the 2010 survey comprises data from 15 Federal States. The HBSC-data contributes towards a better understanding of the relationship between health and living conditions of young people. The papers in this supplement deliver important insights into the living context of young people and in doing this they provide important information about their health and the long-term effectiveness of public-health-measures. PMID:22836897

  13. Perspectives of colorectal cancer screening in Germany 2009.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Andreas; Friedrich, Kilian

    2009-10-15

    Adequate screening methods can decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality. The guaiac test for fecal occult-blood (FOBT) is part of the German CRC Screening Program since 1970 and has evidence level Ia. In randomized multicenter-studies FOBT has an average sensitivity of 24% and decreases CRC mortality up to 30%. Immunological tests for human haemoglobin (iFOBT) show better performance characteristics than guaiac FOBT, with augmented sensitivity and specificity. However, the single tests show wide differences in diagnostic performance and iFOBT is not yet covered by insurance companies although it should replace the guaiac test for CRC screening. Visual colonoscopy, which was introduced to the German National Cancer Screening Program in 2002, is the gold standard for the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia. From 2003 to 2007 more than 2.8 million examinations have been documented in Germany. The prevalence of adenomas is around 20% and of CRC about 0.7% to 1.0% of the screenings. Seventy percent of the carcinomas detected during screening are in an early stage (UICC I and II). Furthermore, screening colonoscopy is a cost saving procedure with a low complication rate (0.25% overall). Insurance companies save 216€ for each screening colonoscopy mainly by prevention of neoplasia due to polypectomy. In Germany, virtual colonography by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging still lacks standardization of the hard and software. In experienced centres the sensitivity for CRC and large polyps of CT colonography is comparable to colonoscopy but in meta-analyses the ranking is lower. New technologies like computer-aided colonoscopies with sheath or double balloon techniques are coming up as well as capsule colonoscopy, which sensitivity for large polyps is about 70%. Advised by his physician, the patient can choose his most acceptable examination method from this whole set of screening tools.

  14. [Institutionalisation and professionalisation of (occupational) medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Muller, I; Martin, M

    1998-01-01

    In the first tierce of XIX century the necessity of steps for the health care of working people on the side of medicine and also of the state was perceived. The claims for the producing of the appropriate structural and coneptional conditions led to the creation of work medicine as a sphere, that developed in Germany in relation to political values, social-political programs and medical models. An acknowledgement gained such conception of work medicine and less on the medical work prevention. The notion of work medicine was related with the insurance system from 1883/84 against the unlucky accidents and diseases. The process of institutionalisation and professionalisation of medicine in Germany from the beginning was formed by coexistence of different sociological sciences and mixture of various groups of interest, intending an influence on the form of both processes. This constelation caused a sluggish and slow progress. For example astonishing is the time needed by the work medicine for its stabilisation as a knowledge at the universities. We may go out from presupposition, that the broadening of the industrial production brings chances to this part of medicine having interest in negative consequences of this progress for the human health. However the university teachers regarded the work medicine existed on the edge of medical sciences till the time after the second world war. The progress came thanks to the impulses of single physicians, who beginning in 7-years of the XVIII century published increasing amounts of papers on the work medicine (handicraft and industrial hygiene). Some organizations were created whose interests concerned the work health damaging aspects. A special role had the German Society of Handicraft-Industrial Hygiene, founded in 1922.

  15. [Implementation of the influenza vaccination recommendation in nursing homes in Germany : results of a survey as part of the national influenza immunization campaign].

    PubMed

    Bödeker, B; Wichmann, O; Mertens, B; Seefeld, L; Pott, E

    2014-11-01

    Residents and staff of nursing homes are important target groups for influenza vaccination in Germany. The aim of this study was to gain the first insights into whether nursing homes organize activities with respect to vaccination against influenza and whether there is a demand for further information. In the context of the national influenza immunization campaign-which is jointly carried out by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA) on an annual basis-influenza information kits were sent to the management of 10,700 nursing homes in September 2013. Along with the information material, the institutions also received a questionnaire to which they were able to respond via mail, fax, or online. Data from 988 homes were included in the analysis. The majority of institutions informed both residents (88.9 %) and nursing staff (81.2 %) about influenza vaccination. However, only 64.7 % of nursing homes carried out specific immunization activities for their residents and only half (49.3 %) offered a flu shot to their staff. When asked why the institutions do not provide influenza-specific information and vaccination to their staff, the majority had the opinion that this is the responsibility of each individual's general practitioner. Overall, only 4.9 % of nursing homes assessed influenza vaccination coverage among their staff annually. A third of all surveyed institutions (33.6 %) expressed a demand for additional influenza vaccine-related information. In conclusion, improved health education is needed to raise awareness about the importance of influenza vaccination among residents and employees of nursing homes in Germany so as to prevent influenza-associated morbidity and mortality in this risk group.

  16. Fluorite-related one-dimensional units in natural bismuth oxysulfates: the crystal structures of Bi14O16(SO4)5 and Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Daniela; Garavelli, Anna; Bindi, Luca

    2015-10-01

    The crystal structures of two new natural Bi oxysulfates with the formula Bi14O16(SO4)5 [labelled new phase I; monoclinic, space group C2, a = 21.658 (4), b = 5.6648 (9), c = 15.092 (3) Å, β = 119.433 (11)° and Z = 2] and Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2 [labelled new phase II; triclinic, space group P1, a = 5.670 (3), b = 13.9408 (9), c = 22.7908 (18) Å, α = 80.903 (5), β = 82.854 (14), γ = 78.27 (2)° and Z = 1] from the high-temperature fumarole deposit of the La Fossa crater at Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) are reported. The structures are built up by a combination of fluorite-related Bi-O units and isolated (SO4)(2-) tetrahedra (new phase I) or both (SO4)(2-) and (AsO4)(3-) tetrahedra (new phase II). Owing to the effect of stereoactive lone pairs of Bi(3+), Bi-O units in both the structures can be suitably described in terms of oxo-centered OBi4 tetrahedra. The structure of Bi14O16(SO4)5 is based upon one-dimensional [O16Bi14](10+) ribbons formed by six chains of edge-sharing OBi4 tetrahedra extending along [010]. In the structure of Bi30O33(SO4)9(AsO4)2 the same ribbon type coexists with another one-dimensional ribbon formed by seven chains of edge-sharing OBi4 tetrahedra and with the composition [O17Bi16](14+). Ribbons of the same type are joined by (SO4)(2-) and (AsO4)(3-) tetrahedra along [010] – if a reduced triclinic unit-cell setting is considered – so forming two different (001) slabs which alternate to each other along [001] and are joined by additional (SO4)(2-) tetrahedra. New phase I represents the natural analogues of synthetic Bi14O16(SO4)5, but with an ordered structure model. PMID:26428401

  17. 77 FR 25141 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and South Korea: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... International Trade Administration Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and South Korea... Germany and South Korea (Korea), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act...-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from Germany and South Korea: Adequacy Redetermination...

  18. Crisis, Conscience, and Choices: Weimar Germany and the Rise of Hitler. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Don

    This unit is part of a series of curriculum materials that applies the choices approach to critical junctures in history. The focus is on Germany's defeat in World War I and conditions in Germany contributing to the rise of Nazism. Students are provided with background readings on the Weimar Republic, the reparations imposed on Germany with their…

  19. Magnetic properties, microstructure, and phase evolution of Pr xFe bal.Ti yB 20-x ( x=4-9; y=2.5-5) nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, C. H.; Chang, H. W.; Chang, C. W.; Chang, W. C.

    Magnetic properties, microstructure, and phase evolution of Pr lean and boron-enriched Pr xFe bal.Ti yB 20-x ( x=4-9; y=2.5-5) melt-spinning ribbons with nanostructures have been investigated. Based on thermal magnetic analysis (TMA), for y=2.5, two phases, namely Pr 2Fe 14B and α-Fe, were found for ribbons with x=9, while additional two metastable phases, Pr 2Fe 23B 3 and Fe 3B, existed for x=4, 7 and 8. With the decrease of Pr content, the remanence increases but coercivity decreases. The optimal properties of Br=9.5 kG, iHc=10.7 kOe, and ( BH) max=17.8 MG Oe are achieved in Pr 9Fe bal.Ti 2.5B 11 nanocomposites. On the other hand, higher Ti substitution for Fe in Pr 7Fe bal.Ti yB 13 ribbons could refine the grain size and suppress the metastable Pr 2Fe 23B 3 and Fe 3B phases effectively. The excellent permanent magnetic properties are mainly dominated by the nanoscaled microstructures and the coexistence of sufficient magnetically soft phases, Fe 3B, Pr 2Fe 23B 3 and α-Fe, with magnetically hard Pr 2Fe 14B phase.

  20. Combined search for the Standard Model Higgs boson using up to 4.9 fb⁻¹ of pp collision data at √s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; et al

    2012-03-01

    A combined search for the Standard Model Higgs boson with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC using datasets corresponding to integrated luminosities from 1.04 fb⁻¹ to 4.9 fb⁻¹ of pp collisions collected at √s=7 TeV is presented. The Higgs boson mass ranges 112.9–115.5 GeV, 131–238 GeV and 251–466 GeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level (CL), while the range 124–519 GeV is expected to be excluded in the absence of a signal. An excess of events is observed around mH~126 GeV with a local significance of 3.5 standard deviations (σ ). The local significances of H → γγ, Hmore » → ZZ(⁎) → ℓ⁺ℓ⁻ℓ′⁺ℓ′⁻ and H → WW(⁎) → ℓ⁺νℓ′⁻ν¯, the three most sensitive channels in this mass range, are 2.8σ, 2.1σ and 1.4σ, respectively. The global probability for the background to produce such a fluctuation anywhere in the explored Higgs boson mass range 110–600 GeV is estimated to be ~1.4% or, equivalently, 2.2σ.« less

  1. A Novel Four-Way Complex Variant Translocation Involving Chromosome 46,XY,t(4;9;19;22)(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2) in a Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patient.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jamal, Mohammad Sarwar; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Abrar; Choudhry, Hani; Malik, Arif; Khan, Shahida Aziz; Mahmoud, Maged Mostafa; Ali, Ashraf; Iram, Saima; Kamran, Kashif; Iqbal, Asim; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Rasool, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome (9;22)(q34;q11) is well established in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, and the remaining 5-8% of CML patients show variant and complex translocations, with the involvement of third, fourth, or fifth chromosome other than 9;22. However, in very rare cases, the fourth chromosome is involved. Here, we found a novel case of four-way Ph+ chromosome translocation involving 46,XY,t(4;9;19;22)(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2) with CML in the chronic phase. Complete blood cell count of the CML patient was carried out to obtain total leukocytes count, hemoglobin, and platelets. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used for the identification of BCR-ABL fusion gene, and cytogenetic test for the confirmation of Ph (9;22)(q34;q11) and the mechanism of variant translocation in the bone marrow. The patient is successfully treated with a dose of 400 mg/day imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). We observed a significant decrease in white blood cell count of 11.7 × 10(9)/L after 48-month follow-up. Patient started feeling better generally. There was a reduction in the swelling of the body, fatigue, and anxiety. PMID:27303656

  2. A Novel Four-Way Complex Variant Translocation Involving Chromosome 46,XY,t(4;9;19;22)(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2) in a Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patient

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Muhammad; Jamal, Mohammad Sarwar; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Abrar; Choudhry, Hani; Malik, Arif; Khan, Shahida Aziz; Mahmoud, Maged Mostafa; Ali, Ashraf; Iram, Saima; Kamran, Kashif; Iqbal, Asim; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Rasool, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome (9;22)(q34;q11) is well established in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, and the remaining 5–8% of CML patients show variant and complex translocations, with the involvement of third, fourth, or fifth chromosome other than 9;22. However, in very rare cases, the fourth chromosome is involved. Here, we found a novel case of four-way Ph+ chromosome translocation involving 46,XY,t(4;9;19;22)(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2) with CML in the chronic phase. Complete blood cell count of the CML patient was carried out to obtain total leukocytes count, hemoglobin, and platelets. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used for the identification of BCR–ABL fusion gene, and cytogenetic test for the confirmation of Ph (9;22)(q34;q11) and the mechanism of variant translocation in the bone marrow. The patient is successfully treated with a dose of 400 mg/day imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). We observed a significant decrease in white blood cell count of 11.7 × 109/L after 48-month follow-up. Patient started feeling better generally. There was a reduction in the swelling of the body, fatigue, and anxiety. PMID:27303656

  3. Modeling the habitat suitability for the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Koch, Lisa K; Cunze, Sarah; Werblow, Antje; Kochmann, Judith; Dörge, Dorian D; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes raise the risk of re-emergence of arthropod-borne virus outbreaks globally. These viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors, often mosquitoes. Due to increasing worldwide trade and tourism, these vector species are often accidentally introduced into many countries beyond their former distribution range. Aedes albopictus, a well-known disease vector, was detected for the first time in Germany in 2007, but seems to have failed establishment until today. However, the species is known to occur in other temperate regions and a risk for establishment in Germany remains, especially in the face of predicted climate change. Thus, the goal of the study was to estimate the potential distribution of Ae. albopictus in Germany. We used ecological niche modeling in order to estimate the potential habitat suitability for this species under current and projected future climatic conditions. According to our model, there are already two areas in western and southern Germany that appear suitable for Ae. albopictus under current climatic conditions. One of these areas lies in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the other in North-Rhine Westphalia in the Ruhr region. Furthermore, projections under future climatic conditions show an increase of the modeled habitat suitability throughout Germany. Ae. albopictus is supposed to be better acclimated to colder temperatures than other tropical vectors and thus, might become, triggered by climate change, a serious threat to public health in Germany. Our modeling results can help optimizing the design of monitoring programs currently in place in Germany. PMID:26634351

  4. Risk Factors for Sporadic Non-Pregnancy Associated Listeriosis in Germany-Immunocompromised Patients and Frequently Consumed Ready-To-Eat Products.

    PubMed

    Preußel, Karina; Milde-Busch, Astrid; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Stark, Klaus; Werber, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Non-pregnancy associated (N-PA) listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a rare but severe disease, and is predominantly food-borne. Most cases appear sporadic and their infection vehicle remains unknown. Incidence has increased since 2008 in Germany. We aimed to identify underlying conditions and foods associated with sporadic N-PA listeriosis in Germany. We performed a nationwide case-control study from March 2012-December 2013. Cases were sporadic N-PA listeriosis patients notified to public health. Control subjects were age (40-65 years, 66-75 years, ≥ 76 years) frequency-matched persons from a nationwide random telephone sample. A structured questionnaire collected information on underlying diseases, therapies and >60 food items. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for host factors identified by causal diagram theory, and calculated population attributable fractions. We enrolled 109 cases and 1982 controls. Cases' median age was 69 years, 55% were male, 44% received immunosuppressive therapy within 3 months prior to illness onset; a further 28% had at least one immunocompromising disease. In multivariable analysis, immunosuppressive therapy (OR 8.8, 95%CI 4.9-15.6), immunocompromising disease (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.4-5.2), gastric acid suppression (OR 3.0; 95%CI 1.4-6.3), the consumption of cold cooked sausages (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.6-4.4), the preferred consumption of packaged cheese (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.3-3.5) and pre-sliced cheese (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.3-3.7) were significantly associated with N-PA listeriosis. These foods accounted for 59% of all cases. Typical high risk foods, e.g. cold seafood, certain types of cheeses, tended to be negatively associated with disease. In conclusion, immunosuppressive therapy and frequently consumed ready-to-eat foods are the main risk factors for sporadic N-PA listeriosis in Germany. To reduce their risk, immunocompromised persons should consume the identified foods well before the 'use-by' date

  5. Soil Moisture as an Estimator for Crop Yield in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Michael; Meyer, Volker; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Annual crop yield depends on various factors such as soil properties, management decisions, and meteorological conditions. Unfavorable weather conditions, e.g. droughts, have the potential to drastically diminish crop yield in rain-fed agriculture. For example, the drought in 2003 caused direct losses of 1.5 billion EUR only in Germany. Predicting crop yields allows to mitigate negative effects of weather extremes which are assumed to occur more often in the future due to climate change. A standard approach in economics is to predict the impact of climate change on agriculture as a function of temperature and precipitation. This approach has been developed further using concepts like growing degree days. Other econometric models use nonlinear functions of heat or vapor pressure deficit. However, none of these approaches uses soil moisture to predict crop yield. We hypothesize that soil moisture is a better indicator to explain stress on plant growth than estimations based on precipitation and temperature. This is the case because the latter variables do not explicitly account for the available water content in the root zone, which is the primary source of water supply for plant growth. In this study, a reduced form panel approach is applied to estimate a multivariate econometric production function for the years 1999 to 2010. Annual crop yield data of various crops on the administrative district level serve as depending variables. The explanatory variable of major interest is the Soil Moisture Index (SMI), which quantifies anomalies in root zone soil moisture. The SMI is computed by the mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM, www.ufz.de/mhm). The index represents the monthly soil water quantile at a 4 km2 grid resolution covering entire Germany. A reduced model approach is suitable because the SMI is the result of a stochastic weather process and therefore can be considered exogenous. For the ease of interpretation a linear functionality is preferred. Meteorological

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis among Immigrants in Hamburg, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Diel, Roland; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Niemann, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    To study the characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) in foreign-born individuals living in Hamburg, Germany, and to discover in what way foreign-born individuals contribute to the incidence of TB in Hamburg, an in-depth epidemiological study was performed by a combination of classical and molecular methods. In total, 796 patients with TB were analyzed between 1997 and 2002 (88.7% of all patients with culture-positive TB in the study period). Of this total, 334 were foreign-born patients from 43 different countries. Of these, only 31 cases were identified as a consequence of the screening of 12,176 asylum seekers at entry. Of the foreign-born patients, 41.9% had been living in Germany for more than 5 years. On the basis of the IS6110 typing results for isolates from all patients, 246 patients (31%) were classified into 68 clusters, with each cluster containing from 2 to 38 patients. Among foreign-born individuals, 86 (26%) were represented in 40 clusters. In multivariate analyses, a previous history as a TB contact had the highest predictive risk for clustering among foreign-born patients, followed by drug addiction, alcohol dependence, being an asylum seeker, and unemployment. Epidemiological links verifying recent transmission could be confirmed for 39 of the 86 foreign-born members (45.3%) who formed a cluster, comprising 16 source patients and 23 directly infected patients. Of 2,227 previously known contacts of foreign-born patients subjected to traditional contact investigation, 14 foreign-born individuals (0.6%) subsequently contracted culture-confirmed TB, but only 9 transmissions could be confirmed by IS6110 typing (39.1% of the 23 confirmed fresh infections retrospectively confirmed by IS6110 typing). In conclusion, only a minority of TB cases among foreign-born individuals are detected by screening of asylum seekers or conventional contact tracing. Recent transmission does not play an important role in TB among immigrants in Hamburg. PMID:15243044

  7. [Epidemiological cancer data online: an overview of information service in Germany and Europe].

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, I; Kraywinkel, K

    2014-01-01

    Finding reliable data about cancer epidemiology on the World Wide Web is not an easy task. Information is often scattered, and sources are not always clear. This article gives a short overview of the most important websites that provide reliable data for Germany and Europe. Four internet sites are presented: The German Centre for Cancer Registry Data (ZfKD), the Association of Population-Based Cancer Registries in Germany (GEKID), and two different websites created by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In combination, they provide comprehensive information about the distribution of cancer in Germany and Europe. PMID:24357168

  8. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany.

    PubMed

    Uehleke, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats.

  9. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Uehleke, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats. PMID:27054192

  10. [Experience with prevention and control of legionellosis in Germany : plea for proactive risk management].

    PubMed

    Exner, M; Pleischl, S; Grummt, H-J; Engelhart, S

    2011-06-01

    Legionellosis is meanwhile the most important specific water-associated infectious disease in developed countries, which is completely preventable, if water distribution systems are correctly planned and operated. This assumes clear criteria for risk regulation and for verification, including microbiological monitoring for Legionella. There are different reactive and proactive strategies in the USA and in Europe. The common premises for prevention and control of legionellosis in Germany, relevant facts for risk regulation, experience in Germany toward proactive risk regulation, and the current approach of the amended drinking water ordinance are discussed. The article concludes with a short discussion of the controversial approaches for the prevention of legionellosis in Germany.

  11. ATTITUDES AND ACCEPTANCE TOWARD THE TECHNOLOGY OF CRYONICS IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Stephanie; Gross, Dominik; Lohmeier, Jens; Rosentreter, Michael; Raschke, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Objectives: This study explores the awareness and the degree of acceptance of the idea of the medical technology cryonics-the freezing of a corpse to revive it in the future-among German citizens. Methods: Data were collected on the basis of a representatively weighted online survey of 1,000 people aged between 16 and 69 years and resident in the Federal Republic of Germany. Results: Forty-seven percent stated that they had already heard of cryonics; 22 percent could imagine having their bodies cryonized after their deaths. For 53 percent, participation in the latest technological developments which correlated with the approval of the conceivability of cryopreservation was important. The majority of the respondents were not skeptical or cautious about innovations in the medical field. Conclusions: The study shows that cryonics is known and accepted to a certain extent. However, a large proportion of respondents did not believe that it was desirable to use medical technology to overcome death, and fundamentally rejected a post-mortal continuation of life. PMID:24499638

  12. [Development of Social Medicine and Public Health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wildner, M; Niehoff, J-U; Hoffmann, W

    2016-02-01

    Social medicine in Germany has multiple lines of tradition, which are marked by the presence of 2 German states and their re-unification and by the (re-)establishment of multidisciplinary public health by the end of the twentieth century. At the same time, a differentiation within the applied fields of social medicine into several thematic topics can be observed. These can be grouped in a first step into the domains of clinical social medicine, of social medicine for social insurance purposes and of a population-oriented social medicine. For social medicine as a scientific discipline within the broad context of medicine, the requirement of a context-adequate development, which encompasses the special methods of multidisciplinary public health, poses big challenges. For successfully meeting these challenges and going beyond population-oriented public health and for bridging the gap between the individual and the social medical institutions of the health system, it is indispensable for social medicine to be independent of other disciplines within the array of medical specialties. The present study argues for strengthening social medicine within the medical faculties. Chairs for social medicine and public health are not only in the interest of the applied fields of social medicine, but represent also an indispensable scientific discipline which can relate and contribute to all specialties of medicine. PMID:26906537

  13. [Global warming: trailblazer for tropical infections in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Hemmer, C J; Frimmel, S; Kinzelbach, R; Gürtler, L; Reisinger, E C

    2007-11-01

    Since 1850, the CO (2) content of the atmosphere has increased from 280 to 360 ppm, and the average surface temperature has risen from 14.6 to 15.3 C . A further increase between 1.8 and 4.0 C is expected for the 21st century. Temperate and cold climate zones are affected predominantly, but tropical regions are not spared. At the same time, the world wide climate effects of the "El Niño Southern Oscillation" are amplified. Global warming enhances the growth of tropical pathogens (malarial plasmodia, leishmania, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, Vibrio cholerae) and vectors (anopheles, aedes, culex, and phlebotomus mosquitos; hard ticks). Global warming may lead to the emergence of diseases which at present are not endemic in Germany, like West Nile fever, Dengue fever, or Leishmaniases, and to enhanced transmission of borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Malaria and cholera, in contrast, are influenced more strongly by socioeconomic factors. Improved surveillance and intensified research on the relationship between climate change and infectious diseases is needed.

  14. Mining-Induced Seismicity in the Saarland, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschen, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    Coal mining in the Saar mine, Germany, is accompanied by mining-induced seismic events. Strong events occur only in certain areas of the mine, other areas exhibit almost no seismicity. Shear events occur simultaneously to non-shear events. The shear events occur in different depths but their epicenters do concentrate in bands. The strike of the bands coincides with the strike of larger regional faults in the area. The seismic events of the Saar mine show some characteristics which distinguish them from seismic events observed in other German coalfields. The Gutenberg-Richter relation, for example, does not hold for these events. Furthermore, radiated seismic energy and extracted coal volume are not correlated. In the Primsmulde field a strong seismic event was observed even before mining in that region started. The event was triggered just by driving roadways into the field. The shear events cannot be explained by the mining process alone. They are presumably induced in certain regions (bands) under tectonic load by an interaction of mining-induced and tectonic stresses. In February 2008, extraction in the Primsmulde field induced a seismic event of magnitude 4, which led to surface vibrations reaching 93 mm/s. After this event, the Primsmulde field had to be abandoned. Future extraction of the Saar mine will be restricted to some small areas not intersected by the event bands found in the Dilsburg Ost and Primsmulde fields. The Saar mine will close in 2011.

  15. Breast Cancer Surgery and Financial Reimbursement in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Juergen; Wallwiener, Diethelm

    2012-01-01

    The reimbursement for breast cancer-specific operative interventions in Germany is regulated by the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system. The essential elements of the German DRG system, which was developed as a per-case lump-sum payment system, are presented, including the participating institutions. The actual treatment situation in breast cancer surgery is now aptly reflected in the introduction of the OPS (operation and treatment procedure classification) 2012. This is oriented on the classification model of Hoffmann and Wallwiener, with its complexity-based differentiation that reflects the basic idea of different resource usage. Despite the actual potential of the appropriately differentiated encryption of surgical procedures, which illustrates their differences in resource costs and consumption, appropriate reimbursement has still not been achieved. Hopefully, in the future the calculation of the DRGs in the field of breast cancer surgery will be based on data feedback from the hospitals and treatment institutions, and will be more suited to the main purpose of the DRG system, i.e. that reimbursement reflects resource expenditure. A necessary basic tool for differentiated, complexity-oriented encryption has been achieved with the OPS 2012, which mirrors our classification model for oncological, oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery. PMID:24647777

  16. [Occurrance of antibodies against Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Pikalo, Jutta; Sattler, Tatjana; Eichinger, Michaela; Loitsch, Angelika; Sun, Hao; Schmoll, Friedrich; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to detect antibodies and potential risk factors for an infec- tion with Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany. Serum samples of 314 horses were examined retrospectively by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against eight Leptospira serovars. In total, 17.2% (n = 54) of the horses were positive for one or more of the serovars analyzed. The most prevalent serovar was lcterohaemorrhagiae (11.1%), followed by serovar Bratislava (9.6 %) and Grippotyphosa (1.9%). Mares showed a significantly higher occurrence of antibodies (p < 0.05) than geldings or stallions. Horses used for breeding have a significantly lower risk than horses used in sport or horses used for leisure activity. There was also a significantly higher prevalence (p < 0.05) in summer than in the other seasons. No significant influence of breed, husbandry conditions and age on the antibody occurrence was observed (p > 0.05). The clinical chemical parameters did not differ significantly between horses with positive or negative Leptospira antibody result (p > 0.05). It became apparent that horses can be infected with Leptospira without developing of clinical symptoms. PMID:27344912

  17. [Representatives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery residents in Germany].

    PubMed

    Merschin, D; Doepfer, A-K; Wenzel, L; Mutschler, M

    2016-08-01

    In most German hospitals there are resident representatives to stand in for the rights and interests of residents. The precise number of representatives in orthopaedic and trauma surgery is unknown, as well as the field of duty and the rights of this position.The Junges Forum O&U presents survey data, which were collected from members of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU), the German Society for Orthopaedics and Orthpaedic Surgery (DGOOC) and the German Society for Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU). All had an age below 40 years. The Survey was carried out in a period between 27th of January 2015 and 26th of March 2015.These data allowed the Junges Forum O&U to analyse the duties and numbers of representatives for residents in orthopaedic and trauma surgery in Germany. Questionnaires from 316 representatives were fully analysed. Of these, 92 % work at university hospitals. The conditions of election and the duties are not defined. The activity as representative was mainly fulfilled in spare time. The major aspect was conflict resolution between colleagues.The Junge Forum O&U presents the recommendation for election, field of duty and meetings on a regular basis with the other residents or even the first-line management. PMID:27277936

  18. Schleswig: medieval leprosy on the boundary between Germany and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Riis, Thomas; Dittmar, Manuela; Weise, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy was a well-recognized and dreaded disease in medieval Europe. The disease is reported to have reached Germany with the Roman invasion and it was present in Scandinavia in the first centuries AD. This paper estimates and analyzes the frequency of leprosy among adult people buried in one of five medieval cemeteries in the city of Schleswig. Seven different dichotomous osteological lesions indicative of leprosy were analyzed, and it was possible to score at least one of these conditions on 350 adult skeletons (aged 15 or older). The scores were transformed to a statistic indicating the likelihood that the person to whom the skeleton belonged suffered from leprosy. It was found that the frequency of leprosy in the five cemeteries varied between 9 and 44%. Four of the five cemeteries showed frequencies ranging from 35 and 44% and with no statistically significant differences among them. The fifth cemetery showed a significantly lower frequency of leprosy (9%). The distribution of female age at death does not appear to be affected by leprosy status. This means that females experienced a considerably elevated risk of dying once they had contracted leprosy as the disease usually has a mid-adulthood age of onset. In four of the five cemeteries males with leprosy died in higher ages than men without leprosy--in two of the cemeteries the difference was statistically significant. This indicates that leprosy usually added less to the risk of dying among men than among women in medieval Schleswig.

  19. [Sauna deaths in Hesse, Germany, between 1994 and 2014].

    PubMed

    Plenzig, Stefanie; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kettner, Mattias; Held, Hannelore; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high ambient temperature, sauna deaths show a few confounding particularities, such as an accelerated onset of the postmortem changes, that can make correct assessment of the manner of death difficult and severely constrain the accuracy of post- mortem interval estimates. This retrospective study, performed at the medicolegal institutes in Hesse, Germany, reviewed all autopsy reports from the years 1994-2014 for sauna-related deaths. 9 relevant cases were found involving one woman and eight men aged between 52 and 80 years (mean and median value: 67 years). Of the individuals who had died of a natural cause, four were found to have had coronary heart disease, which, in the setting of heart hypertrophy and exposure to high temperatures, ultimately led to cardiac failure. In three other cases, a non-natural cause of death had been diagnosed; however, all were attributable to accidents. In two of these, blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of over two per mil were found. In our opinion, the manner of death should be classified as undetermined in sauna-related fatalities. Such cases require a court-ordered autopsy to reliably identify the actual cause of death.

  20. Occurrence and distribution of benzothiazole in the Schwarzbach watershed (Germany).

    PubMed

    Fries, Elke; Gocht, Tilman; Klasmeier, Jörg

    2011-10-01

    This study quantifies the regional distribution of the micropollutant benzothiazole (BT) in river water by sampling 15 river sites in the Schwarzbach watershed (about 400 km(2)) from November 2008 to February 2010. Additionally, wastewater samples from three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Germany were analyzed. BT was detected in all wastewater influent and effluent samples as well as in all river water samples collected downstream of wastewater discharge. This corroborates the ubiquitous occurrence of BT in the aqueous environment. Concentrations were between 58 and 856 ng L(-1) in the river water. The observed mean concentration at the outlet of the investigated catchment was 109 ng L(-1). With only a few exceptions, temporal and spatial variations of BT concentrations in river water were low. Rather similar BT concentrations over a wide range of river discharge indicate that dilution along the mainstream is negligible and, thus, supports the hypothesis that paved surface runoff during rain events is an important BT source not only for wastewater influent but also for river water. This was supported by detecting the highest BT concentrations at sampling locations close to the dense highway network around the city of Frankfurt. Since BT was also detected in river water collected from locations that were clearly unaffected by wastewater effluent discharge, surface runoff must be considered as a diffuse source of BT in river water.

  1. Biotechnology in Switzerland and a glance at Germany.

    PubMed

    Fiechter, A

    2000-01-01

    The roots of biotechnology go back to classic fermentation processes, which starting from spontaneous reactions were developed by simple means. The discovery of antibiotics made contamination-free bioprocess engineering indispensable, which led to a further step in technology development. On-line analytics and the use of computers were the basis of automation and the increase in quality. On both sides of the Atlantic, molecular biology emerged at the same time, which gave genetic engineering in medicine, agriculture, industry and environment new opportunities. The story of this new advanced technology in Switzerland, with a quick glance at Germany, is followed back to the post-war years. The growth of research and teaching and the foundation of the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) are dealt with. The promising phase of the 1960s and 1970s soon had to give way to a restrictive policy of insecurity and anxiousness, which, today, manifests itself in the rather insignificant contributions of many European countries to the new sciences of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, as well as in the resistance to the use of transgenic agricultural crops and their products in foods. PMID:11036695

  2. Synchrotron infrared and Raman spectroscopy of microdiamonds from Erzgebirge, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrzhinetskaya,L.; Liu, Z.; Cartigny, P.; Zhang, J.; Tchkhetia, D.; Hemley, R.; Green, H.

    2006-01-01

    Metamorphic diamonds from the Erzgebirge, Germany have been investigated using synchrotron infrared absorption, Raman scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Infrared absorption features associated with C-C, C-H bonds, molecular H{sub 2}O, OH- and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} radicals, and N-impurities were observed. The results suggest that a carbon-oxygen-hydrogen (COH) supercritical fluid is the most probable concept to explain the origin of diamonds from ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terranes (UHPM). Investigation of the nitrogen impurities suggests that the Erzgebirge diamonds belong to the Type 1b-1aA, which is similar to metamorphic diamonds from the Kokchetav massif of Kazakhstan and the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and differentiates them from other nitrogen-bearing diamonds from kimberlitic sources (Type 1aAB). The occurrence of nitrogen impurities as single atoms in the crystal lattice implies that the Erzgebirge diamonds had a short residence at high-pressure and high-temperature, which therefore suggests a possibility for very fast exhumation. Both infrared and previous studies of nanoinclusions using a transmission electron microscope support a concept of diamond crystallization from a COH rich supercritical fluid.

  3. Orientation of megalithic monuments in Germany and the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, C.; Ferrer, L.

    The Western Group of the Trichterbecherkultur (TRB Culture) built the megalithic monuments in Northwest Germany and The Netherlands. These monuments include different types of megaliths belonging to the TRB-West group, among which the most common are Passage Graves. We have obtained data for 163 monuments in this area in three campaigns. The present study completes two previous communications at SEAC meetings. We consider that the measured sample is largely competed and therefore we attempt a full analysis of the data. We have measured the orientation of the chamber and passages (where possible) for the Passage Graves, and for the so-called Langebetten. The general orientation of the chamber of the Passage Graves is east west, with another concentration of monuments at azimuths around 70 degrees. The passage is always located to the southern or eastern sides of the chamber. Possible astronomical explanations involving the Sun and the Moon are attempted. We find a preference towards lunar orientations. The general orientation of the Langebetten is similar to the Passage Graves although a preference to significant positions of the Sun and Moon is detected. Finally we perform a comparison with data from the literature of other TRB groups and give a tentative explanation for the evolution of the megaliths and their orientation.

  4. Immigrants' initial steps in Germany and their later economic success.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Irena; Weißmann, Markus

    2013-09-01

    In line with the emerging research that acknowledges the importance of the process character of immigrants' labour market integration, this paper examines the existence of path dependencies of early employment trajectories on later labour market outcomes. Theoretically we are interested in establishing whether career trajectories provide a distinct signal, used by both employers and employees: a signal that operates apart and beyond the accumulation of host-country relevant resources, especially, host-country labour market experience or training. The analyses are performed with the help of a unique dataset comprised of recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Germany. Sequence analysis techniques and multivariate regressions are applied. Results show that starting in higher-status employment leaves a distinguishable imprint on immigrants' later occupational standings, even after the returns to the skills associated with early trajectories are taken into account. At the same time, initial career trajectories do not have any direct effect on wages, apart from the pay-off to relevant skills acquired while pursuing these careers. The findings are discussed in concurrence with the human capital and signalling theories.

  5. [Prophylactic influenza vaccination: what is the situation in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Wutzler, P

    2006-03-01

    Vaccination is the most efficacious and cost-effective measure for the prevention of influenza. Although the vaccination rate among the population of Germany has been gradually increasing in the last few years, only 40% of chronically ill persons are vaccinated. As a third of all persons aged over 50 years have a chronic disease, vaccination of those aged 50 years and over, from the those recommended 60 years, should be considered. Such a strategy would be cost-effective both for insurance companies and society as a whole. There are at present no data on ambulatory influenza vaccination rates in children, even though this could reduce the high death rate among this age group and decrease the spread of the disease among the general population. At present all children with an underlying disease and all those in immediate contact with them should be vaccinated. Pregnant women whose expected date of delivery falls within the influenza season should also be vaccinated so that they and their newborn child are protected against influenza.

  6. Putative cryptoendolithic life in Devonian pillow basalt, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany.

    PubMed

    Peckmann, J; Bach, W; Behrens, K; Reitner, J

    2008-03-01

    Middle Devonian (Givetian) pillow basalt and inter-pillow breccia from the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge in Germany were found to contain putative biogenic filaments that indicate that life once proliferated within these volcanic rocks. Mineralized filaments are found in carbonate amygdules (vesicles filled by carbonate cement) in the volcanic rock, where they started to form on the internal surface of the once water-filled vesicles. Biogenicity of the filaments is indicated by (1) their size and shape resembling modern microorganisms including a constant diameter along the length of curved filaments, (2) their independence of crystal faces or cleavage planes, (3) branching patterns reminiscent of modern microorganisms, and (4) their spatial clustering and preferential occurrence close to the margin of pillows and in the inter-pillow breccias. A time lag between the deposition of pillow basalt and the activity of endoliths is revealed by the sequence of carbonate cements filling the amygdules. The putative filamentous microorganisms thrived after the formation of early fibrous rim cement, but before later equant calcite spar filled most of the remaining porosity. Microbial clay authigenesis analogous to the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments led to the preservation of filaments. The filaments predominantly consist of the clay minerals chamosite and illite. Having dwelled in water-filled vesicles, the Devonian basalt-hosted filaments apparently represent cryptoendoliths. This finding suggests that a previously unrecognized niche for life exists within volcanic rock.

  7. Strategic Environmental Assessment in Germany - Practice and open questions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Ulrike

    2010-04-15

    Eight years after the enactment of the EU Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive (2001/42/EC) () it is time to investigate where and how SEA are being implemented in Germany in order to find out open questions and research needs. In this study, we analysed in which planning types SEA are common practice, and where can deficits be identified, and to what extent differences occur between spatial and sectoral planning with respect to carrying out SEA. Pressing challenges in performing SEA as well as open questions are addressed such as the handling of cumulative effects and the interrelationships between the environmental factors, and how the monitoring of environmental effects is considered by the practitioners. The results show that SEA is well implemented in local land-use planning, regional planning, and in local landscape planning, while the implementation in sectoral planning varies widely. The SEA in clean air planning is looked at in more detail, because this is discussed controversially in the specialist field, and obstacles against SEA are identified in this field. Finally some new topics are addressed for which solutions in spatial and environmental planning including SEA must be found, e.g. the consideration of biological diversity and the potential role of SEA in climate change. A European study on the identified open questions and their handling in different contexts and countries may allow for a qualitative amendment in practice.

  8. Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2013-12-01

    The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. PMID:23538204

  9. [Flight and migration : A challenge for medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fölsch, U R; Hasenfuß, G; Spies, H-F; Wesiack, W; Faulbaum, F

    2016-08-01

    In 2015 about 1.1 million refugees came to Germany. As a consequence public health authorities as well as physicians in hospitals and surgeries were faced with considerable challenges and problems. Between January and March 2016 the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) and the Professional Organisation of German Internists (BDI) initiated a survey among their members in order to ascertain which diseases and problems physicians were confronted with. A total of 28,063 members of the DGIM and BDI participated in the survey of which 3626 members answered all questions. This equals a response rate of 11.31 %. Of the respondents, 1865 (51.9 %) stated holding employment positions and 987 (27.4 %) were self-employed. The predominant number of physicians were under the impression that the composition of diseases needing treatment did not change within the time period under survey (55.7 % of employed and 73.7 % of self-employed physicians). Typical disease patterns of internal medicine were mentioned here. Most significant problems when treating migrants and refugees were linguistic communication, cultural affiliation, and psychological traumatic experiences. Little or nothing is known about the modalities of reimbursement for the respective health care areas, especially by physicians in employed positions (84.6 %). In agreement with the vote of the 119th Deutscher Ärztetag, DGIM and BDI recommend the introduction of a nationwide health insurance card for migrants and refugees.

  10. A complex investigation of building sandstones from Saxony (Germany)

    SciTech Connect

    Goetze, Jens Siedel, Heiner

    2007-11-15

    The present paper provides a methodology for the investigation and characterization of building sandstones. This analytical scheme was designed for distinguishing mature arenites, which in general show very similar properties and are difficult to distinguish. This is shown for Cretaceous sandstones from various occurrences in Saxony (Germany), which have been used for centuries as building materials. The procedure is mainly based on the combination of macroscopic rock description, thin section polarizing microscopy (phase composition, texture, grain-size distribution) and cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy (quartz types, feldspar and kaolinite content) coupled with image analysis, scanning electron microscopy (accessories, pore cement, diagenetic grain surface features), and analysis of pore space data. Sometimes, additional data from X-ray diffraction or chemical analyses (major and trace elements) can be used. Especially in the case of quartz rich arenites, CL is a powerful tool for provenance analysis. The detailed analysis of sandstone material in most cases allows us to assign historically used building material to a specific sandstone occurrence. These results are important for both interpreting the weathering behaviour of the building material and the conservation, reconstruction and stone replacement of historical monuments.

  11. Asbestos-related diseases in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    Woitowitz, H J; Beierl, L; Rathgeb, M; Schmidt, K; Rödelsperger, K; Greven, U; Woitowitz, R H; Lange, H J; Ulm, K

    1981-01-01

    Until recently, in the Federal Republic of Germany there has been a lack of epidemiological data on asbestos-related tumors. Only the numbers of occupational diseases accepted for compensation by the German industrial injuries insurance institutes (Berufsgenossenschaften) can be stated. These show, for 1979, 94 cases of asbestosis, 21 cases of asbestosis associated with lung cancer, and 34 cases of mesothelioma. Since 1972 employees exposed to asbestos dust have been included in a central register by the industrial injuries insurance institutes and are medically examined periodically. By December 31, 1979, 28,476 persons were registered. Of those, 6,582 were still being followed medically, although they were no longer working with asbestos dust exposure. In January 1, 1977, a prospective epidemiological study was started with these people who were formerly exposed to asbestos dust. Up to December 31, 1980, altogether 2,944 people were enrolled in the study. Besides several other enrollment criteria, the individual's permission was required to evaluate his personal data. Of the people enrolled, 85 had died by December 31, 1980. Even if five questionable cases of lung cancer are excluded (n = 80), the observed rates of about 43% tumours of all sites, with 15% lung cancer and 6% mesothelioma, seem to be comparable to the international epidemiological mortality pattern.

  12. [Tuberculous Otitis media - a rare differential diagnosis in Germany].

    PubMed

    Teschner, M; Kramer, S; Donnerstag, F; Länger, F; Lenarz, Th; Schwab, B

    2008-07-01

    A 28-year-old female patient with a migrant background presented for surgery with a suspected cholesteatoma in the left ear. The patient reported having had an aural discharge for several months; otoscopic examination revealed a runny ear, and discrete granulation tissue was seen. Pure-tone audiometry showed conduction hearing loss of 30-40 dB across all frequencies in the left ear; high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone revealed that the mastoid and tympanic cavity were completely obscured. The intraoperative finding showed a caseous space-occupying mass that completely filled the tympanic cavity. The suspected diagnosis of tuberculosis was corroborated by pathohistological, microbiological and molecular biological tests. Tuberculostatic therapy was initiated at a different location. Although tuberculosis of the middle ear is a rare condition in Germany, it should nevertheless be considered when making a differential diagnosis, especially in high-risk patients where cholesteatoma is suspected on clinical and radiological evidence or in patients with a chronic middle ear process.

  13. Green politics in Germany: what is Green health care policy?

    PubMed

    Wörz, M; Wismar, M

    2001-01-01

    For the first time ever, a Green party has governed in Germany. From September 1998 to January 2001 the German Green party, Bündnis 90/Die Grünen, held the Federal Ministry of Health. Little has been said so far about Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and its relation to health policy. This article is intended to fill that void. An analysis of the health policy program of the Greens reveals that it centers around moving the health sector toward more comprehensiveness and decentralization, strengthened patients' rights, increased use of preventive and alternative medicine, and a critique of the German cost-containment debate and policy. The current health policy program of the Greens is closest to that of the Party of Democratic Socialism, and to a lesser extent it has affinities to the program of the Social Democratic Party. The health policy program of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen is furthest from those of the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party. The health care reforms passed in 1998 and 1999 were not a shift toward a "Green paradigm" of health care policy, because they included no fundamental changes. In addition, cost-containment is still a major political goal in German health care policy. PMID:11809012

  14. Description of Eimeria pavonina (coccidia) of peafowl in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-03-01

    There are only a few reports about the occurrence of coccidia in peafowl and no reports about the occurrence of Eimeria spp. in peafowl kept in Europe. Here, we describe the occurrence of Eimeria pavonina in diseased peafowl from Germany. In January 2011, one young peacock kept in an aviary showed a marked depression. No parasites were detected in samples from the diseased bird, but in samples of birds from the same and other aviaries, coccidian counts were between 400/g and 66,000/g. All peacocks were treated with toltrazuril. After treatment, the clinical condition of the diseased bird improved but, two weeks afterwards, other birds in the aviary were still shedding coccidia in their feces. Based on morphology, the coccidia were identified as E. pavonina. Parts of the 18s rRNA gene and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree based on the 18s rRNA sequence placed the Eimeria sp. from peafowl closest to Eimeria spp. found in pheasants and partridges as well as to Eimeria meleagrimitis. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence of cox-1 in contrast suggested a closer relationship to Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria tenella.

  15. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. PMID:25612286

  16. Biotechnology in Switzerland and a glance at Germany.

    PubMed

    Fiechter, A

    2000-01-01

    The roots of biotechnology go back to classic fermentation processes, which starting from spontaneous reactions were developed by simple means. The discovery of antibiotics made contamination-free bioprocess engineering indispensable, which led to a further step in technology development. On-line analytics and the use of computers were the basis of automation and the increase in quality. On both sides of the Atlantic, molecular biology emerged at the same time, which gave genetic engineering in medicine, agriculture, industry and environment new opportunities. The story of this new advanced technology in Switzerland, with a quick glance at Germany, is followed back to the post-war years. The growth of research and teaching and the foundation of the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) are dealt with. The promising phase of the 1960s and 1970s soon had to give way to a restrictive policy of insecurity and anxiousness, which, today, manifests itself in the rather insignificant contributions of many European countries to the new sciences of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, as well as in the resistance to the use of transgenic agricultural crops and their products in foods.

  17. Electromagnetic investigation at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; Benson, M.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Glennon, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    Electromagnetic surveys were conducted at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Germany to detect zones where solution cavities develop within lowland areas of the karst valley systems. Geologic models indicate that solution activity occurs at the loess-bedrock interface, and is concentrated along loess-filled fracture trends within the underlying carbonate bedrock. Soil arches that develop along these fracture trends have the potential to fail catastrophically, posing a considerable degree of danger to current training activities. Rapid, continuously recording electromagnetic instruments provide an economical solution for locating zones of high conductivity associated with loess-filled fractures. The electromagnetic surveys delineated high-conductivity trends interpreted to be fracture-controlled. In many instances dolines were observed either along or immediately adjacent to these conductivity lineaments. Analysis of anomaly maps indicate that high-conductivity lineaments are aligned subparallel to fracture and joint orientations measured in nearby outcrops. These associations are the basis for predicting locations where solution cavity collapse and doline development will occur in the future. Information derived from the EM data can be extended directly to hydrologic modeling and to safety programs for military training at the CMTC.

  18. ATTITUDES AND ACCEPTANCE TOWARD THE TECHNOLOGY OF CRYONICS IN GERMANY.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Stephanie; Gross, Dominik; Lohmeier, Jens; Rosentreter, Michael; Raschke, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Objectives: This study explores the awareness and the degree of acceptance of the idea of the medical technology cryonics-the freezing of a corpse to revive it in the future-among German citizens. Methods: Data were collected on the basis of a representatively weighted online survey of 1,000 people aged between 16 and 69 years and resident in the Federal Republic of Germany. Results: Forty-seven percent stated that they had already heard of cryonics; 22 percent could imagine having their bodies cryonized after their deaths. For 53 percent, participation in the latest technological developments which correlated with the approval of the conceivability of cryopreservation was important. The majority of the respondents were not skeptical or cautious about innovations in the medical field. Conclusions: The study shows that cryonics is known and accepted to a certain extent. However, a large proportion of respondents did not believe that it was desirable to use medical technology to overcome death, and fundamentally rejected a post-mortal continuation of life.

  19. [Occurrance of antibodies against Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Pikalo, Jutta; Sattler, Tatjana; Eichinger, Michaela; Loitsch, Angelika; Sun, Hao; Schmoll, Friedrich; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to detect antibodies and potential risk factors for an infec- tion with Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany. Serum samples of 314 horses were examined retrospectively by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against eight Leptospira serovars. In total, 17.2% (n = 54) of the horses were positive for one or more of the serovars analyzed. The most prevalent serovar was lcterohaemorrhagiae (11.1%), followed by serovar Bratislava (9.6 %) and Grippotyphosa (1.9%). Mares showed a significantly higher occurrence of antibodies (p < 0.05) than geldings or stallions. Horses used for breeding have a significantly lower risk than horses used in sport or horses used for leisure activity. There was also a significantly higher prevalence (p < 0.05) in summer than in the other seasons. No significant influence of breed, husbandry conditions and age on the antibody occurrence was observed (p > 0.05). The clinical chemical parameters did not differ significantly between horses with positive or negative Leptospira antibody result (p > 0.05). It became apparent that horses can be infected with Leptospira without developing of clinical symptoms.

  20. Prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Opitz-Welke, Annette; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Konrad, Norbert; Welke, Justus

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, suicide is the most frequent cause of prison deaths; moreover, the respective national penal suicide rates are consistently several times higher than the suicide rates in the general population. To assess the situation in German prisons, an assessment of all suicides in German prisons by means of a survey was carried out for the time from 2000 to 2011. The mean rate per year of prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011 was 105.8 per 100,000 male inmates and 54.7 per 100,000 female inmates. Male prisoner suicide rates significantly declined during the period under investigation; no significant trend was evident for female prisoners in pre-trial detention but a noteworthy increase was apparent in the suicide rate of female sentenced prisoners. A significant positive relationship can be demonstrated between occupation density and the suicide rate for both men and women. These results should be taken as a challenge for further research on the reasons for the unexpected increase of suicide rate in female sentenced prisoners and as well on the effect of population density on prison suicide rate.

  1. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  2. Leptospira spp. in Rodents and Shrews in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C.; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified. PMID:25062275

  3. [Science and research in academic plastic surgery in Germany].

    PubMed

    Giunta, R E; Machens, H-G

    2009-12-01

    Plastic surgery has passed through a very positive evolution in the last decades on the solid fundament of constantly developing academic plastic surgery. Aim of this paper is an objective evaluation of the current status of academic plastic surgery regarding research topics, currently available ressources and scientific outcome based on a questionnaire. The return rate of the questionnaire in academic departments was 92%. Main topics in research besides wound healing were topics from regenerative medicine such as tissue engineering, biomaterials, genetherapy and angiogenesis with the main focus on skin and fat tissues. In the past five years a total of 25 million Euros of third party research grants were raised. Research relied mainly on interdisciplinary research facilities. Regarding the scientific outcome more than 200 scientific papers were published in basic science research journals having an impactfactor higher than two. These results clearly demonstrate that plastic surgery is scientifically highly productive in academic surroundings where independent departments are established. Considering that independent units of plastic surgery exist in a relatively small number of all 36 university hospitals in germany, it has to be claimed for further independent departments so to provide adequate research facilities for further evolution of academic plastic surgery. PMID:20029742

  4. The environmental magnetic fingerprint of periglacial loess in Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Philipp; Hambach, Ulrich; Meszner, Sascha; Faust, Dominik

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of a comprehensive stratigraphic study of loess Eastern Germany, a detailed rock magnetic study was carried out of four last glacial/interglacial loess-palaeosol sequences. Magnetic susceptibility and laboratory-induced remanences have been determined to compare individual sections and to identify the specific rock magnetic characteristics of the Saxonian Loess Province. According to the model of pedogenic magnetic enhancement, an increasing neoformation of ferrimagnetic minerals in the course of pedogenesis was observed only in the uppermost Late Weichselian lithological units consisting of almost unweathered loess and indicating dryer climatic conditions. In contrast, the rock magnetic characteristics of the lower Middle and Early Weichselian units exhibit a significant destruction of primary magnetic minerals caused by such secondary processes as climatically controlled waterlogging and reworking. The main observation, an increasing ?fd with decreasing ? with stratigraphic depth, argues for a general magnetic depletion in conjunction with decreasing magnetic grain sizes caused by weathering of larger primary particles. The magnetic fingerprint of the Saxonian loess is characterised by prevailing magnetic depletion processes, which effectively rules out the application of the wind vigour model. Moreover, the observed magnetic characteristics differ significantly from that of other loess regions. Therefore, we propose a new magnetic facies model for more humid (Central European) loess provinces dominated by typical periglacial conditions, including widespread permafrost, which control the intense reworking and waterlogging (gleyification) processes.

  5. Significant increase in travel-associated dengue fever in Germany.

    PubMed

    Allwinn, Regina

    2011-08-01

    Increasing numbers of dengue fever (DF) cases reflect the increasing travel mobility together with the expanding geographical distribution of the vector Aedes aegypti. Compared with earlier surveys in Germany, higher incidences occur and correlate well with ongoing outbreaks. Therefore, we investigated 767 serum samples from 594 returning travellers with suspected DF between 2005 and 2010, which where sent from different hospitals in the drainage area Frankfurt/Main. Established diagnostic assays were ELISA, immunofluorescence and chromatographic tests. We obtained 112 dengue-seropositive serum samples from totally 60 patients: the detection rate was 10.1% (60 out of 594). A significant increase was found in 2010. Most patients were aged between 40 and 49, and indirect immunofluorescence technique indicated mainly DF serotype 2. Actual data reveal a significant rise in imported DF cases in 2010 according to an increasing risk to acquire DF virus infection. Nevertheless, dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome are still rare in travellers, but those with a history of dengue should be tested for DF serotypes and advised to protect themselves well from mosquitoes when travelling to endemic areas.

  6. Description of Eimeria pavonina (coccidia) of peafowl in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

    2012-03-01

    There are only a few reports about the occurrence of coccidia in peafowl and no reports about the occurrence of Eimeria spp. in peafowl kept in Europe. Here, we describe the occurrence of Eimeria pavonina in diseased peafowl from Germany. In January 2011, one young peacock kept in an aviary showed a marked depression. No parasites were detected in samples from the diseased bird, but in samples of birds from the same and other aviaries, coccidian counts were between 400/g and 66,000/g. All peacocks were treated with toltrazuril. After treatment, the clinical condition of the diseased bird improved but, two weeks afterwards, other birds in the aviary were still shedding coccidia in their feces. Based on morphology, the coccidia were identified as E. pavonina. Parts of the 18s rRNA gene and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree based on the 18s rRNA sequence placed the Eimeria sp. from peafowl closest to Eimeria spp. found in pheasants and partridges as well as to Eimeria meleagrimitis. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequence of cox-1 in contrast suggested a closer relationship to Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria tenella. PMID:22545554

  7. Legislation on Genetic Diagnosis: Comparison of South Korea and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the questions regarding PND and PID, especially the concrete legal conditions for the justification of PND and PID. As such, the German law stipulating PND and PID in a very concrete and detailed manner is introduced and explained in comparison with the corresponding South Korean law. The South Korean Bioethics and Biosafety Act (BBA) stipulates various types of gene testing and does not demonstrate a delicate sense of each type of gene testing. In contrast to the South Korean regulation, in Germany, there exist specific regulations for genetic counseling. Especially in the case of PND, GEKO stipulates the process of genetic counseling very concretely, based on GenDG. In the case of PND and PID, it is important that the people concerned understand the meaning of testing in various angles, and restructuralize it by combining it with their own values as the diagnosis is directly combined with pregnancy/abortion, which influences the whole life of a woman (and her partner). In this context, the South Korean BBA needs to be amended as soon as possible. The sections on informed consent also need to be amended to make them more concrete. Furthermore, guidelines for concretizing the regulation of BBA need to be continuously formulated and developed. PMID:27004267

  8. Extreme Sea Levels and Approaches to Adaptation in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisse, R.; Kappenberg, J.; Sothmann, J.

    2014-12-01

    Germany's coastal areas are exposed to extra-tropical storms and related marine hazards such as wind waves and storm surges. About 50% of the coast is below 5 m NN and considerable parts are protected by an almost continuous dike line. Rising mean and extreme sea levels provide substantial threat. In this presentation we briefly review the present situation. Storm related sea level changes are characterized by pronounced inter-annual and decadal variability but do not show a long-term trend over the last century. Mean sea level has increased over the past about 100-150 years at a rate roughly comparable to global mean sea level rise. As a consequence extreme sea levels have increased in the area as increasing mean sea level shifts the baseline for storm surges and wind waves towards higher values. Different approaches for adaptation are investigated in a number ongoing research projects. Some case studies for potential adaptation and challenges are presented. Examples range from detailed analyses of retreat and accommodation strategies to multi-purpose strategies such as concepts for sustainable development of tidal estuaries.

  9. The essence of alternative medicine. A dermatologist's view from Germany.

    PubMed

    Happle, R

    1998-11-01

    In Germany, alternative medicine is presently very popular and is supported by the federal government. When deliberating on the essence of alternative medicine we should simultaneously reflect on the intellectual and moral basis of regular medicine. To provide an epistemological demarcation of the 2 fields, the following 12 theses are advanced: (1) alternative and regular medicine are speaking different languages; (2) alternative medicine is not unconventional medicine; (3) the paradigm of regular medicine is rational thinking; (4) the paradigm of alternative medicine is irrational thinking; (5) the present popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by romanticism; (6) some concepts of alternative medicine are falsifiable and others are not; (7) alternative medicine and evidence-based medicine are mutually exclusive; (8) the placebo effect is an important factor in regular medicine and the exclusive therapeutic principle of alternative medicine; (9) regular and alternative medicine have different aims: coming of age vs faithfulness; (10) alternative medicine is not always safe; (11) alternative medicine is not economic; and (12) alternative medicine will always exist. The fact that alternative methods are presently an integral part of medicine as taught at German universities, as well as of the physician's fee schedule, represents a collective aberration of mind that hopefully will last for only a short time. PMID:9828884

  10. Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in Germany, 2006

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In August 2006, a case of leptospirosis occurred in an athlete after a triathlon held around Heidelberg and in the Neckar river. In order to study a possible outbreak and to determine risk factors for infection an epidemiological investigation was performed. Methods Participants of the triathlon were contacted by e-mail and were asked to fill out a standardized questionnaire. In addition, they were asked to supply a serum sample for laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis. A confirmed case patient was defined as a clinical case (i.e. fever and at least one additional symptom suggestive for leptospirosis) with at least two of the following tests positive: ELISA IgM, latex agglutination testing, or microscopic agglutination testing. Rainfall and temperature records were obtained. Results A total of 142 of 507 triathletes were contacted; among these, five confirmed leptospirosis cases were found. Open wounds were identified as the only significant risk factor for illness (p = 0.02). Heavy rains that preceded the swimming event likely increased leptospiral contamination of the Neckar River. Discussion This is the first outbreak of leptospirosis related to a competitive sports event in Germany. Among people with contact to freshwater, the risk of contracting leptospirosis should be considered by health care providers also in temperate countries, particularly in the summer after heavy rains. PMID:20380736

  11. Incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Joachim; Wöhrle, Johannes C; Palm, Frederick; Nix, Wilfred A; Maschke, Matthias; Safer, Anton; Becher, Heiko; Grau, Armin J

    2014-06-01

    There is a lack of prospective and population based epidemiological data on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Germany to date. The ALS registry Rhineland-Palatinate was established to investigate the incidence, course and phenotypic variety of ALS in this south-west German state of about 4 million inhabitants. During the period 2010-2011, consecutive incident patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the revised El Escorial criteria were included and followed up using multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment. One hundred and forty-six patients were enrolled. The annual crude incidence for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate was 1.8/100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.6-2.2). Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Incidence increased with age reaching a peak in the 70-74 years age group and declined thereafter. Late-onset ALS (≥ 75 years) was found in 14.4% of patients. About 32% of patients presented with bulbar onset. In conclusion, incidence rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate is within the range of other prospective population based registers in Europe and North America. Gender ratio is nearly balanced.

  12. Purification and Characterization of a New Antifungal Compound 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic Acid Methyl Ester from Streptomyces hydrogenans Strain DH16.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kaur, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vishal; Manhas, Rajesh K

    2016-01-01

    In agriculture, biocontrol agents have been emerged as safe alternative to chemical pesticides where Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites constitute a great potential for their exploration as potent agents for controlling various fungal phytopathogens. The present study reports an antifungal compound purified from Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16, a soil isolate, using silica gel chromatography and semi preparative HPLC. The compound was characterized using various spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR) and named 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic acid methyl ester (SH2). Compound (SH2) showed significant inhibitory activity against fungal phytopathogens and resulted in severe morphological aberrations in their structure. Minimal inhibitory and minimal fungicidal concentrations of the compound ranged from 6.25 to 25 μg/ml and 25 to 50 μg/ml, respectively. In vivo evaluation of the compound showed strong control efficacy against Alternaria brassicicola, a seed borne pathogen, on radish seeds. In comparison to mancozeb and carbendazim, the compound was more effective in controlling damping off disease. Additionally, it promoted plant growth with increased rate of seed germination, and displayed no phytotoxicity. The compound retained its antifungal activity after its exposure to temperature of 100°C and sunlight for 1 h. Furthermore, the compound (SH2) when tested for its biosafety was found to be non-cytotoxic, and non-mutagenic against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. This compound from S. hydrogenans strain DH16 has not been reported earlier, so this new compound can be developed as an ideal safe and superior biofungicide for the control of various fungal plant diseases. PMID:27446043

  13. Purification and Characterization of a New Antifungal Compound 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic Acid Methyl Ester from Streptomyces hydrogenans Strain DH16

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kaur, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vishal; Manhas, Rajesh K.

    2016-01-01

    In agriculture, biocontrol agents have been emerged as safe alternative to chemical pesticides where Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites constitute a great potential for their exploration as potent agents for controlling various fungal phytopathogens. The present study reports an antifungal compound purified from Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16, a soil isolate, using silica gel chromatography and semi preparative HPLC. The compound was characterized using various spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H and 13C NMR) and named 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic acid methyl ester (SH2). Compound (SH2) showed significant inhibitory activity against fungal phytopathogens and resulted in severe morphological aberrations in their structure. Minimal inhibitory and minimal fungicidal concentrations of the compound ranged from 6.25 to 25 μg/ml and 25 to 50 μg/ml, respectively. In vivo evaluation of the compound showed strong control efficacy against Alternaria brassicicola, a seed borne pathogen, on radish seeds. In comparison to mancozeb and carbendazim, the compound was more effective in controlling damping off disease. Additionally, it promoted plant growth with increased rate of seed germination, and displayed no phytotoxicity. The compound retained its antifungal activity after its exposure to temperature of 100°C and sunlight for 1 h. Furthermore, the compound (SH2) when tested for its biosafety was found to be non-cytotoxic, and non-mutagenic against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. This compound from S. hydrogenans strain DH16 has not been reported earlier, so this new compound can be developed as an ideal safe and superior biofungicide for the control of various fungal plant diseases. PMID:27446043

  14. The action of the DNA intercalating agents 4'-(9-acridinylamino) methanesulphon-m-anisidide and 1,4-bis(butylamino) benzo[g]phthalazine in U-937 human promonocytic cells: relationship between cell cycle and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C; Campayo, L; Navarro, P; García-Bermejo, L; Aller, P

    1994-07-01

    The action of two structurally related DNA intercalating agents has been studied and compared, namely 4'-(9-acridinylamino) methanesulphon-m-anisidide (amsacrine, mAMSA) and 1,4-bis(butylamino)benzo[g]phthalazine (ABP) on the cell cycle and differentiation of U-937 human promonocytic leukemia cells. mAMSA (0.1 microM) and ABP (4 microM) reduced the proliferation activity to a similar extent and caused little cell mortality. At these subcytotoxic concentrations mAMSA induced the cells to accumulate at the G2 phase of the cycle, while cycle inhibition provoked by ABP was not phase specific. In addition, mAMSA caused an increase in the cell mass while ABP provoked cell shrinkage. This was consistent with the fact that ABP considerably inhibited protein synthesis, while mAMSA did not significantly affect this activity. SDS/K+DNA precipitation assays indicated that mAMSA, but not ABP, stimulated protein-DNA covalent complex formation. Finally, it was found that mAMSA, but not ABP, elicited the expression of differentiation markers, namely nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, activation of vimentin and leukocyte integrin (CD11b/CD18 and CD11c/CD18) expression, and downregulation of c-myc expression. The DNA intercalators doxorubicin and mitoxantrone, which like mAMSA induced the cells to accumulate at the G2 phase and increased the cell mass, induced the expression of differentiation markers. In contrast, the intercalators aclarubicin and caffeine and the non-intercalator novobiocin, which produced minor alterations on cell-cycle distribution and caused cell shrinkage, did not significantly elicit differentiation. These results support the conclusion that differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells by cytostatic drugs depends on the perturbations of the cell cycle, leading to disproportionate increases in cell mass. PMID:7519013

  15. Trends of population-based breast cancer survival in Germany and the US: Decreasing discrepancies, but persistent survival gap of elderly patients in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have revealed both higher cancer survival in the US than in Germany and substantial improvement of cancer survival in the past in these countries. This population-based study aims at comparing most recent 5-year relative survival of breast cancer patients and preceding trends in both countries. Methods Women with a first invasive breast cancer diagnosed and followed up between 1988 and 2008 from Germany and the US (utilizing data from the Saarland Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, respectively) were included. Period analysis was used to derive most up-to-date 5-year relative survival and preceding survival trends according to age and stage. Results Since 1993, age standardized relative survival has steadily improved in Germany and the US to 83% and 88%, respectively. In the period 2005–08, relative survival of localized cancer was above 97% in both countries, and 79% and 83% for locally/regionally spread breast cancer, respectively. Prognosis of metastasized disease has remained very poor overall, with improvement essentially being restricted to younger patients. The proportion of patients diagnosed with localized breast cancer was consistently higher in the US. If adjusted for stage, the differences in relative survival between both countries diminished over time and eventually disappeared. Conclusions Similar survival is now observed in both countries for patients below the age of 70 years, but in Germany survival is still much lower for elderly patients. The observed trends point to treatment advances as a major cause for improved survival. However, substantial differences in mammography usage existed between both countries and might probably also account for the observed differences (to a lesser extent, also differences in health care systems, and delivery of cancer care). Encouraging, survival of breast cancer patients has improved in Germany to a much greater extent than in the US, albeit the

  16. The Desirability of Medieval Germany: Some Observations on an Introductory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jillings, Lewis G.; Murdoch, Brian O.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems and advantages of a course in Medieval Germany, including history, culture and literature along with language. Attention is given to issues and texts to be studied. (CHK)

  17. Young People and Popular Music in East Germany: Focus on a Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Points out a great preference for Western-style rock music among young people (ages 14-25) in East Germany despite social, political, and cultural differences, suggesting the global nature of music as communication. (PD)

  18. Mission on the Rhine: American Educational Policy in Postwar Germany, 1945-1949.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tent, James F.

    1982-01-01

    After World War II, America assumed the responsibility for helping to reform Germany's educational system. American educational policy did not have a clear direction; three distinct phases are discernible. (AM)

  19. 62 FR 41134 - Training Programs in Canada, Germany, Greece, Italy, Turkey, and the United Kingdom

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office UNITED STATES INFORMATION AGENCY Training Programs in Canada, Germany, Greece, Italy, Turkey, and the United Kingdom ACTION..., legislative structure, federalism, school to work transition and immigration/multiculturalism....

  20. [Taxing unhealthy foods. A measure to promote public health in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Lehnert, T; Riedel-Heller, S; König, H-H

    2013-04-01

    Due to the substantial health burden and costs caused by malnutrition in Germany, for instance as a result of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, the taxation of unhealthy foods/nutrients has been proposed as a possible health promoting measure. In order to evaluate whether such a fiscal intervention constitutes an effective and suitable measure to promote population health in Germany, the article outlines central empirical findings regarding malnutrition in Germany. Subsequently, the economic background (price elasticity of demand) is explained, and empirical evidence on the influence of changes in price on changes in consumption and health is presented. As a result of findings from the international literature being heterogeneous, and because very little research has been conducted in Germany on this matter until now, the taxation/subsidization of foods in order to promote population health is difficult to justify at this point. PMID:23467848

  1. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Stendal, Isolated from an Anthrax Outbreak in Cattle in Germany.

    PubMed

    Antwerpen, Markus; Elschner, Mandy; Gaede, Wolfgang; Schliephake, Annette; Grass, Gregor; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, an anthrax outbreak occurred among cattle in northern Germany resulting in ten losses. Here, we report the draft genome sequence ofBacillus anthracisstrain Stendal, isolated from one of the diseased cows. PMID:27056225

  2. The Institute for Science Education-IPN, at Kiel, FR Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Karl

    1980-01-01

    Describes the activities of The Institute for Science Education (IPN) at the University of Kiel, Germany. The emphasis is on the interdisciplinary approach of the individual fields and the projects during 1977-1979. (SA)

  3. Analysis of physical activity and acculturation among Turkish migrants in Germany and England (.).

    PubMed

    Koca, Canan; Lapa, Tennur Yerlisu

    2014-12-01

    Recent literature shows that migrant populations in Western countries are generally less physically active than their host populations. The purpose of the present study was to expand research investigating associations between physical activity (PA) and acculturation and their relationship with several socio-demographic factors among Turkish migrants in Germany and England. The sample consisted of 521 Turkish migrants. Migrant generation, length of residence, and language proficiency were used as indicators of acculturation. Acculturation was not associated with PA among migrants in Germany and England. PA of migrants was significantly associated with migrant's host country, age, sex, marital status, and education. The total PA of migrants in Germany was higher than that of migrants in England; the large majority of females in both Germany and England had low PA, whereas most males had moderate PA. Seemingly, PA in Turkish migrant populations will not necessarily increase as a result of greater acculturation to the host society.

  4. [A Contribution to the Current Debate on Public and Global Health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hommes, F; von Philipsborn, P; Geffert, K; Karduck, L

    2016-02-01

    In June 2015 the German Academies of Science and Technology published a report on the structures, developments and challenges in the field of public and global health in Germany. Its call for a strengthening of public and global health in Germany was well received among researchers and practitioners in the field. At the same time criticism arose. Key controversies relate to the future institutional set-up of public and global health research in Germany, the consideration of the social determinants of health versus biomedical and technological approaches, the need for further research versus the need for political implementation of what is already known, and the consideration of the political context, such as intellectual property rights. This contribution provides an overview on the debate and lays down the perspective of the German Medical Students' Association (bvmd) and the Globalisation and Health Initiative (GandHI), putting forward demands regarding the role of public and global health in medical education in Germany. PMID:26906539

  5. [A Contribution to the Current Debate on Public and Global Health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hommes, F; von Philipsborn, P; Geffert, K; Karduck, L

    2016-02-01

    In June 2015 the German Academies of Science and Technology published a report on the structures, developments and challenges in the field of public and global health in Germany. Its call for a strengthening of public and global health in Germany was well received among researchers and practitioners in the field. At the same time criticism arose. Key controversies relate to the future institutional set-up of public and global health research in Germany, the consideration of the social determinants of health versus biomedical and technological approaches, the need for further research versus the need for political implementation of what is already known, and the consideration of the political context, such as intellectual property rights. This contribution provides an overview on the debate and lays down the perspective of the German Medical Students' Association (bvmd) and the Globalisation and Health Initiative (GandHI), putting forward demands regarding the role of public and global health in medical education in Germany.

  6. Tularaemia in southwest Germany: Three cases of tick-borne transmission.

    PubMed

    Boone, I; Hassler, D; Nguyen, T; Splettstoesser, W D; Wagner-Wiening, C; Pfaff, G

    2015-07-01

    Tularaemia, caused by Francisella tularensis, is an endemic zoonosis frequently occurring in southwest Germany. Since 2005 there is an increase in the number of reported cases of tularaemia in Germany. We report on two cases of ulceroglandular tularaemia and one case of glandular tularaemia that occurred in the summer of 2012 and 2013 in two counties in the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Bacteria were transmitted through tick bites, which to date has only rarely been reported in Germany. Inadequate treatment of the patients and an aggravation of clinical symptoms were caused by a delay between disease onset and the detection of the pathogen. Although contact to or consumption of infected hares are the most often reported transmission routes of tularaemia in Germany, tick-bites should also be taken into account. Health professionals should include Francisella tularensis in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever and/or ulcerative lymphadenopathy following a tick bite.

  7. Low-level Circulation of Enterovirus D68–Associated Acute Respiratory Infections, Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Reiche, Janine; Böttcher, Sindy; Diedrich, Sabine; Buchholz, Udo; Buda, Silke; Haas, Walter; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2015-01-01

    We used physician sentinel surveillance to identify 25 (7.7%) mild to severe infections with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in children and adults among 325 outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Germany during August–October 2014. Results suggested low-level circulation of enterovirus D68 in Germany. Viruses were characterized by sequencing viral protein (VP) 1 and VP4/VP2 genomic regions. PMID:25898320

  8. [Plea for forensic aftercare--results from an evaluation of forensic ambulances in Germany (area: "Rheinland")].

    PubMed

    Seifert, Dieter; Schiffer, Boris; Leygraf, Norbert

    2003-07-01

    The reintegration of patients from forensic hospitals into society is as difficult as important. At present only a few specialized forensic ambulances can be found in Germany although experts have been demanding an extension of these institutions for years. In the following we will present results from an evaluation study of forensic ambulances in Germany (area: "Rheinland"). Our target is to develop minimum standards or essential pillars for successful ambulance work by taking all participants of the reintegration process into account.

  9. Arsenic burden among children in industrial areas of eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Trepka, M J; Heinrich, J; Schulz, C; Krause, C; Popescu, M; Wjst, M; Wichmann, H E

    1996-02-01

    The internal burden of arsenic among 5- to 14-year-old eastern German children in the heavily polluted areas of Hettstedt, a region of smelting and copper mining, and Bitterfeld, a center of chemical production and coal mining, was compared with that in a control area (Zerbst) by means of urinary arsenic concentrations in 1992-94. The unadjusted geometric mean among the 950 children was significantly higher in Hettstedt (5.1 micrograms/l; 95% C.I. 4.8-5.5) but not in Bitterfeld (4.3 micrograms/l; 95% C.I. 3.7-4.9) compared with the control area (4.0 micrograms/l; 95% C.I. 3.5-4.5). This difference persisted after adjustment for relevant confounders. Despite these regional differences, recent fish consumption was as strongly associated with urinary arsenic levels (42% increase, 95% C.I. 18-71%). Additionally, although the geometric mean among the children in Hettstedt (4.8 micrograms As/g creatinine; 95% C.I. 4.5-5.1) was higher than that found in an environmental survey of eastern German children (3.60 micrograms As/g creatinine; 95% C.I. 3.06-4.24), it was similar to that found among western German children (4.59 micrograms As/g creatinine; 95% C.I. 4.20-5.02). This suggests that the arsenic contamination in Hettstedt is not substantially increasing the internal burden of arsenic among children above that found in other German children.

  10. Regional Climate Service in Northern Germany -The North German Climate Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, I.; Von Storch, H.

    2012-12-01

    The North German Climate Office was established in 2006 at the Institute for Coastal Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany as consequence of an increased public information need regarding coastal climate change and its impacts in Northern Germany. The service is characterized by an intensive dialogue between regional climate research and stakeholders in Northern Germany. About once a week scientists of the North German climate office are invited to contribute to public dialogue events. Also numerous direct inquiries are answered and expert interviews are conducted. From this dialogue process specific stakeholder information needs are localized and analysed to develop tailored information products. To provide easy and user specific access to research results interactive web tools are developed. One example is the North German climate atlas, an interactive web tool on possible future climate change in Northern Germany. Another interactive web tool is informing on present and future coastal protection needs in Northern Germany. Another aim of our information products is to assess and summarize the existing scientific knowledge on climate, climate change and impacts in Northern Germany. A mini IPCC-like regional assessment report has been published in 2010, which is summarizing, discussing and assessing the scientific knowledge on regional climate, climate change and impacts as well as possible adaptation strategies in the metropolitan region of Hamburg.

  11. Prevalence of risk factors of coronary heart disease in Turks living in Germany: The Giessen Study.

    PubMed

    Porsch-Oezçueruemez, M; Bilgin, Y; Wollny, M; Gediz, A; Arat, A; Karatay, E; Akinci, A; Sinterhauf, K; Koch, H; Siegfried, I; von Georgi, R; Brenner, G; Kloer, H U

    1999-05-01

    Turkish people represent the majority of immigrants in Germany. Even though a high proportion of Turks has been living in Germany since about 20 years, little is known about risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD) in this population. In this study a sample of 325 male and 155 female Turks are investigated, who voluntarily underwent a health check-up in Germany. Data about the presence of CHD, risk factors and blood parameters were collected. Mean residence time was 21 and 17 years (males/females). A low percentage of female participants was observed compared to the general Turkish population in Germany. Age adjusted prevalence of CHD reached 9.5% in males and 6.7% in females, respectively. Dyslipoproteinemia (DLP) showed the highest prevalence of all risk factors investigated in both genders. Total cholesterol (TC) levels were comparable to those of other western countries and remarkably higher than reported for the population in Turkey. Besides this, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) levels could be found in the majority of the sample. The highest odds ratios for CHD were estimated for stress and hypertension in males and obesity in females. It is concluded that Turkish immigrants in Germany showed an assimilation of lipid pattern to western populations. However, reasons for low HDL-C levels remain unclear. Changes in the lipid metabolism chiefly seem to contribute to the risk factor pattern of Turkish immigrants in Germany.

  12. Molecular evidence for Bartonella spp. in cat and dog fleas from Germany and France.

    PubMed

    Just, F T; Gilles, J; Pradel, I; Pfalzer, S; Lengauer, H; Hellmann, K; Pfister, K

    2008-10-01

    Nine hundred and fifty-two fleas were collected from 148 cats and 133 dogs at 18 widely distributed geographic locations in Germany and France and examined for the presence of six different Bartonella spp. (Bartonella bacilliformis, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii) by PCR. Thirty-five specimens (3.7%) tested positive for either B. henselae (14 positive fleas) or B. clarridgeiae (21 positive fleas). DNA of other Bartonella spp. were not detected. Bartonella clarridgeiae was the dominating species in samples from France (19 out of 22 positive fleas), whereas B. henselae was more frequent in Germany (11 out of 13 positive fleas). With 3.5% (22 out of 632 fleas) in France and 4.1% (13 out of 320 fleas) in Germany, the overall prevalences of pathogen did not vary significantly between the flea populations of both countries. 5.4% of cats in France versus 16.1% of cats from Germany were infested by fleas carrying Bartonella, whereas 9.5% of dogs in France but none of the examined dogs from Germany were infested by Bartonella positive fleas. The molecular evidence of Bartonella infections reveals that agents of zoonotic potential are established in flea populations in Germany and France and that the spectrum of species can vary significantly from country to country.

  13. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. PMID:24673277

  14. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945.

  15. 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, Rebecca; Quedenau, Jörn; Kuik, Friderike; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Schmale, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. At the same time, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects, like decreased lung function and exacerbated asthma. Globally, anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, while the dominant natural emission sources are wildfires. Despite the various adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union. Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter smaller 10 μm and 2.5 μm). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the European Union in 2005 and 2015, respectively, 'black smoke', a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 μg m-3 from 1995 and 8 μg m-3 from 1998 onwards. Many 'black smoke' measurements were stopped in 2004, with the repeal of the regulations obtaining at the time. However, in most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. Here we present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include locations classified as background, urban-background, industrial and traffic among other types. Raw data in many different formats has been modelled and integrated in a relational database, allowing various options for further data analysis. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 30 stations. In

  16. Late Holocene eolian fossilization of Podzols in Northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas; Schneider, Anna; Wechler, Klaus-Peter

    2016-04-01

    The North European lowland has been formed by glacial and periglacial processes in the Late Pleistocene. Multiple reshaping since the Late Glacial considerably changed the landscape up to and including especially historic times. Sediment sequences and (fossilized) soils can improve our understanding of Late Quaternary landscape development, but mapping of buried soils and surfaces is often limited to single outcrops. Ongoing archaeological rescue excavations in the pre-field of the open-cast mine Cottbus-Nord (northeastern Germany) with dense excavation trenches in an about 10 ha dune and drift sand area reveal multilayered sediment sequences with fossilized soils and sediments from the Late Pleistocene to the Late Holocene. Archaeological findings ranging from Mesolithic flint stones to an about 200 year old ceramics in eolian sediments covering plow horizons and wheel tracks suggest that eolian relocation of sandy material was intensive about 200 years ago. Still unpublished OSL dating underline the intense eolian activity. Recent studies showed that between the 15Th to the 19Th century an iron smelter 5 km to the west of our study site was supplied with charcoal, which was produced in a forest 5 km east to our study site. Our current findings about Late Holocene eolian activity raise the question if this eolian reshaping of the landscape is connected with the operation of the iron smelter either directly by transport or bog iron ore winning or indirectly by population pressure caused by the prospering iron smelter. Our ongoing research indicates, that already for historic land-use off-site effects causing further landscape changes have to be considered.

  17. Investigation of DOM in a coastal discharge (Northwest Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, S.; Rullkötter, J.

    2003-04-01

    River systems play a major role in the global chemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. DOM in rivers exhibits a wide compositional diversity reflecting different organic matter sources related to the bioproduction in the drainage area, seasonal variations and anthropogenic influence. The chemical structure of riverine DOM is still largely unknown. The major part of DOM in natural waters consists of humic matter which is formed during degradation of plant- and animal-derived organic matter as a result of various abiotic and microbial transformation processes. As a cosequence, humic matter has a complex polymer-like structure. Humic-matter-rich water was collected from the Neuharlingersieltief, which is a brown-water river in a marshy region in Northwest Germany. After filtration (< 0.45 µm) the DOM was isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (low-molecular-weight lipids) and by cholumn chromatography with XAD-resins (high-molecular-weight material). The isolation by column chromatography provides two OM fractions, i.e. hydrophobic acids and hydrophilic acids. Both fractions were isolated by extraction using two different XAD-resins in series (XAD-8 for hydrophobics and XAD-4 for hydrophilics). Important limitations for the characterization of high-molecular-weight material are the analytical tools and the associated techniques of preparation. This study shows the results of the use of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) in the presence of tetramethylammoniumhydoxide (TMAH). This technique provides detailed structural information. TMAH treatment avoids thermal decarboxylation and improves chromatographic separation by converting carboxylic and phenolic hydroxyl groups into their methyl derivatives. In this study a large number of different compounds are presented. The identified compounds of isolated fractions show different abundances and cover a wide variety of different chemical structures which are mainly substituted aromatics such as benzenes

  18. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland.

    PubMed

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-12-01

    Defining a phenomenon as a political problem could be considered a crucial part of any political process. Body weight, when categorised as obesity, has been defined as a political problem since the beginning of the 21st century and has entered the political agenda in many countries. In this article, I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible for the development? What are the suggested remedies and who is considered responsible for acting? All plans state that obesity is a political issue because it causes health problems; in fact, weight is almost equated to health. The English and Scottish plans present a bio-political argument, characterising obesity as a serious threat to the countries' economies. So does the German plan, but not with the same emphasis. The plans portray people with obesity as being economically harmful to their fellow citizens. The French plan expresses another concern by focussing on the discrimination and stigmatization of obese people. All plans define the physical and food environment as a crucial factor in the obesity development, but only the Scottish Government is prepared to use statutory means towards industry and other actors to achieve change. The policies convey an unresolved dilemma: To govern or not to govern? The Governments want individuals to choose for themselves, yet they try to govern the populations to choose as the Governments find appropriate. The plans have a legitimising function, showing that the Governments take the issue seriously. Accordingly, in this case, the actual problematisations seem to be less crucial.

  19. Right-wing extremist violence among adolescents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And although it is emphasized that approval of and willingness to use violence do not automatically lead to actual acts of violence, this article suggests that the existence of these convictions in society helps to legitimize attitudes that become expressed in violence, in particular among youths.This article presents a five-stage process model that portrays the underlying preconditions for acts of right-wing extremist violence, the contexts in which such violence takes place, and the factors that cause it to escalate. This structural model is used to outline central empirical findings of recent German quantitative and especially qualitative studies about right-wing extremist violent offenders. For analytical reasons, the basic elements of the process model (socialization, organization, legitimation, interaction, and escalation) are treated separately. The authors also examine right-wing extremist violence from a disintegrative perspective. Given that intersubjective recognition is an existential human need, right-wing extremist violence is understood as a "productive" way of dealing with individual recognition deficits. On the basis of the integration dimensions of social disintegration theory, three fundamental recognition needs are distinguished. Right-wing extremist violence can best be explained as a consequence of recognition deficits in all three central integration dimensions.

  20. Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right. The Rhine, one of the largest and most used waterways in central Europe, winds its way through five countries from the Swiss-Austrian Alps to the North Sea coast of the Netherlands. The river valley is densely populated, as seen in this image, which shows the French city of Strasbourg, the light blue and orange area in the upper left center; and the German cities of Kehl, across the river from Strasbourg and Offenburg, the bright area in right center. The fertile valley is famous for its wine production and most of the agricultural areas in the image, shown in purple patches, are vineyards. The light green areas are forest. Scientists can use radar images like this one to monitor the effects of urban and agricultural development on sensitive ecosystems such as the Rhine River valley. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is 34.2 kilometers by 33.2 kilometers (21.2 miles by 20.6 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 7.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  1. [Measles surveillance in Germany. From sentinel to mandatory surveillance].

    PubMed

    Siedler, A; Grüber, A; Mankertz, A

    2013-09-01

    From September 1999 to March 2011, sentinel surveillance of measles was conducted by a self-selected sample of private physicians in Germany. From 2001, when mandatory surveillance for measles was established, two surveillance systems worked in parallel. The aim of this article is to summarize the strengths and limitations of sentinel versus mandatory surveillance. Active monthly reporting included case-based questionnaires on patients with (suspected) measles or zeroreporting. For confirmation of measles, the diagnostic patient specimens were sent to regional laboratories for serological tests or to the National Reference Laboratory (NRC). In the NRC in addition to serological tests measles-virus (MV) detection by PCR in urine, throat swabs, and oral fluid (since 2003) as well as MVgenotyping was offered. From January 2000 to December 2010, 934 out of 1,488 participating sentinel-practices did not see any measles case, while 554 reported 3,573 suspected cases. Measles was confirmed by laboratory testing in 801 cases, excluded in 473 cases, and the diagnosis remained uncertain in 215 cases. Of 3,100 analyzed cases, 2,712 (87 %) were unvaccinated, 217 (7 %) and 32 (1 %) were vaccinated with one or two doses, respectively, and for 139 (4 %) cases the vaccination status was unknown. The main reason for not being vaccinated against measles was refusal (n = 1,383). The confirmation rate was lower in the vaccinated than in the unvaccinated patients (19 % vs. 63 %). Since 2006, sentinel-cases have differed from notified cases by region and age. The proportion of sentinel cases from all NRC-investigated cases decreased from more than  50 % (2002) to less than  5 % (since 2007). Sentinel surveillance allowed for the detection of trends, delivered additional information for measles prevention, and played a major role in measles diagnostics. Since mandatory surveillance was established and sentinel surveillance no longer reflected the epidemiologic

  2. [Medical and legal aspects of teleradiology in Germany].

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, C; Langner, S; Rosenberg, B; Hosten, N

    2011-09-01

    In teleradiology, imaging data are transferred over a distance. This service is provided for the purpose of consulting or teleradiological reading in the narrower sense. Once a justification has been proposed in the latter, the examination is performed under the responsibility of a radiologist who is not present on site. The need for teleradiology services often derives from sparsely populated areas, a shortage of doctors, or the need for cost-efficient provision of radiological examinations. The providers and recipients of teleradiology services enter into an agreement specifying conditions for data transfer. The German ionizing radiation (medical exposure) regulations demand that the teleradiologist holds radiation protection qualifications and is able to reach the examination site within 45 - 60 minutes. In Germany, teleradiology services are still limited to nights, weekends, and vacations, although the German regulations allow an expansion under certain circumstances. Efforts to fundamentally change radiology in favor of teleradiology are putting the status of a radiological medical act as well as current teaching models at risk, thereby indirectly sustaining physician shortage. Transnational teleradiology services offer the possibility of cost reduction, taking advantage of out-of-hour reading and wage fluctuation. At the same time, such services are associated with deficits in quality and availability of personnel as well as the quality of medical services. In the long-term teleradiology concepts will fundamentally change radiology. Smaller radiology units will concentrate on daily business and fast reporting. Larger units also providing academic teaching can use teleradiology networks to offer specialized readings. PMID:21442556

  3. High-energy laser activities at MBDA Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Bernd; Dietrich, Stephan; Tassini, Leonardo; Protz, Rudolf; Geidek, Franz; Zoz, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    At MBDA Germany a concept for a high-energy laser weapon system is investigated, which is based on existing industrial laser sources. Due to the enormous progress in the field of high-power fiber lasers, commercial industrial fiber lasers are now available delivering a nearly-diffraction limited beam quality with power levels of up to 10 kW. By using a geometric beam coupling scheme, a number of individual high-power fiber laser beams are combined together using one common beam director telescope. A total laser beam power of more than 100 kW can be achieved, which is sufficient for an operational laser weapon system. The individual beams from the different lasers are steered by servo-loops using fast tip-tilt mirrors. This principle enables the concentration of the total laser beam power at one common focal point on a distant target, also allowing fine tracking of target movements and first-order compensation of turbulence effects on laser beam propagation. The proposed beam combination concept was demonstrated by using different experimental set-ups. A number of experiments were performed successfully to investigate laser beam target interaction and target fine tracking, also at large distances and at moving targets. Content and results of these investigations are reported, which demonstrate the complete engagement sequence for a C-RAM scenario. This includes subsequent steps of target acquisition by radar and IR optics, followed by large angle coarse tracking, active fine tracking and destruction of the target by the laser system. This successful implementation of geometric beam combining is an important step for the realization of a laser weapon system in the near future.

  4. [Flight and migration : A challenge for medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fölsch, U R; Hasenfuß, G; Spies, H-F; Wesiack, W; Faulbaum, F

    2016-08-01

    In 2015 about 1.1 million refugees came to Germany. As a consequence public health authorities as well as physicians in hospitals and surgeries were faced with considerable challenges and problems. Between January and March 2016 the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) and the Professional Organisation of German Internists (BDI) initiated a survey among their members in order to ascertain which diseases and problems physicians were confronted with. A total of 28,063 members of the DGIM and BDI participated in the survey of which 3626 members answered all questions. This equals a response rate of 11.31 %. Of the respondents, 1865 (51.9 %) stated holding employment positions and 987 (27.4 %) were self-employed. The predominant number of physicians were under the impression that the composition of diseases needing treatment did not change within the time period under survey (55.7 % of employed and 73.7 % of self-employed physicians). Typical disease patterns of internal medicine were mentioned here. Most significant problems when treating migrants and refugees were linguistic communication, cultural affiliation, and psychological traumatic experiences. Little or nothing is known about the modalities of reimbursement for the respective health care areas, especially by physicians in employed positions (84.6 %). In agreement with the vote of the 119th Deutscher Ärztetag, DGIM and BDI recommend the introduction of a nationwide health insurance card for migrants and refugees. PMID:27435314

  5. Acculturation and depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-09-12

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  6. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland.

    PubMed

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-12-01

    Defining a phenomenon as a political problem could be considered a crucial part of any political process. Body weight, when categorised as obesity, has been defined as a political problem since the beginning of the 21st century and has entered the political agenda in many countries. In this article, I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible for the development? What are the suggested remedies and who is considered responsible for acting? All plans state that obesity is a political issue because it causes health problems; in fact, weight is almost equated to health. The English and Scottish plans present a bio-political argument, characterising obesity as a serious threat to the countries' economies. So does the German plan, but not with the same emphasis. The plans portray people with obesity as being economically harmful to their fellow citizens. The French plan expresses another concern by focussing on the discrimination and stigmatization of obese people. All plans define the physical and food environment as a crucial factor in the obesity development, but only the Scottish Government is prepared to use statutory means towards industry and other actors to achieve change. The policies convey an unresolved dilemma: To govern or not to govern? The Governments want individuals to choose for themselves, yet they try to govern the populations to choose as the Governments find appropriate. The plans have a legitimising function, showing that the Governments take the issue seriously. Accordingly, in this case, the actual problematisations seem to be less crucial. PMID:26618496

  7. Antibiotics for the common cold: expectations of Germany's general population.

    PubMed

    Faber, M S; Heckenbach, K; Velasco, E; Eckmanns, T

    2010-09-02

    Physicians mention patients' expectations as a reason for prescribing antibiotics for common (viral) upper respiratory tract infections despite clinical evidence against their use and the physicians' better judgement. We aimed to assess the prevalence of such expectations and factors of influence (knowledge and attitudes) in Germany's general population. In November 2008, 1,778 persons registered with a large market research company were invited to complete an online questionnaire on expectations concerning prescription of antibiotics and on knowledge and attitudes regarding the effectiveness and use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections. A total of 1,076 persons aged 15-78 years participated (response: 61%), of whom 91.8% reported using antibiotics 'only if absolutely necessary'. Prescription of antibiotics was expected by 113 (10.5%) of the 1,076 respondents for the common cold and by 997 (92.7%) for pneumonia. In a logistic regression analysis, predictors for expecting a prescription for antibiotics for the common cold included the following opinions: 'common cold or flu can effectively be treated with antibiotics' (prevalence: 37.6%; odds ratio (OR): 9.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8 to 24.3) and 'antibiotics should be taken when having a sore throat to prevent more serious illness' (prevalence 8.6%; OR: 7.6; 95% CI: 3.9 to 14.5). Among those expecting a prescription (n=113), 80 (71%) reported that they would trust their physician when he or she deems a prescription unnecessary; a further eight (7%) would be unsatisfied, but would accept the decision. Our results suggest that only a minority expects antibiotics for the treatment of cold symptoms. Physicians should be educated that their decisions not to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold, even when against patients' expectations, are apparently accepted by the majority.

  8. A Copernicus downstream service for surface displacement monitoring in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyadi Kalia, Andre; Frei, Michaela; Lege, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    SAR Interferometry is a powerful technique able to detect and monitor various surface displacements caused by e.g. gravitative mass movement, subrosion, groundwater extraction, fluid injection, natural gas extraction. These processes can e.g. cause damage to buildings, infrastructure, affect ecosystems, agriculture and the economic use of the geological underground by influencing the hydro(geo)logical setting. Advanced techniques of interferometric processing (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry, PSI) allow highly precise displacement measurements (mm precision) by analyzing stacks of SAR imagery. The PSI mapping coverage can be increased to entire nations by using several adjacent satellite tracks. In order to assist the operational use of this technique a German-wide, officially approved, PSI dataset is under development. The intention of this presentation is to show i) the concept of the Copernicus downstream service for surface displacement monitoring in Germany and ii) a pilot study to exemplarily demonstrate the workflow and potential products from the Copernicus downstream service. The pilot study is focusing on the built up of an officially approved wide-area PSI dataset. The study area covers an area of more than 30.000 km² and is located in the Northwest German Basin. Several natural processes (e.g. compaction of marine sediments, peat loss) and anthropogenic activities (e.g. natural gas extraction, rock salt mining) are causing surface displacements in the study area. The PSI analysis is based on six ERS-1/-2 data stacks covering the timespan from 1992 until 2001. Each data stack consists of 49 to 73 ERS-1/-2 SAR images. A comparison of the PSI results with thematic data (e.g. volume and location of extracted natural gas) strongly indicates that a part of the detected land subsidence is caused by natural gas extraction. Furthermore, land subsidence caused by e.g. fluid injection and rock salt mining were successfully detected by the PSI analysis.

  9. Integrated primary care in Germany: the road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Schlette, Sophia; Lisac, Melanie; Blum, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement Health care delivery in Germany is highly fragmented, resulting in poor vertical and horizontal integration and a system that is focused on curing acute illness or single diseases instead of managing patients with more complex or chronic conditions, or managing the health of determined populations. While it is now widely accepted that a strong primary care system can help improve coordination and responsiveness in health care, primary care has so far not played this role in the German system. Primary care physicians traditionally do not have a gatekeeper function; patients can freely choose and directly access both primary and secondary care providers, making coordination and cooperation within and across sectors difficult. Description of policy development Since 2000, driven by the political leadership and initiative of the Federal Ministry of Health, the German Bundestag has passed several laws enabling new forms of care aimed to improve care coordination and to strengthen primary care as a key function in the German health care system. These include on the contractual side integrated care contracts, and on the delivery side disease management programmes, medical care centres, gatekeeping and ‘community medicine nurses’. Conclusion and discussion Recent policy reforms improved framework conditions for new forms of care. There is a clear commitment by the government and the introduction of selective contracting and financial incentives for stronger cooperation constitute major drivers for change. First evaluations, especially of disease management programmes, indicate that the new forms of care improve coordination and outcomes. Yet the process of strengthening primary care as a lever for better care coordination has only just begun. Future reforms need to address other structural barriers for change such as fragmented funding streams, inadequate payment systems, the lack of standardized IT systems and trans-sectoral education and training of

  10. GW627368X ((N-{2-[4-(4,9-diethoxy-1-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzo[f]isoindol-2-yl)phenyl]acetyl} benzene sulphonamide): a novel, potent and selective prostanoid EP4 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard J; Giblin, Gerard M P; Roomans, Susan; Rhodes, Sharron A; Cartwright, Kerri-Ann; Shield, Vanessa J; Brown, Jason; Wise, Alan; Chowdhury, Jannatara; Pritchard, Sara; Coote, Jim; Noel, Lloyd S; Kenakin, Terry; Burns-Kurtis, Cynthia L; Morrison, Valerie; Gray, David W; Giles, Heather

    2006-06-01

    1. N-{2-[4-(4,9-diethoxy-1-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzo[f]isoindol-2-yl)phenyl]acetyl}benzene sulphonamide (GW627368X) is a novel, potent and selective competitive antagonist of prostanoid EP4 receptors with additional human TP receptor affinity. 2. At recombinant human prostanoid EP4 receptors expressed in HEK293 cells, GW627368X produced parallel rightward shifts of PGE2 concentration-effect (E/[A]) curves resulting in an affinity (pKb) estimate of 7.9 +/- 0.4 and a Schild slpoe not significantly different from unity. The affinity was independent of the agonist used. 4. In rings of phenylephrine precontracted piglet saphenous vein, GW627368X (30-300 nM) produced parallel rightward displacement of PGE2 E/[A] curves (pKb = 9.2 +/- 0.2; slope = 1). 4. GW627368X appears to bind to human prostanoid TP receptors but not the TP receptors of other species. In human washed platelets, GW627368X (10 microM) produced 100% inhibition of U-46619 (EC100)-induced aggregation (approximate pA2 approximately 7.0). However, in rings of rabbit and piglet saphenous vein and of guinea-pig aorta GW627368X (10 microM) did not displace U-46619 E/[A] curves indicating an affinity of < 5.0 for rabbit and guinea-pig prostanoid TP receptors. 5. In functional assays GW627368X is devoid of both agonism and antagonist affinity for prostanoid CRTH2, EP2, EP3, IP and FP receptors. At prostanoid EP1 receptors, GW627368X was an antagonist with a pA2 of 6.0, and at prostanoid IP receptors the compound increased the maximum effect of iloprost by 55%. At rabbit prostanoid EP2 receptors the pA2 of GW627368X was < 5.0. 6. In competition radioligand bioassays, GW627368X had affinity for human prostanoid EP4 and TP receptors (pKi = 7.0 +/- 0.2 (n = 10) and 6.8 (n = 2), respectively). Affinity for all other human prostanoid receptors was < 5.3. 7. GW627368X will be a valuable tool to explore the role of the prostanoid EP4 receptor in many physiological and pathological settings.

  11. Education after Auschwitz in a United Germany: A Comparative Analysis of the Teaching of the History of National Socialism in East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meseth, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the teaching of the history of National Socialism in East and West Germany. Against the backdrop of the dual politics of memory that existed before reunification, the article examines how the divergent value systems of the two German nations came together to produce a single national conception of "Education after Auschwitz"…

  12. Labour Market Policy in Germany: Job Placement, Unemployment Insurance and Active Labour Market Policy in Germany. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blien, Uwe; Walwei, Ulrich; Werner, Heinz

    Job placement, unemployment insurance, and active labor market policy in Germany were reviewed. The following were among the review's main conclusions: (1) measures of active and passive labor market policy are still regarded as important to combating unemployment and improving the matching function of the German labor market; (2) the many…

  13. Calcinaksite, KNaCa(Si4O10) H2O, a new mineral from the Eifel volcanic area, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Blass, Günter; Varlamov, Dmitry A.; Pekov, Igor V.; Belakovskiy, Dmitry I.; Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.

    2015-08-01

    The new mineral calcinaksite, ideally KNaCa(Si4O10) · H2O, the first hydrous and Ca-dominant member of the litidionite group, is found in a xenolith of metamorphosed carbonate-rich rock from the southern lava flow of the Bellerberg volcano, Eastern Eifel region, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. It is associated with wollastonite, gehlenite, brownmillerite, Ca2SiO4 (larnite or calcio-olivine), quartz, aragonite, calcite, jennite, tobermorite and ettringite. Calcinaksite occurs as clusters of colourless to light-grey subhedral prismatic crystals. The mineral is brittle, with Mohs' hardness of 5; Dmeas is 2.62(2) g/cm3 and Dcalc is 2.623 g/cm3. The IR spectrum shows the presence of H2O molecules forming three different H-bonds. Calcinaksite is optically biaxial (+), α = 1.542(2), β = 1.550(2), γ = 1.565(3), 2 V meas = 75(10). The chemical composition (electron-microprobe data, H2O determined by the Alimarin method, wt%) is: Na2O 6.69, K2O 12.01, CaO 15.04, FeO 0.59, SiO2 61.46, H2O 4.9, total 100.69. The empirical formula is H2.11 K0.99Na0.84Ca1.04Fe0.03Si3.98O11. The crystal structure was solved and refined to R 1 = 0.053, wR 2 = 0.075 based upon 3057 reflections having I > 3σ( I). Calcinaksite is triclinic, space group P , a = 7.021(2), b = 8.250(3), c = 10.145(2) Å. α = 102.23(2)°, β = 100.34(2)°, γ = 115.09(3)°, V = 495.4(3) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections of the X-ray powder pattern [ d, Å ( I,%) ( hkl)] are: 3.431 (70) (-121, -211, -210, 012, 0-22), 3.300 (67) (-031), 3.173 (95) (-103, -201, -220, 003, 111), 3.060 (100) (-212, 2-11, -221, 200, -1-13, 021, -202), 2.851 (83) (0-23, -122, 1-13, 1-31), 2.664 (62) (1-23, -222, 201).

  14. U-Pb Geochronology of Hydrous Silica (Siebengebirge, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschek, Frank; Nemchin, Alexander; Geisler, Thorsten; Heuser, Alexander; Merle, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Low-temperature, hydrous weathering eventually leads to characteristic products such as silica indurations. Elevated U concentrations and the ability of silica to maintain a closed system permits silica to be dated by the U-Pb method, which, in turn, will potentially allow constraining the timing of near-surface processes. To test the feasibility of silica U-Pb geochronology, we sampled opal and chalcedony from the Siebengebirge, Germany. This study area is situated at the terminus of the Cenozoic Lower Rhine Basin on the Rhenish Massif. The investigated samples include silicified gravels from the Mittelbachtal locality, renowned for the embedded wood opal. Structural characterization of the silica phases (Raman spectroscopy) was combined with in situ isotopic analyses, using ion microprobe and LA-ICPMS techniques. In the Siebengebirge area fluviatile sediments of Upper Oligocene age were covered by an extended trachyte tuff at around 25 Ma. Silica is known to indurate some domains within the tuff and, in particular, certain horizons within the subjacent fluviatile sediments ('Tertiärquarzite'). Cementation of the gravels occurred during at least three successive growth stages: early paracrystalline silica (opal-CT), fibrous chalcedony, and late microcrystalline quartz. It has traditionally been assumed that this silica induration reflects intense weathering, more or less synchronous with the deposition of the volcanic ashes. Results from U-Pb geochronology returned a range of discrete 206Pb-238U ages, recording a protracted silicification history. For instance, we obtained 22 ± 1 Ma for opal-CT cement from a silicified tuff, 16.6 ± 0.5 Ma for silicified wood and opal-CT cement in the fluviatile gravels, as well as 11 ± 1 Ma for texturally late chalcedony. While silicification of the sampled tuff might be contemporaneous with late-stage basalts, opaline silicification of the subjacent sediments and their wood in the Mittelbachtal clearly postdates active

  15. Establishment of the Certification System "Gynaecological Dysplasia" in Germany.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, M W; Quaas, J; Bischofberger, A; Kämmerle, A; Lux, M P; Wesselmann, S

    2014-09-01

    Gynaecological cancer centres have been established nationwide in Germany since 2008 according to the certification system of the German Cancer Society (Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft e. V. [DKG]) and the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe e. V. [DGGG]). However, patient access to the certified gynaecological cancer centres is currently only possible through direct referrals. A longitudinal structure with the corresponding long-term documentation of both the high-grade precursors as well as the cancers does not exist as yet. According to the aims of the National Cancer Plan, a corresponding structure for the cancer entity "cervix carcinoma" should be established. The foundations for such a structure are appropriate diagnostic units that are responsible, after nationwide screening, for clarification according to guideline-conform principles. On the basis of the vote of the certification commission for gynaecological cancer centres under the chairmanship of the DKG, the Working Group for Gynaecological Oncology (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie e. V. [AGO]), the Committee on Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zervixpathologie & Kolposkopie [AG-CPC]) and the DGGG the certification system for gynaecological dysplasia has been established. As a general principle, a distinction is made between the certification of a consulting practice for gynaecological dysplasia and a gynaecological dysplasia facility in order to integrate both outpatient and inpatient health-care facilities into the certification system. In analogy to the further catalogue of requirements from the DKG, quantitative and qualitative minimum numbers are demanded. Furthermore, the requirements of the certification process include a summary of patient information, the applied guidelines, continuing and further training, interdisciplinary cooperation in tumour boards, contents or, respectively, procedure

  16. Parasites of sheep herding dogs in central Germany.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kaulfuß, Karl-heinz; Visser, Martin; Sommer, Maria Franziska; Grimm, Felix; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on endoparasite infections diagnosed in 2012 by standard coproscopical techniques and coproantigen Giardia ELISA in 165 dogs used for sheep herding in 36 farms in central Germany. The overall prevalence of dogs with evidence of endoparasite infections was 27.3% (95% CI 20.6-34.7). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 6.7%; Toxascaris 3.6%), hookworms (5.5%) and taeniid cestodes (4.2%), followed by those of Trichuris whipworms (3.0%), Capillaria aerophila (1.8%), Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma lungworms (1.2% each) and Cystoisospora canis coccidians (0.6%). Molecular identification demonstrated the seven dogs shedding taeniid eggs positive for Taenia (T.) species tapeworms (five, T. hydatigena; one, T. ovis; one Taenia sp.). Screening of the faeces with the coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia specific antigen in 5.5% of the samples. The majority of the dogs had evidence of single endoparasite infections (22.4%) while evidence for infection with two or three parasites concurrently was found in six (3.6%) and two (1.2%) of the dogs, respectively. Dogs ≤ 1 year (n = 19) were parasitized more frequently (p < 0.05) with overall gastrointestinal parasites (63.2% vs. 20.5%), ascarids (36.8% vs. 6.8%) and Giardia spp. (21.1% vs. 3.4%) than older dogs (n = 146). Dogs which had been wormed within six months of examination tested less frequently positive for gastrointestinal helminths compared to dogs not wormed (11.1% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.0567). In addition, ear swabs taken from 43 sheep dogs in 2012 were examined, and Otodectes cynotis mites were extracted from one dog. Identification of ectoparasites collected by full body search and combing from 113 sheep dogs in the years 2011 to 2013 revealed infestation of fleas and ticks (each up to five specimens per dog) on 13 and 108 dogs, respectively, with nine dogs carrying both fleas and ticks. Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ctenocephalides (C) canis, C. felis and Pulex irritans

  17. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  18. Parasites of sheep herding dogs in central Germany.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kaulfuß, Karl-heinz; Visser, Martin; Sommer, Maria Franziska; Grimm, Felix; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on endoparasite infections diagnosed in 2012 by standard coproscopical techniques and coproantigen Giardia ELISA in 165 dogs used for sheep herding in 36 farms in central Germany. The overall prevalence of dogs with evidence of endoparasite infections was 27.3% (95% CI 20.6-34.7). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 6.7%; Toxascaris 3.6%), hookworms (5.5%) and taeniid cestodes (4.2%), followed by those of Trichuris whipworms (3.0%), Capillaria aerophila (1.8%), Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma lungworms (1.2% each) and Cystoisospora canis coccidians (0.6%). Molecular identification demonstrated the seven dogs shedding taeniid eggs positive for Taenia (T.) species tapeworms (five, T. hydatigena; one, T. ovis; one Taenia sp.). Screening of the faeces with the coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia specific antigen in 5.5% of the samples. The majority of the dogs had evidence of single endoparasite infections (22.4%) while evidence for infection with two or three parasites concurrently was found in six (3.6%) and two (1.2%) of the dogs, respectively. Dogs ≤ 1 year (n = 19) were parasitized more frequently (p < 0.05) with overall gastrointestinal parasites (63.2% vs. 20.5%), ascarids (36.8% vs. 6.8%) and Giardia spp. (21.1% vs. 3.4%) than older dogs (n = 146). Dogs which had been wormed within six months of examination tested less frequently positive for gastrointestinal helminths compared to dogs not wormed (11.1% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.0567). In addition, ear swabs taken from 43 sheep dogs in 2012 were examined, and Otodectes cynotis mites were extracted from one dog. Identification of ectoparasites collected by full body search and combing from 113 sheep dogs in the years 2011 to 2013 revealed infestation of fleas and ticks (each up to five specimens per dog) on 13 and 108 dogs, respectively, with nine dogs carrying both fleas and ticks. Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ctenocephalides (C) canis, C. felis and Pulex irritans

  19. Identification of a Novel Hepacivirus in Domestic Cattle from Germany

    PubMed Central

    Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Alawi, Malik; Indenbirken, Daniela; Postel, Alexander; Baron, Anna Lena; Offinger, Jennifer; Becker, Kathrin; Beineke, Andreas; Rehage, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to represent one of the most significant threats to human health. In recent years, HCV-related sequences have been found in bats, rodents, horses, and dogs, indicating a widespread distribution of hepaciviruses among animals. By applying unbiased high-throughput sequencing, a novel virus of the genus Hepacivirus was discovered in a bovine serum sample. De novo assembly yielded a nearly full-length genome coding for a polyprotein of 2,779 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the virus represents a novel species within the genus Hepacivirus. Viral RNA screening determined that 1.6% (n = 5) of 320 individual animals and 3.2% (n = 5) of 158 investigated cattle herds in Germany were positive for bovine hepacivirus. Repeated reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of animals from one dairy herd proved that a substantial percentage of cows were infected, with some of them being viremic for over 6 months. Clinical and postmortem examination revealed no signs of disease, including liver damage. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR from different organs and tissues, together with the presence of an miR-122 binding site in the viral genome, strongly suggests a liver tropism for bovine hepacivirus, making this novel virus a promising animal model for HCV infections in humans. IMPORTANCE Livestock animals act as important sources for emerging pathogens. In particular, their large herd size and the existence of multiple ways of direct and food-borne infection routes emphasize their role as virus reservoirs. Apart from the search for novel viruses, detailed characterization of these pathogens is indispensable in the context of risk analysis. Here, we describe the identification of a novel HCV-like virus in cattle. In addition, determination of the prevalence and of the course of infection in cattle herds provides valuable insights into the biology of this novel virus. The results presented here form a basis for future

  20. [Influenza, tetanus, and pertussis vaccination coverage among adults in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bödeker, Birte; Remschmidt, C; Müters, S; Wichmann, O

    2015-02-01

    In order to be adequately protected throughout life and to protect specific risk groups from particular diseases, regular booster or specific indicator vaccinations are also recommended during adulthood. Adults should be vaccinated against seasonal influenza (annually, e.g., persons with underlying chronic diseases and persons aged ≥ 60 years), tetanus (every 10 years), and pertussis (as a one-time vaccination with the next due tetanus vaccine and, e.g., when people have close contact to newborn babies). The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the current status of vaccination uptake among adults living in Germany, focusing on these three vaccines. In line with nationwide continuous health monitoring, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the representative study "German Health Update" (GEDA 2012) between 2012 and 2013. The survey is conducted regularly and adults are asked questions relating to their vaccination status through computer-assisted telephone interviews. Overall, 19,294 interviews were held. In 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, seasonal influenza uptake among persons aged ≥ 60 years was 54.3 and 52.6 % and among individuals with underlying chronic diseases 46.2 and 42.9 %. 7.6 and 75.6 % of participants reported up-to-date pertussis and tetanus vaccination, respectively. 22 % of people living with a baby in one household were vaccinated against pertussis. In general, vaccination rates against seasonal influenza, pertussis, and tetanus among adults are still low, but differ depending on the specific vaccination. The required aim of the European Commission to reach influenza vaccination coverage by the 2014/2015 winter season of 75 % of higher age groups has not yet been reached. The low pertussis vaccination coverage among persons in close household contact to infants poses a big challenge to the implementation of the cocooning strategy to protect the very vulnerable newborns. To emphasize the importance of a complete vaccination