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Sample records for mnster germany 4-9

  1. 17 CFR 4.9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 4.9 Section 4.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.9...

  2. 17 CFR 4.9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 4.9 Section 4.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.9...

  3. 17 CFR 4.9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 4.9 Section 4.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.9...

  4. 17 CFR 4.9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 4.9 Section 4.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.9...

  5. 17 CFR 4.9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 4.9 Section 4.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.9...

  6. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce DISCLOSURE OF GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the...

  7. 28 CFR 4.9 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 4.9 Section 4.9 Judicial... OF 1974 § 4.9 Representation. The applicant may be represented before the Commission by any person... constitute a representation to the Commission that under the provisions of this part and applicable law he is...

  8. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information...

  9. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information...

  10. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information...

  11. 15 CFR 4.9 - Business Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business Information. 4.9 Section 4.9... of Information Act § 4.9 Business Information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the... the purposes of this section: (1) Business information means commercial or financial information...

  12. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  13. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  14. 16 CFR 4.9 - The public record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Commission Organization and Procedures (16 CFR part 0 and §§ 4.14 through 4.15, 4.17). (i) A current index of... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The public record. 4.9 Section 4.9... RULES § 4.9 The public record. (a) General. (1) Materials on the public record of the Commission...

  15. 43 CFR 1610.4-9 - Monitoring and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.4-9 Monitoring and evaluation. The proposed plan shall establish intervals...

  16. 77 FR 45503 - 4.9 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... No. 07-100; PS Docket No. 06-229; WT Docket No. 06-150; FCC 12-61] 4.9 GHz Band AGENCY: Federal...) 418-7233, or via email at Thomas.Eng@fcc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This is a summary of the... copying during normal business hours in the FCC Reference Information Center, Portals II, 445 12th...

  17. 4.9 Doses to Infants From Breastfeeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.9 Doses to Infants From Breastfeeding' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  18. Energy Conservation Education. An Action Approach. Grades 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamm, Michael; Samuel, Barry C.

    Seventeen lessons are provided in this curriculum designed to involve students (grades 4-9) in energy conservation. The lessons are presented in four parts. The three lessons in part I are intended to give students a preliminary conceptual framework for energy conservation and to motivate them to participate in the conservation-action projects…

  19. 2012 BATTERIES GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, MARCH 4-9, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Harris

    2012-03-09

    The Gordon Research Conference on BATTERIES was held at Four Points Sheraton / Holiday Inn Express, Ventura, California, March 4-9, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 176 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  20. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria. 4.9 Section 4.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications § 4.9 Outage reporting...

  1. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  2. Enterocin F4-9, a Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Maky, Mohamed Abdelfattah; Ishibashi, Naoki; Zendo, Takeshi; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Doud, Jehan Ragab; Karmi, Mohamed; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis F4-9 isolated from Egyptian salted-fermented fish produces a novel bacteriocin, termed enterocin F4-9. Enterocin F4-9 was purified from the culture supernatant by three steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5,516.6 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid and DNA sequencing showed that the propeptide consists of 67 amino acid residues, with a leader peptide containing a double glycine cleavage site to produce a 47-amino-acid mature peptide. Enterocin F4-9 is modified by two molecules of N-acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to Ser37 and Thr46. The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties are essential for the antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9. Further analysis of the enterocin F4-9 gene cluster identified enfC, which has high sequence similarity to a glycosyltransferase. The antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9 covered a limited range of bacteria, including, interestingly, a Gram-negative strain, Escherichia coli JM109. Enterocin F4-9 is sensitive to protease, active at a wide pH range, and moderately resistant to heat.

  3. Enterocin F4-9, a Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Bacteriocin

    PubMed Central

    Maky, Mohamed Abdelfattah; Ishibashi, Naoki; Zendo, Takeshi; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Doud, Jehan Ragab; Karmi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis F4-9 isolated from Egyptian salted-fermented fish produces a novel bacteriocin, termed enterocin F4-9. Enterocin F4-9 was purified from the culture supernatant by three steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5,516.6 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid and DNA sequencing showed that the propeptide consists of 67 amino acid residues, with a leader peptide containing a double glycine cleavage site to produce a 47-amino-acid mature peptide. Enterocin F4-9 is modified by two molecules of N-acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to Ser37 and Thr46. The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties are essential for the antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9. Further analysis of the enterocin F4-9 gene cluster identified enfC, which has high sequence similarity to a glycosyltransferase. The antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9 covered a limited range of bacteria, including, interestingly, a Gram-negative strain, Escherichia coli JM109. Enterocin F4-9 is sensitive to protease, active at a wide pH range, and moderately resistant to heat. PMID:25956765

  4. 24 CFR 4.9 - Disclosure requirements for assistance subject to section 102(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure requirements for assistance subject to section 102(b). 4.9 Section 4.9 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Accountability in the Provision of HUD...

  5. Music Training in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special-issue volume examines music education in the two Germanies and how music has had a great influence in the culture of the nations. The presentation is a professional and objective portrayal of music training and cultivation in Germany in the last decade of the present century. The articles attempt to outline the problems and tasks that…

  6. Promoting Literacy in Grades 4-9: A Handbook for Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Karen D., Ed.; Dickinson, Thomas S., Ed.

    This comprehensive handbook focuses on literacy issues in grades 4-9. It is a reference guide that covers everything from the role of the principal and the characteristics of the learners to teaching the gifted and motivating the reluctant learner. Chapters offer an array of examples of student work, classroom vignettes, sample lessons, and…

  7. Teacher Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viebahn, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Applies the concepts of idealism, individualism, and pragmatism from the Association for Teacher Education in Europe's scenario model to Germany's teacher education. Discusses the current German teacher training system's scholarly approach to idealism; notes organizational problems; examines the special psychological demands on students made by…

  8. Career Development in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Hubert

    In Germany, after elementary school, the school system splits into three branches, with students either preparing for an apprenticeship or continuing in school. A second system exists, parallel to this education system, which combines general education with basic professional training. The first key career decision point is in Grade 4, when…

  9. Germany in Europe 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    The results of the 10-week National Defense Education Act (NDEA) Third-Level Institute for Secondary School Teachers of German, conducted by Stanford University in Bad Boll, Germany, are compiled in individual reports written in both German and English by the 25 participants. Emphasizing close contact with the residents in their working and home…

  10. Germany's Guest Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupte, Pranay

    1984-01-01

    In wake of a recent recession, Turkish "guest workers" are beginning to feel less welcome in West Germany. Many have accepted government cash incentives to return to Turkey, but others have prospered and wish to stay. The Germans themselves are split over whether the Turks threaten job opportunities for native workers or provide crucial…

  11. Studies on the possible central effects in man of a neuropeptide (ACTH 4-9 analogue).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, A N; Stone, B M; Jones, S J

    1984-01-01

    The central effects of a neuropeptide, ACTH 4-9 analogue (Organon 2766), were studied in man using digit symbol substitution (DSS), symbol copying, digit span, electroencephalography and auditory evoked potentials, critical flicker fusion (CFF) and pupillary response to light. Performance was measured overnight, and each of 6 subjects ingested 300 mg caffeine, 40 mg ACTH 4-9 analogue and matching placebo. With placebo there was a marked deterioration in performance overnight. The number of substitutions on DSS and the numbers of symbols copied fell, and the threshold for CFF and number of errors on the vigilance task increased. These effects were not seen after ingestion of caffeine (300 mg), though caffeine may have led to some deterioration in the ability to remember digits. The neuropeptide did not attenuate the decrements in performance overnight.

  12. [Tularemia in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Germany knows mining

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-15

    Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

  14. Metabolism of 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide by rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, D.D.; Cysyk, R.L.; Gormley, P.E.; DeSouza, J.J.; Malspeis, L.

    1984-05-01

    4'-(9-Acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide (m-AMSA) is metabolized by a hepatic microsomal enzyme system composed of rat liver microsomes, a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-generating system, cytosolic protein (or glutathione), and oxygen. Omission of any one of the components, or incubation under an atmosphere of CO or N/sub 2/, results in inhibition of the reaction. Also, the addition of inhibitors of microsomal metabolism (alpha-naphthoflavone, metyrapone, or SKF 525-A) decreases m-AMSA metabolism. Metabolism of m-AMSA is more rapid with microsomes prepared from rats pretreated with phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene. Two microsomal oxidation products of m-AMSA were isolated and identified as N1'-methanesulfonyl-N4'-(9-acridinyl)-3'-methoxy-2',5'-cyclohex adiene-1', 4'-dimine (m-AQDI) and 3'-methoxy-4'-(9-acridinylamino-2',5'-cyclohexadien-1'-one (m-AQI). m-AQDI reacts with glutathione to form a product previously identified in in vivo studies as the principal rat biliary metabolite and which is not cytotoxic to cultured L1210 cells. Thus, the end result of the microsomal metabolism of m-AMSA is detoxification. However, the two primary oxidation products (m-AQDI and m-AQI) are considerably more cytotoxic to L1210 cells in vitro than is m-AMSA. The concentration of m-AMSA required to produce a 5-log kill is 1.0 microgram/ml compared to 0.01 microgram/ml for m-AQDI and m-AQI. These results indicate that m-AMSA might undergo bioactivation to form the active cytotoxic species of the drug.

  15. Analysis of expansion patterns in 4-4.9 cm abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Vega de Céniga, M; Gómez, R; Estallo, L; de la Fuente, N; Viviens, B; Barba, A

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to analyze the growth pattern of 4-4.9 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We used an observational, longitudinal, prospective study design. We followed 4-4.9 cm AAAs with 6-monthly abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scans (January 1988-August 2004). AAA growth was defined as an increase in aortic diameter > or =2 mm in each surveillance period. We established the aortic expansion pattern in AAA with three or more CT scans as continuous, discontinuous. The latter includes at least one period of nongrowth (<2 mm/6 months). We studied the influence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), comorbidity, and AAA anatomical characteristics using the chi-squared test, t-test, life tables, and Kaplan-Meier for statistical analysis. We included 195 patients: 183 (93.8%) men, age 71 +/- 8.3 years (50-90). The follow-up period was 50 +/- 36.4 months (6.5-193.7). The growth pattern (n =131) was continuous in 15 (11.5%) and discontinuous in 116 (88.5%) AAA. The mean expansion rate was higher in AAAs with continuous expansion (7.92 +/- 3.74 vs. 2.74 +/- 2.94 mm/year, p < 0.0001). No CVRFs or comorbidity influenced the expansion pattern (p > 0.05). The eccentric thrombus was associated with a greater incidence of continuous growth (p = 0.05), with no influence of aortic calcification (p > 0.1). The expansion of 4-4.9 cm AAA is mostly irregular and unpredictable. We have not found any modifiable risk factors which influence their growth pattern. The eccentric distribution of the thrombus is associated with continuous expansion.

  16. Epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator system placed in a 4.9-kg infant.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Roosevelt; Aboutalebi, Amir; Kim, Jeffrey J; Kertesz, Naomi; Morales, David L S

    2011-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have aided the prevention of sudden cardiac death in adults. The hope is to provide similar benefits to the pediatric population as the devices become smaller. Herein, we present the case of a 4.9-kg, 5-week-old infant boy who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. After emergency defibrillation, conventional treatment options included long-term hospitalization for later cardioverter-defibrillator implantation, or installation of an external defibrillator with subsequent home telemetry. On the basis of the infant's body dimensions, we decided that an epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was feasible and the best option. We performed a median sternotomy and placed a Vitality® implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with a 25-cm defibrillator coil and a 35-cm bipolar ventricular lead. The patient experienced no postoperative morbidity or rhythm disturbances and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5. He was placed on β-blocker therapy and has remained well for 3 years.Although external devices can be placed in a small patient, we believe that they are too susceptible to lead damage and lead migration, and that the defibrillator thresholds are less reliable. We think that dysrhythmias even in very small children can be treated effectively and safely with use of an epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. To our knowledge, this 4.9-kg infant is the smallest patient to have undergone a successful implantation of this kind.

  17. [Prenatal care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M

    2013-12-01

    Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness.

  18. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  19. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  20. [Liver transplantation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wolff, M; Kalff, J C; Schwarz, N T; Lauschke, H; Minor, T; Tolba, R H; Hirner, A

    2003-10-01

    As in other western countries the major challenge of liver transplantation in Germany is to expand the number of liver transplantations in respect to the increasing disparity of qualified patients on the waiting list and the still static availability of brain death donor organs. The problem of death on the waiting list has become overt since the German transplantation law has been installed, which has changed the former center-oriented to a patient-oriented allocation weighting waiting time over medical urgency criteria. The more liberal acceptance of so called marginal cadaveric donor livers will probably impair further improvements in the acute and long-term outcome of liver transplantation. This problem can be partially compensated by the use of novel surgical techniques, such as splitting a donor liver to be transplanted into two adult recipients or, more commonly and safe, into an adult and one child. Another alternative to increase the donor pool is living donor liver transplantation, which was first introduced for pediatric recipients but is now increasingly used in adults. In 2001, a constant number of 757 liver transplantations were performed in Germany, including 12.5 % living donor transplantations. Recently, general guidelines for the selection of patients with end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure have been published by the Bundesärztekammer. Additional developments have contributed to improve the results of liver replacement including individualized immunosuppression strategies and novel treatment options to avoid recurrent viral disease following transplantation.

  1. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  2. The Beni Haoua, Algeria, Mw 4.9 earthquake: source parameters, engineering, and seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbes, Khadidja; Dorbath, Louis; Dorbath, Catherine; Djeddi, Mohamed; Ousadou, Farida; Maouche, Said; Benkaci, Nassima; Slimani, Abdennasser; Larbes, Said; Bouziane, Djillali

    2016-04-01

    A moderate Mw 4.9 earthquake struck the Beni Haoua (Algeria) coastal area on April 25, 2012. The mainshock was largely recorded by the accelerograph network of the Centre National de Recherche Appliquée en Génie Parasismique (CGS). The same day the earthquake occurred, eight mobile short period stations were deployed through the epicentral area. In this study, we use accelerogram and seismogram data recorded by these two networks. We combined the focal mechanism built from the first motion of P waves and from waveform inversion, and the distribution of aftershocks to well constrain the source parameters. The mainshock is located with a shallow focal depth, ˜9 km, and the focal mechanism shows a nearly pure left lateral strike slip motion, with total seismic moment of 2.8 × 1016 N.m (Mw = 4.9). The aftershocks mainly cluster on a narrow NS strip, starting at the coast up to 3-4 km inland. This cluster, almost vertical, is concentrated between 6 and 10 km depth. The second part of this work concerns the damage distribution and estimated intensity in the epicentral area. The damage distribution is discussed in connection with the observed maximum strong motion. The acceleration response spectrum with 5 % damping of the mainshock and aftershocks give the maximum amplitude in high frequency which directly affects the performance of the high-frequency structures. Finally, we tie this earthquake with the seismotectonic of the region, leading to conclude that it occurred on a N-S transform zone between two major compressional fault zones oriented NE-SW.

  3. Neurotrophic ACTH4-9 analogue therapy normalizes electroencephalographic alterations in chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Duckers, H J; van Dokkum, R P; Verhaagen, J; van Luijtelaar, E L; Coenen, A M; Lopes da Silva, F H; Gispen, W H

    1998-12-01

    Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CEAE) is an established experimental model for multiple sclerosis (MS). The demyelinating lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system observed in CEAE and in MS are accompanied by various neurophysiological alterations. Among the best defined electrophysiological abnormalities are the changes in event-related potentials, in particular evoked potentials involving the spinal cord, i.e. motor and sensory evoked potentials. Less familiar are the changes observed in the electroencephalogram of CEAE-affected animals, which are also encountered in the human equivalent, MS. In the present experiment we evaluated the therapeutic value of a neurotrophic peptide treatment [H-Met(O2)-Glu-His-Phe-D-Lys-Phe-OH, an ACTH4-9 analogue] and its effect on the delayed flash visual evoked potentials (VEP) and power spectra of the electroencephalogram, during a 17-week follow-up of CEAE. CEAE animals treated with the neurotrophic peptide were protected against the development of neurological symptoms during the course of the demyelinating syndrome. VEPs of animals suffering from CEAE showed a delay of the latencies of the late components which was significantly counteracted by peptide treatment. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the VEP afterdischarge recorded from CEAE animals was significantly increased during the course of CEAE and correlated closely with the progression of the myelinopathy. Furthermore, CEAE animals showed an increase of electroencephalogram (EEG) beta activity of up to 500% as compared with the age-matched control group. This increase in beta power mainly consisted of a prevailing 20-21 Hz peak, a frequency that normally is not dominant in control EEG recordings of the rat during passive wakefulness. All these electrophysiological phenomena were absent in ACTH4-9 analogue-treated animals. The present findings underscore the potential importance of a neurotrophic peptide treatment in the pharmacotherapy of

  4. Altered Striatal Synaptic Function and Abnormal Behaviour in Shank3 Exon4-9 Deletion Mouse Model of Autism.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Speed, Haley E; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2016-03-01

    Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼ 0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients. We find that homozygous deletion of exons 4-9 (Shank3(e4-9) KO) results in loss of the two highest molecular weight isoforms of Shank3 and a significant reduction in other isoforms. Behaviorally, both Shank3(e4-9) heterozygous (HET) and Shank3(e4-9) KO mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in novel and spatial object recognition learning and memory, and abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations. Shank3(e4-9) KO mice also display abnormal social interaction when paired with one another. Analysis of synaptosome fractions from striata of Shank3(e4-9) KO mice reveals decreased Homer1b/c, GluA2, and GluA3 expression. Both Shank3(e4-9) HET and KO demonstrated a significant reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio at excitatory synapses onto striatal medium spiny neurons. Furthermore, Shank3(e4-9) KO mice displayed reduced hippocampal LTP despite normal baseline synaptic transmission. Collectively these behavioral, biochemical and physiological changes suggest Shank3 isoforms have region-specific roles in regulation of AMPAR subunit localization and NMDAR function in the Shank3(e4-9) mutant mouse model of autism.

  5. Vocational Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Research Branch.

    This report describes vocational education in West Germany from a Canadian viewpoint. Chapter 1 discusses education in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1949, including findings and govermental agencies/departments. A resume of the school system is provided in chapter 2. It covers kindergarten and preschool facilities, primary school, three…

  6. Foreign Language Teaching in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliesener, Ulrich; Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg M., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of "Bildung und Wissenschaft" explains the importance of multilingualism in today's world, focusing on foreign language instruction in Germany. It examines the following issues: "Multilingualism in a Changing World"; "The Significance of Foreign Languages for Germany"; "Foreign Languages in…

  7. Update: Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Nessa P.

    The Federal Republic of Germany is widely respected for its highly developed economy, rich cultural life, and significant contributions to science, mathematics, and the arts. Designed for families or individuals planning to move to or live in Germany for extended periods of time, this book provides guidance in such practical matters as entry…

  8. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  9. Phytomedicine research in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, H

    1999-01-01

    In Germany since 1980, more than 300 clinical studies have been carried out with standardized phytopharmaceuticals, including Crataegus, Silybum, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Sabal, Urtica, Kava-Kava, Allium sativum, Valeriana, Aesculus, Echinacea, and Viscum drugs. These studies assessed the efficacy of phytopharmaceuticals for the treatment of moderate or moderately severe diseases and prevention. Several comparative clinical trials showed that these phytopharmaceuticals had full therapeutic equivalence with chemotherapeutics and had the simultaneous advantage of being devoid of any adverse effects. The mechanism of action of herbal drugs and their extract preparations, which differ in many respects from that of synthetic drugs or mono substances, can be characterized as a polyvalent action and interpreted as additive or, in some cases, potentiating. Currently, a rationale for the observed reversal effects and optimal effects with very low doses after a long-term application has not been developed, but is under investigation by systematic research at the molecular level. PMID:10504142

  10. Interaction of alkali metals with perylene-3,4,9,10- tetracarboxylic-dianhydride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wuesten, J.; Berger, S.; Heimer, K.; Lach, S.; Ziegler, Ch.

    2005-07-01

    n doping of the molecular organic semiconductor perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) is often achieved by use of alkali metals as dopants. This doping process is commonly performed in two steps. In the first the dopant is evaporated onto the surface of the PTCDA film. As it has been believed that the dopant shows an inhomogeneous diffusion profile through the layer with most of the dopant accumulated in the first few layers, a subsequent annealing step has been performed in order to reach a homogeneous distribution of the dopant in the whole layer. In this paper experimental results concerning chemical composition ((angle resolved) X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), electronic structure (ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy), as well as electrical properties (conductivity, Seebeck coefficient) are shown before and after doping and before and after annealing. These results suggest that the deposited dopant is redistributed and partially removed during the annealing step. A model for the dopant distribution is suggested.

  11. Injury mortality in East Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, D E; Wildner, M; Bergmann, K E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effects of social changes in East Germany since 1989 on patterns of injury mortality. METHODS: Death certificate data regarding injuries from 1980 through 1995 and police data regarding traffic injuries in East Germany from 1980 through 1998 were compared with similar data from West Germany. RESULTS: The number of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths in East Germany increased dramatically between 1989 and 1991, whereas those in West Germany declined slightly. The increased mortality in the more rural East has especially involved young men driving automobiles on rural roads and has persisted since reunification of East and West Germany. Falls, other accidents, and suicides have shown no such effect. Homicide among East German men has increased but remains uncommon. CONCLUSIONS: Recent social changes in East Germany, including increased access to motor vehicles and decreased restrictions on personal freedom, have been associated with increased motor vehicle crashes and mortality, especially among young men and on rural roads. PMID:11076246

  12. Early experience with unsedated ultrathin 4.9 mm transnasal gastroscopy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Justin; Bailey, Robert; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; McLean, Ross; Fedorak, Richard N; Morse, John; Millan, Mario; Guzowski, Tom; Goodman, Karen J

    2008-11-01

    Unsedated transnasal gastroscopy is a technique with unverified clinical advantages. To evaluate the efficacy and procedure times with transnasal gastroscopy by physicians with no previous experience in transnasal endoscopy. Unsedated transnasal gastroscopy using 4.9 mm ultrathin transnasal gastroscopes with randomization to two different biopsy forceps was prospectively evaluated during a single day in January 2008. The outcomes included patient tolerance (scale: 1, no discomfort; 10, severe discomfort), physician technical assessment (1, excellent; 10, very poor), gastric biopsy quality, adverse events and procedure times. Twenty patients underwent transnasal gastroscopy. Nineteen patients (95%) successfully completed transnasal gastroscopy. The patient-reported mean (+/- SD) overall discomfort level during the procedure was 4.0+/-1.9 compared with a physician-estimated level of 3.2+/-1.7 (P=0.04). Only 10% (n=2) reported they would have preferred sedated over unsedated gastroscopy. Mean total encounter time from anesthesia to discharge was 33.5+/-9.3 min. The time from anesthesia to insertion was 7.0+/-5.3 min and from room exit to discharge 6.2+/-2.9 min. No patients who had gastric biopsies taken (zero of 14) had any of unacceptable quality. The only adverse event was distressing sensations (dyspnea, dizziness) in one patient that started during pre-endoscopy anesthetic application, persisting postendoscopy, but without any abnormalities in vital signs. Assuming the adverse event was a rare reaction, early experience with unsedated ultrathin transnasal gastroscopy was an efficient, effective and well-tolerated procedure for evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, J D

    1976-09-01

    The concept of cardiac reconditioning centers for the prevention and rehabilitation of coronary patients has been tremendously successful in Germany over the past 20 years. At least 40 such centers are located throughout the country. Physicians, nurses, and physical therapists work closely together in the various facets of the rehabilitation process. The financial backing for these facilities is primarily through governmental and regional insurance companies, whose officials are apparently convinced that in the long run supporting preventive measures is financially sound. Objective data supporting their convictions come from studies such as that of Brusis, who showed that such as that of 1,500 employees was diminished by nearly 70 percent during a two-year period after cardiac reconditioning, as compared to a similar time period before the rehabilitation experience. Subjective benefits, which are extremely difficult to quantitate in meaningful terms, were nonetheless expressed by nearly all the patients with whom I conversed. Perhaps they have experienced the same feelings that Mark Twain did when he observed that "all frets and worries and chafings sank to sleep in the presence of the benignant serenity of the Alps; the Great Spirit of the Mountains breathed his own peace upon their hurt minds and sore hearts and healed them."

  14. Occupational cancer in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Brüske-Hohlfeld, I

    1999-01-01

    As in probably mostly all other European countries, the incidence of occupational cancer in Germany increased steadily after World War II. In 1994 about 1,600 cases of occupational cancer were compensated--more than ever before. More than half of these cases were lung cancer, most caused either by asbestos (n=545) or by ionizing radiation ((italic)n(/italic)=306). Other frequent target organs of asbestos were the pleura and the peritoneum with 495 cases of mesotheliomas. Asbestos was the single most important risk factor for occupational cancer, causing more than 1000 deaths per year. All other malignant diseases, such as bladder cancer, leukemia, angiosarcoma of the liver, adenocarcinoma of the nose or nasal sinuses, and skin cancer, were comparatively rare. Although primary exposure to ionizing radiation in uranium ore mining occurred in the 1950s and attributable lung cancers seem to be on the decline, this is not true for asbestos, where the peak incidence in lung cancer and mesothelioma has not been reached yet. Images Figure 2 PMID:10350508

  15. Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The population of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was an estimated 61 million (including West Berlin) in 1986 and is in the process of declining gradually as a result of low birth rates. The infant mortality rate is 11/1000, while life expectancy is 73.4 years for women and 67.2 years for men. Of the work force of 27.6 million, 5.4% are engaged in agriculture, 41.6% work in industry and commerce, 10% are employed by the government, and 42.7% are in the service sector. The gross national product was US$898.8 billion in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.6% and a per capita income of $10,680. The government is parliamentary and based on a democratic constitution emphasizing protection of individual liberty and divided power in a federal structure. Political life since the establishment of the FRG in 1949 has been characterized by remarkable stability and orderly succession. The FRG ranks among the most important economic powers in the world. The economy is largely export oriented, with 25-30% of the gross national product shipped abroad each year. Competition and free enterprise are fostered, but the state participates in the ownership and management of major sections of the economy, including public services. A major concern at present is the country's ability to adapt to new markets and to develop sophisticated technologies.

  16. [Asylum and immigration in Germany].

    PubMed

    Angenendt, S

    1994-01-01

    "Germany, which used to be one of the most tolerant countries in matters concerning asylum, has, since the eighties, been confronted by very large migratory flows. Immigration to [West Germany] consisted every year of hundreds of thousands of asylum-seekers, a similar number of...Germans from Russia, Kazakhstan, Romania and Poland, as well as a large number of East Germans. On May 26th 1993, the Bundestag adopted a new law making asylum and immigration to Germany increasingly difficult. The problem of immigration has not been resolved, however, as is shown by the situation in the East European countries, Germany's neighbours, who are suffering the consequences of the new asylum policy...." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  17. Anticancer properties of new synthetic hybrid molecules combining naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione or benzo[f]indole-4,9-dione motif with phosphonate subunit.

    PubMed

    Gach, Katarzyna; Modranka, Jakub; Szymański, Jacek; Pomorska, Dorota; Krajewska, Urszula; Mirowski, Marek; Janecki, Tomasz; Janecka, Anna

    2016-09-14

    In this paper we report an efficient and general synthesis of substituted 3-diethoxyphosphorylnaphtho [2,3-b]furan-4,9-diones and 3-diethoxyphosphorylbenzo [f]indole-4,9-diones which integrate the natural 1,4-naphtalenedione scaffold, present in several anticancer agents with the phosphonate moiety. The cytotoxicity of such hybrid molecules was tested against two leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and NALM-6 and against a breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell line. Selected compounds were also tested on normal human cells: HUVEC and MCF-10A. In general, naphthofuran-4,9-diones showed much higher cytotoxic activity (IC50 values below 10 μM) than benzoindole-4,9-diones. The most promising 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-diethoxyphosphorylnaphtho [2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, with the highest cytotoxic activity in the MTT test, was chosen for further evaluation of its anticancer potential. This compound, tested on HL-60 and MCF-7 cells inhibited cell proliferation, generated DNA damage and induced apoptosis. The suggested mechanism of its cytotoxic activity was the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the induction of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation.

  18. Sexual Behavior in Germany.

    PubMed

    Haversath, Julia; Gärttner, Kathrin M; Kliem, Sören; Vasterling, Ilka; Strauss, Bernhard; Kröger, Christoph

    2017-08-21

    There have not been any population-based surveys in Germany to date on the frequency of various types of sexual behavior. The topic is of interdisciplinary interest, particularly with respect to the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Within the context of a survey that dealt with multiple topics, information was obtained from 2524 persons about their sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual contacts outside relationships, and contraception. Most of the participating women (82%) and men (86%) described themselves as heterosexual. Most respondents (88%) said they had engaged in vaginal intercourse at least once, and approximately half said they had engaged in oral intercourse at least once (either actively or passively). 4% of the men and 17% of the women said they had been the receptive partner in anal intercourse at least once. 5% of the respondents said they had had unprotected sexual intercourse outside their primary partnership on a single occasion, and 8% said they had done so more than once; only 2% of these persons said they always used a condom during sexual intercourse with their primary partner. Among persons reporting unprotected intercourse outside their primary partnership, 25% said they had undergone a medical examination afterward because of concern about a possible sexually transmitted infection. Among some groups of persons, routine sexual-medicine examinations may help contain the spread of sexually transmitted infections. One component of such examinations should be sensitive questioning about the types of sexual behavior that are associated with a high risk of infection. Information should be provided about the potential modes of transmission, including unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse outside the primary partnership.

  19. Radiographic contrast media alterate the localization of actin/band4.9 in the membrane cytoskeleton of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Franke, R P; Scharnweber, T; Fuhrmann, R; Mrowietz, C; Wenzel, F; Krüger, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    Different radiographic contrast media (RCM) were shown to induce morphological changes of blood cells (e.g. erythrocytes or thrombocytes) and endothelial cells. The echinocytic shape change of erythrocytes, particularly, affords alterations of the membrane cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton plays a crucial role for the shape and deformability of the red blood cell. Disruption of the interaction between components of the red blood cell membrane cytoskeleton may cause a loss of structural and functional integrity of the membrane. In this study band4.9 and actin as components of the cytoskeletal junctional complex were examined in human erythrocytes after suspension in autologous plasma or in plasma RCM mixtures (30% v/v Iodixanol-320 or Iopromide-370) followed by a successive double staining with TRITC-/FITC-coupled monoclonal antibodies. After adding Iopromide-370 to the plasma in practically none of the cells the rounded conformation of the membrane cytoskeleton - as it appeared in cells suspended in autologous plasma - was found. In addition, Iopromide-370 induced thin lines and coarse knob-like structures of band4.9 at the cell periphery while most cell centers were devoid of band4.9, and a box-like arrangement of bands of band4.9. A dissociation between colours red (actin) and green (band4.9) occurred as well. In contrast, erythrocytes suspended in a plasma/Iodixanol-320 mixture showed a membrane cytoskeleton comparable to cells suspended in autologous plasma, Similar results were found with respect to the distribution of actin. This study revealed for the first time RCM-dependent differences in band4.9 activities as possible pathophysiological mechanism for the chemotoxicity of radiographic contrast media.

  20. [Specialized pain care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Dietl, M; Korczak, D

    2013-04-01

    In order to characterize the pain care situation in Germany, a health technology assessment (HTA) was carried out on behalf of the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI). An up to date literature search was conducted using the database Pubmed. Reviews and studies which describe the pain care in Germany were included. The Physicians' Health Insurance Associations conducted an additional database survey. Overall 12 studies were included and the results of the analysis showed that there is a lack of some 2,500 curative pain care institutions in Germany. There is also clear under use of inpatient and outpatient institutions in palliative care. The results prove the benefits of the interdisciplinary approach in pain care. Further development should strive to increase the provision of pain and palliative care. There is a great need for pain care research in order to concrete the needs.

  1. Measurements in the wake of blunt aerobrake models at 1.8 and 4.9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Davy, W. C.; Kruse, R.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of upper and lower shear turning angles and the wake-neck location that were obtained in the NASA Ames' ballistic range are presented. The upper shear turning angles measured in the ballistic range at velocities of 1.8 and 4.9 km/s are compared to the wind tunnel results.

  2. Computerized Writing and Reading Instruction for Students in Grades 4-9 with Specific Learning Disabilities Affecting Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanimoto, S.; Thompson, R.; Berninger, V. W.; Nagy, W.; Abbott, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computer scientists and educational researchers evaluated effectiveness of computerized instruction tailored to evidence-based impairments in specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in students in grades 4-9 with persisting SLDs despite prior extra help. Following comprehensive, evidence-based differential diagnosis for dysgraphia (impaired…

  3. Behavioral Effects of Org 2766, a Synthetic Analog of the Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (4-9), in 14 Outpatient Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buitelaar, Jan K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen autistic children (ages 5-13) were administered Org 2766 (a synthetic analog of the adrenocorticotrophic hormone 4-9) or a placebo for 4 weeks. The hormone appeared to decrease stereotypic behavior and increase such behaviors as "change toys,""locomote," and "talk," though Aberrant Behavior Checklist ratings…

  4. Computerized Writing and Reading Instruction for Students in Grades 4-9 with Specific Learning Disabilities Affecting Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanimoto, S.; Thompson, R.; Berninger, V. W.; Nagy, W.; Abbott, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computer scientists and educational researchers evaluated effectiveness of computerized instruction tailored to evidence-based impairments in specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in students in grades 4-9 with persisting SLDs despite prior extra help. Following comprehensive, evidence-based differential diagnosis for dysgraphia (impaired…

  5. Behavioral Effects of Org 2766, a Synthetic Analog of the Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (4-9), in 14 Outpatient Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buitelaar, Jan K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen autistic children (ages 5-13) were administered Org 2766 (a synthetic analog of the adrenocorticotrophic hormone 4-9) or a placebo for 4 weeks. The hormone appeared to decrease stereotypic behavior and increase such behaviors as "change toys,""locomote," and "talk," though Aberrant Behavior Checklist ratings…

  6. Lise Meitner's escape from Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1990-03-01

    Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

  7. Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Just, Frank Thomas; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pradel, Ingrid; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Lengauer, Heidi; Hellmann, Klaus; Pfister, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Among 310 fleas collected from dogs and cats in Germany, Rickettsia felis was detected in all specimens (34) of Archaeopsylla erinacei (hedgehog flea) and in 9% (24/226) of Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea). R. helvetica was detected in 1 Ceratophyllus gallinae (hen flea). PMID:18680660

  8. English Teaching Profile (Provisional): Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English instruction in West Germany is outlined. The regions of West Berlin, Hesse, and North Rhine-Westphalia are highlighted. The role of English and English instruction in the country as a whole, English instruction in the educational system, the demand for and qualifications of English teachers, textbook selection and…

  9. Reform of health care in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jeremy W.

    1991-01-01

    For the past 45 years Germany has had two health care systems: one in the former Federal Republic of Germany and one in the former German Democratic Republic. The system in the Federal Republic was undergoing some important reforms when German reunification took place in October 1990. Now the system in eastern Germany is undergoing a major transformation to bring it more into line with that in western Germany. PMID:10110879

  10. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  11. Minorities in Germany after 1945. Discussion Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Lutz R.

    Members of minority groups in Germany were subjected to extreme forms of repression and in some cases extermination at the hands of the Nazis. Today, for many different reasons, members of minority groups are living in West Germany again. This paper presents the experience of minorities in West Germany since 1945 in light of the following factors:…

  12. Cyclic AMP in female mouse brain is altered by the adrenocorticotropic hormone(4-9) analogue organon 2766.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D R; Felt, B T; Murphy, S; Goldman, H

    1981-09-01

    Cyclic AMP content was determined in 12 brain regions of young adult female mice at 30 min and at 24 h following an intraperitoneal injection of the tri-substituted adrenocorticotropic hormone(4-9) [ACTH(4-9)] analogue Organon 2766 [ORG 2766]. Animals were killed by focused 3.5 kW microwave radiation applied for 350 ms. Unlike previously reported responses in male mice, at 30 min post-injection there were no detectable differences in cyclic AMP content between the placebo and ORG 2766-treated animals. By contrast, 24 h after injection, the content of cyclic AMP was changed significantly in 8 of the 12 brain regions examined: medulla-pons, septal area, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and parietal and occipital cortices. In most of the regions examined, differences consisted of 50% or greater reductions of tissue cyclic AMP content. The changes were unrelated to the estrus cycle of these animals.

  13. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years), clinical science (3 years) and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany. PMID:19675742

  14. Characteristics of patients with fibromyalgia in France and Germany.

    PubMed

    Perrot, S; Winkelmann, A; Dukes, E; Xu, X; Schaefer, C; Ryan, K; Chandran, A; Sadosky, A; Zlateva, G

    2010-07-01

    Few studies have comprehensively assessed the burden associated with fibromyalgia (FM). This cross-sectional, observational study evaluates the impact of FM on patients in France and Germany. A total of 299 FM patients were recruited from 33 physician offices in France and Germany during routine visits. Patients completed a survey that included the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-sf), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to describe their pain, FM and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). FM severity was defined using patients' FIQ total scores with 0 to < 39, 39 to < 59 and 59-100, representing mild, moderate and severe FM, respectively. Site staff completed case report forms using patients' medical records. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 54.2 (12.6); 81% of patients were women. The mean (SD) FIQ total score was 53.3 (19.6); 33% and 44% of patients reported moderate and severe FM, respectively. Most patients (91%) were receiving prescription medications for FM during the study. Patients reported a mean (SD) EQ-5D health state valuation of 0.44 (0.33) and a mean (SD) BPI-sf Pain Severity Index score of 4.9 (1.8). Forty-one percent of patients reported some level of disruption in their employment because of FM; employed patients missed a mean (SD) of 2.2 (4.6) workdays during the past 4 weeks. An increase in FM severity was significantly associated with increased pain severity, productivity loss, sleep disturbance and higher anxiety and depression (p < 0.0001). There is a substantial burden of illness including treatment limitations for FM patients in France and Germany.

  15. Complex spatiotemporal evolution of the 2008 Mw 4.9 Mogul earthquake swarm (Reno, Nevada): Interplay of fluid and faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Smith, K. D.; Zaliapin, I.

    2016-11-01

    After approximately 2 months of swarm-like earthquakes in the Mogul neighborhood of west Reno, NV, seismicity rates and event magnitudes increased over several days culminating in an Mw 4.9 dextral strike-slip earthquake on 26 April 2008. Although very shallow, the Mw 4.9 main shock had a different sense of slip than locally mapped dip-slip surface faults. We relocate 7549 earthquakes, calculate 1082 focal mechanisms, and statistically cluster the relocated earthquake catalog to understand the character and interaction of active structures throughout the Mogul, NV earthquake sequence. Rapid temporary instrument deployment provides high-resolution coverage of microseismicity, enabling a detailed analysis of swarm behavior and faulting geometry. Relocations reveal an internally clustered sequence in which foreshocks evolved on multiple structures surrounding the eventual main shock rupture. The relocated seismicity defines a fault-fracture mesh and detailed fault structure from approximately 2-6 km depth on the previously unknown Mogul fault that may be an evolving incipient strike-slip fault zone. The seismicity volume expands before the main shock, consistent with pore pressure diffusion, and the aftershock volume is much larger than is typical for an Mw 4.9 earthquake. We group events into clusters using space-time-magnitude nearest-neighbor distances between events and develop a cluster criterion through randomization of the relocated catalog. Identified clusters are largely main shock-aftershock sequences, without evidence for migration, occurring within the diffuse background seismicity. The migration rate of the largest foreshock cluster and simultaneous background events is consistent with it having triggered, or having been triggered by, an aseismic slip event.

  16. A halochromic stimuli-responsive reversible fluorescence switching 3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid dye for fabricating rewritable platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, P. S.; Pitchaimani, J.; Madhu, Vedichi; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2017-02-01

    3, 4, 9, 10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA), a strongly fluorescent water soluble dye with halochromic functionality showed pH dependent reversible fluorescence switching. The strong fluorescence of PTCA (Φf = 0.67) in basic medium was completely quenched upon acidification. The fluorescent PTCA has been transferred on to a solid substrate (filter paper and glass plate) that also showed reversible off-on fluorescence switching by acid/base and drying/water vapor exposure. The reversible fluorescence switching of PTCA could be of potential interest for fabricating rewritable fluorescent medium.

  17. 3D Structure of Brownmillerite Ba1.95In2O4.9F0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, N.; Animitsa, I.; Galisheva, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the questions about location of fluorine atoms in the structure and the changes in the lengths of indium-oxygen bonds were resolved. The crystal structure of fluorine doped brownmillerite Ba1.95In2O4.9F0.1 was investigated. It was found that fluorine atoms are localized in tetrahedra [InO3F]. The change in the length of In-O bonds at fluorine substitution is determined. The change in the bonds lengths leads to a change in the mobility of the carrier, and, accordingly, to a change of the ionic conductivity.

  18. Possible cause for an improbable earthquake: The 1997 MW 4.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Wolf, L.

    1999-01-01

    Circumstantial and physical evidence indicates that the 1997 MW 4.9 earthquake in southern Alabama may have been related to hydrocarbon recovery. Epicenters of this earthquake and its aftershocks were located within a few kilometers of active oil and gas extraction wells and two pressurized injection wells. Main shock and aftershock focal depths (2-6 km) are within a few kilometers of the injection and withdrawal depths. Strain accumulation at geologic rates sufficient to cause rupture at these shallow focal depths is not likely. A paucity of prior seismicity is difficult to reconcile with the occurrence of an earthquake of MW 4.9 and a magnitude-frequency relationship usually assumed for natural earthquakes. The normal-fault main-shock mechanism is consistent with reactivation of preexisting faults in the regional tectonic stress field. If the earthquake were purely tectonic, however, the question arises as to why it occurred on only the small fraction of a large, regional fault system coinciding with active hydrocarbon recovery. No obvious temporal correlation is apparent between the earthquakes and recovery activities. Although thus far little can be said quantitatively about the physical processes that may have caused the 1997 sequence, a plausible explanation involves the poroelastic response of the crust to extraction of hydrocarbons.

  19. Possible cause for an improbable earthquake: The 1997 Mw 4.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, Joan; Wolf, Lorraine

    1999-04-01

    Circumstantial and physical evidence indicates that the 1997 Mw 4.9 earthquake in southern Alabama may have been related to hydrocarbon recovery. Epicenters of this earthquake and its aftershocks were located within a few kilometers of active oil and gas extraction wells and two pressurized injection wells. Main shock and aftershock focal depths (2 6 km) are within a few kilometers of the injection and withdrawal depths. Strain accumulation at geologic rates sufficient to cause rupture at these shallow focal depths is not likely. A paucity of prior seismicity is difficult to reconcile with the occurrence of an earthquake of Mw 4.9 and a magnitude-frequency relationship usually assumed for natural earthquakes. The normal-fault main-shock mechanism is consistent with reactivation of preexisting faults in the regional tectonic stress field. If the earthquake were purely tectonic, however, the question arises as to why it occurred on only the small fraction of a large, regional fault system coinciding with active hydrocarbon recovery. No obvious temporal correlation is apparent between the earthquakes and recovery activities. Although thus far little can be said quantitatively about the physical processes that may have caused the 1997 sequence, a plausible explanation involves the poroelastic response of the crust to extraction of hydrocarbons.

  20. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  1. [Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany].

    PubMed

    Edelmann, E

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany is managed by rheumatologists in private practice (n = 557), by authorized rheumatism outpatient centers (n = 116), by rheumatism centers according to §116b (n = 43) and by university outpatient departments. A total number of 975 rheumatologists were registered by the end of 2012 of whom approximately 830 were active in outpatient care. With this number of rheumatologists Germany is in the middle range in comparison to eight industrial nations including the USA. This number is not sufficient to provide adequate medical care and the consequences are too long waiting times for an appointment with a rheumatologist. Statistical data of the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians) showed 688,000 general insurance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As some 68.9 % of the population are in this insurance scheme there are some 770,000 RA patients in Germany (almost 1 % of the population). One way to improve rheumatology care in spite of the lack of rheumatologists could be special agreements with the general health insurance providers to improve cooperation and division of responsibilities between rheumatologists and general practitioners, to implement patient education, tighter control and treat to target in rheumatology care. Another way could be a new treatment level called "ambulant specialist care", with no budget for medical care and no budget for the number of patients treated and therefore the chance for rheumatologists to treat more patients and have a better income. To achieve that more young doctors receive approval as a specialist in rheumatology, more chairs of rheumatology at universities and a nationwide stipendium for training assistants are needed.

  2. [Prevalence of stalking in Germany].

    PubMed

    Dressing, Harald; Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The present study aimed at gathering information on the lifetime prevalence and impact of stalking on victims in a German community. A postal survey was sent to 1000 men and 1000 women who were sampled randomly from the inhabitant register. The lifetime prevalence of being a stalking victim was at 11.6 %. Compared to non-victims, stalking victims scored significantly poorer on the WHO-5 well-being index. Stalking seems to be a relevant problem in Germany. Physicians have to become experts in this issue since victims frequently ask them for help.

  3. [Awards to Hajime Hoshi dedicated from Germany].

    PubMed

    Misawa, Miwa

    2006-01-01

    In the Hajime Hoshi Memorial Exhibit Hall of Hoshi University, many awards dedicated to H. Hoshi from Germany are displayed. Hoshi made a donation amounting to about 20 millions dollars to the distressed chemistry science community of Germany just after the 1st World War. The Hoshi fund gave the scientific society hope to recover, and deeply impressed and delighted the German people. The awards to Hoshi dedicated from Germany strongly reflect the hot spirit of Japan-Germany cultural exchange. The present study investigates the details of the awards.

  4. Club drug use in Germany.

    PubMed

    Soellner, Renate

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the epidemiology of club drug use in Germany, including the use of 3,4-methylendioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) known as 'ecstasy' and related substances such as speed, amphetamines, hallucinogens, and cannabis is described on the basis of five different surveys. Two of them are representative household surveys to monitor the licit and illicit drug use behavior of the German population. The third one is a longitudinal study aimed at exploring comorbidity and posited risk and protective factors in adolescents and young adults with specific emphasis on substance use-related disorders. Since ecstasy seemed to be associated with a new music culture of the '90s called "techno," two studies investigating the relationship of using ecstasy and related substances in the techno party scene are additionally presented. The question of the clinical impact of using ecstasy and related substances is raised in terms of substance use-related and mental disorders associated with the use of ecstasy. Finally, the motivation for using and stopping the use of ecstasy is addressed. It is shown that ecstasy has reached the second place (after cannabis) in illegal drug preferences of adolescents and young adults in Germany. Evidence is found that ecstasy use as well as ecstasy use-related disorders such as "abuse" and "dependence" are of a transient, "youth-limited" nature.

  5. Oncological resource allocation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Michael; Kath, Roland; Gundermann, Christin

    2008-03-01

    Oncology is a resource-intensive medical discipline where, so far, effectiveness rather than efficiency of a treatment has stood in the foreground. The aim of our study was, therefore, to determine the resource allocation and to assess the efficiency of oncology in Germany for the period of 2002-2004. With the aid of the official German Health Report, the expenditures for health in 2004 and the gain in years of life according to ICD 10 disease categories were analyzed. Based on the incremental costs and years of life gained, the cost calculation per year of life gained was made. Malignant neoplasms appear in 5th place in health expenditures at a cost of 15 billion 1. With costs per year of life gained of 140,750 1, malignant neoplasms range ahead of respiratory diseases (52,500 1)digestive diseases (27,455 1), and injuries (14,538 1). Costs involving malignant neoplasm per year of life gained range between 39,000 1(malignancies of the lip, oral cavity, and the pharynx), and 126,000 1(digestive organ cancer). In Germany, oncology incurs higher costs per year of life gained as compared to several other diseases. Also, in malignant neoplasm considerable differences can be observed regarding resource allocation and efficiency. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Seismic risk mapping for Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagunov, S.; Grünthal, G.; Wahlström, R.; Stempniewski, L.; Zschau, J.

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII-IX (EMS-98). Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard coincides with high concentration of exposed assets, the damaging implications from earthquakes must be taken seriously. In this study a methodology is presented and pursued to calculate the seismic risk from (1) intensity based probabilistic seismic hazard, (2) vulnerability composition models, which are based on the distribution of residential buildings of various structural types in representative communities and (3) the distribution of assets in terms of replacement costs for residential buildings. The estimates of the risk are treated as primary economic losses due to structural damage to residential buildings. The obtained results are presented as maps of the damage and risk distributions. For a probability level of 90% non-exceedence in 50 years (corresponding to a mean return period of 475 years) the mean damage ratio is up to 20% and the risk up to hundreds of millions of euro in the most endangered communities. The developed models have been calibrated with observed data from several damaging earthquakes in Germany and the nearby area in the past 30 years.

  7. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  8. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  9. Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 is focused in part on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas) from coal gasification. This art has been practiced for many years in Germany, South Africa, and the US. The conversion of coal gasification products to commercially valuable alcohols will provide an important new market for current and future gasification plants. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. This support for the active metal is a mixed oxide capable of interaction with the metal sites for catalysis of carbon monoxide reductions. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed and one catalyst was tested under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, this catalyst with low metal loading was inactive. Therefore, a catalyst with a high metal loading and additional metal sites (cobalt, potassium) is now being tested.

  10. Reduction of the 3,4,9,10-perylenediimides and the formation of eletrodeposited films based on their radical anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Gu, Shuang-Xi

    2014-09-01

    The reduction of the two 3,4,9,10-perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives in the mixture of hydrazine hydrate and N,N-dimethylformamide was investigated by the UV-vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra (FL) and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The time dependence of the PDI content, as well as the structure of PDI aggregates were also investigated and discussed. Combining the electro-migration behavior of PDI-· with the molecular self-assembly properties, the films of two PDI derivatives (PDI-32 and PDI-123) were successfully fabricated via anode electro-deposition (AED). The difference of aggregation state between the two PDI films was studied by UV-vis absorption spectra, XRD and SEM. Based on these, the formation mechanism of PDI films was also deduced.

  11. Precursory signatures in the radon and geohydrological borehole data for M4.9 Kharsali earthquake of Garhwal Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Choubey, V M; Kumar, Naresh; Arora, B R

    2009-11-01

    Continuous recording of different geophysical parameters incorporated at a single location as a unified effort for earthquake precursory through geodynamical changes initiated for the first time in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. A 68 m deep borehole, penetrating into the water table is operated for continuous radon monitoring along with meteorological/geohydrological observations at two points, one at 10 m (in the air column) and the second one at 50 m (within water column) depths from surface. Preliminary studies reveal diagnostic short duration anomalies in radon concentration recorded few days before the occurrence of a nearby moderate M4.9 earthquake at Kharsali on the 23rd of July, 2007. For nearly half of the year, radon emanation at 10 m depth in the closed air column showed definite pattern of daily variations that may be due to the influence of tidal forces, meteorological and other geodynamical phenomena. This pattern is totally missing during June and July, 2007 when few anomalies for small durations were observed out of which two are unique. These two anomalies exceed 2 sigma (standard deviation) from average radon concentration in both positive and negative sides. However, its emanation at 50 m depth (water radon) is almost constant throughout the year 2007 except some disturbances observed to the ending of June and during July. These abnormalities in radon emanation and other parameters in the borehole may be considered precursory to the M4.9 Kharsali earthquake of July 23, 2007 having an epicenter distance of 60 km. The empirical relation used for amount of radon anomaly with the epicenter distance predicts an earthquake of M4.6 and M4.7 with the observed anomaly at 10 m and 50 m observation points respectively after taking a 60 km epicenter distance.

  12. Why Study Germany and Europe Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Provides 10 reasons why the study of Germany and the European Community should be taught in U.S. social studies. Argues that the cultural interrelationships between the United States and Germany are historically significant. Contends that the experiences of post-World War II German reconstruction and the reunification after the Cold War can serve…

  13. History of modern genetics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Friederike

    2002-01-01

    The history of modern genetics in Germany during the 20th century is a story of missed chances. In the USA the genetic revolution opened a fascinating new field for ambitious scientists and created a rapidly growing new industry. Meanwhile Germany stood aside, combating with political and social restrictions. Promising young scientists who wanted to work in the field left Germany for the US, and big companies moved their facilities out of the country. Up until the middle of the 1990s molecular biology in Germany remained a "sleeping beauty" even though many brilliant scientists did their jobs very well. Then a somewhat funny idea changed everything: the German minister for education and science proclaimed the BioRegio contest in order to award the most powerful biotechnology region in Germany concerning academia and especially industry. Since then Germany's biotechnology industry has grown constantly and rapidly due to the foundation of a number of small biotech companies; big companies have returned their interests and their investments to Germany, paralleled by an improvement in academic research because of more funding and better support especially for younger scientists. In respect to biotechnology and molecular biology, Germany is still a developing country, but it has started to move and to take its chances in an exciting global competition.

  14. The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinan, Desmond

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

  15. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  16. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  17. 2 x Germany; 2 x Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldenhauer, Gebhard

    1991-01-01

    Describes textbooks of both East and West Germany from 1949-56, 1957-62, 1963-69, and 1970 on. Discusses a shift in West German texts from intense antagonism during the Cold War to a more critical comparison by the 1980s. Compares East German text development that increased in hostility over time, viewing West Germany as a negative alternative to…

  18. Children's "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda; O'Donnell, Alison J

    2009-12-01

    Children with disabilities were killed during the Nazi era, often by nurses. Some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders. Propaganda about the need for "racial purity" was all pervasive and influenced much of the population, including nurses. The German people accepted the "mercy" killing of children with disabilities. We describe the children's "euthanasia" program, explore the influence of propaganda, ask why it was acceptable to kill children, and provide historical context demonstrating "slippery slopes" which can lead to abrogation of ethical principles. Discussion of such history is essential as the ethical principles which were breached are still the cornerstone of nursing practice today. Only by openly discussing past wrongs can we attempt to ensure that they do not happen again. Archival documents from Germany and Israel, including trial depositions and transcripts, provided material, supplemented by secondary classic sources.

  19. [Health and justice in Germany].

    PubMed

    Rosenbrock, R

    2007-12-01

    "What do we owe each other?" Variously grounded postulates and theories of social justice try to answer this question with regard to health. Equality of opportunity is widely acclaimed and in Germany also anchored in social security laws. From the perspective of equal opportunity, the author examines the state of affairs and the perspectives of equity in health. Although the deficiencies with regard to access and quality of health care are significant, but relatively moderate, they present serious threats to equity and fairness for the future. Regarding non-medical primary prevention, the reduction of inequality in health has barely begun. The largest obstacles to equity in health are to be found in the distribution and dynamics of opportunities for education, work and income. One of the tasks of public health professionals is to place the health consequences of existing policies on the political agenda.

  20. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-10-01

    Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. German sleep centers. Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. None; observational study. A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94-7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. For the years 2007-2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Lower Limb Amputation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Knut; Berg, Christian; Santosa, Frans; Malyar, Nasser; Reinecke, Holger

    2017-02-24

    Declining amputation rates have been reported in multiple countries in recent years. It is not yet known whether amputation rates have declined in Germany as well. On the basis of DRG (diagnosis-related group) data, we received a list from the German Federal Statistical Office of all major and minor amputations documented in German hospitals from 2005 to 2014. Changes over this period were studied with linear regression. The absolute number of amputations per year in Germany rose slightly from 55 689 in 2005 to 57 637 (+3.5%) in 2014. After the exclusion of cases in which the main diagnosis was trauma, intoxication, musculoskeletal disease, diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, or neoplasia, the corresponding numbers were 48 043 in 2005 and 48 561 in 2014 (+1.1%). The age-adjusted rate of major amputations per 100 000 persons per year fell from 23.3 to 16.1 (-30.9%), while the rate of minor amputations rose from 35.0 to 43.9 (+25.4%). The percentage of major amputations that took place in patients with diabetes mellitus as the main diagnosis or a side diagnosis declined from 70.2% to 63.7%. For all of these changes, p <0.0001. From 2005 to 2014, the major amputation rate fell by 30.9% while the minor amputation rate rose by 25.4%. The goal of lowering amputation rates still further will be best served not only by applying the recognized preventive measures in patients with foot lesions, but also by further research into the causes of the recent changes in amputation numbers. Prospective registries will be needed.

  2. Novel hole transporting materials based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine derivatives for OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quynh Pham Bao; Baek, Sueng Ji; Kim, Mi Jin; Shin, Na Young; Kim, Gyeong Woo; Choe, Dong Cheol; Kwon, Jang Hyuk; Chai, Kyu Yun

    2014-09-10

    During the past few years, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been increasingly studied due to their emerging applicability. However, some of the properties of existing OLEDs could be improved, such as their overall efficiency and durability; these aspects have been addressed in the current study. A series of novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs) 3a-c based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine conjugated with different carbazole or triphenylamine derivatives have been readily synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions. The resulting compounds showed good thermal stabilities with high glass transition temperatures between 148 and 165 °C. The introduction of HTMs 3b and 3c into the standard devices ITO/HATCN/NPB/HTMs 3 (indium tin oxide/dipyrazino(2,3-f:2',3'-h)quinoxaline 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile/N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine/HTMs)/CBP (4,4'-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl): 5% Ir(ppy)3/Bphen/LiF/Al (tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/LiF/Al) resulted in significantly enhanced current, power, and external quantum efficiencies (EQE) as compared to the reference device without any layers of HTMs 3.

  3. Electrical conductivity, optical properties and mechanical stability of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhidride based organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Mayank; Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim; Nath Ghosh, Narendra; Nambi Raj, N. Arunai

    2015-05-01

    The 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) doped polymer films were prepared with Polypyrrole (PPy) and Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymers by solution-casting. The change in structure and chemical composition of samples was identified by XRD and FTIR respectively. The UV-visible spectroscopy demonstrates the optical characteristics and band gap properties of sample. The homogeneous morphology of sample for higher wt% of PTCDA was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrate the decrease in melting temperature (Tm) and degree of crystallinity (χc%) of polymeric organic semiconductor. The mechanical property demonstrates the high tensile strength and improved plasticity nature. Impedance spectroscopy was evaluated to determine the conductivity response of polymeric organic semiconductor. The highest DC conductivity (2.08×10-3 S/m) was obtained for 10 wt% of PTCDA at 140 °C. The decrease in activation energy (Ea) represents the non-Debye process and was evaluated from the slope of ln σdc vs. 103/T plot.

  4. Study of inundation events along the southern coast of Java and Bali, Indonesia (case studies 4-9 June 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraheni, I. R.; Wijayanti, D. P.; Sugianto, D. N.; Ramdhani, A.

    2017-02-01

    It is important to understand the causes of costal inundation in order to supporting coastal hazard mitigation strategies, especially for the island nation like Indonesia. We investigated the interaction of waves, swell, tides and sea level variability at the coastal inundation events that occurred along southern coast of Java and Bali on June 4 to 9, 2016. The increase of high water level and low water level clearly seen compared to the same astronomic phase tides data before and after the inundation events. The high value of sea level anomaly (SLA) also indicates that there is sea level variability. The wave and swell analysis suggests that extreme waves and swell which occurs during the early of June 2016 has a contribution to the rising of the sea level during the inundation time span. Swell has a major contribution in the wave action that triggering this inundation event given that the significant waves that occur in the time span of the inundation were not affected by wind, but by the swell. This research has shown that the interaction of astronomical tides, SLA height, and high waves and swell along the southern coast of Java and Bali was causing the inundation events at 4-9 June 2016.

  5. Fascioloides magna--epizootiology in a deer farm in Germany.

    PubMed

    Plötz, Cornelia; Rehbein, Steffen; Bamler, Helmut; Reindl, Hubert; Pfister, Kurt; Scheuerle, Miriam C

    2015-01-01

    After initial observations of suspicious cases in 2009, the occurrence of Fascioloides (F.) magna in deer of a deer farm located in northeastern Bavaria, Germany, at the border to the Czech Republic was confirmed in autumn 2011. In March 2012, the deer were treated for fascioloidosis with triclabendazole. To monitor the epizootiology of fascioloidosis in the farm, 80-100 faecal samples were examined for Fascioloides eggs at monthly intervals from June 2012 to June 2013 inclusive. In addition, livers of 27 red deer and one sika deer collected during winter 2012/2013 were examined for gross lesions suspicious for F. magna infection and 21 of the 28 livers were dissected for F. magna recovery. Fascioloides eggs were recorded in 63 (4.9%) of 1280 faecal samples (range 0.4 to 355 eggs per gram). Both, number of Fascioloides-egg positive samples and egg counts were low during the first eight months of the study but increased notably since February 2013. While Fascioloides egg-positive faecal samples were obtained from red deer (46/948,4.9%) and fallow deer (17/166, 10.2%), no Fascioloides eggs were demonstrated in the 166 samples obtained from sika deer. Livers of five red deer and the sika deer showed gross lesions characteristic for fascioloidosis, and F. magna were recovered from three of the five affected red deer livers (range, five to seven flukes). Results of this study confirm that F. magna is endemic in the deer farm, and measures should be implemented to minimize the transmission of the parasite.

  6. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Christian; Baby, Anu; Gruenewald, Marco; Verwüster, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Oliver T; Forker, Roman; Fratesi, Guido; Brivio, Gian Paolo; Zojer, Egbert; Fritz, Torsten

    2016-02-23

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content.

  7. Complex Stoichiometry-Dependent Reordering of 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Dianhydride on Ag(111) upon K Intercalation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metal atoms are frequently used for simple yet efficient n-type doping of organic semiconductors and as an ingredient of the recently discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors. However, the incorporation of dopants from the gas phase into molecular crystal structures needs to be controlled and well understood in order to optimize the electronic properties (charge carrier density and mobility) of the target material. Here, we report that potassium intercalation into the pristine 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayer domains on a Ag(111) substrate induces distinct stoichiometry-dependent structural reordering processes, resulting in highly ordered and large KxPTCDA domains. The emerging structures are analyzed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (ST[H]M), and low-energy electron diffraction as a function of the stoichiometry. The analysis of the measurements is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. These turn out to be essential for a correct interpretation of the experimental ST[H]M data. The epitaxy types for all intercalated stages are determined as point-on-line. The K atoms adsorb in the vicinity of the oxygen atoms of the PTCDA molecules, and their positions are determined with sub-Ångström precision. This is a crucial prerequisite for the prospective assessment of the electronic properties of such composite films, as they depend rather sensitively on the mutual alignment between donor atoms and acceptor molecules. Our results demonstrate that only the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches allows for an unambiguous explanation of the pronounced reordering of KxPTCDA/Ag(111) upon changing the K content. PMID:26718635

  8. [Familial prostate carcinoma in Germany].

    PubMed

    Paiss, T; Herkommer, K; Chab, A; Häussler, J; Vogel, W; Gschwend, J E; Hautmann, R E

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that hereditary forms account for approximately 10% of all prostate cancers. The identification of several susceptibility loci harboring predisposing genes indicates the genetic heterogeneity of prostate cancer. The conflicting results of different linkage analyses may be explained by a varying contribution of each locus within different family collections and reflect differences of allele frequencies across different populations. In the present study we recorded the incidence of familial prostate cancer in Germany and performed descriptive analysis of the epidemiological data. In spite of a significant ascertainment bias, only 19% of all prostate cancers were familial. In 94% of families there were three affected relatives at most. Large prostate cancer families with at least five affected persons were rare (2%). Descriptive analysis revealed that only 42% of all pedigrees followed an autosomal-dominant pattern of transmission; the other pedigrees showed an X-chromosomal or recessive mode of inheritance. These data confirm the genetic heterogeneity of hereditary prostate cancer and imply that previously published epidemiological data cannot be transferred to the German population.

  9. Imported furuncular myiasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Robert, Leon; Yelton, John

    2002-12-01

    Furuncular myiasis is a parasitic infestation of human and other vertebrate tissues by fly larvae of primarily two species: Dermatobia hominis (human botfly, t6rsalo, or berne) in Mexico and South and Central America and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly or mango fly) in Africa. Cuterebra species (rabbit and rodent botflies) are also rarely reported to cause furuncular myiasis only within the United States. Although these species inhabit different geographic regions and have different life cycles, their clinical presentations can be similar. We describe a case of "imported" human botfly (D. hominis) furuncular myiasis in a U.S. Army soldier stationed in Germany. We review the life cycles of human botflies and key aspects of their clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and various therapeutic modalities. Most physicians may never encounter myiasis and attribute a patient's complaints to an insect bite or skin infection that will heal without treatment. However, the diagnosis of furuncular myiasis should be considered by remembering the basic elements of this condition: recent travel history to the tropics and a sterile, persistent furuncle with sensations of movement and pain.

  10. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground.

  11. Trauma care in India and Germany.

    PubMed

    Oestern, Hans-Joerg; Garg, Bhavuk; Kotwal, Prakash

    2013-09-01

    Road traffic accidents are among the leading causes of death worldwide in individuals younger than 45 years. In both India and Germany, there has been an increase in registered motor vehicles over the last decades. However, while the number of traffic accident victims steadily dropped in Germany, there has been a sustained increase in India. We analyze this considering the sustained differences in rescue and trauma system status. We compared India and Germany in terms of (1) vehicular infrastructure and causes of road traffic accident-related trauma, (2) burden of trauma, and (3) current trauma care and prevention, and (4) based on these observations, we suggested how India and other countries can enhance trauma care and prevention. Data for Germany were obtained from federal statistical databases, German Automobile Club, and German Trauma Registry. Data from India were available from the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. We also performed a standardized literature search of PubMed for India and Germany using the following key words: "road traffic accidents", "prevention", "prehospital trauma care", "trauma system", "trauma registry", "trauma centers", and "development of vehicles." The total number of registered motor vehicles increased 473-fold in India and 100-fold in Germany from 1951 to 2011. The number of road traffic deaths increased in both countries until 1970, but thereafter decreased in Germany (3606 in 2012) while continuing to increase in India (142,485 in 2011). The differences between Germany and India relate to the relative sizes and populations of the countries (1:9 and 1:15, respectively), and differences in prevention and prehospital care (nationwide versus big cities) and hospital trauma systems (nationwide versus exceptional). Improvement requires attention to three major issues: (1) prevention through infrastructure, traffic laws, mandatory licensing; (2) establishment of a prehospital care system; and (3) establishment of regional

  12. Pushing the limit: forensic nursing in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Andrea; Gage-Lindner, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Violence remains a public health challenge and the nursing profession accepts this challenge by expanding its field. Although countries such as the United States, Great Britain, and Canada have employed forensic nurses for decades in different capacities, Germany has yet to follow their lead. This report discusses the German health care and legal systems and challenges Germany to develop an innovative, cost-efficient, and competent profession of forensic nursing.

  13. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  14. One Germany, Two Identities? Challenges to Political Education in Germany Following Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussmuth, Hans

    After a discussion of the circumstances that led to the unification of the two German states, this paper then evaluates the challenges to political education in Germany after unification. Beginning with the focus by the media and politics on the effects of East German political changes on the two German states, the revolution in East Germany and…

  15. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    PubMed

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2014-04-01

    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  16. Selective blocking effects of 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin, purified from a crude mixture of tetrodotoxin analogues, on NaV1.6 channels and its chemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Noriyoshi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-02-12

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin found in a number of marine creatures including the pufferfish, where it is synthesized by bacteria and accumulated through the food chain. It is a potent and selective blocker of some types of voltage-gated Na+ channel (NaV channel). 4,9-Anhydrotetrodotoxin (4,9-anhydroTTX) was purified from a crude mixture of TTX analogues (such as TTX, 4-epiTTX, 6-epiTTX, 11-oxoTTX and 11-deoxyTTX) by the use of liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) techniques. Recently, it has been reported that 4,9-anhydroTTX selectively blocks the activity of NaV1.6 channels with a blocking efficacy 40-160 times higher than that for other TTX-sensitive NaV1.x channel isoforms. However, little attention has been paid to the molecular properties of the α-subunit in NaV1.6 channels and the characteristics of binding of 4,9-anhydroTTX. From a functional point of view, it is important to determine the relative expression of NaV1.6 channels in a wide variety of tissues. The aim of this review is to discuss briefly current knowledge about the pharmacology of 4,9-anhydroTTX, and provide an analysis of the molecular structure of native NaV1.6 channels. In addition, chemical aspects of 4,9-anhydroTTX are briefly covered.

  17. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    PubMed

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  18. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sunil; Winpenny, Eleanor M; Elliott, Marc N; Rohr, Charlene; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Exposure of young people to alcohol advertising is a risk factor for underage drinking. This study assessed youth exposure to television alcohol advertising in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany, from December 2010 to May 2011. A negative binomial regression model predicted number of alcohol advertisements from the proportion of the television viewership in each age group. This allowed comparison of alcohol advertisement incidence for each youth age category relative to an adult reference category. In the UK, those aged 10-15 years were significantly more exposed to alcohol advertisements per viewing hour than adults aged ≥ 25 years [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.06, 1.18; P < 0.01]; in the Netherlands, those aged 13-19 years were more exposed per viewing hour than adults aged ≥ 20 years (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.39; P < 0.01). Conversely, in Germany, those aged 10-15 years were less exposed to alcohol advertisements than adults aged ≥ 25 years (IRR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.85; P < 0.01). In each country, young children (aged 4-9 years in the UK and Germany, 6-12 years in the Netherlands) were less exposed than adults. Adolescents in the UK and the Netherlands, but not Germany, had higher exposure to television alcohol advertising relative to adults than would be expected from their television viewing. Further work across a wider range of countries is needed to understand the relationship between national policies and youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. [Labor migration in a unified Germany].

    PubMed

    Raffelhuschen, B

    1993-01-01

    "In this paper we illustrated future migration of labor within the old and new 'Lander' of unified Germany.... Our setting was a microbased general equilibrium model. It was shown that the diverging economic conditions within reunified Germany heavily distort the choice of location of German workers. If the transfer of capital and technology does not equalize the large discrepancies rapidly, net migration of eastern workers into the west of close to 12 percent of the eastern work force by 1993, and 16 percent by 1995, is to be expected." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  1. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    PubMed

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article.

  2. Has East Germany overtaken West Germany? Recent trends in order-specific fertility.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joshua R; Kreyenfeld, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Some 20 years after reunification, the contrast between East and West Germany offers a natural experiment for studying the degree of persistence of Communist-era family patterns, the effects of economic change, and fertility postponement. After reunification, period fertility rates plummeted in the former East Germany to record low levels. Since the mid-1990s, however, period fertility rates have been rising in East Germany, in contrast to the nearly constant rates seen in the West. By 2008, the TFR of East Germany had overtaken that of the West. We explore why fertility in East Germany is higher than in West Germany, despite unfavorable economic circumstances in the East. We address this and related questions by (a) presenting an account of the persisting East/West differences in attitudes toward and constraints on childbearing, (b) conducting an order-specific fertility analysis of recent fertility trends, and (c) projecting completed fertility for the recent East and west German cohorts. In addition to using the Human Fertility Database, perinatal statistics allow us to calculate a tempo-corrected TFR for East and West Germany.

  3. INFRARED STUDIES OF HUMAN SALIVA. IDENTIFICATION OF A FACTOR IN HUMAN SALIVA PRODUCING AN INFRARED ABSORBANCE MAXIMUM AT 4.9 MICRONS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An absorption maximum was observed at 4.9 microns in infrared spectra of human parotid saliva. The factor causing this absorbance was found to be a...nitrate, and heat stability. Thiocyanate was then determined in 16 parotid saliva samples by a spectrophotometric method, which involved formation of

  4. The Effect of Training Parents in Couples' Communication Model on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in 4-9 Year-Old Students in Isfahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shariat, Arghavan; Malekpour, Mokhtar; Ghamarani, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychological childhood disorders that causes inconvenience to children, families, and the society. The objective of the present research is to investigate the effect of teaching Couples' Communication Model on the symptoms of ADHD in 4-9 year-old students. For this…

  5. Education in Germany. Bulletin, 1938, No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindegren, Alina M.

    1939-01-01

    While educational developments in Germany have always been of interest to the people of this country, educators and laymen in the United States have shown particular interest since 1933 because of the relationship which the school system there has had to the central government and its evolving political, economic, racial, and social doctrines. The…

  6. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  7. Gifted Education and Talent Support in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christian; Müller, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    While the focus in Germany was initially on disabled children only, the promotion of gifted and talented children has become increasingly important. Different organisations and institutions, ranging from parents' associations to foundations, offer a large variety of measures catering for the special demands of gifted and talented children,…

  8. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Markus; Groll, Andreas H; Mayser, Peter; Ullmann, Andrew J; Mendling, Werner; Hof, Herbert; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1980's, the incidence of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Germany was estimated with 36.000 IFDs per year. The current number of fungal infections (FI) occurring each year in Germany is still not known. In the actual analysis, data on incidence of fungal infections in various patients groups at risk for FI were calculated and mostly estimated from various (mostly national) resources. According to the very heterogenous data resources robust data or statistics could not be obtained but preliminary estimations could be made and compared with data from other areas in the world using a deterministic model that has consistently been applied in many countries by the LIFE program ( www.LIFE-worldwide.org). In 2012, of the 80.52 million population (adults 64.47 million; 41.14 million female, 39.38 million male), 20% are children (0-14 years) and 16% of population are ≥65 years old. Using local data and literature estimates of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, about 9.6 million (12%) people in Germany suffer from a fungal infection each year. These figures are dominated (95%) by fungal skin disease and recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis. In general, considerable uncertainty surrounds the total numbers because IFDs do not belong to the list of reportable infectious diseases in Germany and most patients were not hospitalised because of the IFD but a distinct underlying disease.

  9. Germany Looks Towards U.S. Bicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Information Center, New York, NY.

    This bulletin discusses and describes four projects constituting Germany's contribution to the American Bicentennial: (1) the establishment of the John J. McCloy Foundation for German-American exchange, (2) the permanent endowment of the Theodor Heuss chair at the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science at the New School for Social…

  10. Salmonella Agona Outbreak from Contaminated Aniseed, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schrauder, Annette; Alpers, Katharina; Werber, Dirk; Frank, Christina; Prager, Rita; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Broll, Susanne; Feil, Fabian; Roggentin, Peter; Bockemühl, Jochen; Tschäpe, Helmut; Ammon, Andrea; Stark, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    A nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona caused by aniseed-containing herbal tea occurred from October 2002 through July 2003 among infants in Germany. Consumers should adhere strictly to brewing instructions, although in exceptional cases this precaution may not be protective, particularly when preparing tea for vulnerable age groups. PMID:16022796

  11. Higher Education in Germany: Problems and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The contribution focuses on the process of merging the East German system of higher education with that of West Germany in the context of German unification in 1990/91. The impact of German unification on East German higher education is described as consisting of five basic measures: (a) de-politicisation; (b) reorganisation and evaluation of…

  12. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany.

  13. Playscapes of Germany--A Quick Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    While playgrounds in many parts of the world are limited to "fixed" equipment and surfacing, certain progressive countries have made a point to rise above this dull standard and create playscapes filled with sculpture, gardens, and wild elements of the natural world. This article talks about the playscapes of Germany as leader in the…

  14. Higher Education in Germany: Problems and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The contribution focuses on the process of merging the East German system of higher education with that of West Germany in the context of German unification in 1990/91. The impact of German unification on East German higher education is described as consisting of five basic measures: (a) de-politicisation; (b) reorganisation and evaluation of…

  15. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  16. Education in Germany. Bulletin, 1938, No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindegren, Alina M.

    1939-01-01

    While educational developments in Germany have always been of interest to the people of this country, educators and laymen in the United States have shown particular interest since 1933 because of the relationship which the school system there has had to the central government and its evolving political, economic, racial, and social doctrines. The…

  17. Growing Up in Germany: A National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krappmann, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes a Federal Ministry of Youth report on the conditions under which children grow up in Germany. Notes manifold problems that children face under today's living conditions. Presents recommendations and suggestions for providing a network of measures, relationships, and institutions to support children's development and education in family,…

  18. Germany Provides Higher Education without the Frills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, tuition is low because state governments shoulder a much higher percentage of university budgets than in the United States. As a result, most German universities provide far fewer amenities and services, and require their professors to teach longer hours to larger numbers of students than their American counterparts. Because they are…

  19. Education in Germany. Bulletin, 1919, No. 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, I. L.

    1919-01-01

    The development of education in Germany during the past two years must necessarily remain obscure until the sources of direct information are again opened up. From extracts and references here and there the educational situation does not appear to have been very happy, and, if reports such as the ones cited in this bulletin may be trusted, the…

  20. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  1. "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Gregory A.

    The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes…

  2. Americans for Germany in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Blair R.

    The pro-German American newspaper "The Fatherland," published shortly before the United States entered the First World War (1914-1917), displayed a failure of public relations in terms of defining and offering themes likely to convince a target audience to side with Germany. By looking at a public relations campaign undertaken by the…

  3. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  4. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  5. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  6. Becoming Adults in England and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen, Ed.; Heinz, Walter R., Ed.

    A comparison study of the school-to-work transitions of young people aged 16-19 in Germany and England was followed up several years later when the former subjects were in their early twenties. Research was conducted through interviews, case studies, and studies of labor market trends. The analysis of the transition of the young people studied…

  7. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  8. Recent developments: West Germany and Namibia

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-01

    Recent developments in the nuclear power industry in West Germany and Namibia are reviewed. The basic structure of the West German nuclear fuel industry following the Nukem ownership changes is discussed. The nationalization of the South West Africa People`s Organization (SWAPO) is described.

  9. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  10. School-to-Work Transition in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauner, Felix

    1997-01-01

    Of four models for school-to-work transition (direct, deregulated, regulated overlapping, and shifted), Germany's dual vocational training system is a regulated overlapping system that offers learners a smooth bridge from the role of pupil to that of qualified skilled worker. (SK)

  11. "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Gregory A.

    The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes…

  12. Implications of Germany’s Declining Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    security policy, defense spending is an important indicator. This thesis demonstrates that Germany’s defense expenditure seems to be inconsistent with its...Germany’s declining defense spending , it examines the reasons for and effects of Germany’s shrinking defense budget and suggests solutions for coping...Germany does not reverse the trend of declining defense spending it will probably decrease its political significance in Europe and in the world.

  13. The State of Reproductive Medicine in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, K.; Strowitzki, T.; Kentenich, H.

    2012-01-01

    In the 1960s and 70s, Germany played a leading role in the field of gynaecological endocrinology, which was reflected by the scientific activity of German universities during this period. More recently, however, a dramatic change occurred, resulting in a decreasing number of publications in this field. This has undoubtedly contributed to the marginal scientific position of Germany in gynaecological endocrinology today. This change is reflected by the decreasing number of university centres carrying out active scientific research in the fields of gynaecological endocrinology, reproductive medicine and andrology. Universities now lack mid- and upper-level faculty staff, as interesting and senior positions in the field of reproductive medicine, andrology and reproductive medicine no longer exist. Moreover, in 1991 the German embryo protection law came into force, which severely curtailed scientific research and blocked scientific efforts in this area. German scientists and, of course, childless couples were cut off from scientific advances, e.g. the possibility of single embryo transfer. Germanyʼs scientific position in the fields of gynaecological endocrinology, reproductive medicine and andrology needs to be strengthened. The creation of appropriate structures in German universities is therefore necessary. These would include important cooperations with private medical practices, which currently account for about 75 % of patient care. The lines of communication between the groups representing reproductive medicine in Germany need to be greatly improved. Moreover, we suggest that an important step would be the development of a general human embryology and fertilisation act which would allow German couples to benefit from the global advances in the field of reproductive technology. Germany must stop its policy of scientific obstruction and permit scientific progress in this field in German universities. PMID:28435169

  14. Is Germany a model for managers?

    PubMed

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success.

  15. Education in Germany: A Bibliography of English Language Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    This bibliography cites bibliographies, journals, books, essays, journal articles, and monographs on education in Germany. All publications cited are in English. The three major sections of the bibliography are education in Germany up to 1945, education in the Federal Republic of Germany, and education in the German Democratic Republic. Topics…

  16. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  17. Education in Germany: A Bibliography of English Language Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    This bibliography cites bibliographies, journals, books, essays, journal articles, and monographs on education in Germany. All publications cited are in English. The three major sections of the bibliography are education in Germany up to 1945, education in the Federal Republic of Germany, and education in the German Democratic Republic. Topics…

  18. Luminescence and application of red-emitting phosphors of Eu3+-activated R2Zr3(MoO4)9 ( R = La, Sm, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuyun; Huang, Yanlin; Cheng, Han; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-01-01

    New red-emitting phosphors R2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ ( R = La, Sm, Gd) were prepared using the convenient solid-state reaction method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements and structural refinements. The luminescence properties were investigated by photoluminescence spectra, decay curves, and absolute internal quantum efficiency (QE). The phosphors exhibited bright red luminescence corresponding to the electric dipole transition 5D0→7F2 at 615 nm under near UV light excitation. The thermal stability of the luminescence was investigated using temperature-dependent intensities at temperatures from 20 to 170°C. The results indicate that Gd2Zr3(MoO4)9:Eu3+ could be potentially considered for lighting due to its qualities, including their excitation spectra, QEs, red color coordinates, and thermal stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of 1-substituted 2-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-g]phthalazine-4,9-dione derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sung Kim, Jin; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Suh, Myung-Eun; Choo, Hea-Young Park; Lee, Sang Kook; Park, Hyen Joo; Kim, Choonmi; Park, Sang Woo; Lee, Chong-Ock

    2004-07-01

    A series of 1-substituted 2-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-g]phthalazine-4,9-dione derivatives 8 was synthesized from 6,7-dichlorophthalazine-5,8-dione 5 and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines. Most of the tested compounds showed potential cytotoxic activity considerably higher than that of the reference compounds, ellipticine and doxorubicin.

  20. Additional prognostic value of the 70-gene signature (MammaPrint(®)) among breast cancer patients with 4-9 positive lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Saghatchian, M; Mook, S; Pruneri, G; Viale, G; Glas, A M; Guerin, S; Cardoso, F; Piccart, M; Tursz, T; Delaloge, S; van't Veer, L

    2013-10-01

    The 70 gene-signature (MammaPrint(®)) is a prognostic profile of distant recurrence and survival of primary breast cancer (BC). BC patients with 4-9 positive nodes (LN 4-9) are considered clinically at high-risk. Herein we examined MammaPrint(®) added prognostic value in this group. MammaPrint(®) profiles were generated from frozen tumours of patients operated from primary BC. Samples were classified as genomic Low Risk (GLR) or genomic High Risk (GHR). Among the 173 samples, 70 (40%) were classified as GLR and 103 (60%) as GHR. Tumours in the GHR group were significantly more often ductal carcinomas (93%), grade 3 (60%), oestrogen and progesterone-negative, Her2 positive (25%). In the GLR category, the 5-year overall survival was 97% vs. 76% for in the GHR group (p < 0.01); Distant Metastasis Free Survival (DMFS) at 5 years was 87% for GLR patients and 63% for GHR patients (p < 0.01). In the Luminal A subgroup, the genomic profile was the only independent risk factor for DM and BC specific death. In the Luminal A subgroup, MammaPrint(®) is an independent prognostic marker in BC patients with LN 4-9 and may be integrated in a selection strategy of patients candidate for more aggressive therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dielectron measurements in p+p and p+d interactions from E{sub beam} = 1.0 to 4.9 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.; DLS collaboration

    1993-02-01

    The first measurements of dielectron production in p+p and p+d interactions at incident kinetic energies from 1.0--4.9 GeV are summarized. The dielectron yield at 4.9 GeV is found to be in excess of that expected from hadronic decays. The beam energy and invariant mass dependence of the dielectron yield in p+d interactions relative to the yield in p+p interactions are also presented. The ratio of the yield in p+d to that in p+p interactions decreases from nearly 9 at 1.0 GeV to {approx} 2 at 4.9 GeV. The large ratio at 1.0 GeV suggests that dielectron production in the p+d system is dominated by a p+n process. The beam energy dependence of the ratio indicates that this p+n contribution decreases with respect to the other dielectron sources as the incident energy is increased.

  2. High resolution interferometric observations of the solar limb at 4.9 and 10.7 GHz during the solar eclipse of October, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, K. A.; Hurford, G. J.; Zirin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The radial intensity profile of the quiet solar limb has been measured at high spatial resolution using the VLA at 4.9 GHz and the Owens Valley solar interferometer at 10.7 GHz during the partial solar eclipse of October 12, 1977. The spatial resolution (13.8 arcsec at 4.9 GHz and 7.4 arcsec at 10.7 GHz) was provided primarily by the lunar limb. Substantial limb brightening at 4.9 GHz was found with a peak brightness temperature corresponding to an 80% increase over the disk value, and a possible small limb enhancement at 10.7 GHz. The results are consistent with a simple model consisting of a uniform disk (provided by a thoroughly roughened transition zone) overlaid by a corona in hydrostatic equilibrium with a density of 5 x 10 to the 8th at its base. The lack of the secant-like variation in the microwave intensity from center to limb is explained by a corona contained in loop structures rather than in spherically symmetric layers.

  3. The Oxime Derivatives of 1-R-1H-Naphtho[2.3-d][1.2.3]triazole-4.9-dione 2-oxides: Synthesis and Properties.

    PubMed

    Shtil, Alexander A; Gornostaev, Leonid M; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B; Markova, Alina A; Lavrikova, Tatyana I; Khalyavina, Yulia G; Kuznetsova, Anastasia S; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Shunayev, Alexei V; Tsvetkova, Maria V; Glazunova, Valeria A; Chernyshev, Vladimir V

    2017-03-27

    Derivatives of naphthoquinone, although potent anticancer agents, can exert heart toxicity due to generation of free oxygen species. In this study we modified the scaffold by replacing one carbonyl group with the oxime moiety. Interestingly, only one carbonyl group in 1-R-1H-naphtho[2,3-d][1,2,3]triazole-4,9-dione 2-oxides reacted with hydroxylamine. The resulting 1-R-1H-naphtho[2,3-d][1,2,3]triazole-4,9-dione 4-oxime 2-oxides were further acylated to produce a series of 1-R-1H-naphtho[2,3-d][1,2,3]triazole-4,9-dione 4-(O-acyloxime) 2-oxides. Newly synthesized compounds demonstrated a higher (in submicromolar or low micromolar range) cytotoxic potency against human colon and breast adenocarcinoma cell lines than to non-malignant skin fibroblasts. Spectroscopic measurements revealed that, unlike other classes of quinone derivatives, new naphthotriazoledione oxides did not form stable complexes with double stranded DNA regardless of their fitting to the DNA minor groove (as determined by molecular modeling). Thus, our chemical modifications yielded a new chemotype with good cytotoxic properties and yet-to-be-identified intracellular target(s). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. New 1H-Benzo[f]indazole-4,9-diones Conjugated with C-Protected Amino Acids and Other Derivatives: Synthesis and in Vitro Antiproliferative Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Aurora; Oliva, Alfonso; Arismendi-Macuer, Marlene; Guzmán, Leda; Fuentealba, Mauricio; Knox, Marcela; Vinet, Raúl; San Feliciano, Arturo

    2015-12-08

    1H-Benzo[f]indazole-4,9-dione derivatives conjugated with C-protected amino acids (glycine, l-alanine, l-phenylalanine and l-glutamic acid) 6a-l were prepared by chemically modifying the prenyl substituent of 3-methyl-7-(4-methylpent-3-enyl)-1H-benzo[f]indazole-4,9-dione 2 through epoxidation, degradative oxidation, oxidation and N-acyl condensation reactions. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by analyzing their IR, ¹H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectral data together with elemental analysis for carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. The preliminary in vitro antiproliferative activity of the synthesized derivatives was evaluated on KATO-III and MCF-7 cell lines using a cell proliferation assay. The majority of the derivatives exhibited significant antiproliferative activity with IC50 values ranging from 25.5 to 432.5 μM. These results suggest that 1H-benzo[f]indazole-4,9-dione derivatives are promising molecules to be researched for developing new anticancer agents.

  5. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    PubMed

    Glebe, G

    1997-01-01

    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)

  6. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  7. Topographies of forensic practice in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the topography and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes.

  8. Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rübsamen, Nicole; Castell, Stefanie; Horn, Johannes; Karch, André; Ott, Jördis J.; Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Zoch, Beate; Krause, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred during the past 5 decades, but none has affected European countries like the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. We used an online questionnaire to investigate risk perceptions in Germany during this epidemic peak. Our questionnaire covered risk perceptions, knowledge about transmission routes, media use, reactions to the outbreak, attitudes toward measures to prevent the spread of EVD and vaccination against EVD, and willingness to volunteer for aid missions. Of 974 participants, 29% indicated that they worried about EVD, 4% correctly stated virus transmission routes, and 75% incorrectly rated airborne transmission and transmission by asymptomatic patients as possible. Many indicated that if a patient were flown to Germany for treatment in a nearby hospital, they would adapt preventive behavior. Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes. PMID:25989020

  9. New developments in preventive detention in Germany.

    PubMed

    Steinböck, Herbert R

    2009-09-01

    The present review focuses on forensic psychiatric aspects of new developments in preventive detention in Germany. After a short introduction to the history of preventive detention in Germany and its enacting in 1933, a survey is given about both main pathways in German penal code, penalty because of guilt after an offence by healthy prisoners and prevention because of dangerousness in healthy prisoners as well as in psychiatric ill persons having mentally ill offenders. Then, there are given a few examples of new developments of security laws: retroactive preventive detention, reservation of preventive detention, subsequent preventive detention, and its extension to young persons. The consequences in the practice of forensic psychiatry and their reflection in recent psychiatric literature are described and discussed. There is a broad consent between German forensic psychiatrists that the described changes in criminal law and the increasing application of preventive detention will intensify antiliberal tendencies not only within jurisdiction but also within forensic and general psychiatry.

  10. Investigating an airborne tularemia outbreak, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauri, Anja M; Hofstetter, Iris; Seibold, Erik; Kaysser, Philip; Eckert, Juergen; Neubauer, Heinrich; Splettstoesser, Wolf D

    2010-02-01

    In November 2005, an outbreak of tularemia occurred among 39 participants in a hare hunt in Hesse, Germany. Previously reported tularemia outbreaks in Germany dated back to the 1950s. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among participants and investigated the environment to identify risk factors for infection. Ten participants had serologic evidence of acute Francisella tularensis infection; 1 other participant died before laboratory confirmation was obtained. Presence within 5 meters of the place where disemboweled hares were rinsed with a water hose was the risk factor most strongly associated with infection (risk ratio 22.1; 95% confidence interval 13.2-154.3). Swabs taken at the game chamber and water samples were PCR negative for F. tularensis. Eleven of 14 hare parts showed low-level concentrations of F. tularensis, compatible with cross-contamination. More than half of case-patients may have acquired infection through inhalation of aerosolized droplets containing F. tularensis generated during rinsing of infected hares.

  11. Bioethics in Germany: debates and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lanzerath, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    In Germany the public awareness on ethical problems of the application of medicine and life sciences on human beings is very high. It can be observed that German Society is rather sensitive concerning bioethical issues. Politics supports this attitude. Many articles in professional journals as well as in newspapers cover bioethical issues. Conferences and workshops on a professional and an educational level deal with topics on ethics of life sciences and ethics in general. Moreover, in the case of bioethics many different disciplines contribute with relevant considerations to the process of opinion and judgment formation. This paper summarizes the main ethical and legal debates on bioethical issues in Germany, specifies the focus of leading German centres of bioethics and biolaw, and explains the tasks, services and networking of the German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences (DRZE) which was founded by the Federal Government.

  12. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Employment Opportunities for Family Members in Germany.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-24

    community wives clubs in Germany. The tables in Appendix 2 provide statistical information on the world - wide distribution of DOD active duty military...fewer local nationals would create a skills imbalance that would be unacceptable? 4. Could we cope with the political repercussions from the unions...Could we cope with the political repercussions from the unions/ works councils if we decided to employ more family members and fewer LN’s? Should we

  14. One Germany - A New Soviet Strategy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-12

    Research and Analysis Establishment, 1984. 60. Remnick , David . "If Perestroika Collapses, Soviets Could Still Muddle Through." The Washington Post, 4...GERMANY - A NEW SOVIET STRATEGY ? AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Robert B. Clarke, AD Colonel David T. Twining Project Advisor...I could make them. At the same time, the credibility of most well documented books and journal articles prepared as recently as two years ago by some

  15. Energy potential of geothermal energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.

    2000-06-01

    The use of terrestrial heat could fulfill certain energy demands. For the evaluation of the possibilities in the energy system of Germany, the available potentials are one of the most important criteria. Within this context, in the past only the available resources and the reserves have been discussed. But these data have hardly practical relevance for the energy-political and energy-economic discussions, since they do not consider the conditions in the corresponding energy system. In this article, therefore, explanations additional to the overall existing amount of heat in underground portions are shown, which could be used also from a technical point of view. In addition, the demand-side restrictions are considered and the share of the available heat is pointed out which can be used within the energy system of Germany. The explanations show that consideration of the demand side is necessary to make relevant statements. The investigations also make clear that terrestrial heat will never be able to cover more than just a part of the energy demand for warmth in Germany.

  16. [Telemedicine in Germany. Status, Barriers, Perspectives].

    PubMed

    Brauns, H-J; Loos, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Telemedicine as a subject has reached politics, doctors and patients, but it has still not been able to make the leap from research, development, and testing into real practice. This is generally because of the great barriers to implementation, mainly the lack of telematics infrastructure and of payment regulations in Germany. Telemedicine projects are mainly isolated applications and it has not been possible to integrate them in to nationwide regular health services. Other challenges along the path to standard care include that research-based small-medium enterprise (SME) companies usually face high barriers hindering access to this market, because it is imposible for them to finance all the required evidence-based studies to verify the medical benefits and the econimic efficiency. Additionally, a high market nontransparency is noted. However, the signs of progress are visible, e.g., the E-health initiative of the German government or recent legislative initiatives. However, long processes are observed that do not facilitate the use of telemedicine. Although some federal states, e.g., North Rhine Westphalia, Bavaria, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, and Saxony, show exemplary activities, there are still many white areas on the telemedicine map of Germany. The road to standard care will be long, but is not unattainable. The reasons for supporting telemedicine are still strong. The future development of telemedicine applications will contribute to sustainable and high-quality patient care in Germany.

  17. Germany sees profits collapse as doldrums persist

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1993-02-10

    Traditionally the strongman of Europe, Germany's chemical sector had a miserable time in 1992, as profits skidded 30%. Further declines in production and sales for the first half of 1993 are predicted by industry association VCI (Frankfurt). Output, usually spurred after the summer break, dropped drastically in the fourth quarter. Developments are alarming, says Wolfgang Hilger, president of the VCI and chairman of Hoechst (Frankfurt). Production in the 11 western states rose 1% in 1992, but chemical industry sales fell. In the second half of the year, the high value of the Germany mark - against the US dollar, sterling, lira, and peseta - compounded difficulties already experienced as a result of overcapacity and lower prices. Hilger says overall prices declined 2% last year. Meanwhile, costs for labor and environmental protection continued to increase. VCI figures show a decline in many sectors. In western Germany, organic base chemical production was down 4%, and, while organic chemical production rose 3%, prices were 8% lower, giving unsatisfactory results. Similarly, plastics production was up 0.5% at midyear, but weak prices hurt earnings.

  18. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  19. Energy R and D in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  20. 4,9-Dihydro-4,4,9,9-tetrahexyl-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene as a π-spacer of donor-π-acceptor dye and its photovoltaic performance with liquid and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liping; Moehl, Thomas; Moon, Soo-Jin; Decoppet, Jean-David; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Xue, Zhaosheng; Bin, Liu; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-01-03

    A new D-π-A organic dye, LC-5, containing 4,9-dihydro-4,4,9,9-tetrahexyl-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']-dithiophene as a novel π-conjugated spacer has been synthesized and tested as a sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC). Volatile and ionic liquid electrolytes have been used in conjunction with the synthesized dye, and the electrolyte influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSCs was investigated. A detailed investigation, including transient photocurrent/photovoltage decay measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data, provide important conclusions about the influence of electrolytes on the photovoltaic parameters.

  1. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ˜2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm-2 sr-1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum.

  2. Two New 3,4;9,10-seco-Cycloartane Type Triterpenoids from Illicium difengpi and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuntong; Xi, Fengmin; Mi, Junling; Chen, Wansheng

    2013-01-01

    A pair of new 3,4;9,10-seco-cycloartane type triterpenoid stereoisomerides: 24R,25-dihydroxy-3,4;9,10-seco-4(28)-cycloarten-10,3-olide (1) named Illiciumolide A and 24S,25-dihydroxy-3,4;9,10-seco-4(28)-cycloarten-10,3-olide (2) named Illiciumolide B were isolated from the stem bark of Illicium difengpi, as well as five known biogenetically related triterpenoids, including sootepin E (3), betulinic acid (4), lupeol (5), (all-Z)-1,5,9,13,17,21-hexamethyl-1,5,9,13,17,21-cyclotertracosahexaene (6), and (all-E)-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene (7). The structures of two new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and MS techniques. Two assays were conducted: inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in RAW264. 7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was observed that compounds 1, 2 and 7 showed significant inhibition of TNF-α production and NF-κB release. The molecule docking results showed that compounds 1 and 2 got high fitness scores with dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MPKK1), whose activation plays a pivotal role between TNF-α and activation of NF-κB. The anti-HIV-1 potency of compounds 1–5 was also discussed, in addition to the results of computer-aided screening for targets. PMID:23762173

  3. Regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser with a repetition rate stability of 4.9x10-15 using a hydrogen maser phase-locked loop.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masato; Hirayama, Toru; Nakazawa, Masataka; Hagimoto, Ken; Ikegami, Takeshi

    2007-07-01

    We demonstrate an ultrastable regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser that employs a phase-locked loop (PLL) circuit with a hydrogen maser. The stability for an integration time of 1s was 6.2x10(-13), which is 16 times better than that of a conventional PLL laser. For an integration time of 1000s, the stability reached as high as 4.9x10(-15). The repetition-rate stability was limited by the synthesizer used for the PLL operation, and there was no additional fluctuation induced by the laser operation.

  4. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    PubMed

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  5. Structural study, 31P NMR and europium photoluminescence properties of a new synthetic fillowite-type phosphate: Na3SrMg11(PO4)9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhris, Amal; Ben Hamed, Teycir; Glorieux, Benoit; Ben Amara, Mongi

    2017-05-01

    A new phosphate compound, Na3SrMg11(PO4)9 was synthesized as single crystals by flux method and as powdered sample by Pechini technique and investigated by X-ray diffraction, 31P NMR and photoluminescence spectroscopies. This compound crystallizes in the rhombohedral space group R 3 bar and its equivalent hexagonal cell has the following parameters: a = 14.941(1) Ǻ, c = 42.478(2) Ǻ and Z = 12. The structure consisted of MgOx (x = 5,6), NaOx (x = 6,7) and (Na,Sr)Ox (x = 8,9) polyhedra which are linked either directly through common corners, edges and faces and by means of the PO4 tetrahedra via common corners and edges, giving rise to a three-dimensional framework, similar to that of the fillowite-like structure. 31P NMR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of six distinct phosphors sites in the structure. Finally, strontium was partially substitute by divalent europium in order to examine whether this material could be used in optical applications. Optical studies were performed on the Na3Sr0.98Eu2+0.02Mg11(PO4)9 compound. The photoluminescence are consistent with the crystal structural and show various properties as a function of the excitation wavelength.

  6. Respiratory high-dependency units in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schönhofer, B

    1999-10-01

    In Germany, there is a well-established scene being engaged in non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV), but only a minority of centres for home mechanical ventilation simultaneously run a respiratory high-dependency unit (RHDU). There are no standardized concepts, and RHDU do not have official government recognition. However, due to the increased usage of NIMV in both intensive care units and RHDU, and the cost pressure in the health system, the current atmosphere is open for a co-operative strategy and gives respiratory medicine a unique opportunity to acquire a new profile. Therefore, both nursing and medical staff must receive training in NIMV-associated strategies.

  7. [Foreign labor in a reunited Germany].

    PubMed

    Blaschke, J

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses migration into Germany, primarily since World War II, with a focus on the impact on the German labor market. The radical changes that came about in the late 1980s as a result of granting political asylum to third-world refugees and of the readmittance of persons of German descent who wanted to repatriate are then assessed. Following reunification, the author foresees new trends in migration into the country and predicts some of their effects. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND GER)

  8. Epidemiology of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization in Germany.

    PubMed

    Brimil, Nadia; Barthell, Elisabeth; Heindrichs, Uwe; Kuhn, Melanie; Lütticken, Rudolf; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2006-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae can cause severe pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis in neonates and remains one of the most prevalent causes of invasive neonatal infections. Maternal transmission of S. agalactiae during delivery can be prevented by prenatal screening and peripartal antibiotic prophylaxis. Implementation of CDC guidelines for group B streptococci (GBS) disease prevention resulted in a significant decline of invasive neonatal S. agalactiae infections in the USA. Similar national guidelines were issued in 2000 for Germany. However, the epidemiology of S. agalactiae colonization in Germany has not been investigated for more than 15 years and the impact these guidelines will have is therefore unknown. To assess colonization rates in Germany, we cultured vaginal and rectal swabs for S. agalactiae from pregnant and non-pregnant adult patients in the region of Aachen and Munich. Swabs were cultivated in selective broth medium for 24h and subsequently plated on blood agar plates according to the CDC recommendations. Colonies negative for catalase and pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase were further differentiated by the CAMP test and a DNA probe specific for S. agalactiae. Rectal or vaginal colonization of S. agalactiae was found in 34 (16%) of 210 pregnant patients and in 41 (16%) of 250 non-pregnant women. S. agalactiae was found only in rectal swabs in 4% of pregnant and non-pregnant patients. For further characterization of the strains capsular serotypes and major surface protein antigens were determined by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and PCR. Among the 75 different patient isolates serotype III was the most prevalent with 21 (28%) isolates, followed by 16 (21%) isolates of serotype II, 13 (17%) isolates of serotype Ia, 12 (16%) of serotype V, 11 (15%) of serotype Ib and only 2 (3%) isolates of serotype IV. The vast majority of all strains harbored genes for the major surface protein antigens, the alpha-C-protein or alpha-C-protein like antigens like Alp2-4, epsilon and

  9. [Jewish veterinarians in Germany, 1918-1945].

    PubMed

    Möllers, G; Schaffer, J

    2005-10-01

    In 1998 there were only twelve Jewish veterinarians known who practised in Germany between 1918 and 1945. 133 of them have now been found. Most of the Jewish veterinarians had their roots in merchant families and were general practitioners in the countryside. To be "Jewish" did not concern until 1933. Compared with the other medical professionals like human medical professionals (10,9 %), in 1933 the number of Jewish veterinarians was low (1,6 %, whole German Jewish population 0,77 %). Right with the beginning of the National Socialistic rule Jewish veterinarians were exposed to different forms of harassment. Soon after, on April 7th 1933, with the so-called Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums (BBG; law for the restoration of civil service), the prosecution took on an official quality. The Reichstierärztekammer (Chamber of veterinary service) was very eager to Aryanize the German veterinary service. The BBG made the Jewish veterinarians who worked in public positions lose their jobs with the single exception of those who had the status of a so-called "Frontkämpfer" (a soldier who fought at the frontline during World War I). Many of the Jewish veterinarians who were still in Germany in November 1938 were arrested after the pogrom of November 9/10th and kept in concentration camps and prisons for about one month. The few students of veterinary medicine who already had started their studies in 1933 still could make their exams in Germany, but they did not get a licence. On January 31st 1939 all Jewish veterinarians in Germany lost their licence. 55 Jewish vets managed to emigrate in time. Nineteen German Jewish Veterinarians died in concentration camps and ghettos. Two are known to have committed suicide. Until 1997, there was no act of appreciation or rehabilitation of German Jewish veterinarians. In 2003 the degrees of two Jewish veterinarians, Hermann Cussel and Paul Stern, were renewed posthumously by the Hanover School of Veterinary Medicine

  10. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  11. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  12. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  13. [The use of neuromuscular monitoring in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Hofmockel, R; Geldner, G; Diefenbach, C; Ulm, K; Blobner, M

    2003-06-01

    As there are no reliable epidemiological data for the use of muscle relaxants in Germany,we conducted a mailing study. The aim of the study was to compare the use of muscle relaxants between German anaesthesia departments. In the present part of the presentation we focused on neuromuscular monitoring (NMM) and management of residual paralysis. A total number of 2,996 questionnaires were sent to all registered anaesthesiological facilities in Germany and the return was 68.6% (2054 questionnaires). In 574 of the returned questionnaires (28%) the regular use of NMM was confirmed. Intraoperative monitoring of neuromuscular block and assessment of neuromuscular recovery were the most frequent applications of NMM, i.e. 25% and 18% of returned questionnaires, respectively. Clinical signs, however, are still the most popular way to estimate the degree of neuromuscular blockade. Moreover, routine reversal at the end of surgery with a neostigmin/atropine mixture was not practiced in 75% of the anaesthesia departments. This survey revealed that NMM is still very rarely used in daily clinical practice. Especially the seldom use of NMM to assess residual paralysis has to be improved.

  14. Status of wind energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K.

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Environmental medicine in Germany--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hans Joachim

    2002-01-01

    In this review I describe the development of environmental medicine as a specialized field of clinical medicine in Germany. New scientific societies were founded, based on traditions of public hygiene and occupational medicine, as a reaction to environmental issues concerning human health. Environmental medicine issues were also addressed by independent "critical" physicians. The first institutions to accept patients were centers for environmental medicine affiliated with research institutions and/or with the public health service. Medical professional organizations, particularly the German General Medical Council, described the need for and formulated conditions for additional qualification for doctors in environmental medicine, including a 200-hr course. This course and a qualifying exam were passed by about 3,000 doctors, mainly from the public health service and from occupational medicine. Unfortunately, few general physicians in primary outpatient care were similarly trained. To date, no representative study has been conducted on environmental patients, but I include in this review a typical list of patients' complaints. I also summarize research activities typical for environmental medicine in Germany. Present problems concern accounting systems and, for example, diagnosis and treatment of patients with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). A coordinated research program on MCS has been started. PMID:11834469

  16. Investigating an Airborne Tularemia Outbreak, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Iris; Seibold, Erik; Kaysser, Philip; Eckert, Juergen; Neubauer, Heinrich; Splettstoesser, Wolf D.

    2010-01-01

    In November 2005, an outbreak of tularemia occurred among 39 participants in a hare hunt in Hesse, Germany. Previously reported tularemia outbreaks in Germany dated back to the 1950s. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among participants and investigated the environment to identify risk factors for infection. Ten participants had serologic evidence of acute Francisella tularensis infection; 1 other participant died before laboratory confirmation was obtained. Presence within 5 meters of the place where disemboweled hares were rinsed with a water hose was the risk factor most strongly associated with infection (risk ratio 22.1; 95% confidence interval 13.2–154.3). Swabs taken at the game chamber and water samples were PCR negative for F. tularensis. Eleven of 14 hare parts showed low-level concentrations of F. tularensis, compatible with cross-contamination. More than half of case-patients may have acquired infection through inhalation of aerosolized droplets containing F. tularensis generated during rinsing of infected hares. PMID:20113553

  17. International Heliophysical Year in Germany: Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, B.; Jansen, F.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Klecker, B.; Warmuth, A.; Staack, O.; Thomas, E.; Heber-Novkinic, I.

    2007-05-01

    Heliophysics has a long standing tradition in Germany. Observations of the Sun have been carried out for centuries. Since the launch of the space mission AZUR in 1965 German researchers were and are part in many important heliophysical missions like Helios, Ulysses, SOHO and recently Stereo. The community welcomes the United Nation initiative and supports their activities. The German IHY Outreach and Education program is based on a number of events. Several institutions will take part in the world-wide open doors day. A major effort is an exhibition, which has been developed by German researchers and can be seen at the computer fair CEBIT and in ten Planetaria all over Germany. We are part of the activity Space Weather and Europe- Educational tool with the Sun, which is funded by the European Union. A Special Issue of the German Physik Journal will bring heliophysical research closer to the public. All material will be available via our webpage www.ihy2007.de

  18. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted.

  19. The historiography of homoeopathy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jütte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Homoeopathy originated in Germany. The same applies, by the way, to many other branches of alternative medicine, e.g. mesmerism, homoeopathy, hydropathy, anthroposophical medicine. This historical fact provides more than just an excuse to start with a survey of the historiography of homeopathy in German-speaking countries. The first part of the paper focuses on 19th-century attempts at a history of homoeopathy, reflecting the wish to establish a corporate identity among the adherents of the new art of healing. Early examples are books by prominent homoeopathic doctors on the origins and recent history of homoeopathy in German lands. A look at their motives will give us a notion of the response of the fringe medicine to a wide ranger of attacks of orthodox physicians and medical historians who saw progress in the field of the new "scientific" medicine only and who shared the values and ideologies of the medical establishment. The second part of the paper - which covers the period from the turn of the century to the end of World War II - examines the first attempts by professional medical historians as well as amateurs to write about the rise and fall of homeopathy in Germany. The third part is then centred on recent medical historiography on this subject.

  20. Evaluation of domino liver transplantations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bolte, Fabian Johannes; Schmidt, Hartmut H-J; Becker, Thomas; Braun, Felix; Pascher, Andreas; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Schmidt, Jan; Nadalin, Silvio; Otto, Gerd; Barreiros, Ana Paula

    2013-07-01

    A retrospective multicenter study has been conducted to evaluate domino liver transplantations (DLTs) in Germany. The study provides insight into survival and features having an impact on the assessment of neuropathy after DLT. In addition, a neurologic follow-up program with a scheme to estimate the likelihood of de novo amyloidosis is presented. A series of 61 DLTs at seven transplant centers in Germany was enrolled. The mean age of domino recipients at the time of transplantation was 58 years, 46 of them being men, and 15 being women. The median follow-up was 46 months. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival of domino recipients was 81.6%, 70.8% and 68.8%, respectively. Causes of death were primarily not related to familial amyloidosis. The main indication of DLT was hepatocellular carcinoma. Two of the reported domino recipients developed symptoms and signs of de novo amyloidosis within 10 years after transplantation. A total of 30 domino graft recipients (49.18%) presented with diabetes post transplantation. In conclusion, an advanced follow-up program is crucial to evaluate the risk of transmitting familial amyloidosis by DLT and to establish more strict selection criteria for domino recipients. © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Germany and America: Crisis of confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, R.D.

    1991-02-01

    The paper examines the deterioration in German-American relations. The reasons for this downturn in German-American relations are quite simple. Washington views the Persian Gulf crisis as a defining moment in European-American relations and in the creation of a new world order. It is also the first diplomatic test of a unified Germany and a new German-American relationship. It is a test that Germany is thus far seen as having failed for three reasons. First, from the outset many Americans sensed that Germans did not comprehend what this crisis meant for the United States. A second and, in many ways, more worrying factor was the growing sense that the Germans were not being good Europeans. The third and most serious American concern, however, was the unsettling appearance of a very selective German definition of collective defense and common security. The result has been a crisis of confidence in the performance of the German political elite that goes beyond the problems in German-American relations during the early 1980s and the INF debate.

  2. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a history of substitution

  3. Estimate of Interference from the Aeronautical Mobile Services of the Cities of Glendale and Pasadena to Goldstone Radio Astronomy Stations at 4.9 Gigahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; Sue, M.; Manshadi, F.

    2006-05-01

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) recently allocated the 4.9-GHz band to public safety telecommunications services. Radio Astronomy Services (RAS) also has been using this frequency. NASA will primarily use Deep Space Station 28 (DSS 28) at Goldstone, California, for radio astronomy services that are sensitive to radio-frequency interference (RFI). This study is to determine the RFI potential of airborne transmission from two cities to radio astronomy sites in Goldstone. Propagation losses over the terrain between both cities and Goldstone are estimated using the Trans-Horizon Interference Propagation Loss (THIPL) software recently developed at JPL and high-resolution terrain data. The necessary coordination area for protecting the Goldstone radio astronomy station has been defined based on the minimum propagation loss required. Study results and suggestions for modification to the airborne areas proposed by both cities' police departments are presented.

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations, and computational study of 4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaani, Ayoub; Ajloo, Davood; Kiyani, Hamzeh; Vakili, Mohamad; Farahani, Mahnaz; Amiri, Majid

    2016-08-01

    4-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-1-yl)oxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde has been synthesized in an attempt to obtain a new photochromic compound. The optimized molecular structure, mole fractions of title compound in trans and ana forms have been investigated. UV-visible spectra of the compound were also recorded. Upon irradiation with 300 nm light, the camel solid turned orange, in which a visible absorption band was observed at 475 nm. The electronic properties, such as HOMO, LUMO and band gap energies were obtained by the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The predicted nonlinear optical properties of the title compound are much greater than those of urea. Transition structures were calculated by QST3 and IRC methods which yielded the potential energy surface and activation energy.

  5. The effect of Hoe-427 (an ACTH sub 4-9 analog) on free-choice ethanol consumption in male and female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, S.; Maickel, R.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol consummatory patterns of individual male and female rats and the effects of Hoe-427 (Ebiratide), and ACTH{sub 4-9} analog, thereon, were studied in a test system using 24 hour, two-bottle free choice consumption between 0.2% saccharin and 10% ethanol in 0.2% saccharin. Single, daily i.p. doses of either ACTH{sub 4-10} or its analog resulted in a significant reduction of daily ethanol consumption with no effects on saccharin consumption. After 4 days of treatment, male rats consistently exhibited a rebound increase in ethanol consumption; this effect was not seen in females. The daily ethanol consummatory patterns of the female animals seemed to exhibit a 4-6 day cyclic rhythymicity, suggesting an interaction with estrous cycles. These results support a role for ACTH{sub 4-10} in the initiation of ethanol consummatory behavior in rats and suggests the existence of sex differences in this phenomenon.

  6. Morphology and molecular arrangement of perylene-3,4,9,10-(n-pentylester) in thin layers obtained by zone-casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamski, Adrian; Nowicka, Ariadna B.; Barszcz, Bolesław; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Piosik, Emilia; Wolarz, Eryk

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-crystalline perylene-3,4,9,10-tetra-(n-pentylester) zone-casted on hydrophilic glass substrates forms characteristic belt-like structures which are observed under optical microscope and atomic force microscope. Polarised Raman scattering spectra reveal the presence of anisotropic alignment of the molecules inside the obtained structures. Moreover, the absorption and fluorescence spectra confirm molecular aggregation in the belt-like structures. The research shows, that the belt-like structures are created by columns of molecules with the edge-on alignment on the glass substrate. Such organisation of the molecules is confirmed by spectroscopic methods. These structures can be interesting from the point of view of organic electronics.

  7. Spectroscopy of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) attached to rare gas samples: Clusters vs. bulk matrices. I. Absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Matthieu; Müller, Markus; Knoblauch, Tobias; Bünermann, Oliver; Rydlo, Alexandre; Minniberger, Stefan; Harbich, Wolfgang; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and rare gas or para-hydrogen samples is studied by means of laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The comparison between spectra of PTCDA embedded in a neon matrix and spectra attached to large neon clusters shows that these large organic molecules reside on the surface of the clusters when doped by the pick-up technique. PTCDA molecules can adopt different conformations when attached to argon, neon, and para-hydrogen clusters which implies that the surface of such clusters has a well-defined structure without liquid or fluxional properties. Moreover, a precise analysis of the doping process of these clusters reveals that the mobility of large molecules on the cluster surface is quenched, preventing agglomeration and complex formation.

  8. Search for heavy bottom-like quarks in 4.9 fb-1 of pp collisions at √{s} = 7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Rios, A. A. Ocampo; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Junior, M. Correa Martins; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Júnior, W. L. Ald; Carvalho, W.; Custodio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Figueiredo, D. Matos; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Silva do Amaral, S. 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Gomez-Reino; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lenzi, P.; Lourenço, C.; Maki, T.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mozer, M. U.; Mulders, M.; Nesvold, E.; Nguyen, M.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Cortezon, E. Palencia; Perez, E.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimia, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Antunes, J. Rodrigues; Rolandi, G.; Rommerskirchen, T.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schafer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Spiropulu, M.; Stoye, M.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Konig, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Sibille, J.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Chen, Z.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; del Arbol, P. Martinez Ruiz; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nageli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Aguilo, E.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Rikova, M. Ivova; Mejias, B. Millan; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Go, A.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Liu, Z. K.; Lu, Y. J.; Mekterovic, D.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wang, M.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karapinar, G.; Topaksu, A. Kayis; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Cerci, D. Sunar; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Deliomeroglu, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Bostock, F.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Negra, M. Della; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Bryer, A. Guneratne; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rompotis, N.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Tapper, A.; Acosta, M. Vazquez; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Barrett, M.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; John, J. St.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K. V.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; De La Barca Sanchez, M. Calderon; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Nelson, R.; Pellett, D.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Sierra, R. Vasquez; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Plager, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Tucker, J.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Golf, F.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Muelmenstaedt, J.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Ranieri, R.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D'Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Koay, S. A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Timciuc, V.; Traczyk, P.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Akgun, B.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Edelmaier, C. J.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Heyburn, B.; Lopez, E. Luiggi; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Agostino, L.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Hopkins, W.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Kaufman, G. Nicolas; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hahn, A.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kilminster, B.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lueking, L.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Tan, P.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yumiceva, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dragoiu, C.; Evdokimov, O.; Garcia-Solis, E. J.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; Malek, M.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Chung, K.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Lae, C. K.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Rappoccio, S.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Grachov, O.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Radicci, V.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Zhukova, V.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Boutemeur, M.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Peterman, A.; Rossato, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Twedt, E.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Ceballos, G. Gomez; Goncharov, M.; Hahn, K. A.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Li, W.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stockli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Xie, S.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Cooper, S. I.; Cushman, P.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Haupt, J.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Butt, J.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Jindal, P.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malbouisson, H.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Baur, U.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Shipkowski, S. P.; Smith, K.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Ziegler, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Killewald, P.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Adam, N.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Gerbaudo, D.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Laird, E.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Acosta, J. G.; Huang, X. T.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Oliveros, S.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Marono, M. Vidal; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Cuplov, V.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Gotra, Y.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Korjenevski, S.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hits, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Richards, A.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Engh, D.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Yohay, R.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Don, C. Kottachchi Kankanamge; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Bachtis, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2012-05-01

    Results are presented from a search for heavy bottom-like quarks, pair-produced in pp collisions at √{s} = 7 TeV, undertaken with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The b' quarks are assumed to decay exclusively to tW. The {{b}}' overline {{b}} ' → {{t}}{{{W}}^{ - }}overline {{t}} {{{W}}^{ + }} process can be identified by its distinctive signatures of three leptons or two leptons of same charge, and at least one b-quark jet. Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb-1, observed events are compared to the standard model background predictions, and the existence of b' quarks having masses below 611 GeV/ c 2 is excluded at 95% confidence level.

  9. Co-existence of 9p deletion and Silver-Russell syndromes in a patient with maternally inherited cryptic complex chromosome rearrangement involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Sathanoori, Malini; Kochmar, Sally; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; McGuire, Marianne; Surti, Urvashi

    2013-01-01

    We report a patient with a maternally inherited unbalanced complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11 detected by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This patient presents with clinical features of 9p deletion syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Chromosome analysis performed in 2000 showed what appeared to be a simple terminal deletion of chromosome 9p22.1. aCGH performed in 2010 revealed a 1.63 Mb duplication at 4q28.3, a 15.48 Mb deletion at 9p24.3p22.3, and a 1.95 Mb duplication at 11p15.5. FISH analysis revealed a derivative chromosome 9 resulting from an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 9 and 11, a chromosome 4 fragment inserted near the breakpoint of the translocation. The 4q28.3 duplication does not contain any currently known genes. The 9p24.3p22.3 deletion region contains 36 OMIM genes including a 3.5 Mb critical region for the 9p-phenotype. The 11p15.5 duplication contains 49 OMIM genes including H19 and IGF2. Maternal aCGH was normal. However, maternal chromosomal and FISH analyses revealed an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with maternally inherited trans-duplication of the entire imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) among the 11p15.5 duplications reported in SRS patients. This report supports the hypothesis that the trans-duplication of the maternal copy of ICR1 alone is sufficient for the clinical manifestation of SRS and demonstrates the usefulness of combining aCGH with karyotyping and FISH for detecting cryptic genomic imbalances. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Functional and neurophysiological evidence of the efficacy of trophic pharmacotherapy using an adrenocorticotrophic hormone4-9 analog in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Duckers, H J; van Dokkum, R P; Verhaagen, J; Lopes da Silva, F H; Gispen, W H

    1996-03-01

    Chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CEAE) is a well-established animal model for the human syndrome, multiple sclerosis. CEAE has striking histological, electrophysiological and clinical analogies with multiple sclerosis and is a valuable animal model for the preclinical pharmacotherapeutical development of new putative therapeutic agents. In this paper, we describe a neurotrophic repair approach in Lewis rats suffering from CEAE. The neurotrophic peptide used is a degradation resistant adrenocorticotrophic hormone4-9 analog. The development of CEAE was examined using a combination of clinical, functional and electrophysiological parameters including somatosensory and motor evoked potentials. The latencies and amplitudes of the various evoked potentials can provide quantitative, objective data regarding the involvement of different nerve tracts in CEAE and the effectiveness of the neurotrophic peptide. Repeated subcutaneous injections of the neurotrophic peptide suppressed the development of CEAE-related clinical symptoms, markedly improved motor performance and reduced the reaction time upon thermal stimulation as compared to saline-treated CEAE animals during a 17 week follow-up study. Prolonged onset latencies of corticomotor evoked potentials and peak latencies of somatosensory evoked potentials due to the demyelination were normalized upon peptide treatment. In addition, peptide treatment substantially prevented total blocking of the corticomotor pathway in CEAE-animals and reduced the attenuation of sensory evoked potentials-related peak amplitudes as compared to saline-treated animals. The functional and electrophysiological improvements observed in CEAE-animals treated with the adrenocorticotrophic hormone4-9 analog, suggest that a neurotrophic repair approach could be of great value to promote the restoration of function in a disabling demyelinating disorder.

  11. The Educational System of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenman, Paul S.

    The history, administration, and structure of education in the Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, are described. In general, administration is centralized at the state level. Each state issues its own course of study, conducts secondary level examinations, revises curriculum, and approves textbooks. Building and equipment maintenance…

  12. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  13. Education and Youth Employment in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Dohnanyi, Klaus

    The education/employment situation of young people in West Germany is examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in contemporary industrialized societies. To place problems of West German youth in a broader context, it is necessary to consider socioeconomic developments in West Germany since…

  14. National Student Governance in Germany: The Case of fzs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungblut, Jens; Weber, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organizational development of freier zusammenschluss von studentInnenschaften (fzs), the national union of students in Germany from its foundation until 2010. It situates it within the variety of student organizations acting on behalf of students within the multi-level system of higher education governance in Germany.…

  15. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  16. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  17. Multicultural Education in Germany: Historical Development and Current Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Gerd R.

    Multicultural education in Germany has been profoundly affected by history and the consequences and burdens of war. As Germany has always understood itself to be a monocultural country, there was initially little room for unpopular multicultural approaches to school organization and curriculum. Depending on the political orientation of state…

  18. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  19. An Active Old Age--Senior Citizens in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    Life expectancies are rising all over the world, leading to higher proportions of older adults in the population. This is especially true in Japan and Germany. In Germany today, "old" no longer means necessarily "poor and frail." Through volunteer work, lifelong learning, study tours, and participation in sports, older Germans…

  20. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  1. Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakleppa, Hans

    The Federal Republic of Germany uses its development aid policy to support the growth of manpower resources in developing countries by means of a broad spectrum of training and further training programs of foreign specialists. In planning these programs and arranging scholarships, Germany tries to orient itself toward the educational policy…

  2. Concerted actions for an interoperable health telematics platform in Germany.

    PubMed

    Sembritzki, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    In Germany many commitments have been made to build a telematics infrastructure. The Centre for Telematics in Healthcare first published the concept for such a platform in 2001. This concept is introduced amongst others and information is given about the actions and initiatives of the last two years in Germany.

  3. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Veterinary Clinics, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Weiss, Reinhard; van der Reijden, Tanny; van den Broek, Peterhans; Baljer, Georg; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2011-01-01

    An increase in prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. in hospitalized animals was observed at the Justus-Liebig-University (Germany). Genotypic analysis of 56 isolates during 2000–2008 showed 3 clusters that corresponded to European clones I–III. Results indicate spread of genotypically related strains within and among veterinary clinics in Germany. PMID:21888812

  4. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  5. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  6. The Search for Specialists and Managers. Staff Shortage in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Klaus, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Despite its high unemployment level, Germany is experiencing a shortage of specialists and managers. Germany's need for highly qualified information technology (IT) workers and engineers is particularly great. Approximately 10,000 posts for computer scientists and IT specialists remained vacant in 1998. Because of the shortage of such specialists,…

  7. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... direct benefit of the United States Forces are authorized to be acquired duty-free by the Contractor in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement Between the United States of America and Germany Concerning Tax Relief to be Accorded by Germany to United States Expenditures in the Interest of Common Defense...

  9. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  10. An American Social Worker in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…

  11. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Germany: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Germany's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. Data were collected through meetings with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, an analysis of data from a national questionnaire, and a review of pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: reviewing the role of Germany's…

  12. The Changing Family in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohn, Charlotte; Luscher, Kurt

    1988-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the family in West Germany. Examines family demographics; provides an overview of the main institutional forces, laws, and family policy; and refers to the organizational aspects of demography. Describes trend in Germany of shrinking household size and increasing share of one-person households. Describes statistics…

  13. Labor, Business, and Change in Germany and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wever, Kirsten S., Ed.

    This book explores how two nations with widely divergent political economies, Germany and the United States (U.S.), embraced change in four contemporary settings. "Mutual Learning with Trade-Offs" (Kirsten Wever) discusses mutual learning and the distinguishing characteristics of the political economies of Germany and the U.S.…

  14. Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakleppa, Hans

    The Federal Republic of Germany uses its development aid policy to support the growth of manpower resources in developing countries by means of a broad spectrum of training and further training programs of foreign specialists. In planning these programs and arranging scholarships, Germany tries to orient itself toward the educational policy…

  15. Estimating the prevalence of nonpaternity in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael; Musch, Jochen; Enczmann, Juergen; Fischer, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of nonpaternity in human societies is difficult to establish. To obtain a current and fairly unbiased estimate of the nonpaternity rate in Germany, we analysed a dataset consisting of 971 children and their parents in whom human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing had been carried out in the context of bone marrow transplantation. In this sample, nine exclusions (0.93%) could be identified on the basis of more than 300 HLA-haplotypes defined by four HLA genes. Given this number of exclusions, a maximum likelihood estimate of the nonpaternity rate in the population of 0.94% was obtained with asymptotic 95% confidence limits of 0.33% and 1.55%, respectively. This result is in accordance with recent surveys as well as findings from Switzerland for a comparable sample, and it suggests that earlier estimates of the nonpaternity rate which were often in excess of 10% may have been largely exaggerated.

  16. Ejecta of the Ries Crater, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the light which may be shed by the ejecta surrounding the 26-km diameter Ries Crater in West Germany on the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Event. Moldavites represent early high speed ejecta originating at the projectile-target interface. Bunte breccia reflects the major excavation and ejection phase, comprising more than 90 percent of all ejecta beyond the rim crest. Suevite is deposited last, and is derived from the deepest target stratum. Using various scaling laws that relate the bolide's kinetic energy to crater geometry or volume, and assuming a 25 km/sec impact velocity, a 1-2 km projectile diameter is obtained for a stony object. Geochemical studies reveal that projectile dissemination is heterogeneous, and that maximum extraterrestrial contamination modeled as a C1 chondrite is 0.004 wt pct. Observations from this and other terrestrial craters show that tektites and microtectites provide the sole evidence for widespread impact deposits.

  17. First detection of Hyalomma rufipes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Nava, Santiago; Bestehorn, Malena; Dobler, Gerhard; Wölfel, Silke

    2016-10-01

    Hyalomma rufipes, a two-host tick, is the most widespread Hyalomma species in Africa. In December 2015, an ixodid tick male with an unusual morphology was detected on a horse in a stable near Mainz in the Federal State Rhineland-Palatine. For identification purposes, the tick was preserved in alcohol and sent to our laboratory. The morphology of the tick showed specific characteristics of H. rufipes. The 16S rDNA sequence of H. rufipes from Germany was identical to the corresponding 16S rDNA sequence of H. rufipes from Tanzania, and they both were closely related to Hyalomma marginatum. The tick was tested with a real-time PCR for rickettsiae and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus with negative results.

  18. [Chronic pain. Epidemiology and management in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M

    2004-05-01

    At least 5 million patients with chronic and severely debilitating pain exist among the adult population in Germany, i.e. 8% of this population. Various biological and psychosocial risk factors contribute to the continuing chronicity of pain, resulting in enormous direct and indirect costs totalling an estimated 38 billion euro annually. The introduction of a medical specialty for pain treatment in 1998 has not appreciably affected the quality of outpatient pain management. In contrast, more recent approaches of multimodal treatment, including medical, psychological and behavioral components, have shown a significant and lasting effect in patients with a high incidence of workplace incapacitation and sick leave. In particular, the GRIP pilot project (Göttingen Intensive Back Project) has resulted in an increased rate (to 200%) of return to the workplace and in a decrease in health system expenses to 50% of the pretreatment level.

  19. Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany.

    PubMed

    Thieme, H

    1997-02-27

    Little is known about the organic component of Lower and Middle Palaeolithic technologies, particular with respect to wooden tools. Here I describe some wooden throwing spears about 400,000 years old that were discovered in 1995 at the Pleistocene site at Schöningen, Germany. They are thought to be the oldest complete hunting weapons so far discovered to have been used by humans. Found in association with stone tools and the butchered remains of more than ten horses, the spears strongly suggest that systematic hunting, involving foresight, planning and the use of appropriate technology, was part of the behavioural repertoire of pre-modern hominids. The use of sophisticated spears as early as the Middle Pleistocene may mean that many current theories on early human behaviour and culture must be revised.

  20. Methamphetamine for Hitler's Germany: 1937 to 1945.

    PubMed

    Defalque, Ray J; Wright, Amos J

    2011-04-01

    Methamphetamine was synthesized in Germany in 1937 and commercially released in 1938. It became a popular stimulant for tired night workers and a recreational drug for young people until mid-1941 when it became a controlled substance. It was abused by the armed forces during World War II when it was distributed by some commanding officers (occasionally over the objections of the units' physicians) to prevent or treat the fatigue of exhausted troops and thus allow them to survive, despite the strict restrictions issued by the Army Inspectorate. There is no evidence for the claim that the use of Pervitin was encouraged by the Nazi government to create a "superman." In fact the Health Leader L. Conti strongly discouraged its use.

  1. Dow agrees on pipeline in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-05-01

    The often fragile relationship between Dow Europe and eastern Germany strengthened this week with an agreement to build a feedstock pipeline from the Baltic Sea to the Buna BSL petrochemical complex at Boehlen. Dow recently agreed to go ahead with its 80% investment in the BSL venture following fears it might withdraw from the project because of European Commission cuts in the amount of state aid available. The multi-feedstock liquid pipeline is expected to transport naphtha, crude oil, and, possibly, liquid petroleum gas from Rostock on the Baltic to the Boehlen site. Besides Dow, the participants are BSL Olefinverbund and Elf subsidiary Mider. Dow is expected to contribute DM450 million toward the investment.

  2. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  3. River habitat monitoring and assessment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Ulrich; Binder, Walter; Hölzl, Konrad

    2007-04-01

    Whereas assessing the biological and chemical quality of water is a standard environmental procedure in many countries, the use of habitat survey methods that assess the ecomorphological quality of rivers is relatively new. In Europe, the EC Water Framework Directive requires such assessment from all EU Member States. In Germany, the first river habitat assessments were introduced in the late 1990 s. Each federal state develops its own river habitat map using the 'On-site Survey' and/or the 'Overview Survey'. The assessment describes the difference of the actual condition from a previously defined reference condition. In practice, a defined 'potential for restoration', a more realistic condition, makes restoration activities much easier and more successful. In Germany, the first River Habitat Map 2001 was published in 2002. The survey covered 33,000 km of river length, which equates to 10% of all rivers. A wide range from 'Undisturbed' (class 1) to 'Totally Disturbed' (class 7) river units exists; 77% of them are 'Clearly Disturbed' (class 4) or in worse condition. These result reflects extensive anthropogenic impact on the environment in general, but also past intense technical river 'improvements' that focused on the protection of settlements and traffic routes from flooding, better shipping conditions, the use of water power, and drainage of floodplains for agriculture and urban development. For comparability of survey results between EU Member States, a harmonization of national survey methods is in progress. A crucial point here is the definition of the reference condition for each river (near-natural conditions), since it influences the survey results.

  4. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  5. Socioeconomic deprivation and cancer survival in Germany: an ecological analysis in 200 districts in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Gondos, Adam; Holleczek, Bernd; Kajüter, Hiltraud; Maier, Werner; Nennecke, Alice; Pritzkuleit, Ron; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-06-15

    Although socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival have been demonstrated both within and between countries, evidence on the variation of the inequalities over time past diagnosis is sparse. Furthermore, no comprehensive analysis of socioeconomic differences in cancer survival in Germany has been conducted. Therefore, we analyzed variations in cancer survival for patients diagnosed with one of the 25 most common cancer sites in 1997-2006 in ten population-based cancer registries in Germany (covering 32 million inhabitants). Patients were assigned a socioeconomic status according to the district of residence at diagnosis. Period analysis was used to derive 3-month, 5-year and conditional 1-year and 5-year age-standardized relative survival for 2002-2006 for each deprivation quintile in Germany. Relative survival of patients living in the most deprived district was compared to survival of patients living in all other districts by model-based period analysis. For 21 of 25 cancer sites, 5-year relative survival was lower in the most deprived districts than in all other districts combined. The median relative excess risk of death over the 25 cancer sites decreased from 1.24 in the first 3 months to 1.16 in the following 9 months to 1.08 in the following 4 years. Inequalities persisted after adjustment for stage. These major regional socioeconomic inequalities indicate a potential for improving cancer care and survival in Germany. Studies on individual-level patient data with access to treatment information should be conducted to examine the reasons for these socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in more detail. © 2013 UICC.

  6. Excited singlet states of covalently bound, cofacial dimers and trimers of perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide)s.

    PubMed

    Giaimo, Jovan M; Lockard, Jenny V; Sinks, Louise E; Scott, Amy M; Wilson, Thea M; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2008-03-20

    Perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) and its derivatives are robust organic dyes that strongly absorb visible light and display a strong tendency to self-assemble into ordered aggregates, having significant interest as photoactive materials in a wide variety of organic electronics. To better understand the nature of the electronics states produced by photoexcitation of such aggregates, the photophysics of a series of covalent, cofacially oriented, pi-stacked dimers and trimers of PDI and 1,7-bis(3',5'-di-t-butylphenoxy)perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PPDI) were characterized using both time-resolved absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The covalent linkage between the chromophores was accomplished using 9,9-dimethylxanthene spacers. Placing n-octyl groups on the imide nitrogen atoms at the end of the PDI chromophores not attached to the xanthene spacer results in PDI dimers having near optimal pi-stacking, leading to formation of a low-energy excimer-like state, while substituting the more sterically demanding 12-tricosanyl group on the imides causes deviations from the optimum that result in slower formation of an excimer-like excited state having somewhat higher energy. By comparison, PPDI dimers having terminal n-octyl imide groups have two isomers, whose photophysical properties depend on the ability of the phenoxy groups at the 1,7-positions to modify the pi stacking of the PPDI molecules. In general, disruption of optimal pi-stacking by steric interactions of the phenoxy side groups results in excimer-like states that are higher in energy. The corresponding lowest excited singlet states of the PDI and PPDI trimers are dimer-like in nature and suggest that structural distortions that accompany formation of the trimers are sufficient to confine the electronic interaction on two chromophores within these systems. This further suggests that it may be useful to build into oligomeric PDI and PPDI systems some degree of flexibility that allows the

  7. Rupture process of the Milan, Kansas Earthquake of November 12, 2014 (M4.9) and Its Relationship to Fluid Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, G. L.; Rubinstein, J. L.; Yeck, W.; McNamara, D. E.; Mueller, C. S.; Boyd, O. S.

    2016-12-01

    From 1974-2012, Kansas had experienced only 15 earthquakes of M>3.0, a rate of less than one earthquake every two years. In 2014 and 2015 the number of earthquakes (M≥3.0) was 108. These events were located almost exclusively in Harper and Sumner counties, a region in southern Kansas where wastewater injection from oil and gas extraction operations had dramatically increased starting about 2010. The largest recorded earthquake in Kansas (Mw 4.9) occurred northeast of Milan on November 12, 2014 in a region previously devoid of such large events. Applying multi-station processing to data from a local seismic network, we are able to detail the rupture process, rupture geometry and stress drop ( 1.7 MPa) of the main shock. The first-month aftershocks define a well-delineated zone which aligns with the NS nodal plane of the USGS/COMCAT focal mechanism. The causative fault plane is inferred to be an extension of the Nemaha fault zone. The first-year aftershocks expand well beyond the original rupture zone. Characteristics of this earthquake that are shared by other earthquakes induced by fluid injection into permeable formations overlying crystalline basement include: (1) the unprecedented occurrence of earthquakes in a previously near-aseismic region; (2) wastewater injection wells in the vicinity (about 10-20 km) of the main-shock epicenter; (3) seismicity following episodes of increased fluid injection; and (4) a geological structure that could be activated by changes in pore pressure and hydraulic connectivity. Pockets of seismicity at the extremities of the rupture zone suggest stress may have been transferred to the ends of the fault implying some seismic hazard remains. In assessing seismic hazard, an empirical formula from the Electric Power Institute (EPRI) that uses felt area to estimate moment magnitude is often applied to historical earthquakes. This earthquake provides an opportunity to test the efficacy of that formula. The earthquake had been felt as far

  8. Childhood Leukemia in the Vicinity of the Geesthacht Nuclear Establishments near Hamburg, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Terschueren, Claudia; Richardson, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Background During 1990–1991 a childhood leukemia cluster was observed in the sparsely populated region surrounding two nuclear establishments southeast of Hamburg, Germany. Since then, several new cases have been reported. Recently a possible accidental release of radionuclides in 1986 was hypothesized. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the childhood leukemia incidence in this area since 1990. Methods All incident cases (< 15 years of age) were ascertained during 1990–2005 within a 5-km radius of the Krümmel nuclear power plant. We derived standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using county and national leukemia incidence rates as referents. We stratified analyses by calendar period and attained age, and by subdividing the study region into areas north versus south of the Elbe river. Results Fourteen cases were ascertained in the study area, whereas 4.0 were expected based on national referent rates [1990–2005: SIR = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.9–5.9]. The excess was not confined to the early 1990s; for the more recent time period 1999–2005, the SIR is still elevated (SIR = 2.7; 95% CI, 0.9–6.2). SIRs of greatest magnitude were observed for children 0–4 years of age (SIR = 4.9; 95% CI, 2.4–9.0) and for residents south of the Elbe (SIR = 7.5; 95% CI, 2.8–16.4). Conclusions The incidence in this region is significantly higher than the childhood leukemia incidence for Germany as a whole. To date, no unique hazards have been identified in this population. The fact that the elevated rates have persisted in this community for > 15 years warrants further investigation. PMID:17589605

  9. Aptamer-based spectrofluorometry for cellular prion protein using N,N'-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamino)propylamine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lei; Liang, Li Jiao; Zhen, Shu Jun; Li, Chun Mei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2013-02-21

    A new spectrofluorometric method for cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) was developed based on the regulation of N,N'-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamino)propylamine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (DAPER) fluorescence. As a perylene derivative, DAPER emits strong fluorescence in the form of free monomer in aqueous medium, but not in the form of aggregates. In this contribution, we found that the aptamer of PrP(C) could induce the aggregation of DAPER, and the bright fluorescence of DAPER was completely quenched. The quenched fluorescence, however, was recovered if PrP(C) was further added, which was ascribed to the specific binding of PrP(C) to its aptamer and the releasing of free DAPER monomers. This signalling mechanism makes it possible to detect PrP(C) by fluorescence spectroscopy. The assay allows the selective determination of PrP(C) in aqueous solution with high sensitivity and exhibits a good linear range from 0.4 to 1.6 nmol L(-1). Moreover, this probe can be applied to monitor the level of PrP(C) in human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  10. Air stable, ambipolar organic transistors and inverters based upon a heterojunction structure of pentacene on N ,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Min-Jun; Seo, Hoon-Seok; Zhang, Ying; Oh, Jeong-Do; Choi, Jong-Ho

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the fabrication and electrical characterization of top-contact, ambipolar organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and inverters based upon a heterostructure of p-type pentacene on n-type N ,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide (P13), using the neutral cluster beam deposition (NCBD) method. The device characteristics measured as a function of both P13 and pentacene layer thicknesses revealed that OFETs with thicknesses of P13 (300 Å) and pentacene (200 Å) showed high air-stability and well-balanced ambipolarity with hole and electron mobilities of 0.12 and 0.08 cm2/V s. The complementary inverters, comprising two identical ambipolar OFETs, were found to operate both in the first and third quadrants of the transfer curves and exhibited a high voltage inversion gain of 13, good noise margins, and little hysteresis under ambient conditions. The results presented demonstrate that the NCBD-based ambipolar transistors and inverters qualify them as promising potential candidates for the construction of high-performance, organic thin film-based integrated circuits.

  11. N-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine for blue organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Dong Young; Lee, Song Eun; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have synthesized two blue fluorescent materials based on anthracene derivatives with electron-donating diphenylamine moieties by Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. To explore their electroluminescent properties as blue emitting materials, multilayer devices were fabricated in following sequence: indium-tin-oxide (180 nm)/4,4‧-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl (50 nm)/blue emitters (30 nm)/bathophenanthroline (30 nm)/lithium quinolate (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). Among them, a device using N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-phenyl-4-(9,10-diphenylanthracen-3-yl)benzenamine exhibited efficient blue emission with a luminous, power and external quantum efficiency of 3.11 cd/A, 2.39 lm/W, and 1.82% at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. The Commission International de L’Eclairage coordinates of this device were (x,y) = (0.14,0.15) at 6.0 V.

  12. Determination of the individual atomic site contribution to the electronic structure of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S. W.; Newby, D.; DeMasi, A.; Smith, K. E.; Piper, L. F. J.; Jones, T. S.

    2013-11-01

    We have studied the element and orbital-specific electronic structure of thin films of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) using a combination of synchrotron radiation-exited resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as density functional theory calculations. Resonant and non-resonant x-ray emission spectroscopies were used to measure the C and O 2p partial densities of state in PTCDA. Furthermore, resonant x-ray emission at the C and O K-edges is shown to be able to measure the partial densities of states associated with individual atomic sites. The flat molecular orientation of PTCDA on various substrates is explained in terms of the carbonyl O atom acting as a hydrogen-bond acceptor leading to multiple in-plane intermolecular C=O...H-C hydrogen bonding between carbonyl groups and the perylene core of the neighboring PTCDA molecules. We support this conclusion by comparison of our calculations to measurements of the electronic structure using element-, site-, and orbital-selective C and O K-edge resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, and photoemission spectroscopy.

  13. Gamma and pizero production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation. [4. 9 to 7. 4 GeV (c. m. )

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, A.

    1980-01-01

    Inclusive cross sections of ..gamma..'s and ..pi../sup 0/ mesons in hadronic events produced by electron-positron annihilation for the center-of-mass energy range 4.9 to 7.4 GeV are presented. Scale invariance of the inclusive spectra is exhibited in this energy range, and their normalization and shape are seen to be consistent with those of spectra arising from the decay of the ..pi../sup 0/. The fraction of center-of-mass energy carried away by the ..gamma..'s at high energies is found to be < E/sub ..gamma..//E/sub c.m./> = 0.24 +- 0.01. The ..pi../sup 0/ inclusive cross section is seen to be consistent in normalization and shape with half the charged-..pi.. cross section between x = 0.15 and 0.75, with an integrated inclusive cross-section ratio of sigma(..pi../sup 0/)/(sigma(..pi../sup +/) + sigma(..pi../sup -/)) = 0.48 +- 0.05. 60 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Charge transfer optical absorption and fluorescence emission of 4-(9-acridyl)julolidine from long-range-corrected time dependent density functional theory in polarizable continuum approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kityk, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    A long-range-corrected time-dependent density functional theory (LC-TDDFT) in combination with polarizable continuum model (PCM) have been applied to study charge transfer (CT) optical absorption and fluorescence emission energies basing on parameterized LC-BLYP xc-potential. The molecule of 4-(9-acridyl)julolidine selected for this study represents typical CT donor-acceptor dye with strongly solvent dependent optical absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The result of calculations are compared with experimental spectra reported in the literature to derive an optimal value of the model screening parameter ω. The first absorption band appears to be quite well predictable within DFT/TDDFT/PCM with the screening parameter ω to be solvent independent (ω≈0.245 Bohr-1) whereas the fluorescence emission exhibits a strong dependence on the range separation with ω-value varying on a rising solvent polarity from about 0.225 to 0.151 Bohr-1. Dipolar properties of the initial state participating in the electronic transition have crucial impact on the effective screening.

  15. An amplified electrochemiluminescent aptasensor using Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites as a signal enhancement tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Meng-Nan; Zhang, Xia; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal tag fabrication, the C60 nanoparticles (C60NPs) were prepared and then coated with 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA) by π-π stacking interactions. Afterwards, thiosemicarbazide (TSC) was linked with PTCA functionalized C60NPs via amidation for further assembling Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Finally, detection aptamer of thrombin (TBA 2) was labeled on the ECL signal amplification tag of AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs. Herein, TSC, with the active groups of -NH2 and -SH, was selected and introduced into the ECL S2O82-/O2 system for the first time, which could not only offer the active groups of -SH to absorb AuNPs for TBA 2 anchoring but also remarkably enhance the ECL signal of the S2O82-/O2 system by the formation of TSC-PTC/C60NPs for signal amplification. Meanwhile, the sensing interface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by AuNPs/graphene (AuNPs/GR) nanocomposites with the large specific surface area and the active sites, followed by immobilization of thiol-terminated thrombin capture aptamer (TBA 1). With the formation of the sandwich-type structure of TBA 1, TB, and TBA 2 signal probes, a desirable enhanced ECL signal was measured in the testing buffer of an S2O82-/O2 solution for detecting TB. The aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship for TB detection in the range of 1 × 10-5-10 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 fM.A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal

  16. First record of Aedes koreicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Zielke, Dorothee E; Kampen, Helge

    2016-03-01

    Within the framework of a national mosquito monitoring programme, a mosquito specimen collected in mid-2015 in southern Germany was identified as Aedes koreicus, a non-endemic species originating from East Asia. After the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus, which is already established in Germany and widely distributed, and the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, which is increasingly often introduced from southern Europe, A. koreicus is the third demonstrated invasive mosquito species in Germany supposed to have significant vector potential for disease agents.

  17. Ongoing outbreak of invasive listeriosis, Germany, 2012 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Ruppitsch, Werner; Prager, Rita; Halbedel, Sven; Hyden, Patrick; Pietzka, Ariane; Huhulescu, Steliana; Lohr, Dorothee; Schönberger, Katharina; Aichinger, Elisabeth; Hauri, Anja; Stark, Klaus; Vygen, Sabine; Tietze, Erhard; Allerberger, Franz; Wilking, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis patient isolates in Germany have shown a new identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern since 2012 (n = 66). Almost all isolates (Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a) belonged to cases living in southern Germany, indicating an outbreak with a so far unknown source. Case numbers in 2015 are high (n = 28). No outbreak cases outside Germany have been reported. Next generation sequencing revealed the unique cluster type CT1248 and confirmed the outbreak. Investigations into the source are ongoing.

  18. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  19. Continuous solar UV monitoring in Germany.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, M

    1997-11-01

    Early in 1993, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS, Salzgitter) together with the Federal Environmental Office (UBA, Berlin) established an overall UV monitoring network for the continuous measurement of spectrally resolved UV radiation. Every 6 min the solar UV spectrum is measured by a Bentham DM 150 double monochromator system in a wavelength ranging from 290 to 450 nm. Every night, UV data are automatically transferred via modem to the reference station in Munich where they are quality controlled and then stored in a host computer. Human health assessment of the exposure is documented in 1/2 h MED (minimal erythemal dose) values. The selected sites of Zingst (1 m, 54 degrees N, Baltic Sea), Offenbach (110 m, 50 degrees N, Rhine rift valley), Schauinsland (1205 m, 48 degrees N, Black Forest) and Neuherberg (493 m, 48 degrees N, Munich) provide a good overview of the UV radiation situation in Germany and therefore an ideal supplement to more detailed biological effect research, especially of comparison measurements with biosensors under environmental conditions. Preliminary investigations have already been started.

  20. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on.

  1. Expected and preferred retirement age in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hess, Moritz

    2016-04-28

    Over the last 10 years the German pension system has undergone several reforms including the abandonment of early retirement policies and an increase in the statutory retirement age. Consequently, the average retirement age has increased and future retiree cohorts have adjusted the retirement expectations and preferences as to when they would like to retire. This study was carried out to examine discrepancies between the expected and the preferred retirement age of older workers in Germany and to investigate how these discrepancies differ between groups of older workers. Based on data from the survey "Employment after retirement", the expected and preferred retirement ages of 1500 workers aged 55 years and older were compared. Regression analyses were used to investigate the influence of educational level and professional position on deviances between the expected and preferred retirement ages. On average older workers would like to retire 1.75 years earlier than they actually expect to. The deviance is significantly larger for employees with a lower professional position, lower income and lower educational level. The discrepancy between expected and preferred retirement ages, in particular for older workers in vulnerable labor market positions, indicates a potential social inequality regarding the choice of retirement timing. This must be acknowledged when considering further reforms of the German pension system.

  2. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    PubMed

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  3. Early retirement and mortality in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühntopf, Stephan; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2012-02-01

    Differences in mortality by retirement age have an important impact on the financing of pension insurance, yet no clear-cut results for Germany exist so far. We calculate mortality rates by retirement age from microdata on all German old-age pensioners and 1.84 million deceases. The life expectancies and survival probabilities at age 65 are estimated for population subgroups according to creditable periods because of disease and pension income. Early-retired men who reach the age of 65 years live significantly longer the later early retirement occurs; the life expectancy at age 65 ranges from 13 to 17.8 years. For each retirement age, mortality of men is higher the more periods of disease are credited in the pension insurance system. For a given length of credited periods of disease, mortality of early retirees decreases with the retirement age. 'Healthy worker selection effects' operating in the labour market may contribute to these results. The 'work longer, live longer'-result is found for each pension income quintile, which resolves the J-curve pattern found in the literature. The mortality of female old-age pensioners varies little with retirement age.

  4. Space Radar Image of Munich, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  5. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term.

  6. Women in Physics in Germany, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Hanna

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics in Germany has not changed dramatically in the three years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference was held in 2005. The salary of a woman remains approximately 25% lower than that of a man in a comparable professional position. The number of female professors is growing slowly. The number of young women beginning to study physics is around 20%. There is, however, a noticeable increase in organization and societal acceptance of female physicists, and an increasing amount of men taking part in this process. There is also increased acceptance and support of dual-career couples. The Helmholtz Alliance for "Physics at the Terascale" founded a dual-career option program. In 2008, the annual Conference of German Female Physicists (DPT) held in Muenster became an official conference of the DPG (German Physical Society). Various scientific groups working for equal opportunity have formed a "network of networks." At the DESY (German Electron Synchrotron), a group of women led by an equal opportunity officer is involved in the entire process of hiring new staff members in all positions, including directors.

  7. [The history of insurance medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Raestrup, O

    2002-09-01

    Necessity for insurance was recognized even in ancient and medieval times. In modern times, mathematical and statistical research into mortality ratios, led to the start up of insurance companies. Medical advice was needed. Family doctors, medical advisers and chief physicians of the insurance companies became essential for insurance medicine. The "numerical method" and improved tarif systems were used to investigate the survival rates of people in poor health. In Germany, extensive statistical analysis of medical records was performed in a central data management office (Mitteilungsstelle für Sonderwagnisse). The Dr. Karl-Wilder-Foundation of the German insurance companies subsidized research into causality of diseases, course and prognosis affecting life expectancy. In health insurance publications on historical insurance medical work are rare. In accident insurance medicine, concrete conception of terms started especially after the second world war. Insurance medical knowledge was promoted in the department for insurance medicine of the German Association for Insurance Science (Deutscher Verein für Versicherungswissenschaft). Scientific publication started in 1886. Collaboration with related disciplines such as traumatology, forensic medicine and biostatistic was beneficial and should be extended in the future.

  8. [Psychiatric Emergencies in Psychiatric Hospitals in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Beuys, David; Hamann, Johannes; Messer, Thomas; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Psychiatric hospitals are confronted with high rates of psychiatric emergencies. There are, however, only few investigations that focus on psychiatric emergency care in German psychiatric hospitals, their supply structures and diagnostic and treatment standards. The aim of the survey was a systematic acquisition of the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in treating psychiatric emergencies in German psychiatric hospitals. Methods: We conducted a survey in psychiatric hospitals throughout Germany. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the structures of supply and diagnostic and therapeutic standards treating psychiatric emergencies. Results: 42 % of all admissions to German psychiatric hospitals were emergency admissions. More than 60 % of the patients in psychiatric emergency ambulances had to receive inpatient treatment. As standard procedures for medical clearing in psychiatric emergencies physical examination, measurement of heart rate and blood pressure and conducting certain laboratory tests and breath alcohol were named. The most common psychopharmacological agents for emergency situations were diazepam, lorazepam, haloperidol and zuclopenthixol. Conclusion: Diagnosing and treating psychiatric emergencies need more standardisation. More specific data is required to generate diagnostic and therapeutic standards. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Estimating the Number of Buildings in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnisch, M.; Ultsch, A.

    The debate on sustainable development has lead to the view of buildings as flows (mass, energy, money and information) or capitals. In this context buildings are considered as the largest physical, economical, social and cultural capital of a society. In Germany many institutions record different kind of data about buildings. Unfortunately there are just a few basic statistics about the amount of buildings. Collection of data is very complicated, often expensive and the handling of missing data is one of the biggest handicaps. With the exception of data about residential buildings and particularly monuments, it is an unsolved problem to determine the total number of buildings. Thus the main issue of this article is the description of an appropriate estimation procedure. This procedure relies on 12,430 communes and refers to data from the Cadaster of Real Estates and the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR). The estimation is based on statistical data from well-known and easily accessible institutions. The number of buildings is estimated for communes with missing data. Using methods from the, so called, Urban Data Mining approach, unsuspected relationships are found in the urban data. These relationships are valuable for the estimation. The quality of the estimation is analyzed by training and test data sets. Information optimization leads to the conclusion that 20% of the communes hold 80% of all buildings. For an improvement of the estimation it is essential to refine the amount and quality of data in the larger communes.

  10. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    PubMed

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  11. 17β-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone) exhibits tissue selective anabolic activity: effects on muscle, bone, adiposity, hemoglobin, and prostate.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; McCoy, Sean C; Lipinska, Judyta A; Santillana, Cesar A; Hance, John M; Cannady, Darryl F; VanPelt, Tisha D; Sanchez, Joshua; Conrad, Bryan P; Pingel, Jennifer E; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E

    2011-04-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) now under development can protect against muscle and bone loss without causing prostate growth or polycythemia. 17β-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone), a potent testosterone analog, may have SARM-like actions because, unlike testosterone, trenbolone does not undergo tissue-specific 5α-reduction to form more potent androgens. We tested the hypothesis that trenbolone-enanthate (TREN) might prevent orchiectomy-induced losses in muscle and bone and visceral fat accumulation without increasing prostate mass or resulting in adverse hemoglobin elevations. Male F344 rats aged 3 mo underwent orchiectomy or remained intact and were administered graded doses of TREN, supraphysiological testosterone-enanthate, or vehicle for 29 days. In both intact and orchiectomized animals, all TREN doses and supraphysiological testosterone-enanthate augmented androgen-sensitive levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle mass by 35-40% above shams (P ≤ 0.001) and produced a dose-dependent partial protection against orchiectomy-induced total and trabecular bone mineral density losses (P < 0.05) and visceral fat accumulation (P < 0.05). The lowest doses of TREN successfully maintained prostate mass and hemoglobin concentrations at sham levels in both intact and orchiectomized animals, whereas supraphysiological testosterone-enanthate and high-dose TREN elevated prostate mass by 84 and 68%, respectively (P < 0.01). In summary, low-dose administration of the non-5α-reducible androgen TREN maintains prostate mass and hemoglobin concentrations near the level of shams while producing potent myotrophic actions in skeletal muscle and partial protection against orchiectomy-induced bone loss and visceral fat accumulation. Our findings indicate that TREN has advantages over supraphysiological testosterone and supports the need for future preclinical studies examining the viability of TREN as an option for androgen replacement therapy.

  12. Variants of contextual fear conditioning are differentially impaired in the juvenile rat by binge ethanol exposure on postnatal days 4-9.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Nathen J; Stanton, Mark E

    2010-10-15

    Neonatal ethanol exposure in the rat is known to partially damage the hippocampus, but such exposure causes only modest or inconsistent deficits on hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks. This may reflect variable sensitivity of these tasks or residual function following partial hippocampal injury. The context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) is a variant of context conditioning in which context exposure and immediate shock occur on successive occasions. During testing, preexposed rats freeze more than non-preexposed controls. The CPFE is more sensitive to anterograde hippocampal injury than standard contextual fear conditioning (e.g., Rudy JW, O'Reilly RC. Conjunctive representations, the hippocampus, and contextual fear conditioning. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2001;1:66-82). We report that rats exposed to a high binge dose of ethanol (5.25g/kg/day) over postnatal days [PD] 4-9 failed to demonstrate the CPFE when preexposed to the conditioning context on PD31, relative to sham-intubated and undisturbed controls (Experiment 1). Neonatal alcohol disrupted conditioned freezing to a much lesser extent relative to controls when context preexposure was followed by a standard context conditioning trial rather than immediate shock (Experiment 2). Fear conditioning to a discrete auditory cue (tone) was unaffected by neonatal alcohol exposure ruling out possible performance effects (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the CPFE is an especially sensitive task for detecting hippocampal injury produced by neonatal alcohol. Mixed results with other tasks may reflect residual hippocampal function and/or the use of alternate neurobehavioral systems or "strategies" following alcohol-induced brain damage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score <-2 was categorised as underweight, height-for-age-z-score <-2 as stunted, and BMI-z-score >+1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all P<0.01). Stunting and underweight were related to lower birth weight, being breastfed for 6 months or more, having parents who were underweight or had short stature, and mothers who never attended formal education. Stunting was also higher in rural areas. Being at-risk, or overweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  14. Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right.

  15. Arms control and the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrieder, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    These essays explore the implications of arms control negotiations for the FRG and consider why Germany has traditionally found it impossible to divorce considerations of arms control from their larger political context.

  16. Decommissioning and dismantling strategies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Brennecke, P.; Berg, H.P.; Weil, L.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the following aspects of decommissioning and dismantling strategies in the federal republic of germany: legal requirements, nuclear installations to be decommissioned, reactor dismantling techniques, and radioactive waste management.

  17. Recruitment of Civil Engineering Students in Germany: Shortage or Overflow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothert, Heinrich

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the recruitment and demand for civil engineering students in Germany. Described is the German engineering education system and the possibility of a joint-venture building industry between the two German states. (KR)

  18. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  19. Isolation of sindbis virus from a hooded crow in Germany.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Martin; Ziegler, Ute; Keller, Markus; Müller, Kerstin; Granzow, Harald; Jöst, Hanna; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-03-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) is an arbovirus that causes clinical symptoms, including arthritis, rash, and fever during acute human infections. In Europe, SINV outbreaks are largely restricted to northern Europe. Intrigued by the isolation of SINV from mosquitoes in southwestern Germany in 2009, we initiated a passive arbovirus-monitoring program in birds and analyzed a total of 685 samples. By this approach, we were able to detect a SINV in a Hooded Crow in Germany for the first time. It was possible to isolate SINV virus in cell cultures and even to visualize virus particles by electron microscopy. After the determination of the complete SINV genome sequence, the phylogenetic analysis revealed its close relationship to SINV genotype I sequences previously obtained from mosquitoes in Germany and Scandinavia. This first report on the isolation of viable SINV indicates the potential involvement of crows in an enzootic circulation of SINV in Germany and Central Europe.

  20. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    PubMed

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  1. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  2. Extraterrestrial research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This German program for basic extraterrestrial research is an essential, successful, and worldwide recognized part of the space program and has the same attributes for basic research in the Federal Republic of Germany. It covers all major scientific disciplines.

  3. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  4. Albedo neutron dosimetry in Germany: regulations and performance.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Zimbal, A; Busch, F; Eichelberger, A; Engelhardt, J; Figel, M; Frasch, G; Günther, K; Jordan, M; Martini, E; Haninger, T; Rimpler, A; Seifert, R

    2014-12-01

    Personal neutron dosimetry has been performed in Germany using albedo dosemeters for >20 y. This paper describes the main principles, the national standards, regulations and recommendations, the quality management and the overall performance, giving some examples.

  5. [Continuing Medical Education in Germany - mandatory and voluntary obligations].

    PubMed

    Böthin, Elke

    2013-01-01

    After 1945 the common medical training infrastructure was broken up into two different political systems. While in the Federal Republic of Germany the structure was based on physicians' self-governance, in the German Democratic Republic medical professional structures were organised by the government. After the unification of the two German states, which took place on October 3, 1990, the centralistic structure was replaced by the system of physician self-governance. Before January 1, 2004, continuing medical education (CME) in West Germany relied on a system of voluntary obligations. In East Germany, though, professional CMEs were compulsory; they were called "obligatorische periphere Fortbildung." Based on 15 expert interviews on the topic of "CME in Germany", the different circumstances and conditions were analysed taking account of the historical background. Only selected professionals with experience in both German states (one with a federal, the other with a centralistic system), were chosen for the survey. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. The evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    In the past five years, the climate for commercial biotechnology in Germany has improved significantly and has resulted in an increase in the number of biotechnology companies. On examination of the underlying factors of the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany, and against the background of the current situation, it is predicted that many German biotech companies will have to change their business models to focus on product development rather than on platform technologies.

  7. Safety features of future LWR in Germany - regulatory view

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H.P.; Weil, L.

    1997-12-01

    The present state of advances in safety considerations regarding future PWR and BWR in the Federal Republic of Germany is described from the regulatory point of view. The role of deterministic and, in particular, probabilistic methods to be applied in the design process is explained. A further topic is the special situation of the ongoing harmonization process between France and Germany concerning safety objectives and requirements for future pressurized water reactors especially the EPR project. 11 refs.

  8. Area Handbook Series: East Germany: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    Germany, 192-93, teaching of political reliability, 240. 211-15 241; and the Third World , 241 foreign trade, xxiii, 136, 147-54; Asian French Revolution...Toward the Third World , ch. 4). To be sure, in extending this aid East Germany has gained political recognition from other countries as well as access to...capitals, culminated in World War I. Weltpolitik (global politics ), which included the establishment of overseas colonies and the development of

  9. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  10. A case of autochthonous human Dirofilaria infection, Germany, March 2014.

    PubMed

    Tappe, D; Plauth, M; Bauer, T; Muntau, B; Dießel, L; Tannich, E; Herrmann-Trost, P

    2014-05-01

    In March 2014, an infection with the nematode Dirofilaria repens was diagnosed in a German citizen in the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt. The patient had developed an itching subcutaneous nodule containing a female worm, which was identified as D. repens by 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing. Autochthonous human D. repens infections have not been described in Germany so far, but this finding is consistent with the recent detection of D. repens in mosquitoes from east Germany.

  11. The Geography of Germany: Lessons for Teaching the Five Themes of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This activity guide contains five lessons. Lesson 1 deals with "Location of Germany on the Earth's Surface" with two activities: (1) "Germany's Location in the World"; and (2) "Germany's Location in Europe." Lesson 2 is on the "Physical and Human Characteristics of Germany" with four activities on: (1)…

  12. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  13. Gambling experiences, problems, research and policy: gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Monika; Kräplin, Anja; Braun, Barbara; Kraus, Ludwig

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of gambling in Germany, including historical development, legislative and economic changes as well as treatment options and their effectiveness. The available scientific literature and research reports on gambling in Germany were reviewed to obtain relevant information on history, commercialization, legislation, treatment and research agenda. Gambling in Germany is characterized by compromises between protective and economic efforts. At present, gambling is illegal in Germany, and provision is subject to the state monopoly. Mere gaming machines (specific slot machines) are not classified as gambling activity, permitting commercial providers. In recent years, implementing regulations for state gambling and gaming machines have been changed. Concerning the treatment of pathological gambling, various options exist; treatment costs have been covered by health and pension insurance since 2001. Information on the effectiveness of treatment in Germany is limited. Similarly, the number of peer-reviewed publications on gambling is small. German gambling legislation was subject to major changes in the past years. Based on the available body of research (longitudinal), studies on risk and protective factors and the aetiology of pathological gambling are needed. The effectiveness of pathological gambling treatment in Germany and the impact of gambling regulations on gambling behaviour also need to be investigated. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. [A report on clinical PET activities in Germany].

    PubMed

    Tashiro, M; Kubota, K; Itoh, M; Sasaki, H; Moser, E

    1999-09-01

    Clinical diagnostic procedure using positron emission tomography (PET) requires high costs. To promote clinical use of PET, sociomedical evaluation is necessary. In this paper, sociomedical situations concerning clinical use of PET in Germany is reported. Some comparisons are made between Japan and this country putting emphases on several points such as 1) number of cyclotron and PET facilities, 2) social restriction to transportation of radioisotopes, 3) activities of satellite PET facilities, and 4) clinical indications for PET studies. Number of cyclotron was larger in Japan (29) than in Germany (17), but number of PET facilities was larger in Germany (47) than in Japan (29). The reason seems that in Germany transportation and buying of radioisotopes is less restricted. Hence, more than half of PET facilities in Germany are "satellite facilities" which do not have their own cyclotrons. Radioisotope distribution seems to serve as a backbone of "satellite concept." Additionally in Germany, list of clinical indications for PET study is almost completed and now is widely in applied to most cases. To promote clinical use of PET in Japan, the German system might serve as an important socioeconomic model in Europe instead of the United States.

  15. Monitoring of climate change in Germany - data, products and services of Germany's National Climate Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, F.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Penda, E.; Mächel, H.; Zimmermann, K.; Kaiser-Weiss, A.; Deutschländer, T.

    2013-08-01

    Germany's national meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) is the responsible authority for monitoring climate change in Germany. To fulfill this task it operates the National Climate Data Centre ("Nationales KlimaDatenZentrum, NKDZ"). The historical and current instrumental measurements and visual observations of DWD's station network are archived, quality-controlled and used to provide aggregated products, as for example daily and monthly means or climate normals. Gridded data are generated and used to derive time series of national and regional averages. Phenological observations and radiosonde data are also part of the data base. In recent years, additional historical data have been digitized to expand the data base. The products are used for informing the public, e.g. as an element of the German climate atlas (http://www.deutscher-klimaatlas.de). One major recent activity was the provision of information for the new climatological reference interval 1981-2010 and an updated climatological analysis based on the newly digitized data.

  16. Specified data for tonsil surgery in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Windfuhr, Jochen P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonsillectomy rates vary considerably among different states, regions, and times. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence of “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, hypertrophy of the tonsils with and without adenoids in absolute and relative numbers in an 80 million people nation. Moreover, the number and rates of different surgical procedures to resolve either “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, or upper airway obstruction due to (adeno)tonsillar hypertrophy over several years was evaluated in this study (tonsillectomy, adenotonsillectomy, tonsillotomy, abscess tonsillectomy, transoral incision and drainage). Finally, the post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage rate was calculated and analyzed in relation to age and gender. Material and methods: Calculations were based on data as published by the Federal Institute of Statistics or on request, if needed. The latest data were provided for 2013. Results: The total number of the aforementioned diseases (stratified by ICD-10) decreased from 142,574 (in 2000) to 87,624 in 2013 (38.5%). Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, was performed in a total of 833,896 patients between 2006 and 2013 in Germany. The yearly number decreased continually from 120,993 in 2006 to 84,332 procedures in 2013 (30.3%). The most significant decrease was registered in patients younger than 20 years of age for this time period: 70.92 per 10,000 in 2010 to 58.68 per 10,000 in 2013. If all age groups were included, the rate decreased from 13.34 per 10,000 to 10.90 per 10,000. In contrast, an increasing number of tonsillotomies was observed between 2007 (4,659 procedures) and 2013 (11,493). The cumulated number of procedures was 59,049. A constant number of 15,000 cases with peritonsillar abscess were diagnosed per year in Germany (19 patients per 100,000). The prevalence increased significantly at an age of 15 years and there was a preponderance of female patients below that age. Compared to the

  17. [One decade of HPV vaccination in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schneede, P

    2017-06-01

    As a worldwide very common sexually transmitted infection (STI), HPV causes millions of genital warts every year and is responsible for 5% of all cancers in men and women. With strong empirical evidence for both vaccine safety and efficacy, the HPV vaccines proved to protect against these HPV-related conditions over the last decade. But current HPV vaccination coverage is suboptimal in many countries. Even in Germany the absence of a school-based immunization program and the recommendation of a publicly funded girls-only HPV vaccination strategy are the main reasons for a female coverage rate under 40%, which does not achieve herd immunity for the boys. Therefore, the German immunization program urgently needs revision to fight an increasing number of young Germans missing out on the most important development in cancer prevention. Gender-neutral bundling of the HPV vaccine to other routinely recommended vaccines for preteens at one visit will have many advantages at the same time: Lowering the age of HPV vaccination to 9-12 years will improve the cost-effectiveness because a two-dose vaccination schedule is established on this score. Time-consuming and redundant explanations of the attending physician as well as parent's discussion on feeling stigmatized by the STI nature of HPV could be avoided in a combined vaccination setting. By expanding the HPV vaccination to boys, the resulting gender-neutral vaccination program can be cost-effective if all HPV-related diseases which can be prevented by vaccination are considered.

  18. Risk factors for AA amyloidosis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Blank, Norbert; Hegenbart, Ute; Lohse, Peter; Beimler, Jörg; Röcken, Christoph; Ho, Anthony D; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Schönland, Stefan O

    2015-03-01

    To identify risk factors for serum amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in patients living in Germany. Clinical and genetic data were obtained from 71 patients with AA amyloidosis. SAA1 genotypes were analyzed in 231 individuals. Control groups comprised 45 patients with long-standing inflammatory diseases without AA amyloidosis and 56 age-matched patients without any inflammatory disease. The most frequent underlying diseases of AA amyloidosis were familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) (n = 24, 34%) and inflammatory rheumatic diseases (n = 30, 42%). Patients without any known underlying disease (n = 11, 16%) were considered as having idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Patients with FMF were significantly younger at disease onset and younger at diagnosis of AA amyloidosis compared with patients with rheumatic diseases. Patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis were older than patients with definite rheumatic diseases. Patients with FMF and high penetrance MEFV gene mutations had a relative risk of 1.73 for AA amyloidosis. Patients with FMF or a rheumatic disease and the SAA1 α/α genotype had a relative risk of 4.86 and 2.53, respectively, for developing an AA amyloidosis. The prevalence of this risk genotype was 36% in German patients without an inflammatory disease, 92% in German patients with AA amyloidosis and 100% in German patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Risk factors for AA amyloidosis are the presence of a hereditary autoinflammatory or chronic rheumatic disease, elevated C-reactive protein and SAA serum levels, a long delay of a sufficient therapy, an advanced age and the SAA1α/α genotype.

  19. Children of Hippocrates: doctors in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Boozer, J S

    1980-07-01

    One of the more unexplored yet frightening aspects of the Nazi years in Germany, 1933-45, is the conduct of the doctors during those years. Many of them abandoned the traditional guiding norms for the practice of medicine, archaically expressed in the Hippocratic oath, and proposed, carried out, and cooperated with medical experiments without the consent of subjects and with little promise of any contribution to medical science. Many also participated in research and other medical activities, such as euthanasia and mass sterilization, whose purposes had nothing to do with a contribution to medical knowledge that would eventually save or improve life, but were simply for the manipulation and killing of persons. These activities quickly fell under the control of Nazi ideology, with no protest on the basis of the norms of medical practice by societies of medical doctors and psychiatrists, and with little, albeit costly, protest by individuals. A brief survey of what the Medical case and the Auschwitz trial revealed about the conduct of the doctors raises the question of the status and effectiveness of a professional standard like the Hippocratic oath against the power of the state. This, in turn, raises the question about the basis of the rights of man outside of what is enacted and secured by a nation-state. In facing this question, an appeal is made for the nurture of care about human rights, among professional groups with transnational identities as well as among individuals and voluntary nonprofessional associations among the general citizenry. Finally, a claim is made for specific kinds of social-political responsibilities of doctors in modern society.

  20. Microearthquake detection at 2012 M4.9 Qiaojia earthquake source area , the north of the Xiaojiang Fault in Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Yang, H.; Zhou, S.; Yan, C.

    2016-12-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis in Yunnan area based on continuous seismic data of 38 stations of Qiaojia Network in Xiaojiang Fault from 2012.3 to 2015.2. We use an effective method: Match and Locate (M&L, Zhang&Wen, 2015) to detect and locate microearthquakes to conduct our research. We first study dynamic triggering around the Xiaojiang Fault in Yunnan. The triggered earthquakes are identified as two impulsive seismic arrivals in 2Hz-highpass-filtered velocity seismograms during the passage of surface waves of large teleseismic earthquakes. We only find two earthquakes that may have triggered regional earthquakes through inspecting their spectrograms: Mexico Mw7.4 earthquake in 03/20/2012 and El Salvador Mw7.3 earthquake in 10/14/2014. To confirm the two earthquakes are triggered instead of coincidence, we use M&L to search if there are any repeating earthquakes. The result of the coefficients shows that it is a coincidence during the surface waves of El Salvador earthquake and whether 2012 Mexico have triggered earthquake is under discussion. We then visually inspect the 2-8Hz-bandpass-filterd velocity envelopes of these years to search for non-volcanic tremor. We haven't detected any signals similar to non-volcanic tremors yet. In the following months, we are going to study the 2012 M4.9 Qiaojia earthquake. It occurred only 30km west of the epicenter of the 2014 M6.5 Ludian earthquake. We use Match and Locate (M&L) technique to detect and relocate microearthquakes that occurred 2 days before and 3 days after the mainshock. Through this, we could obtain several times more events than listed in the catalogs provided by NEIC and reduce the magnitude of completeness Mc. We will also detect microearthquakes along Xiaojiang Fault using template earthquakes listed in the catalogs to learn more about fault shape and other properties of Xiaojiang Fault. Analyzing seismicity near Xiaojiang Fault systematically may cast insight on our understanding of the features of

  1. [Feeding of dogs and cats in Germany].

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Dillitzer, N; Sauter-Louis, C; Kienzle, E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine epidemiological data on the feeding of dogs and cats in Germany. A total of 865 dog owners and 243 cat owners were interviewed using standardised questionnaires about their animals (age, sex, weight, body condition, health) and feeding, including treats, additional supplements and reasons for food changes, together with data on the pet owners (age, sex, education, profession). The interviews took place in the waiting rooms of veterinarians, in dog schools, animal shelters and public parks as well as via the internet. Body condition scoring (BCS, scale 1-9) was performed separately by the pet owners and the interviewer. The mean age of dogs was 4.8 years and of cats 6.8 years. The dogs' body weight ranged from 2.2kg (Pomeranian dog) to 95kg (Saint Bernard). The cats had a body weight from 2 to 11kg. Approximately 52% of dogs and cats were overweight (BCS6-9). Differences existed between the assessment by the owner and the interviewer. Many owners underestimated the body condition, in particular, moderate overweight was not recognised (BCS6-7). Commercial food was exclusively used by 58% of dog and 90% of cat owners, while 35% and 10%, respectively, combined these with additional feed. Nearly 8% of dog and <1% of cat owners fed their pets with home-made diets. Elderly (>7 years) and sick dogs received home-made diets more often. Older pet owners (≥ 46 years) fed their pets home-made diets more frequently. The education and profession of owners did not affect the percentage of home-made diets. There was no effect of the type of diet on BCS. Owners with a lower education as well as housewives and pensioners more often had overweight pets. Older owners and working owners gave treats less frequently. However, 95% of dogs and 65% of cats received treats. Being overweight is the biggest dietary problem. In comparison to previous studies, the number of overweight pets has increased. Pet owners should be advised early on excess weight

  2. [The hospital at Hillersleben Germany, April 1945].

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Varda

    2014-01-01

    On 6th April 1945, nine days before the liberation of the Bergen Belsen Concentration Camp, about 2,500 Jewish prisoners were ordered to prepare to leave the camp on the next day. On 7th April, the prisoners left through the gates of the camp and began to walk about 10 kilometers to the train station near the city of Celle. There they were ordered to board a train that would take them to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. After six days of travel, the train stopped near the village of Farsleben, Germany, where it was liberated by the 743rd Tank Battalion of the 30th Infantry Division, of the U.S. 9th Army, on 13th April 1945. The 105th Medical Battalion of the same Division was the primary care provider for the survivors, who were then taken in vehicles available from the 30th Infantry Division, and organized into a convoy by the Division's Liaison Officer, Lt. Frank W. Towers, to the town of Hillersleben. A former German Air Force Base was located at Hillersleben with a small hospital that could not provide medical attention to all the survivors. On 21st April, Company C of the 95th Medical Battalion, received an order to go to Hillersleben. Colonel Dr. William W. Hurteau, the Commanding Officer of this Battalion, determined that the biggest task given to the Battalion during World War II, was establishing another hospital in the town of Hillersleben and providing additional beds in the existing hospital, which was a structure that had served as a boarding school. Furthermore, they needed to acquire hospital equipment which was obtained from German equipment and supplies that had been captured by the U.S. MiLitary. Also, they took care of obtaining food supplies from German warehouses, and meat and milk from local dairy farms. The lives of the prisoners on this train were saved by the heroism and dedicated work of those brave soldiers of the 30th Infantry Division and the 95th Medical Battalion.

  3. Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bär, A; Biermann, C

    1992-03-01

    The dietary intake of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin was evaluated in Germany (FRG) in 1988/89. In the first part of the study the sweetener intake was evaluated in a representative sample of the population. Complete 24-h records of the amount and type of all foods and drinks consumed were obtained from 2,291 individuals. The total daily intake was calculated for each person from the sweetener content of each product and was expressed in mg/kg body weight (bw). 35.9% of the participants ingested one or more sweeteners on the examination day. Cyclamate and saccharin were the prominent sweeteners because aspartame was at that time permitted only under special regulatory exemption, and products containing acesulfame were not yet available. For users of intense sweeteners the mean intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.15, 2.62, and 0.250 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. At the 90th percentile of intake, i.e., for the heavy consumer, the ingestion of cyclamate and saccharin was about 2.5 times higher. Persons who adhered to a diet (diabetes, weight control) did not ingest sweeteners in substantially higher amounts. Tabletop sweeteners and beverages were the most important sources of sweeteners, and they contributed more than 80% of the total intake. Consumption of sweeteners in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was rarely observed (saccharin: one person, cyclamate: 16 persons). In the second part of the study, the sweetener intake was further evaluated during a 7-day period in those subjects who in the 1-day study ingested any of the sweeteners in excess of 75% of the ADI. Complete 7-day food records were available from 40 out of the 41 subjects who fulfilled this criterium. In this selected subgroup in which 19 subjects were less than 19 years old, the mean daily intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.13, 4.53, and 0.42 mg/kg body weight (bw), respectively. These levels correspond to 0.33, 41 and 17% of the corresponding ADI

  4. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a "natural oil" like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  5. [Dental education in Germany: new concepts for the dental curriculum].

    PubMed

    Hugger, A; Hugger, S; Kordass, B

    2011-09-01

    In Germany, the dental curriculum is still based on dental licensing regulations ("Approbations-/Prüfungsordnung für Zahnärzte") from 1955. Essential changes of the dental licensing regulations have not been made for over 50 years-unlike the medical licensing regulations in Germany. Teaching and learning concepts have, nevertheless, changed considerably in medical and dental education over time. The present study delivers an analysis about reform initiatives in dental education in Germany and introduces examples of innovative projects. To be able to establish long-term and broad reforms in dental education, new licensing regulations for dentists are required. This should create a contemporary framework for education, which assigns resources and enables occupational profile development at specific locations. Thereby, compatibility with the medical curriculum has to be guaranteed just as required adaptations of admission and curricular capacity regulations for dentistry.

  6. Tobacco industry influence on science and scientists in Germany.

    PubMed

    Grüning, Thilo; Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Using tobacco industry documents, we examined how and why the tobacco industry sought to influence science and scientists in Germany as a possible factor in explaining the German opposition to stricter tobacco regulation. Smoking and health research programs were organized both separately by individual tobacco companies and jointly through their German trade organization. An extensive network of scientists and scientific institutions with tobacco industry links was developed. Science was distorted in 5 ways: suppression, dilution, distraction, concealment, and manipulation. The extent of tobacco industry influence over the scientific establishment in Germany is profound. The industry introduced serious bias that probably influenced scientific and public opinion in Germany. This influence likely undermined efforts to control tobacco use.

  7. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR

  8. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  9. The Integrated Carbon Observation System in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo

    2013-04-01

    will enable the researchers to calculate the European carbon fluxes with a resolution of 10 km. The ICOS-D Atmospheric Observational Network for Germany, when fully established, will comprise 9 atmospheric sites. In the Ocean Program, volunteer observing ships (VOS) plying regular routes in the Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea will be instrumented to make autonomous observations of physical and biochemical parameters (temperature, salinity) and sea surface fugacity of CO2 (fCO2). In addition, two ocean observatories at the Cape Verde Islands and Svalbard ('Hausgarten') will be part of the long-term research infrastructure. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Program will provide continuous measurements of trace gas fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere. The measurements will be conducted in forests, grasslands, croplands and wetlands and will partly build on sites that have been run for a decade or more in the framework of EU-projects such as CarboEuropeIP. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Program will be designed in 5 - 6 clusters. A cluster is a group of sites at close range but under different land use. This will ensure high representativeness for climate, soils properties and regional land use criteria. The CAL will provide calibration gases for the entire network in order to minimize offsets and calibration uncertainties between the measurements at different stations. It will further provide a centralized analysis of grab samples taken within the whole ICOS RI network for additional trace gases and isotope ratios, including radiocarbon which provides an independent method to quantify regional fossil fuel emissions.

  10. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  11. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR

  12. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  13. Measles incidence and reporting trends in Germany, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Ole; Rieck, Thorsten; Matysiak-Klose, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective We aimed to quantify progress towards measles elimination in Germany from 2007 to 2011 and to estimate any potential underreporting over this period. Methods We determined the annual incidence of notified cases of measles – for each year – in northern, western, eastern and southern Germany and across the whole country. We then used measles-related health insurance claims to estimate the corresponding incidence. Findings In each year between 2007 and 2011, there were 6.9–19.6 (mean: 10.8) notified cases of measles per million population. Incidence decreased with age and showed geographical variation, with highest mean incidence – 20.3 cases per million – in southern Germany. Over the study period, incidence decreased by 10% (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.85–0.95) per year in western Germany but increased by 77% (IRR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.62–1.93) per year in eastern Germany. Although the estimated incidence of measles based on insurance claims showed similar trends, these estimates were 2.0- to 4.8-fold higher than the incidence of notified cases. Comparisons between the data sets indicated that the underreporting increased with age and was generally less in years when measles incidence was high than in low-incidence years. Conclusion Germany is still far from achieving measles elimination. There is substantial regional variation in measles epidemiology and, therefore, a need for region-specific interventions. Our analysis indicates underreporting in the routine surveillance system between 2007 and 2011, especially among adults. PMID:25378728

  14. West Germany: Bitter pills--a wasted opportunity?

    PubMed

    Lorenz, W

    1984-05-19

    Controversy in West Germany over the book Bittere Pillen has drawn attention to the need of physicians and patients for simple, straightforward drug information. The book, which provides information about the effects and economics of more than 2,000 prescription drugs available in West Germany and Austria, has sold very well despite criticism that its approach is unsystematic, impressionistic, incomplete, out-of-date, and misleading. Lorenz, a physician, sees Bittere Pillen as answering a need, albeit imperfectly, and asks why doctors did not write the book first.

  15. [Malaria importation into Germany in 1989/90].

    PubMed

    Zastrow, K D; Dieckmann, S; Schöneberg, I

    1993-11-01

    Malaria was in 1989/90 the most important imported disease in Germany. Most of all cases were imported by German tourists (about 75%). Africa was the most prominently represented geographic region (about 75%). Kenia and Ghana represented there the biggest share. About 33% of all patients had not done a sufficient prophylaxis against malaria. An adequate prophylaxis against malaria taking into consideration the recommendations for medicaments for different geographical areas is imperative before the number of importations of malaria into Germany can be reduced.

  16. Increased prevalence of Trichinella spp., northeastern Germany, 2008.

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Nöckler, Karsten

    2010-06-01

    In 2008, a Trichinella spp. outbreak occurred on a small family-owned pig farm in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in northeastern Germany. To obtain epidemiologic information on this outbreak, we determined that after 2005 the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boars has increased in this region of Germany. We discuss the potential role of the raccoon dog in the increase in Trichinella spp. prevalence in the sylvatic cycle in this region. We believe that this increase could pose a threat to pigs kept in back yard conditions, and we provide recommendations to ensure public health safety.

  17. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  18. [Italian immigration into Imperial Germany up to World War I].

    PubMed

    Trincia, L

    1996-09-01

    "A rapid growth, both economic and industrial, of the German Empire during the last decade of the nineteenth century...produced a major switch in Germany's status from that of a country of emigration to a country of immigration.... The essay gives a concise description of the characteristics of Italian migration flows towards Germany, integration processes and chain migration patterns. The impact of immigration on the receiving country is...analyzed, both in terms of economic development and from a social, political and legal point of view." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  19. Increased Prevalence of Trichinella spp., Northeastern Germany, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Nöckler, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a Trichinella spp. outbreak occurred on a small family-owned pig farm in Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania in northeastern Germany. To obtain epidemiologic information on this outbreak, we determined that after 2005 the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boars has increased in this region of Germany. We discuss the potential role of the raccoon dog in the increase in Trichinella spp. prevalence in the sylvatic cycle in this region. We believe that this increase could pose a threat to pigs kept in back yard conditions, and we provide recommendations to ensure public health safety. PMID:20507743

  20. Duty Rosters and Workloads of Obstetricians in Germany: Results of a Germany-wide Survey.

    PubMed

    Neimann, Johannes; Knabl, Julia; Puppe, Julian; Bayer, Christian Michael; Gass, Paul; Gabriel, Lena; Seelbach-Goebel, Birgit; Lermann, Johannes; Schott, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    Compiling a daily hospital roster which complies with existing laws and tariff regulations and meets the requirements for ongoing professional training while also taking the legal regulations on the health of employees into account makes planning the duty roster a challenge. The aim of this study was to obtain a realistic picture of existing duty roster systems and of the current workloads of obstetricians in Germany. This online survey was sent to 2770 physicians training to become obstetricians or specializing in specific areas of obstetric care. The survey consisted of an anonymized 95-item questionnaire which collected data on different types of duty roster systems and the workload of obstetricians in Germany for the period from 17.02.2015 to 16.05.2015. Out of a total of 2770 physicians who were contacted, 437 (16%) completed the questionnaire. Across all forms of care, the care provided outside normal working hours usually (75%) consisted of a combination of regular working times and on-call duty or even consisted entirely of standby duty. Level I perinatal centers were most likely 20% (n = 88) to have a shift system in place. Working a shift system was significantly more common in care facilities which had previously carried out a job analysis. The number of physicians in hospitals who are present during the night shift was higher in facilities with higher numbers of births and in facilities which offered higher levels of care. In addition to regularly working overtime and the fact that often not all the hours worked were recorded, it was notable that the systems used to compile duty rosters often did not comply with legal regulations or with collectively agreed working hours nor were they compatible with the staff planning requirements. The results of this study show that the conditions of work, the working times, and the organization of working times in obstetric departments are in need of improvement. Recording the actual times worked together with an

  1. Design and synthesis of 4-[3,5-dioxo-11-oxa-4,9-diazatricyclo[5.3.1.0(2,6)]undec-4-yl]-2-trifluoromethyl-benzonitriles as androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hai-Yun; Balog, Aaron; Attar, Ricardo M; Fairfax, David; Fleming, Linda B; Holst, Christian L; Martin, Gregory S; Rossiter, Lana M; Chen, Jing; Cvjic, Mary-Ellen; Dell-John, Janet; Geng, Jieping; Gottardis, Marco M; Han, Wen-Ching; Nation, Andrew; Obermeier, Mary; Rizzo, Cheryl A; Schweizer, Liang; Spires, Thomas; Shan, Weifang; Gavai, Ashvinikumar; Salvati, Mark E; Vite, Gregory

    2010-08-01

    A novel series of 4-[3,5-dioxo-11-oxa-4,9-diazatricyclo[5.3.1.0(2,6)]undec-4-yl]-2-trifluoromethyl-benzonitriles has been synthesized. The ability of these compounds to act as antagonists of the androgen receptor was investigated and several were found to have potent activity in vitro and in vivo.

  2. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany: data from the prospective, population-based Gutenberg Health Study.

    PubMed

    Elflein, Heike M; Fresenius, Susanne; Lamparter, Julia; Pitz, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Binder, Harald; Wild, Philipp; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-05-08

    Amblyopia is due to insufficient development of the visual system in early childhood and is a major source of lifelong impairment of visual acuity. Too little is known about the prevalence of amblyopia in Germany and the frequency of its various causes. The Gutenberg Health Study of the University of Mainz Faculty of Medicine is an ongoing population-based, prospective, monocentric cohort study with 15 010 participants aged 35 to 74. All participants are examined for the presence of ocular, cardiovascular, neoplastic, metabolic, immunologic, and mental diseases. 3227 participants aged 35 to 44 underwent ophthalmological examination from 2007 to 2012. Amblyopia was defined as impaired visual acuity in the absence of any organic pathology capable of explaining the condition, and in the presence of a known risk factor for amblyopia. Amblyopia, when defined as a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.63, was present in 182 participants (5.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9-6.5%), 120 of whom had a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.5 (3.7%, 95% CI 3.3-5.2%). A narrower definition of amblyopia requiring, in addition, an interocular difference in acuity of at least two lines yielded slightly lower prevalence figures: 5.0% (95% CI 4.2-5.8%) and 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.4%), respectively. The causes of amblyopia (visual acuity ≤ 0.63) were anisometropia (different refractive strengths of the two eyes) in 49% of participants, strabismus (a squint) in 23%, both of these factors in 17%, and visual deprivation in 2%. 3 patients (2%) had relative amblyopia due to a traumatic cataract sustained in early childhood. 7% of the participants with amblyopia had binocular amblyopia. This study yielded a prevalence figure of 5.6% for amblyopia in Germany-a higher figure than in other, comparable population-based studies, which have generally yielded figures of ca. 3% for visual acuity ≤ 0.63. The distribution of the causes of amblyopia is similar across studies.

  3. 76 FR 42137 - Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings AGENCY: United States...-1127 concerning certain lightweight thermal paper (``LWTP'') from Germany. For further information... Commission determined that a domestic industry was threatened with material injury by reason of imports of...

  4. Germany and Europe Since World War II: Resources for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James F., Ed.; Metcalf, Fay, Ed.

    Designed as a resource for teachers to help high school students understand the new Germany, six background papers and nine lessons provide information on the difficult transition from the Third Reich to defeat and military occupation, on the establishment of two successor states, and on revolution and reunification. The six background papers…

  5. Development and Prospects of Academic Entrepreneurship Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klandt, Heinz; Volkmann, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This contribution deals with the development of entrepreneurship education at university level in Germany. Starting with a definition of the concept, the article focuses on relevant issues of entrepreneurship education, such as target groups and teaching formats. With particular emphasis on empirical studies carried out by the German Association…

  6. Library Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Hans-Albrecht

    1984-01-01

    Report on current state of research in academic and research librarianship in Federal Republic of Germany highlights projects concerning acquisition of books; work procedure investigations; personnel requirements; cost accounting; investigations of library use (user research, user education); public relations work; librarianship; and subject…

  7. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US.

  8. Germany in Europe, 1945-92: A Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, David Clay

    1993-01-01

    Presents a historical review of German relations with European nations from the end of World War II until 1992. Claims that Chancellor Willy Brandt's efforts to improve East-West relations set the stage for German reunification. Contends that Germany's role in a united Europe has yet to be determined. (CFR)

  9. Das Deutschlandspiegelvideo (The View-of-Germany-Videos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentecost, Gislind E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes View-of-Germany-Videos, published by the Goethe Institute. The videos are authentic, entertaining, and very versatile in usefulness. In addition they are short, thus easily incorporated into a lesson plan, and free of charge, making them accessible to any educational establishment. (AB)

  10. The Acceptance of the Social Market Economy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlösser, Hans Jürgen; Schuhen, Michael; Schürkmann, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Germany's economic order is labelled "Social Market Economy" in order to indicate that the economic system has both an economic and a social dimension. Its purpose is to reconcile efficiency goals and social responsibility. The concept of the Social Market Economy is based on central values such as freedom or justice. Under the label…

  11. Renewable Electricity Policy in Germany, 1974 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauber, Volkmar; Mez, Lutz

    2006-01-01

    Of the large industrial countries, Germany is clearly leading with regard to new renewable energy sources, occupying first rank in terms of installed capacity for wind energy and second for photovoltaics. This is not because of an exceptional natural resource base but because of public policy in this area, despite the fact that this policy was…

  12. [Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany and its international context].

    PubMed

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U; Cursiefen, C

    2017-07-20

    Experimental basic research provides the foundations for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for ophthalmological diseases. The objective of this contribution is to provide an overview of the international interconnection of basic research in ophthalmology in Germany. The international context of ophthalmological research conducted in Germany is presented by means of personal experiences and data published by the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the European Union (EU). Due to the lack of organized databases this article lays no claim to completeness. Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany is mainly conducted in university eye departments and is mainly related to the etiology, pathophysiology and therapy development for various ophthalmic diseases. It is primarily funded by the DFG, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the EU plays an increasingly important role. Thus, ophthalmological research is integrated into numerous European research networks and beyond that into many international interconnections and relationships. In Germany, both clinical and basic research in ophthalmology is integrated into many international networks and is only functionally viable in an international context; however, given the increasing impact of ophthalmological research in Asian countries, future strategies require a continued focus on career development, research infrastructure, working environment and international cooperation.

  13. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  14. Migration and Marginality: Guestworkers in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Ray C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines migratory movements in Europe since 1954, with particular emphasis on the 13 to 14 million immigrants to the industrial countries of northern Europe. Concludes that the movement of manpower has been critical in sustaining the post-World War II economies of industrialized nations such as Germany and France. (Author/DB)

  15. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  16. Multiple Synchronous Outbreaks of Puumala Virus, Germany, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Jakob; Hofmann, Jorg; Enders, Martin; Tewald, Friedemann; Oehme, Rainer M.; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M.; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Schlegel, Mathias; Essbauer, Sandra; Osterberg, Anja; Jacob, Jens; Reil, Daniela; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate 2,017 cases of hantavirus disease in Germany, we compared 38 new patient-derived Puumala virus RNA sequences identified in 2010 with bank vole–derived small segment RNA sequences. The epidemic process was driven by outbreaks of 6 Puumala virus clades comprising strains of human and vole origin. Each clade corresponded to a different outbreak region. PMID:22932394

  17. Renewable Electricity Policy in Germany, 1974 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauber, Volkmar; Mez, Lutz

    2006-01-01

    Of the large industrial countries, Germany is clearly leading with regard to new renewable energy sources, occupying first rank in terms of installed capacity for wind energy and second for photovoltaics. This is not because of an exceptional natural resource base but because of public policy in this area, despite the fact that this policy was…

  18. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  19. Does Distance Determine Who Attends a University in Germany?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiess, C. Katharina; Wrohlich, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the role of distance to the nearest university in the demand for higher education in Germany. Distance could matter due to transaction costs or due to neighborhood effects. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) combined with a database on university postal codes to estimate a discrete choice model of the demand for…

  20. Teaching the Holocaust in the Republic of Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe the approaches used by educators to facilitate learning about the Holocaust. The examples provided in this paper are one of various approaches that are used by educators teaching in the Federal Republic of Germany. Approaches will be different from country to country, from school to school, and from educator…

  1. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  2. Dental hygiene education in Germany: Between economics and emotions.

    PubMed

    Offermanns, B; Petersilka, G J

    2017-08-30

    To date, there is still no IFDH approved dental hygienist (DH) education model in Germany. Nevertheless, opportunities to complete vocational DH education courses have substantially increased within the last two decades. However, the content and quality of these courses vary greatly and are difficult to survey. The purpose of this article therefore was to present an overview of the education programmes offered in Germany as of March 2017. A formal request was sent to all education establishments for details of such courses, and a systematic internet search was performed covering the DH education topic in Germany. Ten vocational education programmes were found, most of them organized by local dental chambers. One private provider offers a Bachelor Degree in Dental Hygiene on completion of a course which runs over 2 or 3 ys. Details of contents, objectives and concise ratings or comparisons of the various courses are scarce, although in principle all should meet the same quality standards. For dental hygiene students, patients and dentists, it is hard and unsatisfactory to get a clear overview of the types and the quality of DH education which can be achieved in Germany. A solution for this dilemma would appear to be essential. However, due to the peculiarities of German legislation as well as the complex sphere of vested interests, it is impossible to predict if or when the situation will change for the better. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  4. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    PubMed

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  5. Hammer and Compass: Introducing East Germany. An Anthology with Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Elizabeth M.

    This anthology introduces students of German to the life of the people of East Germany. The three-part text describes interrelated cultural and political activities which are characteristic of the republic. Part One explores basic communistic philosophy, "a new myth", particularly through commentary on Walter Ulbricht's "Universe,…

  6. Oak silviculture, management, and defoliation effects in France and Germany

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    A study tour of four areas of France and Germany (two in each country) was conducted to examine oak silvicultural and managerial practices and the influence of insect defoliators on the ecology and management of oak forests. The French and German situations may provide useful information for managing oak forests and gypsy moth in the United States, especially the...

  7. Education in Germany since Unification. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to education in Germany since its unification. The papers include: "The Legacy of Unification" (David Phillips); "Change and Continuity in Education After the 'Wende'" (E. J. Neather); "A Study of Teachers' Perceptions in Brandenburg 'Gesamtschulen'" (Stephanie…

  8. Attitudes toward nuclear weapons: France, Great Britain, and Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this report is to explore current attitudes in the major European countries (France, Great Britain, and Germany) toward the possession of nuclear weapons and the eventual pooling of existing national nuclear capabilities in a European nuclear force, as part of an emerging European security structure under the aegis of the European community (EC).

  9. Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nolde, E

    2005-01-01

    Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available.

  10. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  11. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  12. Home Education in Germany: An Overview of the Contemporary Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegler, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the situation of home education in Germany. The first results from a predominantly qualitative research project are presented. This combines participant observation, content analysis and qualitative interviews for a thorough sociological analysis of the German home education movement. Compulsory school attendance…

  13. Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Johne, Reimar; Heckel, Gerald; Plenge-Bönig, Anita; Kindler, Eveline; Maresch, Christina; Reetz, Jochen; Schielke, Anika

    2010-01-01

    Human hepatitis E virus infections may be caused by zoonotic transmission of virus genotypes 3 and 4. To determine whether rodents are a reservoir, we analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence of a hepatitis E–like virus from 2 Norway rats in Germany. The sequence suggests a separate genotype for this hepatotropic virus. PMID:20735931

  14. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  15. Home Education in Germany: An Overview of the Contemporary Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegler, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the situation of home education in Germany. The first results from a predominantly qualitative research project are presented. This combines participant observation, content analysis and qualitative interviews for a thorough sociological analysis of the German home education movement. Compulsory school attendance…

  16. Respite Care Services for the Family in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadler, Johannes B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an overall network of respite care services in the Federal Republic of Germany, the need for respite care services, efforts of a national organization called Lebenshilfe, evolution of the concept of respite care, and future tasks. (Author/JDD)

  17. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info 3-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This paper explores the importance and impact of sport in Germany from a variety of perspectives. Topics include: (1) the social function of sport; (2) popular sport, focusing on exercise and self-development rather than competition; (3) sport's role in the leisure activities of the handicapped; (4) top sport performers; (5) drugs and sport; (6)…

  18. Searching for Their Own Identity: Young People in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen; Stahl, Klaus, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of "young people" and asserts there is no clear-cut social description of this group with societal expectations differing from culture to culture. The article analyzes the changes affecting the lives of "youth" in Germany and assesses their social attitudes and values. The contents include…

  19. Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

  20. 22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS THE ENGINE IS FOR THE VFR'S (VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT) 4 STICK REPULSOR. ENGINE IN PHOTOS IS BEING TANKED WITH LOX (NOTICE THE FROST FORMING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK BEHIND THE LADDER. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. Responses of England, Germany and Switzerland to Declining School Enrolments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalski, Catherine

    Results of interviews with educators in England, Germany, and Switzerland are combined with statistical data in this study of the effects of declining enrollment and the development of multicultural programs in those countries. In all three countries, the author encountered a prevailing resistance to program change in the face of declining…

  2. Das Deutschlandspiegelvideo (The View-of-Germany-Videos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentecost, Gislind E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes View-of-Germany-Videos, published by the Goethe Institute. The videos are authentic, entertaining, and very versatile in usefulness. In addition they are short, thus easily incorporated into a lesson plan, and free of charge, making them accessible to any educational establishment. (AB)

  3. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  4. Developing Core Skills--Lessons from Germany and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons-Wood, David; Lange, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of core skills efforts in Germany and Sweden shows that both use vocational training to foster core skills and key competencies, but they try to integrate it with existing structures rather than make radical long-term changes. Employers play a crucial role but need substantial incentives. (SK)

  5. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  6. Exchange Internships with Germany: How It Can Be Done.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Willard

    A member of the faculty of Concordia College (Moorhead, Minnesota) recounts his experience with developing local internship opportunities for German business students in exchange for internship opportunities in Germany for his international business students. The faculty member had to develop a list of potential companies, in an area of small to…

  7. Bachelor-Master Programmes in the Netherlands and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lub, Anneke; van der Wende, Marijk; Witte, Johanna

    2003-01-01

    This article compares the results of the implementation of the new bachelor-master system in the Netherlands and Germany. The Bologna Process presents the common European context for this reform process. However, the respective national contexts differ, and so do the actual implementation processes and the emerging outcomes. For each of the two…

  8. A Matter of Comparative Music Education? Community Music in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    In German music education, the term "community music" is almost unknown. There could be various reasons for this fact such as a lack of community music activities in Germany, terminological problems concerning the German translation, or an appropriate explanation of the term "community music." This paper will discuss some of…

  9. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  10. A Model for Intercultural Training for Study Abroad in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Yvonne A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an intercultural workshop designed for American students from the University of Rhode Island's International Engineering Program who are going to Germany to work and to study. The activities and goals of the workshop are explained. The outcomes and findings show that participation in the pre-departure intercultural workshop…

  11. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  12. Kids in Germany: Comparing Students from Different Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This unit of study, intended for intermediate grade students, focuses on comparing students from different cultures: Germany and the United States. The unit addresses National Social Studies Standards (NCSS) standards; presents an introduction, such as purpose/rationale; cites a recommended grade level; states objectives; provides a time…

  13. Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

  14. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  15. "Who Photographs Us?" The Workers' Photography Movement in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Karin B.; Hardt, Hanno

    In a discussion of the attempts of the organized workers' photography movement in Weimar Germany to redirect the use of photographs in everyday life, this paper analyzes photographs published in the "Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung," (AIZ) a large and successful picture magazine that emphasized a left-wing, humanitarian approach. The paper…

  16. The New Technology in Political Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Siegfried

    Debate in West Germany among technicians, economists, politicians, and educators about technological advancement and the use of computers focuses on the need to be informed about the consequences of the technological revolution. Some concerns are that computer use will lead to social isolation, a growing bureaucracy and authoritarian power…

  17. Searching for Telecollaboration in Secondary Geography Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutscher, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The majority of studies on telecollaboration for educational purposes focus on language-related aspects. Therefore, a qualitative explorative research project was set up at the RuhrUniversity Bochum, Germany, dealing with telecollaboration from the perspective of a non-language discipline; it is based on the approach of transferring…

  18. International Workforce Development Perspectives: Germany and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaal, John

    2007-01-01

    Across the globe, it is no secret to people involved with career and technical education (CTE) that the German apprenticeship system is looked upon as the "gold standard" of workforce development training. In this article, the author compares the responses of subject matter experts (SMEs) in Germany and the United States, two of the…

  19. Differential risk for Lyme disease along hiking trail, Germany.

    PubMed

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

    2011-09-01

    To estimate relative risk for exposure to ticks infected with Lyme disease-causing spirochetes in different land-use types along a trail in Germany, we compared tick density and spirochete prevalence on ruminant pasture with that on meadow and fallow land. Risk was significantly lower on pasture than on meadow and fallow land.

  20. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  1. Income and Life Satisfaction after Marital Disruption in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Hans-Jurgen; Brockel, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Divorce in Germany and in many other countries is often instigated by the wife, even though marital disruption has much more negative economic consequences for women than for men. Both observations, however, are not necessarily a contradiction. Women may gain something that makes up for the economic loss. On the one hand, using data on income and…

  2. Comparing Empirically Historical Awareness in East and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borries, Bodo von; Lehmann, Rainer H.

    A study compared the historical awareness of 2,000 East and West German children in the sixth, ninth, and twelfth grades. Because of differing school systems and the general design of the study, researchers analyzed ninth grade data. The study was conducted during the disintegration and reunification of Germany. Students from the two regions…

  3. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  4. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  5. Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 in Squirrels, Germany and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schlottau, Kore; Jenckel, Maria; van den Brand, Judith; Fast, Christine; Herden, Christiane; Höper, Dirk; Homeier-Bachmann, Timo; Thielebein, Jens; Mensing, Niels; Diender, Bert; Hoffmann, Donata; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Koopmans, Marion; Tappe, Dennis; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M.; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    We screened squirrels in Germany and the Netherlands for the novel zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1). The detection of VSBV-1 in 11 squirrels indicates a considerable risk for transmission to humans handling those animals. Therefore, squirrels in contact with humans should routinely be tested for VSBV-1. PMID:28221112

  6. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  7. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada.

    PubMed

    von Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health "to a strong degree," 35.3% that weather had "some influence on their health" (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32% of the

  8. [Surgical research in Germany. Organization, quality and international competitiveness].

    PubMed

    Menger, M D; Laschke, M W

    2012-04-01

    Surgical research in Germany is performed within surgical clinics by individual working groups or in surgical research divisions. Additionally, a few independent institutes and departments of surgical research have been established at medical faculties. The number of these institutions, however, is too small. To increase productivity in surgical research, structural changes are necessary, including additional establishment of further institutes and professorships. The quality of clinical research in surgery in Germany is critically discussed. International comparison shows that Germany has a low ranking with respect to the number of clinical studies published in leading surgical journals. However, there has been some improvement in the quality of clinical studies performed in surgical departments during the last 15 years. The establishment of the study center of the German Society of Surgery shows that excellent clinical studies with adequate numbers of patients can also be performed in Germany and can be published in leading journals. Accordingly, there is need to distribute the structures and the competence necessary to perform clinical studies in a standardized manner to all surgical departments involved in clinical research. The experimental surgical research in Germany is not adequately visible, although over the last 10 years the most relevant publications from institutions for surgical research have been placed in journals with a mean impact factor of 8. This may be due to the fact that 85% of these top publications are published in non-surgical journals. The aim for the future must therefore be to increase the impact factor and, thus, the attractiveness of surgical journals. This may be achieved by publishing the highest quality results from experimental surgical research not in non-surgical but in surgical journals.

  9. 75 FR 30437 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  10. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY... steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission... sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  11. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  12. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314...

  13. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and...

  14. East Germany's System of State Planning Faces a Thorough Free Market Shake-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latka-Johring, Sigrid

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties of educational reform in what was formerly East Germany. Describes the educational system in East Germany as uniform and military in nature. Criticizes the one-sidedness of socialist education and its politicalization. Compares classroom atmospheres before and after the Germanies were united. (DK)

  15. 78 FR 29702 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping... order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011... September 15, 2011, the Department revoked the order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany as the...

  16. 75 FR 62763 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of... bearings and parts thereof from Germany. See SKF USA Inc. v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT 2010). The... bearings and parts thereof from Germany covering the period of review May 1, 2006, through April 30, 2007...

  17. Learning for the Working World: Vocational Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the past, present, and future of vocational training (VT) in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following topics are discussed: place of VT among the various institutions constituting Germany's education system; Germany's dual system of on-the-job and school VT (historical development, training regulations,…

  18. Germany's Persistent Balance-of-Payments Disequilibrium Revisited. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindleberger, Charles P.

    This essay compares Germany's persistent financial disequilibrium with the balance of payments situation in the United States. Delivered at a Symposium on German Economic Growth and Stability, the author concentrates on Germany's balance of payments surplus and presents U.S. figures mainly as a point of comparison. The material on Germany has been…

  19. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  20. Learning for the Working World: Vocational Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the past, present, and future of vocational training (VT) in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following topics are discussed: place of VT among the various institutions constituting Germany's education system; Germany's dual system of on-the-job and school VT (historical development, training regulations,…

  1. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  2. Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella seroprevalence in refugees in Germany in 2015.

    PubMed

    Jablonka, Alexandra; Happle, Christine; Grote, Ulrike; Schleenvoigt, Benjamin Thomas; Hampel, Annika; Dopfer, Christian; Hansen, Gesine; Schmidt, Reinhold Ernst; Behrens, Georg M N

    2016-12-01

    The current extent of migration poses emerging socio-economic and humanitarian challenges. Little is known on vaccination rates in migrants entering Europe, and the implementation of guidelines for serological testing and vaccination of refugees are pending. We conducted seroprevalence analyses for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) in 678 refugees coming to Germany during the current crisis. The mean age of refugees was 28.8±11.4 years, and 76.1 % of subjects were male. Overall, IgG seronegativity was 7.4 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.6) for measles, 10.2 % (95 % CI 8.0-12.5) for mumps, 2.2 % (95 % CI 1.2-3.4) for rubella, and 3.3 % (95 % CI 1.9-4.9) for varicella. Seropositivity rates were age-dependent with considerably low values in children. For example, overall MMR immunity was 90.9 % (95 % CI 88.8-93.1), but only 73.1 % of minor aged refugees displayed complete seroprevalence against all three diseases, and only 68.9 % of children and adolescents were completely MMRV immune. Our initial data set suggests overall satisfactory MMRV immunity in adult migrants coming to Europe, but the observed low MMRV seroprevalences in refugee children support thorough and prompt vaccination of young migrants entering Europe. Taken together, our data set underlines the urgent need to implement and validate vaccination guidelines for refugee care in the current crisis.

  3. A hypervariable genomic island identified in clinical and environmental Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis isolates from Germany.

    PubMed

    Sanchini, Andrea; Semmler, Torsten; Mao, Lei; Kumar, Narender; Dematheis, Flavia; Tandon, Kshitij; Peddireddy, Vidyullatha; Ahmed, Niyaz; Lewin, Astrid

    2016-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an opportunistic human pathogen widespread in the environment. Genomic islands (GI)s represent a part of the accessory genome of bacteria and influence virulence, drug-resistance or fitness and trigger bacterial evolution. We previously identified a novel GI in four MAH genomes. Here, we further explored this GI in a larger collection of MAH isolates from Germany (n=41), including 20 clinical and 21 environmental isolates. Based on comparative whole genome analysis, we detected this GI in 39/41 (95.1%) isolates. Although all these GIs integrated in the same insertion hotspot, there is high variability in the genetic structure of this GI: eight different types of GI have been identified, designated A-H (sized 6.2-73.3kb). These GIs were arranged as single GI (23/41, 56.1%), combination of two different GIs (14/41, 34.1%) or combination of three different GIs (2/41, 4.9%) in the insertion hotspot. Moreover, two GI types shared more than 80% sequence identity with sequences of M. canettii, responsible for Tuberculosis. A total of 253 different genes were identified in all GIs, among which the previously documented virulence-related genes mmpL10 and mce. The diversity of the GI and the sequence similarity with other mycobacteria suggests cross-species transfer, involving also highly pathogenic species. Shuffling of potential virulence genes such as mmpL10 via this GI may create new pathogens that can cause future outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Germany Since Unification. Workshop Leader's Manual. An Introduction to Social Studies Instructional Resource Materials for Teaching about Germany Since Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen

    This manual is designed to offer support for the instructional resources guides on "Germany since Unification." It provides the basis for a full-day inservice training session on the use of those materials. The format can be modified to meet the needs of leaders, audiences, and time frames. Using the materials developed by teachers and…

  5. Herpes zoster in Germany: Quantifying the burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by a reactivation of the varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥ 50 years. Vaccines have been licensed or are under development that can protect against HZ and its main complication postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). In Germany, the burden of disease caused by HZ is not well known. To support the decision making process related to a potential vaccination recommendation, we estimated annual HZ disease burden in people aged ≥ 50 years in Germany by utilizing various data sources. Methods We assessed for 2007 and 2008 HZ-outpatient incidence (number of cases per 1,000 person-years, PY) by utilizing the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (ASHIP) database, which contains nationwide routine outpatient data. For the same time period annual number of HZ-inpatients and HZ-associated deaths were identified by using the Federal Health Monitoring System (FHM). PHN-incidence and loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) caused by HZ were calculated by multiplying number of identified HZ-patients with upper and lower limit estimates for proportion of HZ-cases developing PHN and HZ-related QALY, respectively. Results For the study period we identified an annual average of 306,511 HZ-outpatients aged 50+, resulting in a HZ-incidence of 9.6/1,000 PY. A total 14,249 HZ-associated inpatients and 66 deaths were reported in both years on average. HZ-incidence increased by age from 6.21 in people 50-54 years to 13.19 per 1,000 PY in people aged ≥ 90 years. Females were significantly more frequently affected than males in terms of outpatient HZ-incidence (11.12 vs. 7.8 per 1,000 PY), inpatient HZ-incidence (0.51 vs. 0.38 per 1,000 PY) and mortality (0.29 vs. 0.10 per 100,000 PY). PHN-incidence was estimated to range between 0.43 and 1.33 per 1,000 PY. Based on these figures, there were between 3,065 to 24,094 QALYs lost due to HZ in persons aged ≥ 50 years in Germany per annum. Conclusion Our study

  6. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of some 2-arylnaphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione derivatives on androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC3) human prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Brandy, Yakini; Ononiwu, Innocent; Adedeji, Dolapo; Williams, Vonetta; Mouamba, Claudia; Kanaan, Yasmine; Copeland, Robert L; Wright, Dwayne A; Butcher, Ray J; Denmeade, Samuel R; Bakare, Oladapo

    2012-08-01

    The synthesis of five 2-arylnaphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione derivatives was accomplished by refluxing 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone with appropriate benzoyl chloride analogs at elevated temperatures. In vitro anticancer evaluation of these compounds was performed on androgen-dependent, LNCaP, and androgen-independent, PC3, human prostate cancer cell lines. In general, these compounds displayed slightly stronger cytotoxicity on the androgen-dependent LNCaP than on the androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. The meta-substituted 2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-naphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione (10) appear to display the best cytotoxicity on both cell lines with an IC(50) of 0.03 μM on LNCaP and 0.08 μM on PC3 after 5 days of exposure.

  7. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F.

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Electronic health records within integrated care in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jähn, Karl; Gärtig-Daugs, Anja; Nagel, Eckhard

    2005-04-01

    The planned introduction of an electronic health card is seen as a milestone in the dissemination of extended electronic health records in Germany. This paper deals with the main issues likely to result from the use of the electronic health insurance card. The role of the patient in the health care process and the patients enhanced access to his or her personal medical record are reflected. A high level of acceptance of the electronic health insurance card and extended electronic documentation procedures can be expected if ethical, legal, and technological concerns of the public are addressed and appropriate incentives are established. Finally, the electronic health insurance card can serve as a useful aid to support the ongoing implementation of disease management programs for the most important chronic conditions in Germany.

  9. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    PubMed

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy.

  10. Epidemiology of hepatitis A virus infections, Germany, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mirko S; Stark, Klaus; Behnke, Susanne C; Schreier, Eckart; Frank, Christina

    2009-11-01

    Approximately 60% of hepatitis A virus infections in Germany occur in persons without a travel history to disease-endemic areas and for whom sources of infection are unknown. Recommendation of pretravel vaccination fails to prevent the remaining imported infections. Using enhanced surveillance in 2007-2008, we analyzed epidemiologic patterns of hepatitis A in Germany and appropriateness and adequacy of current immunization recommendations. Young patients with a migration background who had visited friends and family in their ancestral countries accounted for most imported cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed high diversity of sequence data and clustering of strains with similar regions of origin or patient migration backgrounds. Virologic findings are compatible with those of low-incidence countries, where virtually all infections are directly or indirectly imported from other regions. Germans with a migration background are seen as a special risk group so far insufficiently reached by pretravel vaccination advice.

  11. Ankylosaur Remains from the Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) of Northwestern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Sven; Hornung, Jahn J.

    2013-01-01

    A fragmentary cervico-pectoral lateral spine and partial humerus of an ankylosaur from the Early Cretaceous (early Valanginian) of Gronau in Westfalen, northwestern Germany, are described. The spine shows closest morphological similarities to the characteristic cervical and pectoral spines of Hylaeosaurus armatus from the late Valanginian of England. An extensive comparison of distal humeri among thyreophoran dinosaurs supports systematic differences in the morphology of the distal condyli between Ankylosauria and Stegosauria and a referral of the Gronau specimen to the former. The humerus fragment indicates a rather small individual, probably in the size range of H. armatus, and both specimens are determined herein as ?Hylaeosaurus sp.. A short overview of other purported ankylosaur material from the Berriasian-Valanginian of northwest Germany shows that, aside from the material described herein, only tracks can be attributed to this clade with confidence at present. PMID:23560099

  12. Comparison of cardiothoracic surgery training in usa and germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Training of cardiothoracic surgeons in Europe and the United States has expanded to incorporate new operative techniques and requirements. The purpose of this study was to compare the current structure of training programs in the United States and Germany. Methods We thoroughly reviewed the existing literature with particular focus on the curriculum, salary, board certification and quality of life for cardiothoracic trainees. Results The United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany each have different cardiothoracic surgery training programs with specific strengths and weaknesses which are compared and presented in this publication. Conclusions The future of cardiothoracic surgery training will become affected by technological, demographic, economic and supply factors. Given current trends in training programs, creating an efficient training system would allow trainees to compete and grow in this constantly changing environment. PMID:21108853

  13. [Prevalence and socio-economic relevance of allergies in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böcking, C; Renz, H; Pfefferle, P I

    2012-03-01

    Within the last five decades, the worldwide prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever, or food allergies has increased dramatically. Germany follows a similar trend; several studies have shown increased numbers of allergic diseases in this period. Although allergic diseases do not exhibit high mortality rates, the loss of quality of life as shown by studies conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) is considerable. Additional health-economical analyses documented that allergic patients more frequently occupy services of the health care system in Germany. The treatment of allergies and the increasing consultation rates cause rising costs and an increasing burden for the national economy. Currently it is possible to control allergic diseases such as asthma by a precise diagnosis or identification of the causative allergen. However, a considerable reduction in the prevalence of allergic disease and its therapy costs can only be expected if causative therapies and effective prevention strategies are available.

  14. A new neolithic circular enclosure in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzer, Olaf

    2015-08-01

    Today we know about 130 neolithic enclosures in Central Europe. About 20 of them are located in Germany. In the last years, there was a great discussion about the function of the openings: Are the openings aligned with points of the solstices? Or are the openings aligned with points of rising stars?Four years ago, a new neolithic circular enclosure was found in the northern part of Thuringia. With a diameter of about 50 meters it was not so large but it was the first evidence of a neolithic culture in Thuringia: the central part of Germany!7000 years ago, people with unknown identity built up three rings with three or four openings.With the help of various measurements we were able to determine in which directions the openings were aligned. We found a link between these directions and very interesting landmarks - an amazing connection between sky and landscape.

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed cultivation in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Koebke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suárez Quiñones, Teresa; Walter, Katja; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    About 12 % of Germany's agricultural area is used for rapeseed cultivation and two third of the harvest is converted to biodiesel. Due to requirements of the EU Renewables Directive the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of rapeseed cultivation must be reported and sustainability criteria and GHG savings compared to fossil fuel must be achieved and certified. Current certified methodology estimates N2O field emissions from rapeseed cultivation using the IPCC Tier 1 approach based on a global emission factor (N2O emission per unit nitrogen fertilizer input) of 1 %, which is not specific for the crop. We present results from three years of measurements (2013 - 2015) on five field trials in Germany, which combined with data from a meta-analysis suggest that GHG emission factors of German rapeseed cultivation are lower than thought previously. Furthermore, results suggest that substitution of mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizers is a valid mitigation option since it avoids GHG emissions during production of mineral fertilizers.

  16. Indoor development of Aedes aegypti in Germany, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Kampen, Helge; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Walther, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    In spring 2016, a German traveller returning from Martinique cultivated imported plant offsets in her home, and accidentally bred Aedes aegypti. Thirteen adult mosquito specimens submitted for identification and the traveller were tested for Zika, dengue and chikungunya virus infections, with negative results. The detection of Ae. aegypti by the ‘Mueckenatlas’ project demonstrates the value of this passive surveillance scheme for potential public health threats posed by invasive mosquitoes in Germany. PMID:27918261

  17. Germany, Russia, and Conditions for Stability in Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-04

    but it certainly will not be the first time that an empire has refused to learn from its mistakes. Military ties between Russia and East-Central...conventional and nuclear forces, Russia should not perceive a military threat from Germany; and, second , for the time being at least, and even with...changes in the politico- military and economic map of Europe, there are also powerful negative forces which threaten stability from the Atlantic to the

  18. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  19. Plasmodium knowlesi infection imported to Germany, January 2013.

    PubMed

    Orth, H; Jensen, B O; Holtfreter, M C; Kocheril, S J; Mallach, S; MacKenzie, C; Müller-Stöver, I; Henrich, B; Imwong, M; White, N J; Häussinger, D; Richter, J

    2013-10-03

    Plasmodium knowlesi was known as a plasmodium of macaques until P. knowlesi transmission to humans was recognised in Borneo and later throughout South-East Asia. We describe here a case of a P. knowlesi infection imported to Germany from Thailand. The patient had not taken antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and suffered from daily fever attacks. Microscopy revealed trophozoites and gametocytes resembling P. malariae. P. knowlesi malaria was confirmed by PCR.

  20. [How do citizens in Germany assess their own Health Literacy?].

    PubMed

    Messer, M; Vogt, D; Quenzel, G; Hurrelmann, K; Schaeffer, D

    2015-04-01

    Health literacy is a relatively recent concept in Europe. First international investigations indicate that a substantial part of the population has significantly impaired subjective health literacy. In Germany there is a lack of meaningful data. Therefore, 2 comprehensive studies have been started that will provide population representative results, as well as take the health literacy level of vulnerable groups such as older people and migrants into consideration.

  1. [Future of emergency medicine in Germany 2.0].

    PubMed

    Gries, A; Bernhard, M; Helm, M; Brokmann, J; Gräsner, J-T

    2017-05-01

    In 2003 an article on the future of prehospital emergency medicine in Germany was published in the journal Der Anaesthesist. Emergency medicine in Germany, which at that time was almost exclusively defined as prehospital emergency rescue, has evolved and now in-hospital domains have increasingly moved into the focus. At that time, the primary goal was to connect prehospital management with a smooth transition to hospital admission and further care in the hospital and to further optimize the rescue chain from the actual emergency through to causative treatment. Now after 15 years, the authors have critically assessed the development postulated in 2003 and reevaluated it. Which aspects could be developed further and become firmly established, what is still open and which questions in preclinical and clinical emergency treatment of the population will occupy us in the coming 15 years? With a critical eye to the past, the present contribution aims to capture the essential and new topics and open questions and provide a fresh perspective for the future of emergency medicine. Regulation at the state level or even lower levels of government often stand in contrast to more sweeping and economically effective approaches at the federal level. Prehospital emergency medicine in Germany is on the whole well-positioned with respect to facilities and personnel; however, as far as the economic situation and the utilization of available systems are concerned, there is still substantial room for improvement.

  2. Alaria alata mesocercariae in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Zaida Melina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Michler, Frank-Uwe; Michler, Berit Annika; Lücker, Ernst; Stier, Norman; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Riehn, Katharina

    2013-10-01

    Alaria alata is a trematode of carnivores from Europe. The mesocercarial stage was recently identified in wild boar meat from Europe. Previous histopathologic studies showed the presence of unidentified parasitic cysts within the tongues of raccoons from northern Germany. For identification of the parasite species, tissue samples of 105 raccoons originating from a National Park in northern Germany and from Berlin metropolitan area were collected. Histological examination of cryotome sections of frozen as well as paraffin-embedded tongues were used to identify parasite cysts. These were located in the connective and adipose tissue and in close proximity to small arterioles, suggesting a hematogenous spread of the parasite. Often, cysts were surrounded with mild infiltration by inflammatory cells. Additionally, mesocercariae were isolated from defrosted tongue samples of 11 raccoons. Molecular-biology assays confirmed the parasite species as A. alata. Except for one positive raccoon from Berlin City, all other positive raccoons originated from the sylvan Müritz National park, indicating an abundance of intermediate hosts in this area. Our results show that raccoons can act as paratenic hosts for A. alata and extend the broad host range of this parasite to a species introduced into Germany.

  3. [WINHO quality indicators for outpatient oncology care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hermes-Moll, Kerstin; Klein, Gudrun; Buschmann-Maiworm, Regina E; Baumann, Walter; Otremba, Burkhard; Lebahn, Herbert; Steinmetz, H Tilmann; Geraedts, Max; Kleeberg, Ulrich R; Schmitz, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the WINHO indicators project is to describe and enhance the quality of outpatient oncology care in Germany with indicators. This paper deals with the development of a set of evidence- and consensus-based meaningful indicators to assess the quality of outpatient oncology care in Germany. These indicators are intended to be applied in assessments of quality of patient care in oncology practices, in quality reports and in peer-to-peer benchmarking. A set of 272 already existing indicators was identified through internet and literature searches. After redundancy reduction and addition of newly developed indicators for areas of ambulatory oncology care that were not yet covered, a preliminary set of 67 indicators was established. The further development of the indicator set was based on a modified version of the two-step RAND/UCLA expert evaluation method, which has been internationally established for developing quality indicator sets. The indicators were modified after the first round of ratings. After completing and assessing the second round of ratings, a set of 46 homogeneously positively rated quality indicators is now available for outpatient oncology care in Germany. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Evidence for an independent third Usutu virus introduction into Germany.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ute; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Bock, Sabine; Schulze, Christoph; Hoeper, Dirk; Ochs, Andreas; Schlieben, Patricia; Keller, Markus; Zielke, Dorothee E; Luehken, Renke; Cadar, Daniel; Walther, Doreen; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-08-30

    Usutu virus (USUV) is an arbovirus within the genus flavivirus, which was first introduced to Southern Europe approximately twenty years ago causing epizootics among wild and captive birds. In Germany USUV was initially discovered in wild birds, mainly Common blackbirds (Turdus merula), in the Upper Rhine valley in southwest of the country in 2011 and has not spread much northwards since. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the still ongoing USUV epidemic is caused by two different USUV strains, USUV-Germany belonging to the USUV Europe 3 lineage and USUV-Bonn belonging to the USUV Africa 3 lineage. The two strains were introduced independently. In August 2015 a new USUV strain, named USUV-Berlin, was isolated in Vero cells from two carcasses of juvenile Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) kept in the Zoological Garden Berlin, which had suffered from a hyperacute fatal systemic infection. Both owls carried high USUV genome loads. Full-length USUV genomes sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship with a Spanish mosquito-derived sequence from 2006. Immunohistochemical antigen detection in organ samples of the owls showed the typical USUV infection patterns. According to the phylogenetic analysis, USUV-Berlin belongs to the Africa 2 lineage, and can thus be distinguished from the other strains circulating in Germany. Repeated findings of different USUV strains suggest more frequent introductions into Central Europe and a higher mobility of this virus than assumed to date.

  5. A soil-inventory of agricultural used soils of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebner, Clemens; Gensior, Andreas; Evertsbusch, Sven; Freibauer, Annette; Flessa, Heiner

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of UNFCCC reports for greenhouse gas emissions of land use and land use change also soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes of have to be reported. Since 1990 a forest soil inventory exists for Germany, but similar data are still missing for agricultural land. Up till now, a very rough estimation of the soil organic carbon stocks based on the soil map of Germany at the scale of 1:1,000,000 and estimated soil organic carbon contents and bulk densities have been used for the national inventory reports. Now we are starting an extended agricultural soil inventory for Germany which is explicitly designed to detect soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes. We will use a grid of 8x8 km, like it was used for the forest soil inventory. In order to extrapolate from point data and perform regionalisations, not only soil type, soil parent material and basic climate parameters will be taken into account, but under agricultural land use different agricultural management practices will be considered. Management data, like crop rotation, depth and intensity of soil tillage and application of fertilizers, manure and composts are collected from farmers during the inventory via questionnaires. It was shown that those data are essential to estimate and extrapolate point data to report soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes on regional scale. The concept of this soil carbon inventory will be presented.

  6. Germany wide seasonal flood risk analysis for agricultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Kuhlmann, Bernd; Merz, Bruno; Schröter, Kai

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, large-scale flood risk analysis and mapping has gained attention. Regional to national risk assessments are needed, for example, for national risk policy developments, for large-scale disaster management planning and in the (re-)insurance industry. Despite increasing requests for comprehensive risk assessments some sectors have not received much scientific attention, one of these is the agricultural sector. In contrast to other sectors, agricultural crop losses depend strongly on the season. Also flood probability shows seasonal variation. Thus, the temporal superposition of high flood susceptibility of crops and high flood probability plays an important role for agricultural flood risk. To investigate this interrelation and provide a large-scale overview of agricultural flood risk in Germany, an agricultural crop loss model is used for crop susceptibility analyses and Germany wide seasonal flood-frequency analyses are undertaken to derive seasonal flood patterns. As a result, a Germany wide map of agricultural flood risk is shown as well as the crop type most at risk in a specific region. The risk maps may provide guidance for federal state-wide coordinated designation of retention areas.

  7. Post-diagnostic abortion in Germany: reproduction gone awry, again?

    PubMed

    Erikson, Susan L

    2003-05-01

    Routine use of prenatal diagnostic technologies (PDTs) such as ultrasound and amniocentesis result in the detection of a small percentage of fetal anomalies. For those women faced with the diagnosis of fetal disability, a decision must be made to continue or terminate the pregnancy. When the diagnosis is merely hypothetical, the discursive specter of post-diagnostic abortion is shaped by social and historical contexts in which interested discourses (regional, political, ethical, and religious) weigh in with varying degrees of authority and influence. However, when the diagnosis is actual, in this sample population of women, an estimated minimum of 90% opt to terminate their pregnancies. Data collected at two German hospitals-one in former East Germany, one in former West Germany-illuminate rates of PDT use and provide data with which to discuss the specter of post-diagnostic abortion in relation to mainstream medical discourses, Germany's divided history, abortion politics, feminism, disability activism, and religion. These data demonstrate how reproductive discourses are shaped by ideological and historical contingencies, even when women's ultimate reproductive decisions are not.

  8. Damages of the Elbe flood 2002 in Germany - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.

    2003-04-01

    Current estimates put the losses of the August 2002 flooding in central and eastern Europe at around 15 billion, from which 9 billion occurred in Germany. That means this event is not only the most expensive flooding but, regarding the last decades, the most expensive natural hazard in Germany, too. Most of the losses - 6 billion - occurred in Saxony along the Elbe and his tributaries. Losses from infrastructure have amounted to more than 3 billion, losses from private property to more than 2 billion and losses from trade and industry to around 1.7 billion. Due to many affected commercial enterprises - nearly 10,000 in Germany - and the long duration of the flooding, losses from business interruption are important. The presentation will give an overview of the whole damage, the different damage types and will come to more detailed information about damage to private property and commercial enterprises. Some of the key factors for the amount of damage (e.g. water level, pollution with oil caused by unsecured tanks, flow velocity, warning time, duration of the flooding, shifting of riverbeds and erosion) are taken into account.

  9. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany. PMID:23349710

  10. Mud flat frac. [North Sea coastline of West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In a region of shallow water, sandbars, and tidal flats off the far northwest coast of W. Germany, Halliburton Co. Germany took unusual steps to successfully perform a large fracturing treatment in June, 1980. The job required pumping for 7 hr at pressures expected to exceed 11,000 psi, using 200,000 gal of gelled water and 300,000 lb of super prop proppant. The wellhead, without any working area around it, no platform or such, was in the North Sea near the coast west of the town of Norden where the sea comes in to meet the Ems River. To do the job, Halliburton would need 16 ht-400 skid units, 4 ht-1000 intensifiers, two 50-bbl blenders, a 25-bbl blender, four 20,000-gal horizontal tanks, a 10,000-gal horizontal tank, eight 16,000-gal vertical tanks, and 2 bulk sand silos. Nearly 1-1/4 acres of pontoon barge were used by Halliburton Germany to assemble equipment at the site of the shallow-water North Sea well.

  11. [Job satisfaction of radiologists in Germany - status quo].

    PubMed

    Beitzel, K I; Ertl, L; Grosse, C; Reiser, M; Ertl-Wagner, B

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the work-related satisfaction of radiologists and its influencing factors in Germany. For this purpose an invitational letter for an online opinion survey was sent to all member physicians of the Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft in 2008. 1200 questionnaires were completed (response rate 21 %) and evaluated statistically. 81.7 % of radiologists declared themselves as being "very" or "rather satisfied". The level of satisfaction was largely independent of age, gender, status, salary or family status. It increased over the last 5 years for 37.5 % of participants and decreased for 24.8 %. Nevertheless, 72 % of respondents indicated that they would not choose to specialize in radiology again. The main reason given was the workload. 65.6 % deemed it to be "considerably" or "rather too high". Concomitantly, more than 70 % of respondents indicated that the workload had increased "a lot" or "rather". Further reasons for not wanting to select the radiological profession again were "unfavorable working hours" and "unsatisfactory career perspectives". The job satisfaction of radiologists in Germany is generally very high in spite of the perception of an extensive and frequently increasing workload. The high workload was the dominant factor against a renewed selection of the field of radiology. These data have to be interpreted in light of the current lack of residents and trained radiologists in Germany to counteract the trend toward emigration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Survival of patients with oral cavity cancer in Germany.

    PubMed

    Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002-2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany.

  13. Incidence of pyrethroid-resistant oilseed rape pests in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, Udo; Müller, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Failures in pollen beetle control using pyrethroids since 2005 indicated pyrethroid resistance in Germany. Therefore, resistance monitoring using bioassays was established in Germany for oilseed rape pest insects. The spread and intensity of pyrethroid resistance of Meligethes aeneus increased from 2005 onwards, with no sensitive samples left in any region of Germany in 2011. Sensitivity also declined for the newly introduced actives bifenthrin, etofenprox (both class-I pyrethroids) and tau-fluvalinate; all three claimed to be less affected by resistance, although there was no clear cross-resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (class-II pyrethroid). In the German region with the longest tradition and high intensity of oilseed rape production, pyrethroid resistance of Psylliodes chrysocephala and Ceutorhynchus obstrictus, with resistance factors of up to 81 and 140 respectively, was detected. The intensive use of only one mode of action for many years is risky, because even pest insects with a low intrinsic resistance risk may develop resistance. Therefore, resistance strategies need to include several control options for pest insects needing regular treatments. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Epidemiology of laryngeal carcinoma in Germany, 1998-2011.

    PubMed

    Peller, Maximilian; Katalinic, Alexander; Wollenberg, Barbara; Teudt, Ingo U; Meyer, Jens-E

    2016-06-01

    Constituting 25-30 % of all head and neck cancer cases, laryngeal carcinoma is the most prevalent entity. Major risk factors of laryngeal cancer are smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. This study presents the recent developments in the incidence of laryngeal cancer from 1998 to 2011 in Germany. Laryngeal carcinoma was identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD10) from German population-based cancer registries. The incidence was provided by the Robert Koch Institute, and the mortality data were derived from German death statistics for further evaluation. Both descriptive and analytical analyses were conducted. From 1998 to 2011, a total of 14,847 laryngeal carcinoma cases were reported, in 13,195 men and 1652 women. Glottic carcinoma represented the main entity, constituting 69 % of male cases and 50 % of female cases. For men, a decline in incidence was observed starting in 2006. The incidence rate for women remained stable for the period of observation. The incidence of laryngeal cancer resembles the development of smoking behaviour in Germany. To maintain the positive trend of the male population and to reduce the incidence in women, it is crucial to continue and to improve the prevention of smoking campaigns in Germany.

  15. Anaerobic waste digestion in Germany--status and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Weiland, P

    2000-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes are especially suited for the utilization of wet organic wastes from agriculture and industry as well as for the organic part of source-separated household wastes. Anaerobic degradation is a very cost-effective method for treating biogenic wastes because the formed biogas can be used for heat and electricity production and the digester residues can be recycled to agriculture as a secondary fertilizer. Anaerobic technology will also be used for the common treatment of wastes together with renewable energy crops in order to reduce the CO2-emissions according the Kyoto protocol. Various process types are applied in Germany which differ in material, reaction conditions and in the form of the used reactor systems. The widespread introduction of anaerobic digestion in Germany has shown that biogenic organic wastes are a valuable source for energy and nutrients. Anaerobic waste treatment is done today in approx. 850 biogas plants on small farm scale as well as on large industrial scale with the best beneficial and economic outcome. Due to some new environmental protection acts which promote the recycling of wastes and their utilization for renewable energy formation it can be expected that several hundreds new biogas plants will be built per year in Germany. In order to use the synergetic effects of a combined fermentation of wastes and energy crops new process types must be developed in order to optimize the substrate combinations and the process conditions for maximum biodegradation.

  16. A short history of health technology assessment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Perleth, Matthias; Gibis, Bernhard; Göhlen, Britta

    2009-07-01

    To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA) in Germany since the 1990s. Analysis of key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation) and personal experiences. Health technology assessment (HTA) entered the political agenda in Germany only in the mid-1990s, basically as the result of a top-down approach toward more efficiency in health care, but with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement. Accordingly, HTA became part of several healthcare reform laws since 1997, which led to the establishment of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) in 2004. This tandem construction aims at using evidence in decision-making processes for coverage and other decisions. These developments have led to a considerable impact of HTA in Germany. In addition, a broad spectrum of activities at universities and in other organizations, such as the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI), can be observed that contribute to both teaching and research in HTA. German researchers in the field of HTA are actively involved in international projects, such as EUNetHTA, and contribute to scientific conferences and journals.

  17. Statistical characteristics of convective wind gusts in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Susanna; Kunz, Michael; Richter, Alexandra; Ruck, Bodo

    2017-06-01

    Due to the small-scale and non-stationary nature of the convective wind gusts usually associated with thunderstorms, there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding their characteristics and statistics. In an effort to remedy this situation, we investigated in this study a set of 110 climate stations of the German Weather Service between 1992 and 2014 to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution, intensity, and occurrence probability of convective gusts. Similar to thunderstorm activity, the frequency of convective gusts decreases gradually from southern to northern Germany. No further spatial structures, such as a relation to orography or climate conditions, can be identified regarding their strength or likelihood. Rather, high wind speeds of above 30 m s-1 can be expected everywhere in Germany with almost similar occurrence probabilities. A comparison of the 20-year return values of convective gusts with those of turbulent gusts demonstrates that the latter have higher frequencies, especially in northern Germany. However, for higher return periods, this effect can be reversed at some stations. The values of the convective gust factors are mainly in a range between 1 and 4 but can even reach values up to 10. Besides the dependency from the averaging time period of the mean wind, the values of the gust factors additionally depend on the event duration and the storm type, respectively.

  18. Factors influencing uptake of HPV vaccination among girls in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schülein, Stefanie; Taylor, Katherine J; König, Jochem; Claus, Matthias; Blettner, Maria; Klug, Stefanie J

    2016-09-20

    Adequate coverage is key to the success of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes. There is currently no organised HPV vaccination programme in Germany. The aim of this analysis was to determine HPV vaccine uptake as well as factors associated with uptake in nine to 17 year-old girls in Germany during the first year of vaccine availability. This analysis is based on data from the Healthcare Access Panel, an established population-based household panel consisting of 55 000 representative households in Germany who were contacted between September and October 2007. A total of 4 747 households included at least one girl aged nine to 17 years. After reading a description of the HPV vaccine, these girls were asked, "Would you have yourself vaccinated against HPV?" Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between vaccination status and socio-demographic characteristics of the girls and their mothers. Of the 4 747 girls in the households who received questionnaires, 2 224 (46.9 %) participated in the study and 1 906 (40.2 %) answered the vaccination question. A total of 17.4 % of the girls were already vaccinated, 61.5 % felt positively about doing so, 4.7 % said they would not be vaccinated, and 16.3 % were not sure. The probability of a girl being vaccinated increased with each additional year of age (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.6, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 1.5-1.7). Among the 17 year-old girls, 38.5 % (95 % CI 32.6-44.4 %) had been vaccinated. Having a mother with high education (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0-2.3) or medium education (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.1-2.1) versus basic education was a significant predictor for having been vaccinated. Similarly, medium (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0-2.4) versus low SES was significantly associated with having been vaccinated. Our analysis showed that during the first year of HPV vaccine availability in Germany, vaccination uptake was low. Countries with organised HPV vaccination programmes showed

  19. United States Foreign Policy Options Toward Germany What is the Impact of Vladimir Putin’s Recent Engagement of Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    a half years Russian President Vladimir Putin and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder have developed a relationship that has brought the two countries...their Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder, an evaluation will be made. Based on this evaluation we will seek to prove or disprove a connection between Putin’s...highlight why this relationship is so vital.8 Gerhard Schroeder’s election as Chancellor of Germany in 1998, signaled a new turn for the country as it has

  20. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... photocopying machines—$.07 per page Photocopying from microfilm reader-printer—$.15 per page Paper copies from... payments. The Commission will require a requestor to make an advance payment, i.e., a payment before work...

  1. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... photocopying machines—$.07 per page Photocopying from microfilm reader-printer—$.15 per page Paper copies from... payments. The Commission will require a requestor to make an advance payment, i.e., a payment before work...

  2. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... photocopying machines—$.07 per page Photocopying from microfilm reader-printer—$.15 per page Paper copies from... payments. The Commission will require a requestor to make an advance payment, i.e., a payment before work...

  3. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... photocopying machines—$.07 per page Photocopying from microfilm reader-printer—$.15 per page Paper copies from... payments. The Commission will require a requestor to make an advance payment, i.e., a payment before work...

  4. 11 CFR 4.9 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOIA request. (2) Free computer search time. For purposes of this paragraph, the term search time is based on the concept of a manual search. To apply this to a search conducted by a computer, the... according to paragraph (c)(4) of this section, in computer search time. Computer search time is determined...

  5. 17 CFR 210.4-9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND...

  6. 17 CFR 210.4-9 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND...

  7. 28 CFR 4.9 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959, AND THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT... person or signs a paper in practice before the Commission, his personal appearance or signature...

  8. Measurement of cross section and electron asymmetry of the p (e(pol), e-prime pi+) n reaction in the Delta(1232) and higher resonances for Q**2 <= 4.9-(GeV/c)**2

    SciTech Connect

    Kijun Park; Inna Aznauryan; Volker Burkert; Wooyoung Kim

    2006-06-01

    The cross section and beam asymmetry were measured in channel of (pol)ep --> e'pi^+n using 5.754 GeV electron beam with CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer(CLAS). This measurement covers 4 pi angular coverage and high Q^2 up to 4.9 GeV^2 under various resonance mass regions. The structure functions sigmaT + epsilonLsigmaL, sigmaTT, sigmaLT and sigmaLT/ were extracted from fit angular distribution of cross section and asymmetry.

  9. Modification of a new polymer photorecording material based on PMMA doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-antracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborine by ultrashort pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kulchin, Yu N; Mayor, A Yu; Proschenko, D Yu; Zhizhchenko, A Yu; Golik, S S; Babiy, M Yu; Mirochnik, A G

    2015-05-31

    Specific features of modification of a new photorecording material based on PMMA doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-antracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborine are studied. The recording of the filament distribution in the studied material occurs at the expense of two-photon photochemical processes. The three-dimensional modification of the material is achieved in the filamentation regime without supercontinuum generation. It is possible to order the volume structure by preliminary photo-modification of the near-surface layer of the material. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  10. Measurement of Cross Section and Electron Asymmetry of the p(ěc {e}, e' π +)n Reaction in the Δ(1232) and Higher Resonances for Q2 ≤ 4.9 (GeV/c)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K.; Aznauryan, I.; Burkert, V.; Kim, W.

    2006-06-01

    The cross section and beam asymmetry were measured in channel of ěc {e} p -> e'π +n using 5.754 GeV electron beam with CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer(CLAS). This measurement covers 4 π angular coverage and high Q2 upto 4.9 GeV2 under various resonance mass regions. The structure functions σT + ɛLσL, σTT, σLT and σLT/ were extracted from fit angular distribution of cross section and asymmetry.

  11. Pathogenic vibrios in environmental, seafood and clinical sources in Germany.

    PubMed

    Huehn, Stephan; Eichhorn, Christin; Urmersbach, Sara; Breidenbach, Janina; Bechlars, Silke; Bier, Nadja; Alter, Thomas; Bartelt, Edda; Frank, Christina; Oberheitmann, Boris; Gunzer, Florian; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone; Appel, Bernd; Dieckmann, Ralf; Strauch, Eckhard

    2014-10-01

    Bacteria of the family Vibrionaceae naturally occur in marine and estuarine environments. Only few species of Vibrionaceae are associated with human cases of gastroenteritis, ear and wound infections, caused by ingestion of seafood or contact with Vibrio containing water. Increasing consumption of seafood (fish, fishery products and shellfish) poses a possible source of Vibrio infections in Germany. Additionally, there is a growing concern that abundances of pathogenic vibrios may increase in German coastal waters as a result of e.g. climate change resulting in probably rising surface water temperatures. According to the One Health concept the VibrioNet consortium started in 2010 to investigate the occurrence and relevance of non-cholera vibrios of human concern in Germany. Vibrios from environmental, seafood and clinical sources were analyzed with the aim to find connections between different reservoirs or sources and to identify potential ways of transmission of these pathogens to assess the risk of infections associated with them. Potentially pathogenic strains mostly belong to the species Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. Investigations on imported seafood and mussels from primary production areas confirmed the frequent occurrence of these species. Moreover, studies of German coastal waters and sediments showed the presence and seasonality of these marine bacteria. So far the incidence of clinical cases of vibriosis in Germany is low. Between 1994 and 2013 thirteen cases of Vibrio spp. associated wound infections and/or septicaemia have been reported. However, the high prevalence of vibrios in aquatic environments and aquatic organisms is of concern and demands continued control of food and surveillance for clinical infections with pathogenic vibrios.

  12. [Care for skin cancer in Germany : Provision and providers].

    PubMed

    Augustin, M; Anastasiadou, Z; Schaarschmidt, M L; Krensel, M; Schäfer, I; Reusch, M

    2016-07-01

    Treatment for skin cancer is a major component of dermatological care in western countries. The purpose of this work is to analyze health care provision and providers for skin cancer care in Germany. From the complete claims data set from 2007-2009 of the German statutory health insurance DAK (approximately 6.1 million insured persons), insurees with skin cancer and melanocytic naevi were extracted by ICD-10 codes. Surgical procedures and physician specialties were identified by specific codes. Data from the German statistical agency (Destatis) were derived from public domain for the years 2008-2010. Among the annual ambulatory surgical treatments (n = 6695) for melanoma, 83.6 % were conducted by dermatologists, followed by general surgeons (11.1 %), and facial surgeons (3.0 %). In melanocytic naevi (n = 51,659), 79.1 % were treated by dermatologists, followed by general surgeons (15.5 %), facial surgeons (3.6 %), and general practitioners (1.1 %), while in epithelial cancers (ICD-10 C44), 76.4 % were operated by dermatologists, followed by general surgeons (12.7 %) and facial surgeons (7.9 %). Overall, related to Germany, about 830,000 ambulatory operations for skin cancer were conducted in 2009 which is about 40 % more than in 2007. In hospitalized patients, 79,448 out of 195,558 inpatient cases (45.5 %) were treated in dermatological departments in the year 2012. Average annual growth rates of the inpatient cases in the DAK between 2007 and 2010 were 8.9 % for MM and 11.1 % for SCC/BCC. Skin cancer is associated with a significant and still growing need for surgical care in which dermatology has a leading role in Germany. Thus, there is an increasing need for dermato-surgical specialist training.

  13. Feline cowpoxvirus infections in Germany: clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Appl, Caroline; von Bomhard, Wolf; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Meyer, Hermann; Bettenay, Sonya; Mueller, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cats with cowpox in Germany from the years 2004 to 2010 are described and discussed. Questionnaires were sent to veterinarians and owners of affected cats identified with the help of a number of pathology laboratories. Of 69 mailed questionnaires, 45 veterinary and 26 owner questionnaires were returned and a total of 46 feline poxcases were evaluated. The cases were distributed all over Germany although there was an accumulation of cases in specific geographic areas. The clinical and epidemiological observations match those of other studies. The majority of cats were outdoor cats, came from a rural environment and developed clinical signs in late summer or autumn. All cats showed skin lesions which were predominantly localized on the anterior part of the body, 61% of the cats showed other clinical signs in addition to the skin lesions. Approximately half of the cats lived in a multi-pet household, but in only one case clinical signs typical for cowpox were observed in another cat of the household. In two cases a cat-to-human transmission was assumed. In addition, to evaluate the prevalence of pox virus infections in outdoor cats in areas with previous reports of such infections, 92 apparently unaffected outdoor cats were tested for orthopoxvirus antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Sixteen (17%) of the tested serum samples were seropositive against orthopoxvirus (titre between 1:20 and 1:40).This is a higher serum prevalence than in previously published studies from Germany. A possible explanation is selection of a population of outdoor cats from regions with previous known clinical cases.

  14. A review of multiple natural hazard risks in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Bubeck, Philip; Parolai, Stefano; Khazai, Bijan; Daniell, James; Kunz, Michael; Mahlke, Holger; Lakes, Tobia

    2013-04-01

    Germany is experiencing various natural hazards and their impacts are expected to increase due to socio-economic and climatic changes, if an efficient risk management is not able to counteract. The international disaster database EM-DAT lists 79 events, namely earthquakes (3), extreme temperatures (9), floods (18), wet mass movement (1), storms (47) and wildfire (1) between 1950 and 2011; all together causing more than 10.000 fatalities and more than 40 billion US damage in Germany. The event with the highest human loss was the heat wave of 2003 with more than 9.000 fatalities. The event with the highest economic damage was the flood in 2002 causing €11.600 million damage. The aim of this paper is to offer a new perspective on multiple risk assessments in Germany by giving a systematic and comprehensive review on existing hazards and risk management strategies. Such a multiple risk assessment is particularly important because the potential for a natural event to cause a disaster depends on how vulnerable an exposed community is to such hazards. Human actions can reduce the damage to people and property but can at the same time increase the exposure to risks and exacerbate the impacts of hazardous events. To significantly improve risk management, i.e. decrease vulnerability and increase resilience of a region, more effort is needed than the well-established hazard-specific risk assessments. Planners and decision-makers need to be aware of and informed about all pertinent hazards in a region. Thus, to compare different hazards and to evaluate changes in risk, we propose the need of a consistent multi risk assessment.

  15. Smoking restrictions and hospitalization for acute coronary events in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Demidenko, Eugene; Malenka, David J.; Li, Zhongze; Gohlke, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Aims To study the effects of smoking restrictions in Germany on coronary syndromes and their associated costs. Methods and results All German states implemented laws partially restricting smoking in the public and hospitality sectors between August 2007 and July 2008. We conducted a before-and-after study to examine trends for the hospitalization rate for angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for an insurance cohort of 3,700,384 individuals 30 years and older. Outcome measures were hospitalization rates for coronary syndromes, and hospitalization costs. Mean age of the cohort was 56 years, and two-thirds were female. Some 2.2 and 1.1% persons were hospitalized for angina pectoris and AMI, respectively, during the study period from January 2004 through December 2008. Law implementation was associated with a 13.3% (95% confidence interval 8.2, 18.4) decline in angina pectoris and an 8.6% (5.0, 12.2) decline in AMI after 1 year. Hospitalization costs also decreased significantly for the two conditions—9.6% (2.5, 16.6) for angina pectoris and 20.1% (16.0, 24.2) for AMI at 1 year following law implementation. Assuming the law caused the observed declines, it prevented 1,880 hospitalizations and saved 7.7 million Euros in costs for this cohort during the year following law implementation. Conclusions Partial smoking restrictions in Germany were followed by reductions in hospitalization for angina pectoris and AMI, declines that continued through 1 year following these laws and resulted in substantial cost savings. Strengthening the laws could further reduce morbidity and costs from acute coronary syndromes in Germany. PMID:22350716

  16. Antidepressant sales and regional variations of suicide mortality in Germany.

    PubMed

    Blüml, Victor; Helbich, Marco; Mayr, Michael; Turnwald, Roland; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Lewitzka, Ute; Hartung, Sebastian; Plener, Paul L; Fegert, Jörg M; Kapusta, Nestor D

    2017-04-01

    Suicides account for over one million deaths per year worldwide with depression among the most important risk factors. Epidemiological research into the relationship between antidepressant utilization and suicide mortality has shown heterogeneous and contradictory results. Different methodological approaches and limitations could at least partially explain varying results. This is the first study assessing the association of suicide mortality and antidepressant sales across Germany using complex statistical approaches in order to control for possible confounding factors including spatial dependency of data. German suicide counts were analyzed on a district level (n = 402) utilizing ecological Poisson regressions within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Due to significant spatial effects between adjacent districts spatial models were calculated in addition to a baseline non-spatial model. Models were adjusted for several confounders including socioeconomic variables, quality of psychosocial care, and depression prevalence. Separate analyses were performed for Eastern and Western Germany and for different classes of antidepressants (SSRIs and TCAs). Overall antidepressant sales were significantly negatively associated with suicide mortality in the non-spatial baseline model, while after adjusting for spatially structured and unstructured effects the association turned out to be insignificant. In sub-analyses, analogue results were found for SSRIs and TCAs separately. Suicide risk shows a distinct heterogeneous pattern with a pronounced relative risk in Southeast Germany. In conclusion, the results reflect the heterogeneous findings of previous studies on the association between suicide mortality and antidepressant sales and point to the complexity of this hypothesized link. Furthermore, the findings support tailored suicide preventive efforts within high risk areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [On the economic burden of MRSA in Germany].

    PubMed

    Claus, F; Sachse, A; Ried, W

    2014-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) usually exhibits resistance not only against β-lactam antibiotics but also against other classes of antibiotics with the result that infections caused by this bacterium are difficult to treat. Due to additional morbidity and mortality a high economic burden can be expected. The aim of this study was to outline the cost effects caused by MRSA colonisation and infections and to quantify the annual economic burden in Germany by using published data in order to assess the costs due to MRSA in Germany. Based on the available literature we estimated tangible and intangible costs per patient associated with MRSA. Total costs were calculated using data of the MRSA-KISS and the Federal Bureau of Statistics as well as other prevalence data. These costs are shown in prices of the year 2011. Direct costs occurring in German hospitals are estimated to be between 354.29 million € and 1.55 billion €. Productivity losses due to an extended duration of disease are evaluated to be at least 92.77 million € while lost quality adjusted life years due to MRSA infections are estimated at 0.292 * t per infected patient (where t denotes the time of the associated health impairment). It is not possible to quantify the total cost of illness caused by MRSA in Germany due to a lack of data on some of the direct costs (e. g., in rehabilitation facilities) as well as on the indirect and intangible costs. Nevertheless it can be shown that colonisation and infections caused by MRSA impose high costs on the health-care system and the whole economy as well. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Germany.

    PubMed

    Horn, Nicole Nari; Kresken, Michael; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Göttig, Stephan; Wichelhaus, Cornelia; Wichelhaus, Thomas A

    2014-07-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become an increasing public health problem. Hence, surveillance of resistance development is of crucial importance to implement adequate treatment guidelines. Data on the spread of antibiotic resistance among gonococcal isolates in Germany, however, is scarce. In a resistance surveillance study conducted by the Paul Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy between October 2010 and December 2011, 23 laboratories all over Germany were requested to send N. gonorrhoeae isolates to the study laboratory in Frankfurt am Main. Species verification was performed biochemically using ApiNH and with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method. For molecular epidemiological analysis, N. gonorrhoeae strains were genotyped by means of N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. A total of 213 consecutive gonococcal isolates were analyzed in this nationwide study. Applying EUCAST breakpoints, high resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (74%) and tetracycline (41%). Penicillin non-susceptibility was detected in 80% of isolates. The rate of azithromycin resistance was 6%, while all strains were susceptible to spectinomycin, cefixime, and ceftriaxone. Molecular typing of gonococcal isolates revealed a great heterogeneity of 99 different sequence types (ST), but ST1407 predominated (n=39). This is the first comprehensive German multi-centre surveillance study on antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae with implications for antibiotic choice for treatment of gonorrhoea. The World Health Organization supports the concept that an efficacious treatment of gonorrhoea results in at least 95% of infections being cured. Accordingly, as spectinomycin is not available on the German market, only the third generation cephalosporins cefixime and ceftriaxone are regarded as valuable drugs

  19. [Developments and inventions from Germany : Influence on international ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Pavlovic, I; Schmack, I; Ohrloff, C; Kohnen, T

    2017-07-24

    There are various developments and inventions from Germany that have influenced not only the domestic but also the international field of ophthalmology. Beginning with the invention of the ophthalmoscope by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1850, to the establishment of the "Archives of Ophthalmology" medical journal, a publication founded by Albrecht von Graefe in 1854, through to the development of the retinal chip by Eberhart Zrenner and colleagues with the first clinical data collected in 2007. The abovenamed and further developments and the German ophthalmologists behind these inventions are discussed in more detail.

  20. Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Kai D.

    2007-07-01

    During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF{sub 6} is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete

  1. Extreme drought events in Germany during the last 60 yrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts are among the most costly natural disasters because they heavily impact on the economy of a region as well as on its social and cultural activities. Droughts do not only occur in arid or semiarid regions but also in humid ones. The year 2007, for example, was the sunniest, hottest and driest in Germany in the last two centuries. In this case, it was too dry too early. As a result, the harvest was cut by half leading to enormous losses in the primary sector. Consumer prices of some agricultural products went up 26 percent. The purpose of this study is to identify the major agricultural and hydrological droughts in Germany since 1950 based on their severity, duration and areal extend. To achieve this goal, a 60-yr retrospective hydrological simulation of the land surface water budget over Germany was carried out with the process-based distributed hydrological model mHM. The model was forced with grided daily precipitation and temperature data at 4x4 km, and the model simulations were carried out at same spatial resolutions. Point measurement data from more than 5600 raingauges and about 1120 meteorological stations (DWD) were interpolated with EDK. Land cover change was also considered during this period. Drought indices were derived as monthly quantiles of the simulated fluxes which include root zone soil moisture and total runoff. A Gaussian kernel smoother was used to estimate these quantiles at each grid cell. A spatio-temporal cluster algorithm was used to consolidate all significant drought events. Main statistics such as magnitude, areal extend, duration, and severity were estimated only on those selected clusters. The mHM model was calibrated in major river basins giving Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies for daily discharge simulations greater than 0.8 in the evaluation period. Plausibility tests between the simulated mHM soil moisture and land surface temperature from MODIS and regional climate model reanalysis data compared well. Results indicated that

  2. Wartime nuclear weapons research in Germany and Japan.

    PubMed

    Grunden, Walter E; Walker, Mark; Yamnazaki, Masakatsu

    2005-01-01

    This article compares military research projects during the Second World War to develop nuclear weapons in Germany and Japan, two countries who lost the war and failed to create nuclear weapons. The performance and motivations of the scientists, as well as the institutional support given the work, is examined, explaining why, in each case, the project went as far as it did-but no further. The story is carried over into the postwar period, when the two cultures and their scientists had to deal with the buildup of nuclear weapons during the cold war and the new nuclear power industry.

  3. Changing health inequalities in east and west Germany since unification.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Ellen; McKee, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The unification of Germany in 1990 brought about substantial social and economic changes in its eastern part, with new uncertainties and, despite increasing overall income, rising inequality. This paper explores the potential impact on health of these changes during the 1990s, looking specifically at income-related health inequalities in east and west Germany and its modulation by psychosocial factors. We used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) for the years 1992 and 1997, including individuals aged 25+. We investigated changes in self-perceived health in the two parts of Germany and its socio-economic and psychosocial determinants. Analyses estimated odds ratios of less than good health using logistic regression. In 1992, 47% of east Germans rated their health worse than good compared with 54% in the west. By 1997, the east-west gap in self-rated health had disappeared, with the prevalence of poor health increasing to 56% in both parts. Income and education were important determinants of health in east and west, with, in the age-sex-adjusted model, those having available less than 60% of median equivalent income being at increased risk of poor health in 1992 (OR(east) 2.39, 1.45-3.94; OR(west) 2.04, 1.65-2.52). Addition of education reduced the strength of this relationship only slightly. In the west, income-related health inequalities widened between 1992 and 1997 yet the initially stronger gradient declined in the east, despite an overall increase in income inequality (OR(east) 1.63, 1.04-2.56; OR(west) 2.65, 2.19-3.21). The impact of education remained stable. Psychosocial variables were important determinants, mediating the effects of income, with leisure-cultural social involvement exerting the strongest effect in both east and west.The results show that, unlike in the west, the overall increase in income inequality in east Germany between 1992 and 1997 was not accompanied by a simultaneous increase in income-related health inequalities. This

  4. Competition policy for health care provision in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kifmann, Mathias

    2017-02-01

    Since the 1990s, Germany has introduced a number of competitive elements into its public health care system. Sickness funds were given some freedom to sign selective contracts with providers. Competition between ambulatory care providers and hospitals was introduced for certain diseases and services. As competition has become more intense, the importance of competition law has increased. This paper reviews these areas of competition policy. The problems of introducing competition into a corporatist system are discussed. Based on the scientific evidence on the effects of competition, key lessons and implications for future policy are formulated.

  5. A case of pharyngeal diphtheria in Germany, June 2015.

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Meinel, D M; Schaffer, A; Ziegler, R; Pitteroff, J; Konrad, R; Sing, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    In June 2015, a 45-year-old man suffering from acute necrotic tonsillitis and throat phlegmon was hospitalized in Nuremberg, Germany. After emergency surgery the patient was initially treated with antibiotics. A throat swab grew a toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar mitis strain. The patient's vaccination status was not documented and the patient was tested serologically for anti-diphtheria antibodies showing no protective immunity. Extensive control investigations were performed by the local health department showing no likely source of his infection. No secondary cases were found and the patient completely recovered.

  6. Total quality management in dermato-mycology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Korting, H C

    2003-02-01

    Mycoses of the skin are extremely frequent. The clinical presentation often resembles the one of other frequent inflammatory skin diseases not caused by fungi. Adequate diagnostics are critical for the establishment of proper treatment. A total quality management system has been devised in Germany during the last 5 years. There are several guidelines addressing various aspects of the management of various types of disease as well as structure quality of laboratory diagnostics. Continuous medical education and so-called ring trials are major aspects of implementation.

  7. Disease management programs in Germany's statutory health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Busse, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The introduction in 1996 of free choice among sickness funds in Germany was accompanied by a "risk structure compensation" (RSC) mechanism based on average spending by age and sex. Because chronically ill people were not adequately taken into account, competition for newly insured consumers concentrated on the healthy. The introduction in 2002 of disease management programs addresses this problem: Insured people in such programs are treated as a separate RSC category, making them a more "attractive" group that no longer generates a deficit. The degree of sickness fund activities and the fierce dispute with physicians are valid indicators that the incentives work.

  8. Voting preferences of outpatients with chronic mental illness in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bullenkamp, Jens; Voges, Burkhard

    2004-12-01

    Outpatients with chronic mental illness living in therapeutic residential facilities in Mannheim, Germany (N=110) responded to an opinion poll to determine their voting preferences for the 2002 federal election to the Bundestag. The poll found that the outpatients were significantly more likely than the general population in Mannheim to prefer left-wing parties (78 percent compared with 56 percent). This finding is in contrast to earlier reports; however, it seems to better reflect common beliefs about the political preferences of this population. In conclusion, persons with chronic mental illness seem to prefer political parties that they believe will best serve their perceived specific interests.

  9. [Surgical research in Germany--an international comparison].

    PubMed

    Fendrich, V; Rothmund, M

    2010-04-01

    Surgical research in Germany occupies a lower position in international ranking than expected. According to the size of the population, the economic impact, the gross domestic product and the research funding capacity, the impact of German surgical research should be much higher. Reasons are a more intensive commitment to patient care, structural differences and a changing lifestyle in younger doctors in comparison to many leading countries. If the situation is to be improved all factors have to be evaluated and, if possible, changed. Overall, German surgeons are underrepresented as readers and authors in the scientific market, which is mostly in the English language.

  10. [The introduction of the electronic health card in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bales, S

    2005-07-01

    From 2006 onwards all members of the health insurance system in Germany will be issued an electronic health card which will replace the current health insurance card. The new health card will be technically upgraded to also include patient-related health data or provide access to such data in addition to its administrative functions. Therefore, it is evident that the health card be fitted with a microprocessor that permits authentication (electronic identity check), encryption and the electronic digital signature, thus ensuring maximum data safety and security. For easy identification of the insured person, the electronic health card will bear a photograph of the card holder.

  11. [Primary care practices in Germany: a model for the future].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    In its 2009 report the Federal Advisory Council on the Assessment of Developments in the Health Care System developed a model of Primary Care Practices for future general practice-based primary care. This article presents the theoretical background of the model. Primary care practices are seen as developed organisations requiring changes at all system levels (interaction, organisation, and health system) to ensure sustainability of primary care functions in the future. Developments of the elements comprising the health care system may be compared to the developments and proposals observed in other countries. In Germany, however, the pace of these developments is relatively slow.

  12. Klimanavigator - Climate Navigator - Gateway to climate knowledge in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck-Zöller, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Objective More than 50 German research institutions and networks are represented on www.klimanavigator.de, a common platform, where information about their work, and the latest findings from climate research and adaptation can be found. Thus Klimanavigator as a gateway to climate knowledge provides a information portal for those who have to respond to climate change. The internet portal gives an overview of the present state of research and is estimated as a decision support tool for appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures. Target Groups The portal collects the German climate research institutions to publish their scientific knowledge in a non-scientific language. Economists, policymakers, administration and the media are bound to find the names of scientific experts and institutions by an elaborated research tool. Methodology The chapter "Dossiers" is edited by the Klimanavigator-Coordinator CSC. It gathers information to a special issue looked upon from various points of view. Publications of outstanding German scientists are presented side by side, current knowledge is being synthesized, scientifically reviewed and disseminated. The latest news from climate and adaptation research is presented in an own chapter, dedicated to the press releases of the portal members. Via RSS-feed the press releases are collected from the different partner institutions. Thirdly, portraits of the member institutions, that are individually edited by themselves, draw a map of science in Germany and help to find appropriate cooperation partners. For the future further development is being planned. Common Management Klimanavigator is being managed by the partners in common. The main decisions concerning the concept and shape of the portal are made by the partners' assembly. An elected editorial committee decides about the content between the assemblies. The Climate Service Center (part of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht) concentrates on facilitating the cooperation, and

  13. Germany’s Ostpolitik in Crisis: President Putin and Chancellor Merkel Amid the Ukraine Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Communist Party of the Soviet Union CSCE Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe CSU Christian Social Union DCFTA Deep and Comprehensive...and Germany Reborn, 6; Laquer, Russia and Germany, 143. 23Martin Malia, The Soviet Tragedy: A History of Socialism in Russia, 1917–1991 (New York...parties in Germany, from the Communists to the Social Democrats, the Centrum Party to the rising Nazi Party, led to multiple chancellors during the

  14. Inhibitory effects of a benz[f]indole-4,9-dione analog on cancer cell metastasis mediated by the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase expression in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyen Joo; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Min, Hye-Young; Chung, Hwa-Jin; Suh, Myung Eun; Park-Choo, Hye-Young; Kim, Choonmi; Kim, Hwa Jung; Seo, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Sang Kook

    2005-12-19

    In our previous study, a synthetic benz[f]indole-4,9-dione analog, 2-amino-3-ethoxycarbonyl-N-methylbenz[f]indole-4,9-dione (SME-6), exhibited a potential anti-tumor activity. We, in this study, further explored the anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effect of SME-6 by determining the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs, zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes, play a pivotal role in tumor metastasis by cleavage of extracellular matrix as well as non-matrix substrates. On this line, we examined the influence of SME-6 on the expressions of MMP-2, -9, membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1, -2), and in vitro invasiveness of human fibrosarcoma cells. Dose-dependent suppressions of MMPs and TIMP-2 mRNA levels were observed in SME-6-treated HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. TIMP-1 mRNA level, however, was induced in a dose-dependent manner. Gelatin zymographic analysis also exhibited a significant down-regulation of MMP-2 and -9 expression in HT1080 cells treated with SME-6 compared to controls. Furthermore, SME-6 inhibited the invasion, motility, and migration of tumor cells. Taken together, these data provide a possible role of SME-6 as a potential antitumor agent with the markedly inhibition of the metastatic and invasive capacity of malignant cells.

  15. [Current concepts in diagnosing brain death in Germany].

    PubMed

    Thömke, F; Weilemann, L S

    2000-02-15

    Diagnosis of brain death requires definite evidence of an acute CNS catastrophe and exclusion of complicating medical conditions that may confound clinical assessment. Acute CNS catastrophe may be due to direct ("primary") brain damage (e.g., intracerebral hemorrhage, severe concussion, brain tumors), or indirect ("secondary") brain damage (e.g., cerebral hypoxia following cardio-pulmonary resuscitation). The cardinal findings in brain death are coma, absence of brainstem reflexes, and apnea. Persistence of these clinical signs determines brain death. In Germany, the intervals of a repeat clinical evaluation are at least 12 hours in patients with primary, and at least 72 hours in those with secondary brain damage. Electroencephalographically documented absence of electrical activity for at least 30 minutes or by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography or isotope angiography documented intracranial circulatory arrest also confirm brain death. Under such conditions, a repeat clinical evaluation is unnecessary in patients with clinical brain death signs. First of all, brain death is a clinical diagnosis. Confirmatory tests are not mandatory in most situations. In Germany, confirmatory tests are required in newborns, infants below the age of 2 years, and patients with infratentorial brain damage.

  16. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  17. Emissions of heavy metals into river basins of Germany.

    PubMed

    Scherer, U; Fuchs, S; Behrendt, H; Hillenbrand, T

    2003-01-01

    The input of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) into the large river basins of Germany via various point and diffuse pathways were estimated for the period of 1985 through 2000. To quantify the emissions via point sources a nationwide survey on heavy metal data of municipal wastewater treatment plants and industrial direct discharges was carried out. The input via diffuse pathways was calculated using an adapted version of the model MONERIS. This model accounts for the significant transport processes, and it includes a Geographical Information System (GIS) that provides digital maps as well as extensive statistical information. For a comparison of the calculated heavy metal emission with the measured heavy metal load at monitoring stations the losses of heavy metals due to retention processes within the river systems have to be considered. Therefore heavy metal retention was calculated according to the retention functions given by Vink and Behrendt. For the large river basins a good correspondence could be found between estimated and measured heavy metal loads in rivers. The total emission into the North Sea decreased for each metal during the period of 1986 to 2000. The reduction varies between 87% for Hg and 41% for Ni mainly caused by the decline via point sources. Today's emissions of heavy metals into river basins of Germany are dominated by the input via diffuse pathways. The most important diffuse emission pathways are "paved urban areas" and "erosion".

  18. Weather Effects on Crop Diseases in Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradt, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1970s there are several long-term monitoring programmes for plant diseases and pests in Germany. Within the framework of a national research project, some otherwise confidential databases comprising 77 111 samples from numerous sites accross Eastern Germany could be accessed and analysed. The pest data covered leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) in winter wheat, aphids (Aphididae, four genera) on wheat and other cereal crops, late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in potatoes, and pollen beetles (Brassicogethes aeneus) on rape. These data were complemented by daily weather observations from the German Weather Service (DWD). In a first step, Pearson correlations between weather variables and pest frequencies were calculated for seasonal time periods of different start months and durations and ordered into so-called correlograms. This revealed principal weather effects on disease spread - e. g. that wind is favourable for mildew throughout the year or that rape pollen beetles like it warm, but not during wintertime. Secondly, the pest frequency samples were found to resemble gamma distributions, and a generalised linear model was fitted to describe their parameter shift depending on end-of-winter temperatures for aphids on cereals. The method clearly shows potential for systematic pest risk assessments regarding climate change.

  19. [Multimodal pain therapy in Germany: structure and quality].

    PubMed

    Casser, Hans-Raimund; Nagel, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal Pain Management is a comprehensive treatment of complex chronic pain syndromes. In addition to medical therapy various other specialized therapeutical interventions based on the biopsychosocial model of pain origin and chronic pain development are added.Medical indications are given for patients with chronic pain syndromes, but also if there is an elevated risk of chronic pain in the early stadium of the disease and aiming at delaying the process of chronification. Multimodal pain management has been included in the official catalogue of the recognized medical procedure for day clinic units as well as for inpatients pain management. As there is still a lack of clarity and of consistency about the implementation of multimodal pain management the ad-hoc-Kommission on multimodal interdisciplinary pain management of the German Pain Society has proposed a position paper that has been worked out in a multilevel and interdisciplinary consensus process. Moreover a basic tool for documentation and quality management of pain therapy was developed by the German Pain Society (KEDOQ-Schmerz) as the data basis for nationwide, cross-sectional and independent scientific research in health services in Germany. In future KEDOQ-Schmerz will also used as a method for external quality management in chronic pain therapy in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in dogs from Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Luge, Enno; Draeger, Angelika; Nöckler, Karsten; Kohn, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis in which dogs can act as a reservoir for human infection. The annual vaccination of dogs can prevent leptospirosis caused by serovars included in the vaccine. To date, all available vaccines in Germany include only the serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola, the most commonly found serovars prior to the introduction of the leptospirosis vaccines. Yet, the involvement of additional serovars in the clinical presentation of leptospirosis in dogs has been described. The objective of this sero-epidemiological study was to examine the different Leptospira serovars currently circulating in a population of dogs suspicious for leptospirosis from Berlin. In 329 dogs presenting at the Small Animal Clinic in Berlin, the predominant serogroup was Australis (24%), followed by Grippotyphosa (20%) and Pomona (9%). A total of 18% of the dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis; here the most prevalent serogroups were also Australis (28%), Grippotyphosa (18%), and Pomona (14%). The serovar prevalence data presented here confirm that a change of pattern of infecting Leptospira serovars in dogs has taken place in Berlin. This data corresponds to further sero-epidemiological studies from other regions in Germany. To ensure human and canine health, available vaccines should be adapted to include the most important circulating serovars.

  1. Gambling market and individual patterns of gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Albers, N; Hübl, L

    1997-01-01

    In this paper individual patterns of gambling in Germany are estimated for the first time. The probit technique is used to test the influence of a set of individual characteristics on the probability of participating in each of the various legal games. A sample size of 1,586 adults collected for the pool of German lotteries provides a reliable set of data. All disaggregated estimations of participation are statistically significant at least at the 5 percent level. The basic findings suggest that gambling is a widespread normal (superior) consumption good because gambling participation tends to rise with income. Moreover, no demand anomaly can be found to justify assessing gambling as a social demerit. Only the participation in gaming machines is higher for younger, unemployed and less educated adults. While a moral evaluation of gambling is beyond the scope of this paper, the legislator's preference for a highly taxed state monopoly in gambling markets is to be rejected, at least for Germany. Additional statistical findings suggest distinct consumer perceptions of the characteristics of the various games and may be used for market segmentation. The paper starts with a descriptive introduction to the German gambling market.

  2. Key Aspects of a Sustainable Health Insurance System in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Matthias; Hagemann, Vera; Laporte Uribe, Franziska

    2016-06-01

    The main goals of health-care systems are to improve the health of the population they serve, respond to people's legitimate expectations, and offer fair financing. As a result, the health system in Germany is subject to continuous adaption as well as public and political discussions about its design. This paper analyzes the key challenges for the German health-care system and the underlying factors driving these challenges. We aim to identify possible solutions to put the German health-care system in a better position to face these challenges. We utilize a broad array of methods to answer these questions, including a review of the published and grey literature on health-care planning in Germany, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in the system, and an online questionnaire. We find that the most urgent (and manageable) aspects that merit attention are holistic hospital planning, initiatives to increase (administrative) innovation in the health-care system, incentives to increase prevention, and approaches to increase analytical quality assurance. We found that hospital planning, innovation, quality control, and prevention, are considered to be the topics most in need of attention in the German health system.

  3. Use of Homeopathy in Pediatric Oncology in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Längler, Alfred; Spix, Claudia; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Kameda, Genn; Kaatsch, Peter; Seifert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Homeopathy is a frequently used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment. We present results comparing responses of homeopathy users (HUs) and users of other forms of CAM (NHUs) in pediatric oncology (PO) in Germany. Differences between these two groups (usage, associated demographic characteristics, previous experience with CAM) are investigated. 186 (45.2%) of the 367 CAM users were exposed to homeopathy. The treatment duration amounted to a median of 601 days for HUs and 282 days for NHUs. Parents with p (127; 76.5%) also used homeopathy for their child's cancer. Nonmedical practitioners played a considerably greater role as source of information than did treating physician. In the majority HUs received their prescriptions from nonmedical practitioners (56%; 29.4% of NHUs). HUs communicate more frequently with their physicians about the CAM-use (77.7% versus 65.2%) and recommend CAM more often than NHUs (94% versus 85.6%). Homeopathy is the most frequently used CAM treatment in PO in Germany. HUs sustain treatment and therapies considerably longer than NHUs. Most families who had used homeopathy before their child was diagnosed with cancer also used homeopathy for the treatment of their child's cancer. Compared to other CAM treatments, patient satisfaction with homeopathy appears to be very high. PMID:20981319

  4. [Regionalisation of Germany by data of agricultural structures].

    PubMed

    Merle, Roswitha; Busse, Marc; Rechter, Galina; Meer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    In order to simplify the design of representative studies in animal populations the structural differences of animal husbandry (cattle, pigs and laying hens) in Germany were characterised. Several regions were defined and thus districts identified which are typical for the respective region and can be regarded as representatives for the whole region. Data on animal husbandry as well as human population per district originated from the Federal Statistical Office and were linked to the geometric data of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy. By this, data of "livestock units/square kilometre area" and "farms/square kilometre area" per district were calculated using methods of the spatial statistics Global Moran's Index, Anselin Local Moran's Index and Getis-Ord Gi*. With the help of these analyses six clusters could be identified which resulted in four large (Middle, Northwest, East, and South) and one smaller region (Northern Upper-Rhine) respecting the federal state borders. These regions differed significantly regarding animal and farm densities. The selection of typical districts was carried out with the help of the respective animal and farm data of the species pigs, dairy cattle and laying hens. The means of the selected districts (three to six per region) were within the 60%- and the 80%-percentile of at least two of the analysed variables. Concerning the region Northern Upper-Rhine no representative district was selected. This presented regionalisation including representative districts can be used for the design of scientific studies that are associated with animal husbandry in Germany.

  5. Seasonal fluctuations of head lice infestation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eline; Jahnke, Claudia; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    Pediculosis capitis is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in childhood. If not diagnosed and treated rapidly, considerable clinical pathology may develop. The ubiquitous parasitic skin disease is characterized by a lack of sound epidemiological data, and factors which influence disease occurrence are still enigmatic. To investigate whether, in Germany, head lice infestation follows a seasonal pattern, we analyzed the weekly head lice consultations at the Health Department of Braunschweig City, Lower Saxony, for a period of 5 years, and compared the data with the units of pediculocides sold by two wholesalers to German pharmacies during a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively. The number of consultations did not show a clear seasonality, although there was a tendency of fewer consultations during school holidays, and an increase when schools opened again after Christmas, Easter, summer, and autumn holidays. In contrast, the number of packages of pediculocides sold followed a distinct seasonal rhythm with a maximum between calendar week 34 and 40, i.e., from mid September to end of October. In Germany, occurrence of pediculosis capitis varies according to the season of the year with a maximum in late summer and early autumn.

  6. Lyssavirus distribution in naturally infected bats from Germany.

    PubMed

    Schatz, J; Teifke, J P; Mettenleiter, T C; Aue, A; Stiefel, D; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

    2014-02-21

    In Germany, to date three different lyssavirus species are responsible for bat rabies in indigenous bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2) and the Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) for which Eptesicus serotinus, Myotis daubentonii and Myotis nattereri, respectively, are primary hosts. Lyssavirus maintenance, evolution, and epidemiology are still insufficiently explored. Moreover, the small number of bats infected, the nocturnal habits of bats and the limited experimental data still hamper attempts to understand the distribution, prevalence, and in particular transmission of the virus. In an experimental study in E. serotinus a heterogeneous dissemination of EBLV-1 in tissues was detected. However, it is not clear whether the EBLV-1 distribution is similar in naturally infected animals. In an attempt to further analyze virus dissemination and viral loads within naturally infected hosts we investigated tissues of 57 EBLV-1 positive individuals of E. serotinus from Germany by RT-qPCR and compared the results with those obtained experimentally. Additionally, tissue samples were investigated with immunohistochemistry to detect lyssavirus antigen in defined structures. While in individual animals virus RNA was present only in the brain, in the majority of E. serotinus viral RNA was found in various tissues with highest relative viral loads detected in the brain. Interestingly, viral antigen was confirmed in various tissues in the tongue including deep intralingual glands, nerves, muscle cells and lingual papillae. So, the tongue appears to be a prominent site for virus replication and possibly shedding.

  7. Direct costs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy control measures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Probst, C; Gethmann, J M; Heuser, R; Niemann, H; Conraths, F J

    2013-12-01

    On 26 November 2000, the first autochthonous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in Germany. Since then, a total of 413 BSE cases have been confirmed, resulting in the culling and destruction of 17 313 heads of cattle. In view of the possible risks for human and animal health, Germany has adopted EU regulations along with some additional requirements concerning active surveillance and response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal. In this study, we used a stochastic model to estimate the costs incurred by the ensuing legislative amendments responding to BSE between November 2000 and December 2010. The total costs were estimated to range between 1847 and 2094 million Euros. They peaked in 2001 (about 394 million Euros) and declined since. About 54% of the costs (approximately 1000 million Euros) were incurred by the extension of the feed ban for animal protein to all farmed livestock. Active surveillance accounted for 21% (405 million Euros), the incineration of animal protein for 13% (249 million Euros) and the removal of specified risk material for 11% (225 million Euros). Only 1% of the costs was related to response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal, including indemnity payments for culled cattle and confiscated carcasses at the slaughterhouse. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Prevalence of selected rickettsial infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended.

  9. Occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in northeast Germany.

    PubMed

    Fastner, Jutta; Rücker, Jacqueline; Stüken, Anke; Preussel, Karina; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Chorus, Ingrid; Köhler, Antje; Wiedner, Claudia

    2007-02-01

    The frequent occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in the (sub)tropics has been largely associated with cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales of tropical origin, in particular Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. C. raciborskii is currently observed to spread northwards into temperate climatic zones. In addition, further cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales typically inhabiting water bodies in temperate regions are being identified as CYN-producers. Therefore, data on the distribution of CYN in temperate regions are necessary for a first assessment of potential risks due to CYN in water used for drinking and recreation. A total of 127 lakes situated in the north-eastern part of Germany were investigated in 2004 for the presence of the toxin CYN and the phytoplankton composition. The toxin could be detected in half of the lakes (n = 63) and in half of 165 samples (n = 88). Concentrations reached up to 73.2 microg CYN/g DW. CYN thus proved more widely distributed than previously demonstrated. The analyses of phytoplankton data suggest Aphanizomenon sp. and Anabaena sp. as important CYN producers in Germany, and confirm recent findings of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae as CYN-producing species frequently inhabiting water bodies in temperate climatic regions. The data shown here suggest that CYN may be an important cyanobacterial toxin in German water bodies and that further data are needed to assess this.

  10. [Healthcare services research on pain in Germany. A survey].

    PubMed

    Häuser, W; Neugebauer, E; Petzke, F

    2015-10-01

    Within the last ten years healthcare services research has developed into an independent interdisciplinary field of research. A selective search of the literature was conducted in the database Google Scholar and the database on healthcare services research in Germany (http://versorgungsforschung-deutschland.de) for healthcare services research projects on pain in Germany. Healthcare services research projects were conducted by pharmaceutical companies, patient self-help organizations, scientific societies, statutory health insurance companies and university departments on acute and chronic pain. Valid data on the epidemiology, grading and treatment of chronic pain are available. There was an overuse of opioids and invasive procedures in patients with chronic low back pain, fibromyalgia syndrome and somatoform pain disorders. Databases for patients with chronic pain are currently constructed by pain societies. The fragmentation of data from health insurance companies, old age pension insurances, clinical institutions and population surveys and inconsistencies in diagnosing or encoding chronic pain impede the carrying out of significant longitudinal studies. Based on the data available, the needs of care for patients with chronic pain and the necessary care services cannot be derived. Important topics of future healthcare services research on pain are longitudinal studies on the cost efficacy and risks of inpatient and outpatient pain therapy based on routine data of health insurance companies, old age pension insurances and pain registries, longitudinal studies on "patient careers" (i.e. sequences of healthcare) and the identification of potential starting points for control of healthcare.

  11. Seroprevalence study of Francisella tularensis among hunters in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jenzora, Andrea; Jansen, Andreas; Ranisch, Heidrun; Lierz, Michael; Wichmann, Ole; Grunow, Roland

    2008-07-01

    In 2005 and 2006, Francisella tularensis unexpectedly reemerged in western Germany, when several semi-free-living marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in a research facility died from tularemia and a group of hare hunters became infected. It is believed that hunters may have an elevated risk to be exposed to zoonotic pathogens, including F. tularensis. A previous cross-sectional study of the German population (n=6883) revealed a prevalence of 0.2%. Here, we investigated 286 sera from individuals mainly hunting in districts with emerging tularemia cases (group 1) and 84 sera from a region currently not conspicuous for tularemia (group 2). Methods included standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis and indirect immunofluorescence assay. We found five out of the 286 hunters (1.7%; 95% CI 0.6-4.0%) in group 1 positive with standard ELISA and Western blot, but none in the Berlin area (group 2; 95% CI 0-0.04%). Group 1 showed an elevated risk for hunters to be seropositive for F. tularensis compared with the cross-sectional study (OR=7.7; P<0.001). This indicates a higher prevalence for tularemia in hunters of a suspected endemic region of Germany.

  12. Tularemia in Germany: the tip of the iceberg?

    PubMed

    Splettstoesser, W D; Piechotowski, I; Buckendahl, A; Frangoulidis, D; Kaysser, P; Kratzer, W; Kimmig, P; Seibold, E; Brockmann, S O

    2009-05-01

    Tularemia is a rare, notifiable zoonosis in Germany. Since November 2004, several lines of evidence including outbreaks in humans or animals and confirmed infections in indigenous hare and rodent populations have indicated a re-emergence of tularemia in different German federal states. Unfortunately, reliable basic information on the seroprevalence in different geographical regions, permitting the identification of risk factors, does not exist. Combining a sensitive screening assay with a highly specific confirmative immunoblot test, we performed a serological investigation on 2416 sera from a population-based, cross-sectional health survey of the city population of Leutkirch, Baden-Wuerttemberg. A total of 56 sera gave positive results indicating a seroprevalence of 2.32%. Thus, the seroprevalence is tenfold higher than that previously reported in a nationwide study in 2004. Francisella tularensis can cause a wide variety of clinical syndromes including severe, sometimes fatal disease. Missing epidemiological data on its spatial and temporal distribution in an endemic country complicate an appropriate risk assessment necessary for public health authorities to be prepared for an adequate outbreak management. This is of special concern regarding the extraordinary potential of F. tularensis as an agent of bioterrorism. Our investigation performed in a presumed low-risk area demonstrated that tularemia might be seriously underestimated in Germany and probably in other central European countries as well.

  13. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. [End-of-life practices of physicians in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schildmann, J; Dahmen, B; Vollmann, J

    2015-01-01

    Ethical questions at the end of life are at the centre of scientific and public debates. Up to the present there is scarcity of empirical data regarding physicians' end-of-life practices in Germany. Cross-sectional study among a random sample of German physicians by means of the questionnaire of the EURELD Consortium with additional questions on experiences and attitudes regarding physician assisted suicide. 734 physicians from five state chambers of physicians responded (response rate 36.9 %). 403 physicians reported about end-of-life practices regarding adult patients. Alleviation of symptoms took place in 86.7 % of cases and in 50.7 % medical treatment had been withheld. In three cases death was the consequence of a drug which was provided or administered by respondents. 20.7 % of respondents had been requested to perform physician-assisted suicide (PAS). 41.7 % of participants could not imagine participating in PAS, whereas 40.2 % could imagine this under certain circumstances. A prohibition of PAS by professional law war rejected by 33.7 %, 25.0 % support such a ban and 41.4 % were undecided. Physicians in Germany perform a broad spectrum of end-of-life practices. The empirical findings can serve as a starting point for the reflection about an appropriate normative framework for physicians' end-of-life practices. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Systematic account of animal poisonings in Germany, 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    McFarland, S E; Mischke, R H; Hopster-Iversen, C; von Krueger, X; Ammer, H; Potschka, H; Stürer, A; Begemann, K; Desel, H; Greiner, M

    2017-04-01

    A systematic retrospective study on animal poisonings in Germany (wildlife excluded) between January 2012 and December 2015 was conducted. Data were collected on animal exposure calls to German poison centres, poisoning cases presenting to the University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover Small Animal and Equine Clinics, cases involving off-label use of veterinary medicinal products reported to the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety and toxicological submissions to the Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise animal type, exposure reason, type and substance, year/month of exposure, case severity and outcome. An evaluation of the data and data sources was also carried out. Variation in poisoning patterns was seen. However, dogs and cats were the most frequently reported species and medicinal products, pesticides and plants were consistently implicated as top causes of poisoning. Advantages and disadvantages were associated with each data source; bias was found to be an important consideration when evaluating poisoning data. This study provided useful information on animal poisonings in Germany and highlights the need for standardised approaches for the collection, evaluation and integration of poisoning data from multiple sources.

  16. [Prerequisites, skills and productivity of young academic urologists in Germany].

    PubMed

    Borgmann, H; Bründl, J; Huber, J; Ruf, C; Schagdarsurgengin, U; Wullich, B; Salem, J

    2016-12-06

    To safeguard scientific and clinical progress, German urology requires properly trained junior scientists. Before initiating or continuing actions aiming at quality improvement an analysis of the status quo is necessary. To assess the conditions to pursue research, research skills and research output of junior scientists in urology in Germany. A 16-item online questionnaire was sent to 95 junior scientists in urology within the research network GeSRU Academics. Primary outcomes were the conditions to pursue research in terms of research time, research skills and sources of learning and research output as measured by peer-reviewed publications. Subpopulations were compared with respect to the number of peer-reviewed publications. Out of 78 junior scientists (82% response rate) 45% pursued research exclusively in their leisure time. Self-assessment of research skills varied from good (systematic literature search) to sufficient (grant acquisition). The main source of learning for research skills was self-study, followed by mentor, own department, courses and networks. Of the junior scientists 81% had peer-reviewed publications (median 4). The groups of junior scientists who pursued research (partially) during working hours, who had good skills and whose research skills were supported by a mentor/network had significantly more peer-reviewed publications than their counterparts. Junior scientists in urology in Germany lack protected time to pursue research and have varying research skills, which are predominantly acquired by self-study and demonstrate their first research output as peer-reviewed publications.

  17. [Psychiatric psychotherapeutic research in Germany: taking stock and international comparison].

    PubMed

    Falkai, P; Schneider, F; Sauer, H; Amlacher, J; Schneller, C; Maier, W

    2013-11-01

    This article is based on an evaluation carried out by the DGPPN in 2011 surveying 50 German university and non-university institutions about the scientific research output focussing on psychiatric and psychotherapeutic research. The results of the survey show that on average there are 1 to 2 professors with 12 assistants scientifically active per institution. According to self-disclosure an estimated 1.8 million Euros of external funds are raised each year.Compared to international standards regarding the illnesses major depression, schizophrenia and alcohol abuse, Germany ranks second and third place behind the USA and the UK or Canada in terms of publication output. In terms of authors and institutions, German scientists and universities rank in the upper third to upper tenth for these illnesses. These data show that psychiatric research in Germany is not only internationally competitive but outstanding in its excellent achievements in these fields. Unfortunately, many funding programmes are limited to a 3-6 year period. In view of this fact and in order to achieve a long-term improvement in the translation of funding structures, as in the US (NIMH) or the UK (MRC) to benefit the mentally ill the implementation of a German centre for mental disorders is inevitable.

  18. Finthen AAF, Germany (West) Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-05

    I. SSE 1. .5 .2 I 2.5 5.0 S S W . 1 . 5 2 T2 .04 - _ ._8 ww : I.z ) . . 5 . 1.? 9.8w___ Z . 1____ ____ _____ 8.1 S wwW 1. T 144 .5 _ __6 7.9 NW .7 1__...FINTHEN AAFDL 73-81 PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) vS518qTY STATUTE mvIiLE S cE I N(,IEE" ’l 2! 3 t2 30.9’ 31 .715,- . 1 6. 6...9.9 95.9 9S.9 5.-9 .0.6 87.3 88. 95.7 96., )7.1 97.6 98.. 98.- 98.2 28.4 9.4 9A.4 e.4 E! 99.7. 96.44l 99. N9., 6, 99.6 9 9.c.-. t2 <..3 67.8, 92.3! 96.9

  19. [Education, birth cohort, and marriage age: a comparative analysis of marriage age in West Germany, East Germany, and the United States].

    PubMed

    Bruderl, J; Diekmann, A

    1994-02-01

    "This paper investigates how education influences marriage behavior in three countries: the United States, West Germany, and former East Germany. Following family economics we postulate that for women a longer education decreases marriage rates both during education (institutional effect) and after the degree has been obtained (human capital effect). For men family economics predicts the delaying institutional effect, too, but the human capital effect is expected to increase marriage rates. Further considerations lead to the additional hypothesis that for younger birth cohorts these sex differences should attenuate.... For the United States and West Germany the observed marriage patterns confirm our hypotheses for the most part. For East Germany, however, we observe different marriage patterns. This was expected because the institutional context in this former socialist country was a very different one." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.