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Sample records for mo base alloys

  1. 4-d magnetism: Electronic structure and magnetism of some Mo-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Bose, S. K.; Kudrnovský, J.

    2017-02-01

    We report results of a first-principles density-functional study of alloys of the 4 d -element Mo with group IV elements Si, Ge and Sn in zinc blende (ZB) and rock salt (RS) structures. The study was motivated by a similar study of ours based on the 4 d -element Tc, which showed the presence of half-metallic states with integer magnetic moment (1μB) per formula unit in TcX (X=C, Si, Ge) alloys. The calculated Curie temperatures for the ferromagnetic (FM) phases were low, around or less than 300 K. Searching for the possibility of 4 d -based alloys with higher Curie temperatures we have carried out the study involving the elements Mo, Ru and Rh. Among these the most promising case appears to be that involving the element Mo. Among the MoX (X=Si, Ge, Sn) alloys in ZB and RS structures, both MoGe and MoSn in ZB structures are found to possess an integer magnetic moment of 2μB per formula unit. ZB MoSn can be classified as a marginal/weak half-metal or a spin gapless semiconductor, while ZB MoGe would be best described as a gapless magnetic semiconductor. The calculated Curie temperatures are in the range 300-700 K. Considering the theoretical uncertainty in the band gaps due not only to the treatment of exchange and correlation effects, but density functional theory itself, these classifications may change somewhat, but both merit investigation from the viewpoint of potential spintronic application. Based on their higher Curie temperatures, Mo-based alloys would serve such purpose better than the previously reported Tc-based ones.

  2. Fabrication of a Mo based high temperature TZM alloy by non-consumable arc melting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.P.; Krishnamurthy, N., E-mail: spc@barc.gov.in

    High temperature structural materials are in great demand for power, chemical and nuclear industries which can perform beyond 1000 °C as super alloys usually fail. In this regard, Mo based TZM alloy is capable of retaining strength up to 1500 °C with excellent corrosion compatibility against molten alkali metals. Hence, currently this alloy is considered an important candidate material for high temperature compact nuclear and fusion reactors. Due to reactive nature of Mo and having high melting point, manufacturing this alloy by conventional process is unsuitable. Powder metallurgy technique has limited success due to restriction in quantity and purity. Thismore » paper deals with fabrication of TZM alloy by nonconsumable tungsten arc melting technique. Initially a ternary master alloy of Mo-Ti-Zr was prepared which subsequently by dilution method, was converted into TZM alloy gradually by external addition of Mo and C in various proportions. A number of melting trials were conducted to optimize the process parameters like current, voltage and time to achieve desired alloy composition. The alloy was characterized with respect to composition, elemental distribution profile, microstructure, hardness profile and phase analysis. Well consolidated alloy button was obtained having desired composition, negligible material loss and having microstructure as comparable to standard TZM alloy. (author)« less

  3. Re Effects on Phase Stability and Mechanical Properties of MoSS+Mo3Si+Mo5SiB2 alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P

    2013-01-01

    Because of their high melting points and good oxidation resistance Mo-Si-B alloys are of interest as potential ultrahigh-temperature structural materials. But their major drawbacks are poor ductility and fracture toughness at room temperature. Since alloying with Re has been suggested as a possible solution, we investigate here the effects of Re additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a ternary alloy with the composition Mo-12.5Si-8.5B (at.%). This alloy has a three-phase microstructure consisting of Mo solid-solution (MoSS), Mo3Si, and Mo5SiB2 and our results show that up to 8.4 at.% Re can be added to it without changing its microstructuremore » or forming any brittle phase at 1600 C. Three-point bend tests using chevron-notched specimens showed that Re did not improve fracture toughness of the three-phase alloy. Nanoindentation performed on the MoSS phase in the three-phase alloy showed that Re increases Young s modulus, but does not lower hardness as in some Mo solid solution alloys. Based on our thermodynamic calculations and microstructural analyses, the lack of a Re softening effect is attributed to the increased Si levels in the Re-containing MoSS phase since Si is known to increase its hardness. This lack of softening is possibly why there is no Re-induced improvement in fracture toughness.« less

  4. Effect of Alloy 625 Buffer Layer on Hardfacing of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Using Nickel Base Hardfacing Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Gopa; Das, C. R.; Albert, S. K.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-04-01

    Dashpot piston, made up of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, is a part of diverse safety rod used for safe shutdown of a nuclear reactor. This component was hardfaced using nickel base AWS ER NiCr-B alloy and extensive cracking was experienced during direct deposition of this alloy on dashpot piston. Cracking reduced considerably and the component was successfully hardfaced by application of Inconel 625 as buffer layer prior to hardface deposition. Hence, a separate study was undertaken to investigate the role of buffer layer in reducing the cracking and on the microstructure of the hardfaced deposit. Results indicate that in the direct deposition of hardfacing alloy on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, both heat-affected zone (HAZ) formed and the deposit layer are hard making the thickness of the hard layer formed equal to combined thickness of both HAZ and deposit. This hard layer is unable to absorb thermal stresses resulting in the cracking of the deposit. By providing a buffer layer of Alloy 625 followed by a post-weld heat treatment, HAZ formed in the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is effectively tempered, and HAZ formed during the subsequent deposition of the hardfacing alloy over the Alloy 625 buffer layer is almost completely confined to Alloy 625, which does not harden. This reduces the cracking susceptibility of the deposit. Further, unlike in the case of direct deposition on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, dilution of the deposit by Ni-base buffer layer does not alter the hardness of the deposit and desired hardness on the deposit surface could be achieved even with lower thickness of the deposit. This gives an option for reducing the recommended thickness of the deposit, which can also reduce the risk of cracking.

  5. Elastic modulus of phases in Ti–Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu11@aliyun.com; Wu, Hong

    2015-08-15

    In this work, a series of binary Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were prepared using non-consumable arc melting. The microstructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, and the elastic modulus was evaluated by nanoindentation testing technique. The evolution of the volume fractions of ω phase was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the phase constitution and elastic modulus of the Ti–Mo alloys are sensitive to the Mo content. Ti–3.2Mo and Ti–8Mo alloys containing only α and β phases, respectively, have a low elastic modulus. In contrast, Ti–4.5Mo,more » Ti–6Mo, Ti–7Mo alloys, with different contents of ω phase, have a high elastic modulus. A simple micromechanical model was used to calculate the elastic modulus of ω phase (E{sub ω}), which was determined to be 174.354 GPa. - Highlights: • Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were investigated. • XPS was used to investigate the volume fractions of ω phase. • The elastic modulus of Ti–Mo alloys is sensitive to the Mo content. • The elastic modulus of ω phase was determined to be 174.354 GPa.« less

  6. Thermophysical properties of undercooled liquid Co-Mo alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X. J.; Wei, B.

    2003-05-01

    Using electromagnetic levitation in combination with the oscillating drop technique and drop calorimeter method, the surface tensions and specific heats of undercooled liquid Co-10 wt% Mo, Co-26.3 wt% Mo, and Co-37.6 wt% Mo alloys were measured. The containerless state during levitation produces substantial undercoolings up to 223 K (0.13TL), 213 K (0.13TL) and 110 K (0.07TL) respectively for these three alloys. In their respective undercooling ranges, the surface tensions were determined to be 1895 m 0.31(T m 1744), 1932 m 0.33(T m 1682), and 1989 m 0.34(T m 1607) mN mу. According to the Butler equation, the surface tensions of these three Co-Mo alloys were also calculated, and the results agree well with the experimental data. The specific heats of these three alloys are determined to be 41.85, 43.75 and 44.92 J molу Kу. Based on the determined surface tensions and specific heats, the changes in thermodynamics functions such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy are predicted. Furthermore, the crystal nucleation, dendrite growth and Marangoni convection of undercooled Co-Mo alloys are investigated in the light of these measured thermophysical properties.

  7. Effect of Silicon in U-10Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, Elizabeth J.; Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor

    2017-08-31

    This document details a method for evaluating the effect of silicon impurity content on U-10Mo alloys. Silicon concentration in U-10Mo alloys has been shown to impact the following: volume fraction of precipitate phases, effective density of the final alloy, and 235-U enrichment in the gamma-UMo matrix. This report presents a model for calculating these quantities as a function of Silicon concentration, which along with fuel foil characterization data, will serve as a reference for quality control of the U-10Mo final alloy Si content. Additionally, detailed characterization using scanning electron microscope imaging, transmission electron microscope diffraction, and atom probe tomography showedmore » that Silicon impurities present in U-10Mo alloys form a Si-rich precipitate phase.« less

  8. Diffusion Barrier Selection from Refractory Metals (Zr, Mo and Nb) via Interdiffusion Investigation for U-Mo RERTR Fuel Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    K. Huang; C. Kammerer; D. D. Keiser, Jr.

    2014-04-01

    U-Mo alloys are being developed as low enrichment monolithic fuel under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program. Diffusional interactions between the U-Mo fuel alloy and Al-alloy cladding within the monolithic fuel plate construct necessitate incorporation of a barrier layer. Fundamentally, a diffusion barrier candidate must have good thermal conductivity, high melting point, minimal metallurgical interaction, and good irradiation performance. Refractory metals, Zr, Mo, and Nb are considered based on their physical properties, and the diffusion behavior must be carefully examined first with U-Mo fuel alloy. Solid-to-solid U-10wt.%Mo vs. Mo, Zr, or Nb diffusion couples were assembledmore » and annealed at 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C for various times. The interdiffusion microstructures and chemical composition were examined via scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. For all three systems, the growth rate of interdiffusion zone were calculated at 1000, 900 and 800 degrees C under the assumption of parabolic growth, and calculated for lower temperature of 700, 600 and 500 degrees C according to Arrhenius relationship. The growth rate was determined to be about 10 3 times slower for Zr, 10 5 times slower for Mo and 10 6 times slower for Nb, than the growth rates reported for the interaction between the U-Mo fuel alloy and pure Al or Al-Si cladding alloys. Zr, however was selected as the barrier metal due to a concern for thermo- mechanical behavior of UMo/Nb interface observed from diffusion couples, and for ductile-to-brittle transition of Mo near room temperature.« less

  9. Fe-Cr-Mo based ODS alloys via spark plasma sintering: A combinational characterization study by TEM and APT

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Q. Wu; K. N. Allahar; J. Burns

    2013-08-01

    Nanoscale oxides play an important role in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for improved high temperature creep resistance and enhanced radiation damage tolerance. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) were combined to investigate two novel Fe-16Cr-3Mo (wt.%) based ODS alloys. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to consolidate the ODS alloys from powders that were milled with 0.5 wt.% Y2O3 powder only or with Y2O3 powder and 1 wt.% Ti. TEM characterization revealed that both alloys have a bimodal structure of nanometer-size (~ 100 – 500 nm) and micron-size grains with nanostructured oxide precipitatesmore » formed along and close to grain boundaries with diameters ranging from five to tens of nanometers. APT provides further quantitative analyses of the oxide precipitates, and also reveals Mo segregation at grain boundaries next to oxide precipitates. The alloys with and without Ti are compared based on their microstructures.« less

  10. Solution treatment-delayed zirconium-strengthening behavior in Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern Lin, Jiin-Huey; Fu, Yen-Han; Chen, Yen-Chun; Peng, Yu-Po; Ju, Chien-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The present study was devoted to investigate and compare the Zr-strengthening behavior in as-cast (AC) and solution-treated (ST) Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. The experimental results indicated that AC Ti-7.5Mo and AC Ti-7.5Mo-1Zr alloys substantially had an orthorhombic {α }\\prime\\prime phase with a fine, acicular morphology. The content of equi-axed β phase continued to increase with increased Zr content at the expense of {α }\\prime\\prime phase. The threshold Zr content for the formation of β phase in the ST Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys was apparently higher than that in the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. The β granular structure was revealed in ST Ti-7.5Mo-5Zr alloy, which increased with increased Zr content. Unlike AC Ti-7.5Mo-9Zr alloy, within each grain of ST Ti-7.5Mo-9Zr alloy were still observed a significant portion of {α }\\prime\\prime morphology. AC Ti-7.5Mo alloy had the lowest YS, lowest tensile modulus and highest elongation among all AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. When Zr content increased, both YS and modulus significantly increased while the elongation significantly decreased. Compared to AC Ti-7.5Mo alloy, AC Ti-7.5Mo-9Zr alloy had almost double YS, indicating the effectiveness of Zr-induced strengthening in the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. Compared to AC Ti-7.5Mo, ST Ti-7.5Mo alloys had lower YS, UTS and tensile modulus with almost the same elongation. All the XRD, metallography and tensile test results consistently indicated that the presence of Zr could accelerate the formation of β phase and effectively strengthen the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. A phenomenon of delayed β formation and delayed strengthening was noted in the ST Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys, compared to the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys.

  11. Improved Mo-Re VPS Alloys for High-Temperature Uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Martin, James; McKechnie, Timothy; O'Dell, John Scott

    2011-01-01

    Dispersion-strengthened molybdenum- rhenium alloys for vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) fabrication of high-temperature-resistant components are undergoing development. In comparison with otherwise equivalent non-dispersion-strengthened Mo-Re alloys, these alloys have improved high-temperature properties. Examples of VPS-fabricated high-temperature-resistant components for which these alloys are expected to be suitable include parts of aircraft and spacecraft engines, furnaces, and nuclear power plants; wear coatings; sputtering targets; x-ray targets; heat pipes in which liquid metals are used as working fluids; and heat exchangers in general. These alloys could also be useful as coating materials in some biomedical applications. The alloys consist of 60 weight percent Mo with 40 weight percent Re made from (1) blends of elemental Mo and Re powders or (2) Re-coated Mo particles that have been subjected to a proprietary powder-alloying-and-spheroidization process. For most of the dispersion- strengthening experiments performed thus far in this development effort, 0.4 volume percent of transition-metal ceramic dispersoids were mixed into the feedstock powders. For one experiment, the proportion of dispersoid was 1 volume percent. In each case, the dispersoid consisted of either ZrN particles having sizes <45 m, ZrO2 particles having sizes of about 1 m, HfO2 particles having sizes <45 m, or HfN particles having sizes <1 m. These materials were chosen for evaluation on the basis of previously published thermodynamic stability data. For comparison, Mo-Re feedstock powders without dispersoids were also prepared.

  12. Evaluation of an advanced directionally solidified gamma/gamma'-alpha Mo eutectic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. F.; Jackson, M. R.; Gigliotti, M. F. X.; Nelson, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve on the properties of the candidate jet engine turbine blade material AG-60, a gamma/gamma prime-alpha Mo eutectic composite. Alloy 38 (AG-170) was evaluated in the greatest detail. This alloy, Ni-5.88 A1-29.74 Mo-1.65 V-1.2C Re (weight percent), represents an improvement beyond AG-60, based on mechanical testing of the transverse and/or longitudinal orientations over a range of temperatures in tension, shear, rupture, and rupture after thermal exposure. It is likely that other alloys in the study represent a similar improvement.

  13. Electrodeposition of Ni-Mo alloy coatings for water splitting reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Akshatha R.; Hegde, Ampar Chitharanjan

    2018-04-01

    The present study reports the development of Ni-Mo alloy coatings for water splitting applications, using a citrate bath the inducing effect of Mo (reluctant metal) on electrodeposition, its relationship with their electrocatalytic efficiency were studied. The alkaline water splitting efficiency of Ni-Mo alloy coatings, for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction were tested using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) techniques. Moreover, the practical utility of these electrode materials were evaluated by measuring the amount of H2 and O2 gas evolved. The variation in electrocatalytic activity with composition, structure, and morphology of the coatings were examined using XRD, SEM, and EDS analyses. The experimental results showed that Ni-Mo alloy coating is the best electrode material for alkaline HER and OER reactions, at lower and higher deposition current densities (c. d.'s) respectively. This behavior is attributed by decreased Mo and increased Ni content of the alloy coating and the number of electroactive centers.

  14. Obtaining and Mechanical Properties of Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălţatu, M. S.; Vizureanu, P.; Geantă, V.; Nejneru, C.; Țugui, C. A.; Focşăneanu, S. C.

    2017-06-01

    Ti-based alloys are successfully used in the area of orthopedic biomaterials for their enhanced biocompatibility, good corrosion and mechanical properties. The most suitable metals as an alloying element for orthopedic biomaterials are zirconium, molybdenum and tantalum because are non toxic and have good properties. The paper purpose development of two alloys of Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta (TMZT) prepared by arc-melting with several mechanical properties determined by microindentation. The mechanical properties analyzed was Vickers hardness and dynamic elasticity modulus. The investigated alloys presents a low Young’s modulus, an important condition of biomaterials for preventing stress shielding phenomenon.

  15. Mechanical Alloying of W-Mo-V-Cr-Ta High Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sujit; Robi, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) consisting of five or more elements in equi-atomic or near equi-atomic ratios. These alloys in single phase solid solution exhibit exceptional mechanical properties viz., high strength at room and elevated temperatures, reasonable ductility and stable microstructure over a wide range of temperatures making it suitable for high temperature structural materials. In spite of the attractive properties, processing of these materials remains a challenge. Reports regarding fabrication and characterisation of a few refractory HEA systems are available. The processing of these alloys have been carried out by arc melting of small button sized materials. The present paper discusses the development of a novel refractory W-Mo-V-Cr-Ta HEA powder based on a new alloy design concept. The powder mixture was milled for time periods up to 64 hours. Single phase alloy powder having body centred cubic structure was processed by mechanical alloying. The milling characteristics and extent of alloying during the ball milling were characterized using X-ray diffractiometre (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). A single phase solid solution alloy powder having body-centred cubic (BCC) structure with a lattice parameter of 3.15486 Å was obtained after milling for 32 hours.

  16. Cubic γ-phase U-Mo alloys synthesized by splat-cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim-Ngan, Nhu-T. H.; Tkach, I.; Mašková, S.; Havela, L.; Warren, A.; Scott, T.

    2013-09-01

    U-Mo alloys are the most promising materials fulfilling the requirements of using low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in research reactors. From a fundamental standpoint, it is of interest to determine the basic thermodynamic properties of the cubic γ-phase U-Mo alloys. We focus our attention on the use of Mo doping together with ultrafast cooling (with high cooling rates ⩾106 K s-1), which helps to maintain the cubic γ-phase in U-Mo system to low temperatures and on determination of the low-temperature properties of these γ-U alloys. Using a splat cooling method it has been possible to maintain some fraction of the high-temperature γ-phase at room temperature in pure uranium. U-13 at.% Mo splat clearly exhibits the pure γ-phase structure. All the splats become superconducting with Tc in the range from 1.24 K (pure U splat) to 2.11 K (U-15 at.% Mo). The γ-phase in U-Mo alloys undergoes eutectoid decomposition to form equilibrium phases of orthorhombic α-uranium and tetragonal γ‧-phase upon annealing at 500 °C, while annealing at 800 °C has stabilized the initial γ phase. The α-U easily absorbs a large amount of hydrogen (UH3 hydride), while the cubic bcc phase does not absorb any detectable amount of hydrogen at pressures below 1 bar and at room temperature. At 80 bar, the U-15 at.% Mo splat becomes powder consisting of elongated particles of 1-2 mm, revealing amorphous state.

  17. Structural Phase Transformation in Strained Monolayer MoWSe2 Alloy.

    PubMed

    Apte, Amey; Kochat, Vidya; Rajak, Pankaj; Krishnamoorthy, Aravind; Manimunda, Praveena; Hachtel, Jordan A; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Syed Amanulla, Syed Asif; Vashishta, Priya; Nakano, Aiichiro; Kalia, Rajiv K; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2018-04-24

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit different mechanical properties from their bulk counterparts owing to their monolayer atomic thickness. Here, we have examined the mechanical behavior of 2D molybdenum tungsten diselenide (MoWSe 2 ) precipitation alloy grown using chemical vapor deposition and composed of numerous nanoscopic MoSe 2 and WSe 2 regions. Applying a bending strain blue-shifted the MoSe 2 and WSe 2 A 1g Raman modes with the stress concentrated near the precipitate interfaces predominantly affecting the WSe 2 modes. In situ local Raman measurements suggested that the crack propagated primarily thorough MoSe 2 -rich regions in the monolayer alloy. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to study crack propagation in an MoSe 2 monolayer containing nanoscopic WSe 2 regions akin to the experiment. Raman spectra calculated from MD trajectories of crack propagation confirmed the emergence of intermediate peaks in the strained monolayer alloy, mirroring experimental results. The simulations revealed that the stress buildup around the crack tip caused an irreversible structural transformation from the 2H to 1T phase both in the MoSe 2 matrix and WSe 2 patches. This was corroborated by high-angle annular dark-field images. Crack branching and subsequent healing of a crack branch were also observed in WSe 2 , indicating the increased toughness and crack propagation resistance of the alloyed 2D MoWSe 2 over the unalloyed counterparts.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of Ti-15Mo alloy for dental implant applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satendra; Narayanan, T S N Sankara

    2008-07-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Ti-15Mo alloy in 0.15M NaCl solution containing varying concentrations of fluoride ions (190, 570, 1140 and 9500 ppm) is evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometric/current-time transient (CTT) studies to ascertain its suitability for dental implant applications. The study reveals that there is a strong dependence of the corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo alloy on the concentration of fluoride ions in the electrolyte medium. Increase in fluoride ion concentration from 0 to 9500 ppm shifts the corrosion potential (E(corr)) from -275 to -457 mV vs. SCE, increases the corrosion current density (i(corr)) from 0.31 to 2.30 microA/cm(2), the passive current density (i(pass)) from 0.07 to 7.32 mA/cm(2) and the double-layer capacitance (C(dl)) from 9.63 x 10(-5) to 1.79 x 10(-4)F and reduces the charge transfer resistance (R(ct)) from 6.58 x 10(4) to 6.64 x 10(3)Omega cm(2). In spite of the active dissolution, the Ti-15Mo alloy exhibit passivity at anodic potentials at all concentrations of the fluoride ions studied. In dental implants since the exposure of the alloy will be limited only to its 'neck', the amount of Mo ions released from Ti-15Mo alloy is not likely to have an adverse and hence, in terms of biocompatibility this alloy seems to be acceptable for dental implant applications. The results of the study suggest that Ti-15Mo alloy can be a suitable alternative for dental implant applications.

  19. Structure and Mechanical Properties of As-Cast Ti-5Sn-xMo Alloys.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsing-Ning; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2017-04-27

    Ti-5Sn- x Mo ( x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt %) alloys were designed and prepared for application as implant materials with superior mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the crystal structure and mechanical properties of Ti-5Sn- x Mo alloys are highly affected by their Mo content. The as-cast microstructures of Ti-5Sn- x Mo alloys transformed in the sequence of phases α' → α″ → β, and the morphologies of the alloys changed from a lath structure to an equiaxed structure as the Mo content increased. The α″-phase Ti-5Sn-7.5Mo (80 GPa) and β-phase Ti-5Sn-10Mo (85 GPa) exhibited relatively low elastic moduli and had excellent elastic recovery angles of 27.4° and 37.8°, respectively. Furthermore, they exhibited high ductility and moderate strength, as evaluated using the three-point bending test. Search for a more suitable implant material by this study, Ti-5Sn- x Mo alloys with 7.5 and 10 wt % Mo appear to be promising candidates because they demonstrate the optimal combined properties of microhardness, ductility, elastic modulus, and elastic recovery capability.

  20. Structure and Mechanical Properties of As-Cast Ti–5Sn–xMo Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hsing-Ning; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Ti–5Sn–xMo (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt %) alloys were designed and prepared for application as implant materials with superior mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the crystal structure and mechanical properties of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys are highly affected by their Mo content. The as-cast microstructures of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys transformed in the sequence of phases α′ → α″ → β, and the morphologies of the alloys changed from a lath structure to an equiaxed structure as the Mo content increased. The α″-phase Ti–5Sn–7.5Mo (80 GPa) and β-phase Ti–5Sn–10Mo (85 GPa) exhibited relatively low elastic moduli and had excellent elastic recovery angles of 27.4° and 37.8°, respectively. Furthermore, they exhibited high ductility and moderate strength, as evaluated using the three-point bending test. Search for a more suitable implant material by this study, Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys with 7.5 and 10 wt % Mo appear to be promising candidates because they demonstrate the optimal combined properties of microhardness, ductility, elastic modulus, and elastic recovery capability. PMID:28772820

  1. Grain growth in U–7Mo alloy: A combined first-principles and phase field study

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Zhi-Gang; Liang, Linyun; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is an important factor in controlling the swelling behavior in irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuels. Increasing the grain size in UeMo fuel particles by heat treatment is believed to delay the fuel swelling at high fission density. In this work, a multiscale simulation approach combining first-principles calculation and phase field modeling is used to investigate the grain growth behavior in U-7Mo alloy. The density functional theory based first-principles calculations were used to predict the material properties of U-7Mo alloy. The obtained grain boundary energies were then adopted as an input parameter for mesoscale phase field simulations. The effects ofmore » annealing temperature, annealing time and initial grain structures of fuel particles on the grain growth in U-7Mo alloy were examined. The predicted grain growth rate compares well with the empirical correlation derived from experiments. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

  2. Correlation of the thermodynamic calculation and the experimental observation of Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel changing Ni, Mo, and Cr contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Gyu; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang; Wee, Dang-Moon

    2010-12-01

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel has improved fracture toughness and strength compared to commercial low alloy steels such as SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which has less than 1% Ni. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels can be achieved by increasing the Ni and Cr contents. In this study, the effects of the alloying elements of Ni and Cr on the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel are evaluated. Changes in the stable phases of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with these alloying elements were evaluated using thermodynamic calculation software. These values were then compared with the observed microstructural results. Additionally, tensile tests and Charpy impact test were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties. The thermodynamic calculations show that Ni mainly affects the change of the matrix phase of γ and α rather than the carbide phase. Contrary to the Ni effect, Cr and Mo primarily affect the precipitation behavior of the carbide phases of Cr 23C 6, Cr 7C 3 and Mo 2C. In the microscopic observations, the lath martensitic structure becomes finer as the Ni content increases without affecting the carbides. When the Cr content decreases, the Cr carbide becomes unstable and carbide coarsening occurs. Carbide Mo 2C in the form of fine needles were observed in the high-Mo alloy. Greater strength was obtained after additions of Ni and Mo and the transition properties were improved as the Ni and Cr contents increased. These results were correlated with the thermodynamic calculation results.

  3. Undercooled and rapidly quenched Ni-Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1986-01-01

    Hypoeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic nickel-molybdenum alloys were rapidly solidified by both bulk undercooling and melt spinning techniques. Alloys were undercooled in both electromagnetic levitation and differential thermal analysis equipment. The rate of recalescence depended upon the degree of initial undercooling and the nature (faceted or nonfaceted) of the primary nucleating phase. Alloy melts were observed to undercool more in the presence of primary Beta (NiMo intermetallic) phase than in gamma (fcc solid solution) phase. Melt spinning resulted in an extension of molybdenum solid solubility in gamma nickel, from 28 to 37.5 at % Mo. Although the microstructures observed by undercooling and melt spinning were similar the microsegregation pattern across the gamma dendries was different. The range of microstructures evolved was analyzed in terms of the nature of the primary phase to nucleate, its subsequent dendritic growth, coarsening and fragmentation, and final solidification of interfenderitic liquid.

  4. Albumin adsorption on CoCrMo alloy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu; Yang, Hongjuan; Su, Yanjing; Qiao, Lijie

    2015-12-01

    Proteins can adsorb on the surface of artificial joints immediately after being implanted. Although research studying protein adsorption on medical material surfaces has been carried out, the mechanism of the proteins’ adsorption which affects the corrosion behaviour of such materials still lacks in situ observation at the micro level. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on CoCrMo alloy surfaces was studied in situ by AFM and SKPFM as a function of pH and the charge of CoCrMo alloy surfaces. Results showed that when the specimens were uncharged, hydrophobic interaction could govern the process of the adsorption rather than electrostatic interaction, and BSA molecules tended to adsorb on the surfaces forming a monolayer in the side-on model. Results also showed that adsorbed BSA molecules could promote the corrosion process for CoCrMo alloys. When the surface was positively charged, the electrostatic interaction played a leading role in the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption occurred at the isoelectric point (pH 4.7) of BSA.

  5. Influence of graphite-alloy interactions on corrosion of Ni-Mo-Cr alloy in molten fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Hua; Hou, Juan; Ye, Xiang-Xi; Zeng, Chao Liu; Sun, Hua; Li, Xiaoyun; Yu, Guojun; Zhou, Xingtai; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effects of graphite-alloy interaction on corrosion of Ni-Mo-Cr alloy in molten FLiNaK salt were investigated. The corrosion tests of Ni-Mo-Cr alloys were conducted in graphite crucibles, to examine the differences of test specimens in conditions of electric contact and isolated with graphite, respectively. The corrosion attack is severer with more weight loss and deeper Cr depletion layer in samples electric contact with graphite than those isolated with graphite. The occurrence of galvanic corrosion between alloy specimens and graphite container was confirmed by electrochemical measurement. The corrosion is controlled by nonelectric transfer in isolated test while electrochemical reaction accelerated corrosion in electric contact test.

  6. Effect of mo Content on Microstructure and Properties of Laser Cladding Fe-BASED Alloy Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoli, Ma; Kaiming, Wang; Hanguang, Fu; Jiang, Ju; Yongping, Lei; Dawei, Yi

    Mo alloying Fe-based coating was fabricated on the surface of Q235 steel by using 6 kW fiber laser. The effects of Mo additions on the microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of the cladding layer were studied by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Vickers hardness tester and M-200 ring block wear tester. Research results showed that the microstructure of Mo-free cladding layer mainly consisted of matrix and eutectic structure. The matrix was martensite and retained austenite. The eutectic structure mainly consisted of M2(B,C) and M7(C,B)3 type of eutectic borocarbides. With the increase of Mo content, there was no significant change in the matrix. However, the eutectic structure was transformed from M2(B,C)- and M7(C,B)3-type borocarbides into M2(B,C)-, M7(C,B)3- and M23(C,B)6-type borocarbides. When the content of Mo is 4.0wt.%, the Mo2C-type carbide appear on the matrix, and parts of the borocarbide networks are broken. The change of microhardness of the cladding layer was not obvious with the increase of Mo content. But the increase of Mo content increases the wear resistance of the cladding layer. The wear resistance of cladding layer with 4.0wt.% Mo is 2.4 times as much as the cladding layer which is Mo-free.

  7. Mo-Si-B alloys for ultrahigh-temperature structural applications.

    PubMed

    Lemberg, J A; Ritchie, R O

    2012-07-10

    A continuing quest in science is the development of materials capable of operating structurally at ever-increasing temperatures. Indeed, the development of gas-turbine engines for aircraft/aerospace, which has had a seminal impact on our ability to travel, has been controlled by the availability of materials capable of withstanding the higher-temperature hostile environments encountered in these engines. Nickel-base superalloys, particularly as single crystals, represent a crowning achievement here as they can operate in the combustors at ~1100 °C, with hot spots of ~1200 °C. As this represents ~90% of their melting temperature, if higher-temperature engines are ever to be a reality, alternative materials must be utilized. One such class of materials is Mo-Si-B alloys; they have higher density but could operate several hundred degrees hotter. Here we describe the processing and structure versus mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys and further document ways to optimize their nano/microstructures to achieve an appropriate balance of properties to realistically compete with Ni-alloys for elevated-temperature structural applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Microstructural characterization of as-cast biocompatible Co-Cr-Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Giacchi, J.V., E-mail: jgiacchi@exa.unicen.edu.ar; Instituto de Fisica de Materiales Tandil; Morando, C.N.

    2011-01-15

    The microstructure of a cobalt-base alloy (Co-Cr-Mo) obtained by the investment casting process was studied. This alloy complies with the ASTM F75 standard and is widely used in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants because of its high strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility properties. This work focuses on the resulting microstructures arising from samples poured under industrial environment conditions, of three different Co-Cr-Mo alloys. For this purpose, we used: 1) an alloy built up from commercial purity constituents, 2) a remelted alloy and 3) a certified alloy for comparison. The characterization of the samples was achieved by using opticalmore » microscopy (OM) with a colorant etchant to identify the present phases and scanning electron microscopy (SE-SEM) and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) techniques for a better identification. In general the as-cast microstructure is a Co-fcc dendritic matrix with the presence of a secondary phase, such as the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides precipitated at grain boundaries and interdendritic zones. These precipitates are the main strengthening mechanism in this type of alloys. Other minority phases were also reported and their presence could be linked to the cooling rate and the manufacturing process variables and environment. - Research Highlights: {yields}The solidification microstructure of an ASTM-F75 type alloy were studied. {yields}The alloys were poured under an industrial environment. {yields}Carbides and sigma phase identified by color metallography and scanning microscopy (SEM and EDS). {yields}Two carbide morphologies were detected 'blocky type' and 'pearlite type'. {yields}Minority phases were also detected.« less

  9. Effect of the environment on wear ranking and corrosion of biomedical CoCrMo alloys.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, A Igual; Mischler, S

    2011-03-01

    The corrosion behaviour and the wear ranking of biomedical high carbon (HC) and low carbon (LC) CoCrMo alloys sliding against an alumina ball in four different simulated body fluids [NaCl and phosphate buffered solutions (PBS) with and without albumin] has been analyzed by tribocorrosion and electrochemical techniques. The effects of alloy and of albumin on corrosion depend on the base electrolyte: differences between LC and HC alloy were only observed in NaCl solutions but not in PBS. Albumin increased significantly corrosion of both alloys in PBS solutions while its effect in NaCl was smaller. The wear ranking of the HC and LC alloys also depends on the environment. In the present study, HC CoCrMo alloy had lower wear resistance in NaCl and PBS + albumin than the LC alloy, while no differences between both alloys were found in the other solutions. This was attributed to surface chemical effects affecting third body behaviour.

  10. Hidroxyapatite Coating on CoCrMo Alloy Titanium Nitride Coated Using Biomimetic Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlena; Sukaryo, S. G.; Fajar, M.

    2016-11-01

    Bone implants is a way to cure broken bones which is being developed. The implants can be made of metals, ceramics and polymers. Metallic materials commonly used are titanium (Ti), stainless steel, and metal alloys. This study used Co-based alloys, i.e. CoCrMo coated with titanium nitride (TiN) which was then coated on hidroxyapatite (HAp). The HAp coating on the surface of CoCrMo alloy was done by biomimetic methods, first by soaking the metal alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for 18, 24, and 36 hours. The immersion in the SBF solution produced white coat on the surface of the metal alloy. The layers formed were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). Based on the SEM results of 36 hours treatment, the morphology of apatite crystal formed fine grains. According to XRD result, there were HAp peaks at angles 2θ 31.86, 32.25, dan 39.48. However, there were also CaCO3 peaks at angles 2θ 29.46, 36.04, and 46.79. It indicated the pure HAp is not yet formed.

  11. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation resistance of pack siliconized Mo-Si-B alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Sanjib

    2017-08-01

    Oxidation behaviour of MoSi2 coated Mo-9Si-8B-0.75Y (at.%) alloy has been investigated at three critical temperatures including 750, 900 and 1400 °C in static air. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data indicates a remarkable improvement in the oxidation resistance of the silicide coated alloy in both isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis reveal the occurrence of internal oxidation particularly at the crack fronts formed in the outer MoSi2 layer during thermal cycling. The dominant oxidation mechanisms at 750-900 °C and 1400 °C are identified. Development of MoB inner layer further improves the oxidation resistance of the silicide coated alloy.

  12. [Study on high temperature oxidation of Ni-Cr ceramic alloys. Effects of Cr and Mo].

    PubMed

    Mizutani, M

    1990-03-01

    The effects of Cr and Mo addition to Ni-Cr alloys on high temperature oxidation were investigated. The alloys were prepared with the composition of Cr ranging from 5 to 40 wt%. Also 2, 4 and 9 wt% of Mo was added to both Ni-5% Cr and Ni-20% Cr binary alloys. The alloys were heated at 800 degrees C, 900 degrees C and 1000 degrees C for 15 minutes in air, and the weight change after heat treatment was measured by electric automatic balance. The weight change during heating was measured by thermogravimetric measurement (TG). The products after heat treatment were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results are summarized as follows: The Ni-Cr binary alloys were classified into three types of Cr ranging from 5 to 20 wt%, Cr 25% and Cr from 30 wt% to 40 wt% according to the weight gains with oxidation. In the case of the more than 25 wt% Cr content of the Ni-Cr binary alloys, the weight gain was extremely low and the heating temperature effects on the weight change were also small. X-ray diffraction study showed that NiO, NiCr2O4 and Cr2O3 formed on the surface of the Ni-Cr binary alloys whose composition of Cr ranged from 5 to 25 wt%, whereas NiO and NiCr2O4 rarely formed on the Ni-Cr binary alloys whose composition of Cr ranged from 30 to 40 wt%. This suggests that the formation of Cr2O3 prevents the formation of NiO on the alloy with a high Cr content. The weight gain of the Ni-Cr-Mo ternary alloys was smaller than that of the Ni-Cr binary alloys without Mo, and the temperature effects on the weight gain of the Ni-Cr-Mo ternary alloys were different for each Cr content. However, the effect of the amounts of Mo was small. NiO, NiCr2O4, Cr2O3 and MoO2 were identified by X-ray diffraction on the surface of the Ni-Cr-Mo ternary alloys. According to the SEM observation, it seems that NiO was formed at the outermost layer, both NiCr2O4 and Cr2O3 at the inside layer, and MoO2 at the innermost layer. The formation of both NiO and Cr

  13. Thermal stability of intermetallic phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-06-12

    Understanding the stability of precipitate phases in the Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical to the alloy design and application of Mo-containing Austenitic steels. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, stability of the chi and Laves phases in two Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys were investigated at 1000, 850 and 700 °C for different annealing time. The morphologies, compositions and crystal structures of the matrix and precipitate phases were carefully examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Probe Microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The two key findings resulted from this work. One is that the chi phase is stable at high temperature and transformed intomore » the Laves phase at low temperature. The other is that both the chi and Laves phases have large solubilites of Cr, Mo and Ni, among which the Mo solubility has a major role on the relative stability of the precipitate phases. The developed thermodynamic models were then applied to evaluating the Mo effect on the stability of precipitate phases in AISI 316 and NF709 alloys.« less

  14. Improving tribological properties of Ti-5Zr-3Sn-5Mo-15Nb alloy by double glow plasma surface alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lili; Qin, Lin; Kong, Fanyou; Yi, Hong; Tang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum, an alloying element, was deposited and diffused on Ti-5Zr-3Sn-5Mo-15Nb (TLM) substrate by double glow plasma surface alloying technology at 900, 950 and 1000 °C. The microstructure, composition distribution and micro-hardness of the Mo modified layers were analyzed. Contact angles on deionized water and wear behaviors of the samples against corundum balls in simulated human body fluids were investigated. Results show that the surface microhardness is significantly enhanced after alloying and increases with treated temperature rising, and the contact angles are lowered to some extent. More importantly, compared to as-received TLM alloy, the Mo modified samples, especially the one treated at 1000 °C, exhibit the significant improvement of tribological properties in reciprocating wear tests, with lower specific wear rate and friction coefficient. To conclude, Mo alloying treatment is an effective approach to obtain excellent comprehensive properties including optimal wear resistance and improved wettability, which ensure the lasting and safety application for titanium alloys as the biomedical implants.

  15. Microstructural control of FeCrAl alloys using Mo and Nb additions

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Zhiqian; Bei, Hongbin; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2017-08-14

    The effects of Mo and Nb additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of two FeCrAl alloys were studied in this paper. Fine and uniform recrystallized grain structures (~ 20–30 μm) were achieved in both alloys through suitable annealing after warm-rolling. The formation of Fe 2Nb-type Laves phase precipitates in the Nb-containing FeCrAl alloy effectively stabilized the deformed and recrystallized microstructures. The Mo-containing FeCrAl alloy exhibited strong γ texture fiber after annealing at 650–900 °C, whereas the annealed Nb-containing FeCrAl alloy had much weaker texture. Finally, both strength and ductility decreased as the grain size increased in both alloys.

  16. Primary arm spacing in chill block melt spun Ni-Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1986-01-01

    Chill block melt spun ribbons of Ni-Mo binary alloys containing 8.0 to 41.8 wt % Mo have been prepared under carefully controlled processing conditions. The growth velocity has been determined as a function of distance from the quench surface from the observed ribbon thickness dependence on the melt puddle residence time. Primary arm spacings measured at the midribbon thickness locations show a dependence on growth velocity and alloy composition which is expected from dendritic growth models for binary alloys directionally solidified in a positive temperature gradient.

  17. Primary arm spacing in chill block melt spun Ni-Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1987-01-01

    Chill block melt spun ribbons of Ni-Mo binary alloys containing 8.0 to 41.8 wt pct Mo have been prepared under carefully controlled processing conditions. The growth velocity has been determined as a function of distance from the quench surface from the observed ribbon thickness dependence on the melt puddle residence time. Primary arm spacing measured at the midribbon thickness locations show a dependence on growth velocity and alloy composition which is expected from dendritic growth models for binary alloys directionally solidified in a positive temperature gradient.

  18. Microstructures in rapidly solidified Ni-Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraman, N.; Tewari, S. N.; Hemker, K. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    Ni-Mo alloys of compositions ranging from pure Ni to Ni-40 at % Mo were rapidly solidified by Chill Block Melt Spinning in vacuum and were examined by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Rapid solidification resulted in an extension of molybdenum solubility in nickel from 28 to 37.5 at %. A number of different phases and microstructures were seen at different depths (solidification conditions) from the quenched surface of the melt spun ribbons.

  19. Modeling Early-Stage Processes of U-10 Wt.%Mo Alloy Using Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaowo; Xu, Zhijie; Soulami, Ayoub; Hu, Xiaohua; Lavender, Curt; Joshi, Vineet

    2017-12-01

    Low-enriched uranium alloyed with 10 wt.% molybdenum (U-10Mo) has been identified as a promising alternative to high-enriched uranium. Manufacturing U-10Mo alloy involves multiple complex thermomechanical processes that pose challenges for computational modeling. This paper describes the application of integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) concepts to integrate three individual modeling components, viz. homogenization, microstructure-based finite element method for hot rolling, and carbide particle distribution, to simulate the early-stage processes of U-10Mo alloy manufacture. The resulting integrated model enables information to be passed between different model components and leads to improved understanding of the evolution of the microstructure. This ICME approach is then used to predict the variation in the thickness of the Zircaloy-2 barrier as a function of the degree of homogenization and to analyze the carbide distribution, which can affect the recrystallization, hardness, and fracture properties of U-10Mo in subsequent processes.

  20. Electrochemical stability and corrosion resistance of Ti-Mo alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, N T C; Guastaldi, A C

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of pure Ti and Ti-Mo alloys (6-20wt.% Mo) was investigated as a function of immersion time in electrolyte simulating physiological media. Open-circuit potential values indicated that all Ti-Mo alloys studied and pure Ti undergo spontaneous passivation due to spontaneously formed oxide film passivating the metallic surface, in the chloride-containing solution. It also indicated that the addition of Mo to pure Ti up to 15wt.% seems to improve the protection characteristics of its spontaneous oxides. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies showed high impedance values for all samples, increasing with immersion time, indicating an improvement in corrosion resistance of the spontaneous oxide film. The fit obtained suggests a single passive film present on the metals' surface, improving their resistance with immersion time, presenting the highest values to Ti-15Mo alloy. Potentiodynamic polarization showed a typical valve-metal behavior, with anodic formation of barrier-type oxide films, without pitting corrosion, even in chloride-containing solution. In all cases, the passive current values were quite small, and decrease after 360h of immersion. All these electrochemical results suggest that the Ti-15Mo alloy is a promising material for orthopedic devices, since electrochemical stability is directly associated with biocompatibility and is a necessary condition for applying a material as biomaterial.

  1. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo-40Ni-13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunyan; Wang, Shuhuan; Gui, Yongliang; Cheng, Zihao; Ni, Guolong

    2016-12-06

    Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo-40Ni-13Si (at %). Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo-Ni-Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy-including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility-were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear.

  2. Microstructure and Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties of FeCrMoVTi x High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun; Huang, Xuefei; Huang, Weigang

    2017-07-01

    FeCrMoVTi x ( x values represent the molar ratio, where x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) high-entropy alloys were prepared by a vacuum arc melting method. The effects of Ti element on the microstructure and room-temperature mechanical properties of the as-cast FeCrMoVTi x alloys were investigated. The results show that the prepared alloys exhibited typical dendritic microstructure and the size of the microstructure became fine with increasing Ti content. The FeCrMoV alloy exhibited a single body-centered cubic structure (BCC1) and the alloys prepared with Ti element exhibited BCC1 + BCC2 mixed structure. The new BCC2 phase is considered as (Fe, Ti)-rich phase and was distributed in the dendrite region. With the increase of Ti content, the volume fraction of the BCC2 phase increased and its shape changed from a long strip to a network. For the FeCrMoV alloy, the fracture strength, plastic strain, and hardness reached as high as 2231 MPa, 28.2%, and 720 HV, respectively. The maximum hardness of 887 HV was obtained in the FeCrMoVTi alloy. However, the fracture strength, yield stress, and plastic strain of the alloys decreased continuously as Ti content increased. In the room-temperature compressive test, the alloys showed typical brittle fracture characteristics.

  3. Tensile and stress-rupture behavior of hafnium carbide dispersed molybdenum and tungsten base alloy wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Hee Mann; Titran, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The tensile strain rate sensitivity and the stress-rupture strength of Mo-base and W-base alloy wires, 380 microns in diameter, were determined over the temperature range from 1200 K to 1600 K. Three molybdenum alloy wires; Mo + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC), Mo + 25w/o W + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC+25W) and Mo + 45w/o W + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC+45W), and a W + 0.4w/o hafnium carbide (WHfC) tungsten alloy wire were evaluated. The tensile strength of all wires studied was found to have a positive strain rate sensitivity. The strain rate dependency increased with increasing temperature and is associated with grain broadening of the initial fibrous structures. The hafnium carbide dispersed W-base and Mo-base alloys have superior tensile and stress-rupture properties than those without HfC. On a density compensated basis the MoHfC wires exhibit superior tensile and stress-rupture strengths to the WHfC wires up to approximately 1400 K. Addition of tungsten in the Mo-alloy wires was found to increase the long-term stress rupture strength at temperatures above 1400 K. Theoretical calculations indicate that the strength and ductility advantage of the HfC dispersed alloy wires is due to the resistance to recrystallization imparted by the dispersoid.

  4. Influence of carbides and microstructure of CoCrMo alloys on their metallic dissolution resistance.

    PubMed

    Valero-Vidal, C; Casabán-Julián, L; Herraiz-Cardona, I; Igual-Muñoz, A

    2013-12-01

    CoCrMo alloys are passive and biocompatible materials widely used as joint replacements due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Electrochemical behaviour of thermal treated CoCrMo alloys with different carbon content in their bulk alloy composition has been analysed. Both the amount of carbides in the CoCrMo alloys and the chemical composition of the simulated body fluid affect the electrochemical properties of these biomedical alloys, thus passive dissolution rate was influenced by the mentioned parameters. Lower percentage of carbon in the chemical composition of the bulk alloy and thermal treatments favour the homogenization of the surface (less amount of carbides), thus increasing the availability of Cr to form the oxide film and improving the corrosion resistance of the alloy. © 2013.

  5. Summary Abstract: Growth and Alloying of Pd Films on Mo(110) Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Ch. E.; Poppa, H.; Bauer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Alloying in small metal particles and in very thin films has recently received considerable attention. In the past it has been generally assumed that alloying is insignificant up to temperatures. Thus many epitaxy experiments of metals on metals with complete miscibility were performed at temperatures between 200 and 400 C and analyzed assuming no alloying. In particular, alloying was not suspected if the film material was not soluble in the substrate. In the present study, which was stimulated by annealing-induced CO adsorption anomalies on thin film surfaces, it has become evident that low temperature alloying can occur in thin films on a metal substrate which is refractory and has very strong interatomic bonds (as evidenced by a high sublimation energy) provided that the substrate is soluble in the film material. A good example of such a film-substrate combination is Pd on Mo. The solubility of Pd in Mo is very at temperatures below 1000 K but Pd can dissolve slightly more than 40 at. % Mo even at low temperatures.

  6. The Effect of Mo Particles Addition in Ag-Cu-Ti Filler Alloy on Ti(C,N)-Based Cermet/45 Steel-Brazed Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hu; Du, Xueming; Huang, Xiaokai; Xu, Weijian; Yao, Zhenhua

    2018-05-01

    Reliable brazing of Ti(C,N)-based cermet and 45 steel was successfully achieved by using the Mo-particle-reinforced Ag-Cu-Ti composite filler. The effects of Mo content on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti(C,N)-based cermet/45 steel joints were analyzed. The results showed that the joint microstructure was primarily composed of Ni3Ti+Cu3Ti2, Ag(s,s)+Cu(s.s), CuTi+Mo, Ti-based solid solution, and FeTi+Fe2Ti. With the increase in Mo content in filler, the thickness of the Ni3Ti+Cu3Ti2 layer adjacent to the Ti(C,N)-based cermet decreases, while more blocky Ti-Cu intermetallic were observed in the brazing seam. The shear strength of the joint could be significantly improved by adding suitable amounts of Mo into the Ag-Cu-Ti filler, and the peak value of 263 MPa was achieved when the alloys were brazed with Ag-Cu-Ti+8wt.%Mo composite filler at 920 °C for 20 min.

  7. Mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys fabricated by using core-shell powder with dispersion of yttria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Jong Min; Bang, Su-Ryong; Choi, Won June; Kim, Min Sang; Noh, Goo Won; Kim, Young Do

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, refractory materials with excellent high-temperature properties have been in the spotlight as a next generation's high-temperature materials. Among these, Mo-Si-B alloys composed of two intermetallic compound phases (Mo5SiB2 and Mo3Si) and a ductile α-Mo phase have shown an outstanding thermal properties. However, due to the brittleness of the intermetallic compound phases, Mo-Si-B alloys were restricted to apply for the structural materials. So, to enhance the mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys, many efforts to add rare-earth oxide particles in the Mo-Si-B alloy were performed to induce the improvement of strength and fracture toughness. In this study, to investigate the effect of adding nano-sized Y2O3 particles in Mo-Si-B alloy, a core-shell powder consisting of intermetallic compound phases as the core and nano-sized α-Mo and Y2O3 particles surrounding the core was fabricated. Then pressureless sintering was carried out at 1400 °C for 3 h, and the mechanical properties of sintered bodies with different amounts of Y2O3 particles were evaluated by Vickers hardness and 3-point bending test. Vickers hardness was improved by dispersed Y2O3 particles in the Mo-Si-B alloy. Especially, Mo-3Si-1B-1.5Y2O3 alloy had the highest value, 589 Hv. The fracture toughness was measured using Mo-3Si-1B-1.5Y2O3 alloy and the value indicated as 13.5 MPa·√m.

  8. Chromium-free conversion coatings based on inorganic salts (Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo) for aluminum alloys used in aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santa Coloma, P.; Izagirre, U.; Belaustegi, Y.; Jorcin, J. B.; Cano, F. J.; Lapeña, N.

    2015-08-01

    Novel chromium-free conversion coatings based on Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo compounds were developed at a pilot scale to improve the corrosion resistance of the AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys for aircraft applications. The influence of the presence of Zr and Ti in the Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo conversion bath's formulation on the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys was investigated. The corrosion resistance provided by the conversion coatings was evaluated by salt spray exposure and potentiodynamic sweeps. Optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating in the Kelvin Probe mode (SKPFM) were used to provide microstructural information of the coated samples that achieved the best results in the corrosion tests. The salt spray test evidenced the higher corrosion resistance of the coated samples compared to the bare surfaces for both alloys. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the corrosion current density decreased for coated AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys, which indicated an obvious improvement of the corrosion resistance with all the processes for both alloys. Although the corrosion resistance of the coated samples appeared to be higher for the alloy AA7075-T6 than for the alloy AA2024-T3, both alloys achieved the best corrosion protection with the coatings deposited from conversion bath formulations containing no titanium salts. The microscopy analysis on the coated AA7075-T6 samples revealed that a local deposition of Zr compounds and, possibly, an oxidation process occurred in the vicinity of the alloy's intermetallic particles. The amount of the Zr deposits at these locations increased with coating's formulations without Ti, which provided the best corrosion resistance. The Cr-free conversion coatings developed in this study for the AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys do not meet yet the strict requirements of the aircraft industry. However, they significantly improved the corrosion

  9. Development and Validation of Capabilities to Measure Thermal Properties of Layered Monolithic U-Mo Alloy Plate-Type Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2014-07-01

    The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the world's highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium to low enriched uranium. One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of the thermal-conductivity behavior of the fuel system as a function of temperature and expected irradiation conditions. The purpose of this paper is to verify functionality of equipment installed in hot cells for eventual measurements on irradiated uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel specimens, refine procedures to operate the equipment, and validate models to extract the desired thermal properties. The results presented here demonstrate the adequacy of the equipment, procedures, and models that have been developed for this purpose based on measurements conducted on surrogate depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) alloy samples containing a Zr diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061). The results are in excellent agreement with thermal property data reported in the literature for similar U-Mo alloys as a function of temperature.

  10. Different Effect of Co on the Formation of Topologically Close-Packed Phases in Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Re Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qianying; An, Ning; Huo, Jiajie; Ding, Xianfei; Zheng, Yunrong; Feng, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    In current study, two sets of Ni-based alloys (Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Re series) containing 0 to 15 at. pct of Co addition were investigated to understand the formation behavior of TCP phases. Significant difference on the formation behavior of TCP phases and corresponding Co effect was found in two series alloys. TCP precipitates ( P and µ phase) were observed in both grain interiors and boundaries in Ni-Cr-Mo series alloys. Higher levels of Co addition increased the supersaturation of Mo in the γ matrix, which explained that Co addition promoted µ phase formation. In contrast, the TCP precipitates ( σ phase) formed by the manner of discontinuous precipitation transformation in the grain boundaries in Ni-Cr-Re series alloys. More Co additions suppressed the formation of σ phase, which was mainly attributed to the decreased supersaturation of Re in thermodynamically metastable γ matrix. The information obtained from simplified alloy systems in this study is helpful for the design of multicomponent Ni-based superalloys.

  11. Microstructure and corrosion behaviour in biological environments of the new forged low-Ni Co-Cr-Mo alloys.

    PubMed

    Hiromoto, Sachiko; Onodera, Emi; Chiba, Akihiko; Asami, Katsuhiko; Hanawa, Takao

    2005-08-01

    Corrosion behaviour and microstructure of developed low-Ni Co-29Cr-(6, 8)Mo (mass%) alloys and a conventional Co-29Cr-6Mo-1Ni alloy (ASTM F75-92) were investigated in saline solution (saline), Hanks' solution (Hanks), and cell culture medium (E-MEM + FBS). The forging ratios of the Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy were 50% and 88% and that of the Co-29Cr-8Mo alloy was 88%. Ni content in the air-formed surface oxide film of the low-Ni alloys was under the detection limit of XPS. The passive current densities of the low-Ni alloys were of the same order of magnitude as that of the ASTM alloy in all the solutions. The passive current densities of all the alloys did not significantly change with the inorganic ions and the biomolecules. The anodic current densities in the secondary passive region of the low-Ni alloys were lower than that of the ASTM alloy in the E-MEM + FBS. Consequently, the low-Ni alloys are expected to show as high corrosion resistance as the ASTM alloy. On the other hand, the passive current density of the Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy with a forging ratio of 50% was slightly lower than that with a forging ratio of 88% in the saline. The refining of grains by further forging causes the increase in the passive current density of the low-Ni alloy.

  12. First-principles studies of Te line-ordered alloys in a MoS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriambelaza, N. F.; Mapasha, R. E.; Chetty, N.

    2018-04-01

    The thermodynamic stability, structural and electronic properties of Te line-ordered alloys are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) methods. Thirty four possible Te line-ordered alloy configurations are found in a 5×5 supercell of a MoS2 monolayer. The calculated formation energies show that the Te line-ordered alloy configurations are thermodynamically stable at 0 K and agree very well with the random alloys. The lowest energy configurations at each concentration correspond to the configuration where the Te atom rows are far apart from each other (avoiding clustering) within the supercell. The variation of the lattice constant at different concentrations obey Vegard's law. The Te line-ordered alloys fine tune the band gap of a MoS2 monolayer although deviating from linearity behavior. Our results suggest that the Te line-ordered alloys can be an effective way to modulate the band gap of a MoS2 monolayer for nanoelectronic, optoelectronic and nanophotonic applications.

  13. Schaeffler-Type Phase Diagram of Ti-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, K.

    2017-10-01

    The α(hcp)/β(bcc) phase equilibria of Ti-based multi-component alloys can be described by a Schaeffler-type diagram, where Al and Mo equivalents (Aleq and Moeq) are used. Aleq is thermodynamically defined by the ratio of partial molar free energy changes transfer of one mole of each α forming element and Al from a dilute solution of α to β phases, while Moeq is also deduced by similar thermodynamic quantities of β forming element and Mo. Aleq and Moeq for 40 alloying elements are estimated from the thermodynamic parameters assessed by Kaufman and Murray. It is shown that three types of Ti alloys, i.e., α and near α, α+β, and β alloys, can be exactly classified using Aleq and Moeq. The Ms and β transus temperatures can also be predicted by Aleq and Moeq. The proposed Aleq and Moeq are very useful for alloy design, heat treatment, and microstructural evolution of Ti-based alloys.

  14. The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy under Xe26+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaican; Hai, Yang; Liu, Renduo; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiang-xi; Li, Jianjian; Xue, Wandong; Wang, Wanxia; Tang, Ming; Yan, Long; Yin, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2018-04-01

    The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy was investigated. 7 MeV Xe26+ ion irradiation was performed at room temperature and 650 °C with peak damage dose from 0.05 to 10 dpa. With the increase of damage dose, the hardness of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy increases, and reaches saturation at damage dose ≥1 dpa. Moreover, the damage dose dependence of hardness in both alloys can be described by the Makin and Minter's equation, where the effective critical volume of obstacles can be used to represent irradiation hardening resistance of the alloys. Our results also show that Ni-W-Cr alloy has better irradiation hardening resistance than Ni-Mo-Cr alloy. This is ascribed to the fact that the W, instead of Mo in the alloy, can suppress the formation of defects under ion irradiation.

  15. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J.; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process. PMID:28772747

  16. Dendrite segregation in Ni3Al-based intermetallic single crystals alloyed with Cr, Mo, W, Ti, Co, and Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, A. A.; Povarova, K. B.; Morozov, A. E.; Antonova, A. V.; Bulakhtina, M. A.; Alad'ev, N. A.

    2015-07-01

    The character of dendrite segregation in Ni3Al-based intermetallic VKNA-type alloy single crystals with a dendritic-cellular structure is studied. Distribution coefficient k d of an alloying element (AE) in the alloy during solidification k d = c d.a.I/ c 0 ( c 0 is the AE content in the alloy (liquid phase composition), c d.a.I is the AE content in primary dendrite arms of the alloy (in the solid phase)) and segregation coefficient k s = c d.a.I/ c i.d ( c i.d is the AE content in the interdendritic space) have been found. A comparative study of the dendrite segregation parameters in VKNA-nype Ni3Al-based intermetallic alloys and the well-known ZhS36-type nickel superalloy shows that the intermetallic alloys satisfy to the rule deduced for two- and three-component nickel-based superalloys: if an introduced AE increases the melting temperature of the basic metal, we have k d > 1 (Co, W, Re); if it decreases the melting temperature, we have k d < 1 (Al, Ti, Cr, Mo). Dendrite segregation coefficients k s are dependent on the proportion of the AE contents in the alloys. In nickel superalloys, the dendrite segregation of aluminum, tungsten, and rhenium is higher than that in the intermetallic alloys. The dendrite segregation coefficients of tungsten and rhenium is higher by a factor of 1.5-2 than that in the VKNA-type intermetallic alloys with a low content of refractory metals. This can be due to the retardation of diffusion of refractory metals in the solid phase of a nickel superalloy highly alloyed with these elements.

  17. MoRe-based tunnel junctions and their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaternik, V.; Larkin, S.; Noskov, V.; Chubatyy, V.; Sizontov, V.; Miroshnikov, A.; Karmazin, A.

    2008-02-01

    Perspective Josephson Mo-Re alloy-oxide-Pb, Mo-Re alloy-normal metal-oxide-Pb and Mo-Re alloy-normal metal-oxide-normal metal-Mo-Re alloy junctions have been fabricated and investigated. Thin (~50-100 nm) MoRe superconducting films are deposited on Al2O3 substrates by using a dc magnetron sputtering of MoRe target. Normal metal (Sn, Al) thin films are deposited on the MoRe films surfaces by thermal evaporation of metals in vacuum and oxidized to fabricate junctions oxide barriers. Quasiparticle I-V curves of the fabricated junctions were measured in wide range of voltages. To investigate a transparency spread for the fabricated junctions barriers the computer simulation of the measured quasiparticle I-V curves have been done in framework of the model of multiple Andreev reflections in double-barrier junction interfaces. It's demonstrated the investigated junctions can be described as highly asymmetric double-barrier Josephson junctions with great difference between the two barrier transparencies. The result of the comparison of experimental quasiparticle I-V curves and calculated ones is proposed and discussed. Also I-V curves of the fabricated junctions have been measured under microwave irradiation with 60 GHz frequency, clear Shapiro steps in the measured I-V curves were observed and discussed.

  18. Processability evaluation of a Mo-containing FeCrAl alloy for seamless thin-wall tube fabrication

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Zhiqian; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2017-06-10

    The processability of a Mo-containing FeCrAl alloy (Fe-13Cr-5.2Al-2Mo base, in wt%), developed for accident-tolerant nuclear fuel claddings, was evaluated through a stepwise rolling process at 400 °C under two different inter-pass annealing conditions (i.e., 650 °C for 1 h and at 870 °C for 30 min). The inter-pass annealing at 870 °C easily softened the FeCrAl alloy; however, it led to the formation of coarse grains of ~200 µm. On the other hand, the FeCrAl alloy maintained elongated, deformed grains with the inter-pass annealing at 650 °C, but the annealed samples showed relatively high deformation resistance and strong texture. Importantmore » aspects concerning the processability and microstructural control of FeCrAl alloys, such as deformation inhomogeneity, texture development, and grain coarsening, were discussed. Optimized processing conditions were recommended, based on the results, to achieve desirable microstructures with balanced processability and mechanical properties.« less

  19. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-04-06

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5-2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni₃Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo₂C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall-Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  20. The Electrochemical Behavior of Mo-Ta Alloy in Phosphoric Acid Solution for TFT-LCD Application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Byoung O; Seo, Jong Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Molybdenum-tantalum alloy thin film is a suitable material for the higher corrosion resistance and low resistivity for gate and data metal lines. In this study, Mo-Ta alloy thin films were prepared by using a DC magnetron co-sputtering system on a glass substrate. An abrupt increase in the etching rates of low Mo-Ta alloys was observed. From the observed impedance analysis, the defect densities in the MoTa oxide films increased from 5.4 x 10(21) (cm(-3)) to 8.02 x 10(21) (cm(-3)) up to the 6 at% of tantalum level; and above the 6 at% of tantalum level, the defect densities decreased. This electrochemical behavior is explained by the mechanical instability of the MoTa oxide film.

  1. The Influence of Plasma-Based Nitriding and Oxidizing Treatments on the Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of CoCrMo Biomedical Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noli, Fotini; Pichon, Luc; Öztürk, Orhan

    2018-04-01

    Plasma-based nitriding and/or oxidizing treatments were applied to CoCrMo alloy to improve its surface mechanical properties and corrosion resistance for biomedical applications. Three treatments were performed. A set of CoCrMo samples has been subjected to nitriding at moderate temperatures ( 400 °C). A second set of CoCrMo samples was oxidized at 395 °C in pure O2. The last set of CoCrMo samples was nitrided and subsequently oxidized under the experimental conditions of previous sets (double treatment). The microstructure and morphology of the layers formed on the CoCrMo alloy were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. In addition, nitrogen and oxygen profiles were determined by Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray, and Nuclear Reaction Analysis. Significant improvement of the Vickers hardness of the CoCrMo samples after plasma nitriding was observed due to the supersaturated nitrogen solution and the formation of an expanded FCC γ N phase and CrN precipitates. In the case of the oxidized samples, Vickers hardness improvement was minimal. The corrosion behavior of the samples was investigated in simulated body fluid (0.9 pct NaCl solution at 37 °C) using electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization and cyclic voltammetry). The concentration of metal ions released from the CoCrMo surfaces was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The experimental results clearly indicate that the CoCrMo surface subjected to the double surface treatment consisting in plasma nitriding and plasma oxidizing exhibited lower deterioration and better resistance to corrosion compared to the nitrided, oxidized, and untreated samples. This enhancement is believed to be due to the formation of a thicker and more stable layer.

  2. Interface characterization of Cu-Mo coating deposited on Ti-Al alloys by arc spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shengqiang; Li, Fei; Wu, Ting; Yin, Xianglin; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong

    2015-03-01

    Cu-Mo pseudobinary alloys are promising candidates as electrode materials in CoSb3-based skutterudite thermoelectric (TE) devices for TE power generation. In this study, Cu-Mo coatings were deposited onto Ti-Al substrates by applying a dual-wire electric arc spraying coating technique. The microstructure of the surfaces, cross sections and coating interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS). Cu-Mo coatings showed a typical banded splat with compact microstructures, and have no coarse pores nor micro-cracks. The thermal shock resistance of the Cu-Mo coating was also investigated to show good combinations with Ti-Al substrates. After 50 thermal shock cycles, there were no cracks observed at the interface. In contrast, the test of the thermal shock resistance of the Cu coating on the Ti-Al substrate was also investigated. Due to a large difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between Cu and Ti-Al alloys, the Cu coating flaked from the Ti-Al substrate completely after 10 thermal shock cycles. The contact resistivity of the Ti-Al/Cu-Mo interface was about 1.6 μΩṡcm2 and this value was unchanged after 50 thermal shock cycles, indicating the low electric resistance and high thermal stability of the Cu-Mo/Ti-Al interface.

  3. Preliminary Tests for Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta Alloys as Potential Biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălţatu, M. S.; Vizureanu, P.; Bălan, T.; Lohan, M.; Ţugui, C. A.

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, there is a continuing concern for the research and development of alloys for medical and biomedical applications. In order to check the biocompatible character of a new Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta alloys, it is necessary to carry out preliminary laboratory tests to follow how a biomaterial surface would interact with the host. The paper presents tests for Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta alloys like contact angle and DSC test to identify biocompatible character. Contact angle measurement is an experimental technique used to assess the hydrophilic or hydrophobic character of surfaces by reference to the 90º contact angle value and to characterize the thermal behavior, for temperature range between 36.5-37.2ºC, interval which a biomaterial works inside the healthy human body, was used DSC test.

  4. Ultra-fine grained microstructure of metastable beta Ti-15Mo alloy and its effects on the phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Václavová, K.; Stráský, J.; Zháňal, P.; Veselý, J.; Polyakova, V.; Semenova, I.; Janeček, M.

    2017-05-01

    Processing of metastable titanium alloys by severe plastic deformation provides an opportunity to achieve exceptional grain refinement, to enhance the strength and to affect phase transformations occurring during thermal treatment. The main aim of this study is to investigate the microstructure of ultra-fine grained (UFG) material and effect of microstructural changes on phase transformations in metastable β-Ti alloy Ti-15Mo. Metastable β-Ti alloys are currently the most studied Ti-based materials with prospective use in medicine. Ti-15Mo alloy after solution treatment contains metastable β-phase. Metastable ω-phase and stable α-phase particles are formed upon annealing,. Solution treated Ti-15Mo alloy was deformed by high pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature. Severely deformed structure after HPT with grain size of ~200 nm was studied by transmission electron microscopy. In-situ electrical resistance measurements showed significant changes in undergoing phase transformations when compared to coarse-grained (CG) material. Scanning electron microscopy revealed heterogeneous precipitation of α-particles at grain boundaries (GB). Due to the high density of GBs in UFG structure, these precipitates are very fine and equiaxed. The study demonstrates that SPD is capable of enhancing mechanical properties due to grain refinement and via affecting precipitation processes in metastable β-Ti alloys.

  5. Oxidation performance of platinum-clad Mo-47Re alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ronald K.; Wallace, Terryl A.

    1994-01-01

    The alloy Mo-47Re has favorable mechanical properties at temperatures above 1400 C, but it undergoes severe oxidation when used in air with no protective coating. To shield the alloy from oxidation, platinum cladding has been evaluated. The unprotected alloy undergoes catastrophic oxidation under static and dynamic oxidation conditions. The platinum cladding provides good protection from static and dynamic oxidation for moderate times at 1260 C. Samples tested for longer times under static oxidation conditions experienced severe oxidation. The data suggest that oxidation results from the transport of oxygen through the grain boundaries and through the pinhole defects of the platinum cladding.

  6. Strength design of Zr(x)Ti(x)Hf(x)Nb(x)Mo(x) alloys based on empirical electron theory of solids and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. K.; Chen, Y. W.; Cheng, X. W.; Wu, C.; Cheng, B.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the valence electron structure parameters of Zr(x)Ti(x)Hf(x)Nb(x)Mo(x) alloys were calculated based on the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), and their performance through these parameters were predicted. Subsequently, the alloys with special valence electron structure parameters were prepared byarc melting. The hardness and high-temperature mechanical properties were analyzed to verify the prediction. Research shows that the influence of shared electron number nA on the strongest bond determines the strength of these alloys and the experiments are consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  7. Surface Characterization, Corrosion Resistance and in Vitro Biocompatibility of a New Ti-Hf-Mo-Sn Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Ion, Raluca; Drob, Silviu Iulian; Ijaz, Muhammad Farzik; Vasilescu, Cora; Osiceanu, Petre; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Cimpean, Anisoara; Gloriant, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    A new superelastic Ti-23Hf-3Mo-4Sn biomedical alloy displaying a particularly large recovery strain was synthesized and characterized in this study. Its native passive film is very thick (18 nm) and contains very protective TiO2, Ti2O3, HfO2, MoO2, and SnO2 oxides (XPS analysis). This alloy revealed nobler electrochemical behavior, more favorable values of the corrosion parameters and open circuit potentials in simulated body fluid in comparison with commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy taken as reference biomaterials in this study. This is due to the favorable influence of the alloying elements Hf, Sn, Mo, which enhance the protective properties of the native passive film on alloy surface. Impedance spectra showed a passive film with two layers, an inner, capacitive, barrier, dense layer and an outer, less insulating, porous layer that confer both high corrosion resistance and bioactivity to the alloy. In vitro tests were carried out in order to evaluate the response of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) to Ti-23Hf-3Mo-4Sn alloy in terms of cell viability, cell proliferation, phenotypic marker expression and nitric oxide release. The results indicate a similar level of cytocompatibility with HUVEC cells cultured on Ti-23Hf-3Mo-4Sn substrate and those cultured on the conventional CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V metallic materials. PMID:28773939

  8. Intergranular diffusion and embrittlement of a Ni-16Mo-7Cr alloy in Te vapor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hongwei; Li, Zhijun; Leng, Bin; Zhang, Wenzhu; Han, Fenfen; Jia, Yanyan; Zhou, Xingtai

    2015-12-01

    Nickel and some nickel-base alloys are extremely sensitive to intergranular embrittlement and tellurium (Te) enhanced cracking, which should be concerned during their serving in molten salt reactors. Here, a systematic study about the effects of its temperature on the reaction products at its surface, the intergranular diffusion of Te in its body and its embrittlement for a Ni-16Mo-7Cr alloy contacting Te is reported. For exposed to Te vapor at high temperature (823-1073 K), the reaction products formed on the surface of the alloy were Ni3Te2, CrTe, and MoTe2, and the most serious embrittlement was observed at 1073 K. The kinetic measurement in terms of Te penetration depth in the alloy samples gives an activation energy of 204 kJ/mol. Electron probe microanalysis confirmed the local enrichment of Te at grain boundaries. And clearly, the embrittlement was results from the intergranular diffusion and segregation of element Te.

  9. Grain boundary engineering to control the discontinuous precipitation in multicomponent U10Mo alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor; Kautz, Elizabeth

    Grain boundaries in metallic alloys often play a crucial role, not only in determining the mechanical properties or thermal stability of alloys, but also in dictating the phase transformation kinetics during thermomechanical processing. We demonstrate that locally stabilized structure and compositional segregation at grain boundaries—“grain boundary complexions”—in a complex multicomponent alloy can be modified to influence the kinetics of cellular transformation during subsequent thermomechanical processing. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography analysis of a metallic nuclear fuel highly relevant to worldwide nuclear non-proliferation efforts —uranium-10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy, new evidence for the existence of grainmore » boundary complexion is provided. We then modified the concentration of impurities dissolved in Υ-UMo grain interiors and/or segregated to Υ-UMo grain boundaries by changing the homogenization treatment, and these effects were used used to retard the kinetics of cellular transformation during subsequent sub-eutectoid annealing in this U-10-Mo alloy during sub-eutectoid annealing. Thus, this work provided insights on tailoring the final microstructure of the U-10Mo alloy, which can potentially improve the irradiation performance of this important class of alloy fuels.« less

  10. Stacking-fault strengthening of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy via multipass thermomechanical processing.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kenta; Mori, Manami; Sato, Shigeo; Chiba, Akihiko

    2017-09-07

    The strengthening of metallic biomaterials, such as Co-Cr-Mo and titanium alloys, is of crucial importance to the improvement of the durability of orthopedic implants. In the present study, we successfully developed a face-centered cubic (fcc) Co-Cr-Mo alloy with an extremely high yield strength (1400 MPa) and good ductility (12%) by multipass hot-rolling, which is suitable for industrial production, and examined the relevant strengthening mechanisms. Using an X-ray diffraction line-profile analysis, we revealed that a substantial increase in the number of stacking faults (SFs) in the fcc γ-matrix occurred at a greater height reduction (r), while physical modeling demonstrated that the contribution of the accumulated SFs (i.e., the reduction in SF spacing) with an increase in r successfully explains the entire strengthening behavior of the hot-rolled alloy. The present study sheds light on the importance of the SF strengthening mechanism, and will help to guide the design and manufacturing strategy for the high-strength Co-Cr-Mo alloys used in highly durable medical devices.

  11. Study on Tribological Properties of CoCrMo Alloys against Metals and Ceramics as Bearing Materials for Artificial Cervical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Dingding; Song, Jian; Wang, Song; Liao, Zhenhua; Liu, Yuhong; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Liu, Weiqiang

    2018-02-01

    CoCrMo alloys are believed to be a kind of potential material for artificial cervical disc. However, the tribological properties of CoCrMo alloys against different metals and ceramics are not systematically studied. In this study, the tribological behaviors of CoCrMo alloys against metals (316L, Ti6Al4V) and ceramics (Si3N4, ZrO2) were focused under dry friction and 25 wt.% newborn calf serum (NCS)-lubricated conditions using a ball-on-disc apparatus under reciprocating motion. The microstructure, composition and hardness of CoCrMo alloys were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness testers, respectively. The contact angles of the CoCrMo alloys with deionized water and 25 wt.% NCS were measured by the OCA contact angle measuring instrument. The maximum wear width, wear depth and wear volume were measured by three-dimensional white light interference. The morphology and the EDX analysis of the wear marks on CoCrMo alloys were examined by SEM to determine the basic mechanism of friction and wear. The dominant wear mechanism in dry friction for CoCrMo alloys against all pairings was severe abrasive wear, accompanied with a lot of material transfer. Under 25 wt.% NCS-lubricated condition, the wear mechanism for CoCrMo alloys against ceramics (Si3N4, ZrO2) was also mainly severe abrasive wear. However, severe abrasive wear and electrochemical corrosion occurred for the CoCrMo-316L pairing under lubrication. Severe abrasive wear, adhesive wear and electrochemical corrosion occurred for the CoCrMo-Ti6Al4V pairing under lubrication. According to the results, the tribological properties of CoCrMo alloys against ceramics were better than those against metals. The CoCrMo-ZrO2 pairing displayed the best tribological behaviors and could be taken as a potential candidate bearing material for artificial cervical disc.

  12. In vitro biocorrosion of Co-Cr-Mo implant alloy by macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Yi; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2004-11-01

    We hypothesized that macrophage cells and their released reactive chemical species (RCS) affect Co-Cr-Mo alloy's corrosion properties and that alloy corrosion products change macrophage cell behavior. A custom cell culture corrosion cell was used to evaluate how culture medium, cells, and RCS altered alloy corrosion in 3-day tests. Corrosion was evaluated by measuring total charge transfer at a constant potential using a potentiostat and metal ion release by atomic emission spectroscopy. Viability, proliferation, and NO (nitric oxide) and IL-1beta (interlukin-1beta) release were used to assess cellular response to alloy corrosion products. In the presence of activated cells, total charge transfers and Co ion release were the lowest (p < 0.05). This was attributed to an enhancement of the surface oxide by RCS. Cr and Mo release were not different between cells and activated cells. Low levels of metal ions did not affect cell viability, proliferation, or NO release, though IL-1beta released from the activated cells was higher on the alloy compared to the controls. These data support the hypothesis that macrophage cells and their RCS affect alloy corrosion. Changes in alloy corrosion by cells may be important to the development of host responses to the alloy and its corrosion products.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Nb25Mo25Ta25W25 and V20Nb20Mo20Ta20W20 Refractory High-Entropy Alloys (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    research seems to emphasize alloys based Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 2 on the late transition metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni ...of the Nb25Mo25Ta25W25 alloy , with larger grains at the regions experiencing slower solidification , i.e. near the surfaces not contacting with the...20-30 µm, indicating similar solidification conditions. 3.2.3 Fractography of samples deformed at room temperature The high entropy alloy

  14. Modeling the Homogenization Kinetics of As-Cast U-10wt% Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Joshi, Vineet; Hu, Shenyang Y.

    2016-01-15

    Low-enriched U-22at% Mo (U-10Mo) alloy has been considered as an alternative material to replace the highly enriched fuels in research reactors. For the U-10Mo to work effectively and replace the existing fuel material, a thorough understanding of the microstructure development from as-cast to the final formed structure is required. The as-cast microstructure typically resembles an inhomogeneous microstructure with regions containing molybdenum-rich and -lean regions, which may affect the processing and possibly the in-reactor performance. This as-cast structure must be homogenized by thermal treatment to produce a uniform Mo distribution. The development of a modeling capability will improve the understanding ofmore » the effect of initial microstructures on the Mo homogenization kinetics. In the current work, we investigated the effect of as-cast microstructure on the homogenization kinetics. The kinetics of the homogenization was modeled based on a rigorous algorithm that relates the line scan data of Mo concentration to the gray scale in energy dispersive spectroscopy images, which was used to generate a reconstructed Mo concentration map. The map was then used as realistic microstructure input for physics-based homogenization models, where the entire homogenization kinetics can be simulated and validated against the available experiment data at different homogenization times and temperatures.« less

  15. Development of multilayer perceptron networks for isothermal time temperature transformation prediction of U-Mo-X alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Jesse M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a multilayered perceptron (MLP) network is used to develop predictive isothermal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) models covering a range of U-Mo binary and ternary alloys. The selected ternary alloys for model development are U-Mo-Ru, U-Mo-Nb, U-Mo-Zr, U-Mo-Cr, and U-Mo-Re. These model's ability to predict 'novel' U-Mo alloys is shown quite well despite the discrepancies between literature sources for similar alloys which likely arise from different thermal-mechanical processing conditions. These models are developed with the primary purpose of informing experimental decisions. Additional experimental insight is necessary in order to reduce the number of experiments required to isolate ideal alloys. These models allow test planners to evaluate areas of experimental interest; once initial tests are conducted, the model can be updated and further improve follow-on testing decisions. The model also improves analysis capabilities by reducing the number of data points necessary from any particular test. For example, if one or two isotherms are measured during a test, the model can construct the rest of the TTT curve over a wide range of temperature and time. This modeling capability reduces the cost of experiments while also improving the value of the results from the tests. The reduced costs could result in improved material characterization and therefore improved fundamental understanding of TTT dynamics. As additional understanding of phenomena driving TTTs is acquired, this type of MLP model can be used to populate unknowns (such as material impurity and other thermal mechanical properties) from past literature sources.

  16. Graphene coating on the surface of CoCrMo alloy enhances the adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Kewen; Yan, Jinhong; Wang, Zhuo; Wu, Qi; Bi, Long; Yang, Min; Han, Yisheng

    2018-03-18

    The objective was to investigate whether a graphene coating could improve the surface bioactivity of a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum-based alloy (CoCrMo). Graphene was produced by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to the surface of the CoCrMo alloy using an improved wet transfer approach. The morphology of the samples was observed, and the adhesion force and stabilization of graphene coating were analyzed by a nanoscratch test and ultrasonication test. In an in vitro study, the adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured on the samples were quantified via an Alamar Blue assay and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The results showed that it is feasible to apply graphene to modify the surface of a CoCrMo alloy, and the enhancement of the adhesion and proliferation of BMSCs was also shown in the present study. In conclusion, graphene exhibits considerable potential for enhancing the surface bioactivity of CoCrMo alloy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabrication, tribological and corrosion behaviors of ultra-fine grained Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fuzeng; Zhu, Weiwei; Chu, Kangjie

    2016-07-01

    Nickel and carbides free Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy was fabricated by combination of mechanical alloying and warm pressing. The microstructure, mechanical properties, pin-on-disk dry sliding wear and corrosion behavior in simulated physiological solution were investigated. The produced Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy has elongated ultra-fine grained (UFG) structure of ε-phase with average grain size of 600nm in length and 150nm in thickness. The hardness and modulus were determined to be 8.87±0.56GPa and 198.27±7.02GPa, respectively. The coefficient of friction upon dry sliding against alumina is pretty close to that of the forged Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy. The initial ε-phase and UFG microstructure contribute to reduce the depth of severe plastic deformation region during wear and enable the alloy with excellent wear resistance. The corrosion potential of such UFG Co-Cr-Mo alloy has more positive corrosion potential and much lower corrosion current density than those of ASTM alloy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of copper doping on martensite shear stress in porous TiNi(Mo,Fe,Cu) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodorenko, V. N.; Kaftaranova, M. I.; Gunther, V. E.

    2015-03-01

    The properties of alloys based on porous nickel-titanium (TiNi) with copper additives have been studied. It is established that the copper doping of porous TiNi(Mo,Fe,Cu) alloys fabricated by the method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis leads to a significant decrease in the martensite shear stress (below 30 MPa). Low values of the martensite shear stress (σmin) in copper-doped TiNi-based alloys allows medical implants of complex shapes to be manufactured for various purposes, including oral surgery. The optimum concentration of copper additives (within 3-6 at %) has been determined that ensures high performance characteristics of TiNi-based porous alloys for medical implants.

  19. Superconducting properties of molybdenum ruthenium alloy Mo0.63Ru0.37

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wensen; Ge, Min; Wang, Shasha; Zhang, Lei; Han, Yuyan; Du, Haifeng; Tian, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuheng

    2018-03-01

    Resistance, magnetization and specific heat measurements were performed on Mo0.63Ru0.37 alloy. All of them confirm that Mo0.63Ru0.37 becomes superconducting at about 7.0 K with bulk nature. Its upper critical field behavior fits to Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg (WHH) model quite well, with an upper critical field of μ0Hc2(0) = 8.64 T, less than its Pauli limit. Its electronic specific heat is reproduced by Bardeen-Cooper-Schriffer (BCS)-based α-model with a gap ratio Δ0 = 1.88kBTc, which is a little larger than the standard BCS value of 1.76. We concluded that Mo0.63Ru0.37 is a fully gapped isotropic s-wave superconductor, with its features are mostly consistent with the conventional theory.

  20. Development of multilayer perceptron networks for isothermal time temperature transformation prediction of U-Mo-X alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Jesse M.; Burkes, Douglas

    In this work, a multilayered perceptron (MLP) network is used to develop predictive isothermal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) models covering a range of U-Mo binary and ternary alloys. The selected ternary alloys for model development are U-Mo-Ru, U-Mo-Nb, U-Mo-Zr, U-Mo-Cr, and U-Mo-Re. These model’s ability to predict 'novel' U-Mo alloys is shown quite well despite the discrepancies between literature sources for similar alloys which likely arise from different thermal-mechanical processing conditions. These models are developed with the primary purpose of informing experimental decisions. Additional experimental insight is necessary in order to reduce the number of experiments required to isolate ideal alloys. Thesemore » models allow test planners to evaluate areas of experimental interest; once initial tests are conducted, the model can be updated and further improve follow-on testing decisions. The model also improves analysis capabilities by reducing the number of data points necessary from any particular test. For example, if one or two isotherms are measured during a test, the model can construct the rest of the TTT curve over a wide range of temperature and time. This modeling capability reduces the cost of experiments while also improving the value of the results from the tests. The reduced costs could result in improved material characterization and therefore improved fundamental understanding of TTT dynamics. As additional understanding of phenomena driving TTTs is acquired, this type of MLP model can be used to populate unknowns (such as material impurity and other thermal mechanical properties) from past literature sources.« less

  1. Alloying effect on bright-dark exciton states in ternary monolayer Mo x W1-x Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanping; Tom, Kyle; Zhang, Xiaowei; Lou, Shuai; Liu, Yin; Yao, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Binary transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) in the class MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se) have been widely investigated for potential applications in optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. Recently, alloy-based monolayers of TMDCs have provided a stable and versatile technique to tune the physical properties and optimize them for potential applications. Here, we present experimental evidence for the existence of an intermediate alloy state between the MoSe2-like and the WSe2-like behavior of the neutral exciton (X 0) using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) of the monolayer Mo x W1-x Se2 alloy. The existence of a maximum PL intensity around 120 K can be explained by the competition between the thermally activated bright states and the non-radiative quenching of the bright states. Moreover, we also measured localized exciton (XB ) PL peak in the alloy and the observed behavior agrees well with a model previously proposed for the 3D case, which indicates the theory also applies to 2D systems. Our results not only shed light on bright-dark states and localized exciton physics of 2D semiconductors, but also offer a new route toward the control of the bright-dark transition and tailoring optical properties of 2D semiconductors through defect engineering.

  2. MoNbTaV Medium-Entropy Alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Hongwei; Qiao, Jun -Wei; Gao, Michael; ...

    2016-05-19

    Guided by CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) modeling, the refractory medium-entropy alloy MoNbTaV was synthesized by vacuum arc melting under a high-purity argon atmosphere. A body-centered cubic solid solution phase was experimentally confirmed in the as-cast ingot using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The measured lattice parameter of the alloy (3.208 Å) obeys the rule of mixtures (ROM), but the Vickers microhardness (4.95 GPa) and the yield strength (1.5 GPa) are about 4.5 and 4.6 times those estimated from the ROM, respectively. Using a simple model on solid solution strengthening predicts a yield strength of approximately 1.5 GPa. Inmore » conclusion, thermodynamic analysis shows that the total entropy of the alloy is more than three times the configurational entropy at room temperature, and the entropy of mixing exhibits a small negative departure from ideal mixing.« less

  3. Mechanical properties of weldments in experimental Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti and Fe-12Mn-1Mo-0.2Ti alloys for cryogenic service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.; Devletian, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties of weldments in two Fe-12Mn experimental alloys designed for cryogenic service were evaluated. Weldments were made using the GTA welding process. Tests to evaluate the weldments were conducted at -196 C and included: equivalent energy fracture toughness tests; autogenous transverse weld, notched transverse weld, and longitudinal weld tensile tests; and all-weld-metal tensile tests. The Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti and Fe-12Mn-1Mo-0.2Ti alloys proved weldable for cryogenic service, with weld metal and heat-affected zone properties comparable with those of the base metal. Optimum properties were achieved in the base alloys, weld metals, and heat-affected zones after a two-step heat treatment consisting of austenitizing at 900 C followed by tempering at 500 C. The Mo-containing alloy offered a marked improvement in cryogenic properties over those of the Mo-free alloy. Molybdenum increased the amount of retained austenite and reduced the amount of epsilon martensite observed in the microstructure of the two alloys.

  4. Environmentally Resistant Mo-Si-B-Based Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepezko, J. H.; Sossaman, T. A.; Taylor, M.

    2017-06-01

    High-temperature applications have demonstrated aluminide-coated nickel-base superalloys to be remarkably effective, but are reaching their service limit. Alternate materials such as refractory (e.g., W, Mo) silicide alloys and SiC composites are being considered to extend high temperature capability, but the silica surfaces on these materials require coatings for enhanced environmental resistance. This can be accomplished with a Mo-Si-B-based coating that is deposited by a spray deposition of Mo followed by a chemical vapor deposition of Si and B by pack cementation to develop an aluminoborosilica surface. Oxidation of the as-deposited (Si + B)-pack coatings proceeds with partial consumption of the initial MoSi2 forming amorphous silica. This Si depletion leads to formation of a B-saturated Mo5Si3 (T1) phase. Reactions between the Mo and the B rich phases develop an underlying Mo5SiB2 (T2) layer. The T1 phase saturated with B has robust oxidation resistance, and the Si depletion is prevented by the underlying diffusion barrier (T2). Further, due to the natural phase transformation characteristics of the Mo-Si-B system, cracks or scratches to the outer silica and T1 layers can be repaired from the Si and B reservoirs of T2 + MoB layer to yield a self-healing characteristic. Mo-Si-B-based coatings demonstrate robust performance up to at least 1700 °C not only to the rigors of elevated temperature oxidation, but also to CMAS attack, hot corrosion attack, water vapor and thermal cycling.

  5. Electronic structure of Mo1-x Re x alloys studied through resonant photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Shyam; Banik, Soma; Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Ganguli, Tapas; Lodha, G. S.; Pandey, Sudhir K.; Phase, D. M.; Roy, S. B.

    2016-08-01

    We studied the electronic structure of Mo-rich Mo1-x Re x alloys (0≤slant x≤slant 0.4 ) using valence band photoemission spectroscopy in the photon energy range 23-70 eV and density of states calculations. Comparison of the photoemission spectra with the density of states calculations suggests that, with respect to the Fermi level E F, the d states lie mostly in the binding energy range 0 to  -6 eV, whereas s states lie in the binding energy range  -4 to  -10 eV. We observed two resonances in the photoemission spectra of each sample, one at about 35 eV photon energy and the other at about 45 eV photon energy. Our analysis suggests that the resonance at 35 eV photon energy is related to the Mo 4p-5s transition and the resonance at 45 eV photon energy is related to the contribution from both the Mo 4p-4d transition (threshold: 42 eV) and the Re 5p-5d transition (threshold: 46 eV). In the constant initial state plot, the resonance at 35 eV incident photon energy for binding energy features in the range E F (BE  =  0) to  -5 eV becomes progressively less prominent with increasing Re concentration x and vanishes for x  >  0.2. The difference plots obtained by subtracting the valence band photoemission spectrum of Mo from that of Mo1-x Re x alloys, measured at 47 eV photon energy, reveal that the Re d-like states appear near E F when Re is alloyed with Mo. These results indicate that interband s-d interaction, which is weak in Mo, increases with increasing x and influences the nature of the superconductivity in alloys with higher x.

  6. Direct Metal Deposition of Refractory High Entropy Alloy MoNbTaW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbelstein, Henrik; Thiele, Magnus; Gurevich, Evgeny L.; George, Easo P.; Ostendorf, Andreas

    Alloying of refractory high entropy alloys (HEAs) such as MoNbTaW is usually done by vacuum arc melting (VAM) or powder metallurgy (PM) due to the high melting points of the elements. Machining to produce the final shape of parts is often needed after the PM process. Casting processes, which are often used for aerospace components (turbine blades, vanes), are not possible. Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an additive manufacturing technique used for the refurbishment of superalloy components, but generating these components from the bottom up is also of current research interest. MoNbTaW possesses high yield strength at high temperatures and could be an alternative to state-of-the-art materials. In this study, DMD of an equimolar mixture of elemental powders was performed with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Single wall structures were built, deposition strategies developed and the microstructure of MoNbTaW was analyzed by back scattered electrons (BSE) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy in a scanning electron microscope. DMD enables the generation of composition gradients by using dynamic powder mixing instead of pre-alloyed powders. However, the simultaneous handling of several elemental or pre-alloyed powders brings new challenges to the deposition process. The influence of thermal properties, melting point and vapor pressure on the deposition process and chemical composition will be discussed.

  7. The structural phases and vibrational properties of Mo1-xWxTe2 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Sean M.; Beams, Ryan; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Kalish, Irina; Singh, Arunima K.; Bruma, Alina; Tavazza, Francesca; Joshi, Jaydeep; Stone, Iris R.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Davydov, Albert V.; Vora, Patrick M.

    2017-12-01

    The structural polymorphism in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provides exciting opportunities for developing advanced electronics. For example, MoTe2 crystallizes in the 2H semiconducting phase at ambient temperature and pressure, but transitions into the 1T‧ semimetallic phase at high temperatures. Alloying MoTe2 with WTe2 reduces the energy barrier between these two phases, while also allowing access to the T d Weyl semimetal phase. The \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloy system is therefore promising for developing phase change memory technology. However, achieving this goal necessitates a detailed understanding of the phase composition in the MoTe2-WTe2 system. We combine polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy with x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to study bulk \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys over the full compositional range x from 0 to 1. We identify Raman and XRD signatures characteristic of the 2H, 1T‧, and T d structural phases that agree with density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, and use them to identify phase fields in the MoTe2-WTe2 system, including single-phase 2H, 1T‧, and T d regions, as well as a two-phase 1T‧  +  T d region. Disorder arising from compositional fluctuations in \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys breaks inversion and translational symmetry, leading to the activation of an infrared 1T‧-MoTe2 mode and the enhancement of a double-resonance Raman process in \\text{2H-M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys. Compositional fluctuations limit the phonon correlation length, which we estimate by fitting the observed asymmetric Raman lineshapes with a phonon confinement model. These observations reveal the important role of disorder in \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys, clarify the structural phase boundaries, and provide a foundation for future explorations of phase transitions and electronic phenomena in this

  8. Theoretical Model for Volume Fraction of UC, 235U Enrichment, and Effective Density of Final U 10Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Prabhakaran, Ramprashad; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2016-04-12

    The purpose of this document is to provide a theoretical framework for (1) estimating uranium carbide (UC) volume fraction in a final alloy of uranium with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) as a function of final alloy carbon concentration, and (2) estimating effective 235U enrichment in the U-10Mo matrix after accounting for loss of 235U in forming UC. This report will also serve as a theoretical baseline for effective density of as-cast low-enriched U-10Mo alloy. Therefore, this report will serve as the baseline for quality control of final alloy carbon content

  9. The role of dispersed particles in strengthening and fracture mechanisms in a Mo-ZrC alloy processed by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Takida, T.; Mabuchi, M.; Nakamura, M.

    2000-03-01

    The tensile properties of a ZrC particle-dispersed Mo, which was processed by spark plasma sintering with mechanically alloyed powder, were investigated at room temperature and at elevated temperatures of 1,170 to 1,970 K. The Mo-ZrC alloy showed much higher strength at room temperature than a fully recrystallized pure Mo. The high strength of Mo-ZrC is mainly attributed to a very small grain size (about 3 {micro}m). The main role of the ZrC particle is not to increase strength due to the particle-dislocation interaction, but to limit grain growth during sintering and to attain the very small grain size. The elongationmore » at room temperature of No-ZrC was much lower than that of pure Mo. This is probably related to the higher interstitial contents. However, Mo-ZrC showed a large elongation of 180 pct at 1,970 K and 6.7 x 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}. It was suggested that the ZrC particles stabilized the fine-grained microstructure yet provided no cavitation sites at 1,970 K; as a result, the large elongation was attained.« less

  10. Mechanically Activated Combustion Synthesis of MoSi 2-Based Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shafirovich, Evgeny

    2015-09-30

    The thermal efficiency of gas-turbine power plants could be dramatically increased by the development of new structural materials based on molybdenum silicides and borosilicides, which can operate at temperatures higher than 1300 °C with no need for cooling. A major challenge, however, is to simultaneously achieve high oxidation resistance and acceptable mechanical properties at high temperatures. One approach is based on the fabrication of MoSi2-Mo5Si3 composites that combine high oxidation resistance of MoSi2 and good mechanical properties of Mo5Si3. Another approach involves the addition of boron to Mo-rich silicides for improving their oxidation resistance through the formation of a borosilicatemore » surface layer. In particular, materials based on Mo5SiB2 phase are promising materials that offer favorable combinations of high temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. However, the synthesis of Mo-Si-B multi-phase alloys is difficult because of their extremely high melting temperatures. Mechanical alloying has been considered as a promising method, but it requires long milling times, leading to large energy consumption and contamination of the product by grinding media. In the reported work, MoSi2-Mo5Si3 composites and several materials based on Mo5SiB2 phase have been obtained by mechanically activated self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (MASHS). Short-term milling of Mo/Si mixture in a planetary mill has enabled a self-sustained propagation of the combustion front over the mixture pellet, leading to the formation of MoSi2-T1 composites. Combustion of Mo/Si/B mixtures for the formation of T2 phase becomes possible if the composition is designed for the addition of more exothermic reactions leading to the formation of MoB, TiC, or TiB2. Upon ignition, Mo/Si/B and Mo/Si/B/Ti mixtures exhibited spin combustion, but the products were porous, contained undesired secondary phases, and had low oxidation resistance. It has been shown that

  11. Phase transformation in rapidly quenched Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti-Si-B alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, D. G.; Shubakov, V. S.; Zhukova, E. Kh; Gorshenkov, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    The research results of phase transformations in Fe-24Cr-16Co-3Mo-0.2Ti-1Si-B alloys (with a boron content of 1 to 3% by mass) obtained by rapid quenching are presented. The structure formation regularities during the melt spinning and during the subsequent crystallization annealing in rapidly quenched bands of the Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti-Si-B system alloys were studied. The changes in the phase composition of the rapidly quenched Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti- Si-B system alloys after quenching at various quench rates and at different boron concentrations in the alloys are studied. It is shown that during crystallization from an amorphous state, at temperatures above 570 °C, in addition to the α-phase, the σ-phase appears first, followed by the γ-phase. Heat treatment of rapidly quenched bands to high-coercive state was carried out. A qualitative assessment of magnetic properties in a high-coercivity state was carried out. An evaluation of the level of magnetic properties in a high-coercivity state allows us to conclude that the application of a magnetic field during crystallization from an amorphous state leads to anisotropy of the magnetic properties, that is, an anisotropic effect of thermo-magnetic treatment is detected.

  12. Reaction of Unalloyed and Cr-Mo Alloyed Steels with Nitrogen from the Sintering Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlapka, Magdalena; Gierl-Mayer, Christian; Calderon, Raquel de Oro; Danninger, Herbert; Bengtsson, Sven; Dudrova, Eva

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen is usually regarded as an inert sintering atmosphere for PM steels; however, this cannot be taken for granted in particular for steels alloyed with nitride forming elements. Among those elements, chromium has become more and more important as an alloying element in sintered low alloy structural steels in the last decade due to the moderate alloying cost and the excellent mechanical properties obtainable, in particular when sinter hardening is applied. The high affinity of Cr to oxygen and the possible ways to overcome related problems have been the subject of numerous studies, while the fact that chromium is also a fairly strong nitride forming element has largely been neglected at least for low alloy steel grades, although frequently used materials like steels from Cr and Cr-Mo prealloyed powders are commonly sintered in atmospheres consisting mainly of nitrogen. In the present study, nitrogen pickup during sintering at different temperatures and for varying times has been studied for Cr-Mo prealloyed steel grades as well as for unalloyed carbon steel. Also the effect of the cooling rate and its influence on the properties, of the microstructure and the composition have been investigated. It showed that the main nitrogen uptake occurs not during isothermal sintering but rather during cooling. It could be demonstrated that a critical temperature range exists within which the investigated CrM-based steel is particularly sensitive to nitrogen pickup.

  13. Alloy softening in binary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to Mo, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  14. Corrosion-resistant amorphous metallic films of Mo49Cr33B18 alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, R.; Distefano, S.; Fitzgerald, D.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion-resistant amorphous metallic alloy films of Mo49Cr33B18 with a crystallization temperature of 590 C were deposited onto glass and quartz substrates by magnetron sputter-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the films was confirmed by their diffuse X-ray diffraction patterns. The deposited films are densely packed (zone T) and exhibit low stress and good adhesion to the substrate. Corrosion current of as-deposited coating of MoCrB amorphous metallic alloy is approximately three orders of magnitude less than the corrosion current of 304 stainless steel in 1N H2SO4 solution.

  15. An investigation on the biotribocorrosion behaviour of CoCrMo alloy grafted with polyelectrolyte brush.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhu, Yu-Jiao; Hu, Xiang-Yu; Sun, Yan-Fang; Sun, Yu-Long; Han, Jian-Min; Yan, Yu; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Surface grafting of polyelectrolyte brush, such as 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPMK), on hip implant materials has been reported to reduce the wear of the orthopaedic bearing surface. However, the biotribocorrosion behaviour of the SPMK brush has not been taken into consideration in previous research. In the present study, SPMK was grafted on Co28Cr6Mo alloy through photo-induced polymerization, and the biotribocorrosion behaviour was investigated by a series of frictional-electrochemical tests using a universal materials tester combined with an electrochemical measurement (three-electrode) system. Co28Cr6Mo disk and polyethylene (PE) pin were used as the contact pair, and the lubricants were 0.9% saline solution (NaCl) and 0.9% saline solution coupled with 25% bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results showed that SPMK was successfully grafted on Co28Cr6Mo alloy, which was confirmed by the comparison of Raman spectroscopy and static contact angle of the samples before and after surface modification. The greatly reduced electrochemical parameters such as corrosion current and pitting potential indicated that the corrosion rate of Co28Cr6Mo alloy was significantly reduced following SPMK grafting. Additionally, the frictional-electrochemical coupled measurement performed under reciprocating sliding demonstrated that the lowest corrosion current was obtained for the SPMK-grafted Co28Cr6Mo disk, with 0.9% NaCl coupled with 25% BSA as the electrolyte. It is indicated from the present study that SPMK polyelectrolyte brush can greatly improve the anti-biotribocorrosion properties of Co28Cr6Mo alloy, and thus has potential application on surface modification of hip implant materials.

  16. Thermodynamic modeling and experimental validation of the Fe-Al-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Zhenke; Zhang, F; Miller, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    NiAl-type precipitate-strengthened ferritic steels have been known as potential materials for the steam turbine applications. In this study, thermodynamic descriptions of the B2-NiAl type nano-scaled precipitates and body-centered-cubic (BCC) Fe matrix phase for four alloys based on the Fe-Al-Ni-Cr-Mo system were developed as a function of the alloy composition at the aging temperature. The calculated phase structure, composition, and volume fraction were validated by the experimental investigations using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and atom probe tomography. With the ability to accurately predict the key microstructural features related to the mechanical properties in a given alloy system, the established thermodynamic model inmore » the current study may significantly accelerate the alloy design process of the NiAl-strengthened ferritic steels.« less

  17. Effect of commercial mouthwashes on the corrosion resistance of Ti-10Mo experimental alloy.

    PubMed

    Alves Rezende, Maria Cristina Rosifini; Alves, Ana Paula Rosifini; Codaro, Eduardo Norberto; Dutra, Conceição Aparecida Matsumoto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of three commercial mouthwashes on the corrosion resistance of Ti-10Mo experimental alloy. Experiments were made at 37.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C in a conventional three-compartment double wall glass cell containing commercial mouthwashes. Three mouthwashes with different active ingredients were tested: (I) 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan; (II) 0.5 g/l cetylpyridinium chloride + 0.05% sodium fluoride; (III) 0.12% chlorohexidine digluconate. The assessment of the individual effect of active ingredients was studied by using 0.05% sodium fluoride. Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) was used as control. Microstructures from Ti-10Mo experimental alloy and CP Ti were also evaluated using optical microscopy. Ti-10Mo as-cast alloy shows the typical rapidly cooled dendrites microstructure (beta phase) while CP Ti has exhibited a metastable martensitic microstructure. Electrochemical behavior of dental materials here studied was more affected by mouthwash type than by Ti alloy composition or microstructure. In both alloys passivation phenomenon was observed. This process may be mainly related to Ti oxides or other Ti species present in spontaneously formed film. Small differences in passive current densities values may be connected with changes in film porosity and thickness. Protective characteristics of this passive film are lower in 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan mouthwash than in the other two mouthwashes tested.

  18. [The design of Co-Cr-Mo alloy combining the framework with porcelain fused to metal restorations and determination of the mechanical properties].

    PubMed

    Chao, Yong-lie; Lui, Chang-hong; Li, Ning; Yang, Xiao-yu

    2005-02-01

    To investigate a kind of Co-Cr-Mo alloys used for both porcelain fused to metal (PFM) restorations and casting framework of removable partial dentures. The Co-Cr-Mo alloy underwent the design for elementary compositions of the alloys and the production from the raw materials by means of a vacuum melt furnace. The strength, hardness, plasticity and casting ability of the alloy were examined with metal tensile test. Vickers hardness test and grid casting were examined respectively. The microstructure of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was also inspected by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. The elementary composition of DA9-4 alloy mainly consisted of Co 54%-67%, Cr 21%-26%, Mo 5%-8%, W 5%-8%, Si 1%-3%, Mn 0.1%-0.25% and trace elements. The yield strength of the alloy was 584 MPa, while the tensile strength was 736 MPa. The coefficient of expansion was 15.0%, the Vickers hardness reached 322, and the casting ratio exibited 100%. The DA9-4 Co-Cr-Mo alloy used for PFM and framework shown in this paper can meet the clinical demands and have reached the objects of the experiment plan.

  19. Effects of Microalloying on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified Ni-33(at.%)Al-31Cr-3Mo Eutectic Alloys Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, Sai V.; Locci, Ivan E.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2002-01-01

    Despite nickel aluminide (NiAl) alloys' attractive combination of oxidation and thermophysical properties, their development as replacements for superalloy airfoils in gas turbine engines has been largely limited by difficulties in developing alloys with an optimum combination of elevated-temperature creep resistance and room-temperature fracture toughness. Alternatively, research has focused on developing directionally solidified NiAl-based in situ eutectic composites composed of NiAl and (Cr,Mo) phases in order to obtain a desirable combination of properties a systematic investigation was undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center to examine the effects of small additions of 11 alloying elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Nb, Re, Si, Ta, Ti, and Zr) in amounts varying from 0.25 to 1.0 at.% on the elevated-temperature strength and room-temperature fracture toughness of directionally solidified Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo eutectic alloy. The alloys were grown at 12.7 mm/hr, where the unalloyed eutectic base alloy exhibited a planar eutectic microstructure. The different microstructures that formed because of these fifth-element additions are included in the table. The additions of these elements even in small amounts resulted in the formation of cellular microstructures, and in some cases, dendrites and third phases were observed. Most of these elemental additions did not improve either the elevated-temperature strength or the room-temperature fracture toughness over that of the base alloy. However, small improvements in the compression strength were observed between 1200 and 1400 K when 0.5 at.% Hf and 0.25 at.% Ti were added to the base alloy. The results of this study suggest that the microalloying of Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo will not significantly improve either its elevatedtemperature strength or its room-temperature fracture toughness. Thus, any improvements in these properties must be acquired by changing the processing conditions.

  20. Strengthening of biomedical Ni-free Co-Cr-Mo alloy by multipass "low-strain-per-pass" thermomechanical processing.

    PubMed

    Mori, Manami; Yamanaka, Kenta; Sato, Shigeo; Tsubaki, Shinki; Satoh, Kozue; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Shobu, Takahisa; Chiba, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Further strengthening of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloys is desired, owing to the demand for improvements to their durability in applications such as artificial hip joints, spinal rods, bone plates, and screws. Here, we present a strategy-multipass "low-strain-per-pass" thermomechanical processing-for achieving high-strength biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloys with sufficient ductility. The process primarily consists of multipass hot deformation, which involves repeated introduction of relatively small amounts of strain to the alloy at elevated temperatures. The concept was verified by performing hot rolling of a Co-28 Cr-6 Mo-0.13N (mass%) alloy and its strengthening mechanisms were examined. Strength increased monotonically with hot-rolling reduction, eventually reaching 1,400 MPa in 0.2% proof stress, an exceptionally high value. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) line-profile analysis revealed a drastic increase in the dislocation density with an increase in hot-rolling reduction and proposed that the significant strengthening was primarily driven by the increased dislocation density, while the contributions of grain refinement were minor. In addition, extra strengthening, which originates from contributions of planar defects (stacking faults/deformation twins), became apparent for greater hot-rolling reductions. The results obtained in this work help in reconsidering the existing strengthening strategy for the alloys, and thus, a novel feasible manufacturing route using conventional hot deformation processing, such as forging, rolling, swaging, and drawing, is realized. The results obtained in this work suggested a novel microstructural design concept/feasible manufacturing route of high-strength Co-Cr-Mo alloys using conventional hot deformation processing. The present strategy focuses on the strengthening due to the introduction of a high density of lattice defects rather than grain refinement using dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The hot-rolled samples obtained by our

  1. Ta-Nb-Mo-W refractory high-entropy alloys: Anomalous ordering behavior and its intriguing electronic origin

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Prashant; Smirnov, A. V.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2018-05-31

    From electronic-structure-based thermodynamic linear response, we establish chemical ordering behavior in complex solid solutions versus how Gibbs' space is traversed—applying it on prototype refractory A2 Ta-Nb-Mo-W high-entropy alloys. Near ideal stoichiometry, this alloy has anomalous, intricate chemical ordering tendencies, with long-ranged chemical interactions that produce competing short-range order (SRO) with a crossover to spinodal segregation. This atypical SRO arises from canonical band behavior that, with alloying, creates features near the Fermi surface (well defined even with disorder) that change to simple commensurate SRO with (un)filling of these states. In conclusion, our results reveal how complexity and competing electronic effects controlmore » ordering in these alloys.« less

  2. Ta-Nb-Mo-W refractory high-entropy alloys: Anomalous ordering behavior and its intriguing electronic origin

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Prashant; Smirnov, A. V.; Johnson, Duane D.

    From electronic-structure-based thermodynamic linear response, we establish chemical ordering behavior in complex solid solutions versus how Gibbs' space is traversed—applying it on prototype refractory A2 Ta-Nb-Mo-W high-entropy alloys. Near ideal stoichiometry, this alloy has anomalous, intricate chemical ordering tendencies, with long-ranged chemical interactions that produce competing short-range order (SRO) with a crossover to spinodal segregation. This atypical SRO arises from canonical band behavior that, with alloying, creates features near the Fermi surface (well defined even with disorder) that change to simple commensurate SRO with (un)filling of these states. In conclusion, our results reveal how complexity and competing electronic effects controlmore » ordering in these alloys.« less

  3. Ultra-thin bimetallic alloy nanowires with porous architecture/monolayer MoS2 nanosheet as a highly sensitive platform for the electrochemical assay of hazardous omethoate pollutant.

    PubMed

    Song, Dandan; Li, Qian; Lu, Xiong; Li, Yanshan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yuanzhe; Gao, Faming

    2018-06-18

    A novel electrochemical biosensor was designed for sensitive detection of organophosphate pesticides based on three-dimensional porous bimetallic alloy architecture with ultrathin nanowires (PdCo NWs, PdCu NWs, PdNi NWs) and monolayer MoS 2 nanosheet (m-MoS 2 ). The bimetallic alloy NWs/m-MoS 2 nanomaterials were used as a sensing platform for electrochemical analysis of omethoate, a representative organophosphate pesticide, via acetylcholinesterase inhibition pathway. We demonstrated that all three bimetallic alloy NWs enhanced electrochemical responses of enzymatic biosensor, benefited from bimetallic synergistic action and porous structure. In particular, PdNi NWs outperformed other two bimetallic alloy. Moreover, PdNi NWs/m-MoS 2 as an electronic transducer is superior to the corresponding biosensor in the absence of monolayer MoS 2 nanosheet, which arise from synergistic signal amplification effect between different components. Under optimized conditions, the developed biosensor on the basis of PdNi NWs/m-MoS 2 shows outstanding performance for the electrochemical assay of omethoate, such as a wide linear range (10 -13 M∼10 -7 M), a low detection limit of 0.05 pM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, high sensitivity and long-time stability. The results demonstrate that bimetallic alloy NWs/m-MoS 2 nanocomposites could be excellent transducers to promote electron transfer for the electrochemical reactions, holding great potentials in the construction of current and future biosensing devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrodeposition of Zn-Co-Mo Alloy on the Steel Substrate from Citrate Bath and Its Corrosion Behavior in the Chloride Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyvani, A.; Yeganeh, M.; Rezaeyan, H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Zn-Co-Mo coatings were deposited on the steel substrate from a citrate bath after adjusting pH, concentration, and current density. The morphology, the content of alloying elements, and the thickness of deposits were studied. Deposition behavior of these ternary coatings was examined by cathodic polarization and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The synthesized deposits were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The results showed that the deposition potential of Zn-Co-Mo alloy was feasible in negative potentials higher than about -1.25 V versus Ag/AgCl. Moreover, the corrosion behavior of these coatings was found to be related to the extent of Mo as well as the local anodes and cathodes. The amount of molybdenum in the Zn-Co-Mo coating varied from 2.6 to 14 wt.% as a result of changing the pH. Based on the experimental findings, a narrow range of pH values between 5 and 5.5 could contribute to the high quality of coating in conjunction with the corrosion resistant alloy. Besides, the coatings with Mo element could show a passive-like behavior in the anodic region.

  5. Microstructure of As-cast Co-Cr-Mo Alloy Prepared by Investment Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Bum; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Kang Min; Son, Yong; Lee, Jung-Il; Ryu, Jeong Ho

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure of a cobalt-base alloy (Co-Cr-Mo) obtained by an investment casting process was studied. This alloy complies with the ASTM F75 standard and is widely used in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants owing to its high strength, good corrosion resistance, and excellent biocompatibility. This work focuses on the resulting microstructures arising from normal industrial environmental conditions. The characterization of the samples was carried out using optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. In this study, the as-cast microstructure is an γ-Co (face-centered cubic) dendritic matrix with the presence of a secondary phase, such as M23C6 carbides precipitated at grain boundaries and interdendritic zones. These precipitates are the main strengthening mechanism in this type of alloy. Other minority phases, such as the σ phase, were also detected, and their presence could be linked to the manufacturing process and environment.

  6. Oxidation resistant Mo-Mo2B-silica and Mo-Mo2B-silicate composites for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, J. K.; Daloz, W. L.; Marshall, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    Development of Mo composites based on the Mo-Si-B system has been demonstrated as a possible new route to achieving a high temperature Mobased material. In this new system, the silicide phases are replaced directly with silica or other silicate materials. These composites avoid the high ductile to brittle transition temperature observed for Mo-Si-B alloys by removing the Si that exists in solid solution in Mo at equilibrium with its silicides. A variety of compositions is tested for room temperature ductility and oxidation resistance. A system based upon Mo, Mo2B, and SrO·Al2O3·(SiO2)2 is shown to possess both ductility at 80 vol.% Mo and oxidation resistance at 60 vol.%. These composites can be produced using a powder processing approach and fired to greater than 95% theoretical density with a desirable microstructure of isolated boride and silicate phases within a ductile Mo matrix.

  7. Phase decomposition of γ-U (bcc) in U-10 wt% Mo fuel alloy during hot isostatic pressing of monolithic fuel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Eriksson, N.; Newell, R.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2016-11-01

    Eutectoid decomposition of γ-phase (cI2) into α-phase (oC4) and γ‧-phase (tI6) during the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of the U-10 wt% Mo (U10Mo) alloy was investigated using monolithic fuel plate samples consisting of U10Mo fuel alloy, Zr diffusion barrier and AA6061 cladding. The decomposition of the γ-phase was observed because the HIP process is carried out near the eutectoid temperature, 555 °C. Initially, a cellular structure, consisting of γ‧-phase surrounded by α-phase, developed from the destabilization of the γ-phase. The cellular structure further developed into an alternating lamellar structure of α- and γ‧-phases. Using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, qualitative and quantitative microstructural analyses were carried out to identify the phase constituents, and elucidate the microstructural development based on time-temperature-transformation diagram of the U10Mo alloy. The destabilization of γ -phase into α- and γ‧-phases would be minimized when HIP process was carried out with rapid ramping/cooling rate and dwell temperature higher than 560 °C.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ni and Fe-base boride-dispersion-strengthened microcrystalline alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C.S.; Park, H.G.; Hoagland, R.G.

    This paper considers the relation between microstructure and mechanical properties of two Ni-base and two Fe-base Boride-Dispersion-Strengthened Microcrystalline (BDSM) alloys. In these very fine grained materials the borides were primarily Cr, Mo, and MoFe in a fcc matrix in three of the alloys, and a bcc in one of the Fe-base alloys. Strength data and resistance to stress corrosion cracking are reported and, in the latter case, extraordinary resistance to SCC in NaCl, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} and boiling MgCl{sub 2} environments was observed in every case. The fcc BDSM alloys also demonstrated excellent thermal stability in terms of strengthmore » and fracture roughness up to 1000 C. The bcc alloy suffered severe loss of toughness. The fracture mode involved ductile rupture in all alloys and they display a reasonably linear correlation between K{sub Ic} and the square root of particle spacing.« less

  9. Microstructural development from interdiffusion and reaction between Usbnd Mo and AA6061 alloys annealed at 600° and 550 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, E.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program is developing low enrichment fuel systems encased in Al-alloy for use in research and test reactors. Monolithic fuel plates have local regions where the Usbnd Mo fuel plate may come into contact with the Al-alloy 6061 (AA6061) cladding. This results in the development of interdiffusion zones with complex microstructures with multiple phases. In this study, the microstructural development of diffusion couples, Usbnd 7 wt%Mo, Usbnd 10 wt%Mo, and Usbnd 12 wt%Mo vs. AA6061, annealed at 600 °C for 24 h and at 550 °C for 1, 5, and 20 h, were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The microstructural development and kinetics were compared to diffusion couples Usbnd Mo vs. high purity Al and binary Alsbnd Si alloys. The diffusion couples developed complex interaction regions where phase development was influenced by the alloying additions of the AA6061.

  10. In vitro bioactivity investigations of Ti-15Mo alloy after electrochemical surface modification.

    PubMed

    Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja; Kuna, Karolina; Dec, Weronika; Widziołek, Magdalena; Tylko, Grzegorz; Osyczka, Anna M; Simka, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    Titanium and its aluminum and vanadium-free alloys have especially great potential for medical applications. Electrochemical surface modification improves their surface bioactivity and stimulates osseointegration process. In this work, the effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation of the β-type alloy Ti-15Mo surface on its bioactivity is presented. Bioactivity of the modified alloy was investigated by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Biocompatibility of the modified alloys were tested using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) and wild intestinal strains (DV/A, DV/B, DV/I/1) of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteria. The particles of apatite were formed on the anodized samples. Human BMSC cells adhered well on all the examined surfaces and expressed ALP, collagen, and produced mineralized matrix as determined after 10 and 21 days of culture. When the samples were inoculated with D. desulfuricans bacteria, only single bacteria were visible on selected samples. There were no obvious changes in surface morphology among samples. Colonization and bacterial biofilm formation was observed on as-ground sample. In conclusion, the surface modification improved the Ti-15Mo alloy bioactivity and biocompatibility and protected surface against colonization of the bacteria. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 903-913, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Grain boundary engineering to control the discontinuous precipitation in multicomponent U10Mo alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor; Kautz, Elizabeth; ...

    2018-03-30

    Here, we demonstrate here that locally stabilized structure and compositional segregation at grain boundaries in a complex multicomponent alloy can be modified using high temperature homogenization treatment to influence the kinetics of phase transformations initiating from grain boundaries during subsequent low temperature annealing. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of a model multicomponent metallic alloy —uranium-10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) a nuclear fuel, that is highly relevant to worldwide nuclear non-proliferation efforts, we demonstrate the ability to change the structure and compositional segregation at grain boundary, which then controls the subsequent discontinuous precipitation kinetics during sub-eutectoid annealing.more » A change in grain boundary from one characterized by segregation of Mo and impurities at grain boundary to a phase boundary with a distinct U 2MoSi 2C wetting phase precipitates introducing Ni and Al rich interphase complexions caused a pronounced reduction in area fraction of subsequent discontinuous precipitation. The broader implication of this work is in highlighting the role of grain boundary structure and composition in metallic alloys on dictating the fate of grain boundary initiated phase transformations like discontinuous precipitation or cellular transformation. This work highlights a new pathway to tune the grain boundary structure and composition to tailor the final microstructure of multicomponent metallic alloys.« less

  12. Grain boundary engineering to control the discontinuous precipitation in multicomponent U10Mo alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor; Kautz, Elizabeth

    Here, we demonstrate here that locally stabilized structure and compositional segregation at grain boundaries in a complex multicomponent alloy can be modified using high temperature homogenization treatment to influence the kinetics of phase transformations initiating from grain boundaries during subsequent low temperature annealing. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of a model multicomponent metallic alloy —uranium-10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) a nuclear fuel, that is highly relevant to worldwide nuclear non-proliferation efforts, we demonstrate the ability to change the structure and compositional segregation at grain boundary, which then controls the subsequent discontinuous precipitation kinetics during sub-eutectoid annealing.more » A change in grain boundary from one characterized by segregation of Mo and impurities at grain boundary to a phase boundary with a distinct U 2MoSi 2C wetting phase precipitates introducing Ni and Al rich interphase complexions caused a pronounced reduction in area fraction of subsequent discontinuous precipitation. The broader implication of this work is in highlighting the role of grain boundary structure and composition in metallic alloys on dictating the fate of grain boundary initiated phase transformations like discontinuous precipitation or cellular transformation. This work highlights a new pathway to tune the grain boundary structure and composition to tailor the final microstructure of multicomponent metallic alloys.« less

  13. Role of Si on the Diffusional Interactions Between U-Mo and Al-Si Alloys at 823 K (550 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Emmanuel; Sohn, Yong-Ho; Keiser, Dennis D.

    2013-01-01

    U-Mo dispersions in Al-alloy matrix and monolithic fuels encased in Al-alloy are under development to fulfill the requirements for research and test reactors to use low-enriched molybdenum stabilized uranium alloy fuels. Significant interaction takes place between the U-Mo fuel and Al during manufacturing and in-reactor irradiation. The interaction products are Al-rich phases with physical and thermal characteristics that adversely affect fuel performance and result in premature failure. Detailed analysis of the interdiffusion and microstructural development of this system was carried through diffusion couples consisting of U-7 wt pct Mo, U-10 wt pct Mo and U-12 wt pct Mo in contact with pure Al, Al-2 wt pct Si, and Al-5 wt pct Si, annealed at 823 K (550 °C) for 1, 5 and 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis. Diffusion couples consisting of U-Mo in contact with pure Al contained UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases. Additions of Si to the Al significantly reduced the thickness of the interdiffusion zone. The interdiffusion zones developed Al- and Si-enriched regions, whose locations and size depended on the Si and Mo concentrations in the terminal alloys. In these couples, the (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 phase was observed throughout the interdiffusion zone, and the U6Mo4Al43 and UMo2Al20 phases were observed only where the Si concentrations were low.

  14. Study of structural phase transitions in quinary TiNi(MoFeAg)-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunther, Victor; Marchenko, Ekaterina; Chekalkin, Timofey; Baigonakova, Gulsharat; Kang, Ji-hoon; Kim, Ji-soon; Klopotov, Anatoliy

    2017-10-01

    The structural phase transitions of quinary Ti50Ni49.5-X Mo0.3Fe0.2Ag X (X  =  0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at%) alloys prepared by vacuum-induction melting were studied by means of the four-point-probe, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and optical microscopy methods after thermal cycling. The two-stage B2 ↔ R ↔ B19‧ reversible martensitic transformation (MT) took place in all the investigated samples. It is found that the substitution of Ag for Ni in the studied alloy when C Ag  =  0-0.5 at%, reduces the T R, M s, and M f characteristic points by 20-30 K, whereas they increase by 15-35 K when the Ag content was varied from 1.0 to 1.5 at% and the B2 ↔ R ↔ B19‧ MT was realized in the high-temperature area. XRD patterns of the studied alloys recorded at the ambient temperature detected the pure Ag phase as well as Ti2Ni precipitate with a small volume fraction (up to 5%) alongside with structural lines of B2, R, and B19‧ phases.

  15. Thermal transport and thermopower of bcc U-Mo splat-cooled alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, M.; Buturlim, V.; Paukov, M.; Havela, L.

    2018-05-01

    In order to characterize the electron and thermal transport properties in splat-cooled U-T alloys (T is transition metal), we measured the thermopower S and thermal conductivity κ of selected splat-cooled U-Mo alloys with 0, 11, 12.5, 15 and 17 at % Mo concentrations, as a function of temperature. Additionally, we compare our data with the results of S(T) and κ(T) for pure α-U bulk material. Moreover, what particularly motivated us for undertaking above mentioned investigation was the opportunity for prove the functionality of the TTO (Thermal Transport Option) insert of PPMS apparatus for such form of samples. Working with rapidly solidified materials in the form of splats, i.e. foils of typical thickness ∼ 0.2 mm, or even less, we need to test first whether the TTO output can be taken as reliable for the sample geometry, being far from typical bulk bar-shaped samples.

  16. Effect of bimodal harmonic structure design on the deformation behaviour and mechanical properties of Co-Cr-Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Vajpai, Sanjay Kumar; Sawangrat, Choncharoen; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Ciuca, Octav Paul; Ameyama, Kei

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, Co-Cr-Mo alloy compacts with a unique bimodal microstructural design, harmonic structure design, were successfully prepared via a powder metallurgy route consisting of controlled mechanical milling of pre-alloyed powders followed by spark plasma sintering. The harmonic structured Co-Cr-Mo alloy with bimodal grain size distribution exhibited relatively higher strength together with higher ductility as compared to the coarse-grained specimens. The harmonic Co-Cr-Mo alloy exhibited a very complex deformation behavior wherein it was found that the higher strength and the high retained ductility are derived from fine-grained shell and coarse-grained core regions, respectively. Finally, it was observed that the peculiar spatial/topological arrangement of stronger fine-grained and ductile coarse-grained regions in the harmonic structure promotes uniformity of strain distribution, leading to improved mechanical properties by suppressing the localized plastic deformation during straining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuning structural motifs and alloying of bulk immiscible Mo-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles by gas-phase synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still remains a formidable challenge. Hence, we present here a general methodology for gas phase synthesis of bimetallic NPs with distinctively different structural motifs ranging at a single particle level from a fully mixed alloy to core-shell, to onion (multi-shell), and finally to a Janus/dumbbell, with the same overall particle composition. These concepts are illustrated for Mo-Cu NPs, where the precise control of the bimetallic NPs with various degrees of chemical ordering, including different shapes from spherical to cube, is achieved by tailoring the energy and thermal environment that the NPs experience during their production. The initial state of NP growth, either in the liquid or in the solid state phase, has important implications for the different structural motifs and shapes of synthesized NPs. Finally we demonstrate that we are able to tune the alloying regime, for the otherwise bulk immiscible Mo-Cu, by achieving an increase of the critical size, below which alloying occurs, closely up to an order of magnitude. It is discovered that the critical size of the NP alloy is not only affected by controlled tuning of the alloying temperature but also by the particle shape.Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still

  18. Microstructure, soft magnetic properties and applications of amorphous Fe-Co-Si-B-Mo-P alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiak, Mariusz; Miglierini, Marcel; Łukiewski, Mirosław; Łaszcz, Amadeusz; Bujdoš, Marek

    2018-05-01

    DC thermomagnetic properties of Fe51Co12Si16B8Mo5P8 amorphous alloy in the as-quenched and after annealing below crystallization temperature are investigated. They are related to deviations in the microstructure as revealed by Mössbauer spectrometry. Study of AC magnetic properties, i.e. hysteresis loops, relative permeability and core losses versus maximum induction was aimed at obtaining optimal initial parameters for simulation process of a resonant transformer for a rail power supply converter. The results obtained from numerical analyses including core losses, winding losses, core mass, and dimensions were compared with the same parameters calculated for Fe-Si alloy and ferrite. Moreover, Steinmetz coefficients were also calculated for the as-quenched Fe51Co12Si16B8Mo5P8 amorphous alloy.

  19. Mesoscale model for fission-induced recrystallization in U-7Mo alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Linyun; Mei, Zhi -Gang; Kim, Yeon Soo; ...

    2016-08-09

    A mesoscale model is developed by integrating the rate theory and phase-field models and is used to study the fission-induced recrystallization in U-7Mo alloy. The rate theory model is used to predict the dislocation density and the recrystallization nuclei density due to irradiation. The predicted fission rate and temperature dependences of the dislocation density are in good agreement with experimental measurements. This information is used as input for the multiphase phase-field model to investigate the fission-induced recrystallization kinetics. The simulated recrystallization volume fraction and bubble induced swelling agree well with experimental data. The effects of the fission rate, initial grainmore » size, and grain morphology on the recrystallization kinetics are discussed based on an analysis of recrystallization growth rate using the modified Avrami equation. Here, we conclude that the initial microstructure of the U-Mo fuels, especially the grain size, can be used to effectively control the rate of fission-induced recrystallization and therefore swelling.« less

  20. The Tribological Difference between Biomedical Steels and CoCrMo-Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Alfons; Weiß, Sabine; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery different self-mating metal couples are used for sliding wear applications. Despite the fact that in mechanical engineering self-mating austenitic alloys often lead to adhesion and seizure in biomedical engineering the different grades of Co-base alloys show good clinical results e.g. as hip joints. The reason stems from the fact that they generate a so-called tribomaterial during articulation, which consists of a mixture of nanometer small metallic grains and organic substances from the interfacial medium, which act as boundary lubricant. Even though stainless steels also generate such a tribomaterial they were ruled out from the beginning already in the 1950 as “inappropriate”. On the basis of materials with a clinical track record this contribution shows that the cyclic creep characteristics within the shear zone underneath the tribomaterial are another important criterion for a sufficient wear behavior. By means of sliding wear and torsional fatigue tests followed by electron microscopy it is shown, that austenitic materials generate wear particles of either nano- or of microsize. The latter are produced by crack initiation and propagation within the shear fatigue zone which is related to the formation of subsurface dislocation cells and, therefore, by the fact that a Ni-containing CrNiMo solid solution allows for wavy-slip. In contrast to this a Ni-free CrMnMo solid solution with further additions of C and N only shows planar slip. This leads to the formation of nanosize wear particles and distinctly improves the wear behavior. Still the latter does not fully achieve that of CoCrMo, which also shows solely planar-slip behavior. This explains why for metallurgical reasons the Ni-containing 316L-type of steels had to fail in such boundary lubricated sliding wear tribosystems. PMID:22498283

  1. Electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo alloy in naturally-aerated solutions, containing chloride and fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A V; Oliveira, N T C; dos Santos, M L; Guastaldi, A C

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo alloy to applications as biomaterials in solutions 0.15 mol L(-1) Ringer, 0.15 mol L(-1) Ringer plus 0.036 mol L(-1) NaF and 0.036 mol L(-1) NaF (containing 1,500 ppm of fluoride ions, F(-)) were investigated using open-circuit potential, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. Corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability of the Ti-15Mo alloy decreased in solutions containing F(-) ions. In all cases, there were formation and growth of TiO2 and MoO3 (a protector film), not being observed pitting corrosion, which might enable Ti-15Mo alloys to be used as biomedical implant, at least in the studied conditions, since the electrochemical stability and corrosion resistance of the passive films formed are necessary conditions for osseointegration.

  2. Compressive creep behavior of alloys based on B2 FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantravadi, N.; Vedula, K.; Gaydosh, D.; Titran, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Alloys based on FeAl are attractive alternate materials for environmental resistance at intermediate temperatures. Addition of small amounts of Nb, Hf, Ta, Mo, Zr, and B were shown to improve the compressive creep of this alloy at 1100 K. Boron, in particular, was found to have a synergistic effect along with Zr in providing properties substantially better than the binary alloy. This improvement seems to be related to the higher activation energy found for this alloy, suggesting a modification in the diffusion behavior due to the alloying additions.

  3. Compressive creep behavior of alloys based on B2 FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantravadi, N.; Vedula, K.; Gaydosh, D.; Titran, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    Alloys based on FeAl are attractive alternative materials for environmental resistance at intermediate temperatures. Addition of small amounts of Nb, Hf, Ta, Mo, Zr, and B were shown to improve the compressive creep of this alloy at 1100 K. Boron, in particular, was found to have a synergistic effect along with Zr in providing properties substantially better than the binary alloy. This improvement seems to be related to the higher activation energy found for this alloy, suggesting a modification in the diffusion behavior due to the alloying additions.

  4. First-Principles Study of Mo Segregation in MoNi(111): Effects of Chemisorbed Atomic Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanlin; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Jianwei; Wang, Ligen

    2015-01-01

    Segregation at metal alloy surfaces is an important issue because many electrochemical and catalytic properties are directly correlated to the surface composition. We have performed density functional theory calculations for Mo segregation in MoNi(111) in the presence of chemisorbed atomic oxygen. In particular, the coverage dependence and possible adsorption-induced segregation phenomena are addressed by investigating segregation energies of the Mo atom in MoNi(111). The theoretical calculated results show that the Mo atom prefers to be embedded in the bulk for the clean MoNi(111), while it segregates to the top-most layer when the oxygen coverage is thicker than 1/9 monolayer (ML). Furthermore, we analyze the densities of states for the clean and oxygen-chemisorbed MoNi(111), and see a strong covalent bonding between Mo d-band states and O p-states. The present study provides valuable insight for exploring practical applications of Ni-based alloys as hydrogen evolution electrodes. PMID:28787811

  5. A model to describe the surface gradient-nanograin formation and property of friction stir processed laser Co-Cr-Ni-Mo alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruidi; Yuan, Tiechui; Qiu, Zili

    2014-07-01

    A gradient-nanograin surface layer of Co-base alloy was prepared by friction stir processing (FSP) of laser-clad coating in this work. However, it is lack of a quantitatively function relationship between grain refinement and FSP conditions. Based on this, an analytic model is derived for the correlations between carbide size, hardness and rotary speed, layer depth during in-situ FSP of laser-clad Co-Cr-Ni-Mo alloy. The model is based on the principle of typical plastic flow in friction welding and dynamic recrystallization. The FSP experiment for modification of laser-clad Co-based alloy was conducted and its gradient nanograin and hardness were characterized. It shows that the model is consistent with experimental results.

  6. The irradiation behavior of atomized U-Mo alloy fuels at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Man; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Meyer, M. K.; Hofman, G. L.; Strain, R. V.

    2001-04-01

    Post-irradiation examinations of atomized U-10Mo, U-6Mo, and U-6Mo-1.7Os dispersion fuels from the RERTR-3 experiment irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) were carried out in order to investigate the fuel behavior of high uranium loading (8 gU/cc) at a high temperature (higher than 200°C). It was observed after about 40 at% BU that the U-Mo alloy fuels at a high temperature showed similar irradiation bubble morphologies compared to those at a lower temperature found in the RERTR-1 irradiation result, but there was a thick reaction layer with the aluminum matrix which was found to be greatly affected by the irradiation temperature and to a lesser degree by the fuel composition. In addition, the chemical analysis for the irradiated U-Mo fuels using the Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) method were conducted to investigate the compositional changes during the formation of the reaction product.

  7. Pd surface functionalization of 3D electroformed Ni and Ni-Mo alloy metallic nanofoams for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petica, A.; Brincoveanu, O.; Golgovici, F.; Manea, A. C.; Enachescu, M.; Anicai, L.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents some experimental results regarding the functionalization of 3D electroformed Ni and Ni-Mo alloy nanofoams with Pd nanoclusters, as potential cathodic materials suitable for HER during seawater electrolysis. The electrodeposition from aqueous electrolytes containing NiCl2 and NH4Cl has been applied to prepare the 3D Ni nanofoams. Ni-Mo alloys have been electrodeposited involving aqueous ammonium citrate type electrolytes. Pd surface functionalization has been performed using both electroless and electrochemical procedures. Pd content varied in the range of 0.5 – 8 wt.%, depending on the applied procedure and the operation conditions. The use of a porous structure associated with alloying element (i.e. Mo) and Pd surface functionalization facilitated enhanced performances from HER view point in seawater electrolyte (lower Tafel slopes). The determined Tafel slope values ranged from 123 to 105 mV.dec-1, suggesting the Volmer step as rate determining step. The improvement of the HER catalytic activity may be ascribed to a synergistic effect between the high real active area of the 3D electroformed metallic substrate, Ni alloying with a left transition metal and surface modification using Pd noble metal.

  8. Microstructural development from interdiffusion and reaction between U–Mo and AA6061 alloys annealed at 600° and 550 °C

    DOE PAGES

    Perez, E.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2016-05-10

    The U.S. Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program is developing low enrichment fuel systems encased in Al-alloy for use in research and test reactors. Monolithic fuel plates have local regions where the Usingle bondMo fuel plate may come into contact with the Al-alloy 6061 (AA6061) cladding. This results in the development of interdiffusion zones with complex microstructures with multiple phases. In this study, the microstructural development of diffusion couples, U–7 wt%Mo, U–10 wt%Mo, and U–12 wt%Mo vs. AA6061, annealed at 600 °C for 24 h and at 550 °C for 1, 5, and 20 h, were analyzed by scanningmore » electron microscopy with x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The microstructural development and kinetics were compared to diffusion couples U–Mo vs. high purity Al and binary Al–Si alloys. As a result, the diffusion couples developed complex interaction regions where phase development was influenced by the alloying additions of the AA6061.« less

  9. Investigation on corrosion behavior of Ni-based alloys in molten fluoride salt using synchrotron radiation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Junyi; Lu, Yanling; Li, Zhijun; Zou, Yang; Yu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Xingtai

    2013-09-01

    Ni-based alloys have been selected as the structural materials in molten-salt reactors due to their high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties. In this paper, the corrosion behavior of some Ni-based superalloys including Inconel 600, Hastelloy X and Hastelloy C-276 were investigated in molten fluoride salts at 750 °C. Morphology and microstructure of corroded samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), synchrotron radiation X-ray microbeam fluorescence (μ-XRF) and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) techniques. Results from μ-XRF and SR-XRD show that the main depleted alloying element of Ni-based alloys in molten fluoride salt is Cr. In addition, the results indicate that Mo can enhance the corrosion resistance in molten FLiNaK salts. Among the above three Ni-based alloys, Hastelloy C-276 exhibits the best corrosion resistance in molten fluoride salts 750 °C. Higher-content Mo and lower-content Cr in Hastelloy C-276 alloy were responsible for the better anti-corrosive performance, compared to the other two alloys.

  10. Effects of long-term aging on ductility of the columbium alloys C-103, Cb-1Zr, and Cb-752 and the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine if aging embrittlement occurs in the columbium alloys C-103, CB-1Zr, and Cb-752 or in the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM. Results showed that aging embrittlement does not occur in C-103, Cb-1Zr, or Mo-TZM during long-term (1000 hr) aging at temperatures in the range 700 to 1025 C. In contrast, aging embrittlement did occur in the Cb-752 alloy after similar aging at 900 C. A critical combination of the solute additions W and Zr in Cb-752 led to Zr segregation at grain boundaries during long-term aging. This segregation subsequently resulted in embrittlement as indicated by an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature from below -1960 C to about -150 C.

  11. Texture evolution and mechanical anisotropy of biomedical hot-rolled Co-Cr-Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Mori, Manami; Yamanaka, Kenta; Sato, Shigeo; Chiba, Akihiko

    2015-11-01

    Crystallographic textures and their effect on the mechanical anisotropy of a hot-rolled biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy were investigated. The hot-rolled Co-28Cr-6Mo-0.13N (mass%) alloy examined here exhibited a monotonic strength increment following hot-rolling reduction, eventually reaching a 0.2% proof stress of 1400 MPa while maintaining acceptable ductility (>10%). The dominant hot-rolling texture was a brass-type component, which is characterized by the alloy's peculiarly low stacking fault energy (SFE) even at hot rolling temperatures, although the minor peaks of the near copper component were also identified. However, because of the onset of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) during the hot rolling process, the texture intensity was relatively weak even after 90% hot rolling, although the grain refinement originating from the DRX was not significant (the "less active DRX" condition increased the strain accumulation during the process, resulting in high-strength samples). The weakened texture development resulted in negligible in-plane anisotropy for the hot-rolled specimen strength, when the specimens were tensile strained in the rolling direction (RD) and transverse direction (TD). The elongation-to-failure, however, exhibited a difference with respect to the tensile loading axis. It is suggested that the ductility anisotropy is closely related to a strain-induced γ (fcc) → ε (hcp) martensitic transformation during tensile loading, resulting in a difference in the proportion of quasi-cleavage fracture surfaces. The obtained results will be helpful in the development of high-strength Co-Cr-Mo alloy plates and sheets, and have implications regarding plastic deformation and texture evolution during the hot rolling of non-conventional metallic materials with low SFE at elevated temperatures, where planar dislocation slips of Shockley partial dislocations and thermally activated process interplay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemical Testing of Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Lister; R. E. Mizia; H. Tian

    2005-10-01

    The waste package site recommendation design specified a boron-containing stainless steel, Neutronit 976/978, for fabrication of the internal baskets that will be used as a corrosion-resistant neutron-absorbing material. Recent corrosion test results gave higher-than-expected corrosion rates for this material. The material callout for these components has been changed to a Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy (ASTM-B 932-04, UNS N06464) that is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. This report discusses the results of initial corrosion testing of this material in simulated in-package environments that could contact the fuel baskets after breach of the waste package outer barrier. The corrosion test matrix wasmore » executed using the potentiodynamic and potentiostatic electrochemical test techniques. The alloy performance shows low rates of general corrosion after initial removal of a gadolinium-rich second phase that intersects the surface. The high halide-containing test solutions exhibited greater tendencies toward initiation of crevice corrosion.« less

  13. Electrochemical hydrogen storage alloys and batteries fabricated from Mg containing base alloys

    DOEpatents

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrogen storage material comprising: (Base Alloy).sub.a M.sub.b where, Base Alloy is an alloy of Mg and Ni in a ratio of from about 1:2 to about 2:1, preferably 1:1; M represents at least one modifier element chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, Cu, Mo, W, Cr, V, Ti, Zr, Sn, Th, Si, Zn, Li, Cd, Na, Pb, La, Mm, and Ca; b is greater than 0.5, preferably 2.5, atomic percent and less than 30 atomic percent; and a+b=100 atomic percent. Preferably, the at least one modifier is chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, and Cu and the total mass of the at least one modifier element is less than 25 atomic percent of the final composition. Most preferably, the total mass of said at least one modifier element is less than 20 atomic percent of the final composition.

  14. Defects-tolerant Co-Cr-Mo dental alloys prepared by selective laser melting.

    PubMed

    Qian, B; Saeidi, K; Kvetková, L; Lofaj, F; Xiao, C; Shen, Z

    2015-12-01

    CrCoMo alloy specimens were successfully fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM). The aim of this study was to carefully investigate microstructure of the SLM specimens in order to understand the influence of their structural features inter-grown on different length scales ranging from nano- to macro-levels on their mechanical properties. Two different sets of processing parameters developed for building the inner part (core) and the surface (skin) of dental prostheses were tested. Microstructures were characterized by SEM, EBSD and XRD analysis. The elemental distribution was assessed by EDS line profile analysis under TEM. The mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. The microstructures of both specimens were characterized showing formation of grains comprised of columnar sub-grains with Mo-enrichment at the sub-grain boundaries. Clusters of columnar sub-grains grew coherently along one common crystallographic direction forming much larger single crystal grains which are intercrossing in different directions forming an overall dendrite-like microstructure. Three types of microstructural defects were occasionally observed; small voids (<10 μm), fine cracks at grain boundaries (<10 μm) and cracks at weld line boundaries (>10 μm). Despite the presence of these defects, the yield and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were 870 and 430MPa and 1300MPa and 1160MPa, respectively, for the skin and core specimens which are higher than casted dental alloy. Although the formation of microstructural defects is hard to be avoided during the SLM process, the SLM CoCrMo alloys can achieve improved mechanical properties than their casted counterparts, implying they are "defect-tolerant". Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fabrication of thin film TiO2 nanotube arrays on Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy by anodization.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jiahua; Frandsen, Christine J; Noh, Kunbae; Johnston, Gary W; He, Guo; Tang, Tingting; Jin, Sungho

    2013-04-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization of Ti/Au/Ti trilayer thin film DC sputtered onto forged and cast Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy substrate at 400 °C. Two different types of deposited film structures (Ti/Au/Ti trilayer and Ti monolayer), and two deposition temperatures (room temperature and 400 °C) were compared in this work. The concentrations of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and H2O in glycerol electrolyte were varied to study their effect on the formation of TiO2 nanotube arrays on a forged and cast Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The results show that Ti/Au/Ti trilayer thin film and elevated temperature sputtered films are favorable for the formation of well-ordered nanotube arrays. The optimized electrolyte concentration for the growth of TiO2 nanotube arrays on forged and cast Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy was obtained. This work contains meaningful results for the application of a TiO2 nanotube coating to a CoCr alloy implant for potential next-generation orthopedic implant surface coatings with improved osseointegrative capabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An Investigation on the Tribological Performances of the SiO2/MoS2 Hybrid Nanofluids for Magnesium Alloy-Steel Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongmei; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Bo; Wang, Qinghang; Xu, Junyao; Pan, Fusheng

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid nano-materials offer potential scope for an increasing numerous novel applications when engineered to deliver availably functional properties. In the present study, the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles with different mass ratios were employed as lubricant additives in the base oil, and their tribological properties were evaluated using a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer for magnesium alloy-steel contacts. The results demonstrate that the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles exhibit superior lubrication performances than individual nano-SiO2 or nano-MoS2 even in high load and diverse velocity cases. The optimal SiO2/MoS2 mixing ratio and the concentration of SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles in the base oil are 0.25:0.75 and 1.00-1.25 wt%, respectively. The excellent lubrication properties of the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles are attributed to the physical synergistic lubricating actions of nano-SiO2 and nano-MoS2 during the rubbing process.

  17. An Investigation on the Tribological Performances of the SiO2/MoS2 Hybrid Nanofluids for Magnesium Alloy-Steel Contacts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongmei; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Bo; Wang, Qinghang; Xu, Junyao; Pan, Fusheng

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid nano-materials offer potential scope for an increasing numerous novel applications when engineered to deliver availably functional properties. In the present study, the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles with different mass ratios were employed as lubricant additives in the base oil, and their tribological properties were evaluated using a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer for magnesium alloy-steel contacts. The results demonstrate that the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles exhibit superior lubrication performances than individual nano-SiO2 or nano-MoS2 even in high load and diverse velocity cases. The optimal SiO2/MoS2 mixing ratio and the concentration of SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles in the base oil are 0.25:0.75 and 1.00-1.25 wt%, respectively. The excellent lubrication properties of the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles are attributed to the physical synergistic lubricating actions of nano-SiO2 and nano-MoS2 during the rubbing process.

  18. Autonomous Filling of Grain-Boundary Cavities during Creep Loading in Fe-Mo Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Fang, H.; Gramsma, M. E.; Kwakernaak, C.; Sloof, W. G.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Kuzmina, M.; Herbig, M.; Raabe, D.; Brück, E.; van der Zwaag, S.; van Dijk, N. H.

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the autonomous repair of creep damage by site-selective precipitation in a binary Fe-Mo alloy (6.2 wt pct Mo) during constant-stress creep tests at temperatures of 813 K, 823 K, and 838 K (540 °C, 550 °C, and 565 °C). Scanning electron microscopy studies on the morphology of the creep-failed samples reveal irregularly formed deposits that show a close spatial correlation with the creep cavities, indicating the filling of creep cavities at grain boundaries by precipitation of the Fe2Mo Laves phase. Complementary transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography have been used to characterize the precipitation mechanism and the segregation at grain boundaries in detail.

  19. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0-20Fe, 10-30Cr, 2-12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05-3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01-0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni.

  20. Effects of substitution of Mo for Nb on less-common properties of Finemet alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butvin, P.; Butvinová, B.; Silveyra, J. M.; Chromčíková, M.; Janičkovič, D.; Sitek, J.; Švec, P.; Vlasák, G.

    2010-10-01

    Particular properties of Fe-Nb/Mo-Cu-B-Si rapidly quenched ribbons were examined. Apart from minor variation, no significant difference due to the Mo for Nb substitution was observed in alloy density and its annealing-induced changes. The same holds for the anisotropic thermal expansion of as-cast ribbon when annealed and for induced anisotropy when annealed under stress. The Mo-substituted ribbons show only slightly higher crystallinity and lower coercivity if annealed in inert gas ambience than in vacuum. Some diversity in surface to interior heterogeneity of the differently annealed ribbons can still be distinguished. Preserving a minor percentage of Nb together with Mo does not seem substantiated to obtain favorable soft magnetic properties of ribbons annealed in inert gas.

  1. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0--20Fe, 10--30Cr, 2--12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05--3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01--0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni. 3 figs.

  2. Structural Stabilities of β-Ti Alloys Studied Using a New Mo Equivalent Derived from [ β/( α + β)] Phase-Boundary Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Dong, Chuang; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-08-01

    Structural stabilities of β-Ti alloys are generally investigated by an empirical Mo equivalent, which quantifies the stability contribution of each alloying element, M, in comparison to that of the major β-Ti stabilizer, Mo. In the present work, a new Mo equivalent (Moeq)Q is proposed, which uses the slopes of the boundary lines between the β and ( α + β) phase zones in binary Ti-M phase diagrams. This (Moeq)Q reflects a simple fact that the β-Ti stability is enhanced, when the β phase zone is enlarged by a β-Ti stabilizer. It is expressed as (Moeq)Q = 1.0 Mo + 0.74 V + 1.01 W + 0.23 Nb + 0.30 Ta + 1.23 Fe + 1.10 Cr + 1.09 Cu + 1.67 Ni + 1.81 Co + 1.42 Mn + 0.38 Sn + 0.34 Zr + 0.99 Si - 0.57 Al (at. pct), where the equivalent coefficient of each element is the slope ratio of the [ β/( α + β)] boundary line of the binary Ti-M phase diagram to that of the Ti-Mo. This (Moeq)Q is shown to reliably characterize the critical stability limit of multi-component β-Ti alloys with low Young's moduli, where the critical lower limit for β stabilization is (Moeq)Q = 6.25 at. pct or 11.8 wt pct Mo.

  3. Deformation mechanisms to ameliorate the mechanical properties of novel TRIP/TWIP Co-Cr-Mo-(Cu) ultrafine eutectic alloys

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. T.; Hong, S. H.; Park, H. J.; Kim, Y. S.; Suh, J. Y.; Lee, J. K.; Park, J. M.; Maity, T.; Eckert, J.; Kim, K. B.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the microstructural evolution and the modulation of the mechanical properties have been investigated for a Co-Cr-Mo (CCM) ternary eutectic alloy by addition of a small amount of copper (0.5 and 1 at.%). The microstructural observations reveal a distinct dissimilarity in the eutectic structure such as a broken lamellar structure and a well-aligned lamellar structure and an increasing volume fraction of Co lamellae as increasing amount of copper addition. This microstructural evolution leads to improved plasticity from 1% to 10% without the typical tradeoff between the overall strength and compressive plasticity. Moreover, investigation of the fractured samples indicates that the CCMCu alloy exhibits higher plastic deformability and combinatorial mechanisms for improved plastic behavior. The improved plasticity of CCMCu alloys originates from several deformation mechanisms; i) slip, ii) deformation twinning, iii) strain-induced transformation and iv) shear banding. These results reveal that the mechanical properties of eutectic alloys in the Co-Cr-Mo system can be ameliorated by micro-alloying such as Cu addition. PMID:28067248

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of zirconium doped NiAl/Cr(Mo) hypoeutectic alloy prepared by injection casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, L. Y.; Du, B. N.; Guo, J. T.

    2017-01-01

    NiAl based materials has been considered as most potential candidate of turbine blade, due to its excellent high-temperature properties. However the bad room-temperature properties handicap its application. In the present paper, the zirconium doped NiAl/Cr(Mo) hypoeutectic alloy is fabricated by conventional casting and injection casting technology to improve its room-temperature properties. The microstructure and compressive properties at different temperatures of the conventionally-cast and injection-cast were investigated. The results exhibit that the conventionally-cast alloy comprises coarse primary NiAl phase and eutectic cell, which is dotted with irregular Ni2AlZr Heusler phase. Compared with the conventionally-cast alloy, the injection-cast alloy possesses refined the primary NiAl, eutectic cell and eutectic lamella. In addition, the Ni2AlZr Heusler phase become smaller and distribute uniformly. Moreover, the injection casting decrease the area fraction of primary NiAl phase at the cell interior or cell boundaries. The compressive ductility and yield strength of the injection-cast alloy at room temperature increase by about 100% and 35% over those of conventionally-cast alloy, which should be ascribed to the microstructure optimization.

  5. Effect of molybdenum additions on the microstructures and corrosion behaviours of 316L stainless steel-based alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Rahman, T.; Ebert, W. L.; Indacochea, J. E.

    2018-02-28

    Alloys were made by alloying 5, 10, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt % Mo with Type 316L stainless steel. Sigma phases containing 21–29 wt % Mo formed along the austenite grain boundaries with the addition of 5 wt % Mo and increased with additions up to 15 wt % Mo, but they decreased with further additions. Laves phases containing 33–40 wt % Mo co-precipitated at additions of 10 wt % Mo which increased with further Mo increases. The corrosion resistance, assessed by potentiodynamic polarisation in a 10 mM NaCl solution adjusted to pH 4, increased relative to Type 316L formore » alloys made with 5 and 10 wt % added Mo, but decreased with further additions due to preferential corrosion of the Laves phase. The alloy made with 10 wt % added Mo had the highest corrosion resistance due primarily to the high Mo content of the austenite.« less

  6. Effect of molybdenum additions on the microstructures and corrosion behaviours of 316L stainless steel-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, T.; Ebert, W. L.; Indacochea, J. E.

    Alloys were made by alloying 5, 10, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt % Mo with Type 316L stainless steel. Sigma phases containing 21–29 wt % Mo formed along the austenite grain boundaries with the addition of 5 wt % Mo and increased with additions up to 15 wt % Mo, but they decreased with further additions. Laves phases containing 33–40 wt % Mo co-precipitated at additions of 10 wt % Mo which increased with further Mo increases. The corrosion resistance, assessed by potentiodynamic polarisation in a 10 mM NaCl solution adjusted to pH 4, increased relative to Type 316L formore » alloys made with 5 and 10 wt % added Mo, but decreased with further additions due to preferential corrosion of the Laves phase. The alloy made with 10 wt % added Mo had the highest corrosion resistance due primarily to the high Mo content of the austenite.« less

  7. Atomistic simulation of cubic and tetragonal phases of U-Mo alloy: Structure and thermodynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, S. V.; Kolotova, L. N.; Kuksin, A. Yu.; Smirnova, D. E.; Tseplyaev, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    We studied structure and thermodynamic properties of cubic and tetragonal phases of pure uranium and U-Mo alloys using atomistic simulations: molecular dynamics and density functional theory. The main attention was paid to the metastable γ0 -phase that is formed in U-Mo alloys at low temperature. Structure of γ0 -phase is similar to body-centered tetragonal (bct) lattice with displacement of a central atom in the basic cell along [ 001 ] direction. Such displacements have opposite orientations for part of the neighbouring basic cells. In this case, such ordering of the displacements can be designated as antiferro-displacement. Formation of such complex structure may be interpreted through forming of short U-U bonds. At heating, the tetragonal structure transforms into cubic γs -phase, still showing ordering of central atom displacements. With rise in temperature, γs -phase transforms to γ-phase with a quasi body-centered cubic (q-bcc) lattice. The local positions of uranium atoms in γ-phase correspond to γs -phase, however, orientations of the central atom displacements become disordered. Transition from γ0 to γ can be considered as antiferro-to paraelastic transition of order-disorder type. This approach to the structure description of uranium alloy allows to explain a number of unusual features found in the experiments: anisotropy of lattice at low temperature; remarkably high self-diffusion mobility in γ-phase; decreasing of electrical resistivity at heating for some alloys. In addition, important part of this work is the development of new interatomic potential for U-Mo system made with taking into account details of studied structures.

  8. Phase Evolution and Properties of Al2CrFeNiMo x High-Entropy Alloys Coatings by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Jiang, Li; Jiang, Hui; Pan, Xuemin; Cao, Zhiqiang; Deng, Dewei; Wang, Tongmin; Li, Tingju

    2015-10-01

    A series of Al2CrFeNiMo x ( x = 0 to 2.0 at.%) high-entropy alloys coatings was synthesized on stainless steel by laser cladding. The effect of Mo content on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al2CrFeNiMo x coatings was studied. The results show that the laser clad layer consists of the cladding zone, bonding zone, and heat-affected zone. The Al2CrFeNiMo x coatings are composed of two simple body-center cubic phases and the cladding zone is mainly composed of equiaxed grains. When the content of Mo reaches 2 at.%, a eutectic structure is found in the interdendritic regions. The surface microhardness of the Al2CrFeNiMo2 coating is 678 HV, which is about three times higher than that of the substrate (243 HV). Compared with stainless steel, the wear resistance of the coatings has been improved greatly. The wear mass loss of the Al2CrFeNiMo alloy is 9.8 mg, which is much less than that of the substrate (18.9 mg) and its wear scar width is the lowest among the Al2CrFeNiMo x coatings, indicating that the wear resistance of the Al2CrFeNiMo is the best.

  9. Studies on separation and purification of fission (99)Mo from neutron activated uranium aluminum alloy.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ankita; Kumar Sharma, Abhishek; Kumar, Pradeep; Charyulu, M M; Tomar, B S; Ramakumar, K L

    2014-07-01

    A new method has been developed for separation and purification of fission (99)Mo from neutron activated uranium-aluminum alloy. Alkali dissolution of the irradiated target (100mg) results in aluminum along with (99)Mo and a few fission products passing into solution, while most of the fission products, activation products and uranium remain undissolved. Subsequent purification steps involve precipitation of aluminum as Al(OH)3, iodine as AgI/AgIO3 and molybdenum as Mo-α-benzoin oxime. Ruthenium is separated by volatilization as RuO4 and final purification of (99)Mo was carried out using anion exchange method. The radiochemical yield of fission (99)Mo was found to be >80% and the purity of the product was in conformity with the international pharmacopoeia standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of alloying on gamma and gamma prime in nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Wallace, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the compositional limits of gamma and gamma prime phases in nickel-base superalloys. Fifty-one nickel-base alloys were melted under vacuum and heat treated for 4 hours at 1190 C followed by 1008 hours at 850 C. The alloys had the following composition ranges: A1 4.0 to 13 atomic percent, Cr 6.5 to 20.5 percent, Ti 0.25 to 4.75 percent, Mo 0.0 to 6.0 percent, and W 0.0 to 4.0 percent. The residues from the ammonium sulfate electrolytic extraction for the two-phase alloys were analyzed chemically and by X-ray diffraction. The results of the investigation were used to assemble a mathematical model of the gamma-gamma prime region of the Ni-Al-Cr-Ti-Mo-W system. A computer program was written to analyze the model of the phase diagram. Some of these results are also presented graphically. The resulting model is capable of satisfactorily predicting the compositions of conjugate gamma-gamma prime phases in the alloys investigated and twelve of fifteen commercial superalloys studied.

  11. Directionally Solidified NiAl-Based Alloys Studied for Improved Elevated-Temperature Strength and Room-Temperature Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, Sai V.; Locci, Ivan E.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts are underway to replace superalloys used in the hot sections of gas turbine engines with materials possessing better mechanical and physical properties. Alloys based on the intermetallic NiAl have demonstrated potential; however, they generally suffer from low fracture resistance (toughness) at room temperature and from poor strength at elevated temperatures. Directional solidification of NiAl alloyed with both Cr and Mo has yielded materials with useful toughness and elevated-temperature strength values. The intermetallic alloy NiAl has been proposed as an advanced material to extend the maximum operational temperature of gas turbine engines by several hundred degrees centigrade. This intermetallic alloy displays a lower density (approximately 30-percent less) and a higher thermal conductivity (4 to 8 times greater) than conventional superalloys as well as good high-temperature oxidation resistance. Unfortunately, unalloyed NiAl has poor elevated temperature strength (approximately 50 MPa at 1027 C) and low room-temperature fracture toughness (about 5 MPa). Directionally solidified NiAl eutectic alloys are known to possess a combination of high elevated-temperature strength and good room-temperature fracture toughness. Research has demonstrated that a NiAl matrix containing a uniform distribution of very thin Cr plates alloyed with Mo possessed both increased fracture toughness and elevated-temperature creep strength. Although attractive properties were obtained, these alloys were formed at low growth rates (greater than 19 mm/hr), which are considered to be economically unviable. Hence, an investigation was warranted of the strength and toughness behavior of NiAl-(Cr,Mo) directionally solidified at faster growth rates. If the mechanical properties did not deteriorate with increased growth rates, directional solidification could offer an economical means to produce NiAl-based alloys commercially for gas turbine engines. An investigation at the NASA Glenn

  12. TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Dennis Keiser

    2014-04-01

    As an essential part of global nuclear non-proliferation effort, the RERTR program is developing low enriched U-Mo fuels (< 20% U-235) for use in research and test reactors that currently employ highly enriched uranium fuels. One type of fuel being developed is a dispersion fuel plate comprised of U-7Mo particles dispersed in Al alloy matrix. Recent TEM characterizations of the ATR irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates include the samples with a local fission densities of 4.5, 5.2, 5.6 and 6.3 E+21 fissions/cm3 and irradiation temperatures of 101-136?C. The development of the irradiated microstructure of the U-7Mo fuel particles consists ofmore » fission gas bubble superlattice, large gas bubbles, solid fission product precipitates and their association to the large gas bubbles, grain subdivision to tens or hundreds of nanometer size, collapse of bubble superlattice, and amorphisation. This presentation will describe the observed microstructures specifically focusing on the U-7Mo fuel particles. The impact of the observed microstructure on the fuel performance and the comparison of the relevant features with that of the high burn-up UO2 fuels will be discussed.« less

  13. [Metallurgical differentiation of cobalt-chromium alloys for implants].

    PubMed

    Holzwarth, U; Thomas, P; Kachler, W; Göske, J; Schuh, A

    2005-10-01

    Cobalt Chromium alloys are used in cemented total hip or knee arthroplasty as well as in metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty. An increasing number of publications report about (allergic) reactions to wear particles of Cobalt Chromium alloys. Reactions to nickel are more frequent in comparison to Cobalt or Chromium particles. It is well known that different kinds of Cobalt Chromium alloys contain different amounts of alloying elements; nevertheless. The aim of the current work was to compare the different Cobalt Chromium alloys according to ASTM F or ISO standards in respect to the different alloying elements. Co28Cr6Mo casting alloys according to ASTM F 75 or ISO 5832-4 as well as forging alloy types according to ASTM F 799 and ISO 5832 such as Co20Cr15W10Ni, Co35Ni20Cr, Fe40Co20Cr10Ni, Co20Cr20Ni, and Co28Cr6Mo were analyzed in respect to their element content of Co, Cr, Ni, Mo, Fe, W, and Mn. In 1935 the Cobalt based alloy "Vitallium" Co30Cr5Mo basically used in the aircraft industry was introduced into medicine. The chemical composition of this alloy based on Cobalt showed 30 wt.% Chromium and 5 wt.% Molybdenum. The differentiation using alloy names showed no Nickel information in single alloy names. The information given about different alloys can lead to an unprecise evaluation of histopathological findings in respect to alloys or alloying constituents. Therefore, implant manufacturers should give the exact information about the alloys used and adhere to European law, Euronorm 93/42/EWG.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of the Corrosive Effect of Artificial Saliva of Variable pH on DMLS and Cast Co-Cr-Mo Dental Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Puskar, Tatjana; Jevremovic, Danimir; Williams, Robert J.; Eggbeer, Dominic; Vukelic, Djordje; Budak, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Dental alloys for direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) are available on the market today, but there is little scientific evidence reported on their characteristics. One of them is the release of ions, as an indicator of the corrosion characteristics of a dental alloy. Within this research, the difference in the elution of metals from DMLS and cast (CM) samples of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy in saliva-like medium of three different pH was examined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained results show that the metal elution in artificial saliva from the DMLS alloy was lower than the elution from the CM alloy. The release of all investigated metal ions was influenced by the acidity, both from the DMLS and CM alloy, throughout the investigated period of 30 days. The change in acidity from a pH of 6.8 to a pH of 2.3 for the cast alloy led to a higher increase of the elution of Co, Cr and Mo from CM than from the DMLS alloy. The greatest release out of Co, Cr and Mo was for Co for both tested alloys. Further, the greatest release of all ions was measured at pH 2.3. In saliva of pH 2.3 and pH 4.5, the longer the investigated period, the higher the difference between the total metal ion release from the CM and DMLS alloys. Both alloys showed a safe level of elution according to the ISO definition in all investigated acidic environments. PMID:28788197

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Corrosive Effect of Artificial Saliva of Variable pH on DMLS and Cast Co-Cr-Mo Dental Alloy.

    PubMed

    Puskar, Tatjana; Jevremovic, Danimir; Williams, Robert J; Eggbeer, Dominic; Vukelic, Djordje; Budak, Igor

    2014-09-11

    Dental alloys for direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) are available on the market today, but there is little scientific evidence reported on their characteristics. One of them is the release of ions, as an indicator of the corrosion characteristics of a dental alloy. Within this research, the difference in the elution of metals from DMLS and cast (CM) samples of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy in saliva-like medium of three different pH was examined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained results show that the metal elution in artificial saliva from the DMLS alloy was lower than the elution from the CM alloy. The release of all investigated metal ions was influenced by the acidity, both from the DMLS and CM alloy, throughout the investigated period of 30 days. The change in acidity from a pH of 6.8 to a pH of 2.3 for the cast alloy led to a higher increase of the elution of Co, Cr and Mo from CM than from the DMLS alloy. The greatest release out of Co, Cr and Mo was for Co for both tested alloys. Further, the greatest release of all ions was measured at pH 2.3. In saliva of pH 2.3 and pH 4.5, the longer the investigated period, the higher the difference between the total metal ion release from the CM and DMLS alloys. Both alloys showed a safe level of elution according to the ISO definition in all investigated acidic environments.

  16. Effect of Mo on Microstructures and Wear Properties of In Situ Synthesized Ti(C,N)/Ni-Based Composite Coatings by Laser Cladding.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Chen, Tao; Wang, Haojun; Liu, Defu

    2017-09-06

    Using Ni60 alloy, C, TiN and Mo mixed powders as the precursor materials, in situ synthesized Ti(C,N) particles reinforcing Ni-based composite coatings are produced on Ti6Al4V alloys by laser cladding. Phase constituents, microstructures and wear properties of the composite coatings with 0 wt % Mo, 4 wt % Mo and 8 wt % Mo additions are studied comparatively. Results indicate that Ti(C,N) is formed by the in situ metallurgical reaction, the (Ti,Mo)(C,N) rim phase surrounding the Ti(C,N) ceramic particle is synthesized with the addition of Mo, and the increase of Mo content is beneficial to improve the wear properties of the cladding coatings. Because of the effect of Mo, the grains are remarkably refined and a unique core-rim structure that is uniformly dispersed in the matrix appears; meanwhile, the composite coatings with Mo addition exhibit high hardness and excellent wear resistance due to the comprehensive action of dispersion strengthening, fine grain strengthening and solid solution strengthening.

  17. Effect of Mo on Microstructures and Wear Properties of In Situ Synthesized Ti(C,N)/Ni-Based Composite Coatings by Laser Cladding

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Wang, Haojun

    2017-01-01

    Using Ni60 alloy, C, TiN and Mo mixed powders as the precursor materials, in situ synthesized Ti(C,N) particles reinforcing Ni-based composite coatings are produced on Ti6Al4V alloys by laser cladding. Phase constituents, microstructures and wear properties of the composite coatings with 0 wt % Mo, 4 wt % Mo and 8 wt % Mo additions are studied comparatively. Results indicate that Ti(C,N) is formed by the in situ metallurgical reaction, the (Ti,Mo)(C,N) rim phase surrounding the Ti(C,N) ceramic particle is synthesized with the addition of Mo, and the increase of Mo content is beneficial to improve the wear properties of the cladding coatings. Because of the effect of Mo, the grains are remarkably refined and a unique core-rim structure that is uniformly dispersed in the matrix appears; meanwhile, the composite coatings with Mo addition exhibit high hardness and excellent wear resistance due to the comprehensive action of dispersion strengthening, fine grain strengthening and solid solution strengthening. PMID:28878190

  18. Effects of thermal treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of a Co-Cr-Mo-W biomedical alloy produced by laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Mengucci, P; Barucca, G; Gatto, A; Bassoli, E; Denti, L; Fiori, F; Girardin, E; Bastianoni, P; Rutkowski, B; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A

    2016-07-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technology based on a layer by layer production process was used to produce a Co-Cr-Mo-W alloy specifically developed for biomedical applications. The alloy mechanical response and microstructure were investigated in the as-sintered state and after post-production thermal treatments. Roughness and hardness measurements, and tensile and flexural tests were performed to study the mechanical response of the alloy while X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, STEM) techniques and microanalysis (EDX) were used to investigate the microstructure in different conditions. Results showed an intricate network of ε-Co (hcp) lamellae in the γ-Co (fcc) matrix responsible of the high UTS and hardness values in the as-sintered state. Thermal treatments increase volume fraction of the ε-Co (hcp) martensite but slightly modify the average size of the lamellar structure. Nevertheless, thermal treatments are capable of producing a sensible increase in UTS and hardness and a strong reduction in ductility. These latter effects were mainly attributed to the massive precipitation of an hcp Co3(Mo,W)2Si phase and the contemporary formation of Si-rich inclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of A2 to B2 Phase Transition in the High Entropy Alloy Mo-Nb-Ta-W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, William; Widom, Michael

    2014-03-01

    In this talk we show that an effective Hamiltonian fit with first principles calculations predicts an order/disorder transition occurs in the high entropy alloy Mo-Nb-Ta-W. Using the Alloy Theoretic Automated Toolset, we find T=0K enthalpies of formation for all binaries containing Mo, Nb, Ta, and W, and in particular we find the stable structures for binaries at equiatomic concentrations are close in energy to the associated B2 structure, suggesting that at intermediate temperatures a B2 phase is stabilized in Mo-Nb-Ta-W. Our ``hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics'' results for the Mo-Nb-Ta-W system are analyzed to identify certain preferred chemical bonding types. A mean field free energy model incorporating nearest neighbor bonds will be presented, allowing us to predict the mechanism of the order/disorder transition. We find the temperature evolution of the system is driven by strong Mo-Ta bonding. Comparison of the free energy model and our MC/MD results suggest the existence of additional low-temperature phase transitions in the system likely ending with phase segregation into binary phases. We would like to thank DOD-DTRA for funding this research under contract number DTRA-11-1-0064.

  20. Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in a model Ti-Mo-Al alloy studied by direct coupling of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Nag, Soumya; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2013-10-19

    The benefit of direct coupling of APT with TEM dark field imaging to investigate early stages of phase transformation in multicomponent alloys is demonstrated by analyzing alpha phase precipitated in a model Ti-10 at% Mo-10 at% Al alloy during annealing at 400oC. Through such a direct coupling approach a thermodynamically unexpected solute partitioning trend between beta matrix and alpha precipitate is observed in the early stages of precipitation, which is explained based on possible nucleation of alpha phase in the Ti rich (Mo and Al depleted regions) created as a result of phase separation in beta matrix. On further highermore » temperature annealing at 600oC for 1 hour, the alpha precipitates were shown to grow and get enriched in Al and further depleted in Mo reaching the thermodynamic equilibrium.« less

  1. Durable pd-based alloy and hydrogen generation membrane thereof

    DOEpatents

    Benn, Raymond C.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry

    2010-02-02

    A durable Pd-based alloy is used for a H.sub.2-selective membrane in a hydrogen generator, as in the fuel processor of a fuel cell plant. The Pd-based alloy includes Cu as a binary element, and further includes "X", where "X" comprises at least one metal from group "M" that is BCC and acts to stabilize the .beta. BCC phase for stability during operating temperatures. The metal from group "M" is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Cr, Nb, Ta, V, Mo, and W, with Nb and Ta being most preferred. "X" may further comprise at least one metal from a group "N" that is non-BCC, preferably FCC, that enhances other properties of the membrane, such as ductility. The metal from group "N" is selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Re, Ru, Rh, Y, Ce, Ni, Ir, Pt, Co, La and In. The at. % of Pd in the binary Pd--Cu alloy ranges from about 35 at. % to about 55 at. %, and the at. % of "X" in the higher order alloy, based on said binary alloy, is in the range of about 1 at. % to about 15 at. %. The metals are selected according to a novel process.

  2. Characterization of a High Strength, Refractory High Entropy Alloy, AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jacob

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) are a relatively new class of materials that have garnered significant interest over the last decade due to their intriguing balance of properties including high strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance. In contrast to conventional alloy systems, HEAs are based on four or more principal elements with near equimolar concentrations and tend to have simple microstructures due to the preferential formation of solid solution phases. HEAs appear to offer new pathways to lightweighting in structural applications, new alloys for elevated temperature components, and new magnetic materials, but more thorough characterization studies are needed to assess the viability of the recently developed multicomponent materials. One such HEA, AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr, was selected to be the basis for this characterization study in part due to its strength at elevated temperatures (sigma0.2 = 1600 MPa at T = 800 °C) and low density compared with commercially available Ni-based superalloys. The refractory element containing HEA composition was developed in order to balance the high temperature strength of the refractory elements with the desirable properties achieved by the high entropy alloying design approach for potential use in aerospace thermal protection and structural applications. Ingots of AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr were cast by vacuum arc melting followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and homogenization at 1400 °C for 24 hrs with a furnace cool of 10 °C/min. The resulting microstructure was characterized at multiple length scales using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM), conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM and STEM), and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The microstructure was found to consist of a periodic, coherent two phase mixture, where a disordered bcc phase is aligned orthogonally in an ordered B2 phase. Through microstructural evolution heat treatment studies, the

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Properties of CoCrMo Alloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoqing, Zhang; Junxin, Li; Xiaoyu, Zhou; Jin, Li; Anmin, Wang

    2018-04-01

    To obtain medical implants with better mechanical properties, it is necessary to conduct studies on the heat treatment process of the selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing parts. The differential scanning calorimetry method was used to study the heat treatment process of the phase transition of SLM CoCrMo alloy parts. The tensile properties were tested with a tensile test machine, the quantity of carbide precipitated after heat treatment was measured by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the tensile fracture morphology of the parts was investigated using SEM. The obtained results were: Mechanical properties in terms of elongation and tensile strength of CoCrMo alloy manufactured by SLM that had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h followed by cooling with water were not only higher than the national standard but also higher than the experimental results of the same batch of castings. The mechanism of fracture of parts manufactured by SLM without heat treatment was brittle fracture, whereas parts which had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h combined with water cooling and at 1200 °C for 1 h with furnace cooling suffered ductile fracture. This study provides the basis for defining the applications for which CoCrMo alloys manufactured by SLM are suitable within the field of medical implants.

  4. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Properties of CoCrMo Alloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoqing, Zhang; Junxin, Li; Xiaoyu, Zhou; Jin, Li; Anmin, Wang

    2018-05-01

    To obtain medical implants with better mechanical properties, it is necessary to conduct studies on the heat treatment process of the selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing parts. The differential scanning calorimetry method was used to study the heat treatment process of the phase transition of SLM CoCrMo alloy parts. The tensile properties were tested with a tensile test machine, the quantity of carbide precipitated after heat treatment was measured by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the tensile fracture morphology of the parts was investigated using SEM. The obtained results were: Mechanical properties in terms of elongation and tensile strength of CoCrMo alloy manufactured by SLM that had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h followed by cooling with water were not only higher than the national standard but also higher than the experimental results of the same batch of castings. The mechanism of fracture of parts manufactured by SLM without heat treatment was brittle fracture, whereas parts which had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h combined with water cooling and at 1200 °C for 1 h with furnace cooling suffered ductile fracture. This study provides the basis for defining the applications for which CoCrMo alloys manufactured by SLM are suitable within the field of medical implants.

  5. DFT study of structural and electronic properties of MoS2(1-x)Se2x alloy (x = 0.25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Julia; Gusakov, Vasilii; Tay, Beng Kang

    2018-04-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to study the structural features of the monolayer MoS2(1-x)Se2x (x = 0.25) alloy and its electronic properties. We studied the effects of the relative positions of Se atoms in a real monolayer alloy. It was demonstrated that the distribution of the Se atoms between the top and bottom chalcogen planes was most energetically favorable. For a more probable distribution of Se atoms, a MoS2(1-x)Se2x (x = 0.25) monolayer alloy is a direct semiconductor with a fundamental band gap equal to 2.35 eV (calculated with the GVJ-2e method). We also evaluated the optical band gap of the alloy at 77 K (1.86 eV) and at room temperature (1.80 eV), which was in good agreement with the experimentally measured band gap of 1.79 eV.

  6. Effect of Elemental Sulfur and Sulfide on the Corrosion Behavior of Cr-Mo Low Alloy Steel for Tubing and Tubular Components in Oil and Gas Industry.

    PubMed

    Khaksar, Ladan; Shirokoff, John

    2017-04-20

    The chemical degradation of alloy components in sulfur-containing environments is a major concern in oil and gas production. This paper discusses the effect of elemental sulfur and its simplest anion, sulfide, on the corrosion of Cr-Mo alloy steel at pH 2 and 5 during 10, 20 and 30 h immersion in two different solutions. 4130 Cr-Mo alloy steel is widely used as tubing and tubular components in sour services. According to the previous research in aqueous conditions, contact of solid sulfur with alloy steel can initiate catastrophic corrosion problems. The corrosion behavior was monitored by the potentiodynamic polarization technique during the experiments. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been applied to characterize the corrosion product layers after each experiment. The results show that under the same experimental conditions, the corrosion resistance of Cr-Mo alloy in the presence of elemental sulfur is significantly lower than its resistance in the presence of sulfide ions.

  7. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution at Ordered Mo 7 Ni 7

    SciTech Connect

    Csernica, Peter M.; McKone, James R.; Mulzer, Catherine R.

    2017-04-11

    Ni–Mo alloys containing up to ~15 mol % Mo are excellent non-noble electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline aqueous electrolytes. To date, studies have not addressed the details of HER activity of ordered Ni–Mo intermetallic compounds, which can contain a significantly larger fraction of Mo (up to 50 mol %) than can be accessed through high-temperature alloying. Here, we present a straightforward and facile synthesis of three phase-pure electrocatalyst powders using a precipitation–reduction approach: ordered Mo7Ni7, disordered Ni0.92Mo0.08, and pure Ni. The Ni0.92Mo0.08 alloy exhibited a nearly 10-fold higher mass-specific HER activity than either pure Ni ormore » Mo7Ni7, where much of the difference could be attributed to relative surface area. Therefore, we attempted to quantify and account for differences in surface areas using electron microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, and gas adsorption measurements. These data suggest that Ni–Mo alloys and intermetallic compounds exhibit substantial pseudocapacitance at potentials near the onset of hydrogen evolution, which can cause impedance spectroscopy to overestimate the interfacial capacitance, and thus the electrochemically active surface area, of these materials. From these observations, we postulate Mo redox activity as the chemical basis for the observed pseudocapacitance of Ni–Mo composites. Furthermore, using gas adsorption measurements, rather than capacitance, to estimate active surface area, we find that ordered Mo7Ni7 is more intrinsically active than the Ni0.92Mo0.08 alloy, implying that Mo7Ni7 intermetallics with high surface area will also give higher mass-specific activities than alloys with comparable roughness.« less

  8. Laser surface melting of 10 wt% Mo alloyed hardfacing Stellite 12 plasma transferred arc deposits: Structural evolution and high temperature wear performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilawary, Shaikh Asad Ali; Motallebzadeh, Amir; Afzal, Muhammad; Atar, Erdem; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2018-05-01

    Laser surface melting (LSM) process has been applied on the plasma transferred arc (PTA) deposited Stellite 12 and 10 wt% Mo alloyed Stellite 12 in this study. Following the LSM process, structural and mechanical property comparison of the LSM'ed surfaces has been made. Hardness of the LSM'ed surfaces was measured as 549 HV and 623 HV for the Stellite 12 and Stellite 12 + 10 wt% Mo deposits, respectively. Despite their different hardness and structural features, the LSM'ed surfaces exhibited similar tribological performance at room temperature (RT), where fatigue wear mechanism operates. However, the wear at 500 °C promotes tribo-oxide layer formation whose composition depended on the alloying with Mo. Thus, addition of 10 wt% Mo into Stellite 12 PTA deposit has remarkably enhanced the high temperature wear performance of the LSM'ed surface as a result of participation of complex oxide (CoMoO4) in tribo-oxide layer.

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Highly Alloyed FeCrMoVC Steel Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Jun, Joong-Hwan; Lee, Min-Ha; Shon, In-Jin; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we successfully fabricated highly alloyed FeCrMoVC specimens within 2 min by using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The densities of the sintered specimens were almost identical to their theoretical values. Fine (Mo, V)-rich carbides with lamellar structure were precipitated along the grain boundaries of the as-sintered specimen, whereas relatively large carbides were formed additionally in the transgranular region during the tempering treatment. Compared with the specimen produced by a conventional casting method, the FeCrMoVC specimens from SPS showed smaller grain size with finer carbides and higher hardness values.

  10. Hydrogen Induced Intergranular Cracking of Nickel-Base Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    alloys are discussed. Experimental The steel used in the present investigation is a fully bainitic 2 1/4 Cr-lMo pressure vessel steel , ASTM A542 Class 3...Appendix A describes recent experiments performed in order to study the influence of plastic deformation on hydrogen transport in a 214 Cr-lMo steel (8...PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON HYDROGEN TRANSPORT IN 2 1/4 Cr-lMo STEEL M. Kurkela, G.S. Frankel, and R.M. Latanision Department of Materials Science and

  11. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened turbine blade alloy by mechanical alloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, H. F.; Curwick, L. R. R.; Kim, Y. G.

    1977-01-01

    There were three nickel-base alloys containing up to 18 wt. % of refractory metal examined initially for oxide dispersion strengthening. To provide greater processing freedom, however, a leaner alloy was finally selected. This base alloy, alloy D, contained 0.05C/15Cr / 2Mo/4W/2Ta/4.5Al/2.Ti/015Zr/0.01-B/Bal. Ni. Following alloy selection, the effect of extrusion, heat treatment, and oxide volume fraction and size on microstructure and properties were examined. The optimum structure was achieved in zone annealed alloy D which contained 2.5 vol. % of 35 mm Y2O3 and which was extruded 16:1 at 1038 C.

  12. Microstructural characterization of low and high carbon CoCrMo alloy nanoparticles produced by mechanical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, T. A.; Goode, A. E.; Porter, A. E.; Ryan, M. P.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.; Brydson, R. M. D.

    2014-06-01

    CoCrMo alloys are utilised as the main material in hip prostheses. The link between this type of hip prosthesis and chronic pain remains unclear. Studies suggest that wear debris generated in-vivo may be related to post-operative complications such as inflammation. These alloys can contain different amounts of carbon, which improves the mechanical properties of the alloy. However, the formation of carbides could become sites that initiate corrosion, releasing ions and/or particles into the human body. This study analysed the mechanical milling of alloys containing both high and low carbon levels in relevant biological media, as an alternative route to generate wear debris. The results show that low carbon alloys produce significantly more nanoparticles than high carbon alloys. During the milling process, strain induces an fcc to hcp phase transformation. Evidence for cobalt and molybdenum dissolution in the presence of serum was confirmed by ICP-MS and TEM EDX techniques.

  13. Metal release and speciation of released chromium from a biomedical CoCrMo alloy into simulated physiologically relevant solutions.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of released Co, Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Mo from a biomedical high-carbon CoCrMo alloy exposed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), without and with the addition of 10 µM H2 O2 (PBS + H2 O2 ), and 10 g L(-1) bovine serum albumin (PBS + BSA) for time periods up to 28 days. Comparative studies were made on AISI 316L for the longest time period. No Cr(VI) release was observed for any of the alloys in either PBS or PBS + H2 O2 at open-circuit potential (no applied potential). However, at applied potentials (0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl), Cr was primarily released as Cr(VI). Co was preferentially released from the CoCrMo alloy at no applied potential. As a consequence, Cr was enriched in the utmost surface oxide reducing the extent of metal release over time. This passivation effect was accelerated in PBS + H2 O2 . As previously reported for 316L, BSA may also enhance metal release from CoCrMo. However, this was not possible to verify due to the precipitation of metal-protein complexes with reduced metal concentrations in solution as a consequence. This was particularly important for Co-BSA complexes after sufficient time and resulted in an underestimation of metals in solution. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Improvements of mechanical fatigue reliability of Cu interconnects on flexible substrates through MoTi alloy under-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Joo; Shin, Hae-A.-Seul; Nam, Dae-Hyun; Yeon, Han-Wool; Nam, Boae; Woo, Kyoohee; Joo, Young-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical fatigue of Cu films and lines on flexible substrates was investigated, and an improvement in the structures through the use of a MoTi alloy under-layer was proposed. Fatigue reliability was decreased by 3-fold in lines compared with films in the tensile condition and by 6-fold in the compressive condition. Crack formation was observed to be more detrimental for lines than for films. With a MoTi under-layer, the fatigue limit was increased by 2 times that of a structure without MoTi in the tensile condition and by 15 times in the compressive bending condition. The suppression of delamination through the use of a MoTi under-layer improved the fatigue reliability under compressive bending.

  15. Specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe-Cu-Mo alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haipeng; Luo, Bingchi; Chang, Jian; Wei, Bingbo

    2007-08-01

    The specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe77.5Cu13Mo9.5 monotectic alloy were investigated by an electromagnetic levitation drop calorimeter over a wide temperature range from 1482 to 1818 K. A maximum undercooling of 221 K (0.13 T m) was achieved and the specific heat was determined as 44.71 J·mol-1·K-1. The excess specific heat, enthalpy change, entropy change and Gibbs free energy difference of this alloy were calculated on the basis of experimental results. It was found that the calculated results by traditional estimating methods can only describe the solidification process under low undercooling conditions. Only the experimental results can reflect the reality under high undercooling conditions. Meanwhile, the thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and sound speed were derived from the present experimental results. Furthermore, the solidified microstructural morphology was examined, which consists of (Fe) and (Cu) phases. The calculated interface energy was applied to exploring the correlation between competitive nucleation and solidification microstructure within monotectic alloy.

  16. High strength Sn-Mo-Nb-Zr alloy tubes and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Cheadle, Brian A.

    1977-01-01

    Tubes for use in nuclear reactors fabricated from a quaternary alloy comprising 2.5-4.0 wt% Sn, 0.5-1.5 wt% Mo, 0.5-1.5 wt% Nb, balance essentially Zr. The tubes are fabricated by a process of hot extrusion, heat treatment, cold working to size and age hardening, so as to produce a microstructure comprising elongated .alpha. grains with an acicular transformed .beta. grain boundary phase.

  17. [Use of powder metallurgy for development of implants of Co-Cr-Mo alloy powder].

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, J R

    2001-04-01

    This paper discusses the application of powder metallurgy for the development of porous implantation materials. Powders obtained from Co-Cr-Mo alloy with different carbon content by water spraying and grinding, have been investigated. Cold pressing and rotary re-pressing methods were used for compressing the powder. It was found that the sintered materials obtained from water spraying have the most advantageous properties.

  18. Shear rupture of a directionally solidified eutectic gamma/gamma prime - alpha (Mo) alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1978-01-01

    Directionally solidified Mo alloys are evaluated to determine the shear rupture strength and to possibly improve it by microstructural and heat treatment variations. Bars of the alloy containing nominally 5.7% Al and 33.5% Mo by weight with balance Ni were directionally solidified at rates between 10 and 100 mm per hour in furnaces with thermal gradients at the liquid-solid interface of 250 or 100 C per cm. A limited number of longitudinal shear rupture tests were conducted at 760 C and 207 MPa in the as - solidified and in several heat treated conditions. It is shown that shear rupture failures are partly transgranular and that resistance to failure is prompted by good fiber alignment and a matrix structure consisting mainly of gamma prime. Well aligned as - solidified specimens sustained the shear stress for an average of 81 hours. A simulated coating heat treatment appeared to increase the transformation of gamma to gamma prime and raised the average shear life of aligned specimens to 111 hours. However, heat treatments at 1245 C and especially at 1190 C appeared to be detrimental by causing partial solutioning of the gamma prime, and reducing lives to 47 and 10 hours, respectively.

  19. Report on the Synchrotron Characterization of U-Mo and U-Zr Alloys and the Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    Okuniewski, Maria A.; Ganapathy, Varsha; Hamilton, Brenden

    2016-09-01

    ABSTRACT Uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) and uranium-zirconium (U-Zr) are two promising fuel candidates for nuclear transmutation reactors which burn long-lived minor actinides and fission products within fast spectrum reactors. The objectives of this research are centered on understanding the early stages of fuel performance through the examination of the irradiation induced microstructural changes in U-Zr and U-Mo alloys subjected to low neutron fluences. Specimens that were analyzed include those that were previously irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL. This most recent work has focused on a sub-set of the irradiated specimens, specifically U-Zr and U-Mo alloys that were irradiated tomore » 0.01 dpa at temperatures ranging from (150-800oC). These specimens were analyzed with two types of synchrotron techniques, including X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction. These techniques provide non-destructive microstructural analysis, including phase identification and quantitation, lattice parameters, crystallite sizes, as well as bonding, structure, and chemistry. Preliminary research has shown changes in the phase fractions, crystallite sizes, and lattice parameters as a function of irradiation and temperature. Future data analyses will continue to explore these microstructural changes.« less

  20. Vanadium Oxide Thin Films Alloyed with Ti, Zr, Nb, and Mo for Uncooled Infrared Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcelik, Adem; Cabarcos, Orlando; Allara, David L.; Horn, Mark W.

    2013-05-01

    Microbolometer-grade vanadium oxide (VO x ) thin films with 1.3 < x < 2.0 were prepared by pulsed direct-current (DC) sputtering using substrate bias in a controlled oxygen and argon environment. These films were systematically alloyed with Ti, Nb, Mo, and Zr using a second gun and radiofrequency (RF) reactive co-sputtering to probe the effects of the transition metals on the film charge transport characteristics. The results reveal that the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and resistivity are unexpectedly similar for alloyed and unalloyed films up to alloy compositions in the ˜20 at.% range. Analysis of the film structures for the case of the 17% Nb-alloyed film by glancing-angle x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy shows that the microstructure remains even with the addition of high concentrations of alloy metal, demonstrating the robust character of the VO x films to maintain favorable electrical transport properties for bolometer applications. Postdeposition thermal annealing of the alloyed VO x films further reveals improvement of electrical properties compared with unalloyed films, indicating a direction for further improvements in the materials.

  1. Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure and superelastic properties of a Ti-18Zr-4.5Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    In this study a new superelastic Ti-18Zr-4.5Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy was prepared by adding 2at% of Mo as a substitute for Nb to the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy, and heat treatment at different temperatures was conducted. The temperature dependence of superelasticity and annealing texture was investigated. Texture showed a dependence of annealing temperature: the specimen annealed at 923K for 0.3ks exhibited {113} β <47¯1> β type texture which was similar to the deformation texture, while specimens annealed at 973, 1073K, and 1173K showed {001} β <110> β type recrystallization texture which was preferable for recovery strain. The largest recovery strain of 6.2%, which is the same level as that of the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy, was obtained in the specimen annealed at 1173K for 0.3ks due to the well-developed {001} β <110> β type recrystallization texture. The Ti-18Zr-3Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy presented a higher tensile strength compared with the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy when heat treated at 1173K for 0.3ks, which was due to the solid solution strengthening effect of Mo. Annealing at 923K for 0.3ks was effective in obtaining a good combination of a high strength as 865MPa and a large recovery strain as 5.6%. The high recovery strain was due to the high stress at which the maximum recovery stain was obtained which was attributed to the small grain size formed at low annealing temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biocompatible low Young's modulus achieved by strong crystallographic elastic anisotropy in Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al alloy single crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-H; Todai, M; Tane, M; Hagihara, K; Nakajima, H; Nakano, T

    2012-10-01

    The elastic anisotropy of the Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al (mass%) β-Ti alloy, an ISO certified biomedical material, was investigated using its single crystal. It was revealed that the Young's modulus exhibited pronounced anisotropy. The Young's modulus was reduced to 44.4GPa along the 〈100〉 direction in the Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al single crystal, that is comparable to that of human cortical bones. We determined the strategy that β-Ti alloys with extremely low moduli can be developed by reducing the electron-atom (e/a) ratio in alloys, and by suppressing the formation of the ω-phase at the same time. This new knowledge must lead to the development of "single crystalline β-Ti implant materials" as hard tissue replacements for reducing the stress shielding effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. First-principles study of the surface properties of U-Mo system

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Zhi-Gang; Liang, Linyun; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    U-Mo alloys are promising fuels for future high-performance research reactors with low enriched uranium. Surface properties, such as surface energy, are important inputs for mesoscale simulations (e.g., phase field method) of fission gas bubble behaviors in irradiated nuclear fuels. The lack of surface energies of U-Mo alloys prevents an accurate modeling of the morphology of gas bubbles and gas bubble-induced fuel swelling. To this end, we study the surface properties of U-Mo system, including bcc Mo, alpha-U, gamma-U, and gamma U-Mo alloys. All surfaces up to a maximum Miller index of three and two are calculated for cubic Mo andmore » gamma-U and non-cubic alpha-U, respectively. The equilibrium crystal shapes of bcc Mo, alpha-U and gamma-U are constructed using the calculated surface energies. The dominant surface orientations and the area fraction of each facet are determined from the constructed equilibrium crystal shape. The disordered gamma U-Mo alloys are simulated using the Special Quasirandom Structure method. The (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) surface energies of gamma U-7Mo and U-10Mo alloys are predicted to lie between those of gamma-U and bcc Mo, following a linear combination of the two constituents' surface energies. To better compare with future measurements of surface energies, the area fraction weighted surface energies of alpha-U, gamma-U and gamma U-7Mo and U-10Mo alloys are also predicted. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.« less

  4. Controllable synthesis of molybdenum tungsten disulfide alloy for vertically composition-controlled multilayer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeong-Gyu; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Lee, Su Jeong; Sim, Sangwan; Lee, Chang Wan; Choi, Taejin; Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Youngjun; Lee, Zonghoon; Myoung, Jae-Min; Dussarrat, Christian; Lansalot-Matras, Clement; Park, Jusang; Choi, Hyunyong; Kim, Hyungjun

    2015-01-01

    The effective synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides alloy is essential for successful application in electronic and optical devices based on a tunable band gap. Here we show a synthesis process for Mo1−xWxS2 alloy using sulfurization of super-cycle atomic layer deposition Mo1−xWxOy. Various spectroscopic and microscopic results indicate that the synthesized Mo1−xWxS2 alloys have complete mixing of Mo and W atoms and tunable band gap by systematically controlled composition and layer number. Based on this, we synthesize a vertically composition-controlled (VCC) Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer using five continuous super-cycles with different cycle ratios for each super-cycle. Angle-resolved X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer results reveal that a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer has different vertical composition and broadband light absorption with strong interlayer coupling within a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer. Further, we demonstrate that a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer photodetector generates three to four times greater photocurrent than MoS2- and WS2-based devices, owing to the broadband light absorption. PMID:26204328

  5. Interaction Between U-Mo Alloys and Alloys Al-Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, S. N.; Tarasov, B. A.; Shornikov, D. P.

    The main objective of the work is the experimental determination of the effect of doping on the kinetics of the interaction of beryllium, aluminum and uranium-molybdenum alloy dispersed in the nuclear fuel. It is shown that an increase in the content of Be in Al leads to a linear decrease in the rate of interaction of the alloy with uranium-molybdenum alloy. Besides AlBe-alloys have higher thermal and mechanical properties than other matrix alloys such as AlSi.

  6. Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys with iron contents as high as 82 at%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Feng; Liu, Xue; Zhao, Shao-Fan; Ding, Hong-Yu; Yao, Ke-Fu

    2015-07-01

    Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs) with high Fe contents are advantageous due to their high saturation magnetization and low cost. However, preparing Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents higher than 80 at% is difficult due to their poor glass forming abilities (GFA). In this study, an Fe81P8.5C5.5B2Si3 BAA with a diameter of 1 mm and a saturation magnetization of 1.56 T was successfully prepared using the fluxing and copper mold casting methods. In addition, by introducing a small amount of elemental Mo to the alloy, an Fe82Mo1P6.5C5.5B2Si3 BAA rod with a diameter of 1 mm, a high saturation magnetization of 1.59 T, a high yield stress of 3265 MPa, and a clear plasticity of 1.3% was prepared in the same way. The cost effectiveness and good magnetic properties of these newly-developed Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents as high as 82 at% would be advantageous and promising for industrial applications.

  7. Molybdenum-rhenium alloy based high-Q superconducting microwave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vibhor, E-mail: v.singh@tudelft.nl; Schneider, Ben H.; Bosman, Sal J.

    2014-12-01

    Superconducting microwave resonators (SMRs) with high quality factors have become an important technology in a wide range of applications. Molybdenum-Rhenium (MoRe) is a disordered superconducting alloy with a noble surface chemistry and a relatively high transition temperature. These properties make it attractive for SMR applications, but characterization of MoRe SMR has not yet been reported. Here, we present the fabrication and characterization of SMR fabricated with a MoRe 60–40 alloy. At low drive powers, we observe internal quality-factors as high as 700 000. Temperature and power dependence of the internal quality-factors suggest the presence of the two level systems from themore » dielectric substrate dominating the internal loss at low temperatures. We further test the compatibility of these resonators with high temperature processes, such as for carbon nanotube chemical vapor deposition growth, and their performance in the magnetic field, an important characterization for hybrid systems.« less

  8. Evaluation of metal ion release from Ti6Al4V and Co-Cr-Mo casting alloys: in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    El Sawy, Amal A; Shaarawy, Mohammed A

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of ions released from Ti6Al4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloys both in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-one discs of each alloy were constructed and divided into seven groups. Three specimens from each group were immersed in a buffered saline solution over a period of 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Twenty-eight participants were also included in the study, where the study group consisted of 14 mandibular partially edentulous patients, and the control group consisted of 14 volunteers. The study group was further divided into two equal groups: the first group received removable partial dentures (RPDs) constructed from Co-Cr-Mo alloy, while the second group received RPDs constructed from Ti6Al4V alloy. Saliva samples were collected from each participant over the same study period. The conditioning media and saliva samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). The concentrations of metal ions released from the studied alloys were significantly higher in the in vitro than in the in vivo study group during the follow-up periods. A statistically significant increase in ion concentrations of the different elements for both alloys was found with time (p < 0.05). The amounts of released metallic ions from Co-Cr-Mo and Ti6Al4V alloys were higher in the buffered saline solutions than in the studied saliva samples and control groups; however, these amounts were still within the physiological limit of trace elements in the human body. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Micro-structural study and Rietveld analysis of fast reactor fuels: U-Mo fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Choudhuri, G.; Banerjee, J.; Agarwal, Renu; Khan, K. B.; Kumar, Arun

    2015-12-01

    U-Mo alloys are the candidate fuels for both research reactors and fast breeder reactors. In-reactor performance of the fuel depends on the microstructural stability and thermal properties of the fuel. To improve the fuel performance, alloying elements viz. Zr, Mo, Nb, Ti and fissium are added in the fuel. The first reactor fuels are normally prepared by injection casting. The objective of this work is to compare microstructure, phase-fields and hardness of as-cast four different U-Mo alloy (2, 5, 10 and 33 at.% Mo) fuels with the equilibrium microstructure of the alloys. Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer and optical microscope have been used to characterize the morphology of the as-cast and annealed alloys. The monoclinic α'' phase in as-cast U-10 at.% Mo alloy has been characterized through Rietveld analysis. A comparison of metallographic and Rietveld analysis of as-cast (dendritic microstructure) and annealed U-33 at.% Mo alloy, corresponding to intermetallic compound, has been reported here for the first time. This study will provide in depth understanding of microstructural and phase evolution of U-Mo alloys as fast reactor fuel.

  10. The effect of Cr, Co, Al, Mo and Ta on a series of cast Ni-base superalloys on the stability of an aluminide coating during cyclic oxidation in Mach 0.3 burner rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.; Barrett, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of varying the content of Co, Cr, Mo, Ta, and Al in a series of cast Ni-based gamma/gamma'superalloys on the behavior of aluminide coatings was studied in burner rig cyclic oxidation tests at 1100 C. The alloys had nominally fixed levels of Ti, W, Cb, Zr, C, and B. The alloy compositions were based on a full 2(sup 5)-fractional statistical design supplemented by 10 star point alloys and a center point alloy. This full central composite design of 43 alloys plus two additional alloys with extreme Al levels allowed a complete second degree estimating equation to be derived from the 5-compositional variables. The weight change/time data for the coated samples fitted well to the paralinear oxidation model and enabled a modified oxidation attack parameter, K'(sub a) to be derived to rank the alloys and log K' (sub a ) to be used as the dependent variable in the estimating equation to determine the oxidation resistance of the coating as a function of the underlying alloy content. The most protective aluminide coatings are associated with the highest possible base ally contents of CR and Al and at a 4 percent Ta level. The Mo and Co effects interact but at fixed levels of 0, 5, or 10% Co. A 4% Mo level is optimum.

  11. Magnetic Properties of Hard Magnetic Alloy Fe - 28% Cr - 13.4% Co - 2% Mo - 0.5% Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vompe, T. A.; Milyaev, I. M.; Yusupov, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The method of regression analysis is used to obtain equations describing the dependences of magnetic hysteresis properties of magnetically hard powder alloy Fe - 28% Cr - 13.4% Co - 2% Mo - 0.5% Si on regimes of thermomagnetic treatment (the temperatures of the start of the treatment and the rates of cooling in magnetic field). The determined treatment modes make it possible to obtain in an alloy with a coercive force H c up to 40 kA/m, a residual induction B r up to 1.2 T, and a maximum energy product ( BH)max up to 25 kJ/m3. The alloy may find application in the production of rotors of synchronous hysteresis-reluctance motors.

  12. The effect of nanobioceramic reinforcement on mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, M; Fathi, M H; Ahmadian, M

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the present research was to fabricate, characterize, and evaluate mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy composites with different amounts of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder reinforcement. The powder of Co-Cr-Mo alloy was mixed with different amounts of HA by ball milling and it was then cold pressed and sintered. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. Microhardness measurement and compressive tests were also carried out. Bioactivity behavior was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF). A significant decrease in modulus elasticity and an increase in microhardness of the sintered composites were observed. Apatite formation on the surface of the composites showed that it could successfully convert bioinert Co-Cr-Mo alloy to bioactive type by adding 10, 15, and 20wt.% HA which have lower modulus elasticity and higher microhardness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface compositional variations of Mo-47Re alloy as a function of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoekje, S. J.; Outlaw, R. A.; Sankaran, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium alloys are candidate materials for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) as well as for other applications in generic hypersonics. These materials are expected to be subjected to high-temperature (above 1200 C) casual hydrogen (below 50 torr), which could potentially degrade the material strength. Since the uptake of hydrogen may be controlled by the contaminant surface barriers, a study of Mo-47Re was conducted to examine the variations in surface composition as a function of temperature from 25 C to 1000 C. Pure molybdenum and rhenium were also examined and the results compared with those for the alloy. The analytical techniques employed were Auger electron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, and x ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The native surface was rich in metallic oxides that disappeared at elevated temperatures. As the temperature increased, the carbon and oxygen disappeared by 800 C and the surface was subsequently populated by the segregation of silicon, presumably from the grain boundaries. The alloy readily chemisorbed oxygen, which disappeared with heating. The disappearance temperature progressively increased for successive dosings. When the alloy was exposed to 800 torr of hydrogen at 900 C for 1 hour, no hydrogen interaction was observed.

  14. Elastoplastic properties of a low-modulus titanium-based β alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betekhtin, V. I.; Kolobov, Yu. R.; Golosova, O. A.; Kardashev, B. K.; Kadomtsev, A. G.; Narykova, M. V.; Ivanov, M. B.; Vershinina, T. N.

    2013-10-01

    The elastoplastic properties (elastic modulus, amplitude-independent damping ratio, microplastic flow stress) of a Ti-26Nb-7Mo-12Zr titanium β alloy are determined using an acoustic resonance method. The effect of the strain during thermomechanical treatment on the structural features of the micro-crystalline alloy and, hence, its elastoplastic properties is analyzed.

  15. Microstructural Effects on the Deformation and Fracture of the Alloy Ti- 25Al-10Nb-3B-1Mo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Materials Development Branch whose stimulating discussions on titanium aluminide physical and mechanical metallurgy helped immensely. This thesis may not... properties and fracture is somewhat different in the a 2 +0/B2 titanium aluminides from conventional a+13 titanium alloys. When trying to explain the...effects of microstructure and temperature on tensile and fracture behavior were explored for the titanium aluminide alloy Ti-25AI-l0Nb-3V-lMo (atomic

  16. Adsorption behavior of glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxy-silane on titanium alloy Ti-6.5Al-1Mo-1V-2Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-hua; Zhan, Zhong-wei; Yu, Mei; Li, Song-mei

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxy-silane (GTMS) on titanium alloy Ti-6.5Al-1Mo-1V-2Zr was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Tafel polarization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the XPS results, it was found that the silane coverage on the titanium surface generally increased with GTMS concentration, with a slight decrease at concentration of 0.1%. Based on the relationship between isoelectronic point (IEP) of titanium surface and the pH values of silane solutions, adsorption mechanisms at different concentrations were proposed. The surface coverage data of GTMS on titanium surface was also derived from electrochemical measurements. By linear fitting the coverage data, it revealed that the adsorption of GTMS on the titanium alloy surface at 30 °C was of a physisorption-based mechanism, and obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption equilibrium constant (Kads) and free energy of adsorption process (ΔGads) were calculated to elaborate the mechanism of GTMS adsorption.

  17. Micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of a biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in simulated physiological fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Yan; Huang, Weijiu; Chen, Xiaoli; He, Haoran

    2016-10-01

    The micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in Hank׳s solution with protein has been investigated using electrochemical measurements, tribological tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion potential (Ecorr) exhibits the maximum value at the abrasive concentration of 0.05gcm(-3) despite of the load level. The tribological results indicated that the total material loss of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy during micro-abrasion increased with the increasing abrasive concentration at a certain applied load. When the abrasive concentration is no more than 0.15gcm(-3), the total material loss increases with increasing load, while the total material loss exhibits the maximum value at a moderate load in case of higher abrasive concentration levels. This was ascribed to the three-body or two-body micro-abrasion-corrosion at different abrasive concentration levels. The wastage map, abrasion mode map and synergy map associated with the applied load and the abrasive concentration were constructed to evaluate the micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in potential biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    DOEpatents

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  19. Two phase titanium aluminide alloy

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Liu, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

  20. The Influence of Mo, Cr and B Alloying on Phase Transformation and Mechanical Properties in Nb Added High Strength Dual Phase Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girina, O.; Fonstein, N.; Yakubovsky, O.; Panahi, D.; Bhattacharya, D.; Jansto, S.

    The influence of Nb, Mo, Cr and B on phase transformations and mechanical properties are studied in a 0.15C-2.0Mn-0.3Si-0.020Ti dual phase steel separately and in combination. The formation and decomposition of austenite together with recrystallization of ferrite are evaluated by dilatometry and constructed CCT-diagrams in laboratory processed cold rolled material cooled after full austenitization and from intercritical temperature range. The effect of alloying elements on formation of austenite through their effect on initial hot rolled structure is taken into account. The interpretation of phase transformations during heating and cooling is supported by metallography. The effect of alloying elements on mechanical properties and structure are evaluated by annealing simulations. It has been shown that mechanical properties are strongly influenced by alloying additions such as Nb, Mo, Cr and B through their effect on ferrite formation during continuous cooling and corresponding enrichment of remaining austenite by carbon. Depending on combined effect of these alloying elements, different phase transformations can be promoted during cooling. This allows controlling of final microstructural constituents and mechanical properties.

  1. Cost Estimate for Molybdenum and Tantalum Refractory Metal Alloy Flow Circuit Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert R.; Martin, James J.; Schmidt, George R.; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Bryhan, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been tasked by the Naval Reactors Prime Contract Team (NRPCT) to provide a cost and delivery rough order of magnitude estimate for a refractory metal-based lithium (Li) flow circuit. The design is based on the stainless steel Li flow circuit that is currently being assembled for an NRPCT task underway at the EFF-TF. While geometrically the flow circuit is not representative of a final flight prototype, knowledge has been gained to quantify (time and cost) the materials, manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, and operations to produce a testable configuration. This Technical Memorandum (TM) also identifies the following key issues that need to be addressed by the fabrication process: Alloy selection and forming, cost and availability, welding, bending, machining, assembly, and instrumentation. Several candidate materials were identified by NRPCT including molybdenum (Mo) alloy (Mo-47.5 %Re), tantalum (Ta) alloys (T-111, ASTAR-811C), and niobium (Nb) alloy (Nb-1 %Zr). This TM is focused only on the Mo and Ta alloys, since they are of higher concern to the ongoing effort. The initial estimate to complete a Mo-47%Re system ready for testing is =$9,000k over a period of 30 mo. The initial estimate to complete a T-111 or ASTAR-811C system ready for testing is =$12,000k over a period of 36 mo.

  2. In situ phase transformation of Laves phase from Chi-phase in Mo-containing Fe–Cr–Ni alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, L.; Yang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    For an in situ phase transformation of the Chi (χ) phase to the Laves phase we observed in a Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo model alloy. The morphology, composition, and crystal structure of the χ and Laves phases, and their orientation relationship with the matrix austenite phase were investigated. The resulted Laves phase has larger lattice mismatch with the matrix phase than the χ phase, leading to the increase of local strain fields and the formation of dislocations. Moreover, this finding is helpful to understand the precipitation behavior of the intermetallic phases in the Mo-containing austenitic stainless steels.

  3. Effects of alloy composition on cyclic flame hot-corrosion attack of cast nickel-base superalloys at 900 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of Cr, Al, Ti, Mo, Ta, Nb, and W content on the hot corrosion of nickel base alloys were investigated. The alloys were tested in a Mach 0.3 flame with 0.5 ppmw sodium at a temperature of 900 C. One nondestructive and three destructive tests were conducted. The best corrosion resistance was achieved when the Cr content was 12 wt %. However, some lower-Cr-content alloys ( 10 wt%) exhibited reasonable resistance provided that the Al content alloys ( 10 wt %) exhibited reasonable resistance provided that the Al content was 2.5 wt % and the Ti content was Aa wt %. The effect of W, Ta, Mo, and Nb contents on the hot-corrosion resistance varied depending on the Al and Ti contents. Several commercial alloy compositions were also tested and the corrosion attack was measured. Predicted attack was calculated for these alloys from derived regression equations and was in reasonable agreement with that experimentally measured. The regression equations were derived from measurements made on alloys in a one-quarter replicate of a 2(7) statistical design alloy composition experiment. These regression equations represent a simple linear model and are only a very preliminary analysis of the data needed to provide insights into the experimental method.

  4. Laser-assisted development of titanium alloys: the search for new biomedical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Amelia; Gupta, Dheeraj; Vilar, Rui

    2011-02-01

    Ti-alloys used in prosthetic applications are mostly alloys initially developed for aeronautical applications, so their behavior was not optimized for medical use. A need remains to design new alloys for biomedical applications, where requirements such as biocompatibility, in-body durability, specific manufacturing ability, and cost effectiveness are considered. Materials for this application must present excellent biocompatibility, ductility, toughness and wear and corrosion resistance, a large laser processing window and low sensitivity to changes in the processing parameters. Laser deposition has been investigated in order to access its applicability to laser based manufactured implants. In this study, variable powder feed rate laser cladding has been used as a method for the combinatorial investigation of new alloy systems that offers a unique possibility for the rapid and exhaustive preparation of a whole range of alloys with compositions variable along a single clad track. This method was used as to produce composition gradient Ti-Mo alloys. Mo has been used since it is among the few elements biocompatible, non-toxic β-Ti phase stabilizers. Alloy tracks with compositions in the range 0-19 wt.%Mo were produced and characterized in detail as a function of composition using microscale testing procedures for screening of compositions with promising properties. Microstructural analysis showed that alloys with Mo content above 8% are fully formed of β phase grains. However, these β grains present a cellular substructure that is associated to a Ti and Mo segregation pattern that occurs during solidification. Ultramicroindentation tests carried out to evaluate the alloys' hardness and Young's modulus showed that Ti-13%Mo alloys presented the lowest hardness and Young's modulus (70 GPa) closer to that of bone than common Ti alloys, thus showing great potential for implant applications.

  5. On the Alloying and Properties of Tetragonal Nb₅Si₃ in Nb-Silicide Based Alloys.

    PubMed

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-01-04

    The alloying of Nb₅Si₃ modifies its properties. Actual compositions of (Nb,TM)₅X₃ silicides in developmental alloys, where X = Al + B + Ge + Si + Sn and TM is a transition and/or refractory metal, were used to calculate the composition weighted differences in electronegativity (Δχ) and an average valence electron concentration (VEC) and the solubility range of X to study the alloying and properties of the silicide. The calculations gave 4.11 < VEC < 4.45, 0.103 < Δχ < 0.415 and 33.6 < X < 41.6 at.%. In the silicide in Nb-24Ti-18Si-5Al-5Cr alloys with single addition of 5 at.% B, Ge, Hf, Mo, Sn and Ta, the solubility range of X decreased compared with the unalloyed Nb₅Si₃ or exceeded 40.5 at.% when B was with Hf or Mo or Sn and the Δχ decreased with increasing X. The Ge concentration increased with increasing Ti and the Hf concentration increased and decreased with increasing Ti or Nb respectively. The B and Sn concentrations respectively decreased and increased with increasing Ti and also depended on other additions in the silicide. The concentration of Sn was related to VEC and the concentrations of B and Ge were related to Δχ. The alloying of Nb₅Si₃ was demonstrated in Δχ versus VEC maps. Effects of alloying on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) anisotropy, Young's modulus, hardness and creep data were discussed. Compared with the hardness of binary Nb₅Si₃ (1360 HV), the hardness increased in silicides with Ge and dropped below 1360 HV when Al, B and Sn were present without Ge. The Al effect on hardness depended on other elements substituting Si. Sn reduced the hardness. Ti or Hf reduced the hardness more than Cr in Nb₅Si₃ without Ge. The (Nb,Hf)₅(Si,Al)₃ had the lowest hardness. VEC differentiated the effects of additions on the hardness of Nb₅Si₃ alloyed with Ge. Deterioration of the creep of alloyed Nb₅Si₃ was accompanied by decrease of VEC and increase or decrease of Δχ depending on alloying addition(s).

  6. Direct in vivo inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of CoCrMo alloy orthopedic implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeremy L; Sivan, Shiril; Liu, Yangping; Kocagöz, Sevi B; Arnholt, Christina M; Kurtz, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy, used for over five decades in orthopedic implants, may corrode and release wear debris into the body during use. These degradation products may stimulate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. We report here on evidence of direct inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of human implanted and retrieved CoCrMo implant surfaces. Corrosion morphology on CoCrMo implant surfaces, in unique and characteristic patterns, and the presence of cellular remnants and biological materials intimately entwined with the corrosion indicates direct cellular attack under the cell membrane region of adhered and/or migrating inflammatory cells. Evidence supports a Fenton-like reaction mechanism driving corrosion in which reactive oxygen species are the major driver of corrosion. Using in vitro tests, large increases in corrosion susceptibility of CoCrMo were seen (40-100 fold) when immersed in phosphate buffered saline solutions modified with hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid to represent the chemistry under inflammatory cells. This discovery raises significant new questions about the clinical consequences of such corrosion interactions, the role of patient inflammatory reactions, and the detailed mechanisms at play. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of Ni-Cr-base alloys for SOFC interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guan-Guang; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    To further understand the suitability of Ni-Cr-base alloys for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect applications, three commercial Ni-Cr-base alloys, Haynes 230, Hastelloy S and Haynes 242 were selected and evaluated for oxidation behavior under different exposure conditions, scale conductivity and thermal expansion. Haynes 230 and Hastelloy S, which have a relatively high Cr content, formed a thin scale mainly comprised of Cr 2O 3 and (Mn,Cr,Ni) 3O 4 spinels under SOFC operating conditions, demonstrating excellent oxidation resistance and a high scale electrical conductivity. In contrast, a thick double-layer scale with a NiO outer layer above a chromia-rich substrate was grown on Haynes 242 in moist air or at the air side of dual exposure samples, indicating limited oxidation resistance for the interconnect application. With a face-centered-cubic (FCC) substrate, all three alloys possess a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that is higher than that of candidate ferritic stainless steels, e.g. Crofer22 APU. Among the three alloys, Haynes 242, which is heavily alloyed with W and Mo and contains a low Cr content, demonstrated the lowest average CTE at 13.1 × 10 -6 K -1 from room temperature to 800 °C, but it was also observed that the CTE behavior of Haynes 242 was very non-linear.

  8. Effects of thermal treatments on protein adsorption of Co-Cr-Mo ASTM-F75 alloys.

    PubMed

    Duncan, L A; Labeed, F H; Abel, M-L; Kamali, A; Watts, J F

    2011-06-01

    Post-manufacturing thermal treatments are commonly employed in the production of hip replacements to reduce shrinkage voids which can occur in cast components. Several studies have investigated the consequences of these treatments upon the alloy microstructure and tribological properties but none have determined if there are any biological ramifications. In this study the adsorption of proteins from foetal bovine serum (FBS) on three Co-Cr-Mo ASTM-F75 alloy samples with different metallurgical histories, has been studied as a function of protein concentration. Adsorption isotherms have been plotted using the surface concentration of nitrogen as a diagnostic of protein uptake as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The data was a good fit to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm up to the concentration at which critical protein saturation occurred. Differences in protein adsorption on each alloy have been observed. This suggests that development of the tissue/implant interface, although similar, may differ between as-cast (AC) and heat treated samples.

  9. A Comparative Study on Dwell Fatigue of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr- xMo ( x = 2 to 6) Alloys on a Microstructure-Normalized Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianke; Ma, Yingjie; Lei, Jiafeng; Liu, Yuyin; Huang, Aijun; Rugg, David; Yang, Rui

    2014-12-01

    The dwell effects of Ti624 x ( x = 2 to 6) alloys, including dwell fatigue life debit, fracture mode and strain accumulation, were characterized and compared. With increasing Mo content, the dwell fatigue life debit decreases quickly, and dwell fatigue fracture exhibits a transition from subsurface to surface initiation. Accompanying these changes, the accumulated strain decreases, and the pattern of secondary cracks loses morphological features typical of dwell cracks. These variations in the fatigue behavior of Ti624 x were attributed on the fundamental level to the dual effects of Mo: It decreases the β transus of titanium and, as a slow diffuser, reduces the rate of phase transformation from β to α. A higher Mo content encourages nucleation of multiple variants of α laths and promotes the transition from aligned colonies to basketweave microstructure during cooling after β forging. As a result both the grain size and microtexture intensity of α grains in the two-phase processed and heat treated microstructure are reduced. Smaller grain size of the alloys with higher Mo content produces smaller slip band spacing and reduces accumulated strain during dwell fatigue, thus reducing propensity for crack initiation. Microtexture was shown to be the direct cause of dwell sensitivity, and their relationship was described with the aid of a two-region redistribution model based on a previous two-element redistribution model proposed by Bache.

  10. Influence of the pulsed plasma treatment on the corrosion resistance of the low-alloy steel plated by Ni-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhumaev, P.; Yakushin, V.; Kalin, B.; Polsky, V.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents investigation results of the influence of high temperature pulsed plasma flows (HTPPF) treatment on the corrosion resistance of low-alloy steel 0.2C-Cr-Mn- Ni-Mo cladded by the rapidly quenched nickel-based alloy. A technique that allows obtaining a defect-free clad layer with a good adhesion to the substrate was developed. It is shown that the preliminary treatment of steel samples by nitrogen plasma flows significantly increases their corrosion resistance in the conditions of intergranular corrosion test in a water solution of sulfuric acid. A change of the corrosion mechanism of the clad layer from intergranular to uniform corrosion was observed as a result of sub-microcrystalline structure formation and homogeneous distribution of alloying elements in the plasma treated surface layer thus leading to the significant increase of the corrosion resistance.

  11. Design of refractory high-entropy alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, M. C.; Carney, C. S.; Dogan, O. N.; ...

    2015-09-15

    Here, this report presents a design methodology for refractory high-entropy alloys with a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure using select empirical parameters (i.e., enthalpy of mixing, atomic size difference, Ω-parameter, and electronegativity difference) and CALPHAD approach. Sixteen alloys in equimolar compositions ranging from quinary to ennead systems were designed with experimental verification studies performed on two alloys using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Two bcc phases were identified in the as-cast HfMoNbTaTiVZr, whereas multiple phases formed in the as-cast HfMoNbTaTiVWZr. Observed elemental segregation in the alloys qualitatively agrees with CALPHAD prediction. Comparisons of the thermodynamic mixing properties formore » liquid and bcc phases using the Miedema model and CALPHAD are presented. This study demonstrates that CALPHAD is more effective in predicting HEA formation than empirical parameters, and new single bcc HEAs are suggested: HfMoNbTiZr, HfMoTaTiZr, NbTaTiVZr, HfMoNbTaTiZr, HfMoTaTiVZr, and MoNbTaTiVZr.« less

  12. Stability of nanocrystalline Ni-based alloys: coupling Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseda, O.; Goldenstein, H.; Silva, G. F. B. Lenz e.; Neiva, A.; Chantrenne, P.; Morthomas, J.; Perez, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Veiga, R. G. A.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal stability of nanocrystalline Ni due to small additions of Mo or W (up to 1 at%) was investigated in computer simulations by means of a combined Monte Carlo (MC)/molecular dynamics (MD) two-steps approach. In the first step, energy-biased on-lattice MC revealed segregation of the alloying elements to grain boundaries. However, the condition for the thermodynamic stability of these nanocrystalline Ni alloys (zero grain boundary energy) was not fulfilled. Subsequently, MD simulations were carried out for up to 0.5 μs at 1000 K. At this temperature, grain growth was hindered for minimum global concentrations of 0.5 at% W and 0.7 at% Mo, thus preserving most of the nanocrystalline structure. This is in clear contrast to a pure Ni model system, for which the transformation into a monocrystal was observed in MD simulations within 0.2 μs at the same temperature. These results suggest that grain boundary segregation of low-soluble alloying elements in low-alloyed systems can produce high-temperature metastable nanocrystalline materials. MD simulations carried out at 1200 K for 1 at% Mo/W showed significant grain boundary migration accompanied by some degree of solute diffusion, thus providing additional evidence that solute drag mostly contributed to the nanostructure stability observed at lower temperature.

  13. MoSi2-Base Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2003-01-01

    Addition of 30 to 50 vol% of Si3N4 particulate to MoSi2 eliminated its low temperature catastrophic failure, improved room temperature fracture toughness and the creep resistance. The hybrid composite SCS-6/MoSi2-Si3N4 did not show any matrix cracking and exhibited excellent mechanical and environmental properties. Hi-Nicalon continuous fiber reinforced MoSi2-Si3N4 also showed good strength and toughness. A new MoSi2-base composite containing in-situ whisker-type (Beta)Si3N4 grains in a MoSi2 matrix is also described.

  14. Optimizing Wear Resistance and Impact Toughness in High Chromium Iron Mo-Ni Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. K.; Verma, R. S.; Murty, G. M. D.

    2009-06-01

    An alloy with carbon and chromium in the range of 2.0 to 2.5% and 20 to 25%, respectively, with the addition of Mo and Ni in the range of 1.0 to 1.5% each when heat-treated at a quenching temperature of 1010 °C and tempering temperature of 550 °C produces a hardness in the range of 54 to 56 HRC and a microstructure that consists of discontinuous bands of high volume (35-40%) of wear resistant primary (eutectic) carbides in a tempered martensitic matrix with uniformly dispersed secondary precipitates. This alloy has been found to possess adequate impact toughness (5-6 J/cm2) with a wear resistance of the order of 3-4 times superior to Mn steel and 1.25 times superior to martensitic stainless steel with a reduction in cost-to-life ratio by a factor of 1.25 in both the cases.

  15. Piercing mandrel strengthening by surfacing with nickel aluminide-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorin, I. V.; Dubtsov, Yu N.; Sokolov, G. N.; Artem'ev, A. A.; Lysak, V. I.; Elsukov, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    Electrode composite wire (CW) was used for argon-arc surfacing of a thermal-resisting nickel aluminide-based alloy (Ni-Al-Cr-W-Mo-Ta system) on the butt-end surface of the non-water-cooled piercing mandrel. It was shown that multipassing surfacing forms a defect-free deposited metal based on the γ’-Ni3Al phase of various structural origins. Using high-temperature sclerometry and thermal fatigue testing methods, the metal deposited with CW containing ultrafine particle of 0.3-0.4 % wt. WC carbide features increased resistance to thermal and force effects at temperatures up to 1200 °C.

  16. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution of Mo-Bearing Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. D.; Dupont, J. N.; Perricone, M. J.; Marder, A. R.

    2007-01-01

    The good corrosion resistance of superaustenitic stainless steel (SASS) alloys has been shown to be a direct consequence of high concentrations of Mo, which can have a significant effect on the microstructural development of welds in these alloys. In this research, the microstructural development of welds in the Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo system was analyzed over a wide variety of Cr/Ni ratios and Mo contents. The system was first simulated by construction of multicomponent phase diagrams using the CALPHAD technique. Data from vertical sections of these diagrams are presented over a wide compositional range to produce diagrams that can be used as a guide to understand the influence of composition on microstructural development. A large number of experimental alloys were then prepared via arc-button melting for comparison with the diagrams. Each alloy was characterized using various microscopy techniques. The expected δ-ferrite and γ-austenite phases were accompanied by martensite at low Cr/Ni ratios and by σ phase at high Mo contents. A total of 20 possible phase transformation sequences are proposed, resulting in various amounts and morphologies of the γ, δ, σ, and martensite phases. The results were used to construct a map of expected phase transformation sequence and resultant microstructure as a function of composition. The results of this work provide a working guideline for future base metal and filler metal development of this class of materials.

  17. Computational modeling of high-entropy alloys: Structures, thermodynamics and elasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Michael C.; Gao, Pan; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    This study provides a short review on computational modeling on the formation, thermodynamics, and elasticity of single-phase high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Hundreds of predicted single-phase HEAs were re-examined using various empirical thermo-physical parameters. Potential BCC HEAs (CrMoNbTaTiVW, CrMoNbReTaTiVW, and CrFeMoNbReRuTaVW) were suggested based on CALPHAD modeling. The calculated vibrational entropies of mixing are positive for FCC CoCrFeNi, negative for BCC MoNbTaW, and near-zero for HCP CoOsReRu. The total entropies of mixing were observed to trend in descending order: CoCrFeNi > CoOsReRu > MoNbTaW. Calculated lattice parameters agree extremely well with averaged values estimated from the rule of mixtures (ROM) if themore » same crystal structure is used for the elements and the alloy. The deviation in the calculated elastic properties from ROM for select alloys is small but is susceptible to the choice used for the structures of pure components.« less

  18. Computational modeling of high-entropy alloys: Structures, thermodynamics and elasticity

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Michael C.; Gao, Pan; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; ...

    2017-10-12

    This study provides a short review on computational modeling on the formation, thermodynamics, and elasticity of single-phase high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Hundreds of predicted single-phase HEAs were re-examined using various empirical thermo-physical parameters. Potential BCC HEAs (CrMoNbTaTiVW, CrMoNbReTaTiVW, and CrFeMoNbReRuTaVW) were suggested based on CALPHAD modeling. The calculated vibrational entropies of mixing are positive for FCC CoCrFeNi, negative for BCC MoNbTaW, and near-zero for HCP CoOsReRu. The total entropies of mixing were observed to trend in descending order: CoCrFeNi > CoOsReRu > MoNbTaW. Calculated lattice parameters agree extremely well with averaged values estimated from the rule of mixtures (ROM) if themore » same crystal structure is used for the elements and the alloy. The deviation in the calculated elastic properties from ROM for select alloys is small but is susceptible to the choice used for the structures of pure components.« less

  19. Alloy design for intrinsically ductile refractory high-entropy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Saad; Shafeie, Samrand; Hu, Qiang; Ahlström, Johan; Persson, Christer; Veselý, Jaroslav; Zýka, Jiří; Klement, Uta; Guo, Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs), comprising group IV (Ti, Zr, Hf), V (V, Nb, Ta), and VI (Cr, Mo, W) refractory elements, can be potentially new generation high-temperature materials. However, most existing RHEAs lack room-temperature ductility, similar to conventional refractory metals and alloys. Here, we propose an alloy design strategy to intrinsically ductilize RHEAs based on the electron theory and more specifically to decrease the number of valence electrons through controlled alloying. A new ductile RHEA, Hf0.5Nb0.5Ta0.5Ti1.5Zr, was developed as a proof of concept, with a fracture stress of close to 1 GPa and an elongation of near 20%. The findings here will shed light on the development of ductile RHEAs for ultrahigh-temperature applications in aerospace and power-generation industries.

  20. Thermal cooling effects in the microstructure and properties of cast cobalt-base biomedical alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Valer, Vladimir

    Joint replacement prosthesis is widely used in the biomedical field to provide a solution for dysfunctional human body joints. The demand for orthopedic knee and hip implants motivate scientists and manufacturers to develop novel materials or to increase the life of service and efficiency of current materials. Cobalt-base alloys have been investigated by various researchers for biomedical implantations. When these alloys contain Chromium, Molybdenum, and Carbon, they exhibit good tribological and mechanical properties, as well as excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. In this study, the microstructure of cast Co-Cr-Mo-C alloy is purposely modified by inducing rapid solidification through fusion welding processes and solution annealing heat treatment (quenched in water at room temperature. In particular the effect of high cooling rates on the athermal phase transformation FCC(gamma)↔HCP(epsilon) on the alloy hardness and corrosion resistance is investigated. The Co-alloy microstructures were characterized using metallography and microscopy techniques. It was found that the as cast sample typically dendritic with dendritic grain sizes of approximately 150 microm and containing Cr-rich coarse carbide precipitates along the interdendritic boundaries. Solution annealing gives rise to a refined microstructure with grain size of 30 microm, common among Co-Cr-Mo alloys after heat treating. Alternatively, an ultrafine grain structure (between 2 and 10 microm) was developed in the fusion zone for specimens melted using Laser and TIG welding methods. When laser surface modification treatments were implemented, the developed solidification microstructure shifted from dendritic to a fine cellular morphology, with possible nanoscale carbide precipitates along the cellular boundaries. In turn, the solidified regions exhibited high hardness values (461.5HV), which exceeds by almost 110 points from the alloy in the as-cast condition. The amount of developed athermal

  1. Atom probe study of B2 order and A2 disorder of the FeCo matrix in an Fe-Co-Mo-alloy.

    PubMed

    Turk, C; Leitner, H; Schemmel, I; Clemens, H; Primig, S

    2017-07-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of intermetallic alloys can be tailored by controlling the degree of order of the solid solution by means of heat treatments. FeCo alloys with an appropriate composition exhibit an A2-disorder↔B2-order transition during continuous cooling from the disordered bcc region. The study of atomic order in intermetallic alloys by diffraction and its influence on the material properties is well established, however, investigating magnetic FeCo-based alloys by conventional methods such as X-ray diffraction is quite challenging. Thus, the imaging of ordered FeCo-nanostructures needs to be done with high resolution techniques. Transmission electron microscopy investigations of ordered FeCo domains are difficult, due to the chemical and physical similarity of Fe and Co atoms and the ferromagnetism of the samples. In this work it will be demonstrated, that the local atomic arrangement of ordered and disordered regions in an industrial Fe-Co-Mo alloy can be successfully imaged by atom probe measurements supported by field ion microscopy and transmission Kikuchi diffraction. Furthermore, a thorough atom probe parameter study will be presented and field evaporation artefacts as a function of crystallographic orientation in Fe-Co-samples will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tribological coating of titanium alloys by laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Wang

    Titanium-based alloys have been used for aerospace materials for many years. Recently, these alloys are now being increasingly considered for automotive, industrial and consumer applications. Their excellent creep resistance, corrosion resistance and relative higher specific strength ratio are attractive for many applications. However, the main obstacle for the wide adoption of Ti alloys in various industries is their poor tribological properties. In slide wear, Ti deforms and adhesive wear readily occurs. Their poor tribological properties are mainly due to low hardness and absolute values of tensile and shear strength. Different surface modification techniques have been studied in order to improve the tribological characteristics of Ti alloys, i.e. PVD, nitrding, carburizing, boriding, plating etc. Coatings produced by these techniques have their own limitations such as thermal distortion and grain growth. A different approach is to introduce hard particles in the Ti alloy matrix to form a MMC coating, which has tailor-made hardness and wear resistance properties. Laser cladding or laser alloying techniques facilitate the fabrication of surface MMC on Ti alloys without thermal distortion to the substrate. In this project, the fabrication of hard and wear resistant layers of metal matrix composite on titanium alloys substrate by laser surface alloying was investigated. Powder mixtures of Mo and WC were used to form the MMC layer. By optimizing the processing parameters and pre-placed powder mixture compositions, surface MMC of different properties have been successfully fabricated on CP-Ti and Ti6A14V respectively. The structure and characteristics of the MMC surface were investigated by metallography, SEM, XRD, and E-DAX. It was found that the hardness of the laser alloyed Mo/WC MMC surface was 300% higher than that of the CP-Ti substrate Excellent metallurgical bonding with the MMC layer of the substrate has been achieved. The relative kinetic frictional tests

  3. On the Alloying and Properties of Tetragonal Nb5Si3 in Nb-Silicide Based Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-01-01

    The alloying of Nb5Si3 modifies its properties. Actual compositions of (Nb,TM)5X3 silicides in developmental alloys, where X = Al + B + Ge + Si + Sn and TM is a transition and/or refractory metal, were used to calculate the composition weighted differences in electronegativity (Δχ) and an average valence electron concentration (VEC) and the solubility range of X to study the alloying and properties of the silicide. The calculations gave 4.11 < VEC < 4.45, 0.103 < Δχ < 0.415 and 33.6 < X < 41.6 at.%. In the silicide in Nb-24Ti-18Si-5Al-5Cr alloys with single addition of 5 at.% B, Ge, Hf, Mo, Sn and Ta, the solubility range of X decreased compared with the unalloyed Nb5Si3 or exceeded 40.5 at.% when B was with Hf or Mo or Sn and the Δχ decreased with increasing X. The Ge concentration increased with increasing Ti and the Hf concentration increased and decreased with increasing Ti or Nb respectively. The B and Sn concentrations respectively decreased and increased with increasing Ti and also depended on other additions in the silicide. The concentration of Sn was related to VEC and the concentrations of B and Ge were related to Δχ. The alloying of Nb5Si3 was demonstrated in Δχ versus VEC maps. Effects of alloying on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) anisotropy, Young’s modulus, hardness and creep data were discussed. Compared with the hardness of binary Nb5Si3 (1360 HV), the hardness increased in silicides with Ge and dropped below 1360 HV when Al, B and Sn were present without Ge. The Al effect on hardness depended on other elements substituting Si. Sn reduced the hardness. Ti or Hf reduced the hardness more than Cr in Nb5Si3 without Ge. The (Nb,Hf)5(Si,Al)3 had the lowest hardness. VEC differentiated the effects of additions on the hardness of Nb5Si3 alloyed with Ge. Deterioration of the creep of alloyed Nb5Si3 was accompanied by decrease of VEC and increase or decrease of Δχ depending on alloying addition(s). PMID:29300327

  4. Development of Computational Tools for Modeling Thermal and Radiation Effects on Grain Boundary Segregation and Precipitation in Fe-Cr-Ni-based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying

    This work aims at developing computational tools for modeling thermal and radiation effects on solute segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) and precipitation. This report described two major efforts. One is the development of computational tools on integrated modeling of thermal equilibrium segregation (TES) and radiation-induced segregation (RIS), from which synergistic effects of thermal and radiation, pre-existing GB segregation have been taken into consideration. This integrated modeling was used in describing the Cr and Ni segregation in the Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. The other effort is thermodynamic modeling on the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo system which includes the major alloying elements in the investigated alloys inmore » the Advanced Radiation Resistant Materials (ARRM) program. Through thermodynamic calculation, we provide baseline thermodynamic stability of the hardening phase Ni2(Cr,Mo) in selected Ni-based super alloys, and contribute knowledge on mechanistic understanding on the formation of Ni2(Cr,Mo) in the irradiated materials. The major outcomes from this work are listed in the following: 1) Under the simultaneous thermal and irradiation conditions, radiation-induced segregation played a dominant role in the GB segregation. The pre-existing GB segregation only affects the subsequent radiation-induced segregation in the short time. For the same element, the segregation tendency of Cr and Ni due to TES is opposite to it from RIS. The opposite tendency can lead to the formation of W-shape profile. These findings are consistent with literature observation of the transitory W-shape profile. 2) While TES only affects the distance of one or two atomic layers from GBs, the RIS can affect a broader distance from GB. Therefore, the W-shape due to pre-existing GB segregation is much narrower than that due to composition gradient formed during the transient state. Considering the measurement resolution of Auger or STEM analysis, the segregation tendency due to RIS should play a

  5. Development of Ultra-high Purity (UHP) Fe-Based Alloys with High Creep and Oxidation Resistance for A-USC Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdani, Fethi; Das, Nishith K.; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    The design of ultra-high purity (UHP) Fe-based model alloys for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) technology is attempted in this work. Creep testing has been performed in air at 700 °C and a stress level of 150 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surface and cross section of the crept specimen was performed. To evaluate the oxidation resistance in A-USC conditions, oxidation testing was performed in supercritical water (SCW) at 700 °C and 25 MPa. Weight gain (WG) measurements and meticulous characterization of the oxide scale were carried out. Based on thermodynamics and density functional theory calculations, some reactive elements in the Fe-Cr-Ni system were designated to promote precipitation strengthening and to improve the hydrogen-accelerated oxidation resistance. The addition of a 2 wt pct Mo into Fe-22Cr-22Ni-0.6Nb wt pct-based matrix did not significantly improve the creep resistance. The addition of 0.26 wt pct Zr coupled with cold working was effective for improving creep properties. The Mo-modified model alloy showed almost the same WG value as SUS310, while the Zr-modified alloy showed a higher WG value. Meanwhile, a Cr-enriched continuous oxide layer was formed at the oxidation front of the Zr-modified alloy and SUS310S after exposure to SCW conditions.

  6. Development of Ultra-high Purity (UHP) Fe-Based Alloys with High Creep and Oxidation Resistance for A-USC Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdani, Fethi; Das, Nishith K.; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2018-03-01

    The design of ultra-high purity (UHP) Fe-based model alloys for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) technology is attempted in this work. Creep testing has been performed in air at 700 °C and a stress level of 150 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surface and cross section of the crept specimen was performed. To evaluate the oxidation resistance in A-USC conditions, oxidation testing was performed in supercritical water (SCW) at 700 °C and 25 MPa. Weight gain (WG) measurements and meticulous characterization of the oxide scale were carried out. Based on thermodynamics and density functional theory calculations, some reactive elements in the Fe-Cr-Ni system were designated to promote precipitation strengthening and to improve the hydrogen-accelerated oxidation resistance. The addition of a 2 wt pct Mo into Fe-22Cr-22Ni-0.6Nb wt pct-based matrix did not significantly improve the creep resistance. The addition of 0.26 wt pct Zr coupled with cold working was effective for improving creep properties. The Mo-modified model alloy showed almost the same WG value as SUS310, while the Zr-modified alloy showed a higher WG value. Meanwhile, a Cr-enriched continuous oxide layer was formed at the oxidation front of the Zr-modified alloy and SUS310S after exposure to SCW conditions.

  7. Interaction of Al with O2 exposed Mo2BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-03-01

    A Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface was exposed to O2. The gas interaction was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air exposed surfaces. The calculations suggest that the most dominating physical mechanism is dissociative O2 adsorption whereby Mosbnd O, Osbnd Mosbnd O and Mo2sbnd Csbnd O bond formation is observed. To validate these results, Mo2BC thin films were synthesized utilizing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and air exposed surfaces were probed by XPS. MoO2 and MoO3 bond formation is observed and is consistent with here obtained ab initio data. Additionally, the interfacial interactions of O2 exposed Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface with an Al nonamer is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics to describe on the atomic scale the interaction between this surface and Al to mimic the interface present during cold forming processes of Al based alloys. The Al nonamer was disrupted and Al forms chemical bonds with oxygen contained in the O2 exposed Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface. Based on the comparison of here calculated adsorption energy with literature data, Alsbnd Al bonds are shown to be significantly weaker than the Alsbnd O bonds formed across the interface. Hence, Alsbnd Al bond rupture is expected for a mechanically loaded interface. Therefore the adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide layer is predicted. This is consistent with experimental observations. The data presented here may also be relevant for other oxygen containing surfaces in a contact with Al or Al based alloys for example during forming operations.

  8. Influence of Grain Size on Mechanical Responses in Beta Ti-12Mo Alloy Demonstrating Concurrent Twinning-Induced Plasticity/Transformation-induced Plasticity Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D. C.; Xue, Q.; Lei, J. F.; Ma, Y. J.; Yang, R.; Wang, C.

    2018-06-01

    Metastable β Ti-12Mo wt pct alloys with controllable grain sizes are successfully produced, and the effect of grain size on mechanical responses has been thoroughly investigated. It is found that target alloys possess concurrent twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) features. Mechanisms governing mechanical properties through well-manipulated tensile experiments, detailed microstructure analysis, as well as strong correlations between triggering stress and twinning/phase transformation are offered.

  9. Corrosion Characteristics of Ni-Based Hardfacing Alloy Deposited on Stainless Steel Substrate by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Abraham, Geogy; Kumar, Santosh; Bhattacharyya, Kaustava; Keskar, Nachiket; Kushwaha, R. P.; Rao, Ramana; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G. K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, corrosion characteristics of a nickel-based Ni-Mo-Cr-Si hardfacing alloy having 32Mo, 15Cr, and 3Si (wt pct) as alloying elements, deposited on stainless steel SS316L substrate by laser cladding, have been presented. Corrosion behavior of the laser clad layer was evaluated in reducing (0.1 M HCl) and oxidizing (0.5 M HNO3) environments, in comparison with the reference substrate SS316L, using electrochemical potentiodynamic technique at room temperature. The corrosion mechanisms have been evaluated on the basis of microstructural and microchemical analysis using scanning electron microscopy attached with energy-dispersive spectrometry. Passivity behavior of the laser clad layer was studied in 0.5 M H2SO4, using the potentiostatic technique and analyzing the passive layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Laser clad layer of Ni-Mo-Cr-Si exhibited higher pitting corrosion resistance in chloride (reducing) environment, indicated by much higher breakdown potential ( 0.8 VSCE) and the absence of pitting as compared to substrate SS316L ( 0.3 VSCE). However, in oxidizing (0.5 M HNO3) environment, both the laser clad layer and substrate SS316L showed excellent and similar corrosion resistance exhibiting high breakdown potential ( 0.85 VSCE) and wide passivation range ( 0.8 VSCE) with low passive current density ( 4 to 7 × 10-6 A/cm2). The stable passive layer formed on laser clad layer of Ni-Mo-Cr-Si after exposure in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at constant potential 0.6 VSCE (within the passive range), consisted oxides of Mo as Mo+4 (MoO2) and Mo+6 (MoO4)-2, Cr as Cr3+ (mixture of both Cr2O3 and Cr (OH)3), and Si as Si4+(SiO2), which have contributed to passivation and repassivation and therefore excellent corrosion behavior.

  10. Quantitative in vivo biocompatibility of new ultralow-nickel cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys.

    PubMed

    Sonofuchi, Kazuaki; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Koizumi, Yuichiro; Chiba, Akihiko; Kawano, Mitsuko; Nakayama, Masafumi; Ogasawara, Kouetsu; Yabe, Yutaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) eluted from metallic biomaterials is widely accepted as a major cause of allergies and inflammation. To improve the safety of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy implants, new ultralow-Ni Co-Cr-Mo alloys with and without zirconium (Zr) have been developed, with Ni contents of less than 0.01%. In the present study, we investigated the biocompatibility of these new alloys in vivo by subcutaneously implanting pure Ni, conventional Co-Cr-Mo, ultralow-Ni Co-Cr-Mo, and ultralow-Ni Co-Cr-Mo with Zr wires into the dorsal sides of mice. After 3 and 7 days, tissues around the wire were excised, and inflammation; the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α; and Ni, Co, Cr, and Mo ion release were analyzed using histological analyses, qRT-PCR, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Significantly larger amounts of Ni eluted from pure Ni wires than from the other wires, and the degree of inflammation depended on the amount of eluted Ni. Although no significant differences in inflammatory reactions were identified among new alloys and conventional Co-Cr-Mo alloys in histological and qRT-PCR analyses, ICP-MS analysis revealed that Ni ion elution from ultralow-Ni Co-Cr-Mo alloys with and without Zr was significantly lower than from conventional Co-Cr-Mo alloys. Our study, suggests that the present ultralow-Ni Co-Cr-Mo alloys with and without Zr have greater safety and utility than conventional Co-Cr-Mo alloys. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1505-1513, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Direct In Vivo Inflammatory Cell-Induced Corrosion of CoCrMo Alloy Orthopedic Implant Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jeremy L.; Sivan, Shiril; Liu, Yangping; Kocagöz, Sevi; Arnholt, Christina; Kurtz, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, used for over four decades in orthopedic implants, may corrode and release wear debris into the body during use. These degradation products may stimulate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. We report here on evidence of direct inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of human implanted and retrieved CoCrMo implant surfaces. Corrosion morphology on CoCrMo implant surfaces, in unique and characteristic patterns, and the presence of cellular remnants and biological materials intimately entwined with the corrosion indicates direct cellular attack under the cell membrane region of adhered and/or migrating inflammatory cells. Evidence supports a Fenton-like reaction mechanism driving corrosion in which reactive oxygen species are the major driver of corrosion. Using in vitro tests, large increases in corrosion susceptibility of CoCrMo were seen (40 to 100 fold) when immersed in phosphate buffered saline solutions modified with hydrogen peroxide and HCl to represent the chemistry under inflammatory cells. This discovery raises significant new questions about the clinical consequences of such corrosion interactions, the role of patient inflammatory reactions, and the detailed mechanisms at play. PMID:24619511

  12. A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of zirconium or hafnium in selected molybdenum-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    A simple analytical procedure is described for accurately and precisely determining the zirconium or hafnium content of molybdenum-base alloys. The procedure is based on the reaction of the reagent Arsenazo III with zirconium or hafnium in strong hydrochloric acid solution. The colored complexes of zirconium or hafnium are formed in the presence of molybdenum. Titanium or rhenium in the alloy have no adverse effect on the zirconium or hafnium complex at the following levels in the selected aliquot: Mo, 10 mg; Re, 10 mg; Ti, 1 mg. The spectrophotometric measurement of the zirconium or hafnium complex is accomplished without prior separation with a relative standard deviation of 1.3 to 2.7 percent.

  13. Effect of Grain Misorientation Angle on Twinning Propagation in Ti-15Mo Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Y.-D.; Lee, Y.-K.; Song, K. H.

    2018-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of grain misorientation angle distribution on the deformation behavior and twinning of Ti-15Mo alloy. Cold rolling exhibited a significant texture with grains oriented along the {111}//normal direction, which correlate with a higher fraction of low-angle boundaries. This material showed a lower yield strength and higher elongation than those of the hot rolled material. The twinning propagation mainly occurred between neighboring grains with a low-angle relation. Consequently, the texture development was correlated with low-angle boundaries and affected by the increase in the twinning density, which increased the strain hardening rate.

  14. On Nb Silicide Based Alloys: Alloy Design and Selection.

    PubMed

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-05-18

    The development of Nb-silicide based alloys is frustrated by the lack of composition-process-microstructure-property data for the new alloys, and by the shortage of and/or disagreement between thermodynamic data for key binary and ternary systems that are essential for designing (selecting) alloys to meet property goals. Recent publications have discussed the importance of the parameters δ (related to atomic size), Δχ (related to electronegativity) and valence electron concentration (VEC) (number of valence electrons per atom filled into the valence band) for the alloying behavior of Nb-silicide based alloys (J Alloys Compd 748 (2018) 569), their solid solutions (J Alloys Compd 708 (2017) 961), the tetragonal Nb₅Si₃ (Materials 11 (2018) 69), and hexagonal C14-NbCr₂ and cubic A15-Nb₃X phases (Materials 11 (2018) 395) and eutectics with Nb ss and Nb₅Si₃ (Materials 11 (2018) 592). The parameter values were calculated using actual compositions for alloys, their phases and eutectics. This paper is about the relationships that exist between the alloy parameters δ, Δχ and VEC, and creep rate and isothermal oxidation (weight gain) and the concentrations of solute elements in the alloys. Different approaches to alloy design (selection) that use property goals and these relationships for Nb-silicide based alloys are discussed and examples of selected alloy compositions and their predicted properties are given. The alloy design methodology, which has been called NICE (Niobium Intermetallic Composite Elaboration), enables one to design (select) new alloys and to predict their creep and oxidation properties and the macrosegregation of Si in cast alloys.

  15. Isoelectronic tungsten doping in monolayer MoSe 2 for carrier type modulation

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xufan; Lin, Ming -Wei; Basile, Leonardo; ...

    2016-07-06

    Doping and alloying are effective ways to engineer the band structure and modulate the optoelectronic functionality of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). In this work, we explore the synthesis and electronic properties of monolayer Mo 1-xW xSe 2 (0 < x < 0.18) alloys with almost 100% alloying degree. The isoelectronic substitutional doping of tungsten for molybdenum in the monolayer MoSe 2 is shown to suppress its intrinsically n-type conduction behavior, with p-type conduction gradually emerging to become dominant with increasing W concentration in the alloys. Atomic resolution Z-contrast electron microscopy show that W is shown to substitute directly formore » Mo without the introduction of noticeable vacancy or interstitial defects, however with randomly-distributed W-rich regions ~2 nm in diameter. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy measurements reveal that these W-rich regions exhibit a local band structure with the valence band maximum (VBM) closer to the Fermi level as compared with the Mo-rich regions in the monolayer Mo 1-xW xSe 2 crystal. These localized upshifts of the VBM in the local band structure appear responsible for the overall p-type behavior observed for the monolayer Mo 1-xW xSe 2 crystals. Stacked monolayers of n-type MoSe 2 and p-type Mo 1-xW xSe 2 were demonstrated to form atomically thin, vertically stacked p n homojunctions with gate-tunable characteristics, which appear useful for future optoelectronic applications. Lastly, these results indicate that alloying with isoelectronic dopant atoms appears to be an effective and advantageous alternate strategy to doping or alloying with electron donors or acceptors in two-dimensional TMDs.« less

  16. An Innovative Accident Tolerant LWR Fuel Rod Design Based on Uranium-Molybdenum Metal Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Robert O.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Henager, Charles H.

    2016-09-12

    The US Department of Energy is developing a uranium-molybdenum metal alloy Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuel concept for Light Water Reactor applications that provides improved fuel performance during normal operation, anticipated operational occurrences, and postulated accidents. The high initial uranium atom density, the high thermal conductivity, and a low heat capacity permit a U-Mo-based fuel assembly to meet important design and safety requirements. These attributes also result in a fuel design that can satisfy increased fuel utilization demands and allow for improved accident tolerance in LWRs. This paper summarizes the results obtained from the on-going activities to; 1) evaluate the impactmore » of the U-10wt%Mo thermal properties on operational and accident safety margins, 2) produce a triple extrusion of stainless steel cladding/niobium liner/U-10Mo fuel rod specimen and 3) test the high temperature water corrosion of rodlet samples containing a drilled hole in the cladding. Characterization of the cladding and liner thickness uniformity, microstructural features of the U-Mo gamma phase, and the metallurgical bond between the component materials will be presented. The results from corrosion testing will be discussed which yield insights into the resistance to attack by water ingress during high temperature water exposure for the triple extruded samples containing a drilled hole. These preliminary evaluations find that the U-10Mo fuel design concept has many beneficial features that can meet or improve conventional LWR fuel performance requirements under normal operation, AOOs, and postulated accidents. The viability of a deployable U-Mo fuel design hinges on demonstrating that fabrication processes and alloying additions can produce acceptable irradiation stability during normal operation and accident conditions and controlled metal-water reaction rates in the unlikely event of a cladding perforation. In the area of enhanced accident tolerance, a key

  17. Type of Primary Nb₅Si₃ and Precipitation of Nbss in αNb₅Si₃ in a Nb-8.3Ti-21.1Si-5.4Mo-4W-0.7Hf (at.%) Near Eutectic Nb-Silicide-Based Alloy.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, Conor; Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-06-07

    The Nb-silicide-based alloy of near eutectic composition (at.%) Nb-21.1Si-8.3Ti-5.4Mo-4W-0.7Hf (alloy CM1) was studied in the cast and heat-treated (1500 °C/100 h) conditions. The alloy was produced in the form of buttons and bars using three different methods, namely arc-melting, arc-melting and suction casting, and optical floating zone (OFZ) melting. In the former two cases the alloy solidified in water-cooled copper crucibles. Buttons and suction-cast bars of different size, respectively of 10 g and 600 g weight and 6 mm and 8 mm diameter, were produced. The OFZ bars were grown at three different growth rates of 12, 60 and 150 mm/h. It was confirmed that the type of Nb₅Si₃ formed in the cast microstructures depended on the solidification conditions. The primary phase in the alloy CM1 was the βNb₅Si₃. The transformation of βNb₅Si₃ to αNb₅Si₃ had occurred in the as cast large size button and the OFZ bars grown at the three different growth rates, and after the heat treatment of the small size button and the suction-cast bars of the alloy. This transformation was accompanied by subgrain formation in Nb₅Si₃ and the precipitation of Nb ss in the large size as cast button and only by the precipitation of Nb ss in the cast OFZ bars. Subgrains and precipitation of Nb ss in αNb₅Si₃ was observed in the small size button and suction-cast bars after the heat treatment. Subgrains formed in αNb₅Si₃ after the heat treatment of the OFZ bars. The partitioning of solutes and in particular of Mo and Ti was key to this phase transformation. Subgrain formation was not necessary for precipitation of Nb ss in αNb₅Si₃, but the partitioning of solutes was essential for this precipitation.

  18. On Nb Silicide Based Alloys: Alloy Design and Selection

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos.

    2018-01-01

    The development of Nb-silicide based alloys is frustrated by the lack of composition-process-microstructure-property data for the new alloys, and by the shortage of and/or disagreement between thermodynamic data for key binary and ternary systems that are essential for designing (selecting) alloys to meet property goals. Recent publications have discussed the importance of the parameters δ (related to atomic size), Δχ (related to electronegativity) and valence electron concentration (VEC) (number of valence electrons per atom filled into the valence band) for the alloying behavior of Nb-silicide based alloys (J Alloys Compd 748 (2018) 569), their solid solutions (J Alloys Compd 708 (2017) 961), the tetragonal Nb5Si3 (Materials 11 (2018) 69), and hexagonal C14-NbCr2 and cubic A15-Nb3X phases (Materials 11 (2018) 395) and eutectics with Nbss and Nb5Si3 (Materials 11 (2018) 592). The parameter values were calculated using actual compositions for alloys, their phases and eutectics. This paper is about the relationships that exist between the alloy parameters δ, Δχ and VEC, and creep rate and isothermal oxidation (weight gain) and the concentrations of solute elements in the alloys. Different approaches to alloy design (selection) that use property goals and these relationships for Nb-silicide based alloys are discussed and examples of selected alloy compositions and their predicted properties are given. The alloy design methodology, which has been called NICE (Niobium Intermetallic Composite Elaboration), enables one to design (select) new alloys and to predict their creep and oxidation properties and the macrosegregation of Si in cast alloys. PMID:29783707

  19. The effect of Sn addition on phase stability and phase evolution during aging heat treatment in Ti–Mo alloys employed as biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, Mariana G. de, E-mail: marianagm@fem.unicamp.br; Salvador, Camilo F., E-mail: csalvador@fem.unicamp.br; Cremasco, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra@fem.unicamp.br

    Increases in life expectancy and improvements in necessary healthcare attach great importance to the development of biomaterials. Ti alloys containing β stabilizing elements are often used as biomaterials due to their high specific strength, high corrosion resistance, unusual biocompatibility and low elastic moduli, which benefit bone tissues close to an implant. This study deals with phase stability in β Ti–Mo–Sn alloys processed under different conditions and was performed according to the following steps: a study of the effect of Sn content (a) on phase stability in Ti–Mo alloys, (b) on the suppression of α″ and ω phase precipitation; (c) onmore » α-phase precipitation during aging heat treatments and (d) on mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus, as measured using tensile tests and acoustic techniques. The alloys were prepared by arc melting under a controlled atmosphere followed by homogenization heat treatment and hot rolling. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry were employed for characterization purposes. Samples were also submitted to solution treatment above the β transus temperature and aging heat treatments under a controlled atmosphere. The results suggest that Sn suppresses the formation of the ω and α″ phases in Ti–Mo system. - Highlights: • Sn addition to Ti alloys decreases elastic modulus by suppressing ω phase precipitation. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of martensite decomposition. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of α phase precipitation and β transus. • Mechanical strength decreases with increasing Sn content.« less

  20. Effect of electrochemical corrosion on the subsurface microstructure evolution of a CoCrMo alloy in albumin containing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongwei; Yan, Yu; Su, Yanjing; Qiao, Lijie

    2017-06-01

    The subsurface microstructures of metallic implants play a key role in bio-tribocorrosion. Due to wear or change of local environment, the implant surface can have inhomogeneous electrochemical corrosion properties. In this work, the effect of electrochemical corrosion conditions on the subsurface microstructure evolution of CoCrMo alloys for artificial joints was investigated. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was employed to observe the subsurface microstructures of worn areas at different applied potentials in a simulated physiological solution. The results showed that applied potentials could affect the severity of the subsurface deformation not only by changing the surface passivation but also affecting the adsorption of protein on the alloy surface.

  1. Nickel aluminide alloy suitable for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1998-01-01

    Alloys for use in structural applications based upon NiAl to which are added selected elements to enhance room temperature ductility and high temperature strength. Specifically, small additions of molybdenum produce a beneficial alloy, while further additions of boron, carbon, iron, niobium, tantalum, zirconium and hafnium further improve performance of alloys at both room temperature and high temperatures. A preferred alloy system composition is Ni--(49.1.+-.0.8%)Al--(1.0.+-.0.8%)Mo--(0.7.+-.0.5%)Nb/Ta/Zr/Hf--(nearly zero to 0.03%)B/C, where the % is at. % in each of the concentrations. All alloys demonstrated good oxidation resistance at the elevated temperatures. The alloys can be fabricated into components using conventional techniques.

  2. Alloy Effects on the Gas Nitriding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Sisson, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Alloy elements, such as Al, Cr, V, and Mo, have been used to improve the nitriding performance of steels. In the present work, plain carbon steel AISI 1045 and alloy steel AISI 4140 were selected to compare the nitriding effects of the alloying elements in AISI 4140. Fundamental analysis is carried out by using the "Lehrer-like" diagrams (alloy specific Lehrer diagram and nitriding potential versus nitrogen concentration diagram) and the compound layer growth model to simulate the gas nitriding process. With this method, the fundamental understanding for the alloy effect based on the thermodynamics and kinetics becomes possible. This new method paves the way for the development of new alloy for nitriding.

  3. Investigation of amorphous RuMoC alloy films as a seedless diffusion barrier for Cu/ p-SiOC:H ultralow- k dielectric integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Guohua; Liu, Bo; Li, Qiran

    2015-08-01

    Ultrathin RuMoC amorphous films prepared by magnetron co-sputtering with Ru and MoC targets in a sandwiched scheme Si/ p-SiOC:H/RuMoC/Cu were investigated as barrier in copper metallization. The evolution of final microstructure of RuMoC alloy films show sensitive correlation with the content of doped Mo and C elements and can be easily controlled by adjusting the sputtering power of the MoC target. There was no signal of interdiffusion between the Cu and SiOC:H layer in the sample of Cu/RuMoC/ p-SiOC:H/Si, even annealing up to 500 °C. Very weak signal of oxygen have been confirmed in the RuMoC barrier layer both as-deposited and after being annealed, and a good performance on preventing oxygen diffusion has been proved. Leakage current and resistivity evaluations also reveal the excellent thermal reliability of this Si/ p-SiOC:H/RuMoC/Cu film stack at the temperatures up to 500 °C, indicating its potential application in the advanced barrierless Cu metallization.

  4. Effects of La2O3 Content and Rolling on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of ODS Molybdenum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingling; Li, Wuhui; Wang, Guangxin; Li, Yaqiong; Guo, Hongbo; Zhao, Zeliang; Li, Wei

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the effects of La2O3 content and rolling on microstructure and mechanical properties of Mo-La2O3 alloys, Mo-0.5% (1%) La2O3 alloys were prepared by liquid-solid doping technique, subsequently rolled either by a single-direction rolling or a cross-rolling. As a result, three different materials were prepared for this study. After being annealed at 1800 °C, the single-directionally rolled Mo-1% La2O3 alloy shows the best mechanical properties in terms of strength, hardness, and sagging deformation among the three materials. This is attributed to the observation that the alloy is only recovered with a microstructure of subgrains and dislocations. The single-directionally rolled Mo-0.5% La2O3 exhibits the worst mechanical property among the three materials. In this material, coarse grains, but no subgrains and dislocations, can be observed after annealing, indicating that it is fully recrystallized. For the cross-rolled Mo-1% La2O3 alloy, grains of dispersed sizes, but no dislocations, are visible after annealing, implying that this alloy is partially recrystallized. Accordingly, the mechanical property of this material is in between the other two materials. Thus, the mechanical properties of the three materials can be well understood based on OM, SEM, and TEM results. Overall, the single-directionally rolled Mo-1% La2O3 alloy possesses good mechanical properties and is more suitable for high-temperature applications.

  5. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  6. Laser surface processing on sintered PM alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Wilfred; Daurelio, Giuseppe; Ludovico, Antonio D.

    1997-08-01

    Usually the P.M. alloys are heat treated like case hardening, gas nitriding or plasma nitriding for a better wear resistance of the product surface. There is an additional method for gaining better tribological properties and this is the surface hardening (or remelting or alloying) of the P.M. alloy by laser treatment on a localized part of the product without heating the whole sample. This work gives a cured experimentation about the proper sintering powder alloys for laser surface processing from the point of view of wear, fatigue life and surface quality. As concerns the materials three different basic alloy groups with graduated carbon contents were prepared. Regarding these sintered powder alloys one group holds Fe, Mo and C and other group holds Fe, Ni, Mo and C and the last one holds Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and C contents. Obviously each group has a different surface hardness, different porosity distribution, different density and diverse metallurgical structures (pearlite or ferrite-pearlite, etc.). ON the sample surfaces a colloidal graphite coating, in different thicknesses, has been sprayed to increase laser energy surface absorption. On some other samples a Mo coating, in different thicknesses, has been produced (on the bulk alloy) by diverse deposition techniques (D.C. Sputtering, P.V.D. and Flame Spraying). Only a few samples have a Mo coating and also an absorber coating, that is a bulk material- Mo and a colloidal graphite coating. All these sintered alloys have been tested by laser technology; so that, many laser working parameters (covering gas, work-speed, focussed and defocussed spot, rastered and integrated beam spots, square and rectangular beam shapes and so on) have been experimented for two different processes at constant laser power and at constant surface temperature (by using a temperature surface sensor and a closed controlled link). For all experiments a transverse fast axial flow CO2 2.5 kW c.w. laser source has been employed.

  7. Microstructure and properties of Ti-Al intermetallic/Al2O3 layers produced on Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy by PACVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitek, R.; Bolek, T.; Mizera, J.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents investigation of microstructure and corrosion resistance of the multi-component surface layers built of intermetallic phases of the Ti-Al system and an outer Al2O3 ceramic sub-layer. The layers were produced on a two phase (α + β) Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy using the PACVD method with the participation of trimethylaluminum vapors. The layers are characterized by a high surface hardness and good corrosion, better than that of these materials in the starting state. In order to find the correlation between their structure and properties, the layers were subjected to examinations using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), surface analysis by XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyses of the chemical composition (EDS). The properties examined included: the corrosion resistance and the hydrogen absorptiveness. Moreover growth of the Al2O3 ceramic layer and its influence on the residual stress distribution was simulated using finite element method [FEM]. The results showed that the produced layer has amorphous-nano-crystalline structure, improved corrosion resistance and reduces the permeability of hydrogen as compared with the base material of Ti6Al2Mo2Cr -titanium alloy.

  8. Tribochemical Characterization and Tribocorrosive Behavior of CoCrMo Alloys: A Review.

    PubMed

    Toh, Wei Quan; Tan, Xipeng; Bhowmik, Ayan; Liu, Erjia; Tor, Shu Beng

    2017-12-26

    Orthopedic implants first started out as an all-metal hip joint replacement. However, poor design and machinability as well as unsatisfactory surface finish subjected the all-metal joint replacement to being superseded by a polyethylene bearing. Continued improvement in manufacturing techniques together with the reality that polyethylene wear debris can cause hazardous reactions in the human body has brought about the revival of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints in recent years. This has also led to a relatively new research area that links tribology and corrosion together. This article aims at reviewing the commonly used tribochemical methods adopted in the analysis of tribocorrosion and putting forward some of the models and environmental factors affecting the tribocorrosive behavior of CoCrMo alloys, a widely-used class of biomaterial for orthopedic implants.

  9. Tribochemical Characterization and Tribocorrosive Behavior of CoCrMo Alloys: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Wei Quan; Liu, Erjia; Tor, Shu Beng

    2017-01-01

    Orthopedic implants first started out as an all-metal hip joint replacement. However, poor design and machinability as well as unsatisfactory surface finish subjected the all-metal joint replacement to being superseded by a polyethylene bearing. Continued improvement in manufacturing techniques together with the reality that polyethylene wear debris can cause hazardous reactions in the human body has brought about the revival of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints in recent years. This has also led to a relatively new research area that links tribology and corrosion together. This article aims at reviewing the commonly used tribochemical methods adopted in the analysis of tribocorrosion and putting forward some of the models and environmental factors affecting the tribocorrosive behavior of CoCrMo alloys, a widely-used class of biomaterial for orthopedic implants. PMID:29278375

  10. Copper modified austenitic stainless steel alloys with improved high temperature creep resistance

    DOEpatents

    Swindeman, R.W.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1987-04-28

    An improved austenitic stainless steel that incorporates copper into a base Fe-Ni-Cr alloy having minor alloying substituents of Mo, Mn, Si, T, Nb, V, C, N, P, B which exhibits significant improvement in high temperature creep resistance over previous steels. 3 figs.

  11. Mechanical properties and the electronic structure of transition of metal alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arsenault, R. J.; Drew, H. D.

    1977-01-01

    This interdiscipline research program was undertaken in an effort to investigate the relationship between the mechanical strength of Mo based alloys with their electronic structure. Electronic properties of these alloys were examined through optical studies, and the classical solid solution strengthening mechanisms were considered, based on size and molecular differences to determine if these mechanisms could explain the hardness data.

  12. Nickel aluminide alloy suitable for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    1998-03-10

    Alloys are disclosed for use in structural applications based upon NiAl to which are added selected elements to enhance room temperature ductility and high temperature strength. Specifically, small additions of molybdenum produce a beneficial alloy, while further additions of boron, carbon, iron, niobium, tantalum, zirconium and hafnium further improve performance of alloys at both room temperature and high temperatures. A preferred alloy system composition is Ni--(49.1{+-}0.8%)Al--(1.0{+-}0.8%)Mo--(0.7 + 0.5%)Nb/Ta/Zr/Hf--(nearly zero to 0.03%)B/C, where the % is at. % in each of the concentrations. All alloys demonstrated good oxidation resistance at the elevated temperatures. The alloys can be fabricated into components using conventional techniques. 4 figs.

  13. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  14. Ultrasonic investigation of the superconducting properties of the Nb-Mo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.

    1972-01-01

    The superconducting properties of single crystals of Nb and two alloys of Nb with Mo were investigated by ultrasonic techniques. The results of measurements of the ultrasonic attenuation and velocities as a function of temperature, Mo composition, crystallographic direction, and ultrasonic frequency are reported. The attenuation and small velocity changes associated with the superconductivity of the samples are shown to be dependent on the sample resistivity ratio which varied from 4.3 for Nb-9% Mo to 6500 for pure Nb. The ultrasonic attenuation data are analyzed in terms of the superconducting energy gap term of the BCS theory. A new model is proposed for the analysis of ultrasonic attenuation in pure superconductors with two partially decoupled energy bands. To analyze the attenuation in pure superconducting Nb, the existence of two energy gaps was assumed to be associated with the two partially decoupled energy bands. One of the gaps was found to have the normal BCS value of 3.4 and the other gap was found to have the anomalously large value of 10. No experimental evidence was found to suggest that the second energy gap had a different transition temperature. The interpretation of the results for the Nb-Mo alloys is shown to be complicated by the possible existence of a second superconducting phase in Nb-Mo alloys with a transition temperature of 0.35 of the transition temperature of the first phase. The elastic constants of Nb and Nb-Mo alloys are shown to be approximately independent of Mo composition to nine atomic percent Mo. These results do not agree with the current microscopic theory of transition temperature for the transition elements.

  15. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 < y < 1), MMo(x)O(y) (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Ca, Mn, Zn, Mg, or Cd; x = 1, y = 4; x = 3, y = 8), MoS2, MoSe2, (MoO2)2P2O7, LiMoO2, Li2MoO3, etc. possess multiple valence states and exhibit rich chemistry. They are very attractive candidates for efficient electrochemical energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  16. Evolution of the Structural-Phase State of a Ti-Al- V-Mo Alloy During Severe Plastic Deformation and SubSequent Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabovetskaya, G. P.; Ratochka, I. V.; Mishin, I. P.; Zabudchenko, O. V.; Lykova, O. N.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of the initial phase composition of a Ti-Al-V-Mo alloy (VT16 according to Russian classification) on the evolution of its structural-phase state during the formation of ultrafine-grained structure and subsequent annealing is investigated by methods of optical and transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. The structure is produced by cyclic pressing with a change of the deformation axis in each cycle combined with a gradual decrease of the pressing temperature from 1073 to 723 K. As this takes place, α″ → α + β and β → α phase transitions are found to develop in the test alloy. The phase state of the ultrafinegrained material thus produced depends for the most part on its elemental composition and severe plastic deformation regime. Annealing below the recrystallization temperature is shown to give rise to a β→α phase transition and alloying element redistribution. The foregoing processes allow for retaining a high level of the strength properties of the alloy.

  17. Surface alloying of aluminum with molybdenum by high-current pulsed electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Han; Zhang, Conglin; Lv, Peng; Cai, Jie; Jin, Yunxue; Guan, Qingfeng

    2018-02-01

    The surface alloying of pre-coated molybdenum (Mo) film on aluminum (Al) substrate by high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) was investigated. The microstructure and phase analysis were conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that Mo particles were dissolved into Al matrix to form alloying layer, which was composed of Mo, Al and acicular or equiaxed Al5Mo phases after surface alloying. Meanwhile, various structure defects such as dislocation loops, high-density dislocations and dislocation walls were observed in the alloying surface. The corrosion resistance was tested by using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). Electrochemical results indicate that all the alloying samples had better corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution compared to initial sample. The excellent corrosion resistance is mainly attributed to the combined effect of the structure defects and the addition of Mo element to form a more stable passive film.

  18. First-principles studies of chromium line-ordered alloys in a molybdenum disulfide monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriambelaza, N. F.; Mapasha, R. E.; Chetty, N.

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the thermodynamic stability, structural and electronic properties of various chromium (Cr) line-ordered alloy configurations in a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) hexagonal monolayer for band gap engineering. Only the molybdenum (Mo) sites were substituted at each concentration in this study. For comparison purposes, different Cr line-ordered alloy and random alloy configurations were studied and the most thermodynamically stable ones at each concentration were identified. The configurations formed by the nearest neighbor pair of Cr atoms are energetically most favorable. The line-ordered alloys are constantly lower in formation energy than the random alloys at each concentration. An increase in Cr concentration reduces the lattice constant of the MoS2 system following the Vegard’s law. From density of states analysis, we found that the MoS2 band gap is tunable by both the Cr line-ordered alloys and random alloys with the same magnitudes. The reduction of the band gap is mainly due to the hybridization of the Cr 3d and Mo 4d orbitals at the vicinity of the band edges. The band gap engineering and magnitudes (1.65 eV to 0.86 eV) suggest that the Cr alloys in a MoS2 monolayer are good candidates for nanotechnology devices.

  19. Evaluation of pitting corrosion resistance of high-alloyed stainless steels welds for FGD plants in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, K.K.; Sung, H.J.; Im, C.S.

    1998-12-31

    For successful application of high-alloyed stainless steels for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) plants, pitting corrosion resistance of arc welds of N-added 6%Mo austenitic stainless steels (UNS N 08367) and super duplex stainless steels (UNS S 32550) made with various filler metals were evaluated using the Green Death solution. For Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) and Gas Metal Arc (GMA) welds of N 08367, Critical Pitting Temperature (CPT) of base metal was 65--70 C, whereas weld made by ERNiCrMo-3 filler metal yielded CPT of 50 C. Welds made by ERNiCrMo-10 or ERNiCrMo-4 filler metals showed CPT of 60--65 C and 65--70C, respectively.more » For GTA and GMA welds of S 32550, CPT of welds made by ERNiCrMo-3 was 45--50 C, indicating that the filler metal can provide pitting corrosion resistance matching the S 32550 alloy. Thus, a proper pitting corrosion resistance of weldments of high-alloy stainless steels can be achieved by selecting filler metals having at least +10 higher Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number (PRE{sub N}) value than the base metal regardless of the type of arc welding process. The over-alloyed filler metals would compensate preferential segregation of Cr, MO along the dendrite boundary, which made the dendrite core more susceptible to pitting. Nitrogen addition to the GTA welds of N 08367 made with ERNiCrMo-3 failed to improve pitting corrosion resistance, which was attributed to the precipitation of nitrogen in the weld metal in the form of Nb-nitride.« less

  20. Stiffness-constant variation in nickel-based alloys: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hennion, M.; Hennion, B.

    1979-01-01

    Recent measurements of the spin-wave stiffness constant in several nickel alloys at various concentrations are interpreted within a random-phase approximation, coherent-potential approximation (RPA-CPA) band model which uses the Hartree-Fock approximation to treat the intraatomic correlations. We give a theoretical description of the possible impurity states in the Hartree-Fock approximation. This allows the determination of the Hartree-Fock solutions which can account for the stiffness-constant behavior and the magnetic moment on the impurity for all the investigated alloys. For alloys such as NiCr, NiV, NiMo, and NiRu, the magnetizations of which deviate from the Slater-Pauling curve, our determination does not correspond tomore » previous works and is consequently discussed. The limits of the model appear mainly due to local-environment effects; in the case of NiMn, it is found that a ternary-alloy model with some Mn atoms in the antiferromagnetic state can account for both stiffness-constant and magnetization behaviors.« less

  1. Microstructure characterization and room temperature deformation of a rapidly solidified NiAl-based eutectic alloy containing trace Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hutian; Guo, Jianting; Huai, Kaiwen; Ye, Hengqiang

    2006-04-01

    The microstructure and room temperature compressive deformation behavior of a rapidly solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo)-Dy eutectic alloy fabricated by water-cooled copper mold method were studied by a combination of SEM, EDS and compressive tests. The morphology stability after hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatment was evaluated. Rapid solidification resulted in a shift in the coupled zone for the eutectic growth towards the Cr(Mo) phase, indicating a hypoeutectic composition, hence increasing the volume fraction of primary dendritic NiAl. Meanwhile, significantly refined microstructure and lamellar/rod-like Cr(Mo) transition were observed due to trace rare earth (RE) element Dy addition and rapid solidification effects. Compared with the results in literature [H.E. Cline, J.L. Walter, Metall. Trans. 1(1970)2907-2917; P. Ferrandini, W.W. Batista, R. Caram, J. Alloys Comp. 381(2004)91-98], an interesting phenomenon, viz., NiAl halos around the primary Cr(Mo) dendrites in solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) hypereutectic alloy, was not observed in this study. This difference was interpreted in terms of their different reciprocal nucleation ability. In addition, it was proposed that the localized destabilization of morphology after HIP treatment is closely related to the presence of primary NiAl dendrites. The improved mechanical properties can be attributed to the synergistic effects of rapid solidification and Dy addition, which included refined microstructure, suppression of the crack development along eutectic grain boundaries, enhancement of density of geometrically necessary dislocations located at NiAl/Cr(Mo) interfaces and the Cr solubility extension in NiAl.

  2. Observations on the oxidation of Mn-modified Ni-base Haynes 230 alloy under SOFC exposure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2005-07-01

    The commercial Ni-base Haynes 230 alloy (Ni-Cr-Mo-W-Mn) was modified with two increased levels of Mn (1 and 2 wt per cent) and evaluated for its oxidation resistance under simulated SOFC interconnect exposure conditions. Oxidation rate, oxide morphology, oxide conductivity and thermal expansion were measured and compared with commercial Haynes 230. It was observed that additions of higher levels of Mn to the bulk alloy facilitated the formation of a bi-layered oxide scale that was comprised of an outer M3O4 (M=Mn, Cr, Ni) spinel-rich layer at the oxide – gas interface over a Cr2O3-rich sub-layer at the metal – oxide interface.more » The modified alloys showed higher oxidation rates and the formation of thicker oxide scales compared to the base alloy. The formation of a spinel-rich top layer improved the scale conductivity, especially during the early stages of the oxidation, but the higher scale growth rate resulted in an increase in the area-specific electrical resistance over time. Due to their face-centered cubic crystal structure, both commercial and modified alloys demonstrated a coefficient of thermal expansion that was higher than that of typical anode-supported and electrolyte-supported SOFCs.« less

  3. A comparative study on improved Arrhenius-type and artificial neural network models to predict high-temperature flow behaviors in 20MnNiMo alloy.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Yu, Chun-tang; Liu, Ying-ying; Xia, Yu-feng

    2014-01-01

    The stress-strain data of 20MnNiMo alloy were collected from a series of hot compressions on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator in the temperature range of 1173 ∼ 1473 K and strain rate range of 0.01 ∼ 10 s(-1). Based on the experimental data, the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model and the artificial neural network (ANN) model were established to predict the high temperature flow stress of as-cast 20MnNiMo alloy. The accuracy and reliability of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the trained ANN model were further evaluated in terms of the correlation coefficient (R), the average absolute relative error (AARE), and the relative error (η). For the former, R and AARE were found to be 0.9954 and 5.26%, respectively, while, for the latter, 0.9997 and 1.02%, respectively. The relative errors (η) of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the ANN model were, respectively, in the range of -39.99% ∼ 35.05% and -3.77% ∼ 16.74%. As for the former, only 16.3% of the test data set possesses η-values within ± 1%, while, as for the latter, more than 79% possesses. The results indicate that the ANN model presents a higher predictable ability than the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model.

  4. A Comparative Study on Improved Arrhenius-Type and Artificial Neural Network Models to Predict High-Temperature Flow Behaviors in 20MnNiMo Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chun-tang; Liu, Ying-ying; Xia, Yu-feng

    2014-01-01

    The stress-strain data of 20MnNiMo alloy were collected from a series of hot compressions on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator in the temperature range of 1173∼1473 K and strain rate range of 0.01∼10 s−1. Based on the experimental data, the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model and the artificial neural network (ANN) model were established to predict the high temperature flow stress of as-cast 20MnNiMo alloy. The accuracy and reliability of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the trained ANN model were further evaluated in terms of the correlation coefficient (R), the average absolute relative error (AARE), and the relative error (η). For the former, R and AARE were found to be 0.9954 and 5.26%, respectively, while, for the latter, 0.9997 and 1.02%, respectively. The relative errors (η) of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the ANN model were, respectively, in the range of −39.99%∼35.05% and −3.77%∼16.74%. As for the former, only 16.3% of the test data set possesses η-values within ±1%, while, as for the latter, more than 79% possesses. The results indicate that the ANN model presents a higher predictable ability than the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model. PMID:24688358

  5. Effect of Molybdenum on the Corrosion Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys CoCrFeNi 2 and CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 under Sodium Chloride Aqueous Conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez, Alvaro A.; Tylczak, Joseph H.; Gao, Michael C.; ...

    2018-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) CoCrFeNi 2 and CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 was investigated in 3.5 wt. percent sodium chloride (NaCl) at 25°C by electrochemical methods. Their corrosion parameters were compared to those of HASTELLOY® C-276 (UNS N10276) and stainless steel 316L (UNS 31600) to assess the suitability of HEAs for potential industrial applications in NaCl simulating seawater type environments. The corrosion rates were calculated using corrosion current determined from electrochemical experiments for each of the alloys. In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements can indicate active, passive, and transpassive behavior of the metal as well as potential susceptibility to pittingmore » corrosion. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) can confirm the alloy susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) elucidates the corrosion mechanism under studied conditions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the corroded surfaces revealed general corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 and HASTELLOY C-276 and pitting corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi 2 and stainless steel 316L.« less

  6. Effect of Molybdenum on the Corrosion Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys CoCrFeNi 2 and CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 under Sodium Chloride Aqueous Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Alvaro A.; Tylczak, Joseph H.; Gao, Michael C.

    The corrosion behavior of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) CoCrFeNi 2 and CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 was investigated in 3.5 wt. percent sodium chloride (NaCl) at 25°C by electrochemical methods. Their corrosion parameters were compared to those of HASTELLOY® C-276 (UNS N10276) and stainless steel 316L (UNS 31600) to assess the suitability of HEAs for potential industrial applications in NaCl simulating seawater type environments. The corrosion rates were calculated using corrosion current determined from electrochemical experiments for each of the alloys. In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements can indicate active, passive, and transpassive behavior of the metal as well as potential susceptibility to pittingmore » corrosion. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) can confirm the alloy susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) elucidates the corrosion mechanism under studied conditions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the corroded surfaces revealed general corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 and HASTELLOY C-276 and pitting corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi 2 and stainless steel 316L.« less

  7. Atomic scale modelling of hexagonal structured metallic fission product alloys

    PubMed Central

    Middleburgh, S. C.; King, D. M.; Lumpkin, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    Noble metal particles in the Mo-Pd-Rh-Ru-Tc system have been simulated on the atomic scale using density functional theory techniques for the first time. The composition and behaviour of the epsilon phases are consistent with high-entropy alloys (or multi-principal component alloys)—making the epsilon phase the only hexagonally close packed high-entropy alloy currently described. Configurational entropy effects were considered to predict the stability of the alloys with increasing temperatures. The variation of Mo content was modelled to understand the change in alloy structure and behaviour with fuel burnup (Mo molar content decreases in these alloys as burnup increases). The predicted structures compare extremely well with experimentally ascertained values. Vacancy formation energies and the behaviour of extrinsic defects (including iodine and xenon) in the epsilon phase were also investigated to further understand the impact that the metallic precipitates have on fuel performance. PMID:26064629

  8. Evolution of Constitution, Structure, and Morphology in FeCo-Based Multicomponent Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Stoica, M.; Liu, G.; Eckert, J.

    2010-07-01

    Constituent phases, melting behaviors, and microstructure of multicomponent (Fe0.5Co0.5) x (Mo0.1C0.2B0.5Si0.2)100- x alloys ( x = 95, 90, 85, 80, and 70) produced by copper mold casting were evaluated by various analysis techniques, i.e., X-ray diffractometry, scanning electronic microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and differential scanning calorimetry. Metastable Fe3C- and Cr23C6-type phases were identified in the chill-cast alloys. A schematic illustration was proposed to explain the evolution of constituent phases and microstructure for the alloys with x = 95, 90, and 85 during the solidification process, which could be applicable to controlling microstructural formation of other multicomponent alloys with similar microstructures by artificially adjusting the composition.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Metastable Beta Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannetta, Christopher J.

    Additive manufacturing processes of many alloys are known to develop texture during the deposition process due to the rapid reheating and the directionality of the dissipation of heat. Titanium alloys and with respect to this study beta titanium alloys are especially susceptible to these effects. This work examines Ti-20wt%V and Ti-12wt%Mo deposited under normal additive manufacturing process parameters to examine the texture of these beta-stabilized alloys. Both microstructures contained columnar prior beta grains 1-2 mm in length beginning at the substrate with no visible equiaxed grains. This microstructure remained constant in the vanadium system throughout the build. The microstructure of the alloy containing molybdenum changed from a columnar to an equiaxed structure as the build height increased. Eighteen additional samples of the Ti-Mo system were created under different processing parameters to identify what role laser power and travel speed have on the microstructure. There appears to be a correlation in alpha lath size and power density. The two binary alloys were again deposited under the same conditions with the addition of 0.5wt% boron to investigate the effects an insoluble interstitial alloying element would have on the microstructure. The size of the prior beta grains in these two alloys were reduced with the addition of boron by approximately 50 (V) and 100 (Mo) times.

  10. Effects of Minor Alloying Additions on the Microstructure, Toughness, and Creep Strength of Directionally Solidified NiAl-31Cr-3Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.; Salem, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    A study of the effects of small (0.25 to 1.0 at%) fifth element additions to the structure and mechanical properties of directionally solidified (DS) NiAl-31Cr-3Mo has been undertaken. Essentially all the additions changed the as-DS'ed microstructure from lamellar eutectic grains to cells and, in some cases, introduced NiAl dendrites and/or third phases. In general the alloying additions did not improve strength or toughness over that possessed by the base composition; only Hf and, perhaps Ti, gave a minor increase in elevated temperature creep resistance. The lack of improvement in creep properties is probably due to inability to precipitation harden NiAl.

  11. Low Temperature Creep of a Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-2Cb-1Ta-0.8Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the analysis of low temperature creep of titanium alloys in order to establish design limitations due to the effect of creep. The creep data on a titanium Ti-6Al-2Cb-1Ta-0.8Mo are used in the analysis. A creep equation is formulated to determine the allowable stresses so that creep at ambient temperatures can be kept within an acceptable limit during the service life of engineering structures or instruments. Microcreep which is important to design of precision instruments is included in the discussion also.

  12. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

    1987-01-01

    Marko's rapid solidification technology was applied to processing high strength aluminum alloys. Four classes of alloys, namely, Al-Li based (class 1), 2124 type (class 2), high temperature Al-Fe-Mo (class 3), and PM X7091 type (class 4) alloy, were produced as melt-spun ribbons. The ribbons were pulverized, cold compacted, hot-degassed, and consolidated through single or double stage extrusion. The mechanical properties of all four classes of alloys were measured at room and elevated temperatures and their microstructures were investigated optically and through electron microscopy. The microstructure of class 1 Al-Li-Mg alloy was predominantly unrecrystallized due to Zr addition. Yield strengths to the order of 50 Ksi were obtained, but tensile elongation in most cases remained below 2 percent. The class 2 alloys were modified composition of 2124 aluminum alloy, through addition of 0.6 weight percent Zr and 1 weight percent Ni. Nickel addition gave rise to a fine dispersion of intermetallic particles resisting coarsening during elevated temperature exposure. The class 2 alloy showed good combination of tensile strength and ductility and retained high strength after 1000 hour exposure at 177 C. The class 3 Al-Fe-Mo alloy showed high strength and good ductility both at room and high temperatures. The yield and tensile strength of class 4 alloy exceeded those of the commercial 7075 aluminum alloy.

  13. Establishment of Wear Resistant HVOF Coatings for 50CrMo4 Chromium Molybdenum Alloy Steel as an Alternative for Hard Chrome Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppasamy, S.; Sivan, V.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Duraiselvam, M.; Dhanuskodi, R.

    2018-05-01

    High cost imported components of seamless steel tube manufacturing plants wear frequently and need replacement to ensure the quality of the product. Hard chrome plating, which is time consuming and hazardous, is conventionally used to restore the original dimension of the worn-out surface of the machine components. High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with NiCrBSi super alloy powder and Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 alloy powder applied on a 50CrMo4 (DIN-1.7228) chromium molybdenum alloy steel, the material of the wear prone machine component, were evaluated for use as an alternative for hard chrome plating in this present work. The coating characteristics are evaluated using abrasive wear test, sliding wear test and microscopic analysis, hardness test, etc. The study results revealed that the HVOF based NiCrBSi and Cr3C2NiCr75/25 coatings have hardness in the range of 800-900 HV0.3, sliding wear rate in the range of 50-60 µm and surface finish around 5 microns. Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 coating is observed to be a better option out of the two coatings evaluated for the selected application.

  14. HEAT TREATED U-Mo ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    McGeary, R.K.; Justusson, W.M.

    1960-02-23

    A reactor fuel element comprising a gamma-phase alloy consisting of 11 to 16 wt.% of molyhdenum and the balance uranium, annealed between 350 and 525 deg C and quenched to preserve the gamma phase, is reported.

  15. Irradiation performance of U-Mo monolithic fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Meyer, M. K.; Gan, J.; Jue, J. F.; ...

    2014-04-01

    High-performance research reactors require fuel that operates at high specific power to high fission density, but at relatively low temperatures. Research reactor fuels are designed for efficient heat rejection, and are composed of assemblies of thin-plates clad in aluminum alloy. The development of low-enriched fuels to replace high-enriched fuels for these reactors requires a substantially increased uranium density in the fuel to offset the decrease in enrichment. Very few fuel phases have been identified that have the required combination of very-high uranium density and stable fuel behavior at high burnup. U-Mo alloys represent the best known tradeoff in these properties.more » Testing of aluminum matrix U-Mo aluminum matrix dispersion fuel revealed a pattern of breakaway swelling behavior at intermediate burnup, related to the formation of a molybdenum stabilized high aluminum intermetallic phase that forms during irradiation. In the case of monolithic fuel, this issue was addressed by eliminating, as much as possible, the interfacial area between U-Mo and aluminum. Based on scoping irradiation test data, a fuel plate system composed of solid U-10Mo fuel meat, a zirconium diffusion barrier, and Al6061 cladding was selected for development. Developmental testing of this fuel system indicates that it meets core criteria for fuel qualification, including stable and predictable swelling behavior, mechanical integrity to high burnup, and geometric stability. In addition, the fuel exhibits robust behavior during power-cooling mismatch events under irradiation at high power.« less

  16. Influence of Annealing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Refractory CoCrMoNbTi0.4 High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mina; Zhou, Xianglin; Zhu, Wuzhi; Li, Jinghao

    2018-04-01

    A novel refractory CoCrMoNbTi0.4 high-entropy alloy (HEA) was prepared via vacuum arc melting. After annealing treatment at different temperatures, the microstructure evolution, phase stability, and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated. The alloy was composed of two primary body-centered cubic structures (BCC1 and BCC2) and a small amount of (Co, Cr)2Nb-type Laves phase under different annealing conditions. The microhardness and compressive strength of the heat-treated alloy was significantly enhanced by the solid-solution strengthening of the BCC phase matrix and newborn Laves phase. Especially, the alloy annealed at 1473 K (1200 °C) achieved the maximum hardness and compressive strength values of 959 ± 2 HV0.5 and 1790 MPa, respectively, owing to the enhanced volume fraction of the dispersed Laves phase. In particular, the HEAs exhibited promising high-temperature mechanical performance, when heated to an elevated temperature of 1473 K (1200 °C), with a compressive fracture strength higher than 580 MPa without fracture at a strain of more than 20 pct. This study suggests that the present refractory HEAs have immense potential for engineering applications as a new class of high-temperature structural materials.

  17. Metal elution from Ni- and Fe-based alloy reactors under hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Muhammad; Quitain, Armando T; Urano, Shin-Ya; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

    2004-05-20

    Elution of metals from Ni- and Fe-based alloy (i.e. Inconel 625 and SUS 316) under hydrothermal conditions was investigated. Results showed that metals could be eluted even in a short contact time. At subcritical conditions, a significant amount of Cr was extracted from SUS 316, while only traces of Ni, Fe, Mo, and Mn were eluted. In contrast, Ni was removed in significant amounts compared to Cr when Inconel 625 was tested. Several factors including temperature and contact time were found to affect elution behavior. The presence of air in the fluid even promoted elution under subcritical conditions.

  18. Mo-Si-B-Based Coatings for Ceramic Base Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John Harry (Inventor); Sakidja, Ridwan (Inventor); Ritt, Patrick (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Alumina-containing coatings based on molybdenum (Mo), silicon (Si), and boron (B) ("MoSiB coatings") that form protective, oxidation-resistant scales on ceramic substrate at high temperatures are provided. The protective scales comprise an aluminoborosilicate glass, and may additionally contain molybdenum. Two-stage deposition methods for forming the coatings are also provided.

  19. Development of β Type Ti23Mo-45S5 Bioglass Nanocomposites for Dental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jurczyk, Karolina; Miklaszewski, Andrzej; Jurczyk, Mieczyslawa U.; Jurczyk, Mieczyslaw

    2015-01-01

    Titanium β-type alloys attract attention as biomaterials for dental applications. The aim of this work was the synthesis of nanostructured β type Ti23Mo-x wt % 45S5 Bioglass (x = 0, 3 and 10) composites by mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy methods and their characterization. The crystallization of the amorphous material upon annealing led to the formation of a nanostructured β type Ti23Mo alloy with a grain size of approximately 40 nm. With the increase of the 45S5 Bioglass contents in Ti23Mo, nanocomposite increase of the α-phase is noticeable. The electrochemical treatment in phosphoric acid electrolyte resulted in a porous surface, followed by bioactive ceramic Ca-P deposition. Corrosion resistance potentiodynamic testing in Ringer solution at 37 °C showed a positive effect of porosity and Ca-P deposition on nanostructured Ti23Mo 3 wt % 45S5 Bioglass nanocomposite. The contact angles of glycerol on the nanostructured Ti23Mo alloy were determined and show visible decrease for bulk Ti23Mo 3 wt % 45S5 Bioglass and etched Ti23Mo 3 wt % 45S5 Bioglass nanocomposites. In vitro tests culture of normal human osteoblast cells showed very good cell proliferation, colonization, and multilayering. The present study demonstrated that porous Ti23Mo 3 wt % 45S5 Bioglass nanocomposite is a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. PMID:28793695

  20. Effect of Immersion Time on Corrosion Behavior of Single-Phase Alloy and Nanocomposite Bismuth Telluride-Based Thermoelectrics in NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash

    2018-05-01

    The corrosiveness of bismuth telluride-based thermoelectric materials (n-type single-phase alloy and a nanocomposite with MoS2 nanoinclusions), in 0.1 molar solution of sodium chloride (NaCl), was investigated. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy curves obtained after 1, 24, 48 and 72 h immersion time revealed the enhancement of the corrosion resistance of the nanocomposite specimen in a 0.1 molar NaCl solution in comparison with the single-phase bismuth telluride-based alloys, and the passivity increased by immersion time up to 72 h. The nanocomposite sample with submicron grains provided suitable nucleation sites for passive film nucleation that led to higher protective behavior.

  1. Alloy Design Challenge: Development of Low Density Superalloys for Turbine Blade Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Smialek, James L.; Nathal, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    New low density single crystal (LDS) alloys have been developed for turbine blade applications, which have the potential for significant improvements in the thrust to weight ratio over current production alloys. An innovative alloying strategy was identified to achieve high temperature creep resistance, alloy density reductions, microstructural stability, and cyclic oxidation resistance. The approach relies on the use of molybdenum (Mo) as a potent solid solution strengthener for the nickel (Ni)-base superalloy; Mo has a density much closer to Ni than other refractory elements, such as rhenium (Re) or tungsten (W). A host of testing and microstructural examinations was conducted on the superalloy single crystals, including creep rupture testing, microstructural stability, cyclic oxidation, and hot corrosion. The paper will provide an overview of the single crystal properties that were generated in this new superalloy design space. The paper will also demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative approach of low density single crystal superalloy design. It will be shown that the best LDS alloy possesses the best attributes of three generations of single crystal alloys: the low density of first-generation single crystal alloys, the excellent oxidation resistance of second-generation single crystal alloys, and a creep strength which exceeds that of second and third generation alloys.

  2. Effects of hot-salt stress corrosion on titanium alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    Susceptibility of titanium alloys to hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking increased as follows: Ti-2Al-11Sn-5Zr-1Mo-0.2Si (679), Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (6242), Ti-6Al-4V (64), Ti-6Al-4V-3Co (643), Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V (811), and Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al (13-11-3). The Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.25Si (5621S) alloy was both the least and most susceptible, depending on heat treatment. Such rankings can be drastically altered by heat-to-heat variations and processing conditions. Residual compressive stresses reduce susceptibility to stress-corrosion. Detection of substantial concentrations of hydrogen in all corroded alloys confirmed the generality of a previously proposed hydrogen embrittlement mechanism.

  3. Molybdenum carbide supported nickel-molybdenum alloys for synthesis gas production via partial oxidation of surrogate biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Shreya; Marin-Flores, Oscar G.; Norton, M. Grant; Ha, Su

    2015-10-01

    In this study, NiMo alloys supported on Mo2C are synthesized by wet impregnation for partial oxidation of methyl oleate, a surrogate biodiesel, to produce syngas. When compared to single phase Mo2C, the H2 yield increases from 70% up to >95% at the carbon conversion of ∼100% for NiMo alloy nanoparticles that are dispersed over the Mo2C surface. Supported NiMo alloy samples are prepared at two different calcination temperatures in order to determine its effect on particle dispersion, crystalline phase and catalytic properties. The reforming test data indicate that catalyst prepared at lower calcination temperature shows better nanoparticle dispersion over the Mo2C surface, which leads to higher initial performance when compared to catalysts synthesized at higher calcination temperature. Activity tests using the supported NiMo alloy on Mo2C that are calcined at the lower temperature of 400 °C shows 100% carbon conversion with 90% H2 yield without deactivation due to coking over 24 h time-on-stream.

  4. MoS2‐Based Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyi; Chen, Shuangqiang; Xue, Huaiguo

    2016-01-01

    Typical layered transition‐metal chalcogenide materials, in particular layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanocomposites, have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their excellent chemical and physical properties in various research fieldsHere, a general overview of synthetic MoS2 based nanocomposites via different preparation approaches and their applications in energy storage devices (Li‐ion battery, Na‐ion battery, and supercapacitor) is presented. The relationship between morphologies and the electrochemical performances of MoS2‐based nanocomposites in the three typical and promising rechargeable systems is also discussed. Finally, perspectives on major challenges and opportunities faced by MoS2‐based materials to address the practical problems of MoS2‐based materials are presented. PMID:28251051

  5. Influence of the Additives and The pH On the Cobalt-Molybdenum (Co-Mo) Alloy Electrodeposited On n-TypeSilicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekih, Z.; Ghellai, N.; Fortas, G.; Chiboub, N.; Sam, S.; Chabanne-sari, N. E.; Gabouze, N.

    In this work, thin films of metal alloys (Co-Mo) have been electrodeposited onto silicon (Si) surface. The effects of two different additives (H3BO3 and Na2CO3) and the pH of the solution on the electrochemically deposited films (morphology, stochiometry…) have been investigated. The properties of the deposits were characterized by using X-Rays Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the morphology and the film composition depend on both the pH of the solution and the additives. The presence of boric acid favors the Mo deposition. Crack-free homogeneous deposits with a low percentage of molybdenum can be easily obtained from high pH bath. The deposits were shown to exhibits a good crystalline structure.

  6. Wear mechanisms and improvements of wear resistance in cobalt-chromium alloy femoral components in artificial total knee joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Que, Like

    Wear is one of the major causes of artificial total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure. Wear debris can cause adverse reactions to the surrounding tissue which can ultimately lead to loosening of the prosthesis. The wear behavior of UHMWPE tibial components have been studied extensively, but relatively little attention has been paid to the CoCrMo femoral component. The goal of the present study was to investigate the wear mechanisms of CoCrMo femoral components, to study the effect of CoCrMo alloy surface roughness on the wear of UHMWPE, and to determine the effect of heat treatments on the wear resistance of the CoCrMo implant alloys. The surface roughness of twenty-seven retrieved CoCrMo femoral components was analyzed. A multiple station wear testing machine and a wear fixture attached to an MTS 858 bionix system were built and used for in vitro wear studies of the CoCrMo/UHMWPE bearing couple. Solution and aging treatments were applied to the CoCrMo alloys. A white light interference surface profilometer (WLISP) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to measure the surface roughness and to study wear mechanisms of CoCrMo alloy. An optical microscope was used for alloy microstructure study. X-ray diffraction tests were performed to identify alloy phase transformation after aging. The micro-structure, hardness, and wear resistance of the alloys were studied. Surface roughness was used to quantify alloy wear, and the minimum number of surface roughness measurements required to obtain a reliable and repeatable characterization of surface roughness for a worn alloy surface was determined. The surfaces of the retrieved CoCrMo femoral components appeared to be damaged by metal particles embedded in the UHMWPE tibial component and metal-on-metal wear due to UHMWPE tibial component through-wear. Surface roughness of the femoral components was not correlated with patient age, weight, sex, or length of implantation. In vitro wear tests showed that when the CoCrMo

  7. Effects of heat treatment on U–Mo fuel foils with a zirconium diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Jue, Jan-Fong; Trowbridge, Tammy L.; Breckenridge, Cynthia R.

    A monolith fuel design based on U–Mo alloy has been selected as the fuel type for conversion of the United States’ high performance research reactors (HPRRs) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). In this fuel design, a thin layer of zirconium is used to eliminate the direct interaction between the U–Mo fuel meat and the aluminum-alloy cladding during irradiation. The co-rolling process used to bond the Zr barrier layer to the U–Mo foil during fabrication alters the microstructure of both the U–10Mo fuel meat and the U–Mo/Zr interface. This work studied the effects of post-rolling annealing treatmentmore » on the microstructure of the co-rolled U–Mo fuel meat and the U–Mo/Zr interaction layer. Microscopic characterization shows that the grain size of U–Mo fuel meat increases with the annealing temperature, as expected. The grain sizes were ~9, ~13, and ~20 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, and 850 °C, respectively. No abnormal grain growth was observed. The U–Mo/Zr interaction-layer thickness increased with the annealing temperature with an Arrhenius constant for growth of 184 kJ/mole, consistent with a previous diffusion-couple study. The interaction layer thickness was 3.2 ± 0.5 μm, 11.1 ± 2.1 μm, 27.1 ± 0.9 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, to 850 °C, respectively. The homogeneity of Mo improves with post rolling annealing temperature and with U–Mo coupon homogenization. The phases in the Zr/U–Mo interaction layer produced by co-rolling, however, differ from those reported in the previous diffusion couple studies.« less

  8. Effects of heat treatment on U-Mo fuel foils with a zirconium diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jue, Jan-Fong; Trowbridge, Tammy L.; Breckenridge, Cynthia R.; Moore, Glenn A.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Keiser, Dennis D.

    2015-05-01

    A monolith fuel design based on U-Mo alloy has been selected as the fuel type for conversion of the United States' high performance research reactors (HPRRs) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). In this fuel design, a thin layer of zirconium is used to eliminate the direct interaction between the U-Mo fuel meat and the aluminum-alloy cladding during irradiation. The co-rolling process used to bond the Zr barrier layer to the U-Mo foil during fabrication alters the microstructure of both the U-10Mo fuel meat and the U-Mo/Zr interface. This work studied the effects of post-rolling annealing treatment on the microstructure of the co-rolled U-Mo fuel meat and the U-Mo/Zr interaction layer. Microscopic characterization shows that the grain size of U-Mo fuel meat increases with the annealing temperature, as expected. The grain sizes were ∼9, ∼13, and ∼20 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, and 850 °C, respectively. No abnormal grain growth was observed. The U-Mo/Zr interaction-layer thickness increased with the annealing temperature with an Arrhenius constant for growth of 184 kJ/mole, consistent with a previous diffusion-couple study. The interaction layer thickness was 3.2 ± 0.5 μm, 11.1 ± 2.1 μm, 27.1 ± 0.9 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, to 850 °C, respectively. The homogeneity of Mo improves with post rolling annealing temperature and with U-Mo coupon homogenization. The phases in the Zr/U-Mo interaction layer produced by co-rolling, however, differ from those reported in the previous diffusion couple studies.

  9. Investigation of mechanical properties for open cellular structure CoCrMo alloy fabricated by selective laser melting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azidin, A.; Taib, Z. A. M.; Harun, W. S. W.; Che Ghani, S. A.; Faisae, M. F.; Omar, M. A.; Ramli, H.

    2015-12-01

    Orthodontic implants have been a major focus through mechanical and biological performance in advance to fabricate shape of complex anatomical. Designing the part with a complex mechanism is one of the challenging process and addition to achieve the balance and desired mechanical performance brought to the right manufacture technique to fabricate. Metal additive manufacturing (MAM) is brought forward to the newest fabrication technology in this field. In this study, selective laser melting (SLM) process was utilized on a medical grade cobalt-chrome molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy. The work has focused on mechanical properties of the CoCrMo open cellular structures samples with 60%, 70%, and 80% designed volume porosity that could potentially emulate the properties of human bone. It was observed that hardness values decreased as the soaking time increases except for bottom face. For compression test, 60% designed volume porosity demonstrated highest ultimate compressive strength compared to 70% and 80%.

  10. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  11. Corrosion behavior of high-nickel and chromium alloys in natural Baltic seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Janik-Czachor, M.; Wolowik, A.

    Effect of Cl{sup {minus}} ion concentration (O M sodium chloride [NaCl] to 2 M NaCl) and temperature (25 C to 75 C) on stability of the passive state of high-Ni and Cr alloys: NI-1 ({approximately} 16% Mo), CR-2 ({approximately} 6.2% Mo), and NI-3 (3.5% Mo) were investigated in acidic and neutral electrolytes in strictly controlled electrochemical conditions. The anodic behavior of the alloys appeared to depend mostly upon Mo content in the alloy. Thus, the NI-1 was the most stable alloy under the applied experimental conditions. The other alloys were also quite resistant, undergoing pitting only at elevated temperatures, atmore » high anodic potentials, and at a chloride concentration not lower than 1 M. In natural Baltic seawater, these alloys did not exhibit any tendency to pitting, in qualitative agreement with the accelerated electrochemical tests. Complementary microscopic and surface analytical (AES) investigations were carried out to correlate the anodic and corrosion behavior of these materials with their composition and structure, and the composition of the passivating films formed at their surfaces.« less

  12. IRRADIATION PERFORMANCE OF U-Mo MONOLITHIC FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Meyer; J. Gan; J.-F. Jue

    2014-04-01

    High-performance research reactors require fuel that operates at high specific power to high fission density, but at relatively low temperatures. Research reactor fuels are designed for efficient heat rejection, and are composed of assemblies of thin-plates clad in aluminum alloy. The development of low-enriched fuels to replace high-enriched fuels for these reactors requires a substantially increased uranium density in the fuel to offset the decrease in enrichment. Very few fuel phases have been identified that have the required combination of very-high uranium density and stable fuel behavior at high burnup. UMo alloys represent the best known tradeoff in these properties.more » Testing of aluminum matrix U-Mo aluminum matrix dispersion fuel revealed a pattern of breakaway swelling behavior at intermediate burnup, related to the formation of a molybdenum stabilized high aluminum intermetallic phase that forms during irradiation. In the case of monolithic fuel, this issue was addressed by eliminating, as much as possible, the interfacial area between U-Mo and aluminum. Based on scoping irradiation test data, a fuel plate system composed of solid U-10Mo fuel meat, a zirconium diffusion barrier, and Al6061 cladding was selected for development. Developmental testing of this fuel system indicates that it meets core criteria for fuel qualification, including stable and predictable swelling behavior, mechanical integrity to high burnup, and geometric stability. In addition, the fuel exhibits robust behavior during power-cooling mismatch events under irradiation at high power.« less

  13. The hydrogen embrittlement of titanium-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Gutelmacher, Ervin; Eliezer, Dan

    2005-09-01

    Titanium-based alloys provide an excellent combination of a high strength/weight ratio and good corrosion behavior, which makes these alloys among the most important advanced materials for a variety of aerospace, marine, industrial, and commercial applications. Although titanium is considered to be reasonably resistant to chemical attack, severe problems can arise when titanium-based alloys come in contact with hydrogen-containing environments, where they can pick up large amounts of hydrogen, especially at elevated temperatures. The severity and the extent of the hydrogen interaction with titanium-based alloys are directly related to the microstructure and composition of the titanium alloys. This paper addresses the hydrogen embrittlement of titanium-based alloys. The hydrogen-titanium interaction is reviewed, including the solubility of hydrogen in α and β phases of titanium and hydride formation. Also, the paper summarizes the detrimental effects of hydrogen in different titanium alloys.

  14. Oxidation and alpha-case formation in Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–2Mo alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddam, Raghuveer, E-mail: raghuveer.gaddam@ltu.se; Sefer, Birhan; Pederson, Robert

    2015-01-15

    Isothermal heat treatments in ambient air were performed on wrought Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–2Mo (Ti-6242) material at 500, 593 and 700°C for times up to 500 h. In the presence of oxygen at elevated temperatures simultaneous reactions occurred in Ti-6242 alloy, which resulted in the formation of an oxide scale and a layer with higher oxygen concentration (termed as alpha-case). Total weight gain analysis showed that there was a transition in the oxidation kinetics. At 500°C, the oxidation kinetics obeyed a cubic relationship up to 200 h and thereafter changed to parabolic at prolonged exposure times. At 593°C, it followed a parabolic relationship.more » After heat treatment at 700°C, the oxidation obeyed a parabolic relationship up to 200 h and thereafter changed to linear at prolonged exposure times. The observed transition is believed to be due to the differences observed in the oxide scale. The activation energy for parabolic oxidation was estimated to be 157 kJ/mol. In addition, alpha-case layer was evaluated using optical microscope, electron probe micro-analyser and microhardness tester. The thickness of the alpha-case layer was found to be a function of temperature and time, increasing proportionally, and following a parabolic relationship. The activation energy for the formation of alpha-case layer was estimated to be 153 kJ/mol. - Highlights: • Transition in oxidation kinetics was observed in Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–2Mo alloy in the temperature range 500–700°C. • The activation energy for parabolic oxidation and for alpha-case formation is about 157 kJ/mol and 153 kJ/mol. • Thickness of alpha-case layer estimated by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis is comparable.« less

  15. Dynamic mechanical properties of straight titanium alloy arch wires.

    PubMed

    Kusy, R P; Wilson, T W

    1990-10-01

    Eight straight-wire materials were studied: an orthodontic titanium-molybdenum (Ti-Mo) product, TMA; three orthodontic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) products, Nitinol, Titanal, and Orthonol; three prototype alloys, a martensitic, an austenitic, and a biphasic alloy; and a hybrid shape-memory-effect product, Biometal. Each wire was prepared with a length-to-cross-sectional area of at least 3600 cm-1. With an Autovibron Model DDV-II-C used in the tensile mode, each sample was scanned from -120 to +200 degrees C at 2 degrees C/min. From the data base, plots of the log storage modulus, log tan delta, and percent change in length vs. temperature were generated. Results showed that the dynamic mechanical properties of the alloys within this TI system are quite different. The Ti-Mo alloy, TMA, was invariant with temperature, having a modulus of 7.30 x 10(11) dyne/cm2 (10.6 x 10(6) psi). The three cold-worked alloys--Nitinol, Titanal, and Orthonol--appeared to be similar, having a modulus of 5.74 x 10(11) dyne/cm2 (8.32 x 10(6) psi). The biphasic shape-memory alloy displayed a phase transformation near ambient temperature; whereas the hybrid shape-memory product, Biometal, underwent a 3-5% change in length during its transformation between 95 and 125 degrees C. Among the Ni-Ti wires tested, several different types of alloys were represented by this intermetallic material.

  16. Development of Tough, Strong, and Pest-Resistant MoSi2-(Beta)Si3N4 Composites for High-Temperature Structural Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, M. G.; Choi, S. R.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Salem, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    A new MoSi2-base composite was developed that contains in-situ reinforcement of whisker-type beta-Si3N4 grains in a MoSi2 matrix. The advantages of this in-situ reinforced MoSi2-Si3N4 are lower density, higher fracture toughness and better strength than typical MoSi2 alloys, combined with excellent environmental and pest resistance. The average fracture toughness of the in-situ reinforced material determined by one technique was 12.2 MPa.m(exp 1/2) compared to 4.9 to 5.5 MPa.m(exp 1/2) for similar materials with the exception that the beta-Si3N4 had a blocky morphology as opposed to the whisker-like morphology typical of the in-situ toughened material. This MoSi2-(beta)Si3N4 was also resistant to pesting at intermediate temperatures (400 to 600 C) even when precracked or under applied load; conditions that would quickly reduce typical MoSi2 alloys to oxidized powder.

  17. Surface segregation in HAYNES 230 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, D.; Wolski, K.

    2006-12-01

    The surface segregation in the Ni-based alloy HAYNES 230 was studied by Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy between 400 and 1100 °C. The qualitative variations of the surface contents of S, P, W, Mo, N, Si, and Mn were determined as a function of annealing temperature and time. It was found that at 925 °C the maximum coverage of sulphur at the alloy surface is in the range 0.06-0.15 monolayers. Chromium evaporation from the HAYNES 230 surface under UHV conditions is clearly evidenced for annealing at 1100 °C.

  18. Irradiated microstructure of U-10Mo monolithic fuel plate at very high fission density

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, J.; Miller, B. D.; Keiser, D. D.

    Monolithic U-10Mo alloy fuel plates with Al-6061 cladding are being developed for use in research and test reactors as low enrichment fuel (< 20% U-235 enrichment) as a result of its high uranium loading capacity compared to that of U-7Mo dispersion fuel. These fuel plates contain a Zr diffusion barrier between the U-10Mo fuel and Al-6061 cladding that suppresses the interaction between the U-Mo fuel foil and Al alloy cladding that is known to be problematic under irradiation. This paper discusses the TEM results of the U-10Mo/Zr/Al6061 monolithic fuel plate (Plate ID: L1P09T, ~ 59% U-235 enrichment) irradiated in Advancedmore » Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory as part of RERTR-9B irradiation campaign with an unprecedented high local fission density of 9.8E+21 fissions/cm3. The calculated fuel foil centerline temperature at the beginning of life and the end of life is 141 and 194 C, respectively. A total of 5 TEM lamellas were prepared using focus ion beam lift-out technique. The estimated U-Mo fuel swelling, based on the fuel foil thickness change from SEM, is approximately 76%. Large bubbles (> 1 µm) are distributed evenly in U-Mo and interlink of these bubbles is evident. The average size of subdivided grains at this fission density appears similar to that at 5.2E+21 fissions/cm3. The measured average Mo and Zr content in the fuel matrix is ~ 30 at% and ~ 7 at%, respectively, in general agreement with the calculated Mo and Zr from fission density.« less

  19. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that is...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that is...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that is...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that is...

  3. Development of microstructure and mechanical properties during annealing of a cold-swaged Co-Cr-Mo alloy rod.

    PubMed

    Mori, Manami; Sato, Nanae; Yamanaka, Kenta; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kuramoto, Koji; Chiba, Akihiko

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties during annealing of a cold-swaged Ni-free Co-Cr-Mo alloy for biomedical applications. A Co-28Cr-6Mo-0.14N-0.05C (mass%) alloy rod was processed by cold swaging, with a reduction in area of 27.7%, and then annealed at 1173-1423K for various periods up to 6h. The duplex microstructure of the cold-swaged rod consisted of a face-centered cubic γ-matrix and hexagonal closed-packed ε-martensite developed during cold swaging. This structure transformed nearly completely to the γ-phase after annealing and many annealing twin boundaries were observed as a result of the heat treatment. A small amount of the ε-phase was identified in specimens annealed at 1173K. Growth of the γ-grains occurred with increasing annealing time at temperatures ≥1273K. Interestingly, the grain sizes remained almost unchanged at 1173K and a very fine grain size of approximately 8μm was obtained. The precipitation that occurred during annealing was attributed to the limited grain coarsening during heat treatment. Consequently, the specimens treated at this temperature showed the highest tensile strength and lowest ductility among the specimens prepared. An elongation-to-failure value larger than 30% is sufficient for the proposed applications. The other specimens treated at higher temperatures possessed similar tensile properties and did not show any significant variations with different annealing times. Optimization of the present rod manufacturing process, including cold swaging and interval annealing heat treatment, is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrochemical and biological characterization of coatings formed on Ti-15Mo alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja; Krok-Borkowicz, Małgorzata; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Simka, Wojciech

    2014-10-01

    β-Type titanium alloys are considered the future materials for bone implants. To improve the bioactivity of Ti-15Mo, the surface was modified using the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP, Ca3PO4), wollastonite (CaSiO3) and silica (SiO2) were selected as additives in the anodizing bath to enhance the bioactivity of the coatings formed during the PEO process. Electrochemical analysis of the samples was performed in Ringer's solution at 37°C. The open-circuit potential (EOCP) as a function of time, corrosion potential (ECORR), corrosion current density (jCORR) and polarization resistance (Rp) of the samples were determined. Surface modification improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo in Ringer's solution. In vitro studies with MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were performed for 1, 3 and 7 days. After 24h, the cells were well adhered on the entire surfaces, and their number increased with increasing culture time. The coatings formed in basic solution with wollastonite exhibited better biological performance compared with the as-ground sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of the fatigue behavior of cast Ti-7.5Mo with c.p. titanium, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Ju, Chien-Ping; Chern Lin, Jiin-Huey

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare the high-cycle fatigue behavior of newly developed Ti-7.5Mo alloy with that of c.p. Ti, Ti-13Nb-13Zr and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in their as-cast state. Experimental results indicate that Ti-6Al-4V and c.p. Ti have higher stress-controlled fatigue resistance but lower strain-controlled fatigue resistance than Ti-7.5Mo and Ti-13Nb-13Zr. Among four materials Ti-7.5Mo demonstrates the best strain-controlled fatigue performance. The fracture surfaces of the present materials are comprised of three morphologically distinct zones: crack initiation zone, crack propagation zone, and the final-stage overload zone. The fatigue cracks almost always initiate from casting-induced surface/subsurface pores. A river pattern is observed in the propagation zone. In the overload zone dimples are typically observed. Three factors most significantly affecting the fatigue performance of the present materials are the presence of the casting-induced surface/subsurface pores; the location of the pores; and the inherent mechanical properties of the materials.

  6. High strength forgeable tantalum base alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckman, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Increasing tungsten content of tantalum base alloy to 12-15% level will improve high temperature creep properties of existing tantalum base alloys while retaining their excellent fabrication and welding characteristics.

  7. Thermal fatigue-and-oxidation-resistant alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizon, P. T.; Waters, W. J.; Spera, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Cast nickel-base alloy designated as NASA TAZ-8A has been developed for use in high temperature aircraft engine components. TAZ-8A composition is 8Ta, 6Cr, 6A1, 4Mo, 4W, 2Cb, 0.5Zr, 0.125C, 0.004B, and balance Ni (weight percent). Its specific gravity at room temperature is 8.65.

  8. Characterization of dislocation structures and deformation mechanisms in as-grown and deformed directionally solidified NiAl–Mo composites

    DOE PAGES

    Kwon, J.; Bowers, M. L.; Brandes, M. C.; ...

    2015-02-26

    In this paper, directionally solidified (DS) NiAl–Mo eutectic composites were strained to plastic strain values ranging from 0% to 12% to investigate the origin of the previously observed stochastic versus deterministic mechanical behaviors of Mo-alloy micropillars in terms of the development of dislocation structures at different pre-strain levels. The DS composites consist of long, [1 0 0] single-crystal Mo-alloy fibers with approximately square cross-sections embedded in a [1 0 0] single-crystal NiAl matrix. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and computational stress state analysis were conducted for the current study. STEM of the as-grown samples (without pre-straining) reveal no dislocations inmore » the investigated Mo-alloy fibers. In the NiAl matrix, on the other hand, a(1 0 0)-type dislocations exist in two orthogonal orientations: along the [1 0 0] Mo fiber axis, and wrapped around the fiber axis. They presumably form to accommodate the different thermal contractions of the two phases during cool down after eutectic solidification. At intermediate pre-strain levels (4–8%), a/2(1 1 1)-type dislocations are present in the Mo-alloy fibers and the pre-existing dislocations in the NiAl matrix seem to be swept toward the interphase boundary. Some of the dislocations in the Mo-alloy fibers appear to be transformed from a(1 0 0)-type dislocations present in the NiAl matrix. Subsequently, the transformed dislocations in the fibers propagate through the NiAl matrix as a(1 1 1) dislocations and aid in initiating additional slip bands in adjacent fibers. Thereafter, co-deformation presumably occurs by (1 1 1) slip in both phases. With a further increase in the pre-strain level (>10%), multiple a/2(1 1 1)-type dislocations are observed in many locations in the Mo-alloy fibers. Interactions between these systems upon subsequent deformation could lead to stable junctions and persistent dislocation sources. Finally, the transition from stochastic to

  9. Effects of the foil flatness on the stress-strain characteristics of U10Mo alloy based monolithic mini-plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hakan Ozaltun; Pavel Medvedev

    The effects of the foil flatness on stress-strain behavior of monolithic fuel mini-plates during fabrication and irradiation were studied. Monolithic plate-type fuels are a new fuel form being developed for research and test reactors to achieve higher uranium densities. This concept facilitates the use of low-enriched uranium fuel in the reactor. These fuel elements are comprised of a high density, low enrichment, U–Mo alloy based fuel foil encapsulated in a cladding material made of Aluminum. To evaluate the effects of the foil flatness on the stress-strain behavior of the plates during fabrication, irradiation and shutdown stages, a representative plate frommore » RERTR-12 experiments (Plate L1P756) was considered. Both fabrication and irradiation processes of the plate were simulated by using actual irradiation parameters. The simulations were repeated for various foil curvatures to observe the effects of the foil flatness on the peak stress and strain magnitudes of the fuel elements. Results of fabrication simulations revealed that the flatness of the foil does not have a considerable impact on the post fabrication stress-strain fields. Furthermore, the irradiation simulations indicated that any post-fabrication stresses in the foil would be relieved relatively fast in the reactor. While, the perfectly flat foil provided the slightly better mechanical performance, overall difference between the flat-foil case and curved-foil case was not significant. Even though the peak stresses are less affected, the foil curvature has several implications on the strain magnitudes in the cladding. It was observed that with an increasing foil curvature, there is a slight increase in the cladding strains.« less

  10. [Corrosion property and oxide film of dental casting alloys before and after porcelain firing].

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian; Wu, Feng-ming

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the types and compositions of oxide films formed during porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) firing on three kinds of dental casting alloys, and to investigate the corrosion property of these alloys in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM) cell culture fluid, before and after PFM firing. Specimens of three dental casting alloys (Ni-Cr, Co-Cr and Ni-Ti) before and after PFM firing were prepared, and were immersed in DMEM cell culture fluid. After 30 days, the type and concentration of released metal ions were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for analysis of oxide film on the alloys. One way-ANOVA was adopted in data analysis. The total amount of metal ions released from the three dental alloys was found to be highest in Ni-Cr alloy [(2.829 ± 0.694) mg/L], followed by Co-Cr [(2.120 ± 0.418) mg/L] and Ni-Ti alloy [(1.211 ± 0.101) mg/L]. The amount of Ni ions released from Ni-Cr alloys [(1.531 ± 0.392) mg/L] was higher than that from Ni-Ti alloys [(0.830 ± 0.052) mg/L]. The amount of Cr, Mo ions released from Co-Cr alloy [Cr: (0.048 ± 0.011) mg/L, Mo: (1.562 ± 0.333) mg/L] was higher than that from Ni-Cr alloy [Cr: (0.034 ± 0.002) mg/L, Mo: (1.264 ± 0.302) mg/L] and Ni-Ti alloy [Cr: (0.013 ± 0.006) mg/L, Mo: (0.151 ± 0.026) mg/L] (P < 0.05). After PFM firing, the total amount of metal irons released from the three dental alloys decreased [Ni-Cr: (0.861 ± 0.054) mg/L, Co-Cr: (0.695 ± 0.327) mg/L, Ni-Ti: (0.892 ± 0.115) mg/L] (P < 0.05). In addition, XPS showed increase of Cr(2)O(3) and Mo-Ni oxide on the surface of all the alloys after PFM firing. The amount of ions released from Ni-Cr alloy was the highest among the three dental casting alloys, this means Ni-Cr alloy is prone to corrode. The PFM firing process changed the alloys' surface composition. Increased Ni, Cr and Mo were found in oxide film, and

  11. Evaluation of advanced austenitic alloys relative to alloy design criteria for steam service

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Maziasz, P.J.; Bolling, E.

    1990-05-01

    The results are summarized for a 6-year activity on advanced austenitic stainless steels for heat recovery systems. Commercial, near-commercial, and developmental alloys were evaluated relative to criteria for metallurgical stability, fabricability, weldability, and mechanical strength. Fireside and steamside corrosion were also considered, but no test data were collected. Lean stainless steel alloys that were given special attention in the study were type 316 stainless steel, fine-grained type 347 stainless steel, 17-14CuMo stainless steel, Esshete 1250, Sumitomo ST3Cu{reg sign} stainless steel, and a group of alloys identified as HT-UPS (high-temperature, ultrafine-precipitation strengthened) steels that were basically 14Cr--16Ni--Mo steels modified by variousmore » additions of MC-forming elements. It was found that, by solution treating the MC-forming alloys to temperatures above 1150{degree}C and subsequently cold or warm working, excellent metallurgical stability and creep strength could be achieved. Test data to beyond 35,000 h were collected. The ability to clad the steels for improved fireside corrosion resistance was demonstrated. Weldability of the alloys was of concern, and hot cracking was found to be a problem in the HT-UPS alloys. By reducing the phosphorous content and selecting either CRE 16-8-2 stainless steel or alloy 556 filler metal, weldments were produced that had excellent strength and ductility. The major issues related to the development of the advanced alloys were identified and ways to resolve the issues suggested. 89 refs., 45 figs., 8 tabs.« less

  12. Wettability of magnesium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornelas, Victor Manuel

    The premise of this project was to determine the wettability behavior of Mg-based alloys using three different liquids. Contact angle measurements were carried out along with utilizing the Zisman method for obtaining values for the critical surface tension. Adhesion energy values were also found through the use of the Young-Dupre equation. This project utilized the Mg-based alloy Mg-2Zn-2Gd with supplemented alpha-Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), Phosphate Buffer Saline solution (PBS), and distilled water. These three liquids are commonly used in cell cultivation and protein adsorption studies. Supplemented alpha-MEM consisted of alpha-MEM, fetal bovine serum, and penicillin-streptomycin. Mg-2Zn-2Gd was used because of observed superior mechanical properties and better corrosion resistance as compared to conventional Mg-alloys. These attractive properties have made it possible for this alloy to be used in biomedical devices within the human body. However, the successful use of this alloy system in the human body requires knowledge in the response of protein adsorption on the alloy surface. Protein adsorption depends on many parameters, but one of the most important factors is the wettability behavior at the surface.

  13. Interdiffusion and reactions between U-Mo and Zr at 650 °C as a function of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Development of monolithic U-Mo alloy fuel (typically U-10 wt.%Mo) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program entails a use of Zr diffusion barrier to eliminate the interdiffusion-reactions between the fuel alloy and Al-alloy cladding. The application of Zr barrier to the U-Mo fuel system requires a co-rolling process that utilizes a soaking temperature of 650 °C, which represents the highest temperature the fuel system is exposed to during both fuel manufacturing and reactor application. Therefore, in this study, development of phase constituents, microstructure and diffusion kinetics of U-10 wt.%Mo and Zr was examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed at 650 °C for 240, 480 and 720 h. Phase constituents and microstructural development were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Concentration profiles were mapped as diffusion paths on the isothermal ternary phase diagram. Within the diffusion zone, single-phase layers of β-Zr and β-U were observed along with a discontinuous layer of Mo2Zr between the β-Zr and β-U layers. In the vicinity of Mo2Zr phase, islands of α-Zr phases were also found. In addition, acicular α-Zr and U6Zr3Mo phases were observed within the γ-U(Mo) terminal alloy. Growth rate of the interdiffusion-reaction zone was determined to be 7.75 (± 5.84) × 10-16 m2/s at 650 °C, however with an assumption of a certain incubation period.

  14. Temperature dependent elastic properties of γ-phase U – 8 wt% Mo

    DOE PAGES

    Steiner, M. A.; Garlea, E.; Creasy, J.; ...

    2017-12-28

    Polycrystalline elastic moduli and stiffness tensor components of γ-phase U – 8 wt% Mo have been determined by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy in the temperature range of 25-650°C. The ambient temperature elastic properties are compared to results measured via other experimental methods and show reasonable agreement, though there is considerable variation of these properties within the literature at both the U – 8 wt% Mo composition and as a function of Mo concentration. The Young’s modulus of U – 8 wt% Mo measured in this study decreases steadily with temperature at a rate that is slower than trends previously observed atmore » similar Mo concentrations, though the difference is not statistically significant. This first measurement of the temperature dependent elastic stiffness tensor of a polycrystalline U-Mo alloy clarifies that the behavior of the Young’s modulus is due to a strongly weakening C 11 polycrystalline stiffness tensor component, along with milder decreases in C 12 and C 44. The unique partially auxetic properties recently predicted for singlecrystalline U-Mo are discussed in regard to their possible impact on the polycrystalline behavior of the alloy.« less

  15. Temperature dependent elastic properties of γ-phase U – 8 wt% Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, M. A.; Garlea, E.; Creasy, J.

    Polycrystalline elastic moduli and stiffness tensor components of γ-phase U – 8 wt% Mo have been determined by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy in the temperature range of 25-650°C. The ambient temperature elastic properties are compared to results measured via other experimental methods and show reasonable agreement, though there is considerable variation of these properties within the literature at both the U – 8 wt% Mo composition and as a function of Mo concentration. The Young’s modulus of U – 8 wt% Mo measured in this study decreases steadily with temperature at a rate that is slower than trends previously observed atmore » similar Mo concentrations, though the difference is not statistically significant. This first measurement of the temperature dependent elastic stiffness tensor of a polycrystalline U-Mo alloy clarifies that the behavior of the Young’s modulus is due to a strongly weakening C 11 polycrystalline stiffness tensor component, along with milder decreases in C 12 and C 44. The unique partially auxetic properties recently predicted for singlecrystalline U-Mo are discussed in regard to their possible impact on the polycrystalline behavior of the alloy.« less

  16. Small-signal amplifier based on single-layer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radisavljevic, Branimir; Whitwick, Michael B.; Kis, Andras

    2012-07-01

    In this letter we demonstrate the operation of an analog small-signal amplifier based on single-layer MoS2, a semiconducting analogue of graphene. Our device consists of two transistors integrated on the same piece of single-layer MoS2. The high intrinsic band gap of 1.8 eV allows MoS2-based amplifiers to operate with a room temperature gain of 4. The amplifier operation is demonstrated for the frequencies of input signal up to 2 kHz preserving the gain higher than 1. Our work shows that MoS2 can effectively amplify signals and that it could be used for advanced analog circuits based on two-dimensional materials.

  17. [Study on corrosion resistance of three non-noble porcelain alloys].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhikai; Xu, Sheng; Li, Wei; Teng, Jin; Li, Ning

    2011-10-01

    To study the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Co-Cr, Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Be based porcelain alloys in NaCl solution. Five samples of each alloy were made respectively, electric polarization curve of each alloy was obtained using potentiodynamic polarization technique. Self-corrosion potential (E(corr)), self-corrosion current density (I(corr), passive region and transpassivation potential were tested. Microstructure and constituent was examined using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Co-Cr alloy possessed the most desirable corrosion resistance because of its integrated, homogeneous and compact passive film. The poor compactness of Ni-Cr alloy's passive film decreased its corrosion resistance. Ni-Cr-Be alloy exhibited the worst corrosion resistance due to the Cr and Mo depleted Ni-Be eutectic phases in the alloy. Taking biological security into consideration, it is necessary to avoid the application of porcelain alloys with Be element. Co-Cr alloy with better biocompatibility possesses much broader prospect in the field of dental restoration.

  18. Irradiated microstructure of U-10Mo monolithic fuel plate at very high fission density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, J.; Miller, B. D.; Keiser, D. D.; Jue, J. F.; Madden, J. W.; Robinson, A. B.; Ozaltun, H.; Moore, G.; Meyer, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    Monolithic U-10Mo alloy fuel plates with Al-6061 cladding are being developed for use in research and test reactors as low enrichment fuel (<20% U-235 enrichment) as a result of its high uranium loading capacity compared to that of U-7Mo dispersion fuel. These fuel plates contain a Zr diffusion barrier between the U-10Mo fuel and Al-6061 cladding that suppresses the interaction between the U-Mo fuel foil and Al alloy cladding that is known to be problematic under irradiation. Different methods have been employed to fabricate monolithic fuel plates, including hot-rolling with no cold-rolling. L1P09T is a hot-rolled fuel plate irradiated to high fission density in the RERTR-9B experiment. This paper discusses the TEM characterization results for this U-10Mo/Zr/Al6061 monolithic fuel plate (∼59% U-235 enrichment) irradiated in Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory with an unprecedented high local fission density of 9.8E+21 fissions/cm3. The calculated fuel foil centerline temperature at the beginning of life and the end of life is 141 and 194 °C, respectively. TEM lamellas were prepared using focus ion beam lift-out technique. The estimated U-Mo fuel swelling, based on the fuel foil thickness change from SEM, is approximately 76%. Large bubbles (>1 μm) are distributed evenly in U-Mo and interlink of these bubbles is evident. The average size of subdivided grains at this fission density appears similar to that at 5.2E+21 fissions/cm3. The measured average Mo and Zr content in the fuel matrix is ∼30 at% and ∼7 at%, respectively, in general agreement with the calculated Mo and Zr from fission density.

  19. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuhua; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Haidong; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications. PMID:28788539

  20. Solid State Reduction of MoO3 with Carbon via Mechanical Alloying to Synthesize Nano-Crystaline MoO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghafi, M.; Ataie, A.; Heshmati-Manesh, S.

    In this research, effect of milling time on solid state reduction of MoO3 with carbon has been investigated. It was found that mechanical activation of a mixture of MoO3 and carbon at ambient temperature by high energy ball milling was not able to reduce MoO3 to metallic molybdenum. MoO3 was converted to MoO2 at the first stage of reduction and peaks of the latter phase in X-ray diffraction patterns were detected when the milling time exceeded from 50 hours. The main effect of increased milling time at this stage was decreasing of MoO3 peak intensities and significant peak broadening due to decrease in size of crystallites. After prolonged milling, MoO3 was fully reduced to nano-crystalline MoO2 and its mean crystallite size was calculated using Williamson-Hall technique and found to be 17.5 nm. Thermodynamic investigations also confirm the possibility of reduction of MoO3 to MoO2 during the milling operation at room temperature. But, further reduction to metallic molybdenum requires thermal activation at higher temperature near 1100 K. XRD and SEM techniques were employed to evaluate the powder particles characteristics.

  1. Rhenium Alloys as Ductile Substrates for Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Jeffrey M; Martin, Heidi B

    2014-02-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium (Mo/Re) and tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) alloys were investigated as substrates for thin-film, polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes. Traditional, carbide-forming metal substrates adhere strongly to diamond but lose their ductility during exposure to the high-temperature (1000°C) diamond, chemical vapor deposition environment. Boron-doped semi-metallic diamond was selectively deposited for up to 20 hours on one end of Mo/Re (47.5/52.5 wt.%) and W/Re (75/25 wt.%) alloy wires. Conformal diamond films on the alloys displayed grain sizes and Raman signatures similar to films grown on tungsten; in all cases, the morphology and Raman spectra were consistent with well-faceted, microcrystalline diamond with minimal sp 2 carbon content. Cyclic voltammograms of dopamine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) showed the wide window and low baseline current of high-quality diamond electrodes. In addition, the films showed consistently well-defined, dopamine electrochemical redox activity. The Mo/Re substrate regions that were uncoated but still exposed to the diamond-growth environment remained substantially more flexible than tungsten in a bend-to-fracture rotation test, bending to the test maximum of 90° and not fracturing. The W/Re substrates fractured after a 27° bend, and the tungsten fractured after a 21° bend. Brittle, transgranular cleavage fracture surfaces were observed for tungsten and W/Re. A tension-induced fracture of the Mo/Re after the prior bend test showed a dimple fracture with a visible ductile core. Overall, the Mo/Re and W/Re alloys were suitable substrates for diamond growth. The Mo/Re alloy remained significantly more ductile than traditional tungsten substrates after diamond growth, and thus may be an attractive metal substrate for more ductile, thin-film diamond electrodes.

  2. Rhenium Alloys as Ductile Substrates for Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Jeffrey M.; Martin, Heidi B.

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium (Mo/Re) and tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) alloys were investigated as substrates for thin-film, polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes. Traditional, carbide-forming metal substrates adhere strongly to diamond but lose their ductility during exposure to the high-temperature (1000°C) diamond, chemical vapor deposition environment. Boron-doped semi-metallic diamond was selectively deposited for up to 20 hours on one end of Mo/Re (47.5/52.5 wt.%) and W/Re (75/25 wt.%) alloy wires. Conformal diamond films on the alloys displayed grain sizes and Raman signatures similar to films grown on tungsten; in all cases, the morphology and Raman spectra were consistent with well-faceted, microcrystalline diamond with minimal sp2 carbon content. Cyclic voltammograms of dopamine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) showed the wide window and low baseline current of high-quality diamond electrodes. In addition, the films showed consistently well-defined, dopamine electrochemical redox activity. The Mo/Re substrate regions that were uncoated but still exposed to the diamond-growth environment remained substantially more flexible than tungsten in a bend-to-fracture rotation test, bending to the test maximum of 90° and not fracturing. The W/Re substrates fractured after a 27° bend, and the tungsten fractured after a 21° bend. Brittle, transgranular cleavage fracture surfaces were observed for tungsten and W/Re. A tension-induced fracture of the Mo/Re after the prior bend test showed a dimple fracture with a visible ductile core. Overall, the Mo/Re and W/Re alloys were suitable substrates for diamond growth. The Mo/Re alloy remained significantly more ductile than traditional tungsten substrates after diamond growth, and thus may be an attractive metal substrate for more ductile, thin-film diamond electrodes. PMID:25404788

  3. Oxidation, carburization and/or sulfidation resistant iron aluminide alloy

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    2003-08-19

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or Zro.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B. .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  4. Properties of Superconducting Mo, Mo2n and Trilayer Mo2n-Mo-Mo2n Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrentine, E. M.; Stevenson, T. R.; Brown, A. D.; Lowitz, A. E.; Noroozian, O.; U-Yen, K.; Eshan, N.; Hsieh, W. T.; Moseley, S. H.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the properties of thin film superconducting Mo, Mo2N and Mo2N/Mo/Mo2N trilayers of interest for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) applications. Using microwave resonator devices, we investigate the transition temperature, energy gaps, kinetic inductance, and internal quality factors of these materials. We present an Usadel-based interpretation of the trilayer transition temperature as a function of trilayer thicknesses, and a 2-gap interpretation to understand the change in kinetic inductance and internal resonance quality factor (Q) as a function of temperature.

  5. Cladding of Mg alloy with Zr based BMG Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasada Rao, A. K.; Oh, Y. S.; Faisal, M. K.; Kim, N. J.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to clad AZ31 magnesium alloy with Zr-based bulk metallic glassy alloy (Vit-1), by casting method. The interface studies conducted using SEM-EDS line scan indicate that a good bond is formed at the clad interface of Zr and Mg. And the mechanism involved is discussed herein.

  6. Can gamma irradiation during radiotherapy influence the metal release process for biomedical CoCrMo and 316L alloys?

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng; Edin, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anna Emelie; Petrovic, Katarina; Soroka, Inna L; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Yolanda

    2018-02-09

    The extent of metal release from implant materials that are irradiated during radiotherapy may be influenced by irradiation-formed radicals. The influence of gamma irradiation, with a total dose of relevance for radiotherapy (e.g., for cancer treatments) on the extent of metal release from biomedical stainless steel AISI 316L and a cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCrMo) was investigated in physiological relevant solutions (phosphate buffered saline with and without 10 g/L bovine serum albumin) at pH 7.3. Directly after irradiation, the released amounts of metals were significantly higher for irradiated CoCrMo as compared to nonirradiated CoCrMo, resulting in an increased surface passivation (enhanced passive conditions) that hindered further release. A similar effect was observed for 316L showing lower nickel release after 1 h of initially irradiated samples as compared to nonirradiated samples. However, the effect of irradiation (total dose of 16.5 Gy) on metal release and surface oxide composition and thickness was generally small. Most metals were released initially (within seconds) upon immersion from CoCrMo but not from 316L. Albumin induced an increased amount of released metals from AISI 316L but not from CoCrMo. Albumin was not found to aggregate to any greater extent either upon gamma irradiation or in the presence of trace metal ions, as determined using different light scattering techniques. Further studies should elucidate the effect of repeated friction and fractionated low irradiation doses on the short- and long term metal release process of biomedical materials. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Development of Coatings for Tantalum Alloy Nozzle Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, A. R.; Wimber, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    A group of silicide coatings developed for the T222 tantalum-base alloy have afforded over 600 hours of protection at 1600 and 2400 F during cyclic exposure in air. These coatings were applied in two steps. A modifier alloy was applied by slurry techniques and was sintered in vacuum prior to siliciding by pack cementation in argon. Application of the modifier alloy by pack cementation was found to be much less effective. The addition of titanium and vanadium to molybdenum and tungsten yielded beneficial modifier alloys, whereas the addition of chromium showed no improvement. After siliciding, the 15Ti- 35W-15V-35Mo modifier alloy exhibited the best performance; one sample survived 1064 hours of oxidation at 2400 F. This same coating was the only coating to reproducibly provide 600 hours of protection at both 1600 and 2400 F; in the second and third of three experiments, involving oxidation of three to five specimens at each temperature in each experiment, no failures were observed in 600 hours of testing. The slurry coatings were also shown to protect the Cb752 and D43 columbium-base alloys.

  8. METHOD AND ALLOY FOR BONDING TO ZIRCONIUM

    DOEpatents

    McCuaig, F.D.; Misch, R.D.

    1960-04-19

    A brazing alloy can be used for bonding zirconium and its alloys to other metals, ceramics, and cermets, and consists of 6 to 9 wt.% Ni, 6 to 9 wn~.% Cr, Mo, or W, 0 to 7.5 wt.% Fe, and the balance Zr.

  9. Ni.sub.3 Al-based intermetallic alloys having improved strength above 850.degree. C.

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    2000-01-01

    Intermetallic alloys composed essentially of: 15.5% to 17.0% Al, 3.5% to 5.5% Mo, 4% to 8% Cr, 0.04% to 0.2% Zr, 0.04% to 1.5% B, balance Ni, are characterized by melting points above 1200.degree. C. and superior strengths at temperatures above 1000.degree. C.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction into Syngas Boosted by a Partially Delocalized Charge in Molybdenum Sulfide Selenide Alloy Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaqi; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yongfu; Ju, Zhengyu; Yao, Tao; Wang, Chengming; Ju, Huanxin; Zhu, Junfa; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2017-07-24

    Structural parameters of ternary transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) alloy usually obey Vegard law well, while interestingly it often exhibits boosted electrocatalytic performances relative to its two pristine binary TMDs. To unveil the underlying reasons, we propose an ideal model of ternary TMDs alloy monolayer. As a prototype, MoSeS alloy monolayers are successfully synthesized, in which X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy manifests their shortened Mo-S and lengthened Mo-Se bonds, helping to tailor the d-band electronic structure of Mo atoms. Density functional theory calculations illustrate an increased density of states near their conduction band edge, which ensures faster electron transfer confirmed by their lower work function and smaller charge-transfer resistance. Energy calculations show the off-center charge around Mo atoms not only benefits for stabilizing COOH* intermediate confirmed by its most negative formation energy, but also facilitates the rate-limiting CO desorption step verified by CO temperature programmed desorption and electro-stripping tests. As a result, MoSeS alloy monolayers attain the highest 45.2 % Faradaic efficiency for CO production, much larger than that of MoS 2 monolayers (16.6 %) and MoSe 2 monolayers (30.5 %) at -1.15 V vs. RHE. This work discloses how the partially delocalized charge in ternary TMDs alloys accelerates electrocatalytic performances at atomic level, opening new horizons for manipulating CO 2 electroreduction properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. 1300 K Compressive Properties of Directionally Solidified Ni-33Al-33Cr-1Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, S. V.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2000-01-01

    The Ni-33Al-33Cr-1Mo eutectic has been directionally solidified by a modified Bridgeman technique at growth rates ranging from 7.6 to 508 mm/h to produce grain/cellular microstructures, containing alternating plates of NiAl and Cr alloyed with Mo. The grains had sharp boundaries for slower growth rates (< 12.7 mm/h), while faster growth rates (> 25.4 mm/h) lead to cells bounded by intercellular regions. Compressive testing at 1300 K indicated that alloys DS'ed at rates between 25.4 to 254 mm/h possessed the best strengths which exceed that for the as-cast alloy.

  12. Welding and brazing of nickel and nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortland, J. E.; Evans, R. M.; Monroe, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The joining of four types of nickel-base materials is described: (1) high-nickel, nonheat-treatable alloys, (2) solid-solution-hardening nickel-base alloys, (3) precipitation-hardening nickel-base alloys, and (4) dispersion-hardening nickel-base alloys. The high-nickel and solid-solution-hardening alloys are widely used in chemical containers and piping. These materials have excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation, and retain useful strength at elevated temperatures. The precipitation-hardening alloys have good properties at elevated temperature. They are important in many aerospace applications. Dispersion-hardening nickel also is used for elevated-temperature service.

  13. Design of high-strength refractory complex solid-solution alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Prashant; Sharma, Aayush; Smirnov, A. V.; ...

    2018-03-28

    Nickel-based superalloys and near-equiatomic high-entropy alloys containing molybdenum are known for higher temperature strength and corrosion resistance. Yet, complex solid-solution alloys offer a huge design space to tune for optimal properties at slightly reduced entropy. For refractory Mo-W-Ta-Ti-Zr, we showcase KKR electronic structure methods via the coherent-potential approximation to identify alloys over five-dimensional design space with improved mechanical properties and necessary global (formation enthalpy) and local (short-range order) stability. Deformation is modeled with classical molecular dynamic simulations, validated from our first-principle data. We predict complex solid-solution alloys of improved stability with greatly enhanced modulus of elasticity (3× at 300 K)more » over near-equiatomic cases, as validated experimentally, and with higher moduli above 500 K over commercial alloys (2.3× at 2000 K). We also show that optimal complex solid-solution alloys are not described well by classical potentials due to critical electronic effects.« less

  14. Design of high-strength refractory complex solid-solution alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Prashant; Sharma, Aayush; Smirnov, A. V.

    Nickel-based superalloys and near-equiatomic high-entropy alloys containing molybdenum are known for higher temperature strength and corrosion resistance. Yet, complex solid-solution alloys offer a huge design space to tune for optimal properties at slightly reduced entropy. For refractory Mo-W-Ta-Ti-Zr, we showcase KKR electronic structure methods via the coherent-potential approximation to identify alloys over five-dimensional design space with improved mechanical properties and necessary global (formation enthalpy) and local (short-range order) stability. Deformation is modeled with classical molecular dynamic simulations, validated from our first-principle data. We predict complex solid-solution alloys of improved stability with greatly enhanced modulus of elasticity (3× at 300 K)more » over near-equiatomic cases, as validated experimentally, and with higher moduli above 500 K over commercial alloys (2.3× at 2000 K). We also show that optimal complex solid-solution alloys are not described well by classical potentials due to critical electronic effects.« less

  15. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Mo PM Steels with Addition of Mn And Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichańska, E.; Kulecki, P.; Pańcikiewicz, K.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of chemical composition on the structure and mechanical properties of Mn-Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-Cu PM steels. Pre-alloyed powder Astaloy 85Mo, diffusion alloyed powders Distaloy AQ and Distaloy AB produced by Höganäs, low carbon ferromanganese, carbonyl nickel powder T255 with three-dimensional filamentary structure and graphite CU-F have been used as the basic powders. Three mixtures with compositions of Fe-1%Mn-(0.5/1.75)%Ni-(0.5/0.85)%Mo-0.8%C and Fe-1.75%Ni-0.5%Mo-1.5%Cu-0.8%C were prepared in a Turbula mixer. Green compacts were single pressed in a steel die at 660 MPa according to PN-EN ISO 2740 standard. Sinterhardening was carried out at 1250°C in a mixture of 95% N2+5% H2 for 60 minutes. Mechanical tests (tensile, bend, hardness) and microstructural investigations were performed. Additionally, XRD and EDS analysis, fractographic investigations were carried out. The microstructures of steels investigated were mainly bainitic or bainitic-martensitic. Addition 1% Mn to Distaloy AQ based steel caused increase of tensile properties (YS from 422 to 489 MPa, UTS from 522 to 638 MPa, TRS from 901 to 1096 MPa) and decrease of plasticity (elongation from 3.65 to 2.84%).

  16. Dynamic Shear Deformation and Failure of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pengwan

    2018-01-01

    To study the dynamic shear deformation and failure properties of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe (Ti-55511) alloy, a series of forced shear tests on flat hat shaped (FHS) specimens for the two investigated materials was performed using a split Hopkinson pressure bar setup. The evolution of shear deformation was monitored by an ultra-high-speed camera (Kirana-05M). Localized shear band is induced in the two investigated materials under forced shear tests. Our results indicate that severe strain localization (adiabatic shear) is accompanied by a loss in the load carrying capacity, i.e., by a sudden drop in loading. Three distinct stages can be identified using a digital image correlation technique for accurate shear strain measurement. The microstructural analysis reveals that the dynamic failure mechanisms for Ti-64 and Ti-55511 alloys within the shear band are of a cohesive and adhesive nature, respectively. PMID:29303988

  17. Influence of strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior of iron aluminide-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T.

    Iron aluminides are receiving increasing attention as potential high temperature structural materials due to their excellent oxidation and sulfidation resistance. Although the influence of strain rate on the microstructure/property relationships of pure iron and a variety of iron alloys and steels has been extensively studied, the effect of strain rate on the stress-strain and deformation response of iron aluminides remains poorly understood. In this paper the influence of strain rate, varied between 0.001 and 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}, and temperature, between 77 & 1073{degree}K, on the mechanical behavior of Fe-40Al-0.1B and Fe-16.12Al-5.44Cr-0.11Zr-0.13C-1.07Mo-006Y, called FAP-Y, (both in at.%) is presented. Themore » rate sensitivity and work hardening of Fe-40Al and the disordered alloy based on Fe-16% Al are discussed as a function of strain rate and temperature.« less

  18. Densification behavior, nanocrystallization, and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashish Kumar

    Fe-based amorphous alloys are gaining increasing attention due to their exceptional wear and corrosion resistance for potential structural applications. Two major challenges that are hindering the commercialization of these amorphous alloys are difficulty in processing of bulk shapes (diameter > 10 mm) and lack of ductility. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is evolving as a promising technique for processing bulk shapes of amorphous and nanocrystalline materials. The objective of this work is to investigate densification behavior, nanocrystallization, and mechanical properties of SPS sintered Fe-based amorphous alloys of composition Fe48Cr15Mo14Y2C15B6. SPS processing was performed in three distinct temperature ranges of amorphous alloys: (a) below glass transition temperature (Tg), (b) between Tg and crystallization temperature (Tx), and (c) above Tx. Punch displacement data obtained during SPS sintering was correlated with the SPS processing parameters such as temperature, pressure, and sintering time. Powder rearrangement, plastic deformation below T g, and viscous flow of the material between Tg and Tx were observed as the main densification stages during SPS sintering. Micro-scale temperature distributions at the point of contact and macro-scale temperature distribution throughout the sample during SPS of amorphous alloys were modeled. The bulk amorphous alloys are expected to undergo structural relaxation and nanocrystallization during SPS sintering. X-ray diffraction (XRD), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to investigate the evolution of nanocrystallites in SPS sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys. The SANS analysis showed significant scattering for the samples sintered in the supercooled region indicating local structural and compositional changes with the profuse nucleation of nano-clusters (~4 nm). Compression tests and microhardness were performed on the samples sintered at different

  19. Development and Processing of Nickel Aluminide-Carbide Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newport, Timothy Scott

    1996-01-01

    With the upper temperature limit of the Ni-based superalloys attained, a new class of materials is required. Intermetallics appear as likely candidates because of their attractive physical properties. With a relatively low density, high thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance, high melting point, and simple crystal structure, nickel aluminide (NiAl) appears to be a potential candidate. However, NiAl is limited in structural applications due to its low room temperature fracture toughness and poor elevated temperature strength. One approach to improving these properties has been through the application of eutectic composites. Researchers have shown that containerless directional solidification of NiAl-based eutectic alloys can provide improvement in both the creep strength and fracture toughness. Although these systems have shown improvements in the mechanical properties, the presence of refractory metals increases the density significantly in some alloys. Lower density systems, such as the carbides, nitrides, and borides, may provide NiAl-based eutectic structure. With little or no information available on these systems, experimental investigation is required. The objective of this research was to locate and develop NiAl-carbide eutectic alloys. Exploratory arc-melts were performed in NiAl-refractory metal-C systems. Refractory metal systems investigated included Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, and Zr. Systems containing carbides with excellent stability (i.e.,HfC, NbC, TaC, TiC, and ZrC) produced large blocky cubic carbides in an NiAl matrix. The carbides appeared to have formed in the liquid state and were randomly distributed throughout the polycrystalline NiAl. The Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and W systems contained NiAl dendrites with a two-phase interdendritic microconstituent present. Of these systems, the NiAl-Mo-C system had the most promising microstructure for in-situ composites. Three processing techniques were used to evaluate the NiAl-Mo-C system

  20. Electrochemical corrosion of a noble metal-bearing alloy-oxide composite

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, X.; Ebert, W. L.; Indacochea, J. E.

    2017-04-27

    The effects of added Ru and Pd on the microstructure and electrochemical behaviour of a composite material made by melting those metals with AISI 410 stainless steel, Zr, Mo, and lanthanide oxides were assessed using electrochemical and microscopic methods Furthermore, the lanthanide oxides reacted with Zr to form durable lanthanide zirconates and Mo alloyed with steel to form FeMoCr intermetallics. The noble metals alloyed with the steel to provide solid solution strengthening and inhibit carbide/nitride formation. In a passive film formed during electrochemical tests in acidic NaCl solution, but became less effective as corrosion progressed and regions over the intermetallicsmore » eventually failed.« less

  1. Properties and durability of the passive films on a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy and an iron-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharkya, Pallavi

    Alloy 22, a Ni-Cr-Mo-W alloy, and SAM1651, an Fe-Cr-Mo-B-Y-C bulk metallic glass are highly corrosion-resistant alloys. The high corrosion resistance of these alloys is due to the formation of tenacious oxide films on their surfaces. This study examines the reformation behavior of the passive films as a function of the corrosion resistance of the alloys and the corrosivity of the environment. The main tasks of this study were (i) to determine the chemical durability of passive films on these highly corrosion-resistant alloys in aggressive environments, (ii) to investigate the durability after mechanically damaging the passive films either locally or over the entire surface area and to study the reformation kinetics, (iii) to compare the durability of the passive films of the aforementioned highly corrosion resistant alloys with an alloy of intermediate corrosion resistance, AL6XN, and an alloy of less corrosion resistance, 316L SS, (iv) to examine the evolution of the electronic properties of the passive films on alloy 22 and SAM1651 under different environmental conditions such as concentrated chloride solution, acidic solution, temperature, potential and oxyanions, and (v) to develop an understanding of the relationship between the passive films' composition, electronic and electrochemical properties and the performance. A combination of techniques was utilized to meet the above mentioned objectives. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) was used to determine the electrochemical parameters such as freely corroding, breakdown and repassivation potentials. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to determine the electronic properties such as impedance, thickness and capacitance of the passive films. Mott-Schottky (M-S) analysis was used to determine the type and the density of the defects in the passive films. The mechanical durability and reformation kinetics of the passive films was investigated using a scratch-repassivation method. The quality

  2. A long-term ultrahigh temperature application of layered silicide coated Nb alloy in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jia; Fu, Qian-Gang; Li, Tao; Wang, Chen; Huo, Cai-Xia; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Guan-Jun; Sun, Le

    2018-05-01

    Nb-based alloy possessed limited application service life at ultrahigh temperature (>1400 °C) in air even taking the effective protective coating strategy into consideration for last decades. In this work a long duration of above 128 h at 1500 °C in air was successfully achieved on Nb-based alloy thanked to multi-layered silicide coating. Through optimizing interfaces, the MoSi2/NbSi2 silicide coating with Al2O3-adsorbed-particles layer exhibited three-times higher of oxidation resistance capacity than the one without it. In MoSi2-Al2O3-NbSi2 multilayer coating, the Al2O3-adsorbed-particles layer playing as an element-diffusion barrier role, as well as the formed porous Nb5Si3 layer as a stress transition zone, contributed to the significant improvement.

  3. Rare-earth metals in nickel aluminide-based alloys: III. Structure and properties of multicomponent Ni3Al-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyleva, O. A.; Povarova, K. B.; Kazanskaya, N. K.; Drozdov, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    The possibility of increasing the life of heterophase cast light Ni3Al-based superalloys at temperatures higher than 0.8 T m of Ni3Al is studied when their directional structure is additionally stabilized by nanoprecipitates, which form upon additional alloying of these alloys by refractory and active metals, and using special methods for preparing and melting of an alloy charge. The effect of the method of introducing the main components and refractory reaction-active and surface-active alloying elements into Ni3Al-based cast superalloys, which are thermally stable natural composite materials of the eutectic type, on the structure-phase state and the life of these alloys is studied. When these alloys are melted, it is necessary to perform a set of measures to form particles of refractory oxide cores covered with the β-NiAl phase and, then, γ'prim-Ni3Al phase precipitates during solidification. The latter phase forms the outer shell of grain nuclei, which provides high thermal stability and hot strength of an intermetallic compound-based alloy. As a result, a modified structure that is stabilized by the nanoprecipitates of nickel and aluminum lanthanides and the nanoprecipitates of phases containing refractory metals is formed. This structure enhances the life of the alloy at 1000 °C by a factor of 1.8-2.5.

  4. Multi-component solid solution alloys having high mixing entropy

    DOEpatents

    Bei, Hongbin

    2015-10-06

    A multi-component high-entropy alloy includes a composition selected from the following group: VNbTaTiMoWRe, VNbTaTiMoW, VNbTaTiMoRe, VNbTaTiWRe, VNbTaMoWRe, VNbTiMoWRe, VTaTiMoWRe, NbTaTiMoWRe, VNbTaTiMo, VNbTaTiW, VNbTaMoW, VNbTiMoW, VTaTiMoW, NbTaTiMoW, VNbTaTiRe, VNbTaMoRe, VNbTiMoRe, VTaTiMoRe, NbTaTiMoRe, VNbTaWRe, VNbTiWRe, VTaTiWRe, NbTaTiWRe, VNbMoWRe, VTaMoWRe, NbTaMoWRe, VTiMoWRe, NbTiMoWRe, TaTiMoWRe, wherein relative amounts of each element vary by no more than .+-.15 atomic %.

  5. Corrosion-wear of β-Ti alloy TMZF (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe) in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueyuan; Hutchinson, Christopher R

    2016-09-15

    Titanium alloys are popular metallic implant materials for use in total hip replacements. Although, α+β titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V have been the most commonly used alloys, the high Young's modulus (∼110GPa) leads to an undesirable stress shielding effect. An alternative is to use β titanium alloys that exhibit a significantly lower Young's modulus (∼70GPa). Femoral stems made of a β titanium alloy known as TMZF (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe (wt.%)) have been used as part of modular hip replacements since the early 2000's but these were recalled in 2011 by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) due to unacceptable levels of 'wear debris'. The wear was caused by small relative movement of the stem and neck at the junction where they fit together in the modular hip replacement design. In this study, the corrosion and wear properties of the TMZF alloy were investigated in simulated body fluid to identify the reason for the wear debris generation. Ti64 was used as a control for comparison. It is shown that the interaction between the surfaces of Ti64 and TMZF with simulated body fluid is very similar, both from the point of view of the products formed and the kinetics of the reaction. The dry wear behaviour of TMZF is also close to that of Ti64 and consistent with expectations based on Archard's law for abrasive wear. However, wear of Ti64 and TMZF in simulated body fluid show contrasting behaviours. A type of time-dependent wear test is used to examine the synergy between corrosion and wear of TMZF and Ti64. It is shown that the wear of TMZF accelerated rapidly in SBF whereas that of Ti64 is reduced. The critical role of the strain hardening capacity of the two materials and its role in helping the surface resist abrasion by hydroxyapatite particles formed as a result of the reaction with the SBF is discussed and recommendations are made for modifications that could be made to the TMZF alloy to improve the corrosion-wear response. TMZF is a low modulus β-Ti alloy

  6. Effects of chemical composition on the corrosion of dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Galo, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Rocha, Luís Augusto; de Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the oral environment on the corrosion of dental alloys with different compositions, using electrochemical methods. The corrosion rates were obtained from the current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of artificial saliva on the corrosion of dental alloys was dependent on alloy composition. Dissolution of the ions occurred in all tested dental alloys and the results were strongly dependent on the general alloy composition. Regarding the alloys containing nickel, the Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Ti alloys released 0.62 mg/L of Ni on average, while the Co-Cr dental alloy released ions between 0.01 and 0.03 mg/L of Co and Cr, respectively.The open-circuit potential stabilized at a higher level with lower deviation (standard deviation: Ni-Cr-6Ti = 32 mV/SCE and Co-Cr = 54 mV/SCE). The potenciodynamic curves of the dental alloys showed that the Ni-based dental alloy with >70 wt% of Ni had a similar curve and the Co-Cr dental alloy showed a low current density and hence a high resistance to corrosion compared with the Ni-based dental alloys. Some changes in microstructure were observed and this fact influenced the corrosion behavior for the alloys. The lower corrosion resistance also led to greater release of nickel ions to the medium. The quantity of Co ions released from the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was relatively small in the solutions. In addition, the quantity of Cr ions released into the artificial saliva from the Co-Cr alloy was lower than Cr release from the Ni-based dental alloys.

  7. Development of a Knowledge Base of Ti-Alloys From First-Principles and Thermodynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Cassie

    An aging population with an active lifestyle requires the development of better load-bearing implants, which have high levels of biocompatibility and a low elastic modulus. Titanium alloys, in the body centered cubic phase, are great implant candidates, due to their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The present work aims at investigating the thermodynamic and elastic properties of bcc Tialloys, using the integrated first-principles based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) method. The use of integrated first-principles calculations based on DFT and CALPHAD modeling has greatly reduced the need for trial and error metallurgy, which is ineffective and costly. The phase stability of Ti-alloys has been shown to greatly affect their elastic properties. Traditionally, CALPHAD modeling has been used to predict the equilibrium phase formation, but in the case of Ti-alloys, predicting the formation of two metastable phases o and alpha" is of great importance as these phases also drastically effect the elastic properties. To build a knowledge base of Ti-alloys, for biomedical load-bearing implants, the Ti-Mo-Nb-Sn-Ta-Zr system was studied because of the biocompatibility and the bcc stabilizing effects of some of the elements. With the focus on bcc Ti-rich alloys, a database of thermodynamic descriptions of each phase for the pure elements, binary and Ti-rich ternary alloys was developed in the present work. Previous thermodynamic descriptions for the pure elements were adopted from the widely used SGTE database for global compatibility. The previous binary and ternary models from the literature were evaluated for accuracy and new thermodynamic descriptions were developed when necessary. The models were evaluated using available experimental data, as well as the enthalpy of formation of the bcc phase obtained from first-principles calculations based on DFT. The thermodynamic descriptions were combined into a database

  8. Cast Fe-base cylinder/regenerator housing alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, F.; Kindlimann, L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an iron-base alloy that can meet the requirements of automotive Stirling engine cylinders and regenerator housings is described. Alloy requirements are as follows: a cast alloy, stress for 5000-hr rupture life of 200 MPa (29 ksi) at 775 C (1427 F), oxidation/corrosion resistance comparable to that of N-155, compatibility with hydrogen, and an alloy cost less than or equal to that of 19-9DL. The preliminary screening and evaluation of ten alloys are described.

  9. Optically tuned terahertz modulator based on annealed multilayer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yapeng; Gan, Sheng; Geng, Zhaoxin; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yuping; Bao, Qiaoling; Chen, Hongda

    2016-03-08

    Controlling the propagation properties of terahertz waves is very important in terahertz technologies applied in high-speed communication. Therefore a new-type optically tuned terahertz modulator based on multilayer-MoS2 and silicon is experimentally demonstrated. The terahertz transmission could be significantly modulated by changing the power of the pumping laser. With an annealing treatment as a p-doping method, MoS2 on silicon demonstrates a triple enhancement of terahertz modulation depth compared with the bare silicon. This MoS2-based device even exhibited much higher modulation efficiency than the graphene-based device. We also analyzed the mechanism of the modulation enhancement originated from annealed MoS2, and found that it is different from that of graphene-based device. The unique optical modulating properties of the device exhibit tremendous promise for applications in terahertz switch.

  10. Study on the Quality and Performance of CoCrMo Alloy Parts Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoqing, Zhang; Yongqiang, Yang; Hui, Lin; Changhui, Song; Zimian, Zhang

    2017-05-01

    To obtain medical implants with better performance, it is necessary to conduct studies on the quality and other performances of the selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing parts. Interior defects in CoCrMo parts manufactured by SLM were detected using x-ray radiographic inspection, and the manufactured parts compared with three-dimensional models to assess manufacturing quality. Impact tests were employed to establish the mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. With the aim of studying the mechanism of fracture of the parts, we utilized a metalloscope and SEM to observe the surface and fractal theory was used to analyze the appearance of fractures. The results show that part defects manifested in an increase in transmittance caused by the non-uniform distribution of density, resulting in variation in the residual stresses of the parts. The density of the parts was more uniform following heat treatment. Internal residual stress of the manufactured parts enhanced their impact toughness. There was a ductile-brittle transition temperature between the two annealing temperatures. We determined that the fracture mechanism was brittle fracture. Fractures exhibited significant fractal behavior. The impact energy and fractal dimension were positively correlated, which provided good support for using selective laser melting manufacturing of CoCrMo alloy in medical implants.

  11. Bulk amorphous steels based on Fe alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lu, ZhaoPing; Liu, Chain T.

    2006-05-30

    A bulk amorphous alloy has the approximate composition: Fe.sub.(100-a-b-c-d-e)Y.sub.aMn.sub.bT.sub.cM.sub.dX.sub.e wherein: T includes at least one of the group consisting of: Ni, Cu, Cr and Co; M includes at least one of the group consisting of W, Mo, Nb, Ta, Al and Ti; X includes at least one of the group consisting of Co, Ni and Cr; a is an atomic percentage, and a<5; b is an atomic percentage, and b.ltoreq.25; c is an atomic percentage, and c.ltoreq.25; d is an atomic percentage, and d.ltoreq.25; and e is an atomic percentage, and 5.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.30.

  12. Hot Extruded Polycrystalline Mg2Si with Embedded XS2 Nano-particles (X: Mo, W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercegol, A.; Christophe, V.; Keshavarz, M. K.; Vasilevskiy, D.; Turenne, S.; Masut, R. A.

    2017-05-01

    Due to their abundant, inexpensive and non-toxic constituent elements, magnesium silicide and related alloys are attractive for large-scale thermoelectric (TE) applications in the 500-800 K temperature range, in particular for energy conversion. In this work, we propose a hot extrusion method favorable for large-scale production, where the starting materials (Mg2Si and XS2, X: W, Mo) are milled together in a sealed vial. The MoS2 nano-particles (0.5-2 at.%) act as solid lubricant during the extrusion process, thus facilitating material densification, as confirmed by density measurements based on Archimedes' method. Scanning electron microscopy images of bulk extruded specimens show a wide distribution of grain size, covering the range from 0.1 μm to 10 μm, and energy dispersive spectroscopy shows oxygen preferentially distributed at the grain boundaries. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the major phase is the expected cubic structure of Mg2Si. The TE properties of these extruded alloys have been measured by the Harman method between 300 K and 700 K. Resistivity values at 700 K vary between 370 μΩ m and 530 μΩ m. The ZT value reaches a maximum of 0.26 for a sample with 2 at.% MoS2. Heat conductivity is reduced for extruded samples containing MoS2, which most likely behave as scattering centers for phonons. The reason why the WS2 particles do not bring any enhancement, for either densification or heat transfer reduction, might be linked to their tendency to agglomerate. These results open the way for further investigation to optimize the processing parameters for this family of TE alloys.

  13. Interdiffusion, Intrinsic Diffusion, Atomic Mobility, and Vacancy Wind Effect in γ(bcc) Uranium-Molybdenum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ke; Keiser, Dennis D.; Sohn, Yongho

    2013-02-01

    U-Mo alloys are being developed as low enrichment uranium fuels under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program. In order to understand the fundamental diffusion behavior of this system, solid-to-solid pure U vs Mo diffusion couples were assembled and annealed at 923 K, 973 K, 1073 K, 1173 K, and 1273 K (650 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C) for various times. The interdiffusion microstructures and concentration profiles were examined via scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. As the Mo concentration increased from 2 to 26 at. pct, the interdiffusion coefficient decreased, while the activation energy increased. A Kirkendall marker plane was clearly identified in each diffusion couple and utilized to determine intrinsic diffusion coefficients. Uranium intrinsically diffused 5-10 times faster than Mo. Molar excess Gibbs free energy of U-Mo alloy was applied to calculate the thermodynamic factor using ideal, regular, and subregular solution models. Based on the intrinsic diffusion coefficients and thermodynamic factors, Manning's formalism was used to calculate the tracer diffusion coefficients, atomic mobilities, and vacancy wind parameters of U and Mo at the marker composition. The tracer diffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities of U were about five times larger than those of Mo, and the vacancy wind effect increased the intrinsic flux of U by approximately 30 pct.

  14. Silicide Coating Fabricated by HAPC/SAPS Combination to Protect Niobium Alloy from Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Fu, Qian-Gang; Guo, Li-Ping; Wang, Lu

    2016-06-22

    A combined silicide coating, including inner NbSi2 layer and outer MoSi2 layer, was fabricated through a two-step method. The NbSi2 was deposited on niobium alloy by halide activated pack cementation (HAPC) in the first step. Then, supersonic atmospheric plasma spray (SAPS) was applied to obtain the outer MoSi2 layer, forming a combined silicide coating. Results show that the combined coating possessed a compact structure. The phase constitution of the combined coating prepared by HAPC and SAPS was NbSi2 and MoSi2, respectively. The adhesion strength of the combined coating increased nearly two times than that for single sprayed coating, attributing to the rougher surface of the HAPC-bond layer whose roughness increased about three times than that of the grit-blast substrate. After exposure at 1200 °C in air, the mass increasing rate for single HAPC-silicide coating was 3.5 mg/cm(2) because of the pest oxidation of niobium alloy, whereas the combined coating displayed better oxidation resistance with a mass gain of only 1.2 mg/cm(2). Even more, the combined coating could significantly improve the antioxidation ability of niobium based alloy at 1500 °C. The good oxidation resistance of the combined silicide coating was attributed to the integrity of the combined coating and the continuous SiO2 protective scale provided by the oxidation of MoSi2.

  15. Magnesium-based biodegradable alloys: Degradation, application, and alloying elements

    PubMed Central

    Pogorielov, Maksym; Husak, Eugenia; Solodivnik, Alexandr; Zhdanov, Sergii

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the paradigm about the metal with improved corrosion resistance for application in surgery and orthopedy was broken. The new class of biodegradable metal emerges as an alternative for biomedical implants. These metals corrode gradually with an appropriate host response and release of corrosion products. And it is absolutely necessary to use essential metals metabolized by hosting organism with local and general nontoxic effect. Magnesium serves this aim best; it plays the essential role in body metabolism and should be completely excreted within a few days after degradation. This review summarizes data from Mg discovery and its first experimental and clinical application of modern concept of Mg alloy development. We focused on biodegradable metal application in general surgery and orthopedic practice and showed the advantages and disadvantages Mg alloys offer. We focused on methods of in vitro and in vivo investigation of degradable Mg alloys and correlation between these methods. Based on the observed data, a better way for new alloy pre-clinical investigation is suggested. This review analyzes possible alloying elements that improve corrosion rate, mechanical properties, and gives the appropriate host response. PMID:28932493

  16. Interim Report on Mixing During the Casting of LEU-10Mo Plates in the Triple Plate Molds

    SciTech Connect

    Aikin, Jr., Robert M.

    LEU-10%Mo castings are commonly produced by down blending unalloyed HEU with a DU-12.7%Mo master-alloy. This work uses process modeling to provide insight into the mixing of the unalloyed uranium and U-Mo master alloy during melting and mold filling of a triple plate casting. Two different sets of situations are considered: (1) mixing during mold filling from a compositionally stratified crucible and (2) convective mixing of a compositionally stratified crucible during mold heating. The mold filling simulations are performed on the original Y-12 triple plate mold and the horizontal triple plate mold.

  17. Effects of alloying element and temperature on the stacking fault energies of dilute Ni-base superalloys.

    PubMed

    Shang, S L; Zacherl, C L; Fang, H Z; Wang, Y; Du, Y; Liu, Z K

    2012-12-19

    A systematic study of stacking fault energy (γ(SF)) resulting from induced alias shear deformation has been performed by means of first-principles calculations for dilute Ni-base superalloys (Ni(23)X and Ni(71)X) for various alloying elements (X) as a function of temperature. Twenty-six alloying elements are considered, i.e., Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Ir, Mn, Mo, Nb, Os, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sc, Si, Ta, Tc, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn, and Zr. The temperature dependence of γ(SF) is computed using the proposed quasistatic approach based on a predicted γ(SF)-volume-temperature relationship. Besides γ(SF), equilibrium volume and the normalized stacking fault energy (Γ(SF) = γ(SF)/Gb, with G the shear modulus and b the Burgers vector) are also studied as a function of temperature for the 26 alloying elements. The following conclusions are obtained: all alloying elements X studied herein decrease the γ(SF) of fcc Ni, approximately the further the alloying element X is from Ni on the periodic table, the larger the decrease of γ(SF) for the dilute Ni-X alloy, and roughly the γ(SF) of Ni-X decreases with increasing equilibrium volume. In addition, the values of γ(SF) for all Ni-X systems decrease with increasing temperature (except for Ni-Cr at higher Cr content), and the largest decrease is observed for pure Ni. Similar to the case of the shear modulus, the variation of γ(SF) for Ni-X systems due to various alloying elements is traceable from the distribution of (magnetization) charge density: the spherical distribution of charge density around a Ni atom, especially a smaller sphere, results in a lower value of γ(SF) due to the facility of redistribution of charges. Computed stacking fault energies and the related properties are in favorable accord with available experimental and theoretical data.

  18. High-temperature Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of ZrTiHfNbMox (x=0.5, 1.0, 1.5) Refractory High Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. W.; Li, Y. K.; Cheng, X. W.; Wu, C.; Cheng, B.

    2018-05-01

    Refractory high entropy alloys (RHEAs), with excellent properties at high temperature, have several applications. In this work, the ZrTiHfNbMox (x=0.5, 1.0, 1.5) alloys were prepared by arc melting. All these alloys form body centered cubic (BCC) structure without other intermediate phases. The Mo element contributes to the strength of alloys at high temperature, but too much of Mo decreases the plasticity severely and enhances the strength. The ZrTiHfNbMo alloy, whose compressive stress is 1099 MPa at 800° C, is a promising material for high-temperature applications.

  19. Analysis of thermoelectric properties of high-temperature complex alloys of nickel-base, iron-base and cobalt-base groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, R.

    1984-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties alloys of the nickel-base, iron-base, and cobalt-base groups containing from 1% to 25% 106 chromium were compared and correlated with the following material characteristics: atomic percent of the principle alloy constituent; ratio of concentration of two constituents; alloy physical property (electrical resistivity); alloy phase structure (percent precipitate or percent hardener content); alloy electronic structure (electron concentration). For solid-solution-type alloys the most consistent correlation was obtained with electron concentration, for precipitation-hardenable alloys of the nickel-base superalloy group, the thermoelectric potential correlated with hardener content in the alloy structure. For solid-solution-type alloys, no problems were found with thermoelectric stability to 1000; for precipitation-hardenable alloys, thermoelectric stability was dependent on phase stability. The effects of the compositional range of alloy constituents on temperature measurement uncertainty are discussed.

  20. Effect of the microstructure of Ti-5Mo on the anodic dissolution in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.J.; Oriani, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    The effect of microstructure of the Ti-5Mo alloy on its anodic dissolution rate in sulfuric acid solution at various temperatures has been investigated. TiMo alloys exhibit a region of increased dissolution rate in the vicinity of +0.20 V (saturated calomel electrode (SCE)) in 10% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, the same potential region in which pure Mo exhibits a large anodic dissolution rate. Aging of Ti-5Mo at 350 C was found to lead to the formation of ..omega.. phase. Heat treatment caused larger passive currents in 10% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, but the critical passivation potentials and corrosion potentials were not significantly affected.more » Molybdenum was enriched in the oxide formed on aged Ti-5Mo at +0.23 V (SCE), in comparison with the Mo concentration found in the oxide on as-received Ti-5Mo.« less

  1. Tribocorrosion behavior of CoCrMo alloy for hip prosthesis as a function of loads: a comparison between two testing systems

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, M.T.; Runa, M.J.; Laurent, M.; Jacobs, J.J.; Rocha, L.A.; Wimmer, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip prosthesis bearings have enjoyed renewed popularity, but concerns remain with wear debris and metal ion release causing a negative response in the surrounding tissues. Further understanding into the wear and corrosion mechanisms occurring in MOM hips is therefore essential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tribocorrosion behaviour, or interplay between corrosion and wear, of a low-carbon CoCrMo alloy as a function of loading. The tribocorrosion tests were performed using two tribometer configurations. In the first configuration, “System A”, a linearly reciprocating alumina ball slid against the flat metal immersed in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). In the second configuration, “System B”, the flat end of a cylindrical metal pin was pressed against an alumina ball that oscillated rotationally, using bovine calf serum (BCS) as the lubricant and electrolyte. System B was custom-built to emulate in vivo conditions. The tribocorrosion tests were performed under potentiostatic conditions at -0.345V, with a sliding duration of 1800 seconds and a frequency of 1Hz. In System A the applied loads were 0.05, 0.5, and 1N (138, 296 and 373MPa, respectively) and in System B were 16, 32, and 64N (474, 597, and 752MPa, respectively). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization resistance were estimated. The total mass loss (Kwc) in the CoCrMo was determined. The mass loss due to wear (Kw) and that due to corrosion (Kc) were determined. The dominant wear regime for the CoCrMo alloy subjected to sliding changes from wear-corrosion to mechanical wear as the contact stress increases. An attempt was made to compare both system, in their tribochemical responses and formulate some insights in the total degradation processes. Our results also suggest that the proteins in the serum lubricant assist in the generation of a protective layer against corrosion during sliding. The study highlights the need of adequate methodology

  2. Effects of the shape of the foil corners on the irradiation performance of U10Mo alloy based monolithic mini-plates

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaltun, Hakan; Medvedev, Pavel G

    2015-06-01

    Monolithic plate-type fuel is a fuel form being developed for high performance research and test reactors to minimize the use of enriched material. These fuel elements are comprised of a high density, low enrichment, U-Mo alloy based fuel foil, sandwiched between Zirconium liners and encapsulated in Aluminum cladding. The use of a high density fuel in a foil form presents a number of fabrication and operational concerns, such as: foil centering, flatness of the foil, fuel thickness variation, geometrical tilting, foil corner shape etc. To benchmark this new design, effects of various geometrical and operational variables on irradiation performance havemore » been evaluated. As a part of these series of sensitivity studies, the shape of the foil corners were studied. To understand the effects of the corner shapes of the foil on thermo-mechanical performance of the plates, a behavioral model was developed for a selected plate from RERTR-12 experiments (Plate L1P785). Both fabrication and irradiation processes were simulated. Once the thermo-mechanical behavior the plate is understood for the nominal case, the simulations were repeated for two additional corner shapes to observe the changes in temperature, displacement and stress-strain fields. The results from the fabrication simulations indicated that the foil corners do not alter the post-fabrication stress-strain magnitudes. Furthermore, the irradiation simulations revealed that post-fabrication stresses of the foil would be relieved very quickly in operation. While, foils with chamfered and filleted corners yielded stresses with comparable magnitudes, they are slightly lower in magnitudes, and provided a more favorable mechanical response compared with the foil with sharp corners.« less

  3. Thermodynamic Constraints in Using AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) Alloys as N₂ Dissociation Catalysts: Functionalizing a Plasmon-Active Metal.

    PubMed

    Martirez, John Mark P; Carter, Emily A

    2016-02-23

    The Haber-Bosch process for NH3 synthesis is arguably one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, with a massive footprint in agriculture and, historically, warfare. Current catalysts for this reaction use Fe for N2 activation, conducted at high temperatures and pressures to improve conversion rate and efficiency. A recent finding shows that plasmonic metal nanoparticles can either generate highly reactive electrons and holes or induce resonant surface excitations through plasmonic decay, which catalyze dissociation and redox reactions under mild conditions. It is therefore appealing to consider AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) alloys to combine the strongly plasmonic nature of Au and the catalytic nature of M metals toward N2 dissociation, which together might facilitate ammonia production. To this end, through density functional theory, we (i) explore the feasibility of forming these surface alloys, (ii) find a pathway that may stabilize/deactivate surface M substituents during fabrication, and (iii) define a complementary route to reactivate them under operational conditions. Finally, we evaluate their reactivity toward N2, as well as their ability to support a pathway for N2 dissociation with a low thermodynamic barrier. We find that AuFe possesses similar appealing qualities, including relative stability with respect to phase separation, reversibility of Fe oxidation and reduction, and reactivity toward N2. While AuMo achieves the best affinity toward N2, its strong propensity toward oxidation could greatly limit its use.

  4. Relative susceptibility of titanium alloys to hot-salt stress-corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    Susceptibility of titanium alloys to hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking increased as follows: Ti-2Al-11Sn-5Zr-0.2Si(679), Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo(6242), Ti-6Al-4V(64), Ti-6Al-4V-3Co(643), Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V(811), and Ti-13V-11Cr-3A1(13-11-3). The Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.25Si(5621S) alloy was both the least and most susceptible depending on heat treatment. Such rankings can be drastically altered by heat-to-heat and processing variations. Residual compressive stresses and cyclic exposures also reduce susceptibility to stress-corrosion. Simulated turbine-engine compressor environmental variables such as air velocity, pressure, dewpoint, salt concentration, and salt deposition temperature have only minor effects. Detection of substantial concentrations of hydrogen in all corroded alloys confirmed the existence of a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism.

  5. Effect of Aluminum Alloying on the Hot Deformation Behavior of Nano-bainite Bearing Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. N.; Dai, L. Q.; Chu, C. H.; Zhang, F. C.; Wang, L. W.; Xiao, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Interest in using aluminum in nano-bainite steel, especially for high-carbon bearing steel, is gradually growing. In this study, GCr15SiMo and GCr15SiMoAl steels are introduced to investigate the effect of Al alloying on the hot deformation behavior of bearing steel. Results show that the addition of Al not only notably increases the flow stress of steel due to the strong strengthening effect of Al on austenite phase, but also accelerates the strain-softening rates for its increasing effect on stacking fault energy. Al alloying also increases the activation energy of deformation. Two constitutive equations with an accuracy of higher than 0.99 are proposed. The constructed processing maps show the expanded instability regions for GCr15SiMoAl steel as compared with GCr15SiMo steel. This finding is consistent with the occurrence of cracking on the GCr15SiMoAl specimens, revealing that Al alloying reduces the high-temperature plasticity of the bearing steel. On the contrary, GCr15SiMoAl steel possesses smaller grain size than GCr15SiMo steel, manifesting the positive effect of Al on bearing steel. Attention should be focused on the hot working process of bearing steel with Al.

  6. Improvement of corrosion resistance of low-alloy steels by resurfacing using multifunction cavitation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijiri, Masataka; Yoshimura, Toshihiko

    2018-02-01

    Low-alloy steels are based on carbon steel in combination with several percent or less (in many cases, 1 mass%) alloying elements, and they offer improved resistance to corrosion at a cost slightly higher than that of carbon steel. However, these materials do not exhibit the same corrosion resistance as stainless steel. The authors have previously developed a novel multifunction cavitation (MFC) technique, which combines ultrasonic cavitation with water jet cavitation. In this study, MFC was used to modify the surface of Cr-Mo steel (SCM435) and Ni-Cr-Mo steel (SNCM630). MFC was found to improve the residual stress value of the material as the result of surface modification while also imparting high strength and superior corrosion resistance.

  7. Effects of alloying elements on the formation of < c >-component loops in Zr alloy Excel under heavy ion irradiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Idrees, Yasir; Francis, Elisabeth M.; Yao, Zhongwen

    2015-05-14

    We report here the microstructural changes occurring in the zirconium alloy Excel (Zr-3.5 wt% Sn-0.8Nb-0.8Mo-0.2Fe) during heavy ion irradiation. In situ irradiation experiments were conducted at reactor operating temperatures on two Zr Excel alloy microstructures with different states of alloying elements, with the states achieved by different solution heat treatments. In the first case, the alloying elements were mostly concentrated in the beta (beta) phase, whereas, in the second case, large Zr-3(Mo,Nb,Fe)(4) secondary phase precipitates (SPPs) were grown in the alpha (alpha) phase by long term aging. The heavy ion induced damage and resultant compositional changes were examined using transmissionmore » electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. Significant differences were seen in microstructural evolution between the two different microstructures that were irradiated under similar conditions. Nucleation and growth of < c >-component loops and their dependence on the alloying elements are a major focus of the current investigation. It was observed that the < c >-component loops nucleate readily at 100, 300, and 400 degrees C after a threshold incubation dose (TID), which varies with irradiation temperature and the state of alloying elements. It was found that the TID for the formation of < c >-component loops increases with decrease in irradiation temperature. Alloying elements that are present in the form of SPPs increase the TID compared to when they are in the beta phase solid solution. Dose and temperature dependence of loop size and density are presented. Radiation induced redistribution and clustering of alloying elements (Sn, Mo, and Fe) have been observed and related to the formation of < c >-component loops. It has been shown that at the higher temperature tests, irradiation induced dissolution of precipitates occurs whereas irradiation induced

  8. Oxidation characteristics of Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo intermetallic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Terryl A.; Clark, Ronald K.; Sankaran, Sankara N.; Wiedemann, Karl E.

    1990-01-01

    Static oxidation kinetics of the super-alpha 2 titanium-aluminide alloy Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo (at. percent) were investigated in air over the temperature range of 650 to 1000 C using thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation kinetics were complex at all exposure temperatures and displayed up to three distinct oxidation rates. Breakaway oxidation occurred after long exposure times at high temperatures. Oxidation products were determined using x ray diffraction techniques, electron microprobe analysis, and energy dispersive x ray analysis. Oxide scale morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy of the surfaces and cross sections of oxidized specimens. The oxides during the parabolic stages were compact and multilayered, consisting primarily of TiO2 doped with Nb, a top layer of Al2O3, and a thin bottom layer of TiN. The transition between the second and third parabolic stage was found to be linked to the formation of a TiAl layer at the oxide-metal interface. Porosity was formed during the third stage, causing degradation of the oxide and the beginning of breakaway oxidation.

  9. Low temperature embrittlement behaviour of different ferritic-martensitic alloys for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.

    1996-10-01

    In the last few years a lot of different low activation CrWVTa steels have been developed world-wide. Without irradiation some of these alloys show clearly a better low temperature embrittlement behaviour than commercial CrNiMoV(Nb) alloys. Within the MANITU project a study was carried out to compare, prior to the irradiation program, the embrittlement behaviour of different alloys in the unirradiated condition performing instrumented Charpy impact bending tests with sub-size specimens. The low activation materials (LAM) considered were different OPTIFER alloys (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe), F82H (JAERI), 9Cr2WVTa (ORNL), and GA3X (PNL). The modified commercial 10-11% CrNiMoVNb steels were MANET and OPTIMAR. A meaningful comparison between these alloys could be drawn, since the specimens of all materials were manufactured and tested under the same conditions.

  10. Synergistic Effect of MoS2 and SiO2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additives for Magnesium Alloy–Steel Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongmei; Jiang, Bin; Hu, Xingyu; Peng, Cheng; Guo, Hongli; Pan, Fusheng

    2017-01-01

    The tribological performances of the SiO2/MoS2 hybrids as lubricant additives were explored by a reciprocating ball-on-flat tribometer for AZ31 magnesium alloy/AISI 52100 bearing steel pairs. The results demonstrated that the introduction of SiO2/MoS2 hybrids into the base oil exhibited a significant reduction in the friction coefficient and wear volume as well as an increase in load bearing capacity, which was better than the testing results of the SiO2 or MoS2 nanolubricants. Specifically, the addition of 0.1 wt % nano-SiO2 mixed with 1.0 wt % nano-MoS2 into the base oil reduced the friction coefficient by 21.8% and the wear volume by 8.6% compared to the 1.0 wt % MoS2 nanolubricants. The excellent lubrication behaviors of the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanolubricants can be explained by the micro-cooperation of different nanoparticles with disparate morphology and lubrication mechanisms. PMID:28644394

  11. Complex, Precision Cast Columbium Alloy Gas Turbine Engine Nozzles Coated to Resist Oxidation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    Microstructures of Sprayed Specimens 64 Table 19 NS-4 Coated C129Y Alloy Specimens Weight Bisque Weight Sintered Weight Silicided Weight Pre-Oxidized...choice of another alloy , while perhaps assisting in the foundry process , would not have yielded a mechanical property data base with advantage over...Mo 250 ppm max; Fe 30 ppm max; Al , Ca, C, Si, Cr, Ni, Cu , Mn, Mg and Sn 10 ppm max each). Molybdenum វim powder (02 2000 ppm max; W 250 ppm max; Fe

  12. Interfacial and Alloying Effects on Activation of Ethanol from First-Principles

    DOE PAGES

    An, Wei; Men, Yong; Wang, Jinguo; ...

    2017-02-24

    Here, we present a first-principles density-functional theory study of ethanol activation at oxide/Rh(111) interface and the alloying effect on mitigating carbon deposition, which are essential to direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) anode reaction and steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) reaction. Our calculated results show that charge can transfer from Rh(111) substrate to MO x chain (e.g., MoO 3 and MnO 2), or from MO x chain (e.g., MgO, SnO 2, ZrO 2, and TiO 2) to Rh(111) substrate. The OH-binding strength is increased exponentially with M δ+ charge ranging from 1.4 to 2.2, which renders MnO 2/Rh(111) and MgO/Rh(111) interfacesmore » weaker OH-binding, and thereby enhanced oxidizing functionality of OH* for promoting ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) at DEFC anode. For efficient C–C bond breaking, a large number of Rh ensemble sizes are critically needed at the interface of MO x/Rh(111). We found that Rh 1Au 3 near surface alloy has the weakest C* and CO* binding, followed by Rh 1Cu 3 and Rh 1Pd 3 near surface alloys, while Rh 1Ir 3 and Rh 1Ru 3 surface alloys have C* and CO* binding strength similar to that of pure Rh metal. The general implication of this study is that by engineering alloyed structure of weakened C* and CO* binding complemented with metal oxides of weakened OH-binding, high-performance DEFC anode or SRE catalysts can be identified.« less

  13. Influence of dislocations and second phases on the magnetostrictive behavior of iron-gallium and other iron alloy single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Biswadeep

    Rare-earth-free Fe-Ga magnetostrictive alloys exhibit an excellent combination of large low-field magnetostriction, strength, ductility, wide operating temperature range, and low cost. Various observations in these and other alpha-Fe-based magnetostrictive alloys suggest that lattice strain modulations that are influenced by solute elements, near neighbor atomic environments around Fe atoms, coherent and incoherent precipitates, and structural defects such as dislocations likely play an important role in their magnetostrictive behavior. In the first part, the effect of dislocations on the magnetostriction of Fe-Ga single crystals was examined. The [001]- and [126]-oriented Fe-20 at.% Ga single crystal samples were deformed in a controlled way to introduce dislocation arrays with two different array geometries. Magnetostriction values showed a much lower decrease after deformation for the case of a [001]-oriented crystal, where eight different slip systems were operative and consequently eight different sets of dislocation arrays are expected. A drastic drop in magnetostriction measured along the sample axis is observed in the sample subjected to a small strain by deformation of a [126]-oriented crystal during which slip occurred on only one slip system. The nature of strain modulation introduced in this case was spatially asymmetric. The [126] deformation was accompanied by an acoustic emission during the formation of slip band. Transmission electron microscopy was carried out to examine the nature of dislocation distribution. The results show that the nature of strain modulation introduced by the dislocation arrays has a strong influence on the magnetostrictive behavior of magnetostrictive alloys. In the second part of this research, the effect of Mo addition to Fe was examined in detail. Addition of Mo to Fe increased the magnetostriction (3/2)lambda100 Fe very rapidly to 137 ppm at 10 at.% Mo, the highest value observed in these alloys. Further Mo additions

  14. Binary titanium alloys as dental implant materials-a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaotian; Chen, Shuyang; Tsoi, James K H; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2017-10-01

    Titanium (Ti) has been used for long in dentistry and medicine for implant purpose. During the years, not only the commercially pure Ti but also some alloys such as binary and tertiary Ti alloys were used. The aim of this review is to describe and compare the current literature on binary Ti alloys, including Ti-Zr, Ti-In, Ti-Ag, Ti-Cu, Ti-Au, Ti-Pd, Ti-Nb, Ti-Mn, Ti-Mo, Ti-Cr, Ti-Co, Ti-Sn, Ti-Ge and Ti-Ga, in particular to mechanical, chemical and biological parameters related to implant application. Literature was searched using the PubMed and Web of Science databases, as well as google without limiting the year, but with principle key terms such as ' Ti alloy', 'binary Ti ', 'Ti-X' (with X is the alloy element), 'dental implant' and 'medical implant'. Only laboratory studies that intentionally for implant or biomedical applications were included. According to available literatures, we might conclude that most of the binary Ti alloys with alloying <20% elements of Zr, In, Ag, Cu, Au, Pd, Nb, Mn, Cr, Mo, Sn and Co have high potential as implant materials, due to good mechanical performance without compromising the biocompatibility and biological behaviour compare to cp-Ti.

  15. Effects of adding metals to MoS2 in a ytterbium doped Q-switched fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleque, Abdul; Liu, Liming

    2018-03-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is widely used in lubricants, metallic alloys and in electronic and optical components. It is also used as saturable absorbers (SAs) in lasers (e.g. fiber lasers): a simple deposition of MoS2 on the fiber end can create a saturable absorber without the necessity of extensive alignment of the optical beam. In this article, we study the effects of adding different metals (Cr, Au, and Al) to MoS2 in a ytterbium (Yb)-doped Q-switched fiber laser. Experimental results show that the addition of a thin layer of gold and aluminium can reduce pulse durations to about 5.8 μs and 8.5 μs, respectively, compared with pure MoS2 with pulse duration of 12 μs. Experimental analysis of the combined metal and MoS2 based composite SAs can be useful in fiber laser applications where it may also find applications in medical, three dimensional (3D) active imaging and dental applications.

  16. Deformation Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of As-Cast 42CrMo Alloy in Isothermal and Non-isothermal Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fangcheng; Li, Yongtang; Qi, Huiping; Lv, Zhenhua

    2016-11-01

    The isothermal and non-isothermal multi-pass compression tests of centrifugal casting 42CrMo steel were conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermal simulation machine. The effects of compression passes and finishing temperatures on deformation behavior and microstructure evolution were investigated. It is found that the microstructure is homogeneous with equiaxed grains, and the flow stress does not show significant change with the increase in passes, while the peak softening coefficient increases first and then decreases during inter-pass. Moreover, the dominant mechanisms of controlled temperature and accumulated static recrystallization for grain refinement and its homogeneous distribution are found after 5 passes deformation. As the finishing temperature increases, the flow stress decreases gradually, but the dynamic recrystallization accelerates and softening effect increases, resulting in the larger grain size and homogeneous microstructure. The microhardness decreases sharply because the sufficient softening occurs in microstructure. When the finishing temperature is 890 °C, the carbide particles are precipitated in the vicinity of the grain boundaries, thus inhibiting the dislocation motion. Thus, the higher finishing temperature (≥970 °C) for centrifugal casting 42CrMo alloy should be avoided in non-isothermal multi-pass deformation, which is beneficial to grain refinement and properties improvement.

  17. Effect of Microstructure on Creep in Directionally Solidified NiAl-31Cr-3Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2001-01-01

    The 1200 to 1400 K slow strain rate characteristics of the directionally solidified (DS) eutectic Ni-33Al-31Cr-3 Mo have been determined as a function of growth rate. While differences in the light optical level microstructure were observed in alloys grown at rates ranging from 7.6 to 508 mm/h, compression testing indicated that all had essentially the same strength. The exception was Ni-33 Al-31Cr-3Mo DS at 25.4 mm/h which was slightly stronger than the other growth velocities; no microstructural reason could be found for this improvement. Comparison of the approximately 1300 K properties revealed that four different DS NiAl-34(Cr,Mo) alloys have a similar creep resistance which suggests that there is a common, but yet unknown, strengthening mechanism.

  18. Effect of Microstructure on Creep in Directionally Solidified NiAl-31Cr-3Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2001-01-01

    The 1200 to 1400 K slow strain rate characteristics of the directionally solidified (DS) eutectic Ni-33Al-31Cr-3 Mo have been determined as a function of growth rate. While differences in the light optical level microstructure were observed in alloys grown at rates ranging from 7.6 to 508 mm/h, compression testing indicated that all had essentially the same strength. The exception was Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo DS at 25.4 mm/h which was slightly stronger than the other growth velocities; no microstructural reason could be found for this improvement. Comparison of the approx. 1300 K properties revealed that four different DS NiAl-34(Cr,Mo) alloys have a similar creep resistance which suggests that there is a common, but yet unknown, strengthening mechanism.

  19. Mo1-xWxSe2-Based Schottky Junction Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sum-Gyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Park, Sungjin; Oh, Donggun; Choi, Hwan Young; Lee, Nara; Choi, Young Jai; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-12-14

    We developed Schottky junction photovoltaic cells based on multilayer Mo 1-x W x Se 2 with x = 0, 0.5, and 1. To generate built-in potentials, Pd and Al were used as the source and drain electrodes in a lateral structure, and Pd and graphene were used as the bottom and top electrodes in a vertical structure. These devices exhibited gate-tunable diode-like current rectification and photovoltaic responses. Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 Schottky diodes with Pd and Al electrodes exhibited higher photovoltaic efficiency than MoSe 2 and WSe 2 devices with Pd and Al electrodes, likely because of the greater adjusted band alignment in Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 devices. Furthermore, we showed that Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 -based vertical Schottky diodes yield a power conversion efficiency of ∼16% under 532 nm light and ∼13% under a standard air mass 1.5 spectrum, demonstrating their remarkable potential for photovoltaic applications.

  20. Enhanced photoresponse of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) based on microcavity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanan; Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Fuxue; Lu, Naiyan

    2018-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in using monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for optoelectronic devices because of its inherent direct band gap characteristics. However, the weak absorption of monolayer MoS2 restricts its applications, novel concepts need to be developed to address the weakness. In this work, monolayer MoS2 monolithically integrates with plane microcavity structure, which is formed by the top and bottom chirped distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), is demonstrated to improve the absorption of MoS2. The optical absorption is 17-fold enhanced, reaching values over 70% at work wavelength. Moreover, the monolayer MoS2-based photodetector device with microcavity presents a significantly increased photoresponse, demonstrating its promising prospects in MoS2-based optoelectronic devices.

  1. Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study by William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 A reprint...21005-5069 ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery Weapons and Materials... Gun Barrel Study 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery

  2. Cladding burst behavior of Fe-based alloys under LOCA

    DOE PAGES

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Pint, Bruce A.; ...

    2015-12-17

    Burst behavior of austenitic and ferritic Fe-based alloy tubes has been examined under a simulated large break loss of coolant accident. Specifically, type 304 stainless steel (304SS) and oxidation resistant FeCrAl tubes were studied alongside Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 that are considered reference fuel cladding materials. Following the burst test, characterization of the cladding materials was carried out to gain insights regarding the integral burst behavior. Given the widespread availability of a comprehensive set of thermo-mechanical data at elevated temperatures for 304SS, a modeling framework was implemented to simulate the various processes that affect burst behavior in this Fe-based alloy. Themore » most important conclusion is that cladding ballooning due to creep is negligible for Fe-based alloys. Thus, unlike Zr-based alloys, cladding cross-sectional area remains largely unchanged up to the point of burst. Furthermore, for a given rod internal pressure, the temperature onset of burst in Fe-based alloys appears to be simply a function of the alloy's ultimate tensile strength, particularly at high rod internal pressures.« less

  3. Finite-element model to predict roll-separation force and defects during rolling of U-10Mo alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Burkes, Douglas E.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean

    2017-10-01

    A major goal of the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is to enable high-performance research reactors to operate with low-enriched uranium rather than the high-enriched uranium currently used. To this end, uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) represents an ideal candidate because of its stable gamma phase, low neutron caption cross section, acceptable swelling response, and predictable irradiation behavior. However, because of the complexities of the fuel design and the need for rolled monolithic U-10Mo foils, new developments in processing and fabrication are necessary. This study used a finite-element code, LS-DYNA, as a predictive tool to optimize the rolling process. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel were conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. The study reported here discussed various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., waviness and thickness non-uniformity like dog-boning). To investigate the influence of the cladding material on these rolling defects, other cases were simulated: hot rolling with alternative can materials, namely, 304 stainless steel and Zircaloy-2, and bare-rolling. Simulation results demonstrated that reducing the mismatch in strength between the coupon and can material improves the quality of the rolled sheet. Bare-rolling simulation results showed a defect-free rolled coupon. The finite-element model developed and presented in this study can be used to conduct parametric studies of several process parameters (e.g., rolling speed, roll diameter, can material, and reduction).

  4. Metallurgy and deformation of electron beam welded similar titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasang, T.; Sabol, J. C.; Misiolek, W. Z.; Mitchell, R.; Short, A. B.; Littlefair, G.

    2012-04-01

    Butt welded joins were produced between commercially pure titanium and various titanium alloys using an electron beam welding technique. The materials used represent commercially pure grade, α-β alloy and β alloy. They were CP Ti, Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) and Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr (Ti5553), respectively. Grains were largest in the FZs of the different weldments, decreasing in size towards the heat affected zones (HAZs) and base metals. Hardness measurements taken across the traverse cross-sections of the weldments were constant from base metal-to-weld-to-base metal for CP Ti/CP Ti and Ti64/Ti64 welds, while the FZ of Ti5553/Ti5553 had a lower hardness compared with the base metal. During tensile testing the CP Ti/CP Ti weldments fractured at the base metal, whereas both the Ti64/Ti64 and Ti5553/Ti5553 broke at the weld zones. Fracture surface analysis suggested microvoid coalescence as the failure mechanism. The compositional analysis showed a relatively uniform distribution of solute elements from base metal-to-weld-to-base metal. CP Ti has always been known for its excellent weldability, Ti64 has good weldability and, preliminary results indicated that Ti5553 alloy is also weldable.

  5. Cast iron-base alloy for cylinder/regenerator housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witter, Stewart L.; Simmons, Harold E.; Woulds, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    NASACC-1 is a castable iron-base alloy designed to replace the costly and strategic cobalt-base X-40 alloy used in the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/generator housing. Over 40 alloy compositions were evaluated using investment cast test bars for stress-rupture testing. Also, hydrogen compatibility and oxygen corrosion resistance tests were used to determine the optimal alloy. NASACC-1 alloy was characterized using elevated and room temperature tensile, creep-rupture, low cycle fatigue, heat capacity, specific heat, and thermal expansion testing. Furthermore, phase analysis was performed on samples with several heat treated conditions. The properties are very encouraging. NASACC-1 alloy shows stress-rupture and low cycle fatigue properties equivalent to X-40. The oxidation resistance surpassed the program goal while maintaining acceptable resistance to hydrogen exposure. The welding, brazing, and casting characteristics are excellent. Finally, the cost of NASACC-1 is significantly lower than that of X-40.

  6. High damping Al-Fe-Mo-Si/Zn-Al composites produced by rapidly solidified powder metallurgy process

    SciTech Connect

    Li, P.Y.; Dai, S.L.; Chai, S.C.

    2000-05-10

    The metallic materials commonly used in aircraft and aerospace fields, such as aluminum and titanium alloys, steels, etc., show extremely low damping capacity (usually of the order of or less than 10{sup {minus}3}). Thus, some problems related to vibration may emerge and influence the reliability, safety and life of airplanes, satellites, etc. It has been reported that almost two thirds of errors for rockets and satellites are related to vibration and noise. One effective way to solve these vibration-related problems is to adopt high damping metallic materials. Conventional high damping alloys exhibit damping capacity above 10{sup {minus}2}, however, their densitiesmore » are usually great than 5 x 10{sup 3} kg m{sup {minus}3}, or their strengths are less than 200 MPa (for alloys based on dislocation damping), making them impossible to be applied to aircraft and aerospace areas. Recently, some low-density high-damping metal/metal composites based on aluminum and high damping alloys have been developed in Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM) by the rapidly solidified power metallurgy process. This paper aims to report the properties of the composites based on a high temperature Al-Fe-Mo-Si alloy and a high damping Zn-Al alloy, and compare them with that of 2618-T61 alloy produced by the ingot metallurgy process.« less

  7. My Experience with Ti-Ni-Based and Ti-Based Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2017-12-01

    The present author has been studying shape memory alloys including Cu-Al-Ni, Ti-Ni-based, and Ni-free Ti-based alloys since 1979. This paper reviews the present author's research results for the latter two materials since 1981. The topics on the Ti-Ni-based alloys include the achievement of superelasticity in Ti-Ni alloys through understanding of the role of microstructures consisting of dislocations and precipitates, followed by the contribution to the development of application market of shape memory effect and superelasticity, characterization of the R-phase and monoclinic martensitic transformations, clarification of the basic characteristics of fatigue properties, development of sputter-deposited shape memory thin films and fabrication of prototypes of microactuators utilizing thin films, development of high temperature shape memory alloys, and so on. The topics of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory alloys include the characterization of the orthorhombic phase martensitic transformation and related shape memory effect and superelasticity, the effects of texture, omega phase and adding elements on the martensitic transformation and shape memory properties, clarification of the unique effects of oxygen addition to induce non-linear large elasticity, Invar effect and heating-induced martensitic transformation, and so on.

  8. Particle Characteristics and Densification of W6Mo5Cr4V2Co5Nb Overspray Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Ziqiang; Lu, Xin; Yang, Fei; Liu, Bowen; Jia, Chengchang; Qu, Xuanhui; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Lizhi; Shao, Qingli

    2018-05-01

    W6Mo5Cr4V2Co5Nb (825 K) alloy was prepared by a two-step sintering process from overspray 825 K alloy powder. The overspray powder characteristics and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-sintered 825 K alloy were investigated. Results showed that two types of carbides formed a network structure in the overspray powder, which had spherical or quasispherical shape: one was MC carbide that was rich in vanadium (V), and the other was M2C carbide enriched with vanadium (V) and tungsten (W). The sintered 825 K alloy contained M6C and MC carbides, of which M6C was rich in tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo), and both of these two carbides were uniformly distributed in the alloy matrix. The alloy had relative density of 98.43%, hardness of HRC 51.8, and superior bending strength of 2042 MPa. These mechanical properties can meet the requirements of most engineering applications.

  9. Surface Modifications with Laser Synthesized Mo Modified Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lu; Chen, Hao; Liu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Mg-Cu-Al was first used to improve the surface performance of TA15 titanium alloys by means of laser cladding technique. The synthesis of hard composite coating on TA15 titanium alloy by laser cladding of Mg-Cu-Al-B4C/Mo pre-placed powders was investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer and high resolution transmission electron microscope. Experimental results indicated that such composite coating mainly consisted of TiB2, TiB, TiC, Ti3Al and AlCuMg. Compared with TA15 alloy substrate, an improvement of wear resistance was observed for this composite coating due to the actions of fine grain, amorphous and hard phase strengthening.

  10. Effects of N and B on continuous cooling transformation diagrams of Mo-V-Ti micro-alloyed steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhui, Wang; Bo, Liao; Ligang, Liu; Xianfeng, Li; Hang, Su; Caifu, Yang; Qingfeng, Wang

    2012-05-01

    Effects of the single addition of nitrogen (N) and boron (B) and the combined addition of N and B on continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams and properties of the three Mo-V-Ti micro-alloyed steels were investigated by means of a combined method of dilatometry and metallography. Microstructures observed in continuous cooled specimens were composed of pearlite (P), quasi-polygonal ferrite (QPF), granular bainite (GB), acicular ferrite (AF), lath-like bainite (LB) and martensite (M) depending on the cooling rates and transformation temperatures. Single addition of 12 ppm B effectively reduced the formation of QPF and broadened the cooling rate region for LB and M. Added N makes the action of B invalid and the QPF region was prominently broadened, and even though the cooling rate is higher than 50°C s-1, it cannot obtain full bainite.

  11. Method for fabricating uranium foils and uranium alloy foils

    DOEpatents

    Hofman, Gerard L [Downers Grove, IL; Meyer, Mitchell K [Idaho Falls, ID; Knighton, Gaven C [Moore, ID; Clark, Curtis R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2006-09-05

    A method of producing thin foils of uranium or an alloy. The uranium or alloy is cast as a plate or sheet having a thickness less than about 5 mm and thereafter cold rolled in one or more passes at substantially ambient temperatures until the uranium or alloy thereof is in the shape of a foil having a thickness less than about 1.0 mm. The uranium alloy includes one or more of Zr, Nb, Mo, Cr, Fe, Si, Ni, Cu or Al.

  12. Atomic and electronic basis for the serrations of refractory high-entropy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, William Yi; Shang, Shun Li; Wang, Yi; Han, Fengbo; Darling, Kristopher A.; Wu, Yidong; Xie, Xie; Senkov, Oleg N.; Li, Jinshan; Hui, Xi Dong; Dahmen, Karin A.; Liaw, Peter K.; Kecskes, Laszlo J.; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2017-06-01

    Refractory high-entropy alloys present attractive mechanical properties, i.e., high yield strength and fracture toughness, making them potential candidates for structural applications. Understandings of atomic and electronic interactions are important to reveal the origins for the formation of high-entropy alloys and their structure-dominated mechanical properties, thus enabling the development of a predictive approach for rapidly designing advanced materials. Here, we report the atomic and electronic basis for the valence-electron-concentration-categorized principles and the observed serration behavior in high-entropy alloys and high-entropy metallic glass, including MoNbTaW, MoNbVW, MoTaVW, HfNbTiZr, and Vitreloy-1 MG (Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5). We find that the yield strengths of high-entropy alloys and high-entropy metallic glass are a power-law function of the electron-work function, which is dominated by local atomic arrangements. Further, a reliance on the bonding-charge density provides a groundbreaking insight into the nature of loosely bonded spots in materials. The presence of strongly bonded clusters and weakly bonded glue atoms imply a serrated deformation of high-entropy alloys, resulting in intermittent avalanches of defects movement.

  13. Effect of nitrogen on iron-manganese-based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariapour, Azita

    Shape memory effect is due to a reversible martensitic transformation. The major drawback in case of Fe-Mn-based shape memory alloys is their inferior shape memory effect compared to Ni-Ti and Cu-based shape memory alloys and their low strength and corrosion resistance compared to steel alloys. It is known that by increasing the alloy strength the shape memory effect can be improved. Nitrogen in solid solution can increase the strength of steels to a greater extent than other major alloying elements. However, its effect on shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-based alloys is ambiguous. In this work first we investigated the effect of nitrogen addition in solid solution on both shape memory effect (SME) and strength of a Fe-Mn-Cr-Ni-Si shape memory alloy (SMA). It was found that interstitial nitrogen suppressed the shape memory effect in these alloys. As an example addition of 0.24 wt % nitrogen in solid solution to the alloy system suppressed the SME by ˜80% and increased the strength by 20%. A reduction of martensitic phase formation was found to be the dominant factor in suppression of the SME. This was related, experimentally and theoretically to stacking fault energy of the alloy as well as the driving force and friction force during the transformation. The second approach was doping the alloy with both 0.36 wt% of nitrogen and 0.36 wt% of niobium. Niobium has great affinity for nitrogen and thus NbN dispersed particles can be produced in the alloy following hot rolling. Then particles prevent growth of the alloy and increase the strength of the alloy due to reduced grain size, and precipitation hardening. The improvement of SME in this alloy compared to the interstitial containing alloys was due to the large removal of the nitrogen from solid solution. In case of all the alloys studied in this work, the presence of nitrogen in solid solution improved the corrosion resistance of the alloy. This suggests that nitrogen can replace nickel in the alloy. One of the

  14. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad; Joshi, Vineet V.; Rhodes, Mark A.

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  15. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad; Joshi, Vineet V.; Rhodes, Mark A.

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  16. Ternary Magnesium-Lithium Base Constitution Diagrams and Magnesium Alloys of Low Alloy Additions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-03-01

    progress In eperimental development of mgmesiu-bease &alls with low alloy additions. The primry purpose of this investiptiU is to obtain alloys baving a...Casting Magnesium-Lithium Base Ternary Alloys Melting and Castirg Technigue The design , construction and operation of equipment for melting and...protection during heat treatment were: 1. Design and construction of a specimen container to hold a number of specimens in an inert atmosphere in order to WAC

  17. Dual-phase Cr-Ta alloys for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.; Brady, Michael P.; Zhu, Jiahong; Tortorelli, Peter F.

    2001-01-01

    Dual phase alloys of chromium containing 2 to 11 atomic percent tantalum with minor amounts of Mo, Cr, Ti, Y, La, Cr, Si and Ge are disclosed. These alloys contain two phases including Laves phase and Cr-rich solid solution in either eutectic structures or dispersed Laves phase particles in the Cr-rich solid solution matrix. The alloys have superior mechanical properties at high temperature and good oxidation resistance when heated to above 1000.degree. C. in air.

  18. Effect of Aging Treatment on the Formation of α Precipitates in β-Type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gwanghyo; Lee, Kwangmin

    2018-05-01

    The microstructural evolution of a novel β-type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr (wt%) alloy subjected to different aging treatments was investigated. The normalized intensity of the α precipitates reached a peak value at 450 °C. A nanoscale orthorhombic phase was observed to coexist with α precipitates in the β matrix, which followed the Burgers orientation relation of <1120>α//<111>β and {0001}α//{110}β. Fine α precipitates were formed with metastable O and β' phases, and the β phase was spinodally decomposed to β and β' phases. The maximum hardness value of the specimen was obtained after aging at 450 °C. Compositional partitioning of Mo, V, and Cr elements occurred with the depletion of fine acicular α precipitates upon aging 450 °C.

  19. Effect of Aging Treatment on the Formation of α Precipitates in β-Type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gwanghyo; Lee, Kwangmin

    2018-02-01

    The microstructural evolution of a novel β-type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr (wt%) alloy subjected to different aging treatments was investigated. The normalized intensity of the α precipitates reached a peak value at 450 °C. A nanoscale orthorhombic phase was observed to coexist with α precipitates in the β matrix, which followed the Burgers orientation relation of <1120 >α//<111>β and {0001}α//{110}β. Fine α precipitates were formed with metastable O and β' phases, and the β phase was spinodally decomposed to β and β' phases. The maximum hardness value of the specimen was obtained after aging at 450 °C. Compositional partitioning of Mo, V, and Cr elements occurred with the depletion of fine acicular α precipitates upon aging 450 °C.

  20. Magnetocaloric effect in amorphous and partially crystallized Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 18} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thanveer, T.; Thomas, S., E-mail: senoythomas@gmail.com; Ramanujan, R. V.

    A study of magnetocaloric effect in amorphous and partially crystallized Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 18} alloys is reported. Amorphous Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 18}, near its magnetic ordering temperature (600 K) showed a magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M} of 1.1 J/KgK and a relative cooling power of 36 J/Kg in a field change of 10 kOe. Amorphous samples were partially crystallized by annealing at 700 K at different time intervals. Partially crystallized samples showed two distinct magnetic ordering temperature, one corresponding to the precipitated FeNi nanocrystals and the other one corresponding to the boron rich amorphous matrix. Magnetic ordering temperaturemore » of the residual amorphous matrix got shifted to the lower temperatures on increasing the annealing duration. Partially crystallised samples showed a magnetic entropy change of about 0.27 J/kgK near the magnetic ordering temperature of the amorphous matrix (540 K) in a field change of 10 kOe. The decrease in ΔS{sub M} on partial crystallisation is attributed to the biphasic magnetic nature of the sample.« less

  1. Binary titanium alloys as dental implant materials—a review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaotian; Chen, Shuyang; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Titanium (Ti) has been used for long in dentistry and medicine for implant purpose. During the years, not only the commercially pure Ti but also some alloys such as binary and tertiary Ti alloys were used. The aim of this review is to describe and compare the current literature on binary Ti alloys, including Ti–Zr, Ti–In, Ti–Ag, Ti–Cu, Ti–Au, Ti–Pd, Ti–Nb, Ti–Mn, Ti–Mo, Ti–Cr, Ti–Co, Ti–Sn, Ti–Ge and Ti–Ga, in particular to mechanical, chemical and biological parameters related to implant application. Literature was searched using the PubMed and Web of Science databases, as well as google without limiting the year, but with principle key terms such as ‘ Ti alloy’, ‘binary Ti ’, ‘Ti-X’ (with X is the alloy element), ‘dental implant’ and ‘medical implant’. Only laboratory studies that intentionally for implant or biomedical applications were included. According to available literatures, we might conclude that most of the binary Ti alloys with alloying <20% elements of Zr, In, Ag, Cu, Au, Pd, Nb, Mn, Cr, Mo, Sn and Co have high potential as implant materials, due to good mechanical performance without compromising the biocompatibility and biological behaviour compare to cp-Ti. PMID:29026646

  2. Ultrahigh-Gain Photodetectors Based on Atomically Thin Graphene-MoS2 Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chuu, Chih-Piao; Huang, Jing-Kai; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chang, Yung-Huang; Liang, Chi-Te; Chen, Yu-Ze; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau; Chou, Mei-Yin; Li, Lain-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Due to its high carrier mobility, broadband absorption, and fast response time, the semi-metallic graphene is attractive for optoelectronics. Another two-dimensional semiconducting material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is also known as light- sensitive. Here we show that a large-area and continuous MoS2 monolayer is achievable using a CVD method and graphene is transferable onto MoS2. We demonstrate that a photodetector based on the graphene/MoS2 heterostructure is able to provide a high photogain greater than 108. Our experiments show that the electron-hole pairs are produced in the MoS2 layer after light absorption and subsequently separated across the layers. Contradictory to the expectation based on the conventional built-in electric field model for metal-semiconductor contacts, photoelectrons are injected into the graphene layer rather than trapped in MoS2 due to the presence of a perpendicular effective electric field caused by the combination of the built-in electric field, the applied electrostatic field, and charged impurities or adsorbates, resulting in a tuneable photoresponsivity. PMID:24451916

  3. Electrodeposition and characterization of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszczyńska, A.; Winiarski, J.; Szczygieł, B.; Szczygieł, I.

    2016-04-01

    Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite coatings were produced by electrodeposition technique from citrate electrolytes containing dispersed ZrO2 nanopowder. The influence of deposition parameters i.e. concentration of molybdate and ZrO2 nanoparticles in the electrolyte, bath pH and deposition current density on the composition and surface morphology of the coating has been investigated. The structure, microhardness and corrosion properties of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composites with different molybdenum and ZrO2 content have been also examined. It was found that ZrO2 content in the deposit is increased by rising the nanoparticles concentration in the plating solution up to 20 g dm-3. An increase in molybdate concentration in the electrolyte affects negatively the amount of codeposited ZrO2 nanoparticles. The correlation between the deposition current efficiency and ZrO2 content in the composite coating has been also observed. A decrease in deposition current efficiency leads to deposition of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite with low nanoparticles content. This may be explained by formation of higher amounts of gas bubbles on the cathode surface, which prevent the adsorption of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the growing deposit. The XRD analysis revealed that all the studied Ni-Mo-ZrO2 coatings were composed of a single, nanocrystalline phase with FCC structure. It was found that the incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles into Ni-Mo alloy matrix affects positively the microhardness and also slightly improves the corrosion properties of Ni-Mo alloy coating.

  4. Preliminary Results on FeCrAl Alloys in the As-received and Welded State Designed to Have Enhanced Weldability and Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Hu, Xunxiang

    2015-09-30

    The present report summarizes and discusses the recent results on developing a modern, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloy designed to have enhanced radiation tolerance and weldability. The alloys used for these investigations are modern FeCrAl alloys based on a Fe-13Cr-5Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.05Y alloy (in wt.%, designated C35M). Development efforts have focused on assessing the influence of chemistry and microstructure on the fabricability and performance of these newly developed alloys. Specific focus was made to assess the weldability, thermal stability, and radiation tolerance.

  5. U-Mo Monolithic Fuel for Nuclear Research and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad

    The metallic fuel selected to replace the current HEU fuels in the research and test reactors is the LEU-10 weight % Mo alloy in the form of a thin sheet or foil encapsulated in AA6061 aluminum alloy with a zirconium interlayer. In order to effectively lead this pursuit, new developments in processing and fabrication of the fuel elements have been initiated, along with a better understanding of material behavior before and after irradiation as a result of these new developments. This editorial note gives an introduction about research and test reactors, need for HEU to LEU conversion, fuel requirements, highmore » uranium density monolithic fuel development and an overview of the four articles published in the December 2017 issue of JOM under a special topic titled “U-Mo Monolithic Fuel for Nuclear Research and Test Reactors”.« less

  6. Mechanical intermixing of components in (CoMoNi)-based systems and the formation of (CoMoNi)/WC nanocomposite layers on Ti sheets under ball collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romankov, S.; Park, Y. C.; Shchetinin, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni) components were simultaneously introduced onto titanium (Ti) surfaces from a composed target using ball collisions. Tungsten carbide (WC) balls were selected for processing as the source of a cemented carbide reinforcement phase. During processing, ball collisions continuously introduced components from the target and the grinding media onto the Ti surface and induced mechanical intermixing of the elements, resulting in formation of a complex nanocomposite structure onto the Ti surface. The as-fabricated microstructure consisted of uniformly dispersed WC particles embedded within an integrated metallic matrix composed of an amorphous phase with nanocrystalline grains. The phase composition of the alloyed layers, atomic reactions, and the matrix grain sizes depended on the combination of components introduced onto the Ti surface during milling. The as-fabricated layer exhibited a very high hardness compared to industrial metallic alloys and tool steel materials. This approach could be used for the manufacture of both cemented carbides and amorphous matrix composite layers.

  7. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Of Metal Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Calle, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to investigate resistances of 19 alloys to corrosion under conditions similar to those of corrosive, chloride-laden seaside environment of Space Transportation System launch site. Alloys investigated: Hastelloy C-4, C-22, C-276, and B-2; Inconel(R) 600, 625, and 825; Inco(R) G-3; Monel 400; Zirconium 702; Stainless Steel 304L, 304LN, 316L, 317L, and 904L; 20Cb-3; 7Mo+N; ES2205; and Ferralium 255. Results suggest electrochemical impedance spectroscopy used to predict corrosion performances of metal alloys.

  8. Molybdeno-Aluminizing of Powder Metallurgy and Wrought Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys by Pack Cementation process

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipas, Sophia A., E-mail: stsipas@ing.uc3m.es; Go

    Wear and high temperature oxidation resistance of some titanium-based alloys needs to be enhanced, and this can be effectively accomplished by surface treatment. Molybdenizing is a surface treatment where molybdenum is introduced into the surface of titanium alloys causing the formation of wear-resistant surface layers containing molybdenum, while aluminizing of titanium-based alloys has been reported to improve their high temperature oxidation properties. Whereas pack cementation and other surface modification methods have been used for molybdenizing or aluminizing of wrought and/or cast pure titanium and titanium alloys, such surface treatments have not been reported on titanium alloys produced by powder metallurgymore » (PM). Also a critical understanding of the process parameters for simultaneous one step molybdeno-aluminizing of titanium alloys by pack cementation and the predominant mechanism for this process have not been reported. The current research work describes the surface modification of titanium and Ti-6Al-4V prepared by PM by molybdeno-aluminizing and analyzes thermodynamic aspects of the deposition process. Similar coatings are also deposited to wrought Ti-6Al-4V and compared. Characterization of the coatings was carried out using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. For both titanium and Ti-6Al-4V, the use of a powder pack containing ammonium chloride as activator leads to the deposition of molybdenum and aluminium into the surface but also introduces nitrogen causing the formation of a thin titanium nitride layer. In addition, various titanium aluminides and mixed titanium aluminium nitrides are formed. The appropriate conditions for molybdeno-aluminizing as well as the phases expected to be formed were successfully determined by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. - Highlights: •Simultaneous co-deposition of Mo-Al onto powder metallurgy and wrought Ti alloy •Thermodynamic calculations were used to optimize deposition

  9. Open-Cellular Co-Base and Ni-Base Superalloys Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting

    PubMed Central

    Murr, Lawrence; Li, Shujun; Tian, Yuxing; Amato, Krista; Martinez, Edwin; Medina, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Reticulated mesh samples of Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy and Ni-21Cr-9Mo-4Nb alloy (625) and stochastic foam samples of Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by electron beam melting were characterized by optical metallography, and the dynamic stiffness (Young’s modulus) was measured by resonant frequency analysis. The relative stiffness (E/Es) versus relative density (ρ/ρs) plotted on a log-log basis resulted in a fitted straight line with a slope n ≅ 2, consistent with that for ideal open cellular materials. PMID:28879949

  10. Design and Characterisation of Metallic Glassy Alloys of High Neutron Shielding Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khong, J. C.; Daisenberger, D.; Burca, G.; Kockelmann, W.; Tremsin, A. S.; Mi, J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the design, making and characterisation of a series of Fe-based bulk metallic glass alloys with the aim of achieving the combined properties of high neutron absorption capability and sufficient glass forming ability. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function methods were used to characterise the crystalline or amorphous states of the samples. Neutron transmission and macroscopic attenuation coefficients of the designed alloys were measured using energy resolved neutron imaging method and the very recently developed microchannel plate detector. The study found that the newly designed alloy (Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Gd2 with a glass forming ability of Ø5.8 mm) has the highest neutron absorption capability among all Fe-based bulk metallic glasses so far reported. It is a promising material for neutron shielding applications.

  11. Design and Characterisation of Metallic Glassy Alloys of High Neutron Shielding Capability.

    PubMed

    Khong, J C; Daisenberger, D; Burca, G; Kockelmann, W; Tremsin, A S; Mi, J

    2016-11-16

    This paper reports the design, making and characterisation of a series of Fe-based bulk metallic glass alloys with the aim of achieving the combined properties of high neutron absorption capability and sufficient glass forming ability. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function methods were used to characterise the crystalline or amorphous states of the samples. Neutron transmission and macroscopic attenuation coefficients of the designed alloys were measured using energy resolved neutron imaging method and the very recently developed microchannel plate detector. The study found that the newly designed alloy (Fe 48 Cr 15 Mo 14 C 15 B 6 Gd 2 with a glass forming ability of Ø5.8 mm) has the highest neutron absorption capability among all Fe-based bulk metallic glasses so far reported. It is a promising material for neutron shielding applications.

  12. Design and Characterisation of Metallic Glassy Alloys of High Neutron Shielding Capability

    PubMed Central

    Khong, J. C.; Daisenberger, D.; Burca, G.; Kockelmann, W.; Tremsin, A. S.; Mi, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the design, making and characterisation of a series of Fe-based bulk metallic glass alloys with the aim of achieving the combined properties of high neutron absorption capability and sufficient glass forming ability. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function methods were used to characterise the crystalline or amorphous states of the samples. Neutron transmission and macroscopic attenuation coefficients of the designed alloys were measured using energy resolved neutron imaging method and the very recently developed microchannel plate detector. The study found that the newly designed alloy (Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Gd2 with a glass forming ability of Ø5.8 mm) has the highest neutron absorption capability among all Fe-based bulk metallic glasses so far reported. It is a promising material for neutron shielding applications. PMID:27848991

  13. Influence of the casting processing route on the corrosion behavior of dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Galo, Rodrigo; Rocha, Luis Augusto; Faria, Adriana Claudia; Silveira, Renata Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello

    2014-12-01

    Casting in the presence of oxygen may result in an improvement of the corrosion performance of most alloys. However, the effect of corrosion on the casting without oxygen for dental materials remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the casting technique and atmosphere (argon or oxygen) on the corrosion behavior response of six different dental casting alloys. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by electrochemical measurements performed in artificial saliva for the different alloys cast in two different conditions: arc melting in argon and oxygen-gas flame centrifugal casting. A slight decrease in open-circuit potential for most alloys was observed during immersion, meaning that the corrosion tendency of the materials increases due to the contact with the solution. Exceptions were the Co-based alloys prepared by plasma, and the Co-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-4Ti alloys processed by oxidized flame, in which an increase in potential was observed. The amount of metallic ions released into the artificial saliva solution during immersion was similar for all specimens. Considering the pitting potential, a parameter of high importance when considering the fluctuating conditions of the oral environment, Co-based alloys show the best performance in comparison with the Ni-based alloys, independent of the processing route. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alloy Microstructure Dictates Corrosion Modes in THA Modular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Pourzal, Robin; Hall, Deborah J; Ehrich, Jonas; McCarthy, Stephanie M; Mathew, Mathew T; Jacobs, Joshua J; Urban, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    Adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) triggered by corrosion products from modular taper junctions are a known cause of premature THA failure. CoCrMo devices are of particular concern because cobalt ions and chromium-orthophosphates were shown to be linked to ALTRs, even in metal-on-polyethylene THAs. The most common categories of CoCrMo alloy are cast and wrought alloy, which exhibit fundamental microstructural differences in terms of grain size and hard phases. The impact of implant alloy microstructure on the occurring modes of corrosion and subsequent metal ion release is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether (1) the microstructure of cast CoCrMo alloy varies broadly between manufacturers and can dictate specific corrosion modes; and whether (2) the microstructure of wrought CoCrMo alloy is more consistent between manufacturers and has low implications on the alloy's corrosion behavior. The alloy microstructure of four femoral-stem and three femoral-head designs from four manufacturers was metallographically and electrochemically characterized. Three stem designs were made from cast alloy; all three head designs and one stem design were made from wrought alloy. Alloy samples were sectioned from retrieved components and then polished and etched to visualize grain structure and hard phases such as carbides (eg, M 23 C 6 ) or intermetallic phases (eg, σ phase). Potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) tests were conducted to determine the corrosion potential (E corr ), corrosion current density (I corr ), and pitting potential (E pit ) for each alloy. Four devices were tested within each group, and each measurement was repeated three times to ensure repeatable results. Differences in PDP metrics between manufacturers and between alloys with different hard phase contents were compared using one-way analysis of variance and independent-sample t-tests. Microstructural features such as twin boundaries and slip bands as well as corrosion

  15. Fracture toughness measurements of three titanium alloy extrusions

    SciTech Connect

    DeSisto, T.S.

    1973-07-01

    Plane strain static K/sub Ic/ and dynamic Kid measurements were obtained on 3-in. dia. titanium alloy extrusions which received a 5.9: 1 reduction followed by air cooling. The alloys investigated were Ti-6Al--6V--2Sn, Ti--8Mo-- 8V--2Fe--3Al, and Ti-- 11.5Mo-6Zr-4.5Sn (Beta III). Compact tension specimens were used to obtain K/sub Ic/ measurements and precracked standard Charpy V- notched specimens were used to obtain Kid measurements. The highest K/sub Ic/ and K /sub Id/ values were obtained from the Beta III extrusion while the lowest K/sub Ic/ and K/sub Id/ values were obtained for the Ti-8Mo--8V--2Fe -- 3Al extrusion. Good agreement was found tomore » exist between K/sub Ic/ values obtained from precracked Charpy V-notch specimens and compact tension specimens. (auth)« less

  16. Metallurgical characterization of experimental Ag-based soldering alloys.

    PubMed

    Ntasi, Argyro; Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Silikas, Nick; Al Taweel, Sara M; Zinelis, Spiros

    2014-10-01

    To characterize microstructure, hardness and thermal properties of experimental Ag-based soldering alloys for dental applications. Ag12Ga (AgGa) and Ag10Ga5Sn (AgGaSn) were fabricated by induction melting. Six samples were prepared for each alloy and microstructure, hardness and their melting range were determined by, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vickers hardness testing and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both alloys demonstrated a gross dendritic microstructure while according to XRD results both materials consisted predominately of a Ag-rich face centered cubic phase The hardness of AgGa (61 ± 2) was statistically lower than that of AgGaSn (84 ± 2) while the alloys tested showed similar melting range of 627-762 °C for AgGa and 631-756 °C for AgGaSn. The experimental alloys tested demonstrated similar microstructures and melting ranges. Ga and Sn might be used as alternative to Cu and Zn to modify the selected properties of Ag based soldering alloys.

  17. The resistance of selected high strength alloys to embrittlement by a hydrogen environment. [iron and cobalt base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. B., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Selected high strength iron base and cobalt base alloys were resistant to degradation of mechanical properties in a one atmosphere hydrogen environment at ambient temperature. These alloys were strengthened initially by cold working which produced strain induced martensite and fcc mechanical twins in an fcc matrix. Heat treatment of the cobalt base alloy after cold working produced carbide precipitates with retention of an hcp epsilon phase which increased the yield strength level. High strength alloys can be produced which have some resistance to degradation of mechanical properties by a hydrogen environment under certain conditions.

  18. Influence of S. mutans on base-metal dental casting alloy toxicity.

    PubMed

    McGinley, E L; Dowling, A H; Moran, G P; Fleming, G J P

    2013-01-01

    We have highlighted that exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to the acidogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans significantly increases cellular toxicity following exposure to immortalized human TR146 oral keratinocytes. With Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), S. mutans-treated nickel-based (Ni-based) and cobalt-chromium-based (Co-Cr-based) dental casting alloys were shown to leach elevated levels of metal ions compared with untreated dental casting alloys. We targeted several biological parameters: cell morphology, viable cell counts, cell metabolic activity, cell toxicity, and inflammatory cytokine expression. S. mutans-treated dental casting alloys disrupted cell morphology, elicited significantly decreased viable cell counts (p < 0.0001) and cell metabolic activity (p < 0.0001), and significantly increased cell toxicity (p < 0.0001) and inflammatory cytokine expression (p < 0.0001). S. mutans-treated Ni-based dental casting alloys induced elevated levels of cellular toxicity compared with S. mutans-treated Co-Cr-based dental casting alloys. While our findings indicated that the exacerbated release of metal ions from S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys was the likely result of the pH reduction during S. mutans growth, the exact nature of mechanisms leading to accelerated dissolution of alloy-discs is not yet fully understood. Given the predominance of S. mutans oral carriage and the exacerbated cytotoxicity observed in TR146 cells following exposure to S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys, the implications for the long-term stability of base-metal dental restorations in the oral cavity are a cause for concern.

  19. Effect of different alloyed layers on the high temperature oxidation behavior of newly developed Ti 2AlNb-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongyan; Zhang, Pingze; Zhao, Haofeng; Wang, Ling; Xie, Aigen

    2011-01-01

    The application of titanium aluminide orthorhombic alloys (O-phase alloys) as potential materials in aircraft and jet engines was limited by their poor oxidation resistance at high temperature. The Ti 2AlNb-based alloys were chromised (Cr), chromium-tungstened (Cr-W) and nickel-chromised (Ni-Cr) by the double glow plasma surface alloying process to improve their high temperature oxidation resistance. The discontinuous oxidative behavior of Cr, Cr-W and Ni-Cr alloyed layers on Ti 2AlNb-based alloy at 1093 K was explored in this study. After exposing at 1093 K, the TiO 2 layer was formed on the bare alloy and accompanied by the occurrence of crack, which promoted oxidation rate. The oxidation behavior of Ti 2AlNb-based alloys was improved by surface alloying due to the formation of protective Al 2O 3 scale or continuous and dense NiCr 2O 4 film. The Ni-Cr alloyed layer presented the best high-temperature oxidation resistance among three alloyed layers.

  20. 9 Cr-- 1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    DOEpatents

    Jablonski, Paul D; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-11-27

    One or more embodiments relates to a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has a tempered martensite microstructure and is comprised of both large (0.5-3 .mu.m) primary titanium carbides and small (5-50 nm) secondary titanium carbides in a ratio of. from about 1:1.5 to about 1.5:1. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel may be fabricated using exemplary austenizing, rapid cooling, and tempering steps without subsequent hot working requirements. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibits improvements in total mass gain, yield strength, and time-to-rupture over ASTM P91 and ASTM P92 at the temperature and time conditions examined.

  1. Effect of Microstructure and Alloy Chemistry on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Precipitation-Hardened Ni-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obasi, G. C.; Zhang, Z.; Sampath, D.; Morana, Roberto; Akid, R.; Preuss, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) has been studied in respect of precipitation size distributions in two nickel-based superalloys: Alloy 718 (UNS N07718) and Alloy 945X (UNS N09946). Quantitative microstructure analysis was carried out by the combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). While Alloy 718 is mainly strengthened by γ″, and therefore readily forms intergranular δ phase, Alloy 945X has been designed to avoid δ formation by reducing Nb levels providing high strength through a combination of γ' and γ″. Slow strain rate tensile tests were carried out for different microstructural conditions in air and after cathodic hydrogen (H) charging. HE sensitivity was determined based on loss of elongation due to the H uptake in comparison to elongation to failure in air. Results showed that both alloys exhibited an elevated sensitivity to HE. Fracture surfaces of the H precharged material showed quasi-cleavage and transgranular cracks in the H-affected region, while ductile failure was observed toward the center of the sample. The crack origins observed on the H precharged samples exhibited quasi-cleavage with slip traces at high magnification. The sensitivity is slightly reduced for Alloy 718, by coarsening γ″ and reducing the overall strength of the alloy. However, on further coarsening of γ″, which promotes continuous decoration of grain boundaries with δ phase, the embrittlement index rose again indicating a change of hydrogen embrittlement mechanism from hydrogen-enhanced local plasticity (HELP) to hydrogen-enhanced decohesion embrittlement (HEDE). In contrast, Alloy 945X displayed a strong correlation between strength, based on precipitation size and embrittlement index, due to the absence of any significant formation of δ phase for the investigated microstructures. For the given test parameters, Alloy 945X did not display any reduced sensitivity to HE compared with

  2. Pulsed Electrodeposition of Amorphous and Composite Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    lamellar- eutectic composites. A new phenomenon was dis- covered that deposits consisting of alternate layers of the same phase and essentially the...phenomenon will be discussed in connection with the Cu-Zn alloys. The recrystallization kinetics of the Ni-Mo alloys were investigated in order to find...transmission-electron-microscopic examination. The percent of the area which had recrystallized was determined on photographs using a planimeter. From a

  3. Prediction of U-Mo dispersion nuclear fuels with Al-Si alloy using artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Susmikanti, Mike, E-mail: mike@batan.go.id; Sulistyo, Jos, E-mail: soj@batan.go.id

    2014-09-30

    Dispersion nuclear fuels, consisting of U-Mo particles dispersed in an Al-Si matrix, are being developed as fuel for research reactors. The equilibrium relationship for a mixture component can be expressed in the phase diagram. It is important to analyze whether a mixture component is in equilibrium phase or another phase. The purpose of this research it is needed to built the model of the phase diagram, so the mixture component is in the stable or melting condition. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a modeling tool for processes involving multivariable non-linear relationships. The objective of the present work is to developmore » code based on artificial neural network models of system equilibrium relationship of U-Mo in Al-Si matrix. This model can be used for prediction of type of resulting mixture, and whether the point is on the equilibrium phase or in another phase region. The equilibrium model data for prediction and modeling generated from experimentally data. The artificial neural network with resilient backpropagation method was chosen to predict the dispersion of nuclear fuels U-Mo in Al-Si matrix. This developed code was built with some function in MATLAB. For simulations using ANN, the Levenberg-Marquardt method was also used for optimization. The artificial neural network is able to predict the equilibrium phase or in the phase region. The develop code based on artificial neural network models was built, for analyze equilibrium relationship of U-Mo in Al-Si matrix.« less

  4. Improvement of mechanical strength of sintered Mo alloyed steel by optimization of sintering and cold-forging processes with densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamakoshi, Y.; Shohji, I.; Inoue, Y.; Fukuda, S.

    2017-10-01

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) materials have been expected to be spread in automotive industry. Generally, since sintered materials using P/M ones contain many pores and voids, mechanical properties of them are inferior to those of conventional wrought materials. To improve mechanical properties of the sintered materials, densification is effective. The aim of this study is to improve mechanical strength of sintered Mo-alloyed steel by optimizing conditions in sintering and cold-forging processes. Mo-alloyed steel powder was compacted. Then, pre-sintering (PS) using a vacuum sintering furnace was conducted. Subsequently, coldforging (CF) by a backward extrusion method was conducted to the pre-sintered specimen. Moreover, the cold-forged specimen was heat treated by carburizing, tempering and quenching (CQT). Afterwards, mechanical properties were investigated. As a result, it was found that the density of the PS specimen is required to be more than 7.4 Mg/m3 to strengthen the specimen by heat treatment after CF. Furthermore, density and the microstructure of the PS specimen are most important factors to make the high density and strength material by CF. At the CF load of 1200 kN, the maximum density ratio reached approximately 99% by the use of the PS specimen with proper density and microstructure. At the CF load of 900 kN, although density ratio was high like more than 97.8%, transverse rupture strength decreased sharply. Since densification caused high shear stress and stress concentration in the surface layer, microcracks occurred by the damages of inter-particle sintered connection of the surface layer. On the contrary, in case of the CF load of 1200 kN, ultra-densification of the surface layer occurred by a sufficient plastic flow. Such sufficient compressed specimens regenerated the sintered connections by high temperature heat treatment and thus the high strength densified material was obtained. These processes can be applicable to near net shape manufacturing

  5. Low temperature physical properties of Co-35Ni-20Cr-10Mo alloy MP35N®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Toplosky, V. J.; Goddard, R. E.; Han, K.

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase Co-35Ni-20Cr-10Mo alloy MP35N® is a high strength alloy with excellent corrosion resistance. Its applications span chemical, medical, and food processing industries. Thanks to its high modulus and high strength, it found applications in reinforcement of ultra-high field pulsed magnets. Recently, it has also been considered for reinforcement in superconducting wires used in ultra-high field superconducting magnets. For these applications, accurate measurement of its physical properties at cryogenic temperatures is very important. In this paper, physical properties including electrical resistivity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, and magnetization of as-received and aged samples are measured from 2 to 300 K. The electrical resistivity of the aged sample is slightly higher than the as-received sample, both showing a weak linear temperature dependence in the entire range of 2-300 K. The measured specific heat Cp of 430 J/kg-K at 295 K agrees with a theoretical prediction, but is significantly smaller than the values in the literature. The thermal conductivity between 2 and 300 K is in good agreement with the literature which is only available above 77 K. Magnetic property of MP35N® changes significantly with aging. The as-received sample exhibits Curie paramagnetism with a Curie constant C = 0.175 K. While the aged sample contains small amounts of a ferromagnetic phase even at room temperature. The measured MP35N® properties will be useful for the engineering design of pulsed magnets and superconducting magnets using MP35N® as reinforcement.

  6. On improving the fracture toughness of a NiAl-based alloy by mechanical alloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostrubanic, J.; Koss, D. A.; Locci, I. E.; Nathal, M.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) has been used to process the NiAl-based alloy Ni-35Al-20Fe, such that a fine-grain (about 2 microns) microstructure is obtained through the addition of 2 vol pct Y2O3 particles. When compared to a conventionally processed, coarse-grained (about 28 microns) Ni-35-20 alloy without the Y2O3 particles, the MA alloy exhibits two to three times higher fracture toughness values, despite a 50-percent increase in yield strength. Room-temperature K(O) values as high as 34 MPa sq rt m are observed, accompanied by a yield strength in excess of 1100 MPa. Fractography confirms a change in fracture characteristics of the fine-grained MA alloy.

  7. Analysis of the thermal expansivity near the tricritical point in dilute chromium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yurtseven, H., E-mail: hamit@metu.edu.tr; Tari, Ö., E-mail: ozlemilgin@arel.edu.tr

    Chromium (Cr) undergoes a first order Neel transition as an antiferromagnetic material. When V, Mo and Mn atoms are substituted in the Cr lattice, a weak first order Neel transition in pure Cr changes toward a second order transition and a possible tricritical point in CrV occurs close to 0.2 at %V, as observed experimentally from the measurements of the thermal expansivity at various temperatures. In this study, we analyze the experimental data for the thermal expansivity from the literature as a function of temperature using the power - law formula for Cr alloys (Cr - 0.1V, 0.2V, 0.5V andmore » Cr - 0.1Mn, Cr - 0.2Mo, 0.3Mo, 0.4Mo). Our results are interpreted near the tricritical point in dilute chromium alloys.« less

  8. Characterization of complex carbide–silicide precipitates in a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy modified by welding

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D., E-mail: dhb@ansto.gov.au; Davis, J.; Drew, M.

    2015-07-15

    Nickel based alloys of the type Hastelloy-N™ are ideal candidate materials for molten salt reactors, as well as for applications such as pressure vessels, due to their excellent resistance to creep, oxidation and corrosion. In this work, the authors have attempted to understand the effects of welding on the morphology, chemistry and crystal structure of the precipitates in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the weld zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy similar to Hastelloy-N™ in composition, by using characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Two plates of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy GH-3535 were welded together using a TiGmore » welding process without filler material to achieve a joint with a curved molten zone with dendritic structure. It is evident that the primary precipitates have melted in the HAZ and re-solidified in a eutectic-like morphology, with a chemistry and crystal structure only slightly different from the pre-existing precipitates, while the surrounding matrix grains remained unmelted, except for the zones immediately adjacent to the precipitates. In the molten zone, the primary precipitates were fully melted and dissolved in the matrix, and there was enrichment of Mo and Si in the dendrite boundaries after solidification, and re-precipitation of the complex carbides/silicides at some grain boundaries and triple points. The nature of the precipitates in the molten zone varied according to the local chemical composition. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Ni-based alloy with Cr, Mo, Si, Fe and C was welded, examined with SEM, EBSD, and TEM. • Original Ni{sub 2}(Mo,Cr){sub 4}(Si,C) carbides changed from equiaxed to lamellar shape in HAZ. • Composition and crystal structure remained almost unchanged in HAZ. • Original carbides changed to lamellar Ni{sub 3}(Mo,Cr){sub 3}(Si,C) in some cases in weld metal. • Precipitates were mostly incoherent, but semi-coherent in some cases

  9. Relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. Y.; Wu, G. Q.; Huang, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Through a statistical, quantitative analysis on microstructure of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr (Ti55531) alloy, the relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties and heat treatment temperatures were investigated. The results show that in Widmanstätten structure, the size of β grain is greatly increased with increasing annealing temperature. Static toughness is related to grain boundary alpha phase discontinuity, the tensile strength is related to acicular alpha phase interface length and acicular alpha phase proportion. In duplex microstructure, the tensile strength is related to the equiaxed alpha proportion. Elongation, static toughness and crack forming work are related to the equiaxed alpha proportion and negatively related to secondary phase proportion. The microstructure can be described quantitatively and the mechanical properties can be predicted by analysis of microstructure.

  10. The stability of thermodynamically metastable phases in a Zr-Sn-Nb-Mo alloy: Effects of alloying elements, morphology and applied stress/strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongbing; Yao, Zhongwen; Daymond, Mark R.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a dual phase Zr-Sn-Nb-Mb alloy was studied with TEM after thermal treatment and high-temperature tensile deformation. Plate and pressure tube material, manufactured through different processing routes, were used in this study. The overall average concentrations of Mo and Nb in the β phase are higher in the pressure tube than in the plate. It was revealed that these concentrations have significant effects on the subsequent stability of the β and ω phases as well as on the precipitation behavior of the α phase from the β phase. That is, the higher the concentrations, the more stable the β and ω phases are, and hence there is a reduced tendency for precipitation of α phase. Aging treatments cause the transformation of athermal ω to isothermal ω, as expected. The most striking finding is the product of the decomposition of the isothermal ω particles during aging treatment is determined as not being α phase, even though the structure of it is, as-yet, not fully determined. The non-uniform morphology of the β grains in the plate material provides us a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of morphology on the aging response of the β phase. It was found that thin β filaments suppress the precipitation of isothermal ω particles but enhance the precipitation of α phase at α/β interfaces. The effect of the Burgers orientation relationship between α and β grains on the precipitation of the α phase at the α/β interface is discussed. Applied high-temperature stress/strain has been found to enhance the decomposition of isothermal ω phase but suppress α precipitation inside the β grains. The suppression of α precipitation by applied stress/strain is discussed in terms of the ω assisted α precipitation. Implications of these findings for the in-service application of the alloy are discussed.

  11. Micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of medical implant material Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy on various friction pairs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguo; Huang, Weijiu; Ma, Yanlong

    2014-09-01

    The micro-scale abrasion behaviors of surgical implant materials have often been reported in the literature. However, little work has been reported on the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn (TLM) titanium alloy in simulated body fluids, especially with respect to friction pairs. Therefore, a TE66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester was used to study the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of the TLM alloy. This study covers the friction coefficient and wear loss of the TLM alloy induced by various friction pairs. Different friction pairs comprised of ZrO2, Si3N4 and Al2O3 ceramic balls with 25.4mm diameters were employed. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanisms and synergistic effect between corrosion and micro-abrasion of the TLM alloy were investigated under various wear-corrosion conditions employing an abrasive, comprised of SiC (3.5 ± 0.5 μm), in two test solutions, Hanks' solution and distilled water. Before the test, the specimens were heat treated at 760°C/1.0/AC+550°C/6.0/AC. It was discovered that the friction coefficient values of the TLM alloy are larger than those in distilled water regardless of friction pairs used, because of the corrosive Hanks' solution. It was also found that the value of the friction coefficient was volatile at the beginning of wear testing, and it became more stable with further experiments. Because the ceramic balls have different properties, especially with respect to the Vickers hardness (Hv), the wear loss of the TLM alloy increased as the ball hardness increased. In addition, the wear loss of the TLM alloy in Hanks' solution was greater than that in distilled water, and this was due to the synergistic effect of micro-abrasion and corrosion, and this micro-abrasion played a leading role in the wear process. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanism of the TLM alloy gradually changed from two-body to mixed abrasion and then to three-body abrasion as the Vickers hardness of the balls increased. Copyright

  12. Phase Transformation Temperatures and Solute Redistribution in a Quaternary Zirconium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, C.; Daymond, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the phase stability and redistribution of solute during heating and cooling of a quaternary zirconium alloy, Excel (Zr-3.2Sn-0.8Mo-0.8Nb). Time-of-flight neutron diffraction data are analyzed using a novel Vegard's law-based approach to determine the phase fractions and location of substitutional solute atoms in situ during heating from room temperature up to 1050 °C. It is seen that this alloy exhibits direct nucleation of the β Zr phase from martensite during tempering, and stable retention of the β Zr phase to high temperatures, unlike other two-phase zirconium alloys. The transformation strains resulting from the α \\leftrightarrow β transformation are shown to have a direct impact on the development of microstructure and crystallographic texture.

  13. Influence of the thermodynamic parameters on the temper embrittlement of SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel with variation of Ni, Cr and Mn contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Gyu; Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Min, Ki-Deuk; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel offers improved fracture toughness and strength compared to commercial low alloy steels such as SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. In this study, the effects of Cr, Mn, and Ni on temper embrittlement in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel were evaluated from the viewpoint of thermodynamic parameters such as P diffusivity and C activity. The changes of the ductile-brittle transition temperatures before and after aging were correlated with varying alloying element content, and the diffusivity of P and the activity of C were calculated and correlated with the transition behaviors. The addition of Ni, Cr, and Mn reduce the resistance to temper embrittlement, showing increased Transition-Temperature Shift (TTS) and an increased fraction of intergranular fracture. Although the diffusivity of P is changed by the addition of alloying elements, it does not considerably affect the temper embrittlement. The Mn and Cr content in the matrix significantly reduce the C activity, with showing an inversely proportional relationship to TTS. The change of susceptibility to temper embrittlement caused by Cr and Mn addition could be explained by the variation of C activity. Unlike Cr and Mn, Ni has little effect on the temper embrittlement and C activity.

  14. Metallurgical characterization of experimental Ag-based soldering alloys

    PubMed Central

    Ntasi, Argyro; Al Jabbari, Youssef S.; Silikas, Nick; Al Taweel, Sara M.; Zinelis, Spiros

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterize microstructure, hardness and thermal properties of experimental Ag-based soldering alloys for dental applications. Materials and methods Ag12Ga (AgGa) and Ag10Ga5Sn (AgGaSn) were fabricated by induction melting. Six samples were prepared for each alloy and microstructure, hardness and their melting range were determined by, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vickers hardness testing and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results Both alloys demonstrated a gross dendritic microstructure while according to XRD results both materials consisted predominately of a Ag-rich face centered cubic phase The hardness of AgGa (61 ± 2) was statistically lower than that of AgGaSn (84 ± 2) while the alloys tested showed similar melting range of 627–762 °C for AgGa and 631–756 °C for AgGaSn. Conclusion The experimental alloys tested demonstrated similar microstructures and melting ranges. Ga and Sn might be used as alternative to Cu and Zn to modify the selected properties of Ag based soldering alloys. PMID:25382945

  15. The Effect of Ion Irradiation on Nanocrystallization and Surface Relief of a Ribbon from Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, I. Yu.; Gushchina, N. V.; Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Makhinko, F. F.; Stepanov, A. V.; Medvedev, A. I.; Starodubtsev, Yu. N.; Belozerov, V. Ya.; Loginov, B. A.

    2018-02-01

    Using the methods of X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, the process of crystallization of an amorphous Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 alloy irradiated with accelerated Ar+ ions is investigated. It is found out that an irradiation by the Ar+ ions with the energy 30 keV at the ion current density 300 μA/cm2 (fluence 3.75·1015 cm-2, irradiation time 2 s, ion-beam short-duration heating up to 350°C, which is 150°C lower than the thermal crystallization threshold) results in a complete crystallization of this amorphous alloy (throughout the bulk of a 25 μm ribbon) followed by precipitation of solid solution crystals of α-Fe(Si), close in its composition to Fe80Si20, stable phase of Fe3Si, and metastable hexagonal phases. By the methods of atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy it is shown that nanocrystallization caused by ion irradiation is accompanied by surface relief changes both on the irradiated and unirradiated sides of the Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 alloy ribbon at the depth exceeding by a factor of 103 that of the physical ion penetration for this material. The data obtained, taking into account a significant temperature decrease and multiple acceleration of the crystallization process, serve an evidence of the radiation-dynamic influence of accelerated ions on the metastable amorphous medium.

  16. Molybdenum-A Key Component of Metal Alloys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenum, whose chemical symbol is Mo, was first recognized as an element in 1778. Until that time, the mineral molybdenite-the most important source of molybdenum-was believed to be a lead mineral because of its metallic gray color, greasy feel, and softness. In the late 19th century, French metallurgists discovered that molybdenum, when alloyed (mixed) with steel in small quantities, creates a substance that is remarkably tougher than steel alone and is highly resistant to heat. The alloy was found to be ideal for making tools and armor plate. Today, the most common use of molybdenum is as an alloying agent in stainless steel, alloy steels, and superalloys to enhance hardness, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

  17. Stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, G. R.; Spretnak, J. W.; Beck, F. H.; Fontana, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on the properties of metals, including titanium and its alloys, was investigated. The basic theories of stress corrosion of titanium alloys are reviewed along with the literature concerned with the effect of absorbed hydrogen on the mechanical properties of metals. Finally, the basic modes of metal fracture and their importance to this study is considered. The experimental work was designed to determine the effects of hydrogen concentration on the critical strain at which plastic instability along pure shear directions occurs. The materials used were titanium alloys Ti-8Al-lMo-lV and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn.

  18. Cooperative effect of silicon and other alloying elements on creep resistance of titanium alloys: insight from first-principles calculations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Chen, Yue; Liu, Jian-Rong; Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Creep resistance is one of the key properties of titanium (Ti) alloys for high temperature applications such as in aero engines and gas turbines. It has been widely recognized that moderate addition of Si, especially when added together with some other elements (X), e.g., Mo, significantly improves the creep resistance of Ti alloys. To provide some fundamental understandings on such a cooperative effect, the interactions between Si and X in both hexagonal close-packed α and body-centered cubic β phases are systematically investigated by using a first-principles method. We show that the transition metal (TM) atoms with the number of d electrons (Nd) from 3 to 7 are attractive to Si in α phase whereas those with Nd > 8 and simple metal (SM) alloying atoms are repulsive to Si. All the alloying atoms repel Si in the β phase except for the ones with fewer d electrons than Ti. The electronic structure origin underlying the Si-X interaction is discussed based on the calculated electronic density of states and Bader charge. Our calculations suggest that the beneficial X-Si cooperative effect on the creep resistance is attributable to the strong X-Si attraction. PMID:27466045

  19. Ni3Al-based alloys for die and tool application

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.; Bloom, Everett E.

    2001-01-01

    A novel Ni.sub.3 Al-based alloy exhibits strengths and hardness in excess of the standard base alloy IC-221M at temperatures of up to about 1000.degree. C. The alloy is useful in tool and die applications requiring such temperatures, and for structural elements in engineering systems exposed to such temperatures.

  20. Σ 3 (111 ) grain boundary of body-centered cubic Ti-Mo and Ti-V alloys: First-principles and model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jia-Yi; Ehteshami, Hossein; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.; Borgenstam, Annika

    2017-07-01

    The energetics and atomic structures of Σ 3 [1 1 ¯0 ] (111 ) grain boundary (GB) of body-centered cubic (bcc) Ti-Mo and Ti-V alloys are investigated using density-functional-theory calculations and virtual crystal approximation. The electron density in bcc structure and the atomic displacements and excess energy of the GB are correlated to bcc-ω phase stability. Model calculations based on pairwise interplanar interactions successfully reproduce the chemical part of GB energy. The chemical GB energy can be expressed as a sum of excess pairwise interactions between bcc (111) layers, which are obtained from Gaussian elimination of the total energies of a number of periodic structures. The energy associated with the relaxation near the GB is solved by numerical minimization using the derivatives of the excess interactions. Anharmonic interlayer interactions are necessary for obtaining accurate relaxation energy and excess GB volume from model calculations. The effect of GB on vibrational spectrum is also investigated. Segregation energies of B and Y to a substitutional site on the GB plane are calculated. Preliminary results suggest that Y tends to segregate, while B tends to antisegregate.

  1. High-Performance Photovoltaic Detector Based on MoTe2 /MoS2 Van der Waals Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Wang, Xudong; Wu, Guangjian; Wang, Zhen; Fang, Hehai; Lin, Tie; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Hu, Weida; Wang, Jianlu; Sun, Jinglan; Meng, Xiangjian; Chu, Junhao

    2018-03-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures based on 2D layered materials have received wide attention for their multiple applications in optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, light-emitting devices, and photodiodes. In this work, high-performance photovoltaic photodetectors based on MoTe 2 /MoS 2 vertical heterojunctions are demonstrated by exfoliating-restacking approach. The fundamental electric properties and band structures of the junction are revealed and analyzed. It is shown that this kind of photodetectors can operate under zero bias with high on/off ratio (>10 5 ) and ultralow dark current (≈3 pA). Moreover, a fast response time of 60 µs and high photoresponsivity of 46 mA W -1 are also attained at room temperature. The junctions based on 2D materials are expected to constitute the ultimate functional elements of nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Rapid Assessment of the Role of Microstructural Variability in the Fatigue Behavior of Structural Alloys using Ultrasonic Fatigue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-23

    6 %AI-2%Sn- 4 %Zr- 6 %Mo in the very high cycle regime. The microstructure is a two-phase structure with primary a grains (ap grains) in a transformed [3...aluminum [2], magnesium [3], nickel-based [ 4 ], and titanium [5,6] alloy systems. Fatigue crack initiation is known to consume the majority of fatigue...microstructural neighborhood affects this process. In fatigue studies of alpha + beta titanium alloys, [ 6 -9] cyclic deformation localization is first observed in

  3. Calculations of hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys: Influence of alloying elements and effect of stress

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, J.; Jiang, C.; Zhang, Y.

    This report summarizes the progress on modeling hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys. The presence of hydrogen (H) can detrimentally affect the mechanical properties of many metals and alloys. To mitigate these detrimental effects requires fundamental understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics governing H pickup and hydride formation. In this work, we focus on H diffusion in Zr-based alloys by studying the effects of alloying elements and stress, factors that have been shown to strongly affect H pickup and hydride formation in nuclear fuel claddings. A recently developed accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo method is used for the study. It is foundmore » that for the alloys considered here, H diffusivity depends weakly on composition, with negligible effect at high temperatures in the range of 600-1200 K. Therefore, the small variation in compositions of these alloys is likely not a major cause of the very different H pickup rates. In contrast, stress strongly affects H diffusivity. This effect needs to be considered for studying hydride formation and delayed hydride cracking.« less

  4. Crystallographic, hyperfine and magnetic characterization of a maraging-400 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, T. J. B.; Nunes, G. C. S.; Sarvezuk, P. W. C.; Ivashita, F. F.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Viegas, A.; Paesano, A.

    2017-11-01

    Maraging400-like alloys were made by arc-melting iron with the alloy elements (i.e., Ni, Co, Ti and Mo), followed by a high temperature heat-treatment for solubilization. The solubilized alloys were further heat-treated (480 °C and 580 °C, by 3 h), for aging. The samples were finely characterized by X-ray diffraction (Rietveld refinement), Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization techniques. The results revealed that the as-solubilized sample is martensitic and ferromagnetic. Its residual induction and coercive field increase monotonically with the maximum applied field of a magnetization minor loop and both curves presented very similar shapes. The area of the minor loops varies parabolically with this maximum applied field. The aging induced an atomic rearrangement in the martensite phase, involving change in the composition and lattice parameters, reversion of austenite and the formation of the Fe 3 Mo 2 intermetallic compound. Comparisons are presented between the results obtained by us for these alloys and those obtained for Maraging-350 steel samples.

  5. Cross section TEM characterization of high-energy-Xe-irradiated U-Mo

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, B.; Jamison, L.; Miao, Y.; ...

    2017-03-09

    U-Mo alloys irradiated with 84 MeV Xe ions to various doses were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques. The TEM thin foils were prepared perpendicular to the irradiated surface to allow a direct observation of the entire region modified by ions. Furthermore, depth-selective microstructural information was revealed. Varied irradiation-induced phenomena such as gas bubble formation, phase reversal, and recrystallization were observed at different ion penetration depths in U-Mo.

  6. Effect of alloying on screw dislocation structure in Mo: atomistic modelling approach with ab-initio parametrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornostyrev, Yu. N.

    2005-03-01

    The plastic deformation in bcc metals is realized by the motion of screw dislocations with a complex star-like non-planar core. In this case, the direct investigation of the solute effect by first principles electronic structure calculations is a challenging problem for which we follow a combined approach that includes atomistic dislocation modelling with ab-initio parametrization of interatomic interactions. The screw dislocation core structure in Mo alloys is described within the model of atomic row displacements along a dislocation line with the interatomic row potential estimated from total energy full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FLMTO) calculations with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation potential. We demonstrate (1) that the solute effect on the dislocation structure is different for ``hard'' and ``easy'' cores and (2) that the softener addition in a ``hard'' core gives rise to a structural transformation into a configuration with a lower energy through an intermediate state. The softener solute is shown to disturb locally the three-fold symmetry of the dislocation core and the dislocation structure tends to the split planar core.

  7. Structure and corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited Co-Mo/TiO2 nano-composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawiec, H.; Vignal, V.; Latkiewicz, M.; Herbst, F.

    2018-01-01

    The structure and the corrosion behaviour in the Ringer's solution of Co-Mo/TiO2 nano-composite coatings have been investigated. They consist of aggregates of TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly distributed in a Co-Mo alloy matrix (crystallite size of about 2 nm). Both nodular (thickness less than 20 μm) and globular structures (thickness greater than 20 μm) have been observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Under potentiostatic control (in Ringer's solution), oxidation of the coating first occurs followed by (with increasing applied potential) both oxidation and selective dissolution of Co. At the OCP value, Co is oxidized in the form of Co2+-based compounds (CoO, Co(OH)2 or α-CoMoO4) in the coating. This process only occurs in the outermost part of the coating. Therefore, the bulk properties of the coating are not affected after long-term ageing in the Ringer's solution at OCP.

  8. Creep modeling for life evaluation and strengthening mechanism of tungsten alloyed 9-12% Cr steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyu-Seop; Bae, Dong-Sik; Lee, Sung-Keun; Lee, Goo-Hyun; Kim, Jung-Ho; Endo, Takao

    2006-10-01

    Recently, high strength tungsten (W) alloyed steels have been developed for use in power plants with higher steam conditions for environmental reasons as well as the improvement of thermal efficiency resulting in lower fuel costs. In order to establish a creep modeling of high strength martensitic steel and to understand the basic role of W in tungsten alloyed 9-12Cr steels, conventional martensitic steels (X20CrMoV121, X20CrMoWV121, and Mod9Cr-1Mo) and tungsten alloyed steels (NF616 and HCM12A) were employed for creep tests and creep behavior analyses by the Ω method. The proposed creep model, which takes into account both primary and tertiary creep, satisfactorily described the creep curves and accurately predicted creep life, as martensitic steel undergoes a relatively large amount of primary creep, up to nearly 30%, over its normal life. The tungsten alloyed steels exhibited a smaller minimum creep rate and a larger stress exponent compared to the conventional steels. In addition, in tungsten alloyed steel, the Ω value features strong stress dependence such that creep life is prolonged at lower stresses due to high Ω values. The importance of the Ω value from the standpoint of creep strengthening in primary and tertiary creep is discussed.

  9. Microfluidic platforms for gallium-based liquid metal alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeyoung

    As an alternative to toxic mercury, non-toxic gallium-based liquid metal alloy has been gaining popularity due to its higher thermal and electrical conductivities, and low toxicity along with liquid property. However, it is difficult to handle as the alloy becomes readily oxidized in atmospheric air environment. This instant oxidation causes the gallium-based liquid metal alloy to wet almost any solid surface. Therefore, it has been primarily limited to applications which rely only on its deformability, not on its mobility. In this research, various approaches to mobilize gallium-based liquid metal alloy were investigated. Multi-scale surface patterned with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro pillar array showed super-lyophobic property against gallium-based liquid metal alloy by minimizing the contact area between the solid surface and the liquid metal, and it was expanded to a three-dimensional tunnel shaped microfluidic channel. Vertically-aligned carbon nanotube forest leads to another promising super-lyophobic surface due to its hierarchical micro/nano scale combined structures and chemical inertness. When the carbon nanotubes were transferred onto flexible PDMS by imprinting, the super-lyophobic property was still maintained even under the mechanical deformation such as stretching and bending. Alternatively, the gallium-based liquid metal can be manipulated by modifying the surface of liquid metal itself. With chemical reaction with HCl 'vapor', the oxidized surface (mainly Ga2O3/Ga2O) of gallium-based liquid metal was converted to GaCl3/InCl 3 resulting in the recovery of non-wetting characteristics. Paper which is intrinsically porous is attractive as a super-lyophobic surface and it was found that hydrochloric acid (HCl) impregnation enhanced the anti-wetting property by the chemical reaction. As another alternative method, by coating the viscoelastic oxidized surface of liquid metal with ferromagnetic materials (CoNiMnP or Fe), it showed non

  10. Experimental evidence for Mo isotope fractionation between metal and silicate liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, Remco C.; Burkhardt, Christoph; Schmidt, Max W.; Bourdon, Bernard; Kleine, Thorsten

    2013-10-01

    Stable isotope fractionation of siderophile elements may inform on the conditions and chemical consequences of core-mantle differentiation in planetary objects. The extent to which Mo isotopes fractionate during such metal-silicate segregation, however, is so far unexplored. We have therefore investigated equilibrium fractionation of Mo isotopes between liquid metal and liquid silicate to evaluate the potential of Mo isotopes as a new tool to study core formation. We have performed experiments at 1400 and 1600 °C in a centrifuging piston cylinder. Tin was used to lower the melting temperature of the Fe-based metal alloys to <1400 °C, while variable Fe-oxide contents were used to vary oxygen fugacity in graphite and MgO capsules. Isotopic analyses were performed using a double spike technique. In experiments performed at 1400 °C, the 98Mo/95Mo ratio of silicate is 0.19±0.03‰ (95% confidence interval) heavier than that of metal. This fractionation is not significantly affected by the presence or absence of carbon. Molybdenum isotope fractionation is furthermore independent of oxygen fugacity in the range IW -1.79 to IW +0.47, which are plausible values for core formation. Experiments at 1600 °C show that, at equilibrium, the 98Mo/95Mo ratio of silicate is 0.12±0.02‰ heavier than that of metal and that the presence or absence of Sn does not affect this fractionation. Equilibrium Mo isotope fractionation between liquid metal and liquid silicate as a function of temperature can therefore be described as ΔMoMetal-Silicate98/95=-4.70(±0.59)×105/T2. Our experiments show that Mo isotope fractionation may be resolvable up to metal-silicate equilibration temperatures of about 2500 °C, rendering Mo isotopes a novel tool to investigate the conditions of core formation in objects ranging from planetesimals to Earth sized bodies.

  11. Biocompatibility and characterization of a Kolsterised(®) medical grade cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy.

    PubMed

    Conti, Malcolm Caligari; Karl, Andreas; Wismayer, Pierre Schembri; Buhagiar, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    High failure rates of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) metal-on-metal hip prosthesis were reported by various authors, probably due to the alloy's limited hardness and tribological properties. This thus caused the popularity of the alloy in metal-on-metal hip replacements to decrease due to its poor wear properties when compared with other systems such as ceramic-on-ceramic. S-phase surface engineering has become an industry standard when citing surface hardening of austenitic stainless steels. This hardening process allows the austenitic stainless steel to retain its corrosion resistance, while at the same time also improving its hardness and wear resistance. By coupling S-phase surface engineering, using the proprietary Kolsterising(®) treatment from Bodycote Hardiff GmbH, that is currently being used mainly on stainless steel, with Co-Cr-Mo alloys, an improvement in hardness and tribological characteristics is predicted. The objective of this paper is to analyze the biocompatibility of a Kolsterised(®) Co-Cr-Mo alloy, and to characterize the material surface in order to show the advantages gained by using the Kolsterised(®) material relative to the original untreated alloy, and other materials. This work has been performed on 3 fronts including; Material characterization, "In-vitro" corrosion testing, and Biological testing conforming to BS EN ISO 10993-18:2009 - Biological evaluation of medical devices. Using these techniques, the Kolsterised(®) cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys were found to have good biocompatibility and an augmented corrosion resistance when compared with the untreated alloy. The Kolsterised(®) samples also showed a 150% increase in surface hardness over the untreated material thus predicting better wear properties.

  12. Biocompatibility and characterization of a Kolsterised® medical grade cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Malcolm Caligari; Karl, Andreas; Wismayer, Pierre Schembri; Buhagiar, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    High failure rates of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) metal-on-metal hip prosthesis were reported by various authors, probably due to the alloy's limited hardness and tribological properties. This thus caused the popularity of the alloy in metal-on-metal hip replacements to decrease due to its poor wear properties when compared with other systems such as ceramic-on-ceramic. S-phase surface engineering has become an industry standard when citing surface hardening of austenitic stainless steels. This hardening process allows the austenitic stainless steel to retain its corrosion resistance, while at the same time also improving its hardness and wear resistance. By coupling S-phase surface engineering, using the proprietary Kolsterising® treatment from Bodycote Hardiff GmbH, that is currently being used mainly on stainless steel, with Co-Cr-Mo alloys, an improvement in hardness and tribological characteristics is predicted. The objective of this paper is to analyze the biocompatibility of a Kolsterised® Co-Cr-Mo alloy, and to characterize the material surface in order to show the advantages gained by using the Kolsterised® material relative to the original untreated alloy, and other materials. This work has been performed on 3 fronts including; Material characterization, “In-vitro” corrosion testing, and Biological testing conforming to BS EN ISO 10993–18:2009 - Biological evaluation of medical devices. Using these techniques, the Kolsterised® cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys were found to have good biocompatibility and an augmented corrosion resistance when compared with the untreated alloy. The Kolsterised® samples also showed a 150% increase in surface hardness over the untreated material thus predicting better wear properties. PMID:24451266

  13. Synthesis of aluminum-based scandium-yttrium master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhin, V. Yu.; Kosov, Ya. I.; Lobacheva, O. L.; Dzhevaga, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    The preparation technology for an Al-2% Sc-0.5% Y master alloy using aluminum-manganese alloys has been developed and tested. The microstructure of the prepared master alloy is studied and the compositions of intermetallics is determined. The efficient technological parameters of the synthesis are determined. It is shown that varying the compositions of starting reagents and alloying additions and optimizing the process conditions (temperature, mixing, etc.) allow us to forecast the manufacturing and operating characteristics of aluminum-based master alloys. Joint additions of scandium and yttrium oxides to a charge favor a substantial decrease in the grain size of the formed intermetallics; this effect appears to the utmost in the case of microallying with yttrium up to 0.5 wt %.

  14. Isoelectronic substitutions and aluminium alloying in the Ta-Nb-Hf-Zr-Ti high-entropy alloy superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohr, Fabian O.; Cava, Robert J.

    2018-03-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are a new class of materials constructed from multiple principal elements statistically arranged on simple crystallographic lattices. Due to the large amount of disorder present, they are excellent model systems for investigating the properties of materials intermediate between crystalline and amorphous states. Here we report the effects of systematic isoelectronic replacements, using Mo-Y, Mo-Sc, and Cr-Sc mixtures, for the valence electron count 4 and 5 elements in the body-centered cubic (BCC) Ta-Nb-Zr-Hf-Ti high-entropy alloy (HEA) superconductor. We find that the superconducting transition temperature Tc strongly depends on the elemental makeup of the alloy, and not exclusively its electron count. The replacement of niobium or tantalum by an isoelectronic mixture lowers the transition temperature by more than 60%, while the isoelectronic replacement of hafnium, zirconium, or titanium has a limited impact on Tc. We further explore the alloying of aluminium into the nearly optimal electron count [TaNb] 0.67(ZrHfTi) 0.33 HEA superconductor. The electron count dependence of the superconducting Tc for (HEA)Al x is found to be more crystallinelike than for the [TaNb] 1 -x(ZrHfTi) x HEA solid solution. For an aluminum content of x =0.4 the high-entropy stabilization of the simple BCC lattice breaks down. This material crystallizes in the tetragonal β -uranium structure type and superconductivity is not observed above 1.8 K.

  15. Low-temperature irradiation behavior of uranium-molybdenum alloy dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M. K.; Hofman, G. L.; Hayes, S. L.; Clark, C. R.; Wiencek, T. C.; Snelgrove, J. L.; Strain, R. V.; Kim, K.-H.

    2002-08-01

    Irradiation tests have been conducted to evaluate the performance of a series of high-density uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy, aluminum matrix dispersion fuels. Fuel plates incorporating alloys with molybdenum content in the range of 4-10 wt% were tested. Two irradiation test vehicles were used to irradiate low-enrichment fuels to approximately 40 and 70 at.% 235U burnup in the advanced test reactor at fuel temperatures of approximately 65 °C. The fuel particles used to fabricate dispersion specimens for most of the test were produced by generating filings from a cast rod. In general, fuels with molybdenum contents of 6 wt% or more showed stable in-reactor fission gas behavior, exhibiting a distribution of small, stable gas bubbles. Fuel particle swelling was moderate and decreased with increasing alloy content. Fuel particles with a molybdenum content of 4 wt% performed poorly, exhibiting extensive fuel-matrix interaction and the growth of relatively large fission gas bubbles. Fuel particles with 4 or 6 wt% molybdenum reacted more rapidly with the aluminum matrix than those with higher-alloy content. Fuel particles produced by an atomization process were also included in the test to determine the effect of fuel particle morphology and microstructure on fuel performance for the U-10Mo composition. Both of the U-10Mo fuel particle types exhibited good irradiation performance, but showed visible differences in fission gas bubble nucleation and growth behavior.

  16. Effect of fluxing treatment on the properties of Fe66Co15Mo1P7.5C5.5B2Si3 bulk metallic glass by water quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Feng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Xue; Zhao, Shao-Fan; Yao, Ke-Fu

    2018-01-01

    The effect of fluxing treatment on the properties of Fe66Co15Mo1P7.5C5.5B2Si3bulk amorphous alloy (BAA) has been investigated. Prepared by a combination method of flux treatment and water quenching, the Fe66Co15Mo1P7.5C5.5B2Si3 BAA exhibits better glass-forming ability, thermal stability, soft magnetic properties and ductility than those of the one prepared by direct water quenching. This indicates that fluxing treatment can play a potential role in improving the properties of Fe-based BAA due to the effective elimination of the impurities within the alloy.

  17. Characterization of High Damping Fe-Cr-Mo and Fe-Cr-Al Alloys for Naval Ships Application.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    austenitic , and martensitic. The high damping Fe-Cr-based alloys are closely related to ferritic stainless steels . Ferritic stainless steel consists of an Fe...cm reveme it Prectiaq #no ’uenf r oy o.o(a tflrowf U S9GO..P Damping; Ship Silencing; Ferritic Stainless Steels ; Ti-Ni 7 LhV I,. Cintunue on roere .r...decreased. E. METALLURGY OF THE IRON-CHROMIUM ALLOY SYSTEM 1. Physical Properties Stainless steels are divided into three main classes: ferritic

  18. Towards a uniform and large-scale deposition of MoS2 nanosheets via sulfurization of ultra-thin Mo-based solid films.

    PubMed

    Vangelista, Silvia; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Martella, Christian; Alia, Mario; Longo, Massimo; Lamperti, Alessio; Mantovan, Roberto; Basset, Francesco Basso; Pezzoli, Fabio; Molle, Alessandro

    2016-04-29

    Large-scale integration of MoS2 in electronic devices requires the development of reliable and cost-effective deposition processes, leading to uniform MoS2 layers on a wafer scale. Here we report on the detailed study of the heterogeneous vapor-solid reaction between a pre-deposited molybdenum solid film and sulfur vapor, thus resulting in a controlled growth of MoS2 films onto SiO2/Si substrates with a tunable thickness and cm(2)-scale uniformity. Based on Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence, we show that the degree of crystallinity in the MoS2 layers is dictated by the deposition temperature and thickness. In particular, the MoS2 structural disorder observed at low temperature (<750 °C) and low thickness (two layers) evolves to a more ordered crystalline structure at high temperature (1000 °C) and high thickness (four layers). From an atomic force microscopy investigation prior to and after sulfurization, this parametrical dependence is associated with the inherent granularity of the MoS2 nanosheet that is inherited by the pristine morphology of the pre-deposited Mo film. This work paves the way to a closer control of the synthesis of wafer-scale and atomically thin MoS2, potentially extendable to other transition metal dichalcogenides and hence targeting massive and high-volume production for electronic device manufacturing.

  19. MoSi2-Base Hybrid Composites from Aeroengine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2000-01-01

    Addition of about 30 to 50 vol % of Si3N4 particulate to MoSi2 improved low temperature accelerated oxidation resistance by forming a Si2ON2 protective scale and thereby eliminated catastrophic 'pest failure'. The Si3N4 addition also improved the high temperature creep strength by nearly five orders of magnitude, doubled the room temperature toughness, and significantly lowered the CTE of the MoSi2 which eliminated matrix cracking in SCS-6 reinforced composites even after thermal cycling. The SCS-6 fiber reinforcement improved the room temperature fracture toughness by seven times and impact resistance by five times. The composite exhibited this excellent strength and toughness improvement up to 1673 K. More recently, tape casting was adopted as the preferred processing of MoSi2-base composites due to improved fiber spacing, ability to use small diameter fibers, and for lower cost. Good strength and toughness values were also obtained with fine diameter Hi-Nicalon tow fibers. These hybrid composites remain competitive with ceramic matrix composites as a replacement for Ni-base superalloys in aircraft engine applications.

  20. Microstructural characterization of an irradiated RERTR-6 U-7Mo/AA4043 alloy dispersion fuel plate specimen blister-tested to a final temperature of 500°C

    DOE PAGES

    Keiser, Jr., Dennis D.; Jue, Jan -Fong; Gan, Jian; ...

    2017-02-27

    The Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, in the past called the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is developing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels for application in research reactors. U–Mo alloy dispersion fuel is one type being developed. Blister testing has been performed on different fuel plate samples to determine the margin to failure for fuel plates irradiated to different fission densities. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy on a sample taken from a U-7Mo/AA4043 matrix dispersion fuel plate irradiated in the RERTR-6 experiment that was blister-tested up tomore » a final temperature of 500°C. The results indicated that two types of grain/cell boundaries were observed in the U- 7Mo fuel particles, one with a relatively low Mo content and fission gas bubbles and a second type enriched in Si, due to interdiffusion from the Si-containing matrix, with little evidence of fission gas bubbles. With respect to the behavior of the major fission gas Xe, a significant amount of the Xe was still observed within the U-7Mo fuel particle, along with microns into the AA4043 matrix. For the fuel/matrix interaction layers that form during fabrication and then grow during irradiation, they change from the as-irradiated amorphous structure to one that is crystalline after blister testing. In the AA4043 matrix, the original Si-rich precipitates, which are typically observed in as-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel, get consumed due to interdiffusion with the U-7Mo fuel particles during the blister test. Lastly, the fission gas bubbles that were originally around 2 nm in diameter and resided on a fission gas superlattice in the intragranular regions of as-irradiated U-7Mo fuel grew in size (up to ~20 nm diameter) during blister testing.« less

  1. Microstructural characterization of an irradiated RERTR-6 U-7Mo/AA4043 alloy dispersion fuel plate specimen blister-tested to a final temperature of 500°C

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, Jr., Dennis D.; Jue, Jan -Fong; Gan, Jian

    The Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, in the past called the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is developing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels for application in research reactors. U–Mo alloy dispersion fuel is one type being developed. Blister testing has been performed on different fuel plate samples to determine the margin to failure for fuel plates irradiated to different fission densities. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy on a sample taken from a U-7Mo/AA4043 matrix dispersion fuel plate irradiated in the RERTR-6 experiment that was blister-tested up tomore » a final temperature of 500°C. The results indicated that two types of grain/cell boundaries were observed in the U- 7Mo fuel particles, one with a relatively low Mo content and fission gas bubbles and a second type enriched in Si, due to interdiffusion from the Si-containing matrix, with little evidence of fission gas bubbles. With respect to the behavior of the major fission gas Xe, a significant amount of the Xe was still observed within the U-7Mo fuel particle, along with microns into the AA4043 matrix. For the fuel/matrix interaction layers that form during fabrication and then grow during irradiation, they change from the as-irradiated amorphous structure to one that is crystalline after blister testing. In the AA4043 matrix, the original Si-rich precipitates, which are typically observed in as-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel, get consumed due to interdiffusion with the U-7Mo fuel particles during the blister test. Lastly, the fission gas bubbles that were originally around 2 nm in diameter and resided on a fission gas superlattice in the intragranular regions of as-irradiated U-7Mo fuel grew in size (up to ~20 nm diameter) during blister testing.« less

  2. Microstructural characterization of an irradiated RERTR-6 U-7Mo/AA4043 alloy dispersion fuel plate specimen blister-tested to a final temperature of 500 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Gan, Jian; Miller, Brandon D.; Robinson, Adam B.; Madden, James W.; Ross Finlay, M.; Moore, Glenn; Medvedev, Pavel; Meyer, Mitch

    2017-05-01

    The Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, in the past called the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is developing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels for application in research and test reactors. U-Mo alloy dispersion fuel is one type being developed. Blister testing has been performed on different fuel plate samples to determine the margin to failure for fuel plates irradiated to different fission densities. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy on a sample taken from a U-7Mo/AA4043 matrix dispersion fuel plate irradiated in the RERTR-6 experiment that was blister-tested up to a final temperature of 500 °C. The results indicated that two types of grain/cell boundaries were observed in the U-7Mo fuel particles, one with a relatively low Mo content and fission gas bubbles and a second type enriched in Si, due to interdiffusion from the Si-containing matrix, with little evidence of fission gas bubbles. With respect to the behavior of the major fission gas Xe, a significant amount of the Xe was still observed within the U-7Mo fuel particle, along with microns into the AA4043 matrix. For the fuel/matrix interaction layers that form during fabrication and then grow during irradiation, they change from the as-irradiated amorphous structure to one that is crystalline after blister testing. In the AA4043 matrix, the original Si-rich precipitates, which are typically observed in as-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel, get consumed due to interdiffusion with the U-7Mo fuel particles during the blister test. Finally, the fission gas bubbles that were originally around 3 nm in diameter and resided on a fission gas superlattice (FGS) in the intragranular regions of as-irradiated U-7Mo fuel grew in size (up to ∼20 nm diameter) during blister testing and, in many areas, are no longer organized as a superlattice.

  3. Estimation of excess energies and activity coefficients for the penternary Ni-Cr-Co-Al-Mo system and its subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, A.; Arslan, H.; Dogan, T.

    2015-06-01

    Using different prediction methods, such as the General Solution Model of Kohler and Muggianu, the excess energy and activities of molybdenum for the sections of the phase diagram for the penternary Ni-Cr-Co-Al-Mo system with mole ratios xNi/ xMo = 1, xCr/ xMo = 1, xCo/ xMo = 1, and xAl/ xMo = r = 0.5 and 1, were thermodynamically investigated at a temperature of 2000 K, whereas the excess energy and activities of Bi for the section corresponding to the ternary Bi-Ga-Sb system with mole ratio xGa/ xSb = 1/9 were thermodynamically investigated at a temperature of 1073 K. In the case of r = 0.5 and 1 in the alloys Ni-Cr-Co-Al-Mo, a positive deviation in the activity coefficient was revealed, as molybdenum content increased. Moreover, in the calculations performed in Chou's GSM model, the obtained values for excess Gibbs energies are negative in the whole concentration range of bismuth at 1073 K and exhibit the minimum of about -2.2 kJ/mol at the mole ratio xGa/ xSb = 1/9 in the alloy Bi-Ga-Sb.

  4. Identification of a cast iron alloy containing nonstrategic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. V.; Anton, D. L.; Lemkey, F. D.; Nowotny, H.; Bailey, R. S.; Favrow, L. H.; Smeggil, J. G.; Snow, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    A program was performed to address the mechanical and environmental needs of Stirling engine heater head and regenerator housing components, while reducing the dependence on strategic materials. An alloy was developed which contained no strategic elemental additions per se. The base is iron with additions of manganese, molybdenum, carbon, silicon, niobium, and ferro-chromium. Such an alloy should be producible on a large scale at very low cost. The resulting alloy, designated as NASAUT 4G-Al, contained 15 Mn, 15 Cr, 2 Mo, 1.5 C, 1.0 Si, 1.0 Nb (in weight percent) with a balance of Fe. This alloy was optimized for chemistry, based upon tensile strength, creep-rupture strength, fracture behavior, and fatigue resistance up to 800 C. Alloys were also tested for environmental compatibility. The microstructure and mechanic properties (including hardness) were assessed in the as-cast condition and following several heat treatments, including one designed to simulate a required braze cycle. The alloy was fabricated and characterized in the form of both equiaxed and columnar-grained castings. The columnar grains were produced by directional solidification, and the properties were characterized in both the longitudinal and transverse orientations. The NASAUT 4G-Al alloy was found to be good in cyclic-oxidation resistance and excellent in both hydrogen and hot-corrosion resistance, especially in comparison to the baseline XF-818 alloy. The mechanical properties of yield strength, stress-rupture life, high-cycle-fatigue resistance, and low-cycle-fatigue resistance were good to excellent in comparison to the current alloy for this application, HS-31 (X-40), with precise results depending in a complex manner on grain orientation and temperature. If required, the ductility could be improved by lowering the carbon content.

  5. Advanced ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N; Unocic, Kinga A; Hoelzer, David T

    2014-09-01

    ODS FeCrAl alloys are being developed with optimum composition and properties for accident tolerant fuel cladding. Two oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-15Cr-5Al+Y2O3 alloys were fabricated by ball milling and extrusion of gas atomized metallic powder mixed with Y2O3 powder. To assess the impact of Mo on the alloy mechanical properties, one alloy contained 1%Mo. The hardness and tensile properties of the two alloys were close and higher than the values reported for fine grain PM2000 alloy. This is likely due to the combination of a very fine grain structure and the presence of nano oxide precipitates. The nano oxide dispersionmore » was however not sufficient to prevent grain boundary sliding at 800 C and the creep properties of the alloys were similar or only slightly superior to fine grain PM2000 alloy. Both alloys formed a protective alumina scale at 1200 C in air and steam and the mass gain curves were similar to curves generated with 12Cr-5Al+Y2O3 (+Hf or Zr) ODS alloys fabricated for a different project. To estimate the maximum temperature limit of use for the two alloys in steam, ramp tests at a rate of 5 C/min were carried out in steam. Like other ODS alloys, the two alloys showed a significant increase of the mas gains at T~ 1380 C compared with ~1480 C for wrought alloys of similar composition. The beneficial effect of Yttrium for wrought FeCrAl does not seem effective for most ODS FeCrAl alloys. Characterization of the hardness of annealed specimens revealed that the microstructure of the two alloys was not stable above 1000 C. Concurrent radiation results suggested that Cr levels <15wt% are desirable and the creep and oxidation results from the 12Cr ODS alloys indicate that a lower Cr, high strength ODS alloy with a higher maximum use temperature could be achieved.« less

  6. Luminescent monolayer MoS2 quantum dots produced by multi-exfoliation based on lithium intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Wen; Yan, Shiming; Song, Xueyin; Zhang, Xing; He, Xueming; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2015-12-01

    An effective multi-exfoliation method based on lithium (Li) intercalation has been demonstrated for preparing monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) quantum dots (QDs). The cutting mechanism of MoS2 QDs may involve the complete breakup around the defects and edges during the reaction of LixMoS2 with water and its following ultrasonication process. The multiply exfoliation make the MoS2 fragile and easier to break up. After the third exfoliation, a large number of monolayer MoS2 QDs is formed. The as-prepared MoS2 QDs show photoluminescence (PL) inactive due to the existence of 1T phase. After heating treatment, the PL intensity excited at 300 nm is enhanced by five times. The MoS2 QDs solution has an excitation-dependent luminescence emission which shifts to longer wavelengths when the excitation wavelength changes from 280 nm to 370 nm. The optical properties are explored based on the quantum confinement and edge effect.

  7. Reducing Uncertainty in Fatigue Life Limits of Turbine Engine Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    and components designs. 5. Conclusions This paper used electropolished specimens of the high-strength a + b titanium alloy Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–6Mo to...competing mechanisms in the fatigue-life variability of a titanium and gamma-TiAl alloy. JOM 2005;57:50– 4 . [49] Jha SK, Larsen JM, Rosenberger AH. The role...February 2014 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE REDUCING UNCERTAINTY IN FATIGUE LIFE LIMITS OF TURBINE ENGINE ALLOYS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b

  8. Environmental protection to 922K (1200 F) for titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, M. T.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of potential coating systems for protection of titanium alloys from hot-salt stress-corrosion up to temperatures of 755 K (900 F) and from oxidation embrittlement up to temperature of 922 K (1200 F). Diffusion type coatings containing Si, Al, Cr, Ni or Fe as single coating elements or in various combinations were evaluated for oxidation protection, hot-salt stress-corrosion (HSSC) resistance, effects on tensile properties, fatigue properties, erosion resistance and ballistic impact resistance on an alpha and beta phase titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo). All of the coatings investigated demonstrated excellent oxidation protectiveness, but none of the coatings provided protection from hot-salt stress-corrosion. Experimental results indicated that both the aluminide and silicide types of coatings actually decreased the HSSC resistance of the substrate alloy. The types of coatings which have typically been used for oxidation protection of refractory metals and nickel base superalloys are not suitable for titanium alloys because they increase the susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion, and that entirely new coating concepts must be developed for titanium alloy protection in advanced turbine engines.

  9. Thermal transport properties, magnetic susceptibility and neutron diffraction studies of the (Cr100-xAlx)95Mo5 alloy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchono, B.; Sheppard, C. J.; Venter, A. M.; Prinsloo, A. R. E.

    2018-05-01

    The Seebeck coefficient has been used to investigate QCB in Cr alloys [8,9]. Plots of d S /d T (in the limit T → 2 K) as function of concentration for the (Cr97.8Si2.2)100-yMoy [8] and the (Cr84Re16)100-zVz [9] alloy systems depicted anomalies at the QCP. The possibility of QCB in the (Cr100-xAlx)95Mo5 alloy system is explored by analysing the S(T) data of Fig. 1 by performing a linear-least-squares fit through the 2 K < T < 6.5 K data points. The gradient was taken as dS / dT|T → 2K . Fig. 8 shows dS / dT|T → 2K for concentrations in the range 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 8.6. It increases rapidly to a maximum at x = 1.0, then decreases on further Al addition and displays a minimum just above x = 1.4. This is the concentration where magnetism is seen to disappear on the TN(x) magnetic phase diagram. dS / dT|T → 2K shows a second minimum just above x = 4.4, i.e. corresponding to the concentration where magnetism reappears on the TN(x) magnetic phase diagram (see Fig. 17). Similar minima were also observed at the QCP in the (Cr84Re16)100-zVz [9] and (Cr86Ru14)100-rVr [13] alloy systems. The relatively large error bars in Fig. 8 originate from the large errors in the fitting routine due to a significant scatter in the original Seebeck coefficient data at low temperatures. The solid line through the dS / dT|T → 2K data points is a guide to the eye, while the dotted vertical lines indicate the boundaries between the ISDW, P and CSDW phases. The minima observed in the dS / dT|T → 2K curve correlate to these boundaries.

  10. Wear Characteristics of Ni-Based Hardfacing Alloy Deposited on Stainless Steel Substrate by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Limaye, P. K.; Kumar, Santosh; Kushwaha, Ram P.; Viswanadham, C. S.; Srivastava, Dinesh; Soni, N. L.; Patel, R. J.; Dey, G. K.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, dry sliding wear characteristics of the Ni-based hardfacing alloy (Ni-Mo-Cr-Si) deposited on stainless steel SS316L substrate by laser cladding have been presented. Dry sliding wear behavior of the laser clad layer was evaluated against two different counter bodies, AISI 52100 chromium steel (~850 VHN) and tungsten carbide ball (~2200 VHN) to study both adhesive and abrasive wear characteristics, in comparison with the substrate SS316L using ball on plate reciprocating wear tester. The wear resistance was evaluated as a function of load and sliding speed for a constant sliding amplitude and sliding distance. The wear mechanisms were studied on the basis of wear surface morphology and microchemical analysis of the wear track using SEM-EDS. Laser clad layer of Ni-Mo-Cr-Si on SS316L exhibited much higher hardness (~700 VHN) than that of substrate SS316L (~200 VHN). The laser clad layer exhibited higher wear resistance as compared to SS316L substrate while sliding against both the counterparts. However, the improvement in the wear resistance of the clad layer as compared to the substrate was much higher while sliding against AISI 52100 chromium steel than that while sliding against WC, at the same contact stress intensity.

  11. Non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor based on NiMoO4 nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dandan; Cai, Daoping; Huang, Hui; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Yuan; Li, Han; Wang, Yanrong; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2015-04-01

    A non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on the NiMoO4 nanorods has been fabricated for the first time. The electrocatalytic performance of the NiMoO4 nanorods’ modified electrode toward glucose oxidation was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The NiMoO4 nanorods’ modified electrode showed a greatly enhanced electrocatalytic property toward glucose oxidation, as well as an excellent anti-interference and a good stability. Impressively, good accuracy and high precision for detecting glucose concentration in human serum samples were obtained. These excellent sensing properties, combined with good reproducibility and low cost, indicate that NiMoO4 nanorods are a promising candidate for non-enzymatic glucose sensors.

  12. Suppression of Defects and Deep Levels Using Isoelectronic Tungsten Substitution in Monolayer MoSe 2

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xufan; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Sang, Xiahan; ...

    2017-05-18

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is one of the most promising, scalable synthetic techniques to enable large-area synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) for the realization of next generation optoelectronic devices. However, defects formed during the CVD growth process currently limit the quality and electronic properties of 2D TMDs. Effective synthesis and processing strategies to suppress defects and enhance the quality of 2D TMDs are urgently needed. In this work, isoelectrnic doping to produce stable alloy is presented as a new strategy to suppress defects and enhance photoluminescence (PL) in CVD-grown TMD monolayers. The random, isoelectronic substitution of Wmore » atoms for Mo atoms in CVD-grown monolayers of Mo 1-xW xSe 2 (02 monolayers. The resultant decrease in defect-medicated non-radiative recombination in the Mo 0.82W 0.18Se 2 monolayers yielded ~10 times more intense PL and extended the carrier lifetime by a factor of 3 compared to pristine CVD-grown MoSe 2 monolayers grown under similar conditions. Low temperatures (4 125 K) PL from defect-related localized states confirms theoretical predictions that isoelectronic W alloying should suppress deep levels in MoSe 2, showing that the defect levels in Mo 1-xW xSe 2 monolayers are higher in energy and quenched more quickly than in MoSe 2. Isoelectronic substitution therefore appears to be a promising synthetic method to control the heterogeneity of 2D TMDs to realize the scalable production of high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices.« less

  13. Suppression of Defects and Deep Levels Using Isoelectronic Tungsten Substitution in Monolayer MoSe 2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xufan; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Sang, Xiahan

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is one of the most promising, scalable synthetic techniques to enable large-area synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) for the realization of next generation optoelectronic devices. However, defects formed during the CVD growth process currently limit the quality and electronic properties of 2D TMDs. Effective synthesis and processing strategies to suppress defects and enhance the quality of 2D TMDs are urgently needed. In this work, isoelectrnic doping to produce stable alloy is presented as a new strategy to suppress defects and enhance photoluminescence (PL) in CVD-grown TMD monolayers. The random, isoelectronic substitution of Wmore » atoms for Mo atoms in CVD-grown monolayers of Mo 1-xW xSe 2 (02 monolayers. The resultant decrease in defect-medicated non-radiative recombination in the Mo 0.82W 0.18Se 2 monolayers yielded ~10 times more intense PL and extended the carrier lifetime by a factor of 3 compared to pristine CVD-grown MoSe 2 monolayers grown under similar conditions. Low temperatures (4 125 K) PL from defect-related localized states confirms theoretical predictions that isoelectronic W alloying should suppress deep levels in MoSe 2, showing that the defect levels in Mo 1-xW xSe 2 monolayers are higher in energy and quenched more quickly than in MoSe 2. Isoelectronic substitution therefore appears to be a promising synthetic method to control the heterogeneity of 2D TMDs to realize the scalable production of high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices.« less

  14. Indentation creep behaviors of amorphous Cu-based composite alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Defeng; Ma, Xiangdong; Qian, Linfang

    2018-04-01

    This work reports the indentation creep behaviors of two Si2Zr3/amorphous Cu-based composite alloys utilizing nanoindentation technique. By analysis with Kelvin model, the retardation spectra of alloys at different positions, detached and attached regions to the intermetallics, were deduced. For the indentation of detached regions to Si2Zr3 intermetallics in both alloys, very similarity in creep displacement can be observed and retardation spectra show a distinct disparity in the second retardation peak. For the indentation of detached regions, the second retardation spectra also display distinct disparity. At both positions, the retardation spectra suggest that Si elements may lead to the relatively dense structure in the amorphous matrix and to form excessive Si2Zr3 intermetallics which may deteriorate the plastic deformation of current Cu-based composite alloys.

  15. METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF SECOND RARE EARTH SERIES METALS

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R.D.; Hayward, B.R.

    1963-01-01

    >This invention relates to a process for alloying the second rare earth series metals with Mo, Nb, or Zr. A halide of the rare earth metal is mixed with about 1 to 20 at.% of an oxide of Mo, Nb, or Zr. Iodine and an alkali or alkaline earth metal are added, and the resulting mixture is heated in an inert atmosphere to 350 deg C. (AEC)

  16. Letter Report Documenting Progress of Second Generation ATF FeCrAl Alloy Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, Y.; Field, K. G.

    2014-06-10

    Development of the 2nd generation ATF FeCrAl alloy has been initiated, and a candidate alloy was selected for trial tube fabrication through hot-extrusion and gun-drilling processes. Four alloys based on Fe-13Cr-4.5Al-0.15Y in weight percent were newly cast with minor alloying additions of Mo, Si, Nb, and C to promote solid-solution and second-phase precipitate strengthening. The alloy compositions were selected with guidance from computational thermodynamic tools. The lab-scale heats of ~ 600g were arc-melted and drop-cast, homogenized, hot-forged and -rolled, and then annealed producing plate shape samples. An alloy with Mo and Nb additions (C35MN) processed at 800°C exhibits very finemore » sub-grain structure with the sub-grain size of 1-3μm which exhibited more than 25% better yield and tensile strengths together with decent ductility compared to the other FeCrAl alloys at room temperature. It was found that the Nb addition was key to improving thermal stability of the fine sub-grain structure. Optimally, grains of less than 30 microns are desired, with grains up to and order of magnitude in desired produced through Nb addition. Scale-up effort of the C35MN alloy was made in collaboration with a commercial cast company who has a capability of vacuum induction melting. A 39lb columnar ingot with ~81mm diameter and ~305mm height (with hot-top) was commercially cast, homogenized, hot-extruded, and annealed providing 10mm-diameter bar-shape samples with the fine sub-grain structure. This commercial heat proved consistent with materials produced at ORNL at the lab-scale. Tubes and end caps were machined from the bar sample and provided to another work package for the ATF-1 irradiation campaign in the milestone M3FT-14OR0202251.« less

  17. Microstructural effects on the deformation and fracture of the alloy Ti-25Al-10Nb-3B-1Mo. Final report, 1 July 1988-15 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.H.

    1992-12-01

    The effects of microstructure and temperature on tensile and fracture behavior were explored for the titanium aluminide alloy Ti-25Al-lONb-3V-lMo (atomic percent). Three microstructures were selected for this study in an attempt to determine the role of the individual microstructural constituents. the three microstructures studied were an alpha-2 + beta processed microstructure with a fine Widmanstaetten microstructure, a beta processed microstructure with a fine Widmanstaetten microstructure, and a beta processed microstructure with a coarse Widmanstaetten microstructure. Tensile testing of both round and flat specimens was conducted in vacuum at elevated temperature and in air at room and elevated temperatures. Extensive fractographymore » and specimen sectioning were used to study tensile deformation and the effects of environment on this alloy. Room temperature fracture toughness testing using compact tension specimens was conducted. Elevated temperature toughness testing was performed using J-bend bar specimens in an air environment. Again, extensive fractography and specimen sectioning were used to study the elevated temperature toughening mechanisms of this alloy.... Titanium, Titanium aluminide, Intermetallic, Fracture toughness, Tensile behavior, Fractography environmental interaction.« less

  18. Development of high temperature nickel-base alloys for jet engine turbine bucket applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigg, R. J.; Scheirer, S. T.

    1965-01-01

    A program has been initiated to develop a material with superior properties at elevated temperatures for utilization in turbine blade applications. A nickel-base superalloy can provide the necessary high temperature strength by using the maximum capability of the three available strengthening mechanisms - intermetallic gamma prime precipitation (Ni3Al), solid solution strengthening with refractory and precious metals, and stable carbide formations through the addition of strong carbide forming elements. A stress rupture test at 2000 deg F and 15,000 psi was formulated to approximate the desired properties. By adding varying amounts of refractory metals (Mo, W and Ta) it was possible to statistically analyze the effects of each in a basic superalloy composition containing fixed amounts of Co, Cr, C, B, Sr, and Ni at three separate levels of AL and Ta. Metallographic analysis correlated with the mechanical properties of the alloys; those with few strengthening phases were weak and ductile and those with excessive amounts of intermetallic phases present in undesirable morphologies were brittle.

  19. On the corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of palladium-based dental alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Desheng

    Palladium-based alloys have been used as dental restorative materials for about two decades with good clinical history. But there have been clinical case reports showing possible allergy effects from these alloys. The aim of this study was to characterize the corrosion behavior and mechanisms of several palladium-based dental alloys by potentiodynamic polarization methods, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy/atomic force microscopy (SKPFM/AFM), and to evaluate their biocompatibility by a cell culture technique and an animal model. Using SKPFM/AFM and scanning electron microscopy, the Ru-enriched phase from the use of ruthenium as a grain-refining element was identified as being slightly more noble than the palladium solid solution matrix in a high-palladium alloy. Other secondary precipitates that exist in the microstructures of these high-palladium alloys have minimal differences in Volta potential compared to the matrix. For high-palladium alloys, corrosion is generally uniform due to the predominant palladium content in the different phases. Potentiodynamic polarization and EIS have shown that representative palladium-silver alloys have low corrosion tendency and high corrosion resistance, which are equivalent to a well-known high-noble gold-palladium alloy in simulated body fluid and oral environments. The palladium-silver alloys tested are resistant to chloride ion corrosion. Passivation and dealloying have been identified for all of the tested palladium-silver alloys. The great similarity in corrosion behavior among the palladium-silver alloys is attributed to their similar chemical compositions. The variation in microstructures of palladium-silver alloys tested does not cause significant difference in corrosion behavior. The corrosion resistance of these palladium-silver alloys at elevated potentials relevant to oral environment is still satisfactory. The release of elements from representative dental

  20. Boronization and Carburization of Superplastic Stainless Steel and Titanium-Based Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    Bronization and carburization of fine-grain superplastic stainless steel is reviewed, and new experimental results for fine grain Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 are reported. In superplastic duplex stainless steel, the diffusion of carbon and boron is faster than in non-superplastic duplex stainless steel. Further, diffusion is activated by uniaxial compressive stress. Moreover, non-superplastic duplex stainless steel shows typical grain boundary diffusion; however, inner grain diffusion is confirmed in superplastic stainless steel. The presence of Fe and Cr carbides or borides is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, which indicates that the diffused carbon and boron react with the Fe and Cr in superplastic stainless steel. The Vickers hardness of the carburized and boronized layers is similar to that achieved with other surface treatments such as electro-deposition. Diffusion of boron into the superplastic Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 alloy was investigated. The hardness of the surface exposed to boron powder can be increased by annealing above the superplastic temperature. However, the Vickers hardness is lower than that of Ti boride. PMID:28824144

  1. Recovery of Mo for Accelerator Production of Mo-99 Using (y,n) Reaction on Mo-100

    SciTech Connect

    Tkac, Peter; Vandegrift, George F.; Nunn, Stephen D.

    2013-09-30

    Technetium-99m is a widely used radiopharmaceutical. Its parent, Mo-99, is produced worldwide to supply this important isotope. One means to produce Mo-99 is by bombarding a Mo-100 target with an electron beam from a linear accelerator; the γ/n reaction on Mo-100 produces Mo-99. After dissolving Mo-100 enriched disks in hydrogen peroxide, the solution is converted to potassium molybdate (0.2 g-Mo/mL) in 5 M KOH. After milking the Tc-99m in the TechneGen generator over a period of 7-10 days, the molybdenum solution needs to be treated to recover valuable Mo-100 for production of sintered Mo disks. However, during the production ofmore » Mo-99 by (γ, n) reaction on the Mo-100 target, several byproducts are formed. Therefore, recycling Mo will require the conversion of K 2MoO 4 in 5 M KOH solution to MoO 3 powder, and purification from other metals present in the Mo solution. The starting Mo-100 enriched material contains less than 20 mg of potassium in 1 kg of molybdenum (<20 ppm). However, after dissolving the irradiated Mo-100 target in hydrogen peroxide and converting it to K 2MoO 4 in 5 M KOH (0.2 g-Mo/mL), the solution contains about 1.8 kg of potassium per kilogram of molybdenum. The most challenging separation for this recovery step is purifying molybdenum from potassium. One requirement to facilitate the acceptance of the recycled material by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is that the impurities in the recycled material need to be at or below the levels present in the starting material. Therefore, the amount of potassium (K) in purified MoO 3 powder should be below 20 ppm; this will require a decontamination factor for removal of K to be ~1 × 10 5. Such a low K-contamination level will also prevent the production of large amounts of K-42 during irradiation of Mo-100. Based on economic concerns (due to the significant cost of enriched Mo-100) recycling Mo requires the conversion of K 2MoO 4 in a 5 M KOH solution to MoO 3 powder with high Mo

  2. Investigation on microstructure and mechanical properties of Mo2FeB2 based cermets with and without PVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yupeng; Huang, Zhifu; Jian, Yongxin; Yang, Ming; Li, Kemin

    2018-03-01

    Mo2FeB2 based cermets with and without PVA have been investigated by x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The density and transverse rupture strength (TRS) of green compact, relative density, hardness (HRA), fracture toughness (KIC) and TRS of Mo2FeB2 based cermets were also measured. The results indicate that, compared with the Mo2FeB2 based cermets without PVA, the density of green compact with PVA can be improved slightly at the same pressure. However, the much higher TRS is obtained for the green compact without PVA. Meanwhile, Mo2FeB2 particles exhibit the finer and less congruity feature for Mo2FeB2 based cermets without PVA. In addition, the higher relative density, hardness, fracture toughness and TRS can be acquired for the cermets without PVA. Obviously, considering the mechanical properties and preparation period of Mo2FeB2 based cermets, no adding PVA is the optimized process of powder molding in the manufacture of Mo2FeB2 based cermets.

  3. Physical Properties of NiFeCrCo-based High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaddach, Alexander Joseph

    Conventional alloy design has been based on improving the properties of a single base, or solvent, element through relatively small additions of other elements. More recently, research has been conducted on alloys that contain multiple principal elements, particularly multi-component equiatomic alloys. When such alloys form solid solution phases, they are termed "high-entropy alloys" (HEAs) due to their high configurational entropy. These alloys often have favorable properties compared to conventional dilute solution alloys, but their compositional complexity and relative novelty means that they remain difficult to design and their basic properties are often unknown. The motivation for this work is a detailed experimental exploration of some of the basic physical properties of NiFeCrCo-based alloys. NiFeCrCoMn was one of the first equiatomic HEAs developed. As the compositional space within this single system is extremely large, this work focuses primarily on equiatomic alloys and a limited subset of non-equiatomic alloys chosen for their specific properties. Several alloys are prepared using both conventional me