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Sample records for mo base alloys

  1. Fabrication of a Mo based high temperature TZM alloy by non-consumable arc melting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.P.; Krishnamurthy, N., E-mail: spc@barc.gov.in

    High temperature structural materials are in great demand for power, chemical and nuclear industries which can perform beyond 1000 °C as super alloys usually fail. In this regard, Mo based TZM alloy is capable of retaining strength up to 1500 °C with excellent corrosion compatibility against molten alkali metals. Hence, currently this alloy is considered an important candidate material for high temperature compact nuclear and fusion reactors. Due to reactive nature of Mo and having high melting point, manufacturing this alloy by conventional process is unsuitable. Powder metallurgy technique has limited success due to restriction in quantity and purity. Thismore » paper deals with fabrication of TZM alloy by nonconsumable tungsten arc melting technique. Initially a ternary master alloy of Mo-Ti-Zr was prepared which subsequently by dilution method, was converted into TZM alloy gradually by external addition of Mo and C in various proportions. A number of melting trials were conducted to optimize the process parameters like current, voltage and time to achieve desired alloy composition. The alloy was characterized with respect to composition, elemental distribution profile, microstructure, hardness profile and phase analysis. Well consolidated alloy button was obtained having desired composition, negligible material loss and having microstructure as comparable to standard TZM alloy. (author)« less

  2. 4-d magnetism: Electronic structure and magnetism of some Mo-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Bose, S. K.; Kudrnovský, J.

    2017-02-01

    We report results of a first-principles density-functional study of alloys of the 4 d -element Mo with group IV elements Si, Ge and Sn in zinc blende (ZB) and rock salt (RS) structures. The study was motivated by a similar study of ours based on the 4 d -element Tc, which showed the presence of half-metallic states with integer magnetic moment (1μB) per formula unit in TcX (X=C, Si, Ge) alloys. The calculated Curie temperatures for the ferromagnetic (FM) phases were low, around or less than 300 K. Searching for the possibility of 4 d -based alloys with higher Curie temperatures we have carried out the study involving the elements Mo, Ru and Rh. Among these the most promising case appears to be that involving the element Mo. Among the MoX (X=Si, Ge, Sn) alloys in ZB and RS structures, both MoGe and MoSn in ZB structures are found to possess an integer magnetic moment of 2μB per formula unit. ZB MoSn can be classified as a marginal/weak half-metal or a spin gapless semiconductor, while ZB MoGe would be best described as a gapless magnetic semiconductor. The calculated Curie temperatures are in the range 300-700 K. Considering the theoretical uncertainty in the band gaps due not only to the treatment of exchange and correlation effects, but density functional theory itself, these classifications may change somewhat, but both merit investigation from the viewpoint of potential spintronic application. Based on their higher Curie temperatures, Mo-based alloys would serve such purpose better than the previously reported Tc-based ones.

  3. Effect of Alloy 625 Buffer Layer on Hardfacing of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Using Nickel Base Hardfacing Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Gopa; Das, C. R.; Albert, S. K.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-04-01

    Dashpot piston, made up of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, is a part of diverse safety rod used for safe shutdown of a nuclear reactor. This component was hardfaced using nickel base AWS ER NiCr-B alloy and extensive cracking was experienced during direct deposition of this alloy on dashpot piston. Cracking reduced considerably and the component was successfully hardfaced by application of Inconel 625 as buffer layer prior to hardface deposition. Hence, a separate study was undertaken to investigate the role of buffer layer in reducing the cracking and on the microstructure of the hardfaced deposit. Results indicate that in the direct deposition of hardfacing alloy on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, both heat-affected zone (HAZ) formed and the deposit layer are hard making the thickness of the hard layer formed equal to combined thickness of both HAZ and deposit. This hard layer is unable to absorb thermal stresses resulting in the cracking of the deposit. By providing a buffer layer of Alloy 625 followed by a post-weld heat treatment, HAZ formed in the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is effectively tempered, and HAZ formed during the subsequent deposition of the hardfacing alloy over the Alloy 625 buffer layer is almost completely confined to Alloy 625, which does not harden. This reduces the cracking susceptibility of the deposit. Further, unlike in the case of direct deposition on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, dilution of the deposit by Ni-base buffer layer does not alter the hardness of the deposit and desired hardness on the deposit surface could be achieved even with lower thickness of the deposit. This gives an option for reducing the recommended thickness of the deposit, which can also reduce the risk of cracking.

  4. Effect of mo Content on Microstructure and Properties of Laser Cladding Fe-BASED Alloy Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoli, Ma; Kaiming, Wang; Hanguang, Fu; Jiang, Ju; Yongping, Lei; Dawei, Yi

    Mo alloying Fe-based coating was fabricated on the surface of Q235 steel by using 6 kW fiber laser. The effects of Mo additions on the microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of the cladding layer were studied by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Vickers hardness tester and M-200 ring block wear tester. Research results showed that the microstructure of Mo-free cladding layer mainly consisted of matrix and eutectic structure. The matrix was martensite and retained austenite. The eutectic structure mainly consisted of M2(B,C) and M7(C,B)3 type of eutectic borocarbides. With the increase of Mo content, there was no significant change in the matrix. However, the eutectic structure was transformed from M2(B,C)- and M7(C,B)3-type borocarbides into M2(B,C)-, M7(C,B)3- and M23(C,B)6-type borocarbides. When the content of Mo is 4.0wt.%, the Mo2C-type carbide appear on the matrix, and parts of the borocarbide networks are broken. The change of microhardness of the cladding layer was not obvious with the increase of Mo content. But the increase of Mo content increases the wear resistance of the cladding layer. The wear resistance of cladding layer with 4.0wt.% Mo is 2.4 times as much as the cladding layer which is Mo-free.

  5. Dendrite segregation in Ni3Al-based intermetallic single crystals alloyed with Cr, Mo, W, Ti, Co, and Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, A. A.; Povarova, K. B.; Morozov, A. E.; Antonova, A. V.; Bulakhtina, M. A.; Alad'ev, N. A.

    2015-07-01

    The character of dendrite segregation in Ni3Al-based intermetallic VKNA-type alloy single crystals with a dendritic-cellular structure is studied. Distribution coefficient k d of an alloying element (AE) in the alloy during solidification k d = c d.a.I/ c 0 ( c 0 is the AE content in the alloy (liquid phase composition), c d.a.I is the AE content in primary dendrite arms of the alloy (in the solid phase)) and segregation coefficient k s = c d.a.I/ c i.d ( c i.d is the AE content in the interdendritic space) have been found. A comparative study of the dendrite segregation parameters in VKNA-nype Ni3Al-based intermetallic alloys and the well-known ZhS36-type nickel superalloy shows that the intermetallic alloys satisfy to the rule deduced for two- and three-component nickel-based superalloys: if an introduced AE increases the melting temperature of the basic metal, we have k d > 1 (Co, W, Re); if it decreases the melting temperature, we have k d < 1 (Al, Ti, Cr, Mo). Dendrite segregation coefficients k s are dependent on the proportion of the AE contents in the alloys. In nickel superalloys, the dendrite segregation of aluminum, tungsten, and rhenium is higher than that in the intermetallic alloys. The dendrite segregation coefficients of tungsten and rhenium is higher by a factor of 1.5-2 than that in the VKNA-type intermetallic alloys with a low content of refractory metals. This can be due to the retardation of diffusion of refractory metals in the solid phase of a nickel superalloy highly alloyed with these elements.

  6. Fe-Cr-Mo based ODS alloys via spark plasma sintering: A combinational characterization study by TEM and APT

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Q. Wu; K. N. Allahar; J. Burns

    2013-08-01

    Nanoscale oxides play an important role in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for improved high temperature creep resistance and enhanced radiation damage tolerance. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) were combined to investigate two novel Fe-16Cr-3Mo (wt.%) based ODS alloys. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to consolidate the ODS alloys from powders that were milled with 0.5 wt.% Y2O3 powder only or with Y2O3 powder and 1 wt.% Ti. TEM characterization revealed that both alloys have a bimodal structure of nanometer-size (~ 100 – 500 nm) and micron-size grains with nanostructured oxide precipitatesmore » formed along and close to grain boundaries with diameters ranging from five to tens of nanometers. APT provides further quantitative analyses of the oxide precipitates, and also reveals Mo segregation at grain boundaries next to oxide precipitates. The alloys with and without Ti are compared based on their microstructures.« less

  7. Study of structural phase transitions in quinary TiNi(MoFeAg)-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunther, Victor; Marchenko, Ekaterina; Chekalkin, Timofey; Baigonakova, Gulsharat; Kang, Ji-hoon; Kim, Ji-soon; Klopotov, Anatoliy

    2017-10-01

    The structural phase transitions of quinary Ti50Ni49.5-X Mo0.3Fe0.2Ag X (X  =  0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at%) alloys prepared by vacuum-induction melting were studied by means of the four-point-probe, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and optical microscopy methods after thermal cycling. The two-stage B2 ↔ R ↔ B19‧ reversible martensitic transformation (MT) took place in all the investigated samples. It is found that the substitution of Ag for Ni in the studied alloy when C Ag  =  0-0.5 at%, reduces the T R, M s, and M f characteristic points by 20-30 K, whereas they increase by 15-35 K when the Ag content was varied from 1.0 to 1.5 at% and the B2 ↔ R ↔ B19‧ MT was realized in the high-temperature area. XRD patterns of the studied alloys recorded at the ambient temperature detected the pure Ag phase as well as Ti2Ni precipitate with a small volume fraction (up to 5%) alongside with structural lines of B2, R, and B19‧ phases.

  8. Strength design of Zr(x)Ti(x)Hf(x)Nb(x)Mo(x) alloys based on empirical electron theory of solids and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. K.; Chen, Y. W.; Cheng, X. W.; Wu, C.; Cheng, B.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the valence electron structure parameters of Zr(x)Ti(x)Hf(x)Nb(x)Mo(x) alloys were calculated based on the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), and their performance through these parameters were predicted. Subsequently, the alloys with special valence electron structure parameters were prepared byarc melting. The hardness and high-temperature mechanical properties were analyzed to verify the prediction. Research shows that the influence of shared electron number nA on the strongest bond determines the strength of these alloys and the experiments are consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  9. The Influence of Plasma-Based Nitriding and Oxidizing Treatments on the Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of CoCrMo Biomedical Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noli, Fotini; Pichon, Luc; Öztürk, Orhan

    2018-04-01

    Plasma-based nitriding and/or oxidizing treatments were applied to CoCrMo alloy to improve its surface mechanical properties and corrosion resistance for biomedical applications. Three treatments were performed. A set of CoCrMo samples has been subjected to nitriding at moderate temperatures ( 400 °C). A second set of CoCrMo samples was oxidized at 395 °C in pure O2. The last set of CoCrMo samples was nitrided and subsequently oxidized under the experimental conditions of previous sets (double treatment). The microstructure and morphology of the layers formed on the CoCrMo alloy were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. In addition, nitrogen and oxygen profiles were determined by Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray, and Nuclear Reaction Analysis. Significant improvement of the Vickers hardness of the CoCrMo samples after plasma nitriding was observed due to the supersaturated nitrogen solution and the formation of an expanded FCC γ N phase and CrN precipitates. In the case of the oxidized samples, Vickers hardness improvement was minimal. The corrosion behavior of the samples was investigated in simulated body fluid (0.9 pct NaCl solution at 37 °C) using electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization and cyclic voltammetry). The concentration of metal ions released from the CoCrMo surfaces was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The experimental results clearly indicate that the CoCrMo surface subjected to the double surface treatment consisting in plasma nitriding and plasma oxidizing exhibited lower deterioration and better resistance to corrosion compared to the nitrided, oxidized, and untreated samples. This enhancement is believed to be due to the formation of a thicker and more stable layer.

  10. The Effect of Mo Particles Addition in Ag-Cu-Ti Filler Alloy on Ti(C,N)-Based Cermet/45 Steel-Brazed Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hu; Du, Xueming; Huang, Xiaokai; Xu, Weijian; Yao, Zhenhua

    2018-05-01

    Reliable brazing of Ti(C,N)-based cermet and 45 steel was successfully achieved by using the Mo-particle-reinforced Ag-Cu-Ti composite filler. The effects of Mo content on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti(C,N)-based cermet/45 steel joints were analyzed. The results showed that the joint microstructure was primarily composed of Ni3Ti+Cu3Ti2, Ag(s,s)+Cu(s.s), CuTi+Mo, Ti-based solid solution, and FeTi+Fe2Ti. With the increase in Mo content in filler, the thickness of the Ni3Ti+Cu3Ti2 layer adjacent to the Ti(C,N)-based cermet decreases, while more blocky Ti-Cu intermetallic were observed in the brazing seam. The shear strength of the joint could be significantly improved by adding suitable amounts of Mo into the Ag-Cu-Ti filler, and the peak value of 263 MPa was achieved when the alloys were brazed with Ag-Cu-Ti+8wt.%Mo composite filler at 920 °C for 20 min.

  11. Re Effects on Phase Stability and Mechanical Properties of MoSS+Mo3Si+Mo5SiB2 alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P

    2013-01-01

    Because of their high melting points and good oxidation resistance Mo-Si-B alloys are of interest as potential ultrahigh-temperature structural materials. But their major drawbacks are poor ductility and fracture toughness at room temperature. Since alloying with Re has been suggested as a possible solution, we investigate here the effects of Re additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a ternary alloy with the composition Mo-12.5Si-8.5B (at.%). This alloy has a three-phase microstructure consisting of Mo solid-solution (MoSS), Mo3Si, and Mo5SiB2 and our results show that up to 8.4 at.% Re can be added to it without changing its microstructuremore » or forming any brittle phase at 1600 C. Three-point bend tests using chevron-notched specimens showed that Re did not improve fracture toughness of the three-phase alloy. Nanoindentation performed on the MoSS phase in the three-phase alloy showed that Re increases Young s modulus, but does not lower hardness as in some Mo solid solution alloys. Based on our thermodynamic calculations and microstructural analyses, the lack of a Re softening effect is attributed to the increased Si levels in the Re-containing MoSS phase since Si is known to increase its hardness. This lack of softening is possibly why there is no Re-induced improvement in fracture toughness.« less

  12. Chromium-free conversion coatings based on inorganic salts (Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo) for aluminum alloys used in aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santa Coloma, P.; Izagirre, U.; Belaustegi, Y.; Jorcin, J. B.; Cano, F. J.; Lapeña, N.

    2015-08-01

    Novel chromium-free conversion coatings based on Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo compounds were developed at a pilot scale to improve the corrosion resistance of the AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys for aircraft applications. The influence of the presence of Zr and Ti in the Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo conversion bath's formulation on the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys was investigated. The corrosion resistance provided by the conversion coatings was evaluated by salt spray exposure and potentiodynamic sweeps. Optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating in the Kelvin Probe mode (SKPFM) were used to provide microstructural information of the coated samples that achieved the best results in the corrosion tests. The salt spray test evidenced the higher corrosion resistance of the coated samples compared to the bare surfaces for both alloys. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the corrosion current density decreased for coated AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys, which indicated an obvious improvement of the corrosion resistance with all the processes for both alloys. Although the corrosion resistance of the coated samples appeared to be higher for the alloy AA7075-T6 than for the alloy AA2024-T3, both alloys achieved the best corrosion protection with the coatings deposited from conversion bath formulations containing no titanium salts. The microscopy analysis on the coated AA7075-T6 samples revealed that a local deposition of Zr compounds and, possibly, an oxidation process occurred in the vicinity of the alloy's intermetallic particles. The amount of the Zr deposits at these locations increased with coating's formulations without Ti, which provided the best corrosion resistance. The Cr-free conversion coatings developed in this study for the AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys do not meet yet the strict requirements of the aircraft industry. However, they significantly improved the corrosion

  13. Thermophysical properties of undercooled liquid Co-Mo alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X. J.; Wei, B.

    2003-05-01

    Using electromagnetic levitation in combination with the oscillating drop technique and drop calorimeter method, the surface tensions and specific heats of undercooled liquid Co-10 wt% Mo, Co-26.3 wt% Mo, and Co-37.6 wt% Mo alloys were measured. The containerless state during levitation produces substantial undercoolings up to 223 K (0.13TL), 213 K (0.13TL) and 110 K (0.07TL) respectively for these three alloys. In their respective undercooling ranges, the surface tensions were determined to be 1895 m 0.31(T m 1744), 1932 m 0.33(T m 1682), and 1989 m 0.34(T m 1607) mN mу. According to the Butler equation, the surface tensions of these three Co-Mo alloys were also calculated, and the results agree well with the experimental data. The specific heats of these three alloys are determined to be 41.85, 43.75 and 44.92 J molу Kу. Based on the determined surface tensions and specific heats, the changes in thermodynamics functions such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy are predicted. Furthermore, the crystal nucleation, dendrite growth and Marangoni convection of undercooled Co-Mo alloys are investigated in the light of these measured thermophysical properties.

  14. Elastic modulus of phases in Ti–Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu11@aliyun.com; Wu, Hong

    2015-08-15

    In this work, a series of binary Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were prepared using non-consumable arc melting. The microstructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, and the elastic modulus was evaluated by nanoindentation testing technique. The evolution of the volume fractions of ω phase was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the phase constitution and elastic modulus of the Ti–Mo alloys are sensitive to the Mo content. Ti–3.2Mo and Ti–8Mo alloys containing only α and β phases, respectively, have a low elastic modulus. In contrast, Ti–4.5Mo,more » Ti–6Mo, Ti–7Mo alloys, with different contents of ω phase, have a high elastic modulus. A simple micromechanical model was used to calculate the elastic modulus of ω phase (E{sub ω}), which was determined to be 174.354 GPa. - Highlights: • Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were investigated. • XPS was used to investigate the volume fractions of ω phase. • The elastic modulus of Ti–Mo alloys is sensitive to the Mo content. • The elastic modulus of ω phase was determined to be 174.354 GPa.« less

  15. Diffusion Barrier Selection from Refractory Metals (Zr, Mo and Nb) via Interdiffusion Investigation for U-Mo RERTR Fuel Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    K. Huang; C. Kammerer; D. D. Keiser, Jr.

    2014-04-01

    U-Mo alloys are being developed as low enrichment monolithic fuel under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program. Diffusional interactions between the U-Mo fuel alloy and Al-alloy cladding within the monolithic fuel plate construct necessitate incorporation of a barrier layer. Fundamentally, a diffusion barrier candidate must have good thermal conductivity, high melting point, minimal metallurgical interaction, and good irradiation performance. Refractory metals, Zr, Mo, and Nb are considered based on their physical properties, and the diffusion behavior must be carefully examined first with U-Mo fuel alloy. Solid-to-solid U-10wt.%Mo vs. Mo, Zr, or Nb diffusion couples were assembledmore » and annealed at 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C for various times. The interdiffusion microstructures and chemical composition were examined via scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. For all three systems, the growth rate of interdiffusion zone were calculated at 1000, 900 and 800 degrees C under the assumption of parabolic growth, and calculated for lower temperature of 700, 600 and 500 degrees C according to Arrhenius relationship. The growth rate was determined to be about 10 3 times slower for Zr, 10 5 times slower for Mo and 10 6 times slower for Nb, than the growth rates reported for the interaction between the U-Mo fuel alloy and pure Al or Al-Si cladding alloys. Zr, however was selected as the barrier metal due to a concern for thermo- mechanical behavior of UMo/Nb interface observed from diffusion couples, and for ductile-to-brittle transition of Mo near room temperature.« less

  16. Effect of Silicon in U-10Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, Elizabeth J.; Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor

    2017-08-31

    This document details a method for evaluating the effect of silicon impurity content on U-10Mo alloys. Silicon concentration in U-10Mo alloys has been shown to impact the following: volume fraction of precipitate phases, effective density of the final alloy, and 235-U enrichment in the gamma-UMo matrix. This report presents a model for calculating these quantities as a function of Silicon concentration, which along with fuel foil characterization data, will serve as a reference for quality control of the U-10Mo final alloy Si content. Additionally, detailed characterization using scanning electron microscope imaging, transmission electron microscope diffraction, and atom probe tomography showedmore » that Silicon impurities present in U-10Mo alloys form a Si-rich precipitate phase.« less

  17. Mechanical Alloying of W-Mo-V-Cr-Ta High Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sujit; Robi, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) consisting of five or more elements in equi-atomic or near equi-atomic ratios. These alloys in single phase solid solution exhibit exceptional mechanical properties viz., high strength at room and elevated temperatures, reasonable ductility and stable microstructure over a wide range of temperatures making it suitable for high temperature structural materials. In spite of the attractive properties, processing of these materials remains a challenge. Reports regarding fabrication and characterisation of a few refractory HEA systems are available. The processing of these alloys have been carried out by arc melting of small button sized materials. The present paper discusses the development of a novel refractory W-Mo-V-Cr-Ta HEA powder based on a new alloy design concept. The powder mixture was milled for time periods up to 64 hours. Single phase alloy powder having body centred cubic structure was processed by mechanical alloying. The milling characteristics and extent of alloying during the ball milling were characterized using X-ray diffractiometre (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). A single phase solid solution alloy powder having body-centred cubic (BCC) structure with a lattice parameter of 3.15486 Å was obtained after milling for 32 hours.

  18. Evaluation of an advanced directionally solidified gamma/gamma'-alpha Mo eutectic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. F.; Jackson, M. R.; Gigliotti, M. F. X.; Nelson, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve on the properties of the candidate jet engine turbine blade material AG-60, a gamma/gamma prime-alpha Mo eutectic composite. Alloy 38 (AG-170) was evaluated in the greatest detail. This alloy, Ni-5.88 A1-29.74 Mo-1.65 V-1.2C Re (weight percent), represents an improvement beyond AG-60, based on mechanical testing of the transverse and/or longitudinal orientations over a range of temperatures in tension, shear, rupture, and rupture after thermal exposure. It is likely that other alloys in the study represent a similar improvement.

  19. Obtaining and Mechanical Properties of Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălţatu, M. S.; Vizureanu, P.; Geantă, V.; Nejneru, C.; Țugui, C. A.; Focşăneanu, S. C.

    2017-06-01

    Ti-based alloys are successfully used in the area of orthopedic biomaterials for their enhanced biocompatibility, good corrosion and mechanical properties. The most suitable metals as an alloying element for orthopedic biomaterials are zirconium, molybdenum and tantalum because are non toxic and have good properties. The paper purpose development of two alloys of Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta (TMZT) prepared by arc-melting with several mechanical properties determined by microindentation. The mechanical properties analyzed was Vickers hardness and dynamic elasticity modulus. The investigated alloys presents a low Young’s modulus, an important condition of biomaterials for preventing stress shielding phenomenon.

  20. Microstructures in rapidly solidified Ni-Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraman, N.; Tewari, S. N.; Hemker, K. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    Ni-Mo alloys of compositions ranging from pure Ni to Ni-40 at % Mo were rapidly solidified by Chill Block Melt Spinning in vacuum and were examined by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Rapid solidification resulted in an extension of molybdenum solubility in nickel from 28 to 37.5 at %. A number of different phases and microstructures were seen at different depths (solidification conditions) from the quenched surface of the melt spun ribbons.

  1. Oxidation performance of platinum-clad Mo-47Re alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ronald K.; Wallace, Terryl A.

    1994-01-01

    The alloy Mo-47Re has favorable mechanical properties at temperatures above 1400 C, but it undergoes severe oxidation when used in air with no protective coating. To shield the alloy from oxidation, platinum cladding has been evaluated. The unprotected alloy undergoes catastrophic oxidation under static and dynamic oxidation conditions. The platinum cladding provides good protection from static and dynamic oxidation for moderate times at 1260 C. Samples tested for longer times under static oxidation conditions experienced severe oxidation. The data suggest that oxidation results from the transport of oxygen through the grain boundaries and through the pinhole defects of the platinum cladding.

  2. HEAT TREATED U-Mo ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    McGeary, R.K.; Justusson, W.M.

    1960-02-23

    A reactor fuel element comprising a gamma-phase alloy consisting of 11 to 16 wt.% of molyhdenum and the balance uranium, annealed between 350 and 525 deg C and quenched to preserve the gamma phase, is reported.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Nb25Mo25Ta25W25 and V20Nb20Mo20Ta20W20 Refractory High-Entropy Alloys (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    research seems to emphasize alloys based Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 2 on the late transition metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni ...of the Nb25Mo25Ta25W25 alloy , with larger grains at the regions experiencing slower solidification , i.e. near the surfaces not contacting with the...20-30 µm, indicating similar solidification conditions. 3.2.3 Fractography of samples deformed at room temperature The high entropy alloy

  4. Undercooled and rapidly quenched Ni-Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1986-01-01

    Hypoeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic nickel-molybdenum alloys were rapidly solidified by both bulk undercooling and melt spinning techniques. Alloys were undercooled in both electromagnetic levitation and differential thermal analysis equipment. The rate of recalescence depended upon the degree of initial undercooling and the nature (faceted or nonfaceted) of the primary nucleating phase. Alloy melts were observed to undercool more in the presence of primary Beta (NiMo intermetallic) phase than in gamma (fcc solid solution) phase. Melt spinning resulted in an extension of molybdenum solid solubility in gamma nickel, from 28 to 37.5 at % Mo. Although the microstructures observed by undercooling and melt spinning were similar the microsegregation pattern across the gamma dendries was different. The range of microstructures evolved was analyzed in terms of the nature of the primary phase to nucleate, its subsequent dendritic growth, coarsening and fragmentation, and final solidification of interfenderitic liquid.

  5. Effect of the environment on wear ranking and corrosion of biomedical CoCrMo alloys.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, A Igual; Mischler, S

    2011-03-01

    The corrosion behaviour and the wear ranking of biomedical high carbon (HC) and low carbon (LC) CoCrMo alloys sliding against an alumina ball in four different simulated body fluids [NaCl and phosphate buffered solutions (PBS) with and without albumin] has been analyzed by tribocorrosion and electrochemical techniques. The effects of alloy and of albumin on corrosion depend on the base electrolyte: differences between LC and HC alloy were only observed in NaCl solutions but not in PBS. Albumin increased significantly corrosion of both alloys in PBS solutions while its effect in NaCl was smaller. The wear ranking of the HC and LC alloys also depends on the environment. In the present study, HC CoCrMo alloy had lower wear resistance in NaCl and PBS + albumin than the LC alloy, while no differences between both alloys were found in the other solutions. This was attributed to surface chemical effects affecting third body behaviour.

  6. Effects of the shape of the foil corners on the irradiation performance of U10Mo alloy based monolithic mini-plates

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaltun, Hakan; Medvedev, Pavel G

    2015-06-01

    Monolithic plate-type fuel is a fuel form being developed for high performance research and test reactors to minimize the use of enriched material. These fuel elements are comprised of a high density, low enrichment, U-Mo alloy based fuel foil, sandwiched between Zirconium liners and encapsulated in Aluminum cladding. The use of a high density fuel in a foil form presents a number of fabrication and operational concerns, such as: foil centering, flatness of the foil, fuel thickness variation, geometrical tilting, foil corner shape etc. To benchmark this new design, effects of various geometrical and operational variables on irradiation performance havemore » been evaluated. As a part of these series of sensitivity studies, the shape of the foil corners were studied. To understand the effects of the corner shapes of the foil on thermo-mechanical performance of the plates, a behavioral model was developed for a selected plate from RERTR-12 experiments (Plate L1P785). Both fabrication and irradiation processes were simulated. Once the thermo-mechanical behavior the plate is understood for the nominal case, the simulations were repeated for two additional corner shapes to observe the changes in temperature, displacement and stress-strain fields. The results from the fabrication simulations indicated that the foil corners do not alter the post-fabrication stress-strain magnitudes. Furthermore, the irradiation simulations revealed that post-fabrication stresses of the foil would be relieved very quickly in operation. While, foils with chamfered and filleted corners yielded stresses with comparable magnitudes, they are slightly lower in magnitudes, and provided a more favorable mechanical response compared with the foil with sharp corners.« less

  7. Effects of the foil flatness on the stress-strain characteristics of U10Mo alloy based monolithic mini-plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hakan Ozaltun; Pavel Medvedev

    The effects of the foil flatness on stress-strain behavior of monolithic fuel mini-plates during fabrication and irradiation were studied. Monolithic plate-type fuels are a new fuel form being developed for research and test reactors to achieve higher uranium densities. This concept facilitates the use of low-enriched uranium fuel in the reactor. These fuel elements are comprised of a high density, low enrichment, U–Mo alloy based fuel foil encapsulated in a cladding material made of Aluminum. To evaluate the effects of the foil flatness on the stress-strain behavior of the plates during fabrication, irradiation and shutdown stages, a representative plate frommore » RERTR-12 experiments (Plate L1P756) was considered. Both fabrication and irradiation processes of the plate were simulated by using actual irradiation parameters. The simulations were repeated for various foil curvatures to observe the effects of the foil flatness on the peak stress and strain magnitudes of the fuel elements. Results of fabrication simulations revealed that the flatness of the foil does not have a considerable impact on the post fabrication stress-strain fields. Furthermore, the irradiation simulations indicated that any post-fabrication stresses in the foil would be relieved relatively fast in the reactor. While, the perfectly flat foil provided the slightly better mechanical performance, overall difference between the flat-foil case and curved-foil case was not significant. Even though the peak stresses are less affected, the foil curvature has several implications on the strain magnitudes in the cladding. It was observed that with an increasing foil curvature, there is a slight increase in the cladding strains.« less

  8. Albumin adsorption on CoCrMo alloy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu; Yang, Hongjuan; Su, Yanjing; Qiao, Lijie

    2015-12-01

    Proteins can adsorb on the surface of artificial joints immediately after being implanted. Although research studying protein adsorption on medical material surfaces has been carried out, the mechanism of the proteins’ adsorption which affects the corrosion behaviour of such materials still lacks in situ observation at the micro level. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on CoCrMo alloy surfaces was studied in situ by AFM and SKPFM as a function of pH and the charge of CoCrMo alloy surfaces. Results showed that when the specimens were uncharged, hydrophobic interaction could govern the process of the adsorption rather than electrostatic interaction, and BSA molecules tended to adsorb on the surfaces forming a monolayer in the side-on model. Results also showed that adsorbed BSA molecules could promote the corrosion process for CoCrMo alloys. When the surface was positively charged, the electrostatic interaction played a leading role in the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption occurred at the isoelectric point (pH 4.7) of BSA.

  9. Grain growth in U–7Mo alloy: A combined first-principles and phase field study

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Zhi-Gang; Liang, Linyun; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is an important factor in controlling the swelling behavior in irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuels. Increasing the grain size in UeMo fuel particles by heat treatment is believed to delay the fuel swelling at high fission density. In this work, a multiscale simulation approach combining first-principles calculation and phase field modeling is used to investigate the grain growth behavior in U-7Mo alloy. The density functional theory based first-principles calculations were used to predict the material properties of U-7Mo alloy. The obtained grain boundary energies were then adopted as an input parameter for mesoscale phase field simulations. The effects ofmore » annealing temperature, annealing time and initial grain structures of fuel particles on the grain growth in U-7Mo alloy were examined. The predicted grain growth rate compares well with the empirical correlation derived from experiments. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

  10. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  11. Interface characterization of Cu-Mo coating deposited on Ti-Al alloys by arc spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shengqiang; Li, Fei; Wu, Ting; Yin, Xianglin; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong

    2015-03-01

    Cu-Mo pseudobinary alloys are promising candidates as electrode materials in CoSb3-based skutterudite thermoelectric (TE) devices for TE power generation. In this study, Cu-Mo coatings were deposited onto Ti-Al substrates by applying a dual-wire electric arc spraying coating technique. The microstructure of the surfaces, cross sections and coating interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS). Cu-Mo coatings showed a typical banded splat with compact microstructures, and have no coarse pores nor micro-cracks. The thermal shock resistance of the Cu-Mo coating was also investigated to show good combinations with Ti-Al substrates. After 50 thermal shock cycles, there were no cracks observed at the interface. In contrast, the test of the thermal shock resistance of the Cu coating on the Ti-Al substrate was also investigated. Due to a large difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between Cu and Ti-Al alloys, the Cu coating flaked from the Ti-Al substrate completely after 10 thermal shock cycles. The contact resistivity of the Ti-Al/Cu-Mo interface was about 1.6 μΩṡcm2 and this value was unchanged after 50 thermal shock cycles, indicating the low electric resistance and high thermal stability of the Cu-Mo/Ti-Al interface.

  12. Microstructural characterization of as-cast biocompatible Co-Cr-Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Giacchi, J.V., E-mail: jgiacchi@exa.unicen.edu.ar; Instituto de Fisica de Materiales Tandil; Morando, C.N.

    2011-01-15

    The microstructure of a cobalt-base alloy (Co-Cr-Mo) obtained by the investment casting process was studied. This alloy complies with the ASTM F75 standard and is widely used in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants because of its high strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility properties. This work focuses on the resulting microstructures arising from samples poured under industrial environment conditions, of three different Co-Cr-Mo alloys. For this purpose, we used: 1) an alloy built up from commercial purity constituents, 2) a remelted alloy and 3) a certified alloy for comparison. The characterization of the samples was achieved by using opticalmore » microscopy (OM) with a colorant etchant to identify the present phases and scanning electron microscopy (SE-SEM) and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) techniques for a better identification. In general the as-cast microstructure is a Co-fcc dendritic matrix with the presence of a secondary phase, such as the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides precipitated at grain boundaries and interdendritic zones. These precipitates are the main strengthening mechanism in this type of alloys. Other minority phases were also reported and their presence could be linked to the cooling rate and the manufacturing process variables and environment. - Research Highlights: {yields}The solidification microstructure of an ASTM-F75 type alloy were studied. {yields}The alloys were poured under an industrial environment. {yields}Carbides and sigma phase identified by color metallography and scanning microscopy (SEM and EDS). {yields}Two carbide morphologies were detected 'blocky type' and 'pearlite type'. {yields}Minority phases were also detected.« less

  13. Modeling the Homogenization Kinetics of As-Cast U-10wt% Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Joshi, Vineet; Hu, Shenyang Y.

    2016-01-15

    Low-enriched U-22at% Mo (U-10Mo) alloy has been considered as an alternative material to replace the highly enriched fuels in research reactors. For the U-10Mo to work effectively and replace the existing fuel material, a thorough understanding of the microstructure development from as-cast to the final formed structure is required. The as-cast microstructure typically resembles an inhomogeneous microstructure with regions containing molybdenum-rich and -lean regions, which may affect the processing and possibly the in-reactor performance. This as-cast structure must be homogenized by thermal treatment to produce a uniform Mo distribution. The development of a modeling capability will improve the understanding ofmore » the effect of initial microstructures on the Mo homogenization kinetics. In the current work, we investigated the effect of as-cast microstructure on the homogenization kinetics. The kinetics of the homogenization was modeled based on a rigorous algorithm that relates the line scan data of Mo concentration to the gray scale in energy dispersive spectroscopy images, which was used to generate a reconstructed Mo concentration map. The map was then used as realistic microstructure input for physics-based homogenization models, where the entire homogenization kinetics can be simulated and validated against the available experiment data at different homogenization times and temperatures.« less

  14. Modeling Early-Stage Processes of U-10 Wt.%Mo Alloy Using Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaowo; Xu, Zhijie; Soulami, Ayoub; Hu, Xiaohua; Lavender, Curt; Joshi, Vineet

    2017-12-01

    Low-enriched uranium alloyed with 10 wt.% molybdenum (U-10Mo) has been identified as a promising alternative to high-enriched uranium. Manufacturing U-10Mo alloy involves multiple complex thermomechanical processes that pose challenges for computational modeling. This paper describes the application of integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) concepts to integrate three individual modeling components, viz. homogenization, microstructure-based finite element method for hot rolling, and carbide particle distribution, to simulate the early-stage processes of U-10Mo alloy manufacture. The resulting integrated model enables information to be passed between different model components and leads to improved understanding of the evolution of the microstructure. This ICME approach is then used to predict the variation in the thickness of the Zircaloy-2 barrier as a function of the degree of homogenization and to analyze the carbide distribution, which can affect the recrystallization, hardness, and fracture properties of U-10Mo in subsequent processes.

  15. Thermodynamic modeling and experimental validation of the Fe-Al-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Zhenke; Zhang, F; Miller, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    NiAl-type precipitate-strengthened ferritic steels have been known as potential materials for the steam turbine applications. In this study, thermodynamic descriptions of the B2-NiAl type nano-scaled precipitates and body-centered-cubic (BCC) Fe matrix phase for four alloys based on the Fe-Al-Ni-Cr-Mo system were developed as a function of the alloy composition at the aging temperature. The calculated phase structure, composition, and volume fraction were validated by the experimental investigations using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and atom probe tomography. With the ability to accurately predict the key microstructural features related to the mechanical properties in a given alloy system, the established thermodynamic model inmore » the current study may significantly accelerate the alloy design process of the NiAl-strengthened ferritic steels.« less

  16. Hidroxyapatite Coating on CoCrMo Alloy Titanium Nitride Coated Using Biomimetic Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlena; Sukaryo, S. G.; Fajar, M.

    2016-11-01

    Bone implants is a way to cure broken bones which is being developed. The implants can be made of metals, ceramics and polymers. Metallic materials commonly used are titanium (Ti), stainless steel, and metal alloys. This study used Co-based alloys, i.e. CoCrMo coated with titanium nitride (TiN) which was then coated on hidroxyapatite (HAp). The HAp coating on the surface of CoCrMo alloy was done by biomimetic methods, first by soaking the metal alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for 18, 24, and 36 hours. The immersion in the SBF solution produced white coat on the surface of the metal alloy. The layers formed were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). Based on the SEM results of 36 hours treatment, the morphology of apatite crystal formed fine grains. According to XRD result, there were HAp peaks at angles 2θ 31.86, 32.25, dan 39.48. However, there were also CaCO3 peaks at angles 2θ 29.46, 36.04, and 46.79. It indicated the pure HAp is not yet formed.

  17. Reaction of Unalloyed and Cr-Mo Alloyed Steels with Nitrogen from the Sintering Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlapka, Magdalena; Gierl-Mayer, Christian; Calderon, Raquel de Oro; Danninger, Herbert; Bengtsson, Sven; Dudrova, Eva

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen is usually regarded as an inert sintering atmosphere for PM steels; however, this cannot be taken for granted in particular for steels alloyed with nitride forming elements. Among those elements, chromium has become more and more important as an alloying element in sintered low alloy structural steels in the last decade due to the moderate alloying cost and the excellent mechanical properties obtainable, in particular when sinter hardening is applied. The high affinity of Cr to oxygen and the possible ways to overcome related problems have been the subject of numerous studies, while the fact that chromium is also a fairly strong nitride forming element has largely been neglected at least for low alloy steel grades, although frequently used materials like steels from Cr and Cr-Mo prealloyed powders are commonly sintered in atmospheres consisting mainly of nitrogen. In the present study, nitrogen pickup during sintering at different temperatures and for varying times has been studied for Cr-Mo prealloyed steel grades as well as for unalloyed carbon steel. Also the effect of the cooling rate and its influence on the properties, of the microstructure and the composition have been investigated. It showed that the main nitrogen uptake occurs not during isothermal sintering but rather during cooling. It could be demonstrated that a critical temperature range exists within which the investigated CrM-based steel is particularly sensitive to nitrogen pickup.

  18. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  19. MoNbTaV Medium-Entropy Alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Hongwei; Qiao, Jun -Wei; Gao, Michael; ...

    2016-05-19

    Guided by CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) modeling, the refractory medium-entropy alloy MoNbTaV was synthesized by vacuum arc melting under a high-purity argon atmosphere. A body-centered cubic solid solution phase was experimentally confirmed in the as-cast ingot using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The measured lattice parameter of the alloy (3.208 Å) obeys the rule of mixtures (ROM), but the Vickers microhardness (4.95 GPa) and the yield strength (1.5 GPa) are about 4.5 and 4.6 times those estimated from the ROM, respectively. Using a simple model on solid solution strengthening predicts a yield strength of approximately 1.5 GPa. Inmore » conclusion, thermodynamic analysis shows that the total entropy of the alloy is more than three times the configurational entropy at room temperature, and the entropy of mixing exhibits a small negative departure from ideal mixing.« less

  20. Superconducting properties of molybdenum ruthenium alloy Mo0.63Ru0.37

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wensen; Ge, Min; Wang, Shasha; Zhang, Lei; Han, Yuyan; Du, Haifeng; Tian, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuheng

    2018-03-01

    Resistance, magnetization and specific heat measurements were performed on Mo0.63Ru0.37 alloy. All of them confirm that Mo0.63Ru0.37 becomes superconducting at about 7.0 K with bulk nature. Its upper critical field behavior fits to Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg (WHH) model quite well, with an upper critical field of μ0Hc2(0) = 8.64 T, less than its Pauli limit. Its electronic specific heat is reproduced by Bardeen-Cooper-Schriffer (BCS)-based α-model with a gap ratio Δ0 = 1.88kBTc, which is a little larger than the standard BCS value of 1.76. We concluded that Mo0.63Ru0.37 is a fully gapped isotropic s-wave superconductor, with its features are mostly consistent with the conventional theory.

  1. Microstructure of As-cast Co-Cr-Mo Alloy Prepared by Investment Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Bum; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Kang Min; Son, Yong; Lee, Jung-Il; Ryu, Jeong Ho

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure of a cobalt-base alloy (Co-Cr-Mo) obtained by an investment casting process was studied. This alloy complies with the ASTM F75 standard and is widely used in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants owing to its high strength, good corrosion resistance, and excellent biocompatibility. This work focuses on the resulting microstructures arising from normal industrial environmental conditions. The characterization of the samples was carried out using optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. In this study, the as-cast microstructure is an γ-Co (face-centered cubic) dendritic matrix with the presence of a secondary phase, such as M23C6 carbides precipitated at grain boundaries and interdendritic zones. These precipitates are the main strengthening mechanism in this type of alloy. Other minority phases, such as the σ phase, were also detected, and their presence could be linked to the manufacturing process and environment.

  2. Influence of carbides and microstructure of CoCrMo alloys on their metallic dissolution resistance.

    PubMed

    Valero-Vidal, C; Casabán-Julián, L; Herraiz-Cardona, I; Igual-Muñoz, A

    2013-12-01

    CoCrMo alloys are passive and biocompatible materials widely used as joint replacements due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Electrochemical behaviour of thermal treated CoCrMo alloys with different carbon content in their bulk alloy composition has been analysed. Both the amount of carbides in the CoCrMo alloys and the chemical composition of the simulated body fluid affect the electrochemical properties of these biomedical alloys, thus passive dissolution rate was influenced by the mentioned parameters. Lower percentage of carbon in the chemical composition of the bulk alloy and thermal treatments favour the homogenization of the surface (less amount of carbides), thus increasing the availability of Cr to form the oxide film and improving the corrosion resistance of the alloy. © 2013.

  3. Intergranular diffusion and embrittlement of a Ni-16Mo-7Cr alloy in Te vapor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hongwei; Li, Zhijun; Leng, Bin; Zhang, Wenzhu; Han, Fenfen; Jia, Yanyan; Zhou, Xingtai

    2015-12-01

    Nickel and some nickel-base alloys are extremely sensitive to intergranular embrittlement and tellurium (Te) enhanced cracking, which should be concerned during their serving in molten salt reactors. Here, a systematic study about the effects of its temperature on the reaction products at its surface, the intergranular diffusion of Te in its body and its embrittlement for a Ni-16Mo-7Cr alloy contacting Te is reported. For exposed to Te vapor at high temperature (823-1073 K), the reaction products formed on the surface of the alloy were Ni3Te2, CrTe, and MoTe2, and the most serious embrittlement was observed at 1073 K. The kinetic measurement in terms of Te penetration depth in the alloy samples gives an activation energy of 204 kJ/mol. Electron probe microanalysis confirmed the local enrichment of Te at grain boundaries. And clearly, the embrittlement was results from the intergranular diffusion and segregation of element Te.

  4. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  5. Structure and Mechanical Properties of As-Cast Ti-5Sn-xMo Alloys.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsing-Ning; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2017-04-27

    Ti-5Sn- x Mo ( x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt %) alloys were designed and prepared for application as implant materials with superior mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the crystal structure and mechanical properties of Ti-5Sn- x Mo alloys are highly affected by their Mo content. The as-cast microstructures of Ti-5Sn- x Mo alloys transformed in the sequence of phases α' → α″ → β, and the morphologies of the alloys changed from a lath structure to an equiaxed structure as the Mo content increased. The α″-phase Ti-5Sn-7.5Mo (80 GPa) and β-phase Ti-5Sn-10Mo (85 GPa) exhibited relatively low elastic moduli and had excellent elastic recovery angles of 27.4° and 37.8°, respectively. Furthermore, they exhibited high ductility and moderate strength, as evaluated using the three-point bending test. Search for a more suitable implant material by this study, Ti-5Sn- x Mo alloys with 7.5 and 10 wt % Mo appear to be promising candidates because they demonstrate the optimal combined properties of microhardness, ductility, elastic modulus, and elastic recovery capability.

  6. Structure and Mechanical Properties of As-Cast Ti–5Sn–xMo Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hsing-Ning; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Ti–5Sn–xMo (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt %) alloys were designed and prepared for application as implant materials with superior mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the crystal structure and mechanical properties of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys are highly affected by their Mo content. The as-cast microstructures of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys transformed in the sequence of phases α′ → α″ → β, and the morphologies of the alloys changed from a lath structure to an equiaxed structure as the Mo content increased. The α″-phase Ti–5Sn–7.5Mo (80 GPa) and β-phase Ti–5Sn–10Mo (85 GPa) exhibited relatively low elastic moduli and had excellent elastic recovery angles of 27.4° and 37.8°, respectively. Furthermore, they exhibited high ductility and moderate strength, as evaluated using the three-point bending test. Search for a more suitable implant material by this study, Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys with 7.5 and 10 wt % Mo appear to be promising candidates because they demonstrate the optimal combined properties of microhardness, ductility, elastic modulus, and elastic recovery capability. PMID:28772820

  7. Electrochemical Testing of Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Lister; R. E. Mizia; H. Tian

    2005-10-01

    The waste package site recommendation design specified a boron-containing stainless steel, Neutronit 976/978, for fabrication of the internal baskets that will be used as a corrosion-resistant neutron-absorbing material. Recent corrosion test results gave higher-than-expected corrosion rates for this material. The material callout for these components has been changed to a Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy (ASTM-B 932-04, UNS N06464) that is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. This report discusses the results of initial corrosion testing of this material in simulated in-package environments that could contact the fuel baskets after breach of the waste package outer barrier. The corrosion test matrix wasmore » executed using the potentiodynamic and potentiostatic electrochemical test techniques. The alloy performance shows low rates of general corrosion after initial removal of a gadolinium-rich second phase that intersects the surface. The high halide-containing test solutions exhibited greater tendencies toward initiation of crevice corrosion.« less

  8. Environmentally Resistant Mo-Si-B-Based Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepezko, J. H.; Sossaman, T. A.; Taylor, M.

    2017-06-01

    High-temperature applications have demonstrated aluminide-coated nickel-base superalloys to be remarkably effective, but are reaching their service limit. Alternate materials such as refractory (e.g., W, Mo) silicide alloys and SiC composites are being considered to extend high temperature capability, but the silica surfaces on these materials require coatings for enhanced environmental resistance. This can be accomplished with a Mo-Si-B-based coating that is deposited by a spray deposition of Mo followed by a chemical vapor deposition of Si and B by pack cementation to develop an aluminoborosilica surface. Oxidation of the as-deposited (Si + B)-pack coatings proceeds with partial consumption of the initial MoSi2 forming amorphous silica. This Si depletion leads to formation of a B-saturated Mo5Si3 (T1) phase. Reactions between the Mo and the B rich phases develop an underlying Mo5SiB2 (T2) layer. The T1 phase saturated with B has robust oxidation resistance, and the Si depletion is prevented by the underlying diffusion barrier (T2). Further, due to the natural phase transformation characteristics of the Mo-Si-B system, cracks or scratches to the outer silica and T1 layers can be repaired from the Si and B reservoirs of T2 + MoB layer to yield a self-healing characteristic. Mo-Si-B-based coatings demonstrate robust performance up to at least 1700 °C not only to the rigors of elevated temperature oxidation, but also to CMAS attack, hot corrosion attack, water vapor and thermal cycling.

  9. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo-40Ni-13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunyan; Wang, Shuhuan; Gui, Yongliang; Cheng, Zihao; Ni, Guolong

    2016-12-06

    Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo-40Ni-13Si (at %). Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo-Ni-Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy-including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility-were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear.

  10. Ultra-fine grained microstructure of metastable beta Ti-15Mo alloy and its effects on the phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Václavová, K.; Stráský, J.; Zháňal, P.; Veselý, J.; Polyakova, V.; Semenova, I.; Janeček, M.

    2017-05-01

    Processing of metastable titanium alloys by severe plastic deformation provides an opportunity to achieve exceptional grain refinement, to enhance the strength and to affect phase transformations occurring during thermal treatment. The main aim of this study is to investigate the microstructure of ultra-fine grained (UFG) material and effect of microstructural changes on phase transformations in metastable β-Ti alloy Ti-15Mo. Metastable β-Ti alloys are currently the most studied Ti-based materials with prospective use in medicine. Ti-15Mo alloy after solution treatment contains metastable β-phase. Metastable ω-phase and stable α-phase particles are formed upon annealing,. Solution treated Ti-15Mo alloy was deformed by high pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature. Severely deformed structure after HPT with grain size of ~200 nm was studied by transmission electron microscopy. In-situ electrical resistance measurements showed significant changes in undergoing phase transformations when compared to coarse-grained (CG) material. Scanning electron microscopy revealed heterogeneous precipitation of α-particles at grain boundaries (GB). Due to the high density of GBs in UFG structure, these precipitates are very fine and equiaxed. The study demonstrates that SPD is capable of enhancing mechanical properties due to grain refinement and via affecting precipitation processes in metastable β-Ti alloys.

  11. MoSi2-Base Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2003-01-01

    Addition of 30 to 50 vol% of Si3N4 particulate to MoSi2 eliminated its low temperature catastrophic failure, improved room temperature fracture toughness and the creep resistance. The hybrid composite SCS-6/MoSi2-Si3N4 did not show any matrix cracking and exhibited excellent mechanical and environmental properties. Hi-Nicalon continuous fiber reinforced MoSi2-Si3N4 also showed good strength and toughness. A new MoSi2-base composite containing in-situ whisker-type (Beta)Si3N4 grains in a MoSi2 matrix is also described.

  12. Mo-Si-B alloys for ultrahigh-temperature structural applications.

    PubMed

    Lemberg, J A; Ritchie, R O

    2012-07-10

    A continuing quest in science is the development of materials capable of operating structurally at ever-increasing temperatures. Indeed, the development of gas-turbine engines for aircraft/aerospace, which has had a seminal impact on our ability to travel, has been controlled by the availability of materials capable of withstanding the higher-temperature hostile environments encountered in these engines. Nickel-base superalloys, particularly as single crystals, represent a crowning achievement here as they can operate in the combustors at ~1100 °C, with hot spots of ~1200 °C. As this represents ~90% of their melting temperature, if higher-temperature engines are ever to be a reality, alternative materials must be utilized. One such class of materials is Mo-Si-B alloys; they have higher density but could operate several hundred degrees hotter. Here we describe the processing and structure versus mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys and further document ways to optimize their nano/microstructures to achieve an appropriate balance of properties to realistically compete with Ni-alloys for elevated-temperature structural applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Development and Validation of Capabilities to Measure Thermal Properties of Layered Monolithic U-Mo Alloy Plate-Type Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2014-07-01

    The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the world's highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium to low enriched uranium. One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of the thermal-conductivity behavior of the fuel system as a function of temperature and expected irradiation conditions. The purpose of this paper is to verify functionality of equipment installed in hot cells for eventual measurements on irradiated uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel specimens, refine procedures to operate the equipment, and validate models to extract the desired thermal properties. The results presented here demonstrate the adequacy of the equipment, procedures, and models that have been developed for this purpose based on measurements conducted on surrogate depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) alloy samples containing a Zr diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061). The results are in excellent agreement with thermal property data reported in the literature for similar U-Mo alloys as a function of temperature.

  14. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J.; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process. PMID:28772747

  15. Improving tribological properties of Ti-5Zr-3Sn-5Mo-15Nb alloy by double glow plasma surface alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lili; Qin, Lin; Kong, Fanyou; Yi, Hong; Tang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum, an alloying element, was deposited and diffused on Ti-5Zr-3Sn-5Mo-15Nb (TLM) substrate by double glow plasma surface alloying technology at 900, 950 and 1000 °C. The microstructure, composition distribution and micro-hardness of the Mo modified layers were analyzed. Contact angles on deionized water and wear behaviors of the samples against corundum balls in simulated human body fluids were investigated. Results show that the surface microhardness is significantly enhanced after alloying and increases with treated temperature rising, and the contact angles are lowered to some extent. More importantly, compared to as-received TLM alloy, the Mo modified samples, especially the one treated at 1000 °C, exhibit the significant improvement of tribological properties in reciprocating wear tests, with lower specific wear rate and friction coefficient. To conclude, Mo alloying treatment is an effective approach to obtain excellent comprehensive properties including optimal wear resistance and improved wettability, which ensure the lasting and safety application for titanium alloys as the biomedical implants.

  16. Microstructural control of FeCrAl alloys using Mo and Nb additions

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Zhiqian; Bei, Hongbin; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2017-08-14

    The effects of Mo and Nb additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of two FeCrAl alloys were studied in this paper. Fine and uniform recrystallized grain structures (~ 20–30 μm) were achieved in both alloys through suitable annealing after warm-rolling. The formation of Fe 2Nb-type Laves phase precipitates in the Nb-containing FeCrAl alloy effectively stabilized the deformed and recrystallized microstructures. The Mo-containing FeCrAl alloy exhibited strong γ texture fiber after annealing at 650–900 °C, whereas the annealed Nb-containing FeCrAl alloy had much weaker texture. Finally, both strength and ductility decreased as the grain size increased in both alloys.

  17. Solution treatment-delayed zirconium-strengthening behavior in Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern Lin, Jiin-Huey; Fu, Yen-Han; Chen, Yen-Chun; Peng, Yu-Po; Ju, Chien-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The present study was devoted to investigate and compare the Zr-strengthening behavior in as-cast (AC) and solution-treated (ST) Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. The experimental results indicated that AC Ti-7.5Mo and AC Ti-7.5Mo-1Zr alloys substantially had an orthorhombic {α }\\prime\\prime phase with a fine, acicular morphology. The content of equi-axed β phase continued to increase with increased Zr content at the expense of {α }\\prime\\prime phase. The threshold Zr content for the formation of β phase in the ST Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys was apparently higher than that in the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. The β granular structure was revealed in ST Ti-7.5Mo-5Zr alloy, which increased with increased Zr content. Unlike AC Ti-7.5Mo-9Zr alloy, within each grain of ST Ti-7.5Mo-9Zr alloy were still observed a significant portion of {α }\\prime\\prime morphology. AC Ti-7.5Mo alloy had the lowest YS, lowest tensile modulus and highest elongation among all AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. When Zr content increased, both YS and modulus significantly increased while the elongation significantly decreased. Compared to AC Ti-7.5Mo alloy, AC Ti-7.5Mo-9Zr alloy had almost double YS, indicating the effectiveness of Zr-induced strengthening in the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. Compared to AC Ti-7.5Mo, ST Ti-7.5Mo alloys had lower YS, UTS and tensile modulus with almost the same elongation. All the XRD, metallography and tensile test results consistently indicated that the presence of Zr could accelerate the formation of β phase and effectively strengthen the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys. A phenomenon of delayed β formation and delayed strengthening was noted in the ST Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys, compared to the AC Ti-7.5Mo-xZr alloys.

  18. The effect of copper doping on martensite shear stress in porous TiNi(Mo,Fe,Cu) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodorenko, V. N.; Kaftaranova, M. I.; Gunther, V. E.

    2015-03-01

    The properties of alloys based on porous nickel-titanium (TiNi) with copper additives have been studied. It is established that the copper doping of porous TiNi(Mo,Fe,Cu) alloys fabricated by the method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis leads to a significant decrease in the martensite shear stress (below 30 MPa). Low values of the martensite shear stress (σmin) in copper-doped TiNi-based alloys allows medical implants of complex shapes to be manufactured for various purposes, including oral surgery. The optimum concentration of copper additives (within 3-6 at %) has been determined that ensures high performance characteristics of TiNi-based porous alloys for medical implants.

  19. Primary arm spacing in chill block melt spun Ni-Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1986-01-01

    Chill block melt spun ribbons of Ni-Mo binary alloys containing 8.0 to 41.8 wt % Mo have been prepared under carefully controlled processing conditions. The growth velocity has been determined as a function of distance from the quench surface from the observed ribbon thickness dependence on the melt puddle residence time. Primary arm spacings measured at the midribbon thickness locations show a dependence on growth velocity and alloy composition which is expected from dendritic growth models for binary alloys directionally solidified in a positive temperature gradient.

  20. Primary arm spacing in chill block melt spun Ni-Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1987-01-01

    Chill block melt spun ribbons of Ni-Mo binary alloys containing 8.0 to 41.8 wt pct Mo have been prepared under carefully controlled processing conditions. The growth velocity has been determined as a function of distance from the quench surface from the observed ribbon thickness dependence on the melt puddle residence time. Primary arm spacing measured at the midribbon thickness locations show a dependence on growth velocity and alloy composition which is expected from dendritic growth models for binary alloys directionally solidified in a positive temperature gradient.

  1. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation resistance of pack siliconized Mo-Si-B alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Sanjib

    2017-08-01

    Oxidation behaviour of MoSi2 coated Mo-9Si-8B-0.75Y (at.%) alloy has been investigated at three critical temperatures including 750, 900 and 1400 °C in static air. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data indicates a remarkable improvement in the oxidation resistance of the silicide coated alloy in both isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis reveal the occurrence of internal oxidation particularly at the crack fronts formed in the outer MoSi2 layer during thermal cycling. The dominant oxidation mechanisms at 750-900 °C and 1400 °C are identified. Development of MoB inner layer further improves the oxidation resistance of the silicide coated alloy.

  2. Structural Phase Transformation in Strained Monolayer MoWSe2 Alloy.

    PubMed

    Apte, Amey; Kochat, Vidya; Rajak, Pankaj; Krishnamoorthy, Aravind; Manimunda, Praveena; Hachtel, Jordan A; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Syed Amanulla, Syed Asif; Vashishta, Priya; Nakano, Aiichiro; Kalia, Rajiv K; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2018-04-24

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit different mechanical properties from their bulk counterparts owing to their monolayer atomic thickness. Here, we have examined the mechanical behavior of 2D molybdenum tungsten diselenide (MoWSe 2 ) precipitation alloy grown using chemical vapor deposition and composed of numerous nanoscopic MoSe 2 and WSe 2 regions. Applying a bending strain blue-shifted the MoSe 2 and WSe 2 A 1g Raman modes with the stress concentrated near the precipitate interfaces predominantly affecting the WSe 2 modes. In situ local Raman measurements suggested that the crack propagated primarily thorough MoSe 2 -rich regions in the monolayer alloy. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to study crack propagation in an MoSe 2 monolayer containing nanoscopic WSe 2 regions akin to the experiment. Raman spectra calculated from MD trajectories of crack propagation confirmed the emergence of intermediate peaks in the strained monolayer alloy, mirroring experimental results. The simulations revealed that the stress buildup around the crack tip caused an irreversible structural transformation from the 2H to 1T phase both in the MoSe 2 matrix and WSe 2 patches. This was corroborated by high-angle annular dark-field images. Crack branching and subsequent healing of a crack branch were also observed in WSe 2 , indicating the increased toughness and crack propagation resistance of the alloyed 2D MoWSe 2 over the unalloyed counterparts.

  3. [Study on high temperature oxidation of Ni-Cr ceramic alloys. Effects of Cr and Mo].

    PubMed

    Mizutani, M

    1990-03-01

    The effects of Cr and Mo addition to Ni-Cr alloys on high temperature oxidation were investigated. The alloys were prepared with the composition of Cr ranging from 5 to 40 wt%. Also 2, 4 and 9 wt% of Mo was added to both Ni-5% Cr and Ni-20% Cr binary alloys. The alloys were heated at 800 degrees C, 900 degrees C and 1000 degrees C for 15 minutes in air, and the weight change after heat treatment was measured by electric automatic balance. The weight change during heating was measured by thermogravimetric measurement (TG). The products after heat treatment were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results are summarized as follows: The Ni-Cr binary alloys were classified into three types of Cr ranging from 5 to 20 wt%, Cr 25% and Cr from 30 wt% to 40 wt% according to the weight gains with oxidation. In the case of the more than 25 wt% Cr content of the Ni-Cr binary alloys, the weight gain was extremely low and the heating temperature effects on the weight change were also small. X-ray diffraction study showed that NiO, NiCr2O4 and Cr2O3 formed on the surface of the Ni-Cr binary alloys whose composition of Cr ranged from 5 to 25 wt%, whereas NiO and NiCr2O4 rarely formed on the Ni-Cr binary alloys whose composition of Cr ranged from 30 to 40 wt%. This suggests that the formation of Cr2O3 prevents the formation of NiO on the alloy with a high Cr content. The weight gain of the Ni-Cr-Mo ternary alloys was smaller than that of the Ni-Cr binary alloys without Mo, and the temperature effects on the weight gain of the Ni-Cr-Mo ternary alloys were different for each Cr content. However, the effect of the amounts of Mo was small. NiO, NiCr2O4, Cr2O3 and MoO2 were identified by X-ray diffraction on the surface of the Ni-Cr-Mo ternary alloys. According to the SEM observation, it seems that NiO was formed at the outermost layer, both NiCr2O4 and Cr2O3 at the inside layer, and MoO2 at the innermost layer. The formation of both NiO and Cr

  4. Influence of graphite-alloy interactions on corrosion of Ni-Mo-Cr alloy in molten fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Hua; Hou, Juan; Ye, Xiang-Xi; Zeng, Chao Liu; Sun, Hua; Li, Xiaoyun; Yu, Guojun; Zhou, Xingtai; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effects of graphite-alloy interaction on corrosion of Ni-Mo-Cr alloy in molten FLiNaK salt were investigated. The corrosion tests of Ni-Mo-Cr alloys were conducted in graphite crucibles, to examine the differences of test specimens in conditions of electric contact and isolated with graphite, respectively. The corrosion attack is severer with more weight loss and deeper Cr depletion layer in samples electric contact with graphite than those isolated with graphite. The occurrence of galvanic corrosion between alloy specimens and graphite container was confirmed by electrochemical measurement. The corrosion is controlled by nonelectric transfer in isolated test while electrochemical reaction accelerated corrosion in electric contact test.

  5. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-04-06

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5-2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni₃Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo₂C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall-Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  6. Microstructure and corrosion behaviour in biological environments of the new forged low-Ni Co-Cr-Mo alloys.

    PubMed

    Hiromoto, Sachiko; Onodera, Emi; Chiba, Akihiko; Asami, Katsuhiko; Hanawa, Takao

    2005-08-01

    Corrosion behaviour and microstructure of developed low-Ni Co-29Cr-(6, 8)Mo (mass%) alloys and a conventional Co-29Cr-6Mo-1Ni alloy (ASTM F75-92) were investigated in saline solution (saline), Hanks' solution (Hanks), and cell culture medium (E-MEM + FBS). The forging ratios of the Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy were 50% and 88% and that of the Co-29Cr-8Mo alloy was 88%. Ni content in the air-formed surface oxide film of the low-Ni alloys was under the detection limit of XPS. The passive current densities of the low-Ni alloys were of the same order of magnitude as that of the ASTM alloy in all the solutions. The passive current densities of all the alloys did not significantly change with the inorganic ions and the biomolecules. The anodic current densities in the secondary passive region of the low-Ni alloys were lower than that of the ASTM alloy in the E-MEM + FBS. Consequently, the low-Ni alloys are expected to show as high corrosion resistance as the ASTM alloy. On the other hand, the passive current density of the Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy with a forging ratio of 50% was slightly lower than that with a forging ratio of 88% in the saline. The refining of grains by further forging causes the increase in the passive current density of the low-Ni alloy.

  7. Ta-Nb-Mo-W refractory high-entropy alloys: Anomalous ordering behavior and its intriguing electronic origin

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Prashant; Smirnov, A. V.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2018-05-31

    From electronic-structure-based thermodynamic linear response, we establish chemical ordering behavior in complex solid solutions versus how Gibbs' space is traversed—applying it on prototype refractory A2 Ta-Nb-Mo-W high-entropy alloys. Near ideal stoichiometry, this alloy has anomalous, intricate chemical ordering tendencies, with long-ranged chemical interactions that produce competing short-range order (SRO) with a crossover to spinodal segregation. This atypical SRO arises from canonical band behavior that, with alloying, creates features near the Fermi surface (well defined even with disorder) that change to simple commensurate SRO with (un)filling of these states. In conclusion, our results reveal how complexity and competing electronic effects controlmore » ordering in these alloys.« less

  8. Ta-Nb-Mo-W refractory high-entropy alloys: Anomalous ordering behavior and its intriguing electronic origin

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Prashant; Smirnov, A. V.; Johnson, Duane D.

    From electronic-structure-based thermodynamic linear response, we establish chemical ordering behavior in complex solid solutions versus how Gibbs' space is traversed—applying it on prototype refractory A2 Ta-Nb-Mo-W high-entropy alloys. Near ideal stoichiometry, this alloy has anomalous, intricate chemical ordering tendencies, with long-ranged chemical interactions that produce competing short-range order (SRO) with a crossover to spinodal segregation. This atypical SRO arises from canonical band behavior that, with alloying, creates features near the Fermi surface (well defined even with disorder) that change to simple commensurate SRO with (un)filling of these states. In conclusion, our results reveal how complexity and competing electronic effects controlmore » ordering in these alloys.« less

  9. Electrochemical stability and corrosion resistance of Ti-Mo alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, N T C; Guastaldi, A C

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of pure Ti and Ti-Mo alloys (6-20wt.% Mo) was investigated as a function of immersion time in electrolyte simulating physiological media. Open-circuit potential values indicated that all Ti-Mo alloys studied and pure Ti undergo spontaneous passivation due to spontaneously formed oxide film passivating the metallic surface, in the chloride-containing solution. It also indicated that the addition of Mo to pure Ti up to 15wt.% seems to improve the protection characteristics of its spontaneous oxides. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies showed high impedance values for all samples, increasing with immersion time, indicating an improvement in corrosion resistance of the spontaneous oxide film. The fit obtained suggests a single passive film present on the metals' surface, improving their resistance with immersion time, presenting the highest values to Ti-15Mo alloy. Potentiodynamic polarization showed a typical valve-metal behavior, with anodic formation of barrier-type oxide films, without pitting corrosion, even in chloride-containing solution. In all cases, the passive current values were quite small, and decrease after 360h of immersion. All these electrochemical results suggest that the Ti-15Mo alloy is a promising material for orthopedic devices, since electrochemical stability is directly associated with biocompatibility and is a necessary condition for applying a material as biomaterial.

  10. Thermal stability of intermetallic phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-06-12

    Understanding the stability of precipitate phases in the Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical to the alloy design and application of Mo-containing Austenitic steels. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, stability of the chi and Laves phases in two Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys were investigated at 1000, 850 and 700 °C for different annealing time. The morphologies, compositions and crystal structures of the matrix and precipitate phases were carefully examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Probe Microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The two key findings resulted from this work. One is that the chi phase is stable at high temperature and transformed intomore » the Laves phase at low temperature. The other is that both the chi and Laves phases have large solubilites of Cr, Mo and Ni, among which the Mo solubility has a major role on the relative stability of the precipitate phases. The developed thermodynamic models were then applied to evaluating the Mo effect on the stability of precipitate phases in AISI 316 and NF709 alloys.« less

  11. Alloying effect on bright-dark exciton states in ternary monolayer Mo x W1-x Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanping; Tom, Kyle; Zhang, Xiaowei; Lou, Shuai; Liu, Yin; Yao, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Binary transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) in the class MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se) have been widely investigated for potential applications in optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. Recently, alloy-based monolayers of TMDCs have provided a stable and versatile technique to tune the physical properties and optimize them for potential applications. Here, we present experimental evidence for the existence of an intermediate alloy state between the MoSe2-like and the WSe2-like behavior of the neutral exciton (X 0) using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) of the monolayer Mo x W1-x Se2 alloy. The existence of a maximum PL intensity around 120 K can be explained by the competition between the thermally activated bright states and the non-radiative quenching of the bright states. Moreover, we also measured localized exciton (XB ) PL peak in the alloy and the observed behavior agrees well with a model previously proposed for the 3D case, which indicates the theory also applies to 2D systems. Our results not only shed light on bright-dark states and localized exciton physics of 2D semiconductors, but also offer a new route toward the control of the bright-dark transition and tailoring optical properties of 2D semiconductors through defect engineering.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of Ti-15Mo alloy for dental implant applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satendra; Narayanan, T S N Sankara

    2008-07-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Ti-15Mo alloy in 0.15M NaCl solution containing varying concentrations of fluoride ions (190, 570, 1140 and 9500 ppm) is evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometric/current-time transient (CTT) studies to ascertain its suitability for dental implant applications. The study reveals that there is a strong dependence of the corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo alloy on the concentration of fluoride ions in the electrolyte medium. Increase in fluoride ion concentration from 0 to 9500 ppm shifts the corrosion potential (E(corr)) from -275 to -457 mV vs. SCE, increases the corrosion current density (i(corr)) from 0.31 to 2.30 microA/cm(2), the passive current density (i(pass)) from 0.07 to 7.32 mA/cm(2) and the double-layer capacitance (C(dl)) from 9.63 x 10(-5) to 1.79 x 10(-4)F and reduces the charge transfer resistance (R(ct)) from 6.58 x 10(4) to 6.64 x 10(3)Omega cm(2). In spite of the active dissolution, the Ti-15Mo alloy exhibit passivity at anodic potentials at all concentrations of the fluoride ions studied. In dental implants since the exposure of the alloy will be limited only to its 'neck', the amount of Mo ions released from Ti-15Mo alloy is not likely to have an adverse and hence, in terms of biocompatibility this alloy seems to be acceptable for dental implant applications. The results of the study suggest that Ti-15Mo alloy can be a suitable alternative for dental implant applications.

  13. The Tribological Difference between Biomedical Steels and CoCrMo-Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Alfons; Weiß, Sabine; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery different self-mating metal couples are used for sliding wear applications. Despite the fact that in mechanical engineering self-mating austenitic alloys often lead to adhesion and seizure in biomedical engineering the different grades of Co-base alloys show good clinical results e.g. as hip joints. The reason stems from the fact that they generate a so-called tribomaterial during articulation, which consists of a mixture of nanometer small metallic grains and organic substances from the interfacial medium, which act as boundary lubricant. Even though stainless steels also generate such a tribomaterial they were ruled out from the beginning already in the 1950 as “inappropriate”. On the basis of materials with a clinical track record this contribution shows that the cyclic creep characteristics within the shear zone underneath the tribomaterial are another important criterion for a sufficient wear behavior. By means of sliding wear and torsional fatigue tests followed by electron microscopy it is shown, that austenitic materials generate wear particles of either nano- or of microsize. The latter are produced by crack initiation and propagation within the shear fatigue zone which is related to the formation of subsurface dislocation cells and, therefore, by the fact that a Ni-containing CrNiMo solid solution allows for wavy-slip. In contrast to this a Ni-free CrMnMo solid solution with further additions of C and N only shows planar slip. This leads to the formation of nanosize wear particles and distinctly improves the wear behavior. Still the latter does not fully achieve that of CoCrMo, which also shows solely planar-slip behavior. This explains why for metallurgical reasons the Ni-containing 316L-type of steels had to fail in such boundary lubricated sliding wear tribosystems. PMID:22498283

  14. The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy under Xe26+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaican; Hai, Yang; Liu, Renduo; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiang-xi; Li, Jianjian; Xue, Wandong; Wang, Wanxia; Tang, Ming; Yan, Long; Yin, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2018-04-01

    The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy was investigated. 7 MeV Xe26+ ion irradiation was performed at room temperature and 650 °C with peak damage dose from 0.05 to 10 dpa. With the increase of damage dose, the hardness of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy increases, and reaches saturation at damage dose ≥1 dpa. Moreover, the damage dose dependence of hardness in both alloys can be described by the Makin and Minter's equation, where the effective critical volume of obstacles can be used to represent irradiation hardening resistance of the alloys. Our results also show that Ni-W-Cr alloy has better irradiation hardening resistance than Ni-Mo-Cr alloy. This is ascribed to the fact that the W, instead of Mo in the alloy, can suppress the formation of defects under ion irradiation.

  15. Grain boundary engineering to control the discontinuous precipitation in multicomponent U10Mo alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor; Kautz, Elizabeth

    Grain boundaries in metallic alloys often play a crucial role, not only in determining the mechanical properties or thermal stability of alloys, but also in dictating the phase transformation kinetics during thermomechanical processing. We demonstrate that locally stabilized structure and compositional segregation at grain boundaries—“grain boundary complexions”—in a complex multicomponent alloy can be modified to influence the kinetics of cellular transformation during subsequent thermomechanical processing. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography analysis of a metallic nuclear fuel highly relevant to worldwide nuclear non-proliferation efforts —uranium-10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy, new evidence for the existence of grainmore » boundary complexion is provided. We then modified the concentration of impurities dissolved in Υ-UMo grain interiors and/or segregated to Υ-UMo grain boundaries by changing the homogenization treatment, and these effects were used used to retard the kinetics of cellular transformation during subsequent sub-eutectoid annealing in this U-10-Mo alloy during sub-eutectoid annealing. Thus, this work provided insights on tailoring the final microstructure of the U-10Mo alloy, which can potentially improve the irradiation performance of this important class of alloy fuels.« less

  16. Improved Mo-Re VPS Alloys for High-Temperature Uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Martin, James; McKechnie, Timothy; O'Dell, John Scott

    2011-01-01

    Dispersion-strengthened molybdenum- rhenium alloys for vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) fabrication of high-temperature-resistant components are undergoing development. In comparison with otherwise equivalent non-dispersion-strengthened Mo-Re alloys, these alloys have improved high-temperature properties. Examples of VPS-fabricated high-temperature-resistant components for which these alloys are expected to be suitable include parts of aircraft and spacecraft engines, furnaces, and nuclear power plants; wear coatings; sputtering targets; x-ray targets; heat pipes in which liquid metals are used as working fluids; and heat exchangers in general. These alloys could also be useful as coating materials in some biomedical applications. The alloys consist of 60 weight percent Mo with 40 weight percent Re made from (1) blends of elemental Mo and Re powders or (2) Re-coated Mo particles that have been subjected to a proprietary powder-alloying-and-spheroidization process. For most of the dispersion- strengthening experiments performed thus far in this development effort, 0.4 volume percent of transition-metal ceramic dispersoids were mixed into the feedstock powders. For one experiment, the proportion of dispersoid was 1 volume percent. In each case, the dispersoid consisted of either ZrN particles having sizes <45 m, ZrO2 particles having sizes of about 1 m, HfO2 particles having sizes <45 m, or HfN particles having sizes <1 m. These materials were chosen for evaluation on the basis of previously published thermodynamic stability data. For comparison, Mo-Re feedstock powders without dispersoids were also prepared.

  17. Correlation of the thermodynamic calculation and the experimental observation of Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel changing Ni, Mo, and Cr contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Gyu; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang; Wee, Dang-Moon

    2010-12-01

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel has improved fracture toughness and strength compared to commercial low alloy steels such as SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which has less than 1% Ni. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels can be achieved by increasing the Ni and Cr contents. In this study, the effects of the alloying elements of Ni and Cr on the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel are evaluated. Changes in the stable phases of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with these alloying elements were evaluated using thermodynamic calculation software. These values were then compared with the observed microstructural results. Additionally, tensile tests and Charpy impact test were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties. The thermodynamic calculations show that Ni mainly affects the change of the matrix phase of γ and α rather than the carbide phase. Contrary to the Ni effect, Cr and Mo primarily affect the precipitation behavior of the carbide phases of Cr 23C 6, Cr 7C 3 and Mo 2C. In the microscopic observations, the lath martensitic structure becomes finer as the Ni content increases without affecting the carbides. When the Cr content decreases, the Cr carbide becomes unstable and carbide coarsening occurs. Carbide Mo 2C in the form of fine needles were observed in the high-Mo alloy. Greater strength was obtained after additions of Ni and Mo and the transition properties were improved as the Ni and Cr contents increased. These results were correlated with the thermodynamic calculation results.

  18. Cubic γ-phase U-Mo alloys synthesized by splat-cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim-Ngan, Nhu-T. H.; Tkach, I.; Mašková, S.; Havela, L.; Warren, A.; Scott, T.

    2013-09-01

    U-Mo alloys are the most promising materials fulfilling the requirements of using low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in research reactors. From a fundamental standpoint, it is of interest to determine the basic thermodynamic properties of the cubic γ-phase U-Mo alloys. We focus our attention on the use of Mo doping together with ultrafast cooling (with high cooling rates ⩾106 K s-1), which helps to maintain the cubic γ-phase in U-Mo system to low temperatures and on determination of the low-temperature properties of these γ-U alloys. Using a splat cooling method it has been possible to maintain some fraction of the high-temperature γ-phase at room temperature in pure uranium. U-13 at.% Mo splat clearly exhibits the pure γ-phase structure. All the splats become superconducting with Tc in the range from 1.24 K (pure U splat) to 2.11 K (U-15 at.% Mo). The γ-phase in U-Mo alloys undergoes eutectoid decomposition to form equilibrium phases of orthorhombic α-uranium and tetragonal γ‧-phase upon annealing at 500 °C, while annealing at 800 °C has stabilized the initial γ phase. The α-U easily absorbs a large amount of hydrogen (UH3 hydride), while the cubic bcc phase does not absorb any detectable amount of hydrogen at pressures below 1 bar and at room temperature. At 80 bar, the U-15 at.% Mo splat becomes powder consisting of elongated particles of 1-2 mm, revealing amorphous state.

  19. Electrodeposition of Ni-Mo alloy coatings for water splitting reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Akshatha R.; Hegde, Ampar Chitharanjan

    2018-04-01

    The present study reports the development of Ni-Mo alloy coatings for water splitting applications, using a citrate bath the inducing effect of Mo (reluctant metal) on electrodeposition, its relationship with their electrocatalytic efficiency were studied. The alkaline water splitting efficiency of Ni-Mo alloy coatings, for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction were tested using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) techniques. Moreover, the practical utility of these electrode materials were evaluated by measuring the amount of H2 and O2 gas evolved. The variation in electrocatalytic activity with composition, structure, and morphology of the coatings were examined using XRD, SEM, and EDS analyses. The experimental results showed that Ni-Mo alloy coating is the best electrode material for alkaline HER and OER reactions, at lower and higher deposition current densities (c. d.'s) respectively. This behavior is attributed by decreased Mo and increased Ni content of the alloy coating and the number of electroactive centers.

  20. Corrosion-resistant amorphous metallic films of Mo49Cr33B18 alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, R.; Distefano, S.; Fitzgerald, D.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion-resistant amorphous metallic alloy films of Mo49Cr33B18 with a crystallization temperature of 590 C were deposited onto glass and quartz substrates by magnetron sputter-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the films was confirmed by their diffuse X-ray diffraction patterns. The deposited films are densely packed (zone T) and exhibit low stress and good adhesion to the substrate. Corrosion current of as-deposited coating of MoCrB amorphous metallic alloy is approximately three orders of magnitude less than the corrosion current of 304 stainless steel in 1N H2SO4 solution.

  1. In vitro biocorrosion of Co-Cr-Mo implant alloy by macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Yi; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2004-11-01

    We hypothesized that macrophage cells and their released reactive chemical species (RCS) affect Co-Cr-Mo alloy's corrosion properties and that alloy corrosion products change macrophage cell behavior. A custom cell culture corrosion cell was used to evaluate how culture medium, cells, and RCS altered alloy corrosion in 3-day tests. Corrosion was evaluated by measuring total charge transfer at a constant potential using a potentiostat and metal ion release by atomic emission spectroscopy. Viability, proliferation, and NO (nitric oxide) and IL-1beta (interlukin-1beta) release were used to assess cellular response to alloy corrosion products. In the presence of activated cells, total charge transfers and Co ion release were the lowest (p < 0.05). This was attributed to an enhancement of the surface oxide by RCS. Cr and Mo release were not different between cells and activated cells. Low levels of metal ions did not affect cell viability, proliferation, or NO release, though IL-1beta released from the activated cells was higher on the alloy compared to the controls. These data support the hypothesis that macrophage cells and their RCS affect alloy corrosion. Changes in alloy corrosion by cells may be important to the development of host responses to the alloy and its corrosion products.

  2. Theoretical Model for Volume Fraction of UC, 235U Enrichment, and Effective Density of Final U 10Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Prabhakaran, Ramprashad; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2016-04-12

    The purpose of this document is to provide a theoretical framework for (1) estimating uranium carbide (UC) volume fraction in a final alloy of uranium with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) as a function of final alloy carbon concentration, and (2) estimating effective 235U enrichment in the U-10Mo matrix after accounting for loss of 235U in forming UC. This report will also serve as a theoretical baseline for effective density of as-cast low-enriched U-10Mo alloy. Therefore, this report will serve as the baseline for quality control of final alloy carbon content

  3. Mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys fabricated by using core-shell powder with dispersion of yttria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Jong Min; Bang, Su-Ryong; Choi, Won June; Kim, Min Sang; Noh, Goo Won; Kim, Young Do

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, refractory materials with excellent high-temperature properties have been in the spotlight as a next generation's high-temperature materials. Among these, Mo-Si-B alloys composed of two intermetallic compound phases (Mo5SiB2 and Mo3Si) and a ductile α-Mo phase have shown an outstanding thermal properties. However, due to the brittleness of the intermetallic compound phases, Mo-Si-B alloys were restricted to apply for the structural materials. So, to enhance the mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys, many efforts to add rare-earth oxide particles in the Mo-Si-B alloy were performed to induce the improvement of strength and fracture toughness. In this study, to investigate the effect of adding nano-sized Y2O3 particles in Mo-Si-B alloy, a core-shell powder consisting of intermetallic compound phases as the core and nano-sized α-Mo and Y2O3 particles surrounding the core was fabricated. Then pressureless sintering was carried out at 1400 °C for 3 h, and the mechanical properties of sintered bodies with different amounts of Y2O3 particles were evaluated by Vickers hardness and 3-point bending test. Vickers hardness was improved by dispersed Y2O3 particles in the Mo-Si-B alloy. Especially, Mo-3Si-1B-1.5Y2O3 alloy had the highest value, 589 Hv. The fracture toughness was measured using Mo-3Si-1B-1.5Y2O3 alloy and the value indicated as 13.5 MPa·√m.

  4. Studies on separation and purification of fission (99)Mo from neutron activated uranium aluminum alloy.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ankita; Kumar Sharma, Abhishek; Kumar, Pradeep; Charyulu, M M; Tomar, B S; Ramakumar, K L

    2014-07-01

    A new method has been developed for separation and purification of fission (99)Mo from neutron activated uranium-aluminum alloy. Alkali dissolution of the irradiated target (100mg) results in aluminum along with (99)Mo and a few fission products passing into solution, while most of the fission products, activation products and uranium remain undissolved. Subsequent purification steps involve precipitation of aluminum as Al(OH)3, iodine as AgI/AgIO3 and molybdenum as Mo-α-benzoin oxime. Ruthenium is separated by volatilization as RuO4 and final purification of (99)Mo was carried out using anion exchange method. The radiochemical yield of fission (99)Mo was found to be >80% and the purity of the product was in conformity with the international pharmacopoeia standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Processability evaluation of a Mo-containing FeCrAl alloy for seamless thin-wall tube fabrication

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Zhiqian; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2017-06-10

    The processability of a Mo-containing FeCrAl alloy (Fe-13Cr-5.2Al-2Mo base, in wt%), developed for accident-tolerant nuclear fuel claddings, was evaluated through a stepwise rolling process at 400 °C under two different inter-pass annealing conditions (i.e., 650 °C for 1 h and at 870 °C for 30 min). The inter-pass annealing at 870 °C easily softened the FeCrAl alloy; however, it led to the formation of coarse grains of ~200 µm. On the other hand, the FeCrAl alloy maintained elongated, deformed grains with the inter-pass annealing at 650 °C, but the annealed samples showed relatively high deformation resistance and strong texture. Importantmore » aspects concerning the processability and microstructural control of FeCrAl alloys, such as deformation inhomogeneity, texture development, and grain coarsening, were discussed. Optimized processing conditions were recommended, based on the results, to achieve desirable microstructures with balanced processability and mechanical properties.« less

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of zirconium doped NiAl/Cr(Mo) hypoeutectic alloy prepared by injection casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, L. Y.; Du, B. N.; Guo, J. T.

    2017-01-01

    NiAl based materials has been considered as most potential candidate of turbine blade, due to its excellent high-temperature properties. However the bad room-temperature properties handicap its application. In the present paper, the zirconium doped NiAl/Cr(Mo) hypoeutectic alloy is fabricated by conventional casting and injection casting technology to improve its room-temperature properties. The microstructure and compressive properties at different temperatures of the conventionally-cast and injection-cast were investigated. The results exhibit that the conventionally-cast alloy comprises coarse primary NiAl phase and eutectic cell, which is dotted with irregular Ni2AlZr Heusler phase. Compared with the conventionally-cast alloy, the injection-cast alloy possesses refined the primary NiAl, eutectic cell and eutectic lamella. In addition, the Ni2AlZr Heusler phase become smaller and distribute uniformly. Moreover, the injection casting decrease the area fraction of primary NiAl phase at the cell interior or cell boundaries. The compressive ductility and yield strength of the injection-cast alloy at room temperature increase by about 100% and 35% over those of conventionally-cast alloy, which should be ascribed to the microstructure optimization.

  7. Summary Abstract: Growth and Alloying of Pd Films on Mo(110) Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Ch. E.; Poppa, H.; Bauer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Alloying in small metal particles and in very thin films has recently received considerable attention. In the past it has been generally assumed that alloying is insignificant up to temperatures. Thus many epitaxy experiments of metals on metals with complete miscibility were performed at temperatures between 200 and 400 C and analyzed assuming no alloying. In particular, alloying was not suspected if the film material was not soluble in the substrate. In the present study, which was stimulated by annealing-induced CO adsorption anomalies on thin film surfaces, it has become evident that low temperature alloying can occur in thin films on a metal substrate which is refractory and has very strong interatomic bonds (as evidenced by a high sublimation energy) provided that the substrate is soluble in the film material. A good example of such a film-substrate combination is Pd on Mo. The solubility of Pd in Mo is very at temperatures below 1000 K but Pd can dissolve slightly more than 40 at. % Mo even at low temperatures.

  8. Effect of commercial mouthwashes on the corrosion resistance of Ti-10Mo experimental alloy.

    PubMed

    Alves Rezende, Maria Cristina Rosifini; Alves, Ana Paula Rosifini; Codaro, Eduardo Norberto; Dutra, Conceição Aparecida Matsumoto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of three commercial mouthwashes on the corrosion resistance of Ti-10Mo experimental alloy. Experiments were made at 37.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C in a conventional three-compartment double wall glass cell containing commercial mouthwashes. Three mouthwashes with different active ingredients were tested: (I) 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan; (II) 0.5 g/l cetylpyridinium chloride + 0.05% sodium fluoride; (III) 0.12% chlorohexidine digluconate. The assessment of the individual effect of active ingredients was studied by using 0.05% sodium fluoride. Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) was used as control. Microstructures from Ti-10Mo experimental alloy and CP Ti were also evaluated using optical microscopy. Ti-10Mo as-cast alloy shows the typical rapidly cooled dendrites microstructure (beta phase) while CP Ti has exhibited a metastable martensitic microstructure. Electrochemical behavior of dental materials here studied was more affected by mouthwash type than by Ti alloy composition or microstructure. In both alloys passivation phenomenon was observed. This process may be mainly related to Ti oxides or other Ti species present in spontaneously formed film. Small differences in passive current densities values may be connected with changes in film porosity and thickness. Protective characteristics of this passive film are lower in 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan mouthwash than in the other two mouthwashes tested.

  9. Mesoscale model for fission-induced recrystallization in U-7Mo alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Linyun; Mei, Zhi -Gang; Kim, Yeon Soo; ...

    2016-08-09

    A mesoscale model is developed by integrating the rate theory and phase-field models and is used to study the fission-induced recrystallization in U-7Mo alloy. The rate theory model is used to predict the dislocation density and the recrystallization nuclei density due to irradiation. The predicted fission rate and temperature dependences of the dislocation density are in good agreement with experimental measurements. This information is used as input for the multiphase phase-field model to investigate the fission-induced recrystallization kinetics. The simulated recrystallization volume fraction and bubble induced swelling agree well with experimental data. The effects of the fission rate, initial grainmore » size, and grain morphology on the recrystallization kinetics are discussed based on an analysis of recrystallization growth rate using the modified Avrami equation. Here, we conclude that the initial microstructure of the U-Mo fuels, especially the grain size, can be used to effectively control the rate of fission-induced recrystallization and therefore swelling.« less

  10. Preliminary Tests for Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta Alloys as Potential Biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălţatu, M. S.; Vizureanu, P.; Bălan, T.; Lohan, M.; Ţugui, C. A.

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, there is a continuing concern for the research and development of alloys for medical and biomedical applications. In order to check the biocompatible character of a new Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta alloys, it is necessary to carry out preliminary laboratory tests to follow how a biomaterial surface would interact with the host. The paper presents tests for Ti-Mo-Zr-Ta alloys like contact angle and DSC test to identify biocompatible character. Contact angle measurement is an experimental technique used to assess the hydrophilic or hydrophobic character of surfaces by reference to the 90º contact angle value and to characterize the thermal behavior, for temperature range between 36.5-37.2ºC, interval which a biomaterial works inside the healthy human body, was used DSC test.

  11. Microstructure, soft magnetic properties and applications of amorphous Fe-Co-Si-B-Mo-P alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiak, Mariusz; Miglierini, Marcel; Łukiewski, Mirosław; Łaszcz, Amadeusz; Bujdoš, Marek

    2018-05-01

    DC thermomagnetic properties of Fe51Co12Si16B8Mo5P8 amorphous alloy in the as-quenched and after annealing below crystallization temperature are investigated. They are related to deviations in the microstructure as revealed by Mössbauer spectrometry. Study of AC magnetic properties, i.e. hysteresis loops, relative permeability and core losses versus maximum induction was aimed at obtaining optimal initial parameters for simulation process of a resonant transformer for a rail power supply converter. The results obtained from numerical analyses including core losses, winding losses, core mass, and dimensions were compared with the same parameters calculated for Fe-Si alloy and ferrite. Moreover, Steinmetz coefficients were also calculated for the as-quenched Fe51Co12Si16B8Mo5P8 amorphous alloy.

  12. An investigation on the biotribocorrosion behaviour of CoCrMo alloy grafted with polyelectrolyte brush.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhu, Yu-Jiao; Hu, Xiang-Yu; Sun, Yan-Fang; Sun, Yu-Long; Han, Jian-Min; Yan, Yu; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Surface grafting of polyelectrolyte brush, such as 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPMK), on hip implant materials has been reported to reduce the wear of the orthopaedic bearing surface. However, the biotribocorrosion behaviour of the SPMK brush has not been taken into consideration in previous research. In the present study, SPMK was grafted on Co28Cr6Mo alloy through photo-induced polymerization, and the biotribocorrosion behaviour was investigated by a series of frictional-electrochemical tests using a universal materials tester combined with an electrochemical measurement (three-electrode) system. Co28Cr6Mo disk and polyethylene (PE) pin were used as the contact pair, and the lubricants were 0.9% saline solution (NaCl) and 0.9% saline solution coupled with 25% bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results showed that SPMK was successfully grafted on Co28Cr6Mo alloy, which was confirmed by the comparison of Raman spectroscopy and static contact angle of the samples before and after surface modification. The greatly reduced electrochemical parameters such as corrosion current and pitting potential indicated that the corrosion rate of Co28Cr6Mo alloy was significantly reduced following SPMK grafting. Additionally, the frictional-electrochemical coupled measurement performed under reciprocating sliding demonstrated that the lowest corrosion current was obtained for the SPMK-grafted Co28Cr6Mo disk, with 0.9% NaCl coupled with 25% BSA as the electrolyte. It is indicated from the present study that SPMK polyelectrolyte brush can greatly improve the anti-biotribocorrosion properties of Co28Cr6Mo alloy, and thus has potential application on surface modification of hip implant materials.

  13. MoRe-based tunnel junctions and their characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaternik, V.; Larkin, S.; Noskov, V.; Chubatyy, V.; Sizontov, V.; Miroshnikov, A.; Karmazin, A.

    2008-02-01

    Perspective Josephson Mo-Re alloy-oxide-Pb, Mo-Re alloy-normal metal-oxide-Pb and Mo-Re alloy-normal metal-oxide-normal metal-Mo-Re alloy junctions have been fabricated and investigated. Thin (~50-100 nm) MoRe superconducting films are deposited on Al2O3 substrates by using a dc magnetron sputtering of MoRe target. Normal metal (Sn, Al) thin films are deposited on the MoRe films surfaces by thermal evaporation of metals in vacuum and oxidized to fabricate junctions oxide barriers. Quasiparticle I-V curves of the fabricated junctions were measured in wide range of voltages. To investigate a transparency spread for the fabricated junctions barriers the computer simulation of the measured quasiparticle I-V curves have been done in framework of the model of multiple Andreev reflections in double-barrier junction interfaces. It's demonstrated the investigated junctions can be described as highly asymmetric double-barrier Josephson junctions with great difference between the two barrier transparencies. The result of the comparison of experimental quasiparticle I-V curves and calculated ones is proposed and discussed. Also I-V curves of the fabricated junctions have been measured under microwave irradiation with 60 GHz frequency, clear Shapiro steps in the measured I-V curves were observed and discussed.

  14. Mechanical properties of weldments in experimental Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti and Fe-12Mn-1Mo-0.2Ti alloys for cryogenic service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.; Devletian, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties of weldments in two Fe-12Mn experimental alloys designed for cryogenic service were evaluated. Weldments were made using the GTA welding process. Tests to evaluate the weldments were conducted at -196 C and included: equivalent energy fracture toughness tests; autogenous transverse weld, notched transverse weld, and longitudinal weld tensile tests; and all-weld-metal tensile tests. The Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti and Fe-12Mn-1Mo-0.2Ti alloys proved weldable for cryogenic service, with weld metal and heat-affected zone properties comparable with those of the base metal. Optimum properties were achieved in the base alloys, weld metals, and heat-affected zones after a two-step heat treatment consisting of austenitizing at 900 C followed by tempering at 500 C. The Mo-containing alloy offered a marked improvement in cryogenic properties over those of the Mo-free alloy. Molybdenum increased the amount of retained austenite and reduced the amount of epsilon martensite observed in the microstructure of the two alloys.

  15. Effects of substitution of Mo for Nb on less-common properties of Finemet alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butvin, P.; Butvinová, B.; Silveyra, J. M.; Chromčíková, M.; Janičkovič, D.; Sitek, J.; Švec, P.; Vlasák, G.

    2010-10-01

    Particular properties of Fe-Nb/Mo-Cu-B-Si rapidly quenched ribbons were examined. Apart from minor variation, no significant difference due to the Mo for Nb substitution was observed in alloy density and its annealing-induced changes. The same holds for the anisotropic thermal expansion of as-cast ribbon when annealed and for induced anisotropy when annealed under stress. The Mo-substituted ribbons show only slightly higher crystallinity and lower coercivity if annealed in inert gas ambience than in vacuum. Some diversity in surface to interior heterogeneity of the differently annealed ribbons can still be distinguished. Preserving a minor percentage of Nb together with Mo does not seem substantiated to obtain favorable soft magnetic properties of ribbons annealed in inert gas.

  16. Microstructure and Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties of FeCrMoVTi x High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun; Huang, Xuefei; Huang, Weigang

    2017-07-01

    FeCrMoVTi x ( x values represent the molar ratio, where x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) high-entropy alloys were prepared by a vacuum arc melting method. The effects of Ti element on the microstructure and room-temperature mechanical properties of the as-cast FeCrMoVTi x alloys were investigated. The results show that the prepared alloys exhibited typical dendritic microstructure and the size of the microstructure became fine with increasing Ti content. The FeCrMoV alloy exhibited a single body-centered cubic structure (BCC1) and the alloys prepared with Ti element exhibited BCC1 + BCC2 mixed structure. The new BCC2 phase is considered as (Fe, Ti)-rich phase and was distributed in the dendrite region. With the increase of Ti content, the volume fraction of the BCC2 phase increased and its shape changed from a long strip to a network. For the FeCrMoV alloy, the fracture strength, plastic strain, and hardness reached as high as 2231 MPa, 28.2%, and 720 HV, respectively. The maximum hardness of 887 HV was obtained in the FeCrMoVTi alloy. However, the fracture strength, yield stress, and plastic strain of the alloys decreased continuously as Ti content increased. In the room-temperature compressive test, the alloys showed typical brittle fracture characteristics.

  17. Phase transformation in rapidly quenched Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti-Si-B alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, D. G.; Shubakov, V. S.; Zhukova, E. Kh; Gorshenkov, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    The research results of phase transformations in Fe-24Cr-16Co-3Mo-0.2Ti-1Si-B alloys (with a boron content of 1 to 3% by mass) obtained by rapid quenching are presented. The structure formation regularities during the melt spinning and during the subsequent crystallization annealing in rapidly quenched bands of the Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti-Si-B system alloys were studied. The changes in the phase composition of the rapidly quenched Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti- Si-B system alloys after quenching at various quench rates and at different boron concentrations in the alloys are studied. It is shown that during crystallization from an amorphous state, at temperatures above 570 °C, in addition to the α-phase, the σ-phase appears first, followed by the γ-phase. Heat treatment of rapidly quenched bands to high-coercive state was carried out. A qualitative assessment of magnetic properties in a high-coercivity state was carried out. An evaluation of the level of magnetic properties in a high-coercivity state allows us to conclude that the application of a magnetic field during crystallization from an amorphous state leads to anisotropy of the magnetic properties, that is, an anisotropic effect of thermo-magnetic treatment is detected.

  18. Grain boundary engineering to control the discontinuous precipitation in multicomponent U10Mo alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor; Kautz, Elizabeth; ...

    2018-03-30

    Here, we demonstrate here that locally stabilized structure and compositional segregation at grain boundaries in a complex multicomponent alloy can be modified using high temperature homogenization treatment to influence the kinetics of phase transformations initiating from grain boundaries during subsequent low temperature annealing. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of a model multicomponent metallic alloy —uranium-10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) a nuclear fuel, that is highly relevant to worldwide nuclear non-proliferation efforts, we demonstrate the ability to change the structure and compositional segregation at grain boundary, which then controls the subsequent discontinuous precipitation kinetics during sub-eutectoid annealing.more » A change in grain boundary from one characterized by segregation of Mo and impurities at grain boundary to a phase boundary with a distinct U 2MoSi 2C wetting phase precipitates introducing Ni and Al rich interphase complexions caused a pronounced reduction in area fraction of subsequent discontinuous precipitation. The broader implication of this work is in highlighting the role of grain boundary structure and composition in metallic alloys on dictating the fate of grain boundary initiated phase transformations like discontinuous precipitation or cellular transformation. This work highlights a new pathway to tune the grain boundary structure and composition to tailor the final microstructure of multicomponent metallic alloys.« less

  19. Grain boundary engineering to control the discontinuous precipitation in multicomponent U10Mo alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor; Kautz, Elizabeth

    Here, we demonstrate here that locally stabilized structure and compositional segregation at grain boundaries in a complex multicomponent alloy can be modified using high temperature homogenization treatment to influence the kinetics of phase transformations initiating from grain boundaries during subsequent low temperature annealing. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of a model multicomponent metallic alloy —uranium-10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) a nuclear fuel, that is highly relevant to worldwide nuclear non-proliferation efforts, we demonstrate the ability to change the structure and compositional segregation at grain boundary, which then controls the subsequent discontinuous precipitation kinetics during sub-eutectoid annealing.more » A change in grain boundary from one characterized by segregation of Mo and impurities at grain boundary to a phase boundary with a distinct U 2MoSi 2C wetting phase precipitates introducing Ni and Al rich interphase complexions caused a pronounced reduction in area fraction of subsequent discontinuous precipitation. The broader implication of this work is in highlighting the role of grain boundary structure and composition in metallic alloys on dictating the fate of grain boundary initiated phase transformations like discontinuous precipitation or cellular transformation. This work highlights a new pathway to tune the grain boundary structure and composition to tailor the final microstructure of multicomponent metallic alloys.« less

  20. Stacking-fault strengthening of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy via multipass thermomechanical processing.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kenta; Mori, Manami; Sato, Shigeo; Chiba, Akihiko

    2017-09-07

    The strengthening of metallic biomaterials, such as Co-Cr-Mo and titanium alloys, is of crucial importance to the improvement of the durability of orthopedic implants. In the present study, we successfully developed a face-centered cubic (fcc) Co-Cr-Mo alloy with an extremely high yield strength (1400 MPa) and good ductility (12%) by multipass hot-rolling, which is suitable for industrial production, and examined the relevant strengthening mechanisms. Using an X-ray diffraction line-profile analysis, we revealed that a substantial increase in the number of stacking faults (SFs) in the fcc γ-matrix occurred at a greater height reduction (r), while physical modeling demonstrated that the contribution of the accumulated SFs (i.e., the reduction in SF spacing) with an increase in r successfully explains the entire strengthening behavior of the hot-rolled alloy. The present study sheds light on the importance of the SF strengthening mechanism, and will help to guide the design and manufacturing strategy for the high-strength Co-Cr-Mo alloys used in highly durable medical devices.

  1. Direct Metal Deposition of Refractory High Entropy Alloy MoNbTaW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbelstein, Henrik; Thiele, Magnus; Gurevich, Evgeny L.; George, Easo P.; Ostendorf, Andreas

    Alloying of refractory high entropy alloys (HEAs) such as MoNbTaW is usually done by vacuum arc melting (VAM) or powder metallurgy (PM) due to the high melting points of the elements. Machining to produce the final shape of parts is often needed after the PM process. Casting processes, which are often used for aerospace components (turbine blades, vanes), are not possible. Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an additive manufacturing technique used for the refurbishment of superalloy components, but generating these components from the bottom up is also of current research interest. MoNbTaW possesses high yield strength at high temperatures and could be an alternative to state-of-the-art materials. In this study, DMD of an equimolar mixture of elemental powders was performed with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Single wall structures were built, deposition strategies developed and the microstructure of MoNbTaW was analyzed by back scattered electrons (BSE) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy in a scanning electron microscope. DMD enables the generation of composition gradients by using dynamic powder mixing instead of pre-alloyed powders. However, the simultaneous handling of several elemental or pre-alloyed powders brings new challenges to the deposition process. The influence of thermal properties, melting point and vapor pressure on the deposition process and chemical composition will be discussed.

  2. Interaction Between U-Mo Alloys and Alloys Al-Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, S. N.; Tarasov, B. A.; Shornikov, D. P.

    The main objective of the work is the experimental determination of the effect of doping on the kinetics of the interaction of beryllium, aluminum and uranium-molybdenum alloy dispersed in the nuclear fuel. It is shown that an increase in the content of Be in Al leads to a linear decrease in the rate of interaction of the alloy with uranium-molybdenum alloy. Besides AlBe-alloys have higher thermal and mechanical properties than other matrix alloys such as AlSi.

  3. Electronic structure of Mo1-x Re x alloys studied through resonant photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Shyam; Banik, Soma; Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Ganguli, Tapas; Lodha, G. S.; Pandey, Sudhir K.; Phase, D. M.; Roy, S. B.

    2016-08-01

    We studied the electronic structure of Mo-rich Mo1-x Re x alloys (0≤slant x≤slant 0.4 ) using valence band photoemission spectroscopy in the photon energy range 23-70 eV and density of states calculations. Comparison of the photoemission spectra with the density of states calculations suggests that, with respect to the Fermi level E F, the d states lie mostly in the binding energy range 0 to  -6 eV, whereas s states lie in the binding energy range  -4 to  -10 eV. We observed two resonances in the photoemission spectra of each sample, one at about 35 eV photon energy and the other at about 45 eV photon energy. Our analysis suggests that the resonance at 35 eV photon energy is related to the Mo 4p-5s transition and the resonance at 45 eV photon energy is related to the contribution from both the Mo 4p-4d transition (threshold: 42 eV) and the Re 5p-5d transition (threshold: 46 eV). In the constant initial state plot, the resonance at 35 eV incident photon energy for binding energy features in the range E F (BE  =  0) to  -5 eV becomes progressively less prominent with increasing Re concentration x and vanishes for x  >  0.2. The difference plots obtained by subtracting the valence band photoemission spectrum of Mo from that of Mo1-x Re x alloys, measured at 47 eV photon energy, reveal that the Re d-like states appear near E F when Re is alloyed with Mo. These results indicate that interband s-d interaction, which is weak in Mo, increases with increasing x and influences the nature of the superconductivity in alloys with higher x.

  4. In vitro bioactivity investigations of Ti-15Mo alloy after electrochemical surface modification.

    PubMed

    Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja; Kuna, Karolina; Dec, Weronika; Widziołek, Magdalena; Tylko, Grzegorz; Osyczka, Anna M; Simka, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    Titanium and its aluminum and vanadium-free alloys have especially great potential for medical applications. Electrochemical surface modification improves their surface bioactivity and stimulates osseointegration process. In this work, the effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation of the β-type alloy Ti-15Mo surface on its bioactivity is presented. Bioactivity of the modified alloy was investigated by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Biocompatibility of the modified alloys were tested using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) and wild intestinal strains (DV/A, DV/B, DV/I/1) of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteria. The particles of apatite were formed on the anodized samples. Human BMSC cells adhered well on all the examined surfaces and expressed ALP, collagen, and produced mineralized matrix as determined after 10 and 21 days of culture. When the samples were inoculated with D. desulfuricans bacteria, only single bacteria were visible on selected samples. There were no obvious changes in surface morphology among samples. Colonization and bacterial biofilm formation was observed on as-ground sample. In conclusion, the surface modification improved the Ti-15Mo alloy bioactivity and biocompatibility and protected surface against colonization of the bacteria. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 903-913, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of Microalloying on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified Ni-33(at.%)Al-31Cr-3Mo Eutectic Alloys Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, Sai V.; Locci, Ivan E.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2002-01-01

    Despite nickel aluminide (NiAl) alloys' attractive combination of oxidation and thermophysical properties, their development as replacements for superalloy airfoils in gas turbine engines has been largely limited by difficulties in developing alloys with an optimum combination of elevated-temperature creep resistance and room-temperature fracture toughness. Alternatively, research has focused on developing directionally solidified NiAl-based in situ eutectic composites composed of NiAl and (Cr,Mo) phases in order to obtain a desirable combination of properties a systematic investigation was undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center to examine the effects of small additions of 11 alloying elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Nb, Re, Si, Ta, Ti, and Zr) in amounts varying from 0.25 to 1.0 at.% on the elevated-temperature strength and room-temperature fracture toughness of directionally solidified Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo eutectic alloy. The alloys were grown at 12.7 mm/hr, where the unalloyed eutectic base alloy exhibited a planar eutectic microstructure. The different microstructures that formed because of these fifth-element additions are included in the table. The additions of these elements even in small amounts resulted in the formation of cellular microstructures, and in some cases, dendrites and third phases were observed. Most of these elemental additions did not improve either the elevated-temperature strength or the room-temperature fracture toughness over that of the base alloy. However, small improvements in the compression strength were observed between 1200 and 1400 K when 0.5 at.% Hf and 0.25 at.% Ti were added to the base alloy. The results of this study suggest that the microalloying of Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo will not significantly improve either its elevatedtemperature strength or its room-temperature fracture toughness. Thus, any improvements in these properties must be acquired by changing the processing conditions.

  6. Mo-Si-B-Based Coatings for Ceramic Base Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John Harry (Inventor); Sakidja, Ridwan (Inventor); Ritt, Patrick (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Alumina-containing coatings based on molybdenum (Mo), silicon (Si), and boron (B) ("MoSiB coatings") that form protective, oxidation-resistant scales on ceramic substrate at high temperatures are provided. The protective scales comprise an aluminoborosilicate glass, and may additionally contain molybdenum. Two-stage deposition methods for forming the coatings are also provided.

  7. On Nb Silicide Based Alloys: Alloy Design and Selection.

    PubMed

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-05-18

    The development of Nb-silicide based alloys is frustrated by the lack of composition-process-microstructure-property data for the new alloys, and by the shortage of and/or disagreement between thermodynamic data for key binary and ternary systems that are essential for designing (selecting) alloys to meet property goals. Recent publications have discussed the importance of the parameters δ (related to atomic size), Δχ (related to electronegativity) and valence electron concentration (VEC) (number of valence electrons per atom filled into the valence band) for the alloying behavior of Nb-silicide based alloys (J Alloys Compd 748 (2018) 569), their solid solutions (J Alloys Compd 708 (2017) 961), the tetragonal Nb₅Si₃ (Materials 11 (2018) 69), and hexagonal C14-NbCr₂ and cubic A15-Nb₃X phases (Materials 11 (2018) 395) and eutectics with Nb ss and Nb₅Si₃ (Materials 11 (2018) 592). The parameter values were calculated using actual compositions for alloys, their phases and eutectics. This paper is about the relationships that exist between the alloy parameters δ, Δχ and VEC, and creep rate and isothermal oxidation (weight gain) and the concentrations of solute elements in the alloys. Different approaches to alloy design (selection) that use property goals and these relationships for Nb-silicide based alloys are discussed and examples of selected alloy compositions and their predicted properties are given. The alloy design methodology, which has been called NICE (Niobium Intermetallic Composite Elaboration), enables one to design (select) new alloys and to predict their creep and oxidation properties and the macrosegregation of Si in cast alloys.

  8. On Nb Silicide Based Alloys: Alloy Design and Selection

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos.

    2018-01-01

    The development of Nb-silicide based alloys is frustrated by the lack of composition-process-microstructure-property data for the new alloys, and by the shortage of and/or disagreement between thermodynamic data for key binary and ternary systems that are essential for designing (selecting) alloys to meet property goals. Recent publications have discussed the importance of the parameters δ (related to atomic size), Δχ (related to electronegativity) and valence electron concentration (VEC) (number of valence electrons per atom filled into the valence band) for the alloying behavior of Nb-silicide based alloys (J Alloys Compd 748 (2018) 569), their solid solutions (J Alloys Compd 708 (2017) 961), the tetragonal Nb5Si3 (Materials 11 (2018) 69), and hexagonal C14-NbCr2 and cubic A15-Nb3X phases (Materials 11 (2018) 395) and eutectics with Nbss and Nb5Si3 (Materials 11 (2018) 592). The parameter values were calculated using actual compositions for alloys, their phases and eutectics. This paper is about the relationships that exist between the alloy parameters δ, Δχ and VEC, and creep rate and isothermal oxidation (weight gain) and the concentrations of solute elements in the alloys. Different approaches to alloy design (selection) that use property goals and these relationships for Nb-silicide based alloys are discussed and examples of selected alloy compositions and their predicted properties are given. The alloy design methodology, which has been called NICE (Niobium Intermetallic Composite Elaboration), enables one to design (select) new alloys and to predict their creep and oxidation properties and the macrosegregation of Si in cast alloys. PMID:29783707

  9. The structural phases and vibrational properties of Mo1-xWxTe2 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Sean M.; Beams, Ryan; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Kalish, Irina; Singh, Arunima K.; Bruma, Alina; Tavazza, Francesca; Joshi, Jaydeep; Stone, Iris R.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Davydov, Albert V.; Vora, Patrick M.

    2017-12-01

    The structural polymorphism in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provides exciting opportunities for developing advanced electronics. For example, MoTe2 crystallizes in the 2H semiconducting phase at ambient temperature and pressure, but transitions into the 1T‧ semimetallic phase at high temperatures. Alloying MoTe2 with WTe2 reduces the energy barrier between these two phases, while also allowing access to the T d Weyl semimetal phase. The \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloy system is therefore promising for developing phase change memory technology. However, achieving this goal necessitates a detailed understanding of the phase composition in the MoTe2-WTe2 system. We combine polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy with x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to study bulk \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys over the full compositional range x from 0 to 1. We identify Raman and XRD signatures characteristic of the 2H, 1T‧, and T d structural phases that agree with density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, and use them to identify phase fields in the MoTe2-WTe2 system, including single-phase 2H, 1T‧, and T d regions, as well as a two-phase 1T‧  +  T d region. Disorder arising from compositional fluctuations in \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys breaks inversion and translational symmetry, leading to the activation of an infrared 1T‧-MoTe2 mode and the enhancement of a double-resonance Raman process in \\text{2H-M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys. Compositional fluctuations limit the phonon correlation length, which we estimate by fitting the observed asymmetric Raman lineshapes with a phonon confinement model. These observations reveal the important role of disorder in \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys, clarify the structural phase boundaries, and provide a foundation for future explorations of phase transitions and electronic phenomena in this

  10. Different Effect of Co on the Formation of Topologically Close-Packed Phases in Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Re Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qianying; An, Ning; Huo, Jiajie; Ding, Xianfei; Zheng, Yunrong; Feng, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    In current study, two sets of Ni-based alloys (Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Re series) containing 0 to 15 at. pct of Co addition were investigated to understand the formation behavior of TCP phases. Significant difference on the formation behavior of TCP phases and corresponding Co effect was found in two series alloys. TCP precipitates ( P and µ phase) were observed in both grain interiors and boundaries in Ni-Cr-Mo series alloys. Higher levels of Co addition increased the supersaturation of Mo in the γ matrix, which explained that Co addition promoted µ phase formation. In contrast, the TCP precipitates ( σ phase) formed by the manner of discontinuous precipitation transformation in the grain boundaries in Ni-Cr-Re series alloys. More Co additions suppressed the formation of σ phase, which was mainly attributed to the decreased supersaturation of Re in thermodynamically metastable γ matrix. The information obtained from simplified alloy systems in this study is helpful for the design of multicomponent Ni-based superalloys.

  11. [Use of powder metallurgy for development of implants of Co-Cr-Mo alloy powder].

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, J R

    2001-04-01

    This paper discusses the application of powder metallurgy for the development of porous implantation materials. Powders obtained from Co-Cr-Mo alloy with different carbon content by water spraying and grinding, have been investigated. Cold pressing and rotary re-pressing methods were used for compressing the powder. It was found that the sintered materials obtained from water spraying have the most advantageous properties.

  12. High strength Sn-Mo-Nb-Zr alloy tubes and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Cheadle, Brian A.

    1977-01-01

    Tubes for use in nuclear reactors fabricated from a quaternary alloy comprising 2.5-4.0 wt% Sn, 0.5-1.5 wt% Mo, 0.5-1.5 wt% Nb, balance essentially Zr. The tubes are fabricated by a process of hot extrusion, heat treatment, cold working to size and age hardening, so as to produce a microstructure comprising elongated .alpha. grains with an acicular transformed .beta. grain boundary phase.

  13. Tensile and stress-rupture behavior of hafnium carbide dispersed molybdenum and tungsten base alloy wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Hee Mann; Titran, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The tensile strain rate sensitivity and the stress-rupture strength of Mo-base and W-base alloy wires, 380 microns in diameter, were determined over the temperature range from 1200 K to 1600 K. Three molybdenum alloy wires; Mo + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC), Mo + 25w/o W + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC+25W) and Mo + 45w/o W + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC+45W), and a W + 0.4w/o hafnium carbide (WHfC) tungsten alloy wire were evaluated. The tensile strength of all wires studied was found to have a positive strain rate sensitivity. The strain rate dependency increased with increasing temperature and is associated with grain broadening of the initial fibrous structures. The hafnium carbide dispersed W-base and Mo-base alloys have superior tensile and stress-rupture properties than those without HfC. On a density compensated basis the MoHfC wires exhibit superior tensile and stress-rupture strengths to the WHfC wires up to approximately 1400 K. Addition of tungsten in the Mo-alloy wires was found to increase the long-term stress rupture strength at temperatures above 1400 K. Theoretical calculations indicate that the strength and ductility advantage of the HfC dispersed alloy wires is due to the resistance to recrystallization imparted by the dispersoid.

  14. Schaeffler-Type Phase Diagram of Ti-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, K.

    2017-10-01

    The α(hcp)/β(bcc) phase equilibria of Ti-based multi-component alloys can be described by a Schaeffler-type diagram, where Al and Mo equivalents (Aleq and Moeq) are used. Aleq is thermodynamically defined by the ratio of partial molar free energy changes transfer of one mole of each α forming element and Al from a dilute solution of α to β phases, while Moeq is also deduced by similar thermodynamic quantities of β forming element and Mo. Aleq and Moeq for 40 alloying elements are estimated from the thermodynamic parameters assessed by Kaufman and Murray. It is shown that three types of Ti alloys, i.e., α and near α, α+β, and β alloys, can be exactly classified using Aleq and Moeq. The Ms and β transus temperatures can also be predicted by Aleq and Moeq. The proposed Aleq and Moeq are very useful for alloy design, heat treatment, and microstructural evolution of Ti-based alloys.

  15. Graphene coating on the surface of CoCrMo alloy enhances the adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Kewen; Yan, Jinhong; Wang, Zhuo; Wu, Qi; Bi, Long; Yang, Min; Han, Yisheng

    2018-03-18

    The objective was to investigate whether a graphene coating could improve the surface bioactivity of a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum-based alloy (CoCrMo). Graphene was produced by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to the surface of the CoCrMo alloy using an improved wet transfer approach. The morphology of the samples was observed, and the adhesion force and stabilization of graphene coating were analyzed by a nanoscratch test and ultrasonication test. In an in vitro study, the adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured on the samples were quantified via an Alamar Blue assay and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The results showed that it is feasible to apply graphene to modify the surface of a CoCrMo alloy, and the enhancement of the adhesion and proliferation of BMSCs was also shown in the present study. In conclusion, graphene exhibits considerable potential for enhancing the surface bioactivity of CoCrMo alloy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface Characterization, Corrosion Resistance and in Vitro Biocompatibility of a New Ti-Hf-Mo-Sn Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Ion, Raluca; Drob, Silviu Iulian; Ijaz, Muhammad Farzik; Vasilescu, Cora; Osiceanu, Petre; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Cimpean, Anisoara; Gloriant, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    A new superelastic Ti-23Hf-3Mo-4Sn biomedical alloy displaying a particularly large recovery strain was synthesized and characterized in this study. Its native passive film is very thick (18 nm) and contains very protective TiO2, Ti2O3, HfO2, MoO2, and SnO2 oxides (XPS analysis). This alloy revealed nobler electrochemical behavior, more favorable values of the corrosion parameters and open circuit potentials in simulated body fluid in comparison with commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy taken as reference biomaterials in this study. This is due to the favorable influence of the alloying elements Hf, Sn, Mo, which enhance the protective properties of the native passive film on alloy surface. Impedance spectra showed a passive film with two layers, an inner, capacitive, barrier, dense layer and an outer, less insulating, porous layer that confer both high corrosion resistance and bioactivity to the alloy. In vitro tests were carried out in order to evaluate the response of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) to Ti-23Hf-3Mo-4Sn alloy in terms of cell viability, cell proliferation, phenotypic marker expression and nitric oxide release. The results indicate a similar level of cytocompatibility with HUVEC cells cultured on Ti-23Hf-3Mo-4Sn substrate and those cultured on the conventional CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V metallic materials. PMID:28773939

  17. Autonomous Filling of Grain-Boundary Cavities during Creep Loading in Fe-Mo Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Fang, H.; Gramsma, M. E.; Kwakernaak, C.; Sloof, W. G.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Kuzmina, M.; Herbig, M.; Raabe, D.; Brück, E.; van der Zwaag, S.; van Dijk, N. H.

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the autonomous repair of creep damage by site-selective precipitation in a binary Fe-Mo alloy (6.2 wt pct Mo) during constant-stress creep tests at temperatures of 813 K, 823 K, and 838 K (540 °C, 550 °C, and 565 °C). Scanning electron microscopy studies on the morphology of the creep-failed samples reveal irregularly formed deposits that show a close spatial correlation with the creep cavities, indicating the filling of creep cavities at grain boundaries by precipitation of the Fe2Mo Laves phase. Complementary transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography have been used to characterize the precipitation mechanism and the segregation at grain boundaries in detail.

  18. Electrodeposition of Zn-Co-Mo Alloy on the Steel Substrate from Citrate Bath and Its Corrosion Behavior in the Chloride Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyvani, A.; Yeganeh, M.; Rezaeyan, H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Zn-Co-Mo coatings were deposited on the steel substrate from a citrate bath after adjusting pH, concentration, and current density. The morphology, the content of alloying elements, and the thickness of deposits were studied. Deposition behavior of these ternary coatings was examined by cathodic polarization and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The synthesized deposits were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The results showed that the deposition potential of Zn-Co-Mo alloy was feasible in negative potentials higher than about -1.25 V versus Ag/AgCl. Moreover, the corrosion behavior of these coatings was found to be related to the extent of Mo as well as the local anodes and cathodes. The amount of molybdenum in the Zn-Co-Mo coating varied from 2.6 to 14 wt.% as a result of changing the pH. Based on the experimental findings, a narrow range of pH values between 5 and 5.5 could contribute to the high quality of coating in conjunction with the corrosion resistant alloy. Besides, the coatings with Mo element could show a passive-like behavior in the anodic region.

  19. Wettability of magnesium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornelas, Victor Manuel

    The premise of this project was to determine the wettability behavior of Mg-based alloys using three different liquids. Contact angle measurements were carried out along with utilizing the Zisman method for obtaining values for the critical surface tension. Adhesion energy values were also found through the use of the Young-Dupre equation. This project utilized the Mg-based alloy Mg-2Zn-2Gd with supplemented alpha-Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), Phosphate Buffer Saline solution (PBS), and distilled water. These three liquids are commonly used in cell cultivation and protein adsorption studies. Supplemented alpha-MEM consisted of alpha-MEM, fetal bovine serum, and penicillin-streptomycin. Mg-2Zn-2Gd was used because of observed superior mechanical properties and better corrosion resistance as compared to conventional Mg-alloys. These attractive properties have made it possible for this alloy to be used in biomedical devices within the human body. However, the successful use of this alloy system in the human body requires knowledge in the response of protein adsorption on the alloy surface. Protein adsorption depends on many parameters, but one of the most important factors is the wettability behavior at the surface.

  20. Vanadium Oxide Thin Films Alloyed with Ti, Zr, Nb, and Mo for Uncooled Infrared Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcelik, Adem; Cabarcos, Orlando; Allara, David L.; Horn, Mark W.

    2013-05-01

    Microbolometer-grade vanadium oxide (VO x ) thin films with 1.3 < x < 2.0 were prepared by pulsed direct-current (DC) sputtering using substrate bias in a controlled oxygen and argon environment. These films were systematically alloyed with Ti, Nb, Mo, and Zr using a second gun and radiofrequency (RF) reactive co-sputtering to probe the effects of the transition metals on the film charge transport characteristics. The results reveal that the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and resistivity are unexpectedly similar for alloyed and unalloyed films up to alloy compositions in the ˜20 at.% range. Analysis of the film structures for the case of the 17% Nb-alloyed film by glancing-angle x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy shows that the microstructure remains even with the addition of high concentrations of alloy metal, demonstrating the robust character of the VO x films to maintain favorable electrical transport properties for bolometer applications. Postdeposition thermal annealing of the alloyed VO x films further reveals improvement of electrical properties compared with unalloyed films, indicating a direction for further improvements in the materials.

  1. Mechanically Activated Combustion Synthesis of MoSi 2-Based Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shafirovich, Evgeny

    2015-09-30

    The thermal efficiency of gas-turbine power plants could be dramatically increased by the development of new structural materials based on molybdenum silicides and borosilicides, which can operate at temperatures higher than 1300 °C with no need for cooling. A major challenge, however, is to simultaneously achieve high oxidation resistance and acceptable mechanical properties at high temperatures. One approach is based on the fabrication of MoSi2-Mo5Si3 composites that combine high oxidation resistance of MoSi2 and good mechanical properties of Mo5Si3. Another approach involves the addition of boron to Mo-rich silicides for improving their oxidation resistance through the formation of a borosilicatemore » surface layer. In particular, materials based on Mo5SiB2 phase are promising materials that offer favorable combinations of high temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. However, the synthesis of Mo-Si-B multi-phase alloys is difficult because of their extremely high melting temperatures. Mechanical alloying has been considered as a promising method, but it requires long milling times, leading to large energy consumption and contamination of the product by grinding media. In the reported work, MoSi2-Mo5Si3 composites and several materials based on Mo5SiB2 phase have been obtained by mechanically activated self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (MASHS). Short-term milling of Mo/Si mixture in a planetary mill has enabled a self-sustained propagation of the combustion front over the mixture pellet, leading to the formation of MoSi2-T1 composites. Combustion of Mo/Si/B mixtures for the formation of T2 phase becomes possible if the composition is designed for the addition of more exothermic reactions leading to the formation of MoB, TiC, or TiB2. Upon ignition, Mo/Si/B and Mo/Si/B/Ti mixtures exhibited spin combustion, but the products were porous, contained undesired secondary phases, and had low oxidation resistance. It has been shown that

  2. The irradiation behavior of atomized U-Mo alloy fuels at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Man; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Meyer, M. K.; Hofman, G. L.; Strain, R. V.

    2001-04-01

    Post-irradiation examinations of atomized U-10Mo, U-6Mo, and U-6Mo-1.7Os dispersion fuels from the RERTR-3 experiment irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) were carried out in order to investigate the fuel behavior of high uranium loading (8 gU/cc) at a high temperature (higher than 200°C). It was observed after about 40 at% BU that the U-Mo alloy fuels at a high temperature showed similar irradiation bubble morphologies compared to those at a lower temperature found in the RERTR-1 irradiation result, but there was a thick reaction layer with the aluminum matrix which was found to be greatly affected by the irradiation temperature and to a lesser degree by the fuel composition. In addition, the chemical analysis for the irradiated U-Mo fuels using the Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) method were conducted to investigate the compositional changes during the formation of the reaction product.

  3. TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Dennis Keiser

    2014-04-01

    As an essential part of global nuclear non-proliferation effort, the RERTR program is developing low enriched U-Mo fuels (< 20% U-235) for use in research and test reactors that currently employ highly enriched uranium fuels. One type of fuel being developed is a dispersion fuel plate comprised of U-7Mo particles dispersed in Al alloy matrix. Recent TEM characterizations of the ATR irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates include the samples with a local fission densities of 4.5, 5.2, 5.6 and 6.3 E+21 fissions/cm3 and irradiation temperatures of 101-136?C. The development of the irradiated microstructure of the U-7Mo fuel particles consists ofmore » fission gas bubble superlattice, large gas bubbles, solid fission product precipitates and their association to the large gas bubbles, grain subdivision to tens or hundreds of nanometer size, collapse of bubble superlattice, and amorphisation. This presentation will describe the observed microstructures specifically focusing on the U-7Mo fuel particles. The impact of the observed microstructure on the fuel performance and the comparison of the relevant features with that of the high burn-up UO2 fuels will be discussed.« less

  4. Electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo alloy in naturally-aerated solutions, containing chloride and fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A V; Oliveira, N T C; dos Santos, M L; Guastaldi, A C

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo alloy to applications as biomaterials in solutions 0.15 mol L(-1) Ringer, 0.15 mol L(-1) Ringer plus 0.036 mol L(-1) NaF and 0.036 mol L(-1) NaF (containing 1,500 ppm of fluoride ions, F(-)) were investigated using open-circuit potential, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. Corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability of the Ti-15Mo alloy decreased in solutions containing F(-) ions. In all cases, there were formation and growth of TiO2 and MoO3 (a protector film), not being observed pitting corrosion, which might enable Ti-15Mo alloys to be used as biomedical implant, at least in the studied conditions, since the electrochemical stability and corrosion resistance of the passive films formed are necessary conditions for osseointegration.

  5. The Electrochemical Behavior of Mo-Ta Alloy in Phosphoric Acid Solution for TFT-LCD Application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Byoung O; Seo, Jong Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Molybdenum-tantalum alloy thin film is a suitable material for the higher corrosion resistance and low resistivity for gate and data metal lines. In this study, Mo-Ta alloy thin films were prepared by using a DC magnetron co-sputtering system on a glass substrate. An abrupt increase in the etching rates of low Mo-Ta alloys was observed. From the observed impedance analysis, the defect densities in the MoTa oxide films increased from 5.4 x 10(21) (cm(-3)) to 8.02 x 10(21) (cm(-3)) up to the 6 at% of tantalum level; and above the 6 at% of tantalum level, the defect densities decreased. This electrochemical behavior is explained by the mechanical instability of the MoTa oxide film.

  6. Texture evolution and mechanical anisotropy of biomedical hot-rolled Co-Cr-Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Mori, Manami; Yamanaka, Kenta; Sato, Shigeo; Chiba, Akihiko

    2015-11-01

    Crystallographic textures and their effect on the mechanical anisotropy of a hot-rolled biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloy were investigated. The hot-rolled Co-28Cr-6Mo-0.13N (mass%) alloy examined here exhibited a monotonic strength increment following hot-rolling reduction, eventually reaching a 0.2% proof stress of 1400 MPa while maintaining acceptable ductility (>10%). The dominant hot-rolling texture was a brass-type component, which is characterized by the alloy's peculiarly low stacking fault energy (SFE) even at hot rolling temperatures, although the minor peaks of the near copper component were also identified. However, because of the onset of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) during the hot rolling process, the texture intensity was relatively weak even after 90% hot rolling, although the grain refinement originating from the DRX was not significant (the "less active DRX" condition increased the strain accumulation during the process, resulting in high-strength samples). The weakened texture development resulted in negligible in-plane anisotropy for the hot-rolled specimen strength, when the specimens were tensile strained in the rolling direction (RD) and transverse direction (TD). The elongation-to-failure, however, exhibited a difference with respect to the tensile loading axis. It is suggested that the ductility anisotropy is closely related to a strain-induced γ (fcc) → ε (hcp) martensitic transformation during tensile loading, resulting in a difference in the proportion of quasi-cleavage fracture surfaces. The obtained results will be helpful in the development of high-strength Co-Cr-Mo alloy plates and sheets, and have implications regarding plastic deformation and texture evolution during the hot rolling of non-conventional metallic materials with low SFE at elevated temperatures, where planar dislocation slips of Shockley partial dislocations and thermally activated process interplay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Atomistic simulation of cubic and tetragonal phases of U-Mo alloy: Structure and thermodynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, S. V.; Kolotova, L. N.; Kuksin, A. Yu.; Smirnova, D. E.; Tseplyaev, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    We studied structure and thermodynamic properties of cubic and tetragonal phases of pure uranium and U-Mo alloys using atomistic simulations: molecular dynamics and density functional theory. The main attention was paid to the metastable γ0 -phase that is formed in U-Mo alloys at low temperature. Structure of γ0 -phase is similar to body-centered tetragonal (bct) lattice with displacement of a central atom in the basic cell along [ 001 ] direction. Such displacements have opposite orientations for part of the neighbouring basic cells. In this case, such ordering of the displacements can be designated as antiferro-displacement. Formation of such complex structure may be interpreted through forming of short U-U bonds. At heating, the tetragonal structure transforms into cubic γs -phase, still showing ordering of central atom displacements. With rise in temperature, γs -phase transforms to γ-phase with a quasi body-centered cubic (q-bcc) lattice. The local positions of uranium atoms in γ-phase correspond to γs -phase, however, orientations of the central atom displacements become disordered. Transition from γ0 to γ can be considered as antiferro-to paraelastic transition of order-disorder type. This approach to the structure description of uranium alloy allows to explain a number of unusual features found in the experiments: anisotropy of lattice at low temperature; remarkably high self-diffusion mobility in γ-phase; decreasing of electrical resistivity at heating for some alloys. In addition, important part of this work is the development of new interatomic potential for U-Mo system made with taking into account details of studied structures.

  8. Fabrication, tribological and corrosion behaviors of ultra-fine grained Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fuzeng; Zhu, Weiwei; Chu, Kangjie

    2016-07-01

    Nickel and carbides free Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy was fabricated by combination of mechanical alloying and warm pressing. The microstructure, mechanical properties, pin-on-disk dry sliding wear and corrosion behavior in simulated physiological solution were investigated. The produced Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy has elongated ultra-fine grained (UFG) structure of ε-phase with average grain size of 600nm in length and 150nm in thickness. The hardness and modulus were determined to be 8.87±0.56GPa and 198.27±7.02GPa, respectively. The coefficient of friction upon dry sliding against alumina is pretty close to that of the forged Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy. The initial ε-phase and UFG microstructure contribute to reduce the depth of severe plastic deformation region during wear and enable the alloy with excellent wear resistance. The corrosion potential of such UFG Co-Cr-Mo alloy has more positive corrosion potential and much lower corrosion current density than those of ASTM alloy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Compressive creep behavior of alloys based on B2 FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantravadi, N.; Vedula, K.; Gaydosh, D.; Titran, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    Alloys based on FeAl are attractive alternative materials for environmental resistance at intermediate temperatures. Addition of small amounts of Nb, Hf, Ta, Mo, Zr, and B were shown to improve the compressive creep of this alloy at 1100 K. Boron, in particular, was found to have a synergistic effect along with Zr in providing properties substantially better than the binary alloy. This improvement seems to be related to the higher activation energy found for this alloy, suggesting a modification in the diffusion behavior due to the alloying additions.

  10. Compressive creep behavior of alloys based on B2 FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantravadi, N.; Vedula, K.; Gaydosh, D.; Titran, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Alloys based on FeAl are attractive alternate materials for environmental resistance at intermediate temperatures. Addition of small amounts of Nb, Hf, Ta, Mo, Zr, and B were shown to improve the compressive creep of this alloy at 1100 K. Boron, in particular, was found to have a synergistic effect along with Zr in providing properties substantially better than the binary alloy. This improvement seems to be related to the higher activation energy found for this alloy, suggesting a modification in the diffusion behavior due to the alloying additions.

  11. Type of Primary Nb₅Si₃ and Precipitation of Nbss in αNb₅Si₃ in a Nb-8.3Ti-21.1Si-5.4Mo-4W-0.7Hf (at.%) Near Eutectic Nb-Silicide-Based Alloy.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, Conor; Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-06-07

    The Nb-silicide-based alloy of near eutectic composition (at.%) Nb-21.1Si-8.3Ti-5.4Mo-4W-0.7Hf (alloy CM1) was studied in the cast and heat-treated (1500 °C/100 h) conditions. The alloy was produced in the form of buttons and bars using three different methods, namely arc-melting, arc-melting and suction casting, and optical floating zone (OFZ) melting. In the former two cases the alloy solidified in water-cooled copper crucibles. Buttons and suction-cast bars of different size, respectively of 10 g and 600 g weight and 6 mm and 8 mm diameter, were produced. The OFZ bars were grown at three different growth rates of 12, 60 and 150 mm/h. It was confirmed that the type of Nb₅Si₃ formed in the cast microstructures depended on the solidification conditions. The primary phase in the alloy CM1 was the βNb₅Si₃. The transformation of βNb₅Si₃ to αNb₅Si₃ had occurred in the as cast large size button and the OFZ bars grown at the three different growth rates, and after the heat treatment of the small size button and the suction-cast bars of the alloy. This transformation was accompanied by subgrain formation in Nb₅Si₃ and the precipitation of Nb ss in the large size as cast button and only by the precipitation of Nb ss in the cast OFZ bars. Subgrains and precipitation of Nb ss in αNb₅Si₃ was observed in the small size button and suction-cast bars after the heat treatment. Subgrains formed in αNb₅Si₃ after the heat treatment of the OFZ bars. The partitioning of solutes and in particular of Mo and Ti was key to this phase transformation. Subgrain formation was not necessary for precipitation of Nb ss in αNb₅Si₃, but the partitioning of solutes was essential for this precipitation.

  12. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0-20Fe, 10-30Cr, 2-12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05-3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01-0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni.

  13. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0--20Fe, 10--30Cr, 2--12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05--3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01--0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni. 3 figs.

  14. High strength forgeable tantalum base alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckman, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Increasing tungsten content of tantalum base alloy to 12-15% level will improve high temperature creep properties of existing tantalum base alloys while retaining their excellent fabrication and welding characteristics.

  15. An Investigation on the Tribological Performances of the SiO2/MoS2 Hybrid Nanofluids for Magnesium Alloy-Steel Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongmei; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Bo; Wang, Qinghang; Xu, Junyao; Pan, Fusheng

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid nano-materials offer potential scope for an increasing numerous novel applications when engineered to deliver availably functional properties. In the present study, the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles with different mass ratios were employed as lubricant additives in the base oil, and their tribological properties were evaluated using a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer for magnesium alloy-steel contacts. The results demonstrate that the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles exhibit superior lubrication performances than individual nano-SiO2 or nano-MoS2 even in high load and diverse velocity cases. The optimal SiO2/MoS2 mixing ratio and the concentration of SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles in the base oil are 0.25:0.75 and 1.00-1.25 wt%, respectively. The excellent lubrication properties of the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles are attributed to the physical synergistic lubricating actions of nano-SiO2 and nano-MoS2 during the rubbing process.

  16. An Investigation on the Tribological Performances of the SiO2/MoS2 Hybrid Nanofluids for Magnesium Alloy-Steel Contacts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongmei; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Bo; Wang, Qinghang; Xu, Junyao; Pan, Fusheng

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid nano-materials offer potential scope for an increasing numerous novel applications when engineered to deliver availably functional properties. In the present study, the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles with different mass ratios were employed as lubricant additives in the base oil, and their tribological properties were evaluated using a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer for magnesium alloy-steel contacts. The results demonstrate that the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles exhibit superior lubrication performances than individual nano-SiO2 or nano-MoS2 even in high load and diverse velocity cases. The optimal SiO2/MoS2 mixing ratio and the concentration of SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles in the base oil are 0.25:0.75 and 1.00-1.25 wt%, respectively. The excellent lubrication properties of the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles are attributed to the physical synergistic lubricating actions of nano-SiO2 and nano-MoS2 during the rubbing process.

  17. Phase decomposition of γ-U (bcc) in U-10 wt% Mo fuel alloy during hot isostatic pressing of monolithic fuel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Eriksson, N.; Newell, R.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2016-11-01

    Eutectoid decomposition of γ-phase (cI2) into α-phase (oC4) and γ‧-phase (tI6) during the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of the U-10 wt% Mo (U10Mo) alloy was investigated using monolithic fuel plate samples consisting of U10Mo fuel alloy, Zr diffusion barrier and AA6061 cladding. The decomposition of the γ-phase was observed because the HIP process is carried out near the eutectoid temperature, 555 °C. Initially, a cellular structure, consisting of γ‧-phase surrounded by α-phase, developed from the destabilization of the γ-phase. The cellular structure further developed into an alternating lamellar structure of α- and γ‧-phases. Using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, qualitative and quantitative microstructural analyses were carried out to identify the phase constituents, and elucidate the microstructural development based on time-temperature-transformation diagram of the U10Mo alloy. The destabilization of γ -phase into α- and γ‧-phases would be minimized when HIP process was carried out with rapid ramping/cooling rate and dwell temperature higher than 560 °C.

  18. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 < y < 1), MMo(x)O(y) (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Ca, Mn, Zn, Mg, or Cd; x = 1, y = 4; x = 3, y = 8), MoS2, MoSe2, (MoO2)2P2O7, LiMoO2, Li2MoO3, etc. possess multiple valence states and exhibit rich chemistry. They are very attractive candidates for efficient electrochemical energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  19. Defects-tolerant Co-Cr-Mo dental alloys prepared by selective laser melting.

    PubMed

    Qian, B; Saeidi, K; Kvetková, L; Lofaj, F; Xiao, C; Shen, Z

    2015-12-01

    CrCoMo alloy specimens were successfully fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM). The aim of this study was to carefully investigate microstructure of the SLM specimens in order to understand the influence of their structural features inter-grown on different length scales ranging from nano- to macro-levels on their mechanical properties. Two different sets of processing parameters developed for building the inner part (core) and the surface (skin) of dental prostheses were tested. Microstructures were characterized by SEM, EBSD and XRD analysis. The elemental distribution was assessed by EDS line profile analysis under TEM. The mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. The microstructures of both specimens were characterized showing formation of grains comprised of columnar sub-grains with Mo-enrichment at the sub-grain boundaries. Clusters of columnar sub-grains grew coherently along one common crystallographic direction forming much larger single crystal grains which are intercrossing in different directions forming an overall dendrite-like microstructure. Three types of microstructural defects were occasionally observed; small voids (<10 μm), fine cracks at grain boundaries (<10 μm) and cracks at weld line boundaries (>10 μm). Despite the presence of these defects, the yield and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were 870 and 430MPa and 1300MPa and 1160MPa, respectively, for the skin and core specimens which are higher than casted dental alloy. Although the formation of microstructural defects is hard to be avoided during the SLM process, the SLM CoCrMo alloys can achieve improved mechanical properties than their casted counterparts, implying they are "defect-tolerant". Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Grain Misorientation Angle on Twinning Propagation in Ti-15Mo Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Y.-D.; Lee, Y.-K.; Song, K. H.

    2018-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of grain misorientation angle distribution on the deformation behavior and twinning of Ti-15Mo alloy. Cold rolling exhibited a significant texture with grains oriented along the {111}//normal direction, which correlate with a higher fraction of low-angle boundaries. This material showed a lower yield strength and higher elongation than those of the hot rolled material. The twinning propagation mainly occurred between neighboring grains with a low-angle relation. Consequently, the texture development was correlated with low-angle boundaries and affected by the increase in the twinning density, which increased the strain hardening rate.

  1. Cladding of Mg alloy with Zr based BMG Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasada Rao, A. K.; Oh, Y. S.; Faisal, M. K.; Kim, N. J.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to clad AZ31 magnesium alloy with Zr-based bulk metallic glassy alloy (Vit-1), by casting method. The interface studies conducted using SEM-EDS line scan indicate that a good bond is formed at the clad interface of Zr and Mg. And the mechanism involved is discussed herein.

  2. A model to describe the surface gradient-nanograin formation and property of friction stir processed laser Co-Cr-Ni-Mo alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruidi; Yuan, Tiechui; Qiu, Zili

    2014-07-01

    A gradient-nanograin surface layer of Co-base alloy was prepared by friction stir processing (FSP) of laser-clad coating in this work. However, it is lack of a quantitatively function relationship between grain refinement and FSP conditions. Based on this, an analytic model is derived for the correlations between carbide size, hardness and rotary speed, layer depth during in-situ FSP of laser-clad Co-Cr-Ni-Mo alloy. The model is based on the principle of typical plastic flow in friction welding and dynamic recrystallization. The FSP experiment for modification of laser-clad Co-based alloy was conducted and its gradient nanograin and hardness were characterized. It shows that the model is consistent with experimental results.

  3. Surface compositional variations of Mo-47Re alloy as a function of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoekje, S. J.; Outlaw, R. A.; Sankaran, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium alloys are candidate materials for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) as well as for other applications in generic hypersonics. These materials are expected to be subjected to high-temperature (above 1200 C) casual hydrogen (below 50 torr), which could potentially degrade the material strength. Since the uptake of hydrogen may be controlled by the contaminant surface barriers, a study of Mo-47Re was conducted to examine the variations in surface composition as a function of temperature from 25 C to 1000 C. Pure molybdenum and rhenium were also examined and the results compared with those for the alloy. The analytical techniques employed were Auger electron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, and x ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The native surface was rich in metallic oxides that disappeared at elevated temperatures. As the temperature increased, the carbon and oxygen disappeared by 800 C and the surface was subsequently populated by the segregation of silicon, presumably from the grain boundaries. The alloy readily chemisorbed oxygen, which disappeared with heating. The disappearance temperature progressively increased for successive dosings. When the alloy was exposed to 800 torr of hydrogen at 900 C for 1 hour, no hydrogen interaction was observed.

  4. Development of multilayer perceptron networks for isothermal time temperature transformation prediction of U-Mo-X alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Jesse M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a multilayered perceptron (MLP) network is used to develop predictive isothermal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) models covering a range of U-Mo binary and ternary alloys. The selected ternary alloys for model development are U-Mo-Ru, U-Mo-Nb, U-Mo-Zr, U-Mo-Cr, and U-Mo-Re. These model's ability to predict 'novel' U-Mo alloys is shown quite well despite the discrepancies between literature sources for similar alloys which likely arise from different thermal-mechanical processing conditions. These models are developed with the primary purpose of informing experimental decisions. Additional experimental insight is necessary in order to reduce the number of experiments required to isolate ideal alloys. These models allow test planners to evaluate areas of experimental interest; once initial tests are conducted, the model can be updated and further improve follow-on testing decisions. The model also improves analysis capabilities by reducing the number of data points necessary from any particular test. For example, if one or two isotherms are measured during a test, the model can construct the rest of the TTT curve over a wide range of temperature and time. This modeling capability reduces the cost of experiments while also improving the value of the results from the tests. The reduced costs could result in improved material characterization and therefore improved fundamental understanding of TTT dynamics. As additional understanding of phenomena driving TTTs is acquired, this type of MLP model can be used to populate unknowns (such as material impurity and other thermal mechanical properties) from past literature sources.

  5. Development of multilayer perceptron networks for isothermal time temperature transformation prediction of U-Mo-X alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Jesse M.; Burkes, Douglas

    In this work, a multilayered perceptron (MLP) network is used to develop predictive isothermal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) models covering a range of U-Mo binary and ternary alloys. The selected ternary alloys for model development are U-Mo-Ru, U-Mo-Nb, U-Mo-Zr, U-Mo-Cr, and U-Mo-Re. These model’s ability to predict 'novel' U-Mo alloys is shown quite well despite the discrepancies between literature sources for similar alloys which likely arise from different thermal-mechanical processing conditions. These models are developed with the primary purpose of informing experimental decisions. Additional experimental insight is necessary in order to reduce the number of experiments required to isolate ideal alloys. Thesemore » models allow test planners to evaluate areas of experimental interest; once initial tests are conducted, the model can be updated and further improve follow-on testing decisions. The model also improves analysis capabilities by reducing the number of data points necessary from any particular test. For example, if one or two isotherms are measured during a test, the model can construct the rest of the TTT curve over a wide range of temperature and time. This modeling capability reduces the cost of experiments while also improving the value of the results from the tests. The reduced costs could result in improved material characterization and therefore improved fundamental understanding of TTT dynamics. As additional understanding of phenomena driving TTTs is acquired, this type of MLP model can be used to populate unknowns (such as material impurity and other thermal mechanical properties) from past literature sources.« less

  6. Microstructural characterization of low and high carbon CoCrMo alloy nanoparticles produced by mechanical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, T. A.; Goode, A. E.; Porter, A. E.; Ryan, M. P.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.; Brydson, R. M. D.

    2014-06-01

    CoCrMo alloys are utilised as the main material in hip prostheses. The link between this type of hip prosthesis and chronic pain remains unclear. Studies suggest that wear debris generated in-vivo may be related to post-operative complications such as inflammation. These alloys can contain different amounts of carbon, which improves the mechanical properties of the alloy. However, the formation of carbides could become sites that initiate corrosion, releasing ions and/or particles into the human body. This study analysed the mechanical milling of alloys containing both high and low carbon levels in relevant biological media, as an alternative route to generate wear debris. The results show that low carbon alloys produce significantly more nanoparticles than high carbon alloys. During the milling process, strain induces an fcc to hcp phase transformation. Evidence for cobalt and molybdenum dissolution in the presence of serum was confirmed by ICP-MS and TEM EDX techniques.

  7. Shear rupture of a directionally solidified eutectic gamma/gamma prime - alpha (Mo) alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1978-01-01

    Directionally solidified Mo alloys are evaluated to determine the shear rupture strength and to possibly improve it by microstructural and heat treatment variations. Bars of the alloy containing nominally 5.7% Al and 33.5% Mo by weight with balance Ni were directionally solidified at rates between 10 and 100 mm per hour in furnaces with thermal gradients at the liquid-solid interface of 250 or 100 C per cm. A limited number of longitudinal shear rupture tests were conducted at 760 C and 207 MPa in the as - solidified and in several heat treated conditions. It is shown that shear rupture failures are partly transgranular and that resistance to failure is prompted by good fiber alignment and a matrix structure consisting mainly of gamma prime. Well aligned as - solidified specimens sustained the shear stress for an average of 81 hours. A simulated coating heat treatment appeared to increase the transformation of gamma to gamma prime and raised the average shear life of aligned specimens to 111 hours. However, heat treatments at 1245 C and especially at 1190 C appeared to be detrimental by causing partial solutioning of the gamma prime, and reducing lives to 47 and 10 hours, respectively.

  8. Thermal transport and thermopower of bcc U-Mo splat-cooled alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, M.; Buturlim, V.; Paukov, M.; Havela, L.

    2018-05-01

    In order to characterize the electron and thermal transport properties in splat-cooled U-T alloys (T is transition metal), we measured the thermopower S and thermal conductivity κ of selected splat-cooled U-Mo alloys with 0, 11, 12.5, 15 and 17 at % Mo concentrations, as a function of temperature. Additionally, we compare our data with the results of S(T) and κ(T) for pure α-U bulk material. Moreover, what particularly motivated us for undertaking above mentioned investigation was the opportunity for prove the functionality of the TTO (Thermal Transport Option) insert of PPMS apparatus for such form of samples. Working with rapidly solidified materials in the form of splats, i.e. foils of typical thickness ∼ 0.2 mm, or even less, we need to test first whether the TTO output can be taken as reliable for the sample geometry, being far from typical bulk bar-shaped samples.

  9. Microstructural Effects on the Deformation and Fracture of the Alloy Ti- 25Al-10Nb-3B-1Mo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Materials Development Branch whose stimulating discussions on titanium aluminide physical and mechanical metallurgy helped immensely. This thesis may not... properties and fracture is somewhat different in the a 2 +0/B2 titanium aluminides from conventional a+13 titanium alloys. When trying to explain the...effects of microstructure and temperature on tensile and fracture behavior were explored for the titanium aluminide alloy Ti-25AI-l0Nb-3V-lMo (atomic

  10. First-principles studies of Te line-ordered alloys in a MoS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriambelaza, N. F.; Mapasha, R. E.; Chetty, N.

    2018-04-01

    The thermodynamic stability, structural and electronic properties of Te line-ordered alloys are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) methods. Thirty four possible Te line-ordered alloy configurations are found in a 5×5 supercell of a MoS2 monolayer. The calculated formation energies show that the Te line-ordered alloy configurations are thermodynamically stable at 0 K and agree very well with the random alloys. The lowest energy configurations at each concentration correspond to the configuration where the Te atom rows are far apart from each other (avoiding clustering) within the supercell. The variation of the lattice constant at different concentrations obey Vegard's law. The Te line-ordered alloys fine tune the band gap of a MoS2 monolayer although deviating from linearity behavior. Our results suggest that the Te line-ordered alloys can be an effective way to modulate the band gap of a MoS2 monolayer for nanoelectronic, optoelectronic and nanophotonic applications.

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Highly Alloyed FeCrMoVC Steel Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Jun, Joong-Hwan; Lee, Min-Ha; Shon, In-Jin; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we successfully fabricated highly alloyed FeCrMoVC specimens within 2 min by using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The densities of the sintered specimens were almost identical to their theoretical values. Fine (Mo, V)-rich carbides with lamellar structure were precipitated along the grain boundaries of the as-sintered specimen, whereas relatively large carbides were formed additionally in the transgranular region during the tempering treatment. Compared with the specimen produced by a conventional casting method, the FeCrMoVC specimens from SPS showed smaller grain size with finer carbides and higher hardness values.

  12. Specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe-Cu-Mo alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haipeng; Luo, Bingchi; Chang, Jian; Wei, Bingbo

    2007-08-01

    The specific heat and related thermophysical properties of liquid Fe77.5Cu13Mo9.5 monotectic alloy were investigated by an electromagnetic levitation drop calorimeter over a wide temperature range from 1482 to 1818 K. A maximum undercooling of 221 K (0.13 T m) was achieved and the specific heat was determined as 44.71 J·mol-1·K-1. The excess specific heat, enthalpy change, entropy change and Gibbs free energy difference of this alloy were calculated on the basis of experimental results. It was found that the calculated results by traditional estimating methods can only describe the solidification process under low undercooling conditions. Only the experimental results can reflect the reality under high undercooling conditions. Meanwhile, the thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and sound speed were derived from the present experimental results. Furthermore, the solidified microstructural morphology was examined, which consists of (Fe) and (Cu) phases. The calculated interface energy was applied to exploring the correlation between competitive nucleation and solidification microstructure within monotectic alloy.

  13. Effects of long-term aging on ductility of the columbium alloys C-103, Cb-1Zr, and Cb-752 and the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine if aging embrittlement occurs in the columbium alloys C-103, CB-1Zr, and Cb-752 or in the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM. Results showed that aging embrittlement does not occur in C-103, Cb-1Zr, or Mo-TZM during long-term (1000 hr) aging at temperatures in the range 700 to 1025 C. In contrast, aging embrittlement did occur in the Cb-752 alloy after similar aging at 900 C. A critical combination of the solute additions W and Zr in Cb-752 led to Zr segregation at grain boundaries during long-term aging. This segregation subsequently resulted in embrittlement as indicated by an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature from below -1960 C to about -150 C.

  14. A Comparative Study on Dwell Fatigue of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr- xMo ( x = 2 to 6) Alloys on a Microstructure-Normalized Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianke; Ma, Yingjie; Lei, Jiafeng; Liu, Yuyin; Huang, Aijun; Rugg, David; Yang, Rui

    2014-12-01

    The dwell effects of Ti624 x ( x = 2 to 6) alloys, including dwell fatigue life debit, fracture mode and strain accumulation, were characterized and compared. With increasing Mo content, the dwell fatigue life debit decreases quickly, and dwell fatigue fracture exhibits a transition from subsurface to surface initiation. Accompanying these changes, the accumulated strain decreases, and the pattern of secondary cracks loses morphological features typical of dwell cracks. These variations in the fatigue behavior of Ti624 x were attributed on the fundamental level to the dual effects of Mo: It decreases the β transus of titanium and, as a slow diffuser, reduces the rate of phase transformation from β to α. A higher Mo content encourages nucleation of multiple variants of α laths and promotes the transition from aligned colonies to basketweave microstructure during cooling after β forging. As a result both the grain size and microtexture intensity of α grains in the two-phase processed and heat treated microstructure are reduced. Smaller grain size of the alloys with higher Mo content produces smaller slip band spacing and reduces accumulated strain during dwell fatigue, thus reducing propensity for crack initiation. Microtexture was shown to be the direct cause of dwell sensitivity, and their relationship was described with the aid of a two-region redistribution model based on a previous two-element redistribution model proposed by Bache.

  15. Durable pd-based alloy and hydrogen generation membrane thereof

    DOEpatents

    Benn, Raymond C.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry

    2010-02-02

    A durable Pd-based alloy is used for a H.sub.2-selective membrane in a hydrogen generator, as in the fuel processor of a fuel cell plant. The Pd-based alloy includes Cu as a binary element, and further includes "X", where "X" comprises at least one metal from group "M" that is BCC and acts to stabilize the .beta. BCC phase for stability during operating temperatures. The metal from group "M" is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Cr, Nb, Ta, V, Mo, and W, with Nb and Ta being most preferred. "X" may further comprise at least one metal from a group "N" that is non-BCC, preferably FCC, that enhances other properties of the membrane, such as ductility. The metal from group "N" is selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Re, Ru, Rh, Y, Ce, Ni, Ir, Pt, Co, La and In. The at. % of Pd in the binary Pd--Cu alloy ranges from about 35 at. % to about 55 at. %, and the at. % of "X" in the higher order alloy, based on said binary alloy, is in the range of about 1 at. % to about 15 at. %. The metals are selected according to a novel process.

  16. The role of dispersed particles in strengthening and fracture mechanisms in a Mo-ZrC alloy processed by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Takida, T.; Mabuchi, M.; Nakamura, M.

    2000-03-01

    The tensile properties of a ZrC particle-dispersed Mo, which was processed by spark plasma sintering with mechanically alloyed powder, were investigated at room temperature and at elevated temperatures of 1,170 to 1,970 K. The Mo-ZrC alloy showed much higher strength at room temperature than a fully recrystallized pure Mo. The high strength of Mo-ZrC is mainly attributed to a very small grain size (about 3 {micro}m). The main role of the ZrC particle is not to increase strength due to the particle-dislocation interaction, but to limit grain growth during sintering and to attain the very small grain size. The elongationmore » at room temperature of No-ZrC was much lower than that of pure Mo. This is probably related to the higher interstitial contents. However, Mo-ZrC showed a large elongation of 180 pct at 1,970 K and 6.7 x 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}. It was suggested that the ZrC particles stabilized the fine-grained microstructure yet provided no cavitation sites at 1,970 K; as a result, the large elongation was attained.« less

  17. Strengthening of biomedical Ni-free Co-Cr-Mo alloy by multipass "low-strain-per-pass" thermomechanical processing.

    PubMed

    Mori, Manami; Yamanaka, Kenta; Sato, Shigeo; Tsubaki, Shinki; Satoh, Kozue; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Shobu, Takahisa; Chiba, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Further strengthening of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloys is desired, owing to the demand for improvements to their durability in applications such as artificial hip joints, spinal rods, bone plates, and screws. Here, we present a strategy-multipass "low-strain-per-pass" thermomechanical processing-for achieving high-strength biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloys with sufficient ductility. The process primarily consists of multipass hot deformation, which involves repeated introduction of relatively small amounts of strain to the alloy at elevated temperatures. The concept was verified by performing hot rolling of a Co-28 Cr-6 Mo-0.13N (mass%) alloy and its strengthening mechanisms were examined. Strength increased monotonically with hot-rolling reduction, eventually reaching 1,400 MPa in 0.2% proof stress, an exceptionally high value. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) line-profile analysis revealed a drastic increase in the dislocation density with an increase in hot-rolling reduction and proposed that the significant strengthening was primarily driven by the increased dislocation density, while the contributions of grain refinement were minor. In addition, extra strengthening, which originates from contributions of planar defects (stacking faults/deformation twins), became apparent for greater hot-rolling reductions. The results obtained in this work help in reconsidering the existing strengthening strategy for the alloys, and thus, a novel feasible manufacturing route using conventional hot deformation processing, such as forging, rolling, swaging, and drawing, is realized. The results obtained in this work suggested a novel microstructural design concept/feasible manufacturing route of high-strength Co-Cr-Mo alloys using conventional hot deformation processing. The present strategy focuses on the strengthening due to the introduction of a high density of lattice defects rather than grain refinement using dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The hot-rolled samples obtained by our

  18. Tribochemical Characterization and Tribocorrosive Behavior of CoCrMo Alloys: A Review.

    PubMed

    Toh, Wei Quan; Tan, Xipeng; Bhowmik, Ayan; Liu, Erjia; Tor, Shu Beng

    2017-12-26

    Orthopedic implants first started out as an all-metal hip joint replacement. However, poor design and machinability as well as unsatisfactory surface finish subjected the all-metal joint replacement to being superseded by a polyethylene bearing. Continued improvement in manufacturing techniques together with the reality that polyethylene wear debris can cause hazardous reactions in the human body has brought about the revival of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints in recent years. This has also led to a relatively new research area that links tribology and corrosion together. This article aims at reviewing the commonly used tribochemical methods adopted in the analysis of tribocorrosion and putting forward some of the models and environmental factors affecting the tribocorrosive behavior of CoCrMo alloys, a widely-used class of biomaterial for orthopedic implants.

  19. Tribochemical Characterization and Tribocorrosive Behavior of CoCrMo Alloys: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Wei Quan; Liu, Erjia; Tor, Shu Beng

    2017-01-01

    Orthopedic implants first started out as an all-metal hip joint replacement. However, poor design and machinability as well as unsatisfactory surface finish subjected the all-metal joint replacement to being superseded by a polyethylene bearing. Continued improvement in manufacturing techniques together with the reality that polyethylene wear debris can cause hazardous reactions in the human body has brought about the revival of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints in recent years. This has also led to a relatively new research area that links tribology and corrosion together. This article aims at reviewing the commonly used tribochemical methods adopted in the analysis of tribocorrosion and putting forward some of the models and environmental factors affecting the tribocorrosive behavior of CoCrMo alloys, a widely-used class of biomaterial for orthopedic implants. PMID:29278375

  20. Corrosion-wear of β-Ti alloy TMZF (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe) in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueyuan; Hutchinson, Christopher R

    2016-09-15

    Titanium alloys are popular metallic implant materials for use in total hip replacements. Although, α+β titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V have been the most commonly used alloys, the high Young's modulus (∼110GPa) leads to an undesirable stress shielding effect. An alternative is to use β titanium alloys that exhibit a significantly lower Young's modulus (∼70GPa). Femoral stems made of a β titanium alloy known as TMZF (Ti-12Mo-6Zr-2Fe (wt.%)) have been used as part of modular hip replacements since the early 2000's but these were recalled in 2011 by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) due to unacceptable levels of 'wear debris'. The wear was caused by small relative movement of the stem and neck at the junction where they fit together in the modular hip replacement design. In this study, the corrosion and wear properties of the TMZF alloy were investigated in simulated body fluid to identify the reason for the wear debris generation. Ti64 was used as a control for comparison. It is shown that the interaction between the surfaces of Ti64 and TMZF with simulated body fluid is very similar, both from the point of view of the products formed and the kinetics of the reaction. The dry wear behaviour of TMZF is also close to that of Ti64 and consistent with expectations based on Archard's law for abrasive wear. However, wear of Ti64 and TMZF in simulated body fluid show contrasting behaviours. A type of time-dependent wear test is used to examine the synergy between corrosion and wear of TMZF and Ti64. It is shown that the wear of TMZF accelerated rapidly in SBF whereas that of Ti64 is reduced. The critical role of the strain hardening capacity of the two materials and its role in helping the surface resist abrasion by hydroxyapatite particles formed as a result of the reaction with the SBF is discussed and recommendations are made for modifications that could be made to the TMZF alloy to improve the corrosion-wear response. TMZF is a low modulus β-Ti alloy

  1. Ultra-thin bimetallic alloy nanowires with porous architecture/monolayer MoS2 nanosheet as a highly sensitive platform for the electrochemical assay of hazardous omethoate pollutant.

    PubMed

    Song, Dandan; Li, Qian; Lu, Xiong; Li, Yanshan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yuanzhe; Gao, Faming

    2018-06-18

    A novel electrochemical biosensor was designed for sensitive detection of organophosphate pesticides based on three-dimensional porous bimetallic alloy architecture with ultrathin nanowires (PdCo NWs, PdCu NWs, PdNi NWs) and monolayer MoS 2 nanosheet (m-MoS 2 ). The bimetallic alloy NWs/m-MoS 2 nanomaterials were used as a sensing platform for electrochemical analysis of omethoate, a representative organophosphate pesticide, via acetylcholinesterase inhibition pathway. We demonstrated that all three bimetallic alloy NWs enhanced electrochemical responses of enzymatic biosensor, benefited from bimetallic synergistic action and porous structure. In particular, PdNi NWs outperformed other two bimetallic alloy. Moreover, PdNi NWs/m-MoS 2 as an electronic transducer is superior to the corresponding biosensor in the absence of monolayer MoS 2 nanosheet, which arise from synergistic signal amplification effect between different components. Under optimized conditions, the developed biosensor on the basis of PdNi NWs/m-MoS 2 shows outstanding performance for the electrochemical assay of omethoate, such as a wide linear range (10 -13 M∼10 -7 M), a low detection limit of 0.05 pM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, high sensitivity and long-time stability. The results demonstrate that bimetallic alloy NWs/m-MoS 2 nanocomposites could be excellent transducers to promote electron transfer for the electrochemical reactions, holding great potentials in the construction of current and future biosensing devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical and biological characterization of coatings formed on Ti-15Mo alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja; Krok-Borkowicz, Małgorzata; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Simka, Wojciech

    2014-10-01

    β-Type titanium alloys are considered the future materials for bone implants. To improve the bioactivity of Ti-15Mo, the surface was modified using the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP, Ca3PO4), wollastonite (CaSiO3) and silica (SiO2) were selected as additives in the anodizing bath to enhance the bioactivity of the coatings formed during the PEO process. Electrochemical analysis of the samples was performed in Ringer's solution at 37°C. The open-circuit potential (EOCP) as a function of time, corrosion potential (ECORR), corrosion current density (jCORR) and polarization resistance (Rp) of the samples were determined. Surface modification improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo in Ringer's solution. In vitro studies with MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were performed for 1, 3 and 7 days. After 24h, the cells were well adhered on the entire surfaces, and their number increased with increasing culture time. The coatings formed in basic solution with wollastonite exhibited better biological performance compared with the as-ground sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing Wear Resistance and Impact Toughness in High Chromium Iron Mo-Ni Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. K.; Verma, R. S.; Murty, G. M. D.

    2009-06-01

    An alloy with carbon and chromium in the range of 2.0 to 2.5% and 20 to 25%, respectively, with the addition of Mo and Ni in the range of 1.0 to 1.5% each when heat-treated at a quenching temperature of 1010 °C and tempering temperature of 550 °C produces a hardness in the range of 54 to 56 HRC and a microstructure that consists of discontinuous bands of high volume (35-40%) of wear resistant primary (eutectic) carbides in a tempered martensitic matrix with uniformly dispersed secondary precipitates. This alloy has been found to possess adequate impact toughness (5-6 J/cm2) with a wear resistance of the order of 3-4 times superior to Mn steel and 1.25 times superior to martensitic stainless steel with a reduction in cost-to-life ratio by a factor of 1.25 in both the cases.

  4. Improvements of mechanical fatigue reliability of Cu interconnects on flexible substrates through MoTi alloy under-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Joo; Shin, Hae-A.-Seul; Nam, Dae-Hyun; Yeon, Han-Wool; Nam, Boae; Woo, Kyoohee; Joo, Young-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical fatigue of Cu films and lines on flexible substrates was investigated, and an improvement in the structures through the use of a MoTi alloy under-layer was proposed. Fatigue reliability was decreased by 3-fold in lines compared with films in the tensile condition and by 6-fold in the compressive condition. Crack formation was observed to be more detrimental for lines than for films. With a MoTi under-layer, the fatigue limit was increased by 2 times that of a structure without MoTi in the tensile condition and by 15 times in the compressive bending condition. The suppression of delamination through the use of a MoTi under-layer improved the fatigue reliability under compressive bending.

  5. Metal release and speciation of released chromium from a biomedical CoCrMo alloy into simulated physiologically relevant solutions.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of released Co, Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Mo from a biomedical high-carbon CoCrMo alloy exposed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), without and with the addition of 10 µM H2 O2 (PBS + H2 O2 ), and 10 g L(-1) bovine serum albumin (PBS + BSA) for time periods up to 28 days. Comparative studies were made on AISI 316L for the longest time period. No Cr(VI) release was observed for any of the alloys in either PBS or PBS + H2 O2 at open-circuit potential (no applied potential). However, at applied potentials (0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl), Cr was primarily released as Cr(VI). Co was preferentially released from the CoCrMo alloy at no applied potential. As a consequence, Cr was enriched in the utmost surface oxide reducing the extent of metal release over time. This passivation effect was accelerated in PBS + H2 O2 . As previously reported for 316L, BSA may also enhance metal release from CoCrMo. However, this was not possible to verify due to the precipitation of metal-protein complexes with reduced metal concentrations in solution as a consequence. This was particularly important for Co-BSA complexes after sufficient time and resulted in an underestimation of metals in solution. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of bimodal harmonic structure design on the deformation behaviour and mechanical properties of Co-Cr-Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Vajpai, Sanjay Kumar; Sawangrat, Choncharoen; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Ciuca, Octav Paul; Ameyama, Kei

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, Co-Cr-Mo alloy compacts with a unique bimodal microstructural design, harmonic structure design, were successfully prepared via a powder metallurgy route consisting of controlled mechanical milling of pre-alloyed powders followed by spark plasma sintering. The harmonic structured Co-Cr-Mo alloy with bimodal grain size distribution exhibited relatively higher strength together with higher ductility as compared to the coarse-grained specimens. The harmonic Co-Cr-Mo alloy exhibited a very complex deformation behavior wherein it was found that the higher strength and the high retained ductility are derived from fine-grained shell and coarse-grained core regions, respectively. Finally, it was observed that the peculiar spatial/topological arrangement of stronger fine-grained and ductile coarse-grained regions in the harmonic structure promotes uniformity of strain distribution, leading to improved mechanical properties by suppressing the localized plastic deformation during straining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pd surface functionalization of 3D electroformed Ni and Ni-Mo alloy metallic nanofoams for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petica, A.; Brincoveanu, O.; Golgovici, F.; Manea, A. C.; Enachescu, M.; Anicai, L.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents some experimental results regarding the functionalization of 3D electroformed Ni and Ni-Mo alloy nanofoams with Pd nanoclusters, as potential cathodic materials suitable for HER during seawater electrolysis. The electrodeposition from aqueous electrolytes containing NiCl2 and NH4Cl has been applied to prepare the 3D Ni nanofoams. Ni-Mo alloys have been electrodeposited involving aqueous ammonium citrate type electrolytes. Pd surface functionalization has been performed using both electroless and electrochemical procedures. Pd content varied in the range of 0.5 – 8 wt.%, depending on the applied procedure and the operation conditions. The use of a porous structure associated with alloying element (i.e. Mo) and Pd surface functionalization facilitated enhanced performances from HER view point in seawater electrolyte (lower Tafel slopes). The determined Tafel slope values ranged from 123 to 105 mV.dec-1, suggesting the Volmer step as rate determining step. The improvement of the HER catalytic activity may be ascribed to a synergistic effect between the high real active area of the 3D electroformed metallic substrate, Ni alloying with a left transition metal and surface modification using Pd noble metal.

  8. Fabrication of thin film TiO2 nanotube arrays on Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy by anodization.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jiahua; Frandsen, Christine J; Noh, Kunbae; Johnston, Gary W; He, Guo; Tang, Tingting; Jin, Sungho

    2013-04-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization of Ti/Au/Ti trilayer thin film DC sputtered onto forged and cast Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy substrate at 400 °C. Two different types of deposited film structures (Ti/Au/Ti trilayer and Ti monolayer), and two deposition temperatures (room temperature and 400 °C) were compared in this work. The concentrations of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and H2O in glycerol electrolyte were varied to study their effect on the formation of TiO2 nanotube arrays on a forged and cast Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The results show that Ti/Au/Ti trilayer thin film and elevated temperature sputtered films are favorable for the formation of well-ordered nanotube arrays. The optimized electrolyte concentration for the growth of TiO2 nanotube arrays on forged and cast Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy was obtained. This work contains meaningful results for the application of a TiO2 nanotube coating to a CoCr alloy implant for potential next-generation orthopedic implant surface coatings with improved osseointegrative capabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prediction of A2 to B2 Phase Transition in the High Entropy Alloy Mo-Nb-Ta-W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, William; Widom, Michael

    2014-03-01

    In this talk we show that an effective Hamiltonian fit with first principles calculations predicts an order/disorder transition occurs in the high entropy alloy Mo-Nb-Ta-W. Using the Alloy Theoretic Automated Toolset, we find T=0K enthalpies of formation for all binaries containing Mo, Nb, Ta, and W, and in particular we find the stable structures for binaries at equiatomic concentrations are close in energy to the associated B2 structure, suggesting that at intermediate temperatures a B2 phase is stabilized in Mo-Nb-Ta-W. Our ``hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics'' results for the Mo-Nb-Ta-W system are analyzed to identify certain preferred chemical bonding types. A mean field free energy model incorporating nearest neighbor bonds will be presented, allowing us to predict the mechanism of the order/disorder transition. We find the temperature evolution of the system is driven by strong Mo-Ta bonding. Comparison of the free energy model and our MC/MD results suggest the existence of additional low-temperature phase transitions in the system likely ending with phase segregation into binary phases. We would like to thank DOD-DTRA for funding this research under contract number DTRA-11-1-0064.

  10. Atom probe study of B2 order and A2 disorder of the FeCo matrix in an Fe-Co-Mo-alloy.

    PubMed

    Turk, C; Leitner, H; Schemmel, I; Clemens, H; Primig, S

    2017-07-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of intermetallic alloys can be tailored by controlling the degree of order of the solid solution by means of heat treatments. FeCo alloys with an appropriate composition exhibit an A2-disorder↔B2-order transition during continuous cooling from the disordered bcc region. The study of atomic order in intermetallic alloys by diffraction and its influence on the material properties is well established, however, investigating magnetic FeCo-based alloys by conventional methods such as X-ray diffraction is quite challenging. Thus, the imaging of ordered FeCo-nanostructures needs to be done with high resolution techniques. Transmission electron microscopy investigations of ordered FeCo domains are difficult, due to the chemical and physical similarity of Fe and Co atoms and the ferromagnetism of the samples. In this work it will be demonstrated, that the local atomic arrangement of ordered and disordered regions in an industrial Fe-Co-Mo alloy can be successfully imaged by atom probe measurements supported by field ion microscopy and transmission Kikuchi diffraction. Furthermore, a thorough atom probe parameter study will be presented and field evaporation artefacts as a function of crystallographic orientation in Fe-Co-samples will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In situ phase transformation of Laves phase from Chi-phase in Mo-containing Fe–Cr–Ni alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, L.; Yang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    For an in situ phase transformation of the Chi (χ) phase to the Laves phase we observed in a Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo model alloy. The morphology, composition, and crystal structure of the χ and Laves phases, and their orientation relationship with the matrix austenite phase were investigated. The resulted Laves phase has larger lattice mismatch with the matrix phase than the χ phase, leading to the increase of local strain fields and the formation of dislocations. Moreover, this finding is helpful to understand the precipitation behavior of the intermetallic phases in the Mo-containing austenitic stainless steels.

  12. Magnesium-based biodegradable alloys: Degradation, application, and alloying elements

    PubMed Central

    Pogorielov, Maksym; Husak, Eugenia; Solodivnik, Alexandr; Zhdanov, Sergii

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the paradigm about the metal with improved corrosion resistance for application in surgery and orthopedy was broken. The new class of biodegradable metal emerges as an alternative for biomedical implants. These metals corrode gradually with an appropriate host response and release of corrosion products. And it is absolutely necessary to use essential metals metabolized by hosting organism with local and general nontoxic effect. Magnesium serves this aim best; it plays the essential role in body metabolism and should be completely excreted within a few days after degradation. This review summarizes data from Mg discovery and its first experimental and clinical application of modern concept of Mg alloy development. We focused on biodegradable metal application in general surgery and orthopedic practice and showed the advantages and disadvantages Mg alloys offer. We focused on methods of in vitro and in vivo investigation of degradable Mg alloys and correlation between these methods. Based on the observed data, a better way for new alloy pre-clinical investigation is suggested. This review analyzes possible alloying elements that improve corrosion rate, mechanical properties, and gives the appropriate host response. PMID:28932493

  13. [The design of Co-Cr-Mo alloy combining the framework with porcelain fused to metal restorations and determination of the mechanical properties].

    PubMed

    Chao, Yong-lie; Lui, Chang-hong; Li, Ning; Yang, Xiao-yu

    2005-02-01

    To investigate a kind of Co-Cr-Mo alloys used for both porcelain fused to metal (PFM) restorations and casting framework of removable partial dentures. The Co-Cr-Mo alloy underwent the design for elementary compositions of the alloys and the production from the raw materials by means of a vacuum melt furnace. The strength, hardness, plasticity and casting ability of the alloy were examined with metal tensile test. Vickers hardness test and grid casting were examined respectively. The microstructure of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was also inspected by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. The elementary composition of DA9-4 alloy mainly consisted of Co 54%-67%, Cr 21%-26%, Mo 5%-8%, W 5%-8%, Si 1%-3%, Mn 0.1%-0.25% and trace elements. The yield strength of the alloy was 584 MPa, while the tensile strength was 736 MPa. The coefficient of expansion was 15.0%, the Vickers hardness reached 322, and the casting ratio exibited 100%. The DA9-4 Co-Cr-Mo alloy used for PFM and framework shown in this paper can meet the clinical demands and have reached the objects of the experiment plan.

  14. Deformation mechanisms to ameliorate the mechanical properties of novel TRIP/TWIP Co-Cr-Mo-(Cu) ultrafine eutectic alloys

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. T.; Hong, S. H.; Park, H. J.; Kim, Y. S.; Suh, J. Y.; Lee, J. K.; Park, J. M.; Maity, T.; Eckert, J.; Kim, K. B.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the microstructural evolution and the modulation of the mechanical properties have been investigated for a Co-Cr-Mo (CCM) ternary eutectic alloy by addition of a small amount of copper (0.5 and 1 at.%). The microstructural observations reveal a distinct dissimilarity in the eutectic structure such as a broken lamellar structure and a well-aligned lamellar structure and an increasing volume fraction of Co lamellae as increasing amount of copper addition. This microstructural evolution leads to improved plasticity from 1% to 10% without the typical tradeoff between the overall strength and compressive plasticity. Moreover, investigation of the fractured samples indicates that the CCMCu alloy exhibits higher plastic deformability and combinatorial mechanisms for improved plastic behavior. The improved plasticity of CCMCu alloys originates from several deformation mechanisms; i) slip, ii) deformation twinning, iii) strain-induced transformation and iv) shear banding. These results reveal that the mechanical properties of eutectic alloys in the Co-Cr-Mo system can be ameliorated by micro-alloying such as Cu addition. PMID:28067248

  15. Effect of electrochemical corrosion on the subsurface microstructure evolution of a CoCrMo alloy in albumin containing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongwei; Yan, Yu; Su, Yanjing; Qiao, Lijie

    2017-06-01

    The subsurface microstructures of metallic implants play a key role in bio-tribocorrosion. Due to wear or change of local environment, the implant surface can have inhomogeneous electrochemical corrosion properties. In this work, the effect of electrochemical corrosion conditions on the subsurface microstructure evolution of CoCrMo alloys for artificial joints was investigated. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was employed to observe the subsurface microstructures of worn areas at different applied potentials in a simulated physiological solution. The results showed that applied potentials could affect the severity of the subsurface deformation not only by changing the surface passivation but also affecting the adsorption of protein on the alloy surface.

  16. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    DOEpatents

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  17. Tuning structural motifs and alloying of bulk immiscible Mo-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles by gas-phase synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still remains a formidable challenge. Hence, we present here a general methodology for gas phase synthesis of bimetallic NPs with distinctively different structural motifs ranging at a single particle level from a fully mixed alloy to core-shell, to onion (multi-shell), and finally to a Janus/dumbbell, with the same overall particle composition. These concepts are illustrated for Mo-Cu NPs, where the precise control of the bimetallic NPs with various degrees of chemical ordering, including different shapes from spherical to cube, is achieved by tailoring the energy and thermal environment that the NPs experience during their production. The initial state of NP growth, either in the liquid or in the solid state phase, has important implications for the different structural motifs and shapes of synthesized NPs. Finally we demonstrate that we are able to tune the alloying regime, for the otherwise bulk immiscible Mo-Cu, by achieving an increase of the critical size, below which alloying occurs, closely up to an order of magnitude. It is discovered that the critical size of the NP alloy is not only affected by controlled tuning of the alloying temperature but also by the particle shape.Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still

  18. Effects of thermal treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of a Co-Cr-Mo-W biomedical alloy produced by laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Mengucci, P; Barucca, G; Gatto, A; Bassoli, E; Denti, L; Fiori, F; Girardin, E; Bastianoni, P; Rutkowski, B; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A

    2016-07-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technology based on a layer by layer production process was used to produce a Co-Cr-Mo-W alloy specifically developed for biomedical applications. The alloy mechanical response and microstructure were investigated in the as-sintered state and after post-production thermal treatments. Roughness and hardness measurements, and tensile and flexural tests were performed to study the mechanical response of the alloy while X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, STEM) techniques and microanalysis (EDX) were used to investigate the microstructure in different conditions. Results showed an intricate network of ε-Co (hcp) lamellae in the γ-Co (fcc) matrix responsible of the high UTS and hardness values in the as-sintered state. Thermal treatments increase volume fraction of the ε-Co (hcp) martensite but slightly modify the average size of the lamellar structure. Nevertheless, thermal treatments are capable of producing a sensible increase in UTS and hardness and a strong reduction in ductility. These latter effects were mainly attributed to the massive precipitation of an hcp Co3(Mo,W)2Si phase and the contemporary formation of Si-rich inclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low temperature physical properties of Co-35Ni-20Cr-10Mo alloy MP35N®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Toplosky, V. J.; Goddard, R. E.; Han, K.

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase Co-35Ni-20Cr-10Mo alloy MP35N® is a high strength alloy with excellent corrosion resistance. Its applications span chemical, medical, and food processing industries. Thanks to its high modulus and high strength, it found applications in reinforcement of ultra-high field pulsed magnets. Recently, it has also been considered for reinforcement in superconducting wires used in ultra-high field superconducting magnets. For these applications, accurate measurement of its physical properties at cryogenic temperatures is very important. In this paper, physical properties including electrical resistivity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, and magnetization of as-received and aged samples are measured from 2 to 300 K. The electrical resistivity of the aged sample is slightly higher than the as-received sample, both showing a weak linear temperature dependence in the entire range of 2-300 K. The measured specific heat Cp of 430 J/kg-K at 295 K agrees with a theoretical prediction, but is significantly smaller than the values in the literature. The thermal conductivity between 2 and 300 K is in good agreement with the literature which is only available above 77 K. Magnetic property of MP35N® changes significantly with aging. The as-received sample exhibits Curie paramagnetism with a Curie constant C = 0.175 K. While the aged sample contains small amounts of a ferromagnetic phase even at room temperature. The measured MP35N® properties will be useful for the engineering design of pulsed magnets and superconducting magnets using MP35N® as reinforcement.

  20. Electrochemical hydrogen storage alloys and batteries fabricated from Mg containing base alloys

    DOEpatents

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrogen storage material comprising: (Base Alloy).sub.a M.sub.b where, Base Alloy is an alloy of Mg and Ni in a ratio of from about 1:2 to about 2:1, preferably 1:1; M represents at least one modifier element chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, Cu, Mo, W, Cr, V, Ti, Zr, Sn, Th, Si, Zn, Li, Cd, Na, Pb, La, Mm, and Ca; b is greater than 0.5, preferably 2.5, atomic percent and less than 30 atomic percent; and a+b=100 atomic percent. Preferably, the at least one modifier is chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, and Cu and the total mass of the at least one modifier element is less than 25 atomic percent of the final composition. Most preferably, the total mass of said at least one modifier element is less than 20 atomic percent of the final composition.

  1. Characterization of crack-tip microstructures via synchrotron fractography in Mo and Mo-Nb alloy crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hmelo, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The nature of the plastic relaxation associated with the semi-brittle cleavage fracture of a series of pre-cracked molybdenum-niobium alloy single crystals was investigated as a function of composition and temperature from 77/sup 0/ to 298/sup 0/K. Conventional optical microscopy and white-beam Synchrotron X-Ray Fractography (SXRF) were used to examined the structure of a thin layer a few microns thick at the remnant of the precursor crack plastic zone. The plastic work of fracture was evaluated by measuring the lattice curvature associated with networks of dislocations beneath the cleavage surface. Using SXRF, lattice curvature is detected as asterism on photographic plates,more » and is associated with an excess density of edge dislocations of one sign. The results are in qualitative agreement with a previous determination of the fracture toughness of these specimens. Excess edge-dislocation density of one sign has been shown to vary as a function of temperature and composition, in a way consistent with previous studies of total dislocation content in these materials. Unlike the etch-pit analysis that can reveal the total dislocation content only, the tensor bases analysis described here allows the activity on individual slip systems to be distinguished.« less

  2. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Properties of CoCrMo Alloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoqing, Zhang; Junxin, Li; Xiaoyu, Zhou; Jin, Li; Anmin, Wang

    2018-04-01

    To obtain medical implants with better mechanical properties, it is necessary to conduct studies on the heat treatment process of the selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing parts. The differential scanning calorimetry method was used to study the heat treatment process of the phase transition of SLM CoCrMo alloy parts. The tensile properties were tested with a tensile test machine, the quantity of carbide precipitated after heat treatment was measured by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the tensile fracture morphology of the parts was investigated using SEM. The obtained results were: Mechanical properties in terms of elongation and tensile strength of CoCrMo alloy manufactured by SLM that had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h followed by cooling with water were not only higher than the national standard but also higher than the experimental results of the same batch of castings. The mechanism of fracture of parts manufactured by SLM without heat treatment was brittle fracture, whereas parts which had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h combined with water cooling and at 1200 °C for 1 h with furnace cooling suffered ductile fracture. This study provides the basis for defining the applications for which CoCrMo alloys manufactured by SLM are suitable within the field of medical implants.

  3. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Properties of CoCrMo Alloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoqing, Zhang; Junxin, Li; Xiaoyu, Zhou; Jin, Li; Anmin, Wang

    2018-05-01

    To obtain medical implants with better mechanical properties, it is necessary to conduct studies on the heat treatment process of the selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing parts. The differential scanning calorimetry method was used to study the heat treatment process of the phase transition of SLM CoCrMo alloy parts. The tensile properties were tested with a tensile test machine, the quantity of carbide precipitated after heat treatment was measured by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the tensile fracture morphology of the parts was investigated using SEM. The obtained results were: Mechanical properties in terms of elongation and tensile strength of CoCrMo alloy manufactured by SLM that had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h followed by cooling with water were not only higher than the national standard but also higher than the experimental results of the same batch of castings. The mechanism of fracture of parts manufactured by SLM without heat treatment was brittle fracture, whereas parts which had been heat-treated at 1200 °C for 2 h combined with water cooling and at 1200 °C for 1 h with furnace cooling suffered ductile fracture. This study provides the basis for defining the applications for which CoCrMo alloys manufactured by SLM are suitable within the field of medical implants.

  4. Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in a model Ti-Mo-Al alloy studied by direct coupling of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Nag, Soumya; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2013-10-19

    The benefit of direct coupling of APT with TEM dark field imaging to investigate early stages of phase transformation in multicomponent alloys is demonstrated by analyzing alpha phase precipitated in a model Ti-10 at% Mo-10 at% Al alloy during annealing at 400oC. Through such a direct coupling approach a thermodynamically unexpected solute partitioning trend between beta matrix and alpha precipitate is observed in the early stages of precipitation, which is explained based on possible nucleation of alpha phase in the Ti rich (Mo and Al depleted regions) created as a result of phase separation in beta matrix. On further highermore » temperature annealing at 600oC for 1 hour, the alpha precipitates were shown to grow and get enriched in Al and further depleted in Mo reaching the thermodynamic equilibrium.« less

  5. Study on Tribological Properties of CoCrMo Alloys against Metals and Ceramics as Bearing Materials for Artificial Cervical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Dingding; Song, Jian; Wang, Song; Liao, Zhenhua; Liu, Yuhong; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Liu, Weiqiang

    2018-02-01

    CoCrMo alloys are believed to be a kind of potential material for artificial cervical disc. However, the tribological properties of CoCrMo alloys against different metals and ceramics are not systematically studied. In this study, the tribological behaviors of CoCrMo alloys against metals (316L, Ti6Al4V) and ceramics (Si3N4, ZrO2) were focused under dry friction and 25 wt.% newborn calf serum (NCS)-lubricated conditions using a ball-on-disc apparatus under reciprocating motion. The microstructure, composition and hardness of CoCrMo alloys were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness testers, respectively. The contact angles of the CoCrMo alloys with deionized water and 25 wt.% NCS were measured by the OCA contact angle measuring instrument. The maximum wear width, wear depth and wear volume were measured by three-dimensional white light interference. The morphology and the EDX analysis of the wear marks on CoCrMo alloys were examined by SEM to determine the basic mechanism of friction and wear. The dominant wear mechanism in dry friction for CoCrMo alloys against all pairings was severe abrasive wear, accompanied with a lot of material transfer. Under 25 wt.% NCS-lubricated condition, the wear mechanism for CoCrMo alloys against ceramics (Si3N4, ZrO2) was also mainly severe abrasive wear. However, severe abrasive wear and electrochemical corrosion occurred for the CoCrMo-316L pairing under lubrication. Severe abrasive wear, adhesive wear and electrochemical corrosion occurred for the CoCrMo-Ti6Al4V pairing under lubrication. According to the results, the tribological properties of CoCrMo alloys against ceramics were better than those against metals. The CoCrMo-ZrO2 pairing displayed the best tribological behaviors and could be taken as a potential candidate bearing material for artificial cervical disc.

  6. Oxidation characteristics of Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo intermetallic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Terryl A.; Clark, Ronald K.; Sankaran, Sankara N.; Wiedemann, Karl E.

    1990-01-01

    Static oxidation kinetics of the super-alpha 2 titanium-aluminide alloy Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo (at. percent) were investigated in air over the temperature range of 650 to 1000 C using thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation kinetics were complex at all exposure temperatures and displayed up to three distinct oxidation rates. Breakaway oxidation occurred after long exposure times at high temperatures. Oxidation products were determined using x ray diffraction techniques, electron microprobe analysis, and energy dispersive x ray analysis. Oxide scale morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy of the surfaces and cross sections of oxidized specimens. The oxides during the parabolic stages were compact and multilayered, consisting primarily of TiO2 doped with Nb, a top layer of Al2O3, and a thin bottom layer of TiN. The transition between the second and third parabolic stage was found to be linked to the formation of a TiAl layer at the oxide-metal interface. Porosity was formed during the third stage, causing degradation of the oxide and the beginning of breakaway oxidation.

  7. Finite element method analysis of cold forging for deformation and densification of Mo alloyed sintered steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamakoshi, Y.; Nishida, S.; Kanbe, K.; Shohji, I.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, powder metallurgy (P/M) materials have been expected to be applied to automobile products. Then, not only high cost performance but also more strength, wear resistance, long-life and so on are required for P/M materials. As an improvement method of mechanical properties of P/M materials, a densification is expected to be one of effective processes. In this study, to examine behaviours of the densification of Mo-alloyed sintered steel in a cold-forging process, finite element method (FEM) analysis was performed. Firstly, a columnar specimen was cut out from the inner part of a sintered specimen and a load-stroke diagram was obtained by the compression test. 2D FEM analysis was performed using the obtained load-stroke diagram. To correct the errors of stress between the porous mode and the rigid-elastic mode of analysis software, the analysis of a polynominal approximation was performed. As a result, the modified true stress-true strain diagram was obtained for the sintered steel with the densification. Afterwards, 3D FEM analysis of backward extrusion was carried out using the modified true stress-true strain diagram. It was confirmed that both the shape and density of the sintered steel analyzed by new FEM analysis that we suggest correspond well with experimental ones.

  8. Effect of Mo on Microstructures and Wear Properties of In Situ Synthesized Ti(C,N)/Ni-Based Composite Coatings by Laser Cladding.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Chen, Tao; Wang, Haojun; Liu, Defu

    2017-09-06

    Using Ni60 alloy, C, TiN and Mo mixed powders as the precursor materials, in situ synthesized Ti(C,N) particles reinforcing Ni-based composite coatings are produced on Ti6Al4V alloys by laser cladding. Phase constituents, microstructures and wear properties of the composite coatings with 0 wt % Mo, 4 wt % Mo and 8 wt % Mo additions are studied comparatively. Results indicate that Ti(C,N) is formed by the in situ metallurgical reaction, the (Ti,Mo)(C,N) rim phase surrounding the Ti(C,N) ceramic particle is synthesized with the addition of Mo, and the increase of Mo content is beneficial to improve the wear properties of the cladding coatings. Because of the effect of Mo, the grains are remarkably refined and a unique core-rim structure that is uniformly dispersed in the matrix appears; meanwhile, the composite coatings with Mo addition exhibit high hardness and excellent wear resistance due to the comprehensive action of dispersion strengthening, fine grain strengthening and solid solution strengthening.

  9. Effect of Mo on Microstructures and Wear Properties of In Situ Synthesized Ti(C,N)/Ni-Based Composite Coatings by Laser Cladding

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Wang, Haojun

    2017-01-01

    Using Ni60 alloy, C, TiN and Mo mixed powders as the precursor materials, in situ synthesized Ti(C,N) particles reinforcing Ni-based composite coatings are produced on Ti6Al4V alloys by laser cladding. Phase constituents, microstructures and wear properties of the composite coatings with 0 wt % Mo, 4 wt % Mo and 8 wt % Mo additions are studied comparatively. Results indicate that Ti(C,N) is formed by the in situ metallurgical reaction, the (Ti,Mo)(C,N) rim phase surrounding the Ti(C,N) ceramic particle is synthesized with the addition of Mo, and the increase of Mo content is beneficial to improve the wear properties of the cladding coatings. Because of the effect of Mo, the grains are remarkably refined and a unique core-rim structure that is uniformly dispersed in the matrix appears; meanwhile, the composite coatings with Mo addition exhibit high hardness and excellent wear resistance due to the comprehensive action of dispersion strengthening, fine grain strengthening and solid solution strengthening. PMID:28878190

  10. Magnetic Properties of Hard Magnetic Alloy Fe - 28% Cr - 13.4% Co - 2% Mo - 0.5% Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vompe, T. A.; Milyaev, I. M.; Yusupov, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The method of regression analysis is used to obtain equations describing the dependences of magnetic hysteresis properties of magnetically hard powder alloy Fe - 28% Cr - 13.4% Co - 2% Mo - 0.5% Si on regimes of thermomagnetic treatment (the temperatures of the start of the treatment and the rates of cooling in magnetic field). The determined treatment modes make it possible to obtain in an alloy with a coercive force H c up to 40 kA/m, a residual induction B r up to 1.2 T, and a maximum energy product ( BH)max up to 25 kJ/m3. The alloy may find application in the production of rotors of synchronous hysteresis-reluctance motors.

  11. Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study by William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 A reprint...21005-5069 ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery Weapons and Materials... Gun Barrel Study 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ni and Fe-base boride-dispersion-strengthened microcrystalline alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C.S.; Park, H.G.; Hoagland, R.G.

    This paper considers the relation between microstructure and mechanical properties of two Ni-base and two Fe-base Boride-Dispersion-Strengthened Microcrystalline (BDSM) alloys. In these very fine grained materials the borides were primarily Cr, Mo, and MoFe in a fcc matrix in three of the alloys, and a bcc in one of the Fe-base alloys. Strength data and resistance to stress corrosion cracking are reported and, in the latter case, extraordinary resistance to SCC in NaCl, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} and boiling MgCl{sub 2} environments was observed in every case. The fcc BDSM alloys also demonstrated excellent thermal stability in terms of strengthmore » and fracture roughness up to 1000 C. The bcc alloy suffered severe loss of toughness. The fracture mode involved ductile rupture in all alloys and they display a reasonably linear correlation between K{sub Ic} and the square root of particle spacing.« less

  13. Laser surface melting of 10 wt% Mo alloyed hardfacing Stellite 12 plasma transferred arc deposits: Structural evolution and high temperature wear performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilawary, Shaikh Asad Ali; Motallebzadeh, Amir; Afzal, Muhammad; Atar, Erdem; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2018-05-01

    Laser surface melting (LSM) process has been applied on the plasma transferred arc (PTA) deposited Stellite 12 and 10 wt% Mo alloyed Stellite 12 in this study. Following the LSM process, structural and mechanical property comparison of the LSM'ed surfaces has been made. Hardness of the LSM'ed surfaces was measured as 549 HV and 623 HV for the Stellite 12 and Stellite 12 + 10 wt% Mo deposits, respectively. Despite their different hardness and structural features, the LSM'ed surfaces exhibited similar tribological performance at room temperature (RT), where fatigue wear mechanism operates. However, the wear at 500 °C promotes tribo-oxide layer formation whose composition depended on the alloying with Mo. Thus, addition of 10 wt% Mo into Stellite 12 PTA deposit has remarkably enhanced the high temperature wear performance of the LSM'ed surface as a result of participation of complex oxide (CoMoO4) in tribo-oxide layer.

  14. Report on the Synchrotron Characterization of U-Mo and U-Zr Alloys and the Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    Okuniewski, Maria A.; Ganapathy, Varsha; Hamilton, Brenden

    2016-09-01

    ABSTRACT Uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) and uranium-zirconium (U-Zr) are two promising fuel candidates for nuclear transmutation reactors which burn long-lived minor actinides and fission products within fast spectrum reactors. The objectives of this research are centered on understanding the early stages of fuel performance through the examination of the irradiation induced microstructural changes in U-Zr and U-Mo alloys subjected to low neutron fluences. Specimens that were analyzed include those that were previously irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL. This most recent work has focused on a sub-set of the irradiated specimens, specifically U-Zr and U-Mo alloys that were irradiated tomore » 0.01 dpa at temperatures ranging from (150-800oC). These specimens were analyzed with two types of synchrotron techniques, including X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction. These techniques provide non-destructive microstructural analysis, including phase identification and quantitation, lattice parameters, crystallite sizes, as well as bonding, structure, and chemistry. Preliminary research has shown changes in the phase fractions, crystallite sizes, and lattice parameters as a function of irradiation and temperature. Future data analyses will continue to explore these microstructural changes.« less

  15. Role of Si on the Diffusional Interactions Between U-Mo and Al-Si Alloys at 823 K (550 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Emmanuel; Sohn, Yong-Ho; Keiser, Dennis D.

    2013-01-01

    U-Mo dispersions in Al-alloy matrix and monolithic fuels encased in Al-alloy are under development to fulfill the requirements for research and test reactors to use low-enriched molybdenum stabilized uranium alloy fuels. Significant interaction takes place between the U-Mo fuel and Al during manufacturing and in-reactor irradiation. The interaction products are Al-rich phases with physical and thermal characteristics that adversely affect fuel performance and result in premature failure. Detailed analysis of the interdiffusion and microstructural development of this system was carried through diffusion couples consisting of U-7 wt pct Mo, U-10 wt pct Mo and U-12 wt pct Mo in contact with pure Al, Al-2 wt pct Si, and Al-5 wt pct Si, annealed at 823 K (550 °C) for 1, 5 and 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis. Diffusion couples consisting of U-Mo in contact with pure Al contained UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases. Additions of Si to the Al significantly reduced the thickness of the interdiffusion zone. The interdiffusion zones developed Al- and Si-enriched regions, whose locations and size depended on the Si and Mo concentrations in the terminal alloys. In these couples, the (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 phase was observed throughout the interdiffusion zone, and the U6Mo4Al43 and UMo2Al20 phases were observed only where the Si concentrations were low.

  16. Microstructure and properties of Ti-Al intermetallic/Al2O3 layers produced on Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy by PACVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitek, R.; Bolek, T.; Mizera, J.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents investigation of microstructure and corrosion resistance of the multi-component surface layers built of intermetallic phases of the Ti-Al system and an outer Al2O3 ceramic sub-layer. The layers were produced on a two phase (α + β) Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy using the PACVD method with the participation of trimethylaluminum vapors. The layers are characterized by a high surface hardness and good corrosion, better than that of these materials in the starting state. In order to find the correlation between their structure and properties, the layers were subjected to examinations using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), surface analysis by XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyses of the chemical composition (EDS). The properties examined included: the corrosion resistance and the hydrogen absorptiveness. Moreover growth of the Al2O3 ceramic layer and its influence on the residual stress distribution was simulated using finite element method [FEM]. The results showed that the produced layer has amorphous-nano-crystalline structure, improved corrosion resistance and reduces the permeability of hydrogen as compared with the base material of Ti6Al2Mo2Cr -titanium alloy.

  17. A comparative study on improved Arrhenius-type and artificial neural network models to predict high-temperature flow behaviors in 20MnNiMo alloy.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Yu, Chun-tang; Liu, Ying-ying; Xia, Yu-feng

    2014-01-01

    The stress-strain data of 20MnNiMo alloy were collected from a series of hot compressions on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator in the temperature range of 1173 ∼ 1473 K and strain rate range of 0.01 ∼ 10 s(-1). Based on the experimental data, the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model and the artificial neural network (ANN) model were established to predict the high temperature flow stress of as-cast 20MnNiMo alloy. The accuracy and reliability of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the trained ANN model were further evaluated in terms of the correlation coefficient (R), the average absolute relative error (AARE), and the relative error (η). For the former, R and AARE were found to be 0.9954 and 5.26%, respectively, while, for the latter, 0.9997 and 1.02%, respectively. The relative errors (η) of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the ANN model were, respectively, in the range of -39.99% ∼ 35.05% and -3.77% ∼ 16.74%. As for the former, only 16.3% of the test data set possesses η-values within ± 1%, while, as for the latter, more than 79% possesses. The results indicate that the ANN model presents a higher predictable ability than the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model.

  18. A Comparative Study on Improved Arrhenius-Type and Artificial Neural Network Models to Predict High-Temperature Flow Behaviors in 20MnNiMo Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chun-tang; Liu, Ying-ying; Xia, Yu-feng

    2014-01-01

    The stress-strain data of 20MnNiMo alloy were collected from a series of hot compressions on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator in the temperature range of 1173∼1473 K and strain rate range of 0.01∼10 s−1. Based on the experimental data, the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model and the artificial neural network (ANN) model were established to predict the high temperature flow stress of as-cast 20MnNiMo alloy. The accuracy and reliability of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the trained ANN model were further evaluated in terms of the correlation coefficient (R), the average absolute relative error (AARE), and the relative error (η). For the former, R and AARE were found to be 0.9954 and 5.26%, respectively, while, for the latter, 0.9997 and 1.02%, respectively. The relative errors (η) of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the ANN model were, respectively, in the range of −39.99%∼35.05% and −3.77%∼16.74%. As for the former, only 16.3% of the test data set possesses η-values within ±1%, while, as for the latter, more than 79% possesses. The results indicate that the ANN model presents a higher predictable ability than the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model. PMID:24688358

  19. Phase Evolution and Properties of Al2CrFeNiMo x High-Entropy Alloys Coatings by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Jiang, Li; Jiang, Hui; Pan, Xuemin; Cao, Zhiqiang; Deng, Dewei; Wang, Tongmin; Li, Tingju

    2015-10-01

    A series of Al2CrFeNiMo x ( x = 0 to 2.0 at.%) high-entropy alloys coatings was synthesized on stainless steel by laser cladding. The effect of Mo content on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al2CrFeNiMo x coatings was studied. The results show that the laser clad layer consists of the cladding zone, bonding zone, and heat-affected zone. The Al2CrFeNiMo x coatings are composed of two simple body-center cubic phases and the cladding zone is mainly composed of equiaxed grains. When the content of Mo reaches 2 at.%, a eutectic structure is found in the interdendritic regions. The surface microhardness of the Al2CrFeNiMo2 coating is 678 HV, which is about three times higher than that of the substrate (243 HV). Compared with stainless steel, the wear resistance of the coatings has been improved greatly. The wear mass loss of the Al2CrFeNiMo alloy is 9.8 mg, which is much less than that of the substrate (18.9 mg) and its wear scar width is the lowest among the Al2CrFeNiMo x coatings, indicating that the wear resistance of the Al2CrFeNiMo is the best.

  20. Novel Dissimilar Joints Between Alloy 800H and 2.25%Cr and 1%Mo Steel

    SciTech Connect

    DebRoy, Tarasankar

    Dissimilar metal joints between ferritic steels and nickel base alloys are currently fabricated using conventional arc welding processes with selected filler metal combinations. The dissimilar metal joints contain abrupt changes in composition over a relatively small distance. Many years of service at elevated temperatures has shown that these welds are susceptible to creep and creep fatigue failures. The primary mechanism for these creep failures involves carbon diffusion from the ferritic steel to the nickel base alloy. As a result, a carbon depleted zone is created that contains very few stable carbides. This work used additive manufacturing (AM) technologies as amore » highly controllable means for reducing carbon migration through theoretically designed, compositionally graded transition joints guided by appropriate thermodynamic, kinetic and heat transfer and fluid flow modeling. The contents of the report include the objectives and tasks set forth by the PI and collaborators, major technical accomplishments throughout the research and additional details in the form of technical publications resulting from the NEUP grant and reports from the collaborating university and national laboratory.« less

  1. Direct in vivo inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of CoCrMo alloy orthopedic implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeremy L; Sivan, Shiril; Liu, Yangping; Kocagöz, Sevi B; Arnholt, Christina M; Kurtz, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy, used for over five decades in orthopedic implants, may corrode and release wear debris into the body during use. These degradation products may stimulate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. We report here on evidence of direct inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of human implanted and retrieved CoCrMo implant surfaces. Corrosion morphology on CoCrMo implant surfaces, in unique and characteristic patterns, and the presence of cellular remnants and biological materials intimately entwined with the corrosion indicates direct cellular attack under the cell membrane region of adhered and/or migrating inflammatory cells. Evidence supports a Fenton-like reaction mechanism driving corrosion in which reactive oxygen species are the major driver of corrosion. Using in vitro tests, large increases in corrosion susceptibility of CoCrMo were seen (40-100 fold) when immersed in phosphate buffered saline solutions modified with hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid to represent the chemistry under inflammatory cells. This discovery raises significant new questions about the clinical consequences of such corrosion interactions, the role of patient inflammatory reactions, and the detailed mechanisms at play. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Investigation of mechanical properties for open cellular structure CoCrMo alloy fabricated by selective laser melting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azidin, A.; Taib, Z. A. M.; Harun, W. S. W.; Che Ghani, S. A.; Faisae, M. F.; Omar, M. A.; Ramli, H.

    2015-12-01

    Orthodontic implants have been a major focus through mechanical and biological performance in advance to fabricate shape of complex anatomical. Designing the part with a complex mechanism is one of the challenging process and addition to achieve the balance and desired mechanical performance brought to the right manufacture technique to fabricate. Metal additive manufacturing (MAM) is brought forward to the newest fabrication technology in this field. In this study, selective laser melting (SLM) process was utilized on a medical grade cobalt-chrome molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy. The work has focused on mechanical properties of the CoCrMo open cellular structures samples with 60%, 70%, and 80% designed volume porosity that could potentially emulate the properties of human bone. It was observed that hardness values decreased as the soaking time increases except for bottom face. For compression test, 60% designed volume porosity demonstrated highest ultimate compressive strength compared to 70% and 80%.

  3. Low Temperature Creep of a Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-2Cb-1Ta-0.8Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the analysis of low temperature creep of titanium alloys in order to establish design limitations due to the effect of creep. The creep data on a titanium Ti-6Al-2Cb-1Ta-0.8Mo are used in the analysis. A creep equation is formulated to determine the allowable stresses so that creep at ambient temperatures can be kept within an acceptable limit during the service life of engineering structures or instruments. Microcreep which is important to design of precision instruments is included in the discussion also.

  4. Characterization of a High Strength, Refractory High Entropy Alloy, AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jacob

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) are a relatively new class of materials that have garnered significant interest over the last decade due to their intriguing balance of properties including high strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance. In contrast to conventional alloy systems, HEAs are based on four or more principal elements with near equimolar concentrations and tend to have simple microstructures due to the preferential formation of solid solution phases. HEAs appear to offer new pathways to lightweighting in structural applications, new alloys for elevated temperature components, and new magnetic materials, but more thorough characterization studies are needed to assess the viability of the recently developed multicomponent materials. One such HEA, AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr, was selected to be the basis for this characterization study in part due to its strength at elevated temperatures (sigma0.2 = 1600 MPa at T = 800 °C) and low density compared with commercially available Ni-based superalloys. The refractory element containing HEA composition was developed in order to balance the high temperature strength of the refractory elements with the desirable properties achieved by the high entropy alloying design approach for potential use in aerospace thermal protection and structural applications. Ingots of AlMo0.5NbTa0.5TiZr were cast by vacuum arc melting followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and homogenization at 1400 °C for 24 hrs with a furnace cool of 10 °C/min. The resulting microstructure was characterized at multiple length scales using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM), conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM and STEM), and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The microstructure was found to consist of a periodic, coherent two phase mixture, where a disordered bcc phase is aligned orthogonally in an ordered B2 phase. Through microstructural evolution heat treatment studies, the

  5. Bulk amorphous steels based on Fe alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lu, ZhaoPing; Liu, Chain T.

    2006-05-30

    A bulk amorphous alloy has the approximate composition: Fe.sub.(100-a-b-c-d-e)Y.sub.aMn.sub.bT.sub.cM.sub.dX.sub.e wherein: T includes at least one of the group consisting of: Ni, Cu, Cr and Co; M includes at least one of the group consisting of W, Mo, Nb, Ta, Al and Ti; X includes at least one of the group consisting of Co, Ni and Cr; a is an atomic percentage, and a<5; b is an atomic percentage, and b.ltoreq.25; c is an atomic percentage, and c.ltoreq.25; d is an atomic percentage, and d.ltoreq.25; and e is an atomic percentage, and 5.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.30.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of the Corrosive Effect of Artificial Saliva of Variable pH on DMLS and Cast Co-Cr-Mo Dental Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Puskar, Tatjana; Jevremovic, Danimir; Williams, Robert J.; Eggbeer, Dominic; Vukelic, Djordje; Budak, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Dental alloys for direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) are available on the market today, but there is little scientific evidence reported on their characteristics. One of them is the release of ions, as an indicator of the corrosion characteristics of a dental alloy. Within this research, the difference in the elution of metals from DMLS and cast (CM) samples of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy in saliva-like medium of three different pH was examined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained results show that the metal elution in artificial saliva from the DMLS alloy was lower than the elution from the CM alloy. The release of all investigated metal ions was influenced by the acidity, both from the DMLS and CM alloy, throughout the investigated period of 30 days. The change in acidity from a pH of 6.8 to a pH of 2.3 for the cast alloy led to a higher increase of the elution of Co, Cr and Mo from CM than from the DMLS alloy. The greatest release out of Co, Cr and Mo was for Co for both tested alloys. Further, the greatest release of all ions was measured at pH 2.3. In saliva of pH 2.3 and pH 4.5, the longer the investigated period, the higher the difference between the total metal ion release from the CM and DMLS alloys. Both alloys showed a safe level of elution according to the ISO definition in all investigated acidic environments. PMID:28788197

  7. A Comparative Analysis of the Corrosive Effect of Artificial Saliva of Variable pH on DMLS and Cast Co-Cr-Mo Dental Alloy.

    PubMed

    Puskar, Tatjana; Jevremovic, Danimir; Williams, Robert J; Eggbeer, Dominic; Vukelic, Djordje; Budak, Igor

    2014-09-11

    Dental alloys for direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) are available on the market today, but there is little scientific evidence reported on their characteristics. One of them is the release of ions, as an indicator of the corrosion characteristics of a dental alloy. Within this research, the difference in the elution of metals from DMLS and cast (CM) samples of Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy in saliva-like medium of three different pH was examined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained results show that the metal elution in artificial saliva from the DMLS alloy was lower than the elution from the CM alloy. The release of all investigated metal ions was influenced by the acidity, both from the DMLS and CM alloy, throughout the investigated period of 30 days. The change in acidity from a pH of 6.8 to a pH of 2.3 for the cast alloy led to a higher increase of the elution of Co, Cr and Mo from CM than from the DMLS alloy. The greatest release out of Co, Cr and Mo was for Co for both tested alloys. Further, the greatest release of all ions was measured at pH 2.3. In saliva of pH 2.3 and pH 4.5, the longer the investigated period, the higher the difference between the total metal ion release from the CM and DMLS alloys. Both alloys showed a safe level of elution according to the ISO definition in all investigated acidic environments.

  8. Establishment of Wear Resistant HVOF Coatings for 50CrMo4 Chromium Molybdenum Alloy Steel as an Alternative for Hard Chrome Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppasamy, S.; Sivan, V.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Duraiselvam, M.; Dhanuskodi, R.

    2018-05-01

    High cost imported components of seamless steel tube manufacturing plants wear frequently and need replacement to ensure the quality of the product. Hard chrome plating, which is time consuming and hazardous, is conventionally used to restore the original dimension of the worn-out surface of the machine components. High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with NiCrBSi super alloy powder and Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 alloy powder applied on a 50CrMo4 (DIN-1.7228) chromium molybdenum alloy steel, the material of the wear prone machine component, were evaluated for use as an alternative for hard chrome plating in this present work. The coating characteristics are evaluated using abrasive wear test, sliding wear test and microscopic analysis, hardness test, etc. The study results revealed that the HVOF based NiCrBSi and Cr3C2NiCr75/25 coatings have hardness in the range of 800-900 HV0.3, sliding wear rate in the range of 50-60 µm and surface finish around 5 microns. Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 coating is observed to be a better option out of the two coatings evaluated for the selected application.

  9. Hydrogen Induced Intergranular Cracking of Nickel-Base Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    alloys are discussed. Experimental The steel used in the present investigation is a fully bainitic 2 1/4 Cr-lMo pressure vessel steel , ASTM A542 Class 3...Appendix A describes recent experiments performed in order to study the influence of plastic deformation on hydrogen transport in a 214 Cr-lMo steel (8...PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON HYDROGEN TRANSPORT IN 2 1/4 Cr-lMo STEEL M. Kurkela, G.S. Frankel, and R.M. Latanision Department of Materials Science and

  10. Can gamma irradiation during radiotherapy influence the metal release process for biomedical CoCrMo and 316L alloys?

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng; Edin, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anna Emelie; Petrovic, Katarina; Soroka, Inna L; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Yolanda

    2018-02-09

    The extent of metal release from implant materials that are irradiated during radiotherapy may be influenced by irradiation-formed radicals. The influence of gamma irradiation, with a total dose of relevance for radiotherapy (e.g., for cancer treatments) on the extent of metal release from biomedical stainless steel AISI 316L and a cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCrMo) was investigated in physiological relevant solutions (phosphate buffered saline with and without 10 g/L bovine serum albumin) at pH 7.3. Directly after irradiation, the released amounts of metals were significantly higher for irradiated CoCrMo as compared to nonirradiated CoCrMo, resulting in an increased surface passivation (enhanced passive conditions) that hindered further release. A similar effect was observed for 316L showing lower nickel release after 1 h of initially irradiated samples as compared to nonirradiated samples. However, the effect of irradiation (total dose of 16.5 Gy) on metal release and surface oxide composition and thickness was generally small. Most metals were released initially (within seconds) upon immersion from CoCrMo but not from 316L. Albumin induced an increased amount of released metals from AISI 316L but not from CoCrMo. Albumin was not found to aggregate to any greater extent either upon gamma irradiation or in the presence of trace metal ions, as determined using different light scattering techniques. Further studies should elucidate the effect of repeated friction and fractionated low irradiation doses on the short- and long term metal release process of biomedical materials. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Welding and brazing of nickel and nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortland, J. E.; Evans, R. M.; Monroe, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The joining of four types of nickel-base materials is described: (1) high-nickel, nonheat-treatable alloys, (2) solid-solution-hardening nickel-base alloys, (3) precipitation-hardening nickel-base alloys, and (4) dispersion-hardening nickel-base alloys. The high-nickel and solid-solution-hardening alloys are widely used in chemical containers and piping. These materials have excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation, and retain useful strength at elevated temperatures. The precipitation-hardening alloys have good properties at elevated temperature. They are important in many aerospace applications. Dispersion-hardening nickel also is used for elevated-temperature service.

  12. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that is...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that is...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that is...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that is...

  16. Microstructural development from interdiffusion and reaction between U–Mo and AA6061 alloys annealed at 600° and 550 °C

    DOE PAGES

    Perez, E.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2016-05-10

    The U.S. Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program is developing low enrichment fuel systems encased in Al-alloy for use in research and test reactors. Monolithic fuel plates have local regions where the Usingle bondMo fuel plate may come into contact with the Al-alloy 6061 (AA6061) cladding. This results in the development of interdiffusion zones with complex microstructures with multiple phases. In this study, the microstructural development of diffusion couples, U–7 wt%Mo, U–10 wt%Mo, and U–12 wt%Mo vs. AA6061, annealed at 600 °C for 24 h and at 550 °C for 1, 5, and 20 h, were analyzed by scanningmore » electron microscopy with x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The microstructural development and kinetics were compared to diffusion couples U–Mo vs. high purity Al and binary Al–Si alloys. As a result, the diffusion couples developed complex interaction regions where phase development was influenced by the alloying additions of the AA6061.« less

  17. Microstructural development from interdiffusion and reaction between Usbnd Mo and AA6061 alloys annealed at 600° and 550 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, E.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program is developing low enrichment fuel systems encased in Al-alloy for use in research and test reactors. Monolithic fuel plates have local regions where the Usbnd Mo fuel plate may come into contact with the Al-alloy 6061 (AA6061) cladding. This results in the development of interdiffusion zones with complex microstructures with multiple phases. In this study, the microstructural development of diffusion couples, Usbnd 7 wt%Mo, Usbnd 10 wt%Mo, and Usbnd 12 wt%Mo vs. AA6061, annealed at 600 °C for 24 h and at 550 °C for 1, 5, and 20 h, were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The microstructural development and kinetics were compared to diffusion couples Usbnd Mo vs. high purity Al and binary Alsbnd Si alloys. The diffusion couples developed complex interaction regions where phase development was influenced by the alloying additions of the AA6061.

  18. Structural Stabilities of β-Ti Alloys Studied Using a New Mo Equivalent Derived from [ β/( α + β)] Phase-Boundary Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Dong, Chuang; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-08-01

    Structural stabilities of β-Ti alloys are generally investigated by an empirical Mo equivalent, which quantifies the stability contribution of each alloying element, M, in comparison to that of the major β-Ti stabilizer, Mo. In the present work, a new Mo equivalent (Moeq)Q is proposed, which uses the slopes of the boundary lines between the β and ( α + β) phase zones in binary Ti-M phase diagrams. This (Moeq)Q reflects a simple fact that the β-Ti stability is enhanced, when the β phase zone is enlarged by a β-Ti stabilizer. It is expressed as (Moeq)Q = 1.0 Mo + 0.74 V + 1.01 W + 0.23 Nb + 0.30 Ta + 1.23 Fe + 1.10 Cr + 1.09 Cu + 1.67 Ni + 1.81 Co + 1.42 Mn + 0.38 Sn + 0.34 Zr + 0.99 Si - 0.57 Al (at. pct), where the equivalent coefficient of each element is the slope ratio of the [ β/( α + β)] boundary line of the binary Ti-M phase diagram to that of the Ti-Mo. This (Moeq)Q is shown to reliably characterize the critical stability limit of multi-component β-Ti alloys with low Young's moduli, where the critical lower limit for β stabilization is (Moeq)Q = 6.25 at. pct or 11.8 wt pct Mo.

  19. Influence of Grain Size on Mechanical Responses in Beta Ti-12Mo Alloy Demonstrating Concurrent Twinning-Induced Plasticity/Transformation-induced Plasticity Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D. C.; Xue, Q.; Lei, J. F.; Ma, Y. J.; Yang, R.; Wang, C.

    2018-06-01

    Metastable β Ti-12Mo wt pct alloys with controllable grain sizes are successfully produced, and the effect of grain size on mechanical responses has been thoroughly investigated. It is found that target alloys possess concurrent twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) features. Mechanisms governing mechanical properties through well-manipulated tensile experiments, detailed microstructure analysis, as well as strong correlations between triggering stress and twinning/phase transformation are offered.

  20. Direct In Vivo Inflammatory Cell-Induced Corrosion of CoCrMo Alloy Orthopedic Implant Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jeremy L.; Sivan, Shiril; Liu, Yangping; Kocagöz, Sevi; Arnholt, Christina; Kurtz, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, used for over four decades in orthopedic implants, may corrode and release wear debris into the body during use. These degradation products may stimulate immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. We report here on evidence of direct inflammatory cell-induced corrosion of human implanted and retrieved CoCrMo implant surfaces. Corrosion morphology on CoCrMo implant surfaces, in unique and characteristic patterns, and the presence of cellular remnants and biological materials intimately entwined with the corrosion indicates direct cellular attack under the cell membrane region of adhered and/or migrating inflammatory cells. Evidence supports a Fenton-like reaction mechanism driving corrosion in which reactive oxygen species are the major driver of corrosion. Using in vitro tests, large increases in corrosion susceptibility of CoCrMo were seen (40 to 100 fold) when immersed in phosphate buffered saline solutions modified with hydrogen peroxide and HCl to represent the chemistry under inflammatory cells. This discovery raises significant new questions about the clinical consequences of such corrosion interactions, the role of patient inflammatory reactions, and the detailed mechanisms at play. PMID:24619511

  1. Oxidation resistant Mo-Mo2B-silica and Mo-Mo2B-silicate composites for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, J. K.; Daloz, W. L.; Marshall, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    Development of Mo composites based on the Mo-Si-B system has been demonstrated as a possible new route to achieving a high temperature Mobased material. In this new system, the silicide phases are replaced directly with silica or other silicate materials. These composites avoid the high ductile to brittle transition temperature observed for Mo-Si-B alloys by removing the Si that exists in solid solution in Mo at equilibrium with its silicides. A variety of compositions is tested for room temperature ductility and oxidation resistance. A system based upon Mo, Mo2B, and SrO·Al2O3·(SiO2)2 is shown to possess both ductility at 80 vol.% Mo and oxidation resistance at 60 vol.%. These composites can be produced using a powder processing approach and fired to greater than 95% theoretical density with a desirable microstructure of isolated boride and silicate phases within a ductile Mo matrix.

  2. Effects of thermal treatments on protein adsorption of Co-Cr-Mo ASTM-F75 alloys.

    PubMed

    Duncan, L A; Labeed, F H; Abel, M-L; Kamali, A; Watts, J F

    2011-06-01

    Post-manufacturing thermal treatments are commonly employed in the production of hip replacements to reduce shrinkage voids which can occur in cast components. Several studies have investigated the consequences of these treatments upon the alloy microstructure and tribological properties but none have determined if there are any biological ramifications. In this study the adsorption of proteins from foetal bovine serum (FBS) on three Co-Cr-Mo ASTM-F75 alloy samples with different metallurgical histories, has been studied as a function of protein concentration. Adsorption isotherms have been plotted using the surface concentration of nitrogen as a diagnostic of protein uptake as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The data was a good fit to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm up to the concentration at which critical protein saturation occurred. Differences in protein adsorption on each alloy have been observed. This suggests that development of the tissue/implant interface, although similar, may differ between as-cast (AC) and heat treated samples.

  3. Effects of Minor Alloying Additions on the Microstructure, Toughness, and Creep Strength of Directionally Solidified NiAl-31Cr-3Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.; Salem, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    A study of the effects of small (0.25 to 1.0 at%) fifth element additions to the structure and mechanical properties of directionally solidified (DS) NiAl-31Cr-3Mo has been undertaken. Essentially all the additions changed the as-DS'ed microstructure from lamellar eutectic grains to cells and, in some cases, introduced NiAl dendrites and/or third phases. In general the alloying additions did not improve strength or toughness over that possessed by the base composition; only Hf and, perhaps Ti, gave a minor increase in elevated temperature creep resistance. The lack of improvement in creep properties is probably due to inability to precipitation harden NiAl.

  4. MoSi2-Base Hybrid Composites from Aeroengine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2000-01-01

    Addition of about 30 to 50 vol % of Si3N4 particulate to MoSi2 improved low temperature accelerated oxidation resistance by forming a Si2ON2 protective scale and thereby eliminated catastrophic 'pest failure'. The Si3N4 addition also improved the high temperature creep strength by nearly five orders of magnitude, doubled the room temperature toughness, and significantly lowered the CTE of the MoSi2 which eliminated matrix cracking in SCS-6 reinforced composites even after thermal cycling. The SCS-6 fiber reinforcement improved the room temperature fracture toughness by seven times and impact resistance by five times. The composite exhibited this excellent strength and toughness improvement up to 1673 K. More recently, tape casting was adopted as the preferred processing of MoSi2-base composites due to improved fiber spacing, ability to use small diameter fibers, and for lower cost. Good strength and toughness values were also obtained with fine diameter Hi-Nicalon tow fibers. These hybrid composites remain competitive with ceramic matrix composites as a replacement for Ni-base superalloys in aircraft engine applications.

  5. Investigation of amorphous RuMoC alloy films as a seedless diffusion barrier for Cu/ p-SiOC:H ultralow- k dielectric integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Guohua; Liu, Bo; Li, Qiran

    2015-08-01

    Ultrathin RuMoC amorphous films prepared by magnetron co-sputtering with Ru and MoC targets in a sandwiched scheme Si/ p-SiOC:H/RuMoC/Cu were investigated as barrier in copper metallization. The evolution of final microstructure of RuMoC alloy films show sensitive correlation with the content of doped Mo and C elements and can be easily controlled by adjusting the sputtering power of the MoC target. There was no signal of interdiffusion between the Cu and SiOC:H layer in the sample of Cu/RuMoC/ p-SiOC:H/Si, even annealing up to 500 °C. Very weak signal of oxygen have been confirmed in the RuMoC barrier layer both as-deposited and after being annealed, and a good performance on preventing oxygen diffusion has been proved. Leakage current and resistivity evaluations also reveal the excellent thermal reliability of this Si/ p-SiOC:H/RuMoC/Cu film stack at the temperatures up to 500 °C, indicating its potential application in the advanced barrierless Cu metallization.

  6. Effect of molybdenum additions on the microstructures and corrosion behaviours of 316L stainless steel-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, T.; Ebert, W. L.; Indacochea, J. E.

    Alloys were made by alloying 5, 10, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt % Mo with Type 316L stainless steel. Sigma phases containing 21–29 wt % Mo formed along the austenite grain boundaries with the addition of 5 wt % Mo and increased with additions up to 15 wt % Mo, but they decreased with further additions. Laves phases containing 33–40 wt % Mo co-precipitated at additions of 10 wt % Mo which increased with further Mo increases. The corrosion resistance, assessed by potentiodynamic polarisation in a 10 mM NaCl solution adjusted to pH 4, increased relative to Type 316L formore » alloys made with 5 and 10 wt % added Mo, but decreased with further additions due to preferential corrosion of the Laves phase. The alloy made with 10 wt % added Mo had the highest corrosion resistance due primarily to the high Mo content of the austenite.« less

  7. Effect of molybdenum additions on the microstructures and corrosion behaviours of 316L stainless steel-based alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Rahman, T.; Ebert, W. L.; Indacochea, J. E.

    2018-02-28

    Alloys were made by alloying 5, 10, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt % Mo with Type 316L stainless steel. Sigma phases containing 21–29 wt % Mo formed along the austenite grain boundaries with the addition of 5 wt % Mo and increased with additions up to 15 wt % Mo, but they decreased with further additions. Laves phases containing 33–40 wt % Mo co-precipitated at additions of 10 wt % Mo which increased with further Mo increases. The corrosion resistance, assessed by potentiodynamic polarisation in a 10 mM NaCl solution adjusted to pH 4, increased relative to Type 316L formore » alloys made with 5 and 10 wt % added Mo, but decreased with further additions due to preferential corrosion of the Laves phase. The alloy made with 10 wt % added Mo had the highest corrosion resistance due primarily to the high Mo content of the austenite.« less

  8. The effect of Cr, Co, Al, Mo and Ta on a series of cast Ni-base superalloys on the stability of an aluminide coating during cyclic oxidation in Mach 0.3 burner rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.; Barrett, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of varying the content of Co, Cr, Mo, Ta, and Al in a series of cast Ni-based gamma/gamma'superalloys on the behavior of aluminide coatings was studied in burner rig cyclic oxidation tests at 1100 C. The alloys had nominally fixed levels of Ti, W, Cb, Zr, C, and B. The alloy compositions were based on a full 2(sup 5)-fractional statistical design supplemented by 10 star point alloys and a center point alloy. This full central composite design of 43 alloys plus two additional alloys with extreme Al levels allowed a complete second degree estimating equation to be derived from the 5-compositional variables. The weight change/time data for the coated samples fitted well to the paralinear oxidation model and enabled a modified oxidation attack parameter, K'(sub a) to be derived to rank the alloys and log K' (sub a ) to be used as the dependent variable in the estimating equation to determine the oxidation resistance of the coating as a function of the underlying alloy content. The most protective aluminide coatings are associated with the highest possible base ally contents of CR and Al and at a 4 percent Ta level. The Mo and Co effects interact but at fixed levels of 0, 5, or 10% Co. A 4% Mo level is optimum.

  9. Adsorption behavior of glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxy-silane on titanium alloy Ti-6.5Al-1Mo-1V-2Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-hua; Zhan, Zhong-wei; Yu, Mei; Li, Song-mei

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxy-silane (GTMS) on titanium alloy Ti-6.5Al-1Mo-1V-2Zr was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Tafel polarization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the XPS results, it was found that the silane coverage on the titanium surface generally increased with GTMS concentration, with a slight decrease at concentration of 0.1%. Based on the relationship between isoelectronic point (IEP) of titanium surface and the pH values of silane solutions, adsorption mechanisms at different concentrations were proposed. The surface coverage data of GTMS on titanium surface was also derived from electrochemical measurements. By linear fitting the coverage data, it revealed that the adsorption of GTMS on the titanium alloy surface at 30 °C was of a physisorption-based mechanism, and obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption equilibrium constant (Kads) and free energy of adsorption process (ΔGads) were calculated to elaborate the mechanism of GTMS adsorption.

  10. Effect of Elemental Sulfur and Sulfide on the Corrosion Behavior of Cr-Mo Low Alloy Steel for Tubing and Tubular Components in Oil and Gas Industry.

    PubMed

    Khaksar, Ladan; Shirokoff, John

    2017-04-20

    The chemical degradation of alloy components in sulfur-containing environments is a major concern in oil and gas production. This paper discusses the effect of elemental sulfur and its simplest anion, sulfide, on the corrosion of Cr-Mo alloy steel at pH 2 and 5 during 10, 20 and 30 h immersion in two different solutions. 4130 Cr-Mo alloy steel is widely used as tubing and tubular components in sour services. According to the previous research in aqueous conditions, contact of solid sulfur with alloy steel can initiate catastrophic corrosion problems. The corrosion behavior was monitored by the potentiodynamic polarization technique during the experiments. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been applied to characterize the corrosion product layers after each experiment. The results show that under the same experimental conditions, the corrosion resistance of Cr-Mo alloy in the presence of elemental sulfur is significantly lower than its resistance in the presence of sulfide ions.

  11. The effect of alloying on gamma and gamma prime in nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Wallace, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the compositional limits of gamma and gamma prime phases in nickel-base superalloys. Fifty-one nickel-base alloys were melted under vacuum and heat treated for 4 hours at 1190 C followed by 1008 hours at 850 C. The alloys had the following composition ranges: A1 4.0 to 13 atomic percent, Cr 6.5 to 20.5 percent, Ti 0.25 to 4.75 percent, Mo 0.0 to 6.0 percent, and W 0.0 to 4.0 percent. The residues from the ammonium sulfate electrolytic extraction for the two-phase alloys were analyzed chemically and by X-ray diffraction. The results of the investigation were used to assemble a mathematical model of the gamma-gamma prime region of the Ni-Al-Cr-Ti-Mo-W system. A computer program was written to analyze the model of the phase diagram. Some of these results are also presented graphically. The resulting model is capable of satisfactorily predicting the compositions of conjugate gamma-gamma prime phases in the alloys investigated and twelve of fifteen commercial superalloys studied.

  12. Biocompatible low Young's modulus achieved by strong crystallographic elastic anisotropy in Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al alloy single crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-H; Todai, M; Tane, M; Hagihara, K; Nakajima, H; Nakano, T

    2012-10-01

    The elastic anisotropy of the Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al (mass%) β-Ti alloy, an ISO certified biomedical material, was investigated using its single crystal. It was revealed that the Young's modulus exhibited pronounced anisotropy. The Young's modulus was reduced to 44.4GPa along the 〈100〉 direction in the Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al single crystal, that is comparable to that of human cortical bones. We determined the strategy that β-Ti alloys with extremely low moduli can be developed by reducing the electron-atom (e/a) ratio in alloys, and by suppressing the formation of the ω-phase at the same time. This new knowledge must lead to the development of "single crystalline β-Ti implant materials" as hard tissue replacements for reducing the stress shielding effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. Y.; Wu, G. Q.; Huang, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Through a statistical, quantitative analysis on microstructure of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr (Ti55531) alloy, the relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties and heat treatment temperatures were investigated. The results show that in Widmanstätten structure, the size of β grain is greatly increased with increasing annealing temperature. Static toughness is related to grain boundary alpha phase discontinuity, the tensile strength is related to acicular alpha phase interface length and acicular alpha phase proportion. In duplex microstructure, the tensile strength is related to the equiaxed alpha proportion. Elongation, static toughness and crack forming work are related to the equiaxed alpha proportion and negatively related to secondary phase proportion. The microstructure can be described quantitatively and the mechanical properties can be predicted by analysis of microstructure.

  14. Effects of N and B on continuous cooling transformation diagrams of Mo-V-Ti micro-alloyed steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhui, Wang; Bo, Liao; Ligang, Liu; Xianfeng, Li; Hang, Su; Caifu, Yang; Qingfeng, Wang

    2012-05-01

    Effects of the single addition of nitrogen (N) and boron (B) and the combined addition of N and B on continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams and properties of the three Mo-V-Ti micro-alloyed steels were investigated by means of a combined method of dilatometry and metallography. Microstructures observed in continuous cooled specimens were composed of pearlite (P), quasi-polygonal ferrite (QPF), granular bainite (GB), acicular ferrite (AF), lath-like bainite (LB) and martensite (M) depending on the cooling rates and transformation temperatures. Single addition of 12 ppm B effectively reduced the formation of QPF and broadened the cooling rate region for LB and M. Added N makes the action of B invalid and the QPF region was prominently broadened, and even though the cooling rate is higher than 50°C s-1, it cannot obtain full bainite.

  15. Oxidation and alpha-case formation in Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–2Mo alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddam, Raghuveer, E-mail: raghuveer.gaddam@ltu.se; Sefer, Birhan; Pederson, Robert

    2015-01-15

    Isothermal heat treatments in ambient air were performed on wrought Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–2Mo (Ti-6242) material at 500, 593 and 700°C for times up to 500 h. In the presence of oxygen at elevated temperatures simultaneous reactions occurred in Ti-6242 alloy, which resulted in the formation of an oxide scale and a layer with higher oxygen concentration (termed as alpha-case). Total weight gain analysis showed that there was a transition in the oxidation kinetics. At 500°C, the oxidation kinetics obeyed a cubic relationship up to 200 h and thereafter changed to parabolic at prolonged exposure times. At 593°C, it followed a parabolic relationship.more » After heat treatment at 700°C, the oxidation obeyed a parabolic relationship up to 200 h and thereafter changed to linear at prolonged exposure times. The observed transition is believed to be due to the differences observed in the oxide scale. The activation energy for parabolic oxidation was estimated to be 157 kJ/mol. In addition, alpha-case layer was evaluated using optical microscope, electron probe micro-analyser and microhardness tester. The thickness of the alpha-case layer was found to be a function of temperature and time, increasing proportionally, and following a parabolic relationship. The activation energy for the formation of alpha-case layer was estimated to be 153 kJ/mol. - Highlights: • Transition in oxidation kinetics was observed in Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–2Mo alloy in the temperature range 500–700°C. • The activation energy for parabolic oxidation and for alpha-case formation is about 157 kJ/mol and 153 kJ/mol. • Thickness of alpha-case layer estimated by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis is comparable.« less

  16. Development of microstructure and mechanical properties during annealing of a cold-swaged Co-Cr-Mo alloy rod.

    PubMed

    Mori, Manami; Sato, Nanae; Yamanaka, Kenta; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kuramoto, Koji; Chiba, Akihiko

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties during annealing of a cold-swaged Ni-free Co-Cr-Mo alloy for biomedical applications. A Co-28Cr-6Mo-0.14N-0.05C (mass%) alloy rod was processed by cold swaging, with a reduction in area of 27.7%, and then annealed at 1173-1423K for various periods up to 6h. The duplex microstructure of the cold-swaged rod consisted of a face-centered cubic γ-matrix and hexagonal closed-packed ε-martensite developed during cold swaging. This structure transformed nearly completely to the γ-phase after annealing and many annealing twin boundaries were observed as a result of the heat treatment. A small amount of the ε-phase was identified in specimens annealed at 1173K. Growth of the γ-grains occurred with increasing annealing time at temperatures ≥1273K. Interestingly, the grain sizes remained almost unchanged at 1173K and a very fine grain size of approximately 8μm was obtained. The precipitation that occurred during annealing was attributed to the limited grain coarsening during heat treatment. Consequently, the specimens treated at this temperature showed the highest tensile strength and lowest ductility among the specimens prepared. An elongation-to-failure value larger than 30% is sufficient for the proposed applications. The other specimens treated at higher temperatures possessed similar tensile properties and did not show any significant variations with different annealing times. Optimization of the present rod manufacturing process, including cold swaging and interval annealing heat treatment, is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement of mechanical strength of sintered Mo alloyed steel by optimization of sintering and cold-forging processes with densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamakoshi, Y.; Shohji, I.; Inoue, Y.; Fukuda, S.

    2017-10-01

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) materials have been expected to be spread in automotive industry. Generally, since sintered materials using P/M ones contain many pores and voids, mechanical properties of them are inferior to those of conventional wrought materials. To improve mechanical properties of the sintered materials, densification is effective. The aim of this study is to improve mechanical strength of sintered Mo-alloyed steel by optimizing conditions in sintering and cold-forging processes. Mo-alloyed steel powder was compacted. Then, pre-sintering (PS) using a vacuum sintering furnace was conducted. Subsequently, coldforging (CF) by a backward extrusion method was conducted to the pre-sintered specimen. Moreover, the cold-forged specimen was heat treated by carburizing, tempering and quenching (CQT). Afterwards, mechanical properties were investigated. As a result, it was found that the density of the PS specimen is required to be more than 7.4 Mg/m3 to strengthen the specimen by heat treatment after CF. Furthermore, density and the microstructure of the PS specimen are most important factors to make the high density and strength material by CF. At the CF load of 1200 kN, the maximum density ratio reached approximately 99% by the use of the PS specimen with proper density and microstructure. At the CF load of 900 kN, although density ratio was high like more than 97.8%, transverse rupture strength decreased sharply. Since densification caused high shear stress and stress concentration in the surface layer, microcracks occurred by the damages of inter-particle sintered connection of the surface layer. On the contrary, in case of the CF load of 1200 kN, ultra-densification of the surface layer occurred by a sufficient plastic flow. Such sufficient compressed specimens regenerated the sintered connections by high temperature heat treatment and thus the high strength densified material was obtained. These processes can be applicable to near net shape manufacturing

  18. Fe-12Ni-4Co-2Mo-.05Ti alloy for use at 77°K and below

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Bradley Watford

    A variant of the maraging class of steels is proposed for application at 77°K and below where a combination of very high strength and good toughness is required. The alloy has a composition of Fe-12Ni-4Co-2Mo-0.05Ti where low interstitial content. The as quenched and quenched and aged structures were completely martensitic with a prior austenitic grain size of 10 to 12 μm. This structure had a Y.S. of 138.5 ksi and 154 ksi before and after aging respectively. All aging was done at 444°C for 4 hours. The DBTT was shown to lie above 77°K as measured by C v testing.more » Based on dilatometric studies of the α $Yields$ γ and γ → α transformation temperatures a cycling treatment consisting of reportedly heating to above the A f temperature followed by a water quench was utilized to further reduce the prior γ grain size to approximately 4 to 6 μm. The structure was completely martensitic and possessed a Y.S. of 151 ksi at 77°K in the unaged condition with a Y.S./K IC ratio of 1.9 while the aged structure showed a Y.S. of 162 ksi with a Y.S./K IC ratio of 1.3. C v testing showed the DBTT to lie between 77°K and 4.2°K. Further grain refinement was accomplished by a 2 phase decomposition procedure which resulted in a grain size of 1 to 2 μm. The structure which contained decreasing amounts of austenite with temperature (3.0 percent at R.T. to 1.0 percent at 4.2°K) showed the best combination of strength and ductility at 4.2°K. A Y.S. of 205 ksi with a Y.S./K IC ratio of 0.84 was achieved before aging. The aged structure was brittle at 4.2°K with a Y.S. of 218 ksi and a Y.S./K IC ratio of 0.425.« less

  19. Investigation on corrosion behavior of Ni-based alloys in molten fluoride salt using synchrotron radiation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Junyi; Lu, Yanling; Li, Zhijun; Zou, Yang; Yu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Xingtai

    2013-09-01

    Ni-based alloys have been selected as the structural materials in molten-salt reactors due to their high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties. In this paper, the corrosion behavior of some Ni-based superalloys including Inconel 600, Hastelloy X and Hastelloy C-276 were investigated in molten fluoride salts at 750 °C. Morphology and microstructure of corroded samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), synchrotron radiation X-ray microbeam fluorescence (μ-XRF) and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) techniques. Results from μ-XRF and SR-XRD show that the main depleted alloying element of Ni-based alloys in molten fluoride salt is Cr. In addition, the results indicate that Mo can enhance the corrosion resistance in molten FLiNaK salts. Among the above three Ni-based alloys, Hastelloy C-276 exhibits the best corrosion resistance in molten fluoride salts 750 °C. Higher-content Mo and lower-content Cr in Hastelloy C-276 alloy were responsible for the better anti-corrosive performance, compared to the other two alloys.

  20. Study on the Quality and Performance of CoCrMo Alloy Parts Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoqing, Zhang; Yongqiang, Yang; Hui, Lin; Changhui, Song; Zimian, Zhang

    2017-05-01

    To obtain medical implants with better performance, it is necessary to conduct studies on the quality and other performances of the selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing parts. Interior defects in CoCrMo parts manufactured by SLM were detected using x-ray radiographic inspection, and the manufactured parts compared with three-dimensional models to assess manufacturing quality. Impact tests were employed to establish the mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. With the aim of studying the mechanism of fracture of the parts, we utilized a metalloscope and SEM to observe the surface and fractal theory was used to analyze the appearance of fractures. The results show that part defects manifested in an increase in transmittance caused by the non-uniform distribution of density, resulting in variation in the residual stresses of the parts. The density of the parts was more uniform following heat treatment. Internal residual stress of the manufactured parts enhanced their impact toughness. There was a ductile-brittle transition temperature between the two annealing temperatures. We determined that the fracture mechanism was brittle fracture. Fractures exhibited significant fractal behavior. The impact energy and fractal dimension were positively correlated, which provided good support for using selective laser melting manufacturing of CoCrMo alloy in medical implants.

  1. Finite-element model to predict roll-separation force and defects during rolling of U-10Mo alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Burkes, Douglas E.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean

    2017-10-01

    A major goal of the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is to enable high-performance research reactors to operate with low-enriched uranium rather than the high-enriched uranium currently used. To this end, uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) represents an ideal candidate because of its stable gamma phase, low neutron caption cross section, acceptable swelling response, and predictable irradiation behavior. However, because of the complexities of the fuel design and the need for rolled monolithic U-10Mo foils, new developments in processing and fabrication are necessary. This study used a finite-element code, LS-DYNA, as a predictive tool to optimize the rolling process. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel were conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. The study reported here discussed various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., waviness and thickness non-uniformity like dog-boning). To investigate the influence of the cladding material on these rolling defects, other cases were simulated: hot rolling with alternative can materials, namely, 304 stainless steel and Zircaloy-2, and bare-rolling. Simulation results demonstrated that reducing the mismatch in strength between the coupon and can material improves the quality of the rolled sheet. Bare-rolling simulation results showed a defect-free rolled coupon. The finite-element model developed and presented in this study can be used to conduct parametric studies of several process parameters (e.g., rolling speed, roll diameter, can material, and reduction).

  2. The hydrogen embrittlement of titanium-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Gutelmacher, Ervin; Eliezer, Dan

    2005-09-01

    Titanium-based alloys provide an excellent combination of a high strength/weight ratio and good corrosion behavior, which makes these alloys among the most important advanced materials for a variety of aerospace, marine, industrial, and commercial applications. Although titanium is considered to be reasonably resistant to chemical attack, severe problems can arise when titanium-based alloys come in contact with hydrogen-containing environments, where they can pick up large amounts of hydrogen, especially at elevated temperatures. The severity and the extent of the hydrogen interaction with titanium-based alloys are directly related to the microstructure and composition of the titanium alloys. This paper addresses the hydrogen embrittlement of titanium-based alloys. The hydrogen-titanium interaction is reviewed, including the solubility of hydrogen in α and β phases of titanium and hydride formation. Also, the paper summarizes the detrimental effects of hydrogen in different titanium alloys.

  3. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuhua; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Haidong; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications. PMID:28788539

  4. Evaluation of metal ion release from Ti6Al4V and Co-Cr-Mo casting alloys: in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    El Sawy, Amal A; Shaarawy, Mohammed A

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of ions released from Ti6Al4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloys both in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-one discs of each alloy were constructed and divided into seven groups. Three specimens from each group were immersed in a buffered saline solution over a period of 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Twenty-eight participants were also included in the study, where the study group consisted of 14 mandibular partially edentulous patients, and the control group consisted of 14 volunteers. The study group was further divided into two equal groups: the first group received removable partial dentures (RPDs) constructed from Co-Cr-Mo alloy, while the second group received RPDs constructed from Ti6Al4V alloy. Saliva samples were collected from each participant over the same study period. The conditioning media and saliva samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). The concentrations of metal ions released from the studied alloys were significantly higher in the in vitro than in the in vivo study group during the follow-up periods. A statistically significant increase in ion concentrations of the different elements for both alloys was found with time (p < 0.05). The amounts of released metallic ions from Co-Cr-Mo and Ti6Al4V alloys were higher in the buffered saline solutions than in the studied saliva samples and control groups; however, these amounts were still within the physiological limit of trace elements in the human body. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. The effect of nanobioceramic reinforcement on mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, M; Fathi, M H; Ahmadian, M

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the present research was to fabricate, characterize, and evaluate mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy composites with different amounts of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder reinforcement. The powder of Co-Cr-Mo alloy was mixed with different amounts of HA by ball milling and it was then cold pressed and sintered. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. Microhardness measurement and compressive tests were also carried out. Bioactivity behavior was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF). A significant decrease in modulus elasticity and an increase in microhardness of the sintered composites were observed. Apatite formation on the surface of the composites showed that it could successfully convert bioinert Co-Cr-Mo alloy to bioactive type by adding 10, 15, and 20wt.% HA which have lower modulus elasticity and higher microhardness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of High Damping Fe-Cr-Mo and Fe-Cr-Al Alloys for Naval Ships Application.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    austenitic , and martensitic. The high damping Fe-Cr-based alloys are closely related to ferritic stainless steels . Ferritic stainless steel consists of an Fe...cm reveme it Prectiaq #no ’uenf r oy o.o(a tflrowf U S9GO..P Damping; Ship Silencing; Ferritic Stainless Steels ; Ti-Ni 7 LhV I,. Cintunue on roere .r...decreased. E. METALLURGY OF THE IRON-CHROMIUM ALLOY SYSTEM 1. Physical Properties Stainless steels are divided into three main classes: ferritic

  7. Aluminum alloy/alumina-based ceramic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lebeau, T.; Strom-Olsen, J.O.; Gruzleski, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    Wetting experiments were performed on eutectic ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ZA), ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} (ZAT), and ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} (ZAS) ceramic substrates with different Al alloys. Four major variables were tested to study the wetting behavior of the different ceramic-metal systems. Variable include holding time, melt temperature, ally, and ceramic compositions. An experimental setup was designed to measure in situ contact angles using the sessile drop method. For any ceramic substrate, a temperature over 950 C was necessary to observe an equilibrium wetting angle of less than 90{degree} with pure Al; by alloying the aluminum, wettingmore » could be observed at lower temperatures ({theta} = 76--86{degree} at 900 C for Al-10 wt. % Si, {theta} {approximately}72{degree} at 850 C for Al-2.4 wt. % Mg) forming clean interfaces. Finally, ZAS specimens reacted with molten Al alloys over 900 C to produce Zr-Al based intermetallics at the metal-ceramic interface.« less

  8. Alloy softening in binary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to Mo, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  9. On the Alloying and Properties of Tetragonal Nb₅Si₃ in Nb-Silicide Based Alloys.

    PubMed

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-01-04

    The alloying of Nb₅Si₃ modifies its properties. Actual compositions of (Nb,TM)₅X₃ silicides in developmental alloys, where X = Al + B + Ge + Si + Sn and TM is a transition and/or refractory metal, were used to calculate the composition weighted differences in electronegativity (Δχ) and an average valence electron concentration (VEC) and the solubility range of X to study the alloying and properties of the silicide. The calculations gave 4.11 < VEC < 4.45, 0.103 < Δχ < 0.415 and 33.6 < X < 41.6 at.%. In the silicide in Nb-24Ti-18Si-5Al-5Cr alloys with single addition of 5 at.% B, Ge, Hf, Mo, Sn and Ta, the solubility range of X decreased compared with the unalloyed Nb₅Si₃ or exceeded 40.5 at.% when B was with Hf or Mo or Sn and the Δχ decreased with increasing X. The Ge concentration increased with increasing Ti and the Hf concentration increased and decreased with increasing Ti or Nb respectively. The B and Sn concentrations respectively decreased and increased with increasing Ti and also depended on other additions in the silicide. The concentration of Sn was related to VEC and the concentrations of B and Ge were related to Δχ. The alloying of Nb₅Si₃ was demonstrated in Δχ versus VEC maps. Effects of alloying on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) anisotropy, Young's modulus, hardness and creep data were discussed. Compared with the hardness of binary Nb₅Si₃ (1360 HV), the hardness increased in silicides with Ge and dropped below 1360 HV when Al, B and Sn were present without Ge. The Al effect on hardness depended on other elements substituting Si. Sn reduced the hardness. Ti or Hf reduced the hardness more than Cr in Nb₅Si₃ without Ge. The (Nb,Hf)₅(Si,Al)₃ had the lowest hardness. VEC differentiated the effects of additions on the hardness of Nb₅Si₃ alloyed with Ge. Deterioration of the creep of alloyed Nb₅Si₃ was accompanied by decrease of VEC and increase or decrease of Δχ depending on alloying addition(s).

  10. Ternary Magnesium-Lithium Base Constitution Diagrams and Magnesium Alloys of Low Alloy Additions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-03-01

    progress In eperimental development of mgmesiu-bease &alls with low alloy additions. The primry purpose of this investiptiU is to obtain alloys baving a...Casting Magnesium-Lithium Base Ternary Alloys Melting and Castirg Technigue The design , construction and operation of equipment for melting and...protection during heat treatment were: 1. Design and construction of a specimen container to hold a number of specimens in an inert atmosphere in order to WAC

  11. Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure and superelastic properties of a Ti-18Zr-4.5Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    In this study a new superelastic Ti-18Zr-4.5Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy was prepared by adding 2at% of Mo as a substitute for Nb to the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy, and heat treatment at different temperatures was conducted. The temperature dependence of superelasticity and annealing texture was investigated. Texture showed a dependence of annealing temperature: the specimen annealed at 923K for 0.3ks exhibited {113} β <47¯1> β type texture which was similar to the deformation texture, while specimens annealed at 973, 1073K, and 1173K showed {001} β <110> β type recrystallization texture which was preferable for recovery strain. The largest recovery strain of 6.2%, which is the same level as that of the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy, was obtained in the specimen annealed at 1173K for 0.3ks due to the well-developed {001} β <110> β type recrystallization texture. The Ti-18Zr-3Nb-3Sn-2Mo alloy presented a higher tensile strength compared with the Ti-18Zr-11Nb-3Sn alloy when heat treated at 1173K for 0.3ks, which was due to the solid solution strengthening effect of Mo. Annealing at 923K for 0.3ks was effective in obtaining a good combination of a high strength as 865MPa and a large recovery strain as 5.6%. The high recovery strain was due to the high stress at which the maximum recovery stain was obtained which was attributed to the small grain size formed at low annealing temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 3Mo: A Model for Music-Based Biofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Buhmann, Jeska; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the domain of sports and motor rehabilitation, it is of major importance to regulate and control physiological processes and physical motion in most optimal ways. For that purpose, real-time auditory feedback of physiological and physical information based on sound signals, often termed “sonification,” has been proven particularly useful. However, the use of music in biofeedback systems has been much less explored. In the current article, we assert that the use of music, and musical principles, can have a major added value, on top of mere sound signals, to the benefit of psychological and physical optimization of sports and motor rehabilitation tasks. In this article, we present the 3Mo model to describe three main functions of music that contribute to these benefits. These functions relate the power of music to Motivate, and to Monitor and Modify physiological and physical processes. The model brings together concepts and theories related to human sensorimotor interaction with music, and specifies the underlying psychological and physiological principles. This 3Mo model is intended to provide a conceptual framework that guides future research on musical biofeedback systems in the domain of sports and motor rehabilitation. PMID:27994535

  13. Corrosion Characteristics of Ni-Based Hardfacing Alloy Deposited on Stainless Steel Substrate by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Abraham, Geogy; Kumar, Santosh; Bhattacharyya, Kaustava; Keskar, Nachiket; Kushwaha, R. P.; Rao, Ramana; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G. K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, corrosion characteristics of a nickel-based Ni-Mo-Cr-Si hardfacing alloy having 32Mo, 15Cr, and 3Si (wt pct) as alloying elements, deposited on stainless steel SS316L substrate by laser cladding, have been presented. Corrosion behavior of the laser clad layer was evaluated in reducing (0.1 M HCl) and oxidizing (0.5 M HNO3) environments, in comparison with the reference substrate SS316L, using electrochemical potentiodynamic technique at room temperature. The corrosion mechanisms have been evaluated on the basis of microstructural and microchemical analysis using scanning electron microscopy attached with energy-dispersive spectrometry. Passivity behavior of the laser clad layer was studied in 0.5 M H2SO4, using the potentiostatic technique and analyzing the passive layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Laser clad layer of Ni-Mo-Cr-Si exhibited higher pitting corrosion resistance in chloride (reducing) environment, indicated by much higher breakdown potential ( 0.8 VSCE) and the absence of pitting as compared to substrate SS316L ( 0.3 VSCE). However, in oxidizing (0.5 M HNO3) environment, both the laser clad layer and substrate SS316L showed excellent and similar corrosion resistance exhibiting high breakdown potential ( 0.85 VSCE) and wide passivation range ( 0.8 VSCE) with low passive current density ( 4 to 7 × 10-6 A/cm2). The stable passive layer formed on laser clad layer of Ni-Mo-Cr-Si after exposure in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at constant potential 0.6 VSCE (within the passive range), consisted oxides of Mo as Mo+4 (MoO2) and Mo+6 (MoO4)-2, Cr as Cr3+ (mixture of both Cr2O3 and Cr (OH)3), and Si as Si4+(SiO2), which have contributed to passivation and repassivation and therefore excellent corrosion behavior.

  14. Cast Fe-base cylinder/regenerator housing alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, F.; Kindlimann, L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an iron-base alloy that can meet the requirements of automotive Stirling engine cylinders and regenerator housings is described. Alloy requirements are as follows: a cast alloy, stress for 5000-hr rupture life of 200 MPa (29 ksi) at 775 C (1427 F), oxidation/corrosion resistance comparable to that of N-155, compatibility with hydrogen, and an alloy cost less than or equal to that of 19-9DL. The preliminary screening and evaluation of ten alloys are described.

  15. Influence of the pulsed plasma treatment on the corrosion resistance of the low-alloy steel plated by Ni-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhumaev, P.; Yakushin, V.; Kalin, B.; Polsky, V.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents investigation results of the influence of high temperature pulsed plasma flows (HTPPF) treatment on the corrosion resistance of low-alloy steel 0.2C-Cr-Mn- Ni-Mo cladded by the rapidly quenched nickel-based alloy. A technique that allows obtaining a defect-free clad layer with a good adhesion to the substrate was developed. It is shown that the preliminary treatment of steel samples by nitrogen plasma flows significantly increases their corrosion resistance in the conditions of intergranular corrosion test in a water solution of sulfuric acid. A change of the corrosion mechanism of the clad layer from intergranular to uniform corrosion was observed as a result of sub-microcrystalline structure formation and homogeneous distribution of alloying elements in the plasma treated surface layer thus leading to the significant increase of the corrosion resistance.

  16. Solid State Reduction of MoO3 with Carbon via Mechanical Alloying to Synthesize Nano-Crystaline MoO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghafi, M.; Ataie, A.; Heshmati-Manesh, S.

    In this research, effect of milling time on solid state reduction of MoO3 with carbon has been investigated. It was found that mechanical activation of a mixture of MoO3 and carbon at ambient temperature by high energy ball milling was not able to reduce MoO3 to metallic molybdenum. MoO3 was converted to MoO2 at the first stage of reduction and peaks of the latter phase in X-ray diffraction patterns were detected when the milling time exceeded from 50 hours. The main effect of increased milling time at this stage was decreasing of MoO3 peak intensities and significant peak broadening due to decrease in size of crystallites. After prolonged milling, MoO3 was fully reduced to nano-crystalline MoO2 and its mean crystallite size was calculated using Williamson-Hall technique and found to be 17.5 nm. Thermodynamic investigations also confirm the possibility of reduction of MoO3 to MoO2 during the milling operation at room temperature. But, further reduction to metallic molybdenum requires thermal activation at higher temperature near 1100 K. XRD and SEM techniques were employed to evaluate the powder particles characteristics.

  17. The stability of thermodynamically metastable phases in a Zr-Sn-Nb-Mo alloy: Effects of alloying elements, morphology and applied stress/strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongbing; Yao, Zhongwen; Daymond, Mark R.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a dual phase Zr-Sn-Nb-Mb alloy was studied with TEM after thermal treatment and high-temperature tensile deformation. Plate and pressure tube material, manufactured through different processing routes, were used in this study. The overall average concentrations of Mo and Nb in the β phase are higher in the pressure tube than in the plate. It was revealed that these concentrations have significant effects on the subsequent stability of the β and ω phases as well as on the precipitation behavior of the α phase from the β phase. That is, the higher the concentrations, the more stable the β and ω phases are, and hence there is a reduced tendency for precipitation of α phase. Aging treatments cause the transformation of athermal ω to isothermal ω, as expected. The most striking finding is the product of the decomposition of the isothermal ω particles during aging treatment is determined as not being α phase, even though the structure of it is, as-yet, not fully determined. The non-uniform morphology of the β grains in the plate material provides us a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of morphology on the aging response of the β phase. It was found that thin β filaments suppress the precipitation of isothermal ω particles but enhance the precipitation of α phase at α/β interfaces. The effect of the Burgers orientation relationship between α and β grains on the precipitation of the α phase at the α/β interface is discussed. Applied high-temperature stress/strain has been found to enhance the decomposition of isothermal ω phase but suppress α precipitation inside the β grains. The suppression of α precipitation by applied stress/strain is discussed in terms of the ω assisted α precipitation. Implications of these findings for the in-service application of the alloy are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Ni-Cr-base alloys for SOFC interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guan-Guang; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    To further understand the suitability of Ni-Cr-base alloys for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect applications, three commercial Ni-Cr-base alloys, Haynes 230, Hastelloy S and Haynes 242 were selected and evaluated for oxidation behavior under different exposure conditions, scale conductivity and thermal expansion. Haynes 230 and Hastelloy S, which have a relatively high Cr content, formed a thin scale mainly comprised of Cr 2O 3 and (Mn,Cr,Ni) 3O 4 spinels under SOFC operating conditions, demonstrating excellent oxidation resistance and a high scale electrical conductivity. In contrast, a thick double-layer scale with a NiO outer layer above a chromia-rich substrate was grown on Haynes 242 in moist air or at the air side of dual exposure samples, indicating limited oxidation resistance for the interconnect application. With a face-centered-cubic (FCC) substrate, all three alloys possess a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that is higher than that of candidate ferritic stainless steels, e.g. Crofer22 APU. Among the three alloys, Haynes 242, which is heavily alloyed with W and Mo and contains a low Cr content, demonstrated the lowest average CTE at 13.1 × 10 -6 K -1 from room temperature to 800 °C, but it was also observed that the CTE behavior of Haynes 242 was very non-linear.

  19. Piercing mandrel strengthening by surfacing with nickel aluminide-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorin, I. V.; Dubtsov, Yu N.; Sokolov, G. N.; Artem'ev, A. A.; Lysak, V. I.; Elsukov, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    Electrode composite wire (CW) was used for argon-arc surfacing of a thermal-resisting nickel aluminide-based alloy (Ni-Al-Cr-W-Mo-Ta system) on the butt-end surface of the non-water-cooled piercing mandrel. It was shown that multipassing surfacing forms a defect-free deposited metal based on the γ’-Ni3Al phase of various structural origins. Using high-temperature sclerometry and thermal fatigue testing methods, the metal deposited with CW containing ultrafine particle of 0.3-0.4 % wt. WC carbide features increased resistance to thermal and force effects at temperatures up to 1200 °C.

  20. Prediction of U-Mo dispersion nuclear fuels with Al-Si alloy using artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Susmikanti, Mike, E-mail: mike@batan.go.id; Sulistyo, Jos, E-mail: soj@batan.go.id

    2014-09-30

    Dispersion nuclear fuels, consisting of U-Mo particles dispersed in an Al-Si matrix, are being developed as fuel for research reactors. The equilibrium relationship for a mixture component can be expressed in the phase diagram. It is important to analyze whether a mixture component is in equilibrium phase or another phase. The purpose of this research it is needed to built the model of the phase diagram, so the mixture component is in the stable or melting condition. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a modeling tool for processes involving multivariable non-linear relationships. The objective of the present work is to developmore » code based on artificial neural network models of system equilibrium relationship of U-Mo in Al-Si matrix. This model can be used for prediction of type of resulting mixture, and whether the point is on the equilibrium phase or in another phase region. The equilibrium model data for prediction and modeling generated from experimentally data. The artificial neural network with resilient backpropagation method was chosen to predict the dispersion of nuclear fuels U-Mo in Al-Si matrix. This developed code was built with some function in MATLAB. For simulations using ANN, the Levenberg-Marquardt method was also used for optimization. The artificial neural network is able to predict the equilibrium phase or in the phase region. The develop code based on artificial neural network models was built, for analyze equilibrium relationship of U-Mo in Al-Si matrix.« less

  1. Micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of a biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in simulated physiological fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Yan; Huang, Weijiu; Chen, Xiaoli; He, Haoran

    2016-10-01

    The micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the biomedical Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in Hank׳s solution with protein has been investigated using electrochemical measurements, tribological tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion potential (Ecorr) exhibits the maximum value at the abrasive concentration of 0.05gcm(-3) despite of the load level. The tribological results indicated that the total material loss of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy during micro-abrasion increased with the increasing abrasive concentration at a certain applied load. When the abrasive concentration is no more than 0.15gcm(-3), the total material loss increases with increasing load, while the total material loss exhibits the maximum value at a moderate load in case of higher abrasive concentration levels. This was ascribed to the three-body or two-body micro-abrasion-corrosion at different abrasive concentration levels. The wastage map, abrasion mode map and synergy map associated with the applied load and the abrasive concentration were constructed to evaluate the micro-abrasion-corrosion behaviour of the Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy in potential biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Nb25Mo25Ta25W25 and V20Nb20Mo20Ta20W20 Refractory High Entropy Alloys (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu. Since metallic alloys for high temperature load bearing structures and thermal protection systems remain in high demand for aer...condition. These results indicate that the BCC crystal structure formed in both alloys during solidification is stable upon heating at least up to 1400 C... solidification (Fig. 5b). Higher magnification images reveal a dendritic structure in both alloys (Fig. 5c and d). Uneven Z contrast inside the grains indicates

  3. High-Performance Photovoltaic Detector Based on MoTe2 /MoS2 Van der Waals Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Wang, Xudong; Wu, Guangjian; Wang, Zhen; Fang, Hehai; Lin, Tie; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Hu, Weida; Wang, Jianlu; Sun, Jinglan; Meng, Xiangjian; Chu, Junhao

    2018-03-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures based on 2D layered materials have received wide attention for their multiple applications in optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, light-emitting devices, and photodiodes. In this work, high-performance photovoltaic photodetectors based on MoTe 2 /MoS 2 vertical heterojunctions are demonstrated by exfoliating-restacking approach. The fundamental electric properties and band structures of the junction are revealed and analyzed. It is shown that this kind of photodetectors can operate under zero bias with high on/off ratio (>10 5 ) and ultralow dark current (≈3 pA). Moreover, a fast response time of 60 µs and high photoresponsivity of 46 mA W -1 are also attained at room temperature. The junctions based on 2D materials are expected to constitute the ultimate functional elements of nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cast iron-base alloy for cylinder/regenerator housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witter, Stewart L.; Simmons, Harold E.; Woulds, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    NASACC-1 is a castable iron-base alloy designed to replace the costly and strategic cobalt-base X-40 alloy used in the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/generator housing. Over 40 alloy compositions were evaluated using investment cast test bars for stress-rupture testing. Also, hydrogen compatibility and oxygen corrosion resistance tests were used to determine the optimal alloy. NASACC-1 alloy was characterized using elevated and room temperature tensile, creep-rupture, low cycle fatigue, heat capacity, specific heat, and thermal expansion testing. Furthermore, phase analysis was performed on samples with several heat treated conditions. The properties are very encouraging. NASACC-1 alloy shows stress-rupture and low cycle fatigue properties equivalent to X-40. The oxidation resistance surpassed the program goal while maintaining acceptable resistance to hydrogen exposure. The welding, brazing, and casting characteristics are excellent. Finally, the cost of NASACC-1 is significantly lower than that of X-40.

  5. Directionally Solidified NiAl-Based Alloys Studied for Improved Elevated-Temperature Strength and Room-Temperature Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, Sai V.; Locci, Ivan E.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts are underway to replace superalloys used in the hot sections of gas turbine engines with materials possessing better mechanical and physical properties. Alloys based on the intermetallic NiAl have demonstrated potential; however, they generally suffer from low fracture resistance (toughness) at room temperature and from poor strength at elevated temperatures. Directional solidification of NiAl alloyed with both Cr and Mo has yielded materials with useful toughness and elevated-temperature strength values. The intermetallic alloy NiAl has been proposed as an advanced material to extend the maximum operational temperature of gas turbine engines by several hundred degrees centigrade. This intermetallic alloy displays a lower density (approximately 30-percent less) and a higher thermal conductivity (4 to 8 times greater) than conventional superalloys as well as good high-temperature oxidation resistance. Unfortunately, unalloyed NiAl has poor elevated temperature strength (approximately 50 MPa at 1027 C) and low room-temperature fracture toughness (about 5 MPa). Directionally solidified NiAl eutectic alloys are known to possess a combination of high elevated-temperature strength and good room-temperature fracture toughness. Research has demonstrated that a NiAl matrix containing a uniform distribution of very thin Cr plates alloyed with Mo possessed both increased fracture toughness and elevated-temperature creep strength. Although attractive properties were obtained, these alloys were formed at low growth rates (greater than 19 mm/hr), which are considered to be economically unviable. Hence, an investigation was warranted of the strength and toughness behavior of NiAl-(Cr,Mo) directionally solidified at faster growth rates. If the mechanical properties did not deteriorate with increased growth rates, directional solidification could offer an economical means to produce NiAl-based alloys commercially for gas turbine engines. An investigation at the NASA Glenn

  6. Enhanced photoresponse of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) based on microcavity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanan; Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Fuxue; Lu, Naiyan

    2018-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in using monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for optoelectronic devices because of its inherent direct band gap characteristics. However, the weak absorption of monolayer MoS2 restricts its applications, novel concepts need to be developed to address the weakness. In this work, monolayer MoS2 monolithically integrates with plane microcavity structure, which is formed by the top and bottom chirped distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), is demonstrated to improve the absorption of MoS2. The optical absorption is 17-fold enhanced, reaching values over 70% at work wavelength. Moreover, the monolayer MoS2-based photodetector device with microcavity presents a significantly increased photoresponse, demonstrating its promising prospects in MoS2-based optoelectronic devices.

  7. A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of zirconium or hafnium in selected molybdenum-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    A simple analytical procedure is described for accurately and precisely determining the zirconium or hafnium content of molybdenum-base alloys. The procedure is based on the reaction of the reagent Arsenazo III with zirconium or hafnium in strong hydrochloric acid solution. The colored complexes of zirconium or hafnium are formed in the presence of molybdenum. Titanium or rhenium in the alloy have no adverse effect on the zirconium or hafnium complex at the following levels in the selected aliquot: Mo, 10 mg; Re, 10 mg; Ti, 1 mg. The spectrophotometric measurement of the zirconium or hafnium complex is accomplished without prior separation with a relative standard deviation of 1.3 to 2.7 percent.

  8. Thermal cooling effects in the microstructure and properties of cast cobalt-base biomedical alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Valer, Vladimir

    Joint replacement prosthesis is widely used in the biomedical field to provide a solution for dysfunctional human body joints. The demand for orthopedic knee and hip implants motivate scientists and manufacturers to develop novel materials or to increase the life of service and efficiency of current materials. Cobalt-base alloys have been investigated by various researchers for biomedical implantations. When these alloys contain Chromium, Molybdenum, and Carbon, they exhibit good tribological and mechanical properties, as well as excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. In this study, the microstructure of cast Co-Cr-Mo-C alloy is purposely modified by inducing rapid solidification through fusion welding processes and solution annealing heat treatment (quenched in water at room temperature. In particular the effect of high cooling rates on the athermal phase transformation FCC(gamma)↔HCP(epsilon) on the alloy hardness and corrosion resistance is investigated. The Co-alloy microstructures were characterized using metallography and microscopy techniques. It was found that the as cast sample typically dendritic with dendritic grain sizes of approximately 150 microm and containing Cr-rich coarse carbide precipitates along the interdendritic boundaries. Solution annealing gives rise to a refined microstructure with grain size of 30 microm, common among Co-Cr-Mo alloys after heat treating. Alternatively, an ultrafine grain structure (between 2 and 10 microm) was developed in the fusion zone for specimens melted using Laser and TIG welding methods. When laser surface modification treatments were implemented, the developed solidification microstructure shifted from dendritic to a fine cellular morphology, with possible nanoscale carbide precipitates along the cellular boundaries. In turn, the solidified regions exhibited high hardness values (461.5HV), which exceeds by almost 110 points from the alloy in the as-cast condition. The amount of developed athermal

  9. Atomistic simulation of defect formation and structure transitions in U-Mo alloys in swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotova, L. N.; Starikov, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    In irradiation of swift heavy ions, the defects formation frequently takes place in crystals. High energy transfer into the electronic subsystem and relaxations processes lead to the formation of structural defects and cause specific effects, such as the track formation. There is a large interest to understanding of the mechanisms of defects/tracks formation due to the heating of the electron subsystem. In this work, the atomistic simulation of defects formation and structure transitions in U-Mo alloys in irradiation of swift heavy ions has been carried out. We use the two-temperature atomistic model with explicit account of electron pressure and electron thermal conductivity. This two-temperature model describes ionic subsystem by means of molecular dynamics while the electron subsystem is considered in the continuum approach. The various mechanisms of structure changes in irradiation are examined. In particular, the simulation results indicate that the defects formation may be produced without melting and subsequent crystallization. Threshold stopping power of swift ions for the defects formation in irradiation in the various conditions are calculated.

  10. Effect of alloying on screw dislocation structure in Mo: atomistic modelling approach with ab-initio parametrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornostyrev, Yu. N.

    2005-03-01

    The plastic deformation in bcc metals is realized by the motion of screw dislocations with a complex star-like non-planar core. In this case, the direct investigation of the solute effect by first principles electronic structure calculations is a challenging problem for which we follow a combined approach that includes atomistic dislocation modelling with ab-initio parametrization of interatomic interactions. The screw dislocation core structure in Mo alloys is described within the model of atomic row displacements along a dislocation line with the interatomic row potential estimated from total energy full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FLMTO) calculations with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation potential. We demonstrate (1) that the solute effect on the dislocation structure is different for ``hard'' and ``easy'' cores and (2) that the softener addition in a ``hard'' core gives rise to a structural transformation into a configuration with a lower energy through an intermediate state. The softener solute is shown to disturb locally the three-fold symmetry of the dislocation core and the dislocation structure tends to the split planar core.

  11. DFT study of structural and electronic properties of MoS2(1-x)Se2x alloy (x = 0.25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Julia; Gusakov, Vasilii; Tay, Beng Kang

    2018-04-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to study the structural features of the monolayer MoS2(1-x)Se2x (x = 0.25) alloy and its electronic properties. We studied the effects of the relative positions of Se atoms in a real monolayer alloy. It was demonstrated that the distribution of the Se atoms between the top and bottom chalcogen planes was most energetically favorable. For a more probable distribution of Se atoms, a MoS2(1-x)Se2x (x = 0.25) monolayer alloy is a direct semiconductor with a fundamental band gap equal to 2.35 eV (calculated with the GVJ-2e method). We also evaluated the optical band gap of the alloy at 77 K (1.86 eV) and at room temperature (1.80 eV), which was in good agreement with the experimentally measured band gap of 1.79 eV.

  12. The Influence of Mo, Cr and B Alloying on Phase Transformation and Mechanical Properties in Nb Added High Strength Dual Phase Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girina, O.; Fonstein, N.; Yakubovsky, O.; Panahi, D.; Bhattacharya, D.; Jansto, S.

    The influence of Nb, Mo, Cr and B on phase transformations and mechanical properties are studied in a 0.15C-2.0Mn-0.3Si-0.020Ti dual phase steel separately and in combination. The formation and decomposition of austenite together with recrystallization of ferrite are evaluated by dilatometry and constructed CCT-diagrams in laboratory processed cold rolled material cooled after full austenitization and from intercritical temperature range. The effect of alloying elements on formation of austenite through their effect on initial hot rolled structure is taken into account. The interpretation of phase transformations during heating and cooling is supported by metallography. The effect of alloying elements on mechanical properties and structure are evaluated by annealing simulations. It has been shown that mechanical properties are strongly influenced by alloying additions such as Nb, Mo, Cr and B through their effect on ferrite formation during continuous cooling and corresponding enrichment of remaining austenite by carbon. Depending on combined effect of these alloying elements, different phase transformations can be promoted during cooling. This allows controlling of final microstructural constituents and mechanical properties.

  13. On improving the fracture toughness of a NiAl-based alloy by mechanical alloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostrubanic, J.; Koss, D. A.; Locci, I. E.; Nathal, M.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) has been used to process the NiAl-based alloy Ni-35Al-20Fe, such that a fine-grain (about 2 microns) microstructure is obtained through the addition of 2 vol pct Y2O3 particles. When compared to a conventionally processed, coarse-grained (about 28 microns) Ni-35-20 alloy without the Y2O3 particles, the MA alloy exhibits two to three times higher fracture toughness values, despite a 50-percent increase in yield strength. Room-temperature K(O) values as high as 34 MPa sq rt m are observed, accompanied by a yield strength in excess of 1100 MPa. Fractography confirms a change in fracture characteristics of the fine-grained MA alloy.

  14. Metal elution from Ni- and Fe-based alloy reactors under hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Muhammad; Quitain, Armando T; Urano, Shin-Ya; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

    2004-05-20

    Elution of metals from Ni- and Fe-based alloy (i.e. Inconel 625 and SUS 316) under hydrothermal conditions was investigated. Results showed that metals could be eluted even in a short contact time. At subcritical conditions, a significant amount of Cr was extracted from SUS 316, while only traces of Ni, Fe, Mo, and Mn were eluted. In contrast, Ni was removed in significant amounts compared to Cr when Inconel 625 was tested. Several factors including temperature and contact time were found to affect elution behavior. The presence of air in the fluid even promoted elution under subcritical conditions.

  15. MoS2‐Based Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyi; Chen, Shuangqiang; Xue, Huaiguo

    2016-01-01

    Typical layered transition‐metal chalcogenide materials, in particular layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanocomposites, have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their excellent chemical and physical properties in various research fieldsHere, a general overview of synthetic MoS2 based nanocomposites via different preparation approaches and their applications in energy storage devices (Li‐ion battery, Na‐ion battery, and supercapacitor) is presented. The relationship between morphologies and the electrochemical performances of MoS2‐based nanocomposites in the three typical and promising rechargeable systems is also discussed. Finally, perspectives on major challenges and opportunities faced by MoS2‐based materials to address the practical problems of MoS2‐based materials are presented. PMID:28251051

  16. Σ 3 (111 ) grain boundary of body-centered cubic Ti-Mo and Ti-V alloys: First-principles and model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jia-Yi; Ehteshami, Hossein; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.; Borgenstam, Annika

    2017-07-01

    The energetics and atomic structures of Σ 3 [1 1 ¯0 ] (111 ) grain boundary (GB) of body-centered cubic (bcc) Ti-Mo and Ti-V alloys are investigated using density-functional-theory calculations and virtual crystal approximation. The electron density in bcc structure and the atomic displacements and excess energy of the GB are correlated to bcc-ω phase stability. Model calculations based on pairwise interplanar interactions successfully reproduce the chemical part of GB energy. The chemical GB energy can be expressed as a sum of excess pairwise interactions between bcc (111) layers, which are obtained from Gaussian elimination of the total energies of a number of periodic structures. The energy associated with the relaxation near the GB is solved by numerical minimization using the derivatives of the excess interactions. Anharmonic interlayer interactions are necessary for obtaining accurate relaxation energy and excess GB volume from model calculations. The effect of GB on vibrational spectrum is also investigated. Segregation energies of B and Y to a substitutional site on the GB plane are calculated. Preliminary results suggest that Y tends to segregate, while B tends to antisegregate.

  17. Effects of alloy composition on cyclic flame hot-corrosion attack of cast nickel-base superalloys at 900 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of Cr, Al, Ti, Mo, Ta, Nb, and W content on the hot corrosion of nickel base alloys were investigated. The alloys were tested in a Mach 0.3 flame with 0.5 ppmw sodium at a temperature of 900 C. One nondestructive and three destructive tests were conducted. The best corrosion resistance was achieved when the Cr content was 12 wt %. However, some lower-Cr-content alloys ( 10 wt%) exhibited reasonable resistance provided that the Al content alloys ( 10 wt %) exhibited reasonable resistance provided that the Al content was 2.5 wt % and the Ti content was Aa wt %. The effect of W, Ta, Mo, and Nb contents on the hot-corrosion resistance varied depending on the Al and Ti contents. Several commercial alloy compositions were also tested and the corrosion attack was measured. Predicted attack was calculated for these alloys from derived regression equations and was in reasonable agreement with that experimentally measured. The regression equations were derived from measurements made on alloys in a one-quarter replicate of a 2(7) statistical design alloy composition experiment. These regression equations represent a simple linear model and are only a very preliminary analysis of the data needed to provide insights into the experimental method.

  18. An Innovative Accident Tolerant LWR Fuel Rod Design Based on Uranium-Molybdenum Metal Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Robert O.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Henager, Charles H.

    2016-09-12

    The US Department of Energy is developing a uranium-molybdenum metal alloy Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuel concept for Light Water Reactor applications that provides improved fuel performance during normal operation, anticipated operational occurrences, and postulated accidents. The high initial uranium atom density, the high thermal conductivity, and a low heat capacity permit a U-Mo-based fuel assembly to meet important design and safety requirements. These attributes also result in a fuel design that can satisfy increased fuel utilization demands and allow for improved accident tolerance in LWRs. This paper summarizes the results obtained from the on-going activities to; 1) evaluate the impactmore » of the U-10wt%Mo thermal properties on operational and accident safety margins, 2) produce a triple extrusion of stainless steel cladding/niobium liner/U-10Mo fuel rod specimen and 3) test the high temperature water corrosion of rodlet samples containing a drilled hole in the cladding. Characterization of the cladding and liner thickness uniformity, microstructural features of the U-Mo gamma phase, and the metallurgical bond between the component materials will be presented. The results from corrosion testing will be discussed which yield insights into the resistance to attack by water ingress during high temperature water exposure for the triple extruded samples containing a drilled hole. These preliminary evaluations find that the U-10Mo fuel design concept has many beneficial features that can meet or improve conventional LWR fuel performance requirements under normal operation, AOOs, and postulated accidents. The viability of a deployable U-Mo fuel design hinges on demonstrating that fabrication processes and alloying additions can produce acceptable irradiation stability during normal operation and accident conditions and controlled metal-water reaction rates in the unlikely event of a cladding perforation. In the area of enhanced accident tolerance, a key

  19. Tantalum modified ferritic iron base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldrieve, R. E.; Blankenship, C. P. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Strong ferritic alloys of the Fe-CR-Al type containing 0.4% to 2% tantalum were developed. These alloys have improved fabricability without sacrificing high temperature strength and oxidation resistance in the 800 C (1475 F) to 1040 C (1900 F) range.

  20. Thermal management in MoS2 based integrated device using near-field radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jiebin; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-09-01

    Recently, wafer-scale growth of monolayer MoS2 films with spatial homogeneity is realized on SiO2 substrate. Together with the latest reported high mobility, MoS2 based integrated electronic devices are expected to be fabricated in the near future. Owing to the low lattice thermal conductivity in monolayer MoS2, and the increased transistor density accompanied with the increased power density, heat dissipation will become a crucial issue for these integrated devices. In this letter, using the formalism of fluctuation electrodynamics, we explored the near-field radiative heat transfer from a monolayer MoS2 to graphene. We demonstrate that in resonance, the maximum heat transfer via near-field radiation between MoS2 and graphene can be ten times higher than the in-plane lattice thermal conduction for MoS2 sheet. Therefore, an efficient thermal management strategy for MoS2 integrated device is proposed: Graphene sheet is brought into close proximity, 10-20 nm from MoS2 device; heat energy transfer from MoS2 to graphene via near-field radiation; this amount of heat energy then be conducted to contact due to ultra-high lattice thermal conductivity of graphene. Our work sheds light for developing cooling strategy for nano devices constructing with low thermal conductivity materials.

  1. Thermal management in MoS{sub 2} based integrated device using near-field radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Jiebin; Zhang, Gang, E-mail: zhangg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg; Li, Baowen

    2015-09-28

    Recently, wafer-scale growth of monolayer MoS{sub 2} films with spatial homogeneity is realized on SiO{sub 2} substrate. Together with the latest reported high mobility, MoS{sub 2} based integrated electronic devices are expected to be fabricated in the near future. Owing to the low lattice thermal conductivity in monolayer MoS{sub 2}, and the increased transistor density accompanied with the increased power density, heat dissipation will become a crucial issue for these integrated devices. In this letter, using the formalism of fluctuation electrodynamics, we explored the near-field radiative heat transfer from a monolayer MoS{sub 2} to graphene. We demonstrate that in resonance,more » the maximum heat transfer via near-field radiation between MoS{sub 2} and graphene can be ten times higher than the in-plane lattice thermal conduction for MoS{sub 2} sheet. Therefore, an efficient thermal management strategy for MoS{sub 2} integrated device is proposed: Graphene sheet is brought into close proximity, 10–20 nm from MoS{sub 2} device; heat energy transfer from MoS{sub 2} to graphene via near-field radiation; this amount of heat energy then be conducted to contact due to ultra-high lattice thermal conductivity of graphene. Our work sheds light for developing cooling strategy for nano devices constructing with low thermal conductivity materials.« less

  2. Elastoplastic properties of a low-modulus titanium-based β alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betekhtin, V. I.; Kolobov, Yu. R.; Golosova, O. A.; Kardashev, B. K.; Kadomtsev, A. G.; Narykova, M. V.; Ivanov, M. B.; Vershinina, T. N.

    2013-10-01

    The elastoplastic properties (elastic modulus, amplitude-independent damping ratio, microplastic flow stress) of a Ti-26Nb-7Mo-12Zr titanium β alloy are determined using an acoustic resonance method. The effect of the strain during thermomechanical treatment on the structural features of the micro-crystalline alloy and, hence, its elastoplastic properties is analyzed.

  3. Influence of Annealing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Refractory CoCrMoNbTi0.4 High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mina; Zhou, Xianglin; Zhu, Wuzhi; Li, Jinghao

    2018-04-01

    A novel refractory CoCrMoNbTi0.4 high-entropy alloy (HEA) was prepared via vacuum arc melting. After annealing treatment at different temperatures, the microstructure evolution, phase stability, and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated. The alloy was composed of two primary body-centered cubic structures (BCC1 and BCC2) and a small amount of (Co, Cr)2Nb-type Laves phase under different annealing conditions. The microhardness and compressive strength of the heat-treated alloy was significantly enhanced by the solid-solution strengthening of the BCC phase matrix and newborn Laves phase. Especially, the alloy annealed at 1473 K (1200 °C) achieved the maximum hardness and compressive strength values of 959 ± 2 HV0.5 and 1790 MPa, respectively, owing to the enhanced volume fraction of the dispersed Laves phase. In particular, the HEAs exhibited promising high-temperature mechanical performance, when heated to an elevated temperature of 1473 K (1200 °C), with a compressive fracture strength higher than 580 MPa without fracture at a strain of more than 20 pct. This study suggests that the present refractory HEAs have immense potential for engineering applications as a new class of high-temperature structural materials.

  4. Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys with iron contents as high as 82 at%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Feng; Liu, Xue; Zhao, Shao-Fan; Ding, Hong-Yu; Yao, Ke-Fu

    2015-07-01

    Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs) with high Fe contents are advantageous due to their high saturation magnetization and low cost. However, preparing Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents higher than 80 at% is difficult due to their poor glass forming abilities (GFA). In this study, an Fe81P8.5C5.5B2Si3 BAA with a diameter of 1 mm and a saturation magnetization of 1.56 T was successfully prepared using the fluxing and copper mold casting methods. In addition, by introducing a small amount of elemental Mo to the alloy, an Fe82Mo1P6.5C5.5B2Si3 BAA rod with a diameter of 1 mm, a high saturation magnetization of 1.59 T, a high yield stress of 3265 MPa, and a clear plasticity of 1.3% was prepared in the same way. The cost effectiveness and good magnetic properties of these newly-developed Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents as high as 82 at% would be advantageous and promising for industrial applications.

  5. The effect of Sn addition on phase stability and phase evolution during aging heat treatment in Ti–Mo alloys employed as biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, Mariana G. de, E-mail: marianagm@fem.unicamp.br; Salvador, Camilo F., E-mail: csalvador@fem.unicamp.br; Cremasco, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra@fem.unicamp.br

    Increases in life expectancy and improvements in necessary healthcare attach great importance to the development of biomaterials. Ti alloys containing β stabilizing elements are often used as biomaterials due to their high specific strength, high corrosion resistance, unusual biocompatibility and low elastic moduli, which benefit bone tissues close to an implant. This study deals with phase stability in β Ti–Mo–Sn alloys processed under different conditions and was performed according to the following steps: a study of the effect of Sn content (a) on phase stability in Ti–Mo alloys, (b) on the suppression of α″ and ω phase precipitation; (c) onmore » α-phase precipitation during aging heat treatments and (d) on mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus, as measured using tensile tests and acoustic techniques. The alloys were prepared by arc melting under a controlled atmosphere followed by homogenization heat treatment and hot rolling. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry were employed for characterization purposes. Samples were also submitted to solution treatment above the β transus temperature and aging heat treatments under a controlled atmosphere. The results suggest that Sn suppresses the formation of the ω and α″ phases in Ti–Mo system. - Highlights: • Sn addition to Ti alloys decreases elastic modulus by suppressing ω phase precipitation. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of martensite decomposition. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of α phase precipitation and β transus. • Mechanical strength decreases with increasing Sn content.« less

  6. Calcium hydride synthesis of Ti-Nb-based alloy powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimtsev, A. V.; Shuitsev, A. V.; Yudin, S. N.; Levinskii, Yu. V.; Sviridova, T. A.; Alpatov, A. V.; Novosvetlova, E. E.

    2017-09-01

    The metallothermic (calcium hydride) synthesis of Ti-Nb alloy powders alloyed with tantalum and zirconium is experimentally studied under various conditions. Chemical, X-ray diffraction, and metallographic analyses of the synthesized products show that initial oxides are completely reduced and a homogeneous β-Ti-based alloy powder forms under the optimum synthesis conditions at a temperature of 1200°C. At a lower synthesis temperature, the end products have a high oxygen content. The experimental results are used to plot the thermokinetic dependences o formation of a bcc solid solution at various times of isothermal holding of Ti-22Nb-6Ta and Ti-22Nb-6Zr (at %) alloys. The physicochemical and technological properties of the Ti-22Nb-6Ta and Ti-22Nb-6Zr alloy powders synthesized by calcium hydride reduction under the optimum conditions are determined.

  7. Synthesis of aluminum-based scandium-yttrium master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhin, V. Yu.; Kosov, Ya. I.; Lobacheva, O. L.; Dzhevaga, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    The preparation technology for an Al-2% Sc-0.5% Y master alloy using aluminum-manganese alloys has been developed and tested. The microstructure of the prepared master alloy is studied and the compositions of intermetallics is determined. The efficient technological parameters of the synthesis are determined. It is shown that varying the compositions of starting reagents and alloying additions and optimizing the process conditions (temperature, mixing, etc.) allow us to forecast the manufacturing and operating characteristics of aluminum-based master alloys. Joint additions of scandium and yttrium oxides to a charge favor a substantial decrease in the grain size of the formed intermetallics; this effect appears to the utmost in the case of microallying with yttrium up to 0.5 wt %.

  8. Influence of the Additives and The pH On the Cobalt-Molybdenum (Co-Mo) Alloy Electrodeposited On n-TypeSilicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekih, Z.; Ghellai, N.; Fortas, G.; Chiboub, N.; Sam, S.; Chabanne-sari, N. E.; Gabouze, N.

    In this work, thin films of metal alloys (Co-Mo) have been electrodeposited onto silicon (Si) surface. The effects of two different additives (H3BO3 and Na2CO3) and the pH of the solution on the electrochemically deposited films (morphology, stochiometry…) have been investigated. The properties of the deposits were characterized by using X-Rays Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the morphology and the film composition depend on both the pH of the solution and the additives. The presence of boric acid favors the Mo deposition. Crack-free homogeneous deposits with a low percentage of molybdenum can be easily obtained from high pH bath. The deposits were shown to exhibits a good crystalline structure.

  9. Effect of Aging Treatment on the Formation of α Precipitates in β-Type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gwanghyo; Lee, Kwangmin

    2018-05-01

    The microstructural evolution of a novel β-type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr (wt%) alloy subjected to different aging treatments was investigated. The normalized intensity of the α precipitates reached a peak value at 450 °C. A nanoscale orthorhombic phase was observed to coexist with α precipitates in the β matrix, which followed the Burgers orientation relation of <1120>α//<111>β and {0001}α//{110}β. Fine α precipitates were formed with metastable O and β' phases, and the β phase was spinodally decomposed to β and β' phases. The maximum hardness value of the specimen was obtained after aging at 450 °C. Compositional partitioning of Mo, V, and Cr elements occurred with the depletion of fine acicular α precipitates upon aging 450 °C.

  10. Effect of Aging Treatment on the Formation of α Precipitates in β-Type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gwanghyo; Lee, Kwangmin

    2018-02-01

    The microstructural evolution of a novel β-type Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr (wt%) alloy subjected to different aging treatments was investigated. The normalized intensity of the α precipitates reached a peak value at 450 °C. A nanoscale orthorhombic phase was observed to coexist with α precipitates in the β matrix, which followed the Burgers orientation relation of <1120 >α//<111>β and {0001}α//{110}β. Fine α precipitates were formed with metastable O and β' phases, and the β phase was spinodally decomposed to β and β' phases. The maximum hardness value of the specimen was obtained after aging at 450 °C. Compositional partitioning of Mo, V, and Cr elements occurred with the depletion of fine acicular α precipitates upon aging 450 °C.

  11. Mo-Si-B Alloys and Diboride Systems for High Enthalpy Environments: Design and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-15

    candidate material species production over a range of test gas enthalpies and pressures for UWM and ISU samples. Year 3: 3.1 Begin FTIR...emission measurements on CO2-laser heated samples at SRI. 3.2 Continue experiments to optimize Si-, B-, and C-species LIF detection schemes in hot gas ...material tests to identify data that can be used to benchmark development of physics-based models of gas -surface interactions. • Employ the

  12. Optically tuned terahertz modulator based on annealed multilayer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yapeng; Gan, Sheng; Geng, Zhaoxin; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yuping; Bao, Qiaoling; Chen, Hongda

    2016-03-08

    Controlling the propagation properties of terahertz waves is very important in terahertz technologies applied in high-speed communication. Therefore a new-type optically tuned terahertz modulator based on multilayer-MoS2 and silicon is experimentally demonstrated. The terahertz transmission could be significantly modulated by changing the power of the pumping laser. With an annealing treatment as a p-doping method, MoS2 on silicon demonstrates a triple enhancement of terahertz modulation depth compared with the bare silicon. This MoS2-based device even exhibited much higher modulation efficiency than the graphene-based device. We also analyzed the mechanism of the modulation enhancement originated from annealed MoS2, and found that it is different from that of graphene-based device. The unique optical modulating properties of the device exhibit tremendous promise for applications in terahertz switch.

  13. Exploratory Investigation of Advanced-Temperature Nickel-Base Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, John C.; Waters, William J.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide an advanced-temperature nickel-base alloy with properties suitable for aircraft turbine blades as well as for possible space vehicle applications. An entire series of alloys that do not require vacuum melting techniques and that generally provide good stress-rupture and impact properties was evolved. The basic-alloy composition of 79 percent nickel, 8 percent molybdenum, 6 percent chromium, 6 percent aluminum, and 1 percent zirconium was modified by a series of element additions such as carbon, titanium, and boron, with the nickel content adjusted to account for the additives. Stress-rupture, impact, and swage tests were made with all the alloys. The strongest composition (basic alloy plus 1.5 percent titanium plus 0.125 percent carbon) displayed 384- and 574-hour stress-rupture lives at 1800 F and 15,000 psi in the as-cast and homogenized conditions, respectively. All the alloys investigated demonstrated good impact resistance. Several could not be broken in a low-capacity Izod impact tester and, on this basis, all compared favorably with several high-strength high-temperature alloys. Swaging cracks were encountered with all the alloys. In several cases, however, these cracks were slight and could be detected only by zyglo examination. Some of these compositions may become amenable to hot working on further development. On the basis of the properties indicated, it appears that several of the alloys evolved, particularly the 1.5 percent titanium plus 0.125 percent carbon basic-alloy modification, could be used for advanced- temperature turbine blades, as well as for possible space vehicle applications.

  14. Evolution of the Structural-Phase State of a Ti-Al- V-Mo Alloy During Severe Plastic Deformation and SubSequent Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabovetskaya, G. P.; Ratochka, I. V.; Mishin, I. P.; Zabudchenko, O. V.; Lykova, O. N.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of the initial phase composition of a Ti-Al-V-Mo alloy (VT16 according to Russian classification) on the evolution of its structural-phase state during the formation of ultrafine-grained structure and subsequent annealing is investigated by methods of optical and transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. The structure is produced by cyclic pressing with a change of the deformation axis in each cycle combined with a gradual decrease of the pressing temperature from 1073 to 723 K. As this takes place, α″ → α + β and β → α phase transitions are found to develop in the test alloy. The phase state of the ultrafinegrained material thus produced depends for the most part on its elemental composition and severe plastic deformation regime. Annealing below the recrystallization temperature is shown to give rise to a β→α phase transition and alloying element redistribution. The foregoing processes allow for retaining a high level of the strength properties of the alloy.

  15. METHOD FOR ANNEALING AND ROLLING ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Picklesimer, M.L.

    1959-07-14

    A fabrication procedure is presented for alpha-stabilized zirconium-base alloys, and in particular Zircaloy-2. The alloy is initially worked at a temperature outside the alpha-plus-beta range (810 to 970 deg ), held at a temperature above 970 deg C for 30 minutes and cooled rapidly. The alloy is then cold-worked to reduce the size at least 20% and annealed at a temperature from 700 to 810 deg C. This procedure serves both to prevent the formation of stringers and to provide a randomly oriented crystal structure.

  16. MoSi2-Base Composite for Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1997-01-01

    The intermetallic compound MoSi2 has long been known as a high temperature material that has excellent oxidation resistance and electrical/thermal conductivity. Also its low cost, high melting point (2023 C), relatively low density (6.2 g/cm versus 8 g/cm for current engine materials), and ease of machining make it an attractive structural material. However, the use of MoSi2 has been hindered because of the brittle nature of the material at low temperatures, inadequate creep resistance at high temperatures, accelerated oxidation (also known as 'pest' oxidation) at temperatures between approximately 400 and 500 C, and a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that is relatively high in comparison to potential reinforcing fibers such as SiC. This CTE mismatch between the fiber and the matrix resulted in severe matrix cracking during thermal cycling.

  17. Mechanism of corrosion of Ni base superalloys by molten Na2MoO4 at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.; Stearns, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion of nickel base superalloy, U-700, by molten Na2MoO4 was studied in the temperature range of 750 deg to 950 deg C. After an induction period, the rate of corrosion is linear and catastrophic corrosion is observed. It is shown that the induction period is associated with the attainment of a minimum MoO3 activity in the melt, which corresponds to the equilibrium MoO3 activity for the reaction, 2MoO3(l) + Mo = 3MoO2(s). A mechanism is proposed to describe the catastrophic nature of corrosion, which involves transport of Ni++ through the melt resulting in formulation of NiO at the melt gas interface and basic fluxing of Cr2O3. The effect of the amount of Na2MoO4 on the corrosion kinetics was also studied. It is found that evaporation and the thermodynamic calculations for the Na2MoO4 - MoO3 system the activity of MoO3 is reduced considerably when dissolved in Na2MoO4, which causes a sharp decrease in the rate of evaporation of MoO3 from a Na2MoO4 - MoO3 melt.

  18. Cladding burst behavior of Fe-based alloys under LOCA

    DOE PAGES

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Pint, Bruce A.; ...

    2015-12-17

    Burst behavior of austenitic and ferritic Fe-based alloy tubes has been examined under a simulated large break loss of coolant accident. Specifically, type 304 stainless steel (304SS) and oxidation resistant FeCrAl tubes were studied alongside Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 that are considered reference fuel cladding materials. Following the burst test, characterization of the cladding materials was carried out to gain insights regarding the integral burst behavior. Given the widespread availability of a comprehensive set of thermo-mechanical data at elevated temperatures for 304SS, a modeling framework was implemented to simulate the various processes that affect burst behavior in this Fe-based alloy. Themore » most important conclusion is that cladding ballooning due to creep is negligible for Fe-based alloys. Thus, unlike Zr-based alloys, cladding cross-sectional area remains largely unchanged up to the point of burst. Furthermore, for a given rod internal pressure, the temperature onset of burst in Fe-based alloys appears to be simply a function of the alloy's ultimate tensile strength, particularly at high rod internal pressures.« less

  19. Towards a uniform and large-scale deposition of MoS2 nanosheets via sulfurization of ultra-thin Mo-based solid films.

    PubMed

    Vangelista, Silvia; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Martella, Christian; Alia, Mario; Longo, Massimo; Lamperti, Alessio; Mantovan, Roberto; Basset, Francesco Basso; Pezzoli, Fabio; Molle, Alessandro

    2016-04-29

    Large-scale integration of MoS2 in electronic devices requires the development of reliable and cost-effective deposition processes, leading to uniform MoS2 layers on a wafer scale. Here we report on the detailed study of the heterogeneous vapor-solid reaction between a pre-deposited molybdenum solid film and sulfur vapor, thus resulting in a controlled growth of MoS2 films onto SiO2/Si substrates with a tunable thickness and cm(2)-scale uniformity. Based on Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence, we show that the degree of crystallinity in the MoS2 layers is dictated by the deposition temperature and thickness. In particular, the MoS2 structural disorder observed at low temperature (<750 °C) and low thickness (two layers) evolves to a more ordered crystalline structure at high temperature (1000 °C) and high thickness (four layers). From an atomic force microscopy investigation prior to and after sulfurization, this parametrical dependence is associated with the inherent granularity of the MoS2 nanosheet that is inherited by the pristine morphology of the pre-deposited Mo film. This work paves the way to a closer control of the synthesis of wafer-scale and atomically thin MoS2, potentially extendable to other transition metal dichalcogenides and hence targeting massive and high-volume production for electronic device manufacturing.

  20. Small-signal amplifier based on single-layer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radisavljevic, Branimir; Whitwick, Michael B.; Kis, Andras

    2012-07-01

    In this letter we demonstrate the operation of an analog small-signal amplifier based on single-layer MoS2, a semiconducting analogue of graphene. Our device consists of two transistors integrated on the same piece of single-layer MoS2. The high intrinsic band gap of 1.8 eV allows MoS2-based amplifiers to operate with a room temperature gain of 4. The amplifier operation is demonstrated for the frequencies of input signal up to 2 kHz preserving the gain higher than 1. Our work shows that MoS2 can effectively amplify signals and that it could be used for advanced analog circuits based on two-dimensional materials.

  1. MoSi2-Base Structural Composite Passed Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    1999-01-01

    The intermetallic compound molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) is an attractive high-temperature structural material for advanced engine applications. It has excellent oxidation resistance, a high melting point, relatively low density, and high thermal conductivity; and it is easily machined. Past research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has resulted in the development of a hybrid composite consisting of a MoSi2 matrix reinforced with silicon nitride (Si3N4) particulate and silicon carbide (SiC) fibers. This composite has demonstrated attractive strength, toughness, thermal fatigue, and oxidation resistance, including resistance to "pest" oxidation. These properties attracted the interest of the Office of Naval Research and Pratt & Whitney, and a joint NASA/Navy/Pratt & Whitney effort was developed to continue to mature the MoSi2 composite technology. A turbine blade outer air seal, which was part of the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) program, was chosen as a first component on which to focus.

  2. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    Malleable long range ordered alloys with high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe)/sub 3/ and V(Co,Fe,Ni)/sub 3/ system. The composition comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 50% Fe, 0 to 22% Co and 19 to 40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 45% Fe, 0 to 10% Co, 25 to 35% Ni; 22 to 23% V, 28 to 33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22 to 23% V, 19 to 22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  3. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T; Inouye, Henry; Schaffhauser, Anthony C.

    1980-01-01

    Malleable long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe).sub.3 and V(Co,Fe,Ni).sub.3 system having the composition comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-50% Fe, 0-22% Co and 19-40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-45% Fe, 0-10% Co, 25-35% Ni; 22-23% V, 28-33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22-23% V, 19-22% Ni, 19-22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  4. Directionally solidified iron-base eutectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    Pseudobinary eutectic alloys with nominal compositions of Fe-25Ta-22Ni-10Cr and Fe-15.5Nb-14.5Ni-6.0Cr were directionally solidified at 0.5 centimeter per hour. Their microstructure consisted of the fcc, iron solid-solution, matrix phase reinforced by about 41-volume-percent, hcp, faceted Fe2Ta fibers and 41-volume-percent, hcp, Fe2Nb lamellae for the tantalum- and niobium-containing alloys, respectively. The microstructural stability under thermal cycling and the temperature dependence of tensile properties were investigated. These alloys showed low elevated-temperature strength and were not considered suitable for application in aircraft-gas-turbine blades although they may have applicability as vane materials.

  5. Indentation creep behaviors of amorphous Cu-based composite alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Defeng; Ma, Xiangdong; Qian, Linfang

    2018-04-01

    This work reports the indentation creep behaviors of two Si2Zr3/amorphous Cu-based composite alloys utilizing nanoindentation technique. By analysis with Kelvin model, the retardation spectra of alloys at different positions, detached and attached regions to the intermetallics, were deduced. For the indentation of detached regions to Si2Zr3 intermetallics in both alloys, very similarity in creep displacement can be observed and retardation spectra show a distinct disparity in the second retardation peak. For the indentation of detached regions, the second retardation spectra also display distinct disparity. At both positions, the retardation spectra suggest that Si elements may lead to the relatively dense structure in the amorphous matrix and to form excessive Si2Zr3 intermetallics which may deteriorate the plastic deformation of current Cu-based composite alloys.

  6. Fabrication of tungsten wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Toth, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication methods for tungsten fiber reinforced nickel-base superalloy composites were investigated. Three matrix alloys in pre-alloyed powder or rolled sheet form were evaluated in terms of fabricability into composite monotape and multi-ply forms. The utility of monotapes for fabricating more complex shapes was demonstrated. Preliminary 1093C (2000F) stress rupture tests indicated that efficient utilization of fiber strength was achieved in composites fabricated by diffusion bonding processes. The fabrication of thermal fatigue specimens is also described.

  7. Densification behavior, nanocrystallization, and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashish Kumar

    Fe-based amorphous alloys are gaining increasing attention due to their exceptional wear and corrosion resistance for potential structural applications. Two major challenges that are hindering the commercialization of these amorphous alloys are difficulty in processing of bulk shapes (diameter > 10 mm) and lack of ductility. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is evolving as a promising technique for processing bulk shapes of amorphous and nanocrystalline materials. The objective of this work is to investigate densification behavior, nanocrystallization, and mechanical properties of SPS sintered Fe-based amorphous alloys of composition Fe48Cr15Mo14Y2C15B6. SPS processing was performed in three distinct temperature ranges of amorphous alloys: (a) below glass transition temperature (Tg), (b) between Tg and crystallization temperature (Tx), and (c) above Tx. Punch displacement data obtained during SPS sintering was correlated with the SPS processing parameters such as temperature, pressure, and sintering time. Powder rearrangement, plastic deformation below T g, and viscous flow of the material between Tg and Tx were observed as the main densification stages during SPS sintering. Micro-scale temperature distributions at the point of contact and macro-scale temperature distribution throughout the sample during SPS of amorphous alloys were modeled. The bulk amorphous alloys are expected to undergo structural relaxation and nanocrystallization during SPS sintering. X-ray diffraction (XRD), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to investigate the evolution of nanocrystallites in SPS sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys. The SANS analysis showed significant scattering for the samples sintered in the supercooled region indicating local structural and compositional changes with the profuse nucleation of nano-clusters (~4 nm). Compression tests and microhardness were performed on the samples sintered at different

  8. Thermodynamic Constraints in Using AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) Alloys as N₂ Dissociation Catalysts: Functionalizing a Plasmon-Active Metal.

    PubMed

    Martirez, John Mark P; Carter, Emily A

    2016-02-23

    The Haber-Bosch process for NH3 synthesis is arguably one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, with a massive footprint in agriculture and, historically, warfare. Current catalysts for this reaction use Fe for N2 activation, conducted at high temperatures and pressures to improve conversion rate and efficiency. A recent finding shows that plasmonic metal nanoparticles can either generate highly reactive electrons and holes or induce resonant surface excitations through plasmonic decay, which catalyze dissociation and redox reactions under mild conditions. It is therefore appealing to consider AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) alloys to combine the strongly plasmonic nature of Au and the catalytic nature of M metals toward N2 dissociation, which together might facilitate ammonia production. To this end, through density functional theory, we (i) explore the feasibility of forming these surface alloys, (ii) find a pathway that may stabilize/deactivate surface M substituents during fabrication, and (iii) define a complementary route to reactivate them under operational conditions. Finally, we evaluate their reactivity toward N2, as well as their ability to support a pathway for N2 dissociation with a low thermodynamic barrier. We find that AuFe possesses similar appealing qualities, including relative stability with respect to phase separation, reversibility of Fe oxidation and reduction, and reactivity toward N2. While AuMo achieves the best affinity toward N2, its strong propensity toward oxidation could greatly limit its use.

  9. Micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of medical implant material Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy on various friction pairs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenguo; Huang, Weijiu; Ma, Yanlong

    2014-09-01

    The micro-scale abrasion behaviors of surgical implant materials have often been reported in the literature. However, little work has been reported on the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn (TLM) titanium alloy in simulated body fluids, especially with respect to friction pairs. Therefore, a TE66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester was used to study the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of the TLM alloy. This study covers the friction coefficient and wear loss of the TLM alloy induced by various friction pairs. Different friction pairs comprised of ZrO2, Si3N4 and Al2O3 ceramic balls with 25.4mm diameters were employed. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanisms and synergistic effect between corrosion and micro-abrasion of the TLM alloy were investigated under various wear-corrosion conditions employing an abrasive, comprised of SiC (3.5 ± 0.5 μm), in two test solutions, Hanks' solution and distilled water. Before the test, the specimens were heat treated at 760°C/1.0/AC+550°C/6.0/AC. It was discovered that the friction coefficient values of the TLM alloy are larger than those in distilled water regardless of friction pairs used, because of the corrosive Hanks' solution. It was also found that the value of the friction coefficient was volatile at the beginning of wear testing, and it became more stable with further experiments. Because the ceramic balls have different properties, especially with respect to the Vickers hardness (Hv), the wear loss of the TLM alloy increased as the ball hardness increased. In addition, the wear loss of the TLM alloy in Hanks' solution was greater than that in distilled water, and this was due to the synergistic effect of micro-abrasion and corrosion, and this micro-abrasion played a leading role in the wear process. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanism of the TLM alloy gradually changed from two-body to mixed abrasion and then to three-body abrasion as the Vickers hardness of the balls increased. Copyright

  10. MoSi2-Base Hybrid Composite Passed Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan

    1998-01-01

    The intermetallics compound molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) is an attractive high-temperature structural material for advanced engine applications. It has excellent oxidation resistance, a high melting point, relatively low density, and high thermal conductivity, and it is easily machined. Past research'at the NASA Lewis Research Center has resulted in the development of a hybrid composite consisting of a MoSi2 matrix reinforced with silicon nitride (Si3N4) Particulate and silicon carbide (SiC) fibers. This composite has demonstrated attractive strength, toughness, thermal fatigue, and oxidation resistance, including resistance to "pest" oxidation. These properties attracted the interest of the Office of Naval Research and Pratt & Whitney, and a joint NASA/Navy/Pratt & Whitney effort was developed to continue to mature the MoSi2 Composite technology. A turbine blade outer air seal, which was part of the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) program, was chosen as a first component on which to focus. The first tasks of the materials development effort were to develop improved processing methods to reduce costs and to use fine-diameter fibers that enable the manufacturing of complex shapes. Tape-casting methods were developed to fully infiltrate the fine SiC fibers with matrix powders. The resulting composites were hot pressed to 100-percent density. Composites with cross-plied fiber architectures with 30 vol. % hi-nicalon SiC fibers and 30 vol. % nitride particles are now made routinely and demonstrate a good balance of properties. The next task entailed the measurement of a wide variety of mechanical properties to confirm the suitability of this composite in engines. In particular, participants in this effort demonstrated that composites made with Hi-Nicalon fibers had strength and toughness properties equal to or better than those of the composites made with the large-diameter fibers that had been used previously. Another critically

  11. Development of Protective Coatings for Chromium-Base Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, J. J.; MacMillan, C. A.; Williams, D. N.; Bartlett, E. S.

    1966-01-01

    Chromium alloy sheet was clad with 5 to 10-mil-thick oxidation-resistant nickel-base alloy foils. Specimens also contained 1/2 to 1-mil-thick intermediate layers of platinum, tungsten, and/or W-25Re. Cladding was done by the isostatic hot gas-pressure bonding,.process. The clad chromium-alloy specimens were cyclic oxidation tested at 2100 F and 2300 F for up to 200 hours to determine the effectiveness of these metal claddings in protecting the chromium alloy Cr-5W from oxidation and contamination. Cladding systems consisting of 5-mil-thick Ni-20Cr-20W modified with 3 to 5 weight percent aluminum and containing a 1 /2-mil tungsten diffusion barrier demonstrated potential for long-time service at temperatures as high as 2300 F.

  12. Metallurgical characterization of experimental Ag-based soldering alloys.

    PubMed

    Ntasi, Argyro; Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Silikas, Nick; Al Taweel, Sara M; Zinelis, Spiros

    2014-10-01

    To characterize microstructure, hardness and thermal properties of experimental Ag-based soldering alloys for dental applications. Ag12Ga (AgGa) and Ag10Ga5Sn (AgGaSn) were fabricated by induction melting. Six samples were prepared for each alloy and microstructure, hardness and their melting range were determined by, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vickers hardness testing and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both alloys demonstrated a gross dendritic microstructure while according to XRD results both materials consisted predominately of a Ag-rich face centered cubic phase The hardness of AgGa (61 ± 2) was statistically lower than that of AgGaSn (84 ± 2) while the alloys tested showed similar melting range of 627-762 °C for AgGa and 631-756 °C for AgGaSn. The experimental alloys tested demonstrated similar microstructures and melting ranges. Ga and Sn might be used as alternative to Cu and Zn to modify the selected properties of Ag based soldering alloys.

  13. Metallurgical characterization of experimental Ag-based soldering alloys

    PubMed Central

    Ntasi, Argyro; Al Jabbari, Youssef S.; Silikas, Nick; Al Taweel, Sara M.; Zinelis, Spiros

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterize microstructure, hardness and thermal properties of experimental Ag-based soldering alloys for dental applications. Materials and methods Ag12Ga (AgGa) and Ag10Ga5Sn (AgGaSn) were fabricated by induction melting. Six samples were prepared for each alloy and microstructure, hardness and their melting range were determined by, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vickers hardness testing and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results Both alloys demonstrated a gross dendritic microstructure while according to XRD results both materials consisted predominately of a Ag-rich face centered cubic phase The hardness of AgGa (61 ± 2) was statistically lower than that of AgGaSn (84 ± 2) while the alloys tested showed similar melting range of 627–762 °C for AgGa and 631–756 °C for AgGaSn. Conclusion The experimental alloys tested demonstrated similar microstructures and melting ranges. Ga and Sn might be used as alternative to Cu and Zn to modify the selected properties of Ag based soldering alloys. PMID:25382945

  14. Development and characterization of (Ti, Mo)C carbides reinforced Fe-based surface composite coating produced by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Min; Qu, Shiyao

    2010-09-01

    In this study, in situ multiple carbides reinforced Fe-based surface composite coatings were fabricated successfully by laser cladding a precursor mixture of graphite, ferrotitanium (Fe-Ti) and ferromolybdenum (Fe-Mo) powders. The results showed that (Ti, Mo)C particles with flower-like and cuboidal shapes were in situ formed during the solidification and most shapes of (Ti, Mo)C particles were diversiform according to different contents of Fe-Mo powder in the Fe-Ti-Mo-C system. The growth morphology of the reinforcing (Ti, Mo)C carbide has typically faceted features, indicating that the lateral growth mechanism is still predominant growth mode under rapid solidification conditions. Increasing the amount of Fe-Mo in the reactants led to a decrease of carbide size and an increase of volume fraction of carbides. The coatings had good cracking resistance when the amounts of Fe-Mo were controlled within a range of 15 wt%.

  15. Oxidation Behavior of a Refractory NbCrMo0.5Ta0.5TiZr Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    DANIEL J. EVANS, Chief Metals Branch Metals Branch Structural Materials Division...damage, is dif- ficult to achieve [2]. Thus, new metallic systems with higher melting points and a good balance of structural properties at high...has been considered to be the main issue during oxidation of conventional refractory alloys [14]. Heavy alloying of refractory metals with other

  16. Non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor based on NiMoO4 nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dandan; Cai, Daoping; Huang, Hui; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Yuan; Li, Han; Wang, Yanrong; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2015-04-01

    A non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on the NiMoO4 nanorods has been fabricated for the first time. The electrocatalytic performance of the NiMoO4 nanorods’ modified electrode toward glucose oxidation was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The NiMoO4 nanorods’ modified electrode showed a greatly enhanced electrocatalytic property toward glucose oxidation, as well as an excellent anti-interference and a good stability. Impressively, good accuracy and high precision for detecting glucose concentration in human serum samples were obtained. These excellent sensing properties, combined with good reproducibility and low cost, indicate that NiMoO4 nanorods are a promising candidate for non-enzymatic glucose sensors.

  17. CoMoDo: identifying dynamic protein domains based on covariances of motion.

    PubMed

    Wieninger, Silke A; Ullmann, G Matthias

    2015-06-09

    Most large proteins are built of several domains, compact units which enable functional protein motions. Different domain assignment approaches exist, which mostly rely on concepts of stability, folding, and evolution. We describe the automatic assignment method CoMoDo, which identifies domains based on protein dynamics. Covariances of atomic fluctuations, here calculated by an Elastic Network Model, are used to group residues into domains of different hierarchical levels. The so-called dynamic domains facilitate the study of functional protein motions involved in biological processes like ligand binding and signal transduction. By applying CoMoDo to a large number of proteins, we demonstrate that dynamic domains exhibit features absent in the commonly assigned structural domains, which can deliver insight into the interactions between domains and between subunits of multimeric proteins. CoMoDo is distributed as free open source software at www.bisb.uni-bayreuth.de/CoMoDo.html .

  18. High performance broadband photodetector based on MoS2/porous silicon heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhyani, Veerendra; Dwivedi, Priyanka; Dhanekar, Saakshi; Das, Samaresh

    2017-11-01

    A high speed efficient broadband photodetector based on a vertical n-MoS2/p-porous silicon heterostructure has been demonstrated. Large area MoS2 on electrochemical etched porous silicon was grown by sulphurization of a sputtered MoO3 thin film. A maximum responsivity of 9 A/W (550-850 nm) with a very high detectivity of ˜1014 Jones is observed. Transient measurements show a fast response time of ˜9 μs and is competent to work at high frequencies (˜50 kHz). The enhanced photodetection performance of the heterojunction made on porous silicon over that made on planar silicon is explained in terms of higher interfacial barrier height, superior light trapping property, and larger junction area in the MoS2/porous silicon junction.

  19. Observations on the oxidation of Mn-modified Ni-base Haynes 230 alloy under SOFC exposure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2005-07-01

    The commercial Ni-base Haynes 230 alloy (Ni-Cr-Mo-W-Mn) was modified with two increased levels of Mn (1 and 2 wt per cent) and evaluated for its oxidation resistance under simulated SOFC interconnect exposure conditions. Oxidation rate, oxide morphology, oxide conductivity and thermal expansion were measured and compared with commercial Haynes 230. It was observed that additions of higher levels of Mn to the bulk alloy facilitated the formation of a bi-layered oxide scale that was comprised of an outer M3O4 (M=Mn, Cr, Ni) spinel-rich layer at the oxide – gas interface over a Cr2O3-rich sub-layer at the metal – oxide interface.more » The modified alloys showed higher oxidation rates and the formation of thicker oxide scales compared to the base alloy. The formation of a spinel-rich top layer improved the scale conductivity, especially during the early stages of the oxidation, but the higher scale growth rate resulted in an increase in the area-specific electrical resistance over time. Due to their face-centered cubic crystal structure, both commercial and modified alloys demonstrated a coefficient of thermal expansion that was higher than that of typical anode-supported and electrolyte-supported SOFCs.« less

  20. Ultrahigh-Gain Photodetectors Based on Atomically Thin Graphene-MoS2 Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chuu, Chih-Piao; Huang, Jing-Kai; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chang, Yung-Huang; Liang, Chi-Te; Chen, Yu-Ze; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau; Chou, Mei-Yin; Li, Lain-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Due to its high carrier mobility, broadband absorption, and fast response time, the semi-metallic graphene is attractive for optoelectronics. Another two-dimensional semiconducting material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is also known as light- sensitive. Here we show that a large-area and continuous MoS2 monolayer is achievable using a CVD method and graphene is transferable onto MoS2. We demonstrate that a photodetector based on the graphene/MoS2 heterostructure is able to provide a high photogain greater than 108. Our experiments show that the electron-hole pairs are produced in the MoS2 layer after light absorption and subsequently separated across the layers. Contradictory to the expectation based on the conventional built-in electric field model for metal-semiconductor contacts, photoelectrons are injected into the graphene layer rather than trapped in MoS2 due to the presence of a perpendicular effective electric field caused by the combination of the built-in electric field, the applied electrostatic field, and charged impurities or adsorbates, resulting in a tuneable photoresponsivity. PMID:24451916

  1. The resistance of selected high strength alloys to embrittlement by a hydrogen environment. [iron and cobalt base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. B., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Selected high strength iron base and cobalt base alloys were resistant to degradation of mechanical properties in a one atmosphere hydrogen environment at ambient temperature. These alloys were strengthened initially by cold working which produced strain induced martensite and fcc mechanical twins in an fcc matrix. Heat treatment of the cobalt base alloy after cold working produced carbide precipitates with retention of an hcp epsilon phase which increased the yield strength level. High strength alloys can be produced which have some resistance to degradation of mechanical properties by a hydrogen environment under certain conditions.

  2. [Metallurgical differentiation of cobalt-chromium alloys for implants].

    PubMed

    Holzwarth, U; Thomas, P; Kachler, W; Göske, J; Schuh, A

    2005-10-01

    Cobalt Chromium alloys are used in cemented total hip or knee arthroplasty as well as in metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty. An increasing number of publications report about (allergic) reactions to wear particles of Cobalt Chromium alloys. Reactions to nickel are more frequent in comparison to Cobalt or Chromium particles. It is well known that different kinds of Cobalt Chromium alloys contain different amounts of alloying elements; nevertheless. The aim of the current work was to compare the different Cobalt Chromium alloys according to ASTM F or ISO standards in respect to the different alloying elements. Co28Cr6Mo casting alloys according to ASTM F 75 or ISO 5832-4 as well as forging alloy types according to ASTM F 799 and ISO 5832 such as Co20Cr15W10Ni, Co35Ni20Cr, Fe40Co20Cr10Ni, Co20Cr20Ni, and Co28Cr6Mo were analyzed in respect to their element content of Co, Cr, Ni, Mo, Fe, W, and Mn. In 1935 the Cobalt based alloy "Vitallium" Co30Cr5Mo basically used in the aircraft industry was introduced into medicine. The chemical composition of this alloy based on Cobalt showed 30 wt.% Chromium and 5 wt.% Molybdenum. The differentiation using alloy names showed no Nickel information in single alloy names. The information given about different alloys can lead to an unprecise evaluation of histopathological findings in respect to alloys or alloying constituents. Therefore, implant manufacturers should give the exact information about the alloys used and adhere to European law, Euronorm 93/42/EWG.

  3. Microstructural effects on the deformation and fracture of the alloy Ti-25Al-10Nb-3B-1Mo. Final report, 1 July 1988-15 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.H.

    1992-12-01

    The effects of microstructure and temperature on tensile and fracture behavior were explored for the titanium aluminide alloy Ti-25Al-lONb-3V-lMo (atomic percent). Three microstructures were selected for this study in an attempt to determine the role of the individual microstructural constituents. the three microstructures studied were an alpha-2 + beta processed microstructure with a fine Widmanstaetten microstructure, a beta processed microstructure with a fine Widmanstaetten microstructure, and a beta processed microstructure with a coarse Widmanstaetten microstructure. Tensile testing of both round and flat specimens was conducted in vacuum at elevated temperature and in air at room and elevated temperatures. Extensive fractographymore » and specimen sectioning were used to study tensile deformation and the effects of environment on this alloy. Room temperature fracture toughness testing using compact tension specimens was conducted. Elevated temperature toughness testing was performed using J-bend bar specimens in an air environment. Again, extensive fractography and specimen sectioning were used to study the elevated temperature toughening mechanisms of this alloy.... Titanium, Titanium aluminide, Intermetallic, Fracture toughness, Tensile behavior, Fractography environmental interaction.« less

  4. Dynamic Shear Deformation and Failure of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pengwan

    2018-01-01

    To study the dynamic shear deformation and failure properties of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe (Ti-55511) alloy, a series of forced shear tests on flat hat shaped (FHS) specimens for the two investigated materials was performed using a split Hopkinson pressure bar setup. The evolution of shear deformation was monitored by an ultra-high-speed camera (Kirana-05M). Localized shear band is induced in the two investigated materials under forced shear tests. Our results indicate that severe strain localization (adiabatic shear) is accompanied by a loss in the load carrying capacity, i.e., by a sudden drop in loading. Three distinct stages can be identified using a digital image correlation technique for accurate shear strain measurement. The microstructural analysis reveals that the dynamic failure mechanisms for Ti-64 and Ti-55511 alloys within the shear band are of a cohesive and adhesive nature, respectively. PMID:29303988

  5. Effect of synovial fluid, phosphate-buffered saline solution, and water on the dissolution and corrosion properties of CoCrMo alloys as used in orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A C; Kilburn, M R; Papageorgiou, I; Allen, G C; Case, C P

    2005-06-15

    The corrosion and dissolution of high- and low-carbon CoCrMo alloys, as used in orthopedic joint replacements, were studied by immersing samples in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), water, and synovial fluid at 37 degrees C for up to 35 days. Bulk properties were analyzed with a fine ion beam microscope. Surface analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy showed surprisingly that synovial fluid produced a thin oxide/hydroxide layer. Release of ions into solution from the alloy also followed an unexpected pattern where synovial fluid, of all the samples, had the highest Cr concentration but the lowest Co concentration. The presence of carbide inclusions in the alloy did not affect the corrosion or the dissolution mechanisms, although the carbides were a significant feature on the metal surface. Only one mechanism was recognized as controlling the thickness of the oxide/hydroxide interface. The analysis of the dissolved metal showed two mechanisms at work: (1) a protein film caused ligand-induced dissolution, increasing the Cr concentration in synovial fluid, and was explained by the equilibrium constants; (2) corrosion at the interface increased the Co in PBS. The effect of prepassivating the samples (ASTM F-86-01) did not always have the desired effect of reducing dissolution. The release of Cr into PBS increased after prepassivation. The metal-synovial fluid interface did not contain calcium phosphate as a deposit, typically found where samples are exposed to calcium rich bodily fluids. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of alloying element and temperature on the stacking fault energies of dilute Ni-base superalloys.

    PubMed

    Shang, S L; Zacherl, C L; Fang, H Z; Wang, Y; Du, Y; Liu, Z K

    2012-12-19

    A systematic study of stacking fault energy (γ(SF)) resulting from induced alias shear deformation has been performed by means of first-principles calculations for dilute Ni-base superalloys (Ni(23)X and Ni(71)X) for various alloying elements (X) as a function of temperature. Twenty-six alloying elements are considered, i.e., Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Ir, Mn, Mo, Nb, Os, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sc, Si, Ta, Tc, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn, and Zr. The temperature dependence of γ(SF) is computed using the proposed quasistatic approach based on a predicted γ(SF)-volume-temperature relationship. Besides γ(SF), equilibrium volume and the normalized stacking fault energy (Γ(SF) = γ(SF)/Gb, with G the shear modulus and b the Burgers vector) are also studied as a function of temperature for the 26 alloying elements. The following conclusions are obtained: all alloying elements X studied herein decrease the γ(SF) of fcc Ni, approximately the further the alloying element X is from Ni on the periodic table, the larger the decrease of γ(SF) for the dilute Ni-X alloy, and roughly the γ(SF) of Ni-X decreases with increasing equilibrium volume. In addition, the values of γ(SF) for all Ni-X systems decrease with increasing temperature (except for Ni-Cr at higher Cr content), and the largest decrease is observed for pure Ni. Similar to the case of the shear modulus, the variation of γ(SF) for Ni-X systems due to various alloying elements is traceable from the distribution of (magnetization) charge density: the spherical distribution of charge density around a Ni atom, especially a smaller sphere, results in a lower value of γ(SF) due to the facility of redistribution of charges. Computed stacking fault energies and the related properties are in favorable accord with available experimental and theoretical data.

  7. On the Alloying and Properties of Tetragonal Nb5Si3 in Nb-Silicide Based Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2018-01-01

    The alloying of Nb5Si3 modifies its properties. Actual compositions of (Nb,TM)5X3 silicides in developmental alloys, where X = Al + B + Ge + Si + Sn and TM is a transition and/or refractory metal, were used to calculate the composition weighted differences in electronegativity (Δχ) and an average valence electron concentration (VEC) and the solubility range of X to study the alloying and properties of the silicide. The calculations gave 4.11 < VEC < 4.45, 0.103 < Δχ < 0.415 and 33.6 < X < 41.6 at.%. In the silicide in Nb-24Ti-18Si-5Al-5Cr alloys with single addition of 5 at.% B, Ge, Hf, Mo, Sn and Ta, the solubility range of X decreased compared with the unalloyed Nb5Si3 or exceeded 40.5 at.% when B was with Hf or Mo or Sn and the Δχ decreased with increasing X. The Ge concentration increased with increasing Ti and the Hf concentration increased and decreased with increasing Ti or Nb respectively. The B and Sn concentrations respectively decreased and increased with increasing Ti and also depended on other additions in the silicide. The concentration of Sn was related to VEC and the concentrations of B and Ge were related to Δχ. The alloying of Nb5Si3 was demonstrated in Δχ versus VEC maps. Effects of alloying on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) anisotropy, Young’s modulus, hardness and creep data were discussed. Compared with the hardness of binary Nb5Si3 (1360 HV), the hardness increased in silicides with Ge and dropped below 1360 HV when Al, B and Sn were present without Ge. The Al effect on hardness depended on other elements substituting Si. Sn reduced the hardness. Ti or Hf reduced the hardness more than Cr in Nb5Si3 without Ge. The (Nb,Hf)5(Si,Al)3 had the lowest hardness. VEC differentiated the effects of additions on the hardness of Nb5Si3 alloyed with Ge. Deterioration of the creep of alloyed Nb5Si3 was accompanied by decrease of VEC and increase or decrease of Δχ depending on alloying addition(s). PMID:29300327

  8. Hot Corrosion of Cobalt-Base Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    Alloys 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revet -se tside lf necessary and identify by block number) ~ lThe sodium sulfate-induced hot corrosion of cobalt and...Figures 12 and 13. The Na2 SO 4 was observed to form puddles on the oxide-covered specimen surface. An oxide slag was usually suspended in the... slag (black arrows) were suspended (30 sees at 1000°C in air). b) After washing the Na2SO 4 from the specimen, the exposed oxide surface was highly

  9. Recrystallization characteristics of oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotzler, R. K.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microscopy was employed to study the process of recrystallization in two oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) mechanically alloyed nickel-base alloys, MA 754 and MA 6000E. MA 754 contained both fine, uniformly dispersed particles and coarser oxides aligned along the working direction. Hot rolled MA 754 had a grain size of 0.5 microns and high dislocation densities. After partial primary recrystallization, the fine grains transformed to large elongated grains via secondary (or abnormal) grain growth. Extruded and rolled MA 6000E contained equiaxed grains of 0.2 micron diameter. Primary recrystallization occurring during working eliminated virtually all dislocations. Conversion from fine to coarse grains was triggered by gamma prime dissolution; this was also a process of secondary or abnormal grain growth. Comparisons were made to conventional and oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys.

  10. Microfluidic platforms for gallium-based liquid metal alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeyoung

    As an alternative to toxic mercury, non-toxic gallium-based liquid metal alloy has been gaining popularity due to its higher thermal and electrical conductivities, and low toxicity along with liquid property. However, it is difficult to handle as the alloy becomes readily oxidized in atmospheric air environment. This instant oxidation causes the gallium-based liquid metal alloy to wet almost any solid surface. Therefore, it has been primarily limited to applications which rely only on its deformability, not on its mobility. In this research, various approaches to mobilize gallium-based liquid metal alloy were investigated. Multi-scale surface patterned with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro pillar array showed super-lyophobic property against gallium-based liquid metal alloy by minimizing the contact area between the solid surface and the liquid metal, and it was expanded to a three-dimensional tunnel shaped microfluidic channel. Vertically-aligned carbon nanotube forest leads to another promising super-lyophobic surface due to its hierarchical micro/nano scale combined structures and chemical inertness. When the carbon nanotubes were transferred onto flexible PDMS by imprinting, the super-lyophobic property was still maintained even under the mechanical deformation such as stretching and bending. Alternatively, the gallium-based liquid metal can be manipulated by modifying the surface of liquid metal itself. With chemical reaction with HCl 'vapor', the oxidized surface (mainly Ga2O3/Ga2O) of gallium-based liquid metal was converted to GaCl3/InCl 3 resulting in the recovery of non-wetting characteristics. Paper which is intrinsically porous is attractive as a super-lyophobic surface and it was found that hydrochloric acid (HCl) impregnation enhanced the anti-wetting property by the chemical reaction. As another alternative method, by coating the viscoelastic oxidized surface of liquid metal with ferromagnetic materials (CoNiMnP or Fe), it showed non

  11. Mo1-xWxSe2-Based Schottky Junction Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sum-Gyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Park, Sungjin; Oh, Donggun; Choi, Hwan Young; Lee, Nara; Choi, Young Jai; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-12-14

    We developed Schottky junction photovoltaic cells based on multilayer Mo 1-x W x Se 2 with x = 0, 0.5, and 1. To generate built-in potentials, Pd and Al were used as the source and drain electrodes in a lateral structure, and Pd and graphene were used as the bottom and top electrodes in a vertical structure. These devices exhibited gate-tunable diode-like current rectification and photovoltaic responses. Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 Schottky diodes with Pd and Al electrodes exhibited higher photovoltaic efficiency than MoSe 2 and WSe 2 devices with Pd and Al electrodes, likely because of the greater adjusted band alignment in Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 devices. Furthermore, we showed that Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 -based vertical Schottky diodes yield a power conversion efficiency of ∼16% under 532 nm light and ∼13% under a standard air mass 1.5 spectrum, demonstrating their remarkable potential for photovoltaic applications.

  12. Tuning Coupling Behavior of Stacked Heterostructures Based on MoS2, WS2, and WSe2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Junyong; Guo, Shuang; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2017-01-01

    The interlayer interaction of vertically stacked heterojunctions is very sensitive to the interlayer spacing, which will affect the coupling between the monolayers and allow band structure modulation. Here, with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an interesting phenomenon is found that MoS2-WS2, MoS2-WSe2, and WS2-WSe2 heterostructures turn into direct-gap semiconductors from indirect-gap semiconductors with increasing the interlayer space. Moreover, the electronic structure changing process with interlayer spacing of MoS2-WS2, MoS2-WSe2, and WS2-WSe2 is different from each other. With the help of variable-temperature spectral experiment, different electronic transition properties of MoS2-WS2, MoS2-WSe2, and WS2-WSe2 have been demonstrated. The transition transformation from indirect to direct can be only observed in the MoS2-WS2 heterostructure, as the valence band maximum (VBM) at the Γ point in the MoS2-WSe2 and WS2-WSe2 heterostructure is less sensitive to the interlayer spacing than those from the MoS2-WS2 heterostructure. The present work highlights the significance of the temperature tuning in interlayer coupling and advance the research of MoS2-WS2, MoS2-WSe2, and WS2-WSe2 based device applications. PMID:28303932

  13. Effects of torsional deformation on the microstructures and mechanical properties of a CoCrFeNiMo0.15 high-entropy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenqian; Guo, Lin; Liu, Bin; Ni, Song; Liu, Yong; Song, Min

    2017-12-01

    The effects of torsional deformation on the microstructures and mechanical properties of a CoCrFeNiMo0.15 high-entropy alloy have been investigated. The torsional deformation generates a gradient microstructure distribution due to the gradient torsional strain. Both dislocation activity and deformation twinning dominated the torsional deformation process. With increasing the torsional equivalent strain, the microstructural evolution can be described as follows: (1) formation of pile-up dislocations parallel to the trace of {1 1 1}-type slip planes; (2) formation of Taylor lattices; (3) formation of highly dense dislocation walls; (3) formation of microbands and deformation twins. The extremely high deformation strain (strained to fracture) results in the activation of wavy slip. The tensile strength is very sensitive to the torsional deformation, and increases significantly with increasing the torsional angle.

  14. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a low alloy high strength Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel during heat treatment process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Han, S.

    2018-05-01

    In order to obtain an optimal heat treatment for a low alloy high strength Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the material were studied. For this purpose, a series of quenching and temper experiments were carried out. The results showed that the effects of tempering temperature, time, original microstructure on the microstructural evolution and final properties were significant. The martensite can be completely transformed into the tempered lath structure. The width and length of the lath became wider and shorter, respectively with increasing temperature and time. The amount and size of the precipitates increased with temperature and time. The yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness decreased with temperature and time, but the reduction in area (Z), elongation (E) and impact toughness displayed an opposite trend, which was related to the morphological evolution of the lath tempered structure.

  15. Achieving tunable doping of MoSe2 based devices using GO@MoSe2 heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Tuhin Kumar; Tiwary, Krishna Kanhaiya; Karmakar, Debjani

    2017-05-01

    Doping nature of MoSe2, one of the promising Graphene analogous device material, can be tuned by controlling the concentration of functional groups in Graphene oxide (GO)@MoSe2 heterostructure. In this study, by first-principles simulation, we have observed that GO can be used as a carrier injection layer for MoSe2, where n or p type carriers are introduced within MoSe2 layer depending on the type and concentration of functional moieties in it. Both n and p-type Schottky barrier height modulations are investigated for different modeled configurations of the heterostructure. This combinatorial heterostructure can be a promising material for future electronic device application.

  16. Improved Mg-based alloys for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sapru, K.; Ming, L.; Stetson, N.T.

    1998-08-01

    The overall objective of this on-going work is to develop low temperature alloys capable of reversibly storing at least 3 wt.% hydrogen, allowing greater than for 2 wt.% at the system level which is required by most applications. Surface modification of Mg can be used to improve its H-sorption kinetics. The authors show here that the same Mg-transition metal-based multi-component alloy when prepared by melt-spinning results in a more homogeneous materials with a higher plateau pressure as compared to preparing the material by mechanical grinding. They have also shown that mechanically alloyed Mg{sub 50}Al{sub 45}Zn{sub 5} results in a samplemore » having a higher plateau pressure.« less

  17. Quantitative Residual Strain Analyses on Strain Hardened Nickel Based Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, Toshio; Maeguchi, Takaharu; Goto, Toru; Juan, Hou

    Many papers have reported about the effects of strain hardening by cold rolling, grinding, welding, etc. on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of nickel based alloys and austenitic stainless steels for LWR pipings and components. But, the residual strain value due to cold rolling, grinding, welding, etc. is not so quantitatively evaluated.

  18. Nickel base alloy. [for gas turbine engine stator vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A nickel base superalloy for use at temperatures of 2000 F (1095 C) to 2200 F (1205 C) was developed for use as stator vane material in advanced gas turbine engines. The alloy has a nominal composition in weight percent of 16 tungsten, 7 aluminum, 1 molybdenum, 2 columbium, 0.3 zirconium, 0.2 carbon and the balance nickel.

  19. Novel Field-Effect Schottky Barrier Transistors Based on Graphene-MoS2 Heterojunctions

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Tan, Zhen; Wu, Can; Wang, Xiaomu; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Wang, Jing; Li, Lain-Jong; Xu, Jun; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Recently, two-dimensional materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) have been demonstrated to realize field effect transistors (FET) with a large current on-off ratio. However, the carrier mobility in backgate MoS2 FET is rather low (typically 0.5–20 cm2/V·s). Here, we report a novel field-effect Schottky barrier transistors (FESBT) based on graphene-MoS2 heterojunction (GMH), where the characteristics of high mobility from graphene and high on-off ratio from MoS2 are properly balanced in the novel transistors. Large modulation on the device current (on/off ratio of 105) is achieved by adjusting the backgate (through 300 nm SiO2) voltage to modulate the graphene-MoS2 Schottky barrier. Moreover, the field effective mobility of the FESBT is up to 58.7 cm2/V·s. Our theoretical analysis shows that if the thickness of oxide is further reduced, a subthreshold swing (SS) of 40 mV/decade can be maintained within three orders of drain current at room temperature. This provides an opportunity to overcome the limitation of 60 mV/decade for conventional CMOS devices. The FESBT implemented with a high on-off ratio, a relatively high mobility and a low subthreshold promises low-voltage and low-power applications for future electronics. PMID:25109609

  20. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr 2 Co 11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; ...

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr 2Co 11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr 16Co 84-xMo x( x = 0 , 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content ( x ≤ 1.5 ). he maximum energy product ( B H ) max increases with increasing x from 0.5 MGOe for x = 0 to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe for x = 1.5 . he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shift Φ rms value of 0.66° are observed for the x = 1.5 . he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  1. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr 2 Co 11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr 2Co 11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr 16Co 84-xMo x( x = 0 , 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content ( x ≤ 1.5 ). he maximum energy product ( B H ) max increases with increasing x from 0.5 MGOe for x = 0 to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe for x = 1.5 . he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shift Φ rms value of 0.66° are observed for the x = 1.5 . he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  2. A MoS₂-based system for efficient immobilization of hemoglobin and biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jie; Zou, Min; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Haofan; Pan, Dun; Pei, Hao; Su, Shao; Yuwen, Lihui; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Lianhui

    2015-07-10

    A novel hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) on a gold nanoparticle-decorated MoS2 nanosheet (AuNPs@MoS2) nanocomposite film modified glass carbon electrode. The AuNPs@MoS2 nanocomposite not only made the immobilized Hb keep its native biological activity but also facilitated the electron transfer between electrode and the electroactive center of Hb due to its excellent conductivity and biocompatibility. The direct electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalytic activity of Hb were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The modified electrode showed good electrocatalytic ability toward the reduction of H2O2 and NO. Under optimal conditions, the current response was linear with the concentration of H2O2 and NO in the range from 10 to 300 μM and 10 to 1100 μM with a detection limit of 4 and 5 μM, respectively. This MoS2-based biosensor was sensitive, reproducible and stable, indicating that AuNPs@MoS2 nanocomposite maybe a promising platform to construct electrochemical sensors for chemical and biological molecules detection.

  3. Controlling Pu behavior on Titania: Implications for LEU Fission-Based Mo-99 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Youker, Amanda J.; Brown, M. Alex; Heltemes, Thad A.

    Molybdenum-99 is the parent isotope of the most widely used isotope, technetium-99m, in all diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Due to proliferation concerns associated with the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU), the preferred method of fission-based Mo-99 production uses low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. Using LEU versus HEU for Mo-99 production produces similar to 30 times more Pu-239, due to neutron capture on U-238 to produce Np-239, which ultimately decays to Pu-239 (t(1/2) = 24,110 yr). Argonne National Laboratory is supporting a potential US Mo-99 producer in their efforts to produce Mo-99 from an LEU solution. In order to mitigatemore » the generation of large volumes of greater-than-class-C (GTCC) low level waste (Pu-239 concentrations greater than 1 nCi/g), we have focused our efforts on the separation chemistry of Pu and Mo with a titania sorbent in sulfate media. Results from batch and column experiments show that temperature and acid wash concentration can be used to control Pu behavior on titania.« less

  4. Development of a Knowledge Base of Ti-Alloys From First-Principles and Thermodynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Cassie

    An aging population with an active lifestyle requires the development of better load-bearing implants, which have high levels of biocompatibility and a low elastic modulus. Titanium alloys, in the body centered cubic phase, are great implant candidates, due to their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The present work aims at investigating the thermodynamic and elastic properties of bcc Tialloys, using the integrated first-principles based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) method. The use of integrated first-principles calculations based on DFT and CALPHAD modeling has greatly reduced the need for trial and error metallurgy, which is ineffective and costly. The phase stability of Ti-alloys has been shown to greatly affect their elastic properties. Traditionally, CALPHAD modeling has been used to predict the equilibrium phase formation, but in the case of Ti-alloys, predicting the formation of two metastable phases o and alpha" is of great importance as these phases also drastically effect the elastic properties. To build a knowledge base of Ti-alloys, for biomedical load-bearing implants, the Ti-Mo-Nb-Sn-Ta-Zr system was studied because of the biocompatibility and the bcc stabilizing effects of some of the elements. With the focus on bcc Ti-rich alloys, a database of thermodynamic descriptions of each phase for the pure elements, binary and Ti-rich ternary alloys was developed in the present work. Previous thermodynamic descriptions for the pure elements were adopted from the widely used SGTE database for global compatibility. The previous binary and ternary models from the literature were evaluated for accuracy and new thermodynamic descriptions were developed when necessary. The models were evaluated using available experimental data, as well as the enthalpy of formation of the bcc phase obtained from first-principles calculations based on DFT. The thermodynamic descriptions were combined into a database

  5. Deformation Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of As-Cast 42CrMo Alloy in Isothermal and Non-isothermal Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fangcheng; Li, Yongtang; Qi, Huiping; Lv, Zhenhua

    2016-11-01

    The isothermal and non-isothermal multi-pass compression tests of centrifugal casting 42CrMo steel were conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermal simulation machine. The effects of compression passes and finishing temperatures on deformation behavior and microstructure evolution were investigated. It is found that the microstructure is homogeneous with equiaxed grains, and the flow stress does not show significant change with the increase in passes, while the peak softening coefficient increases first and then decreases during inter-pass. Moreover, the dominant mechanisms of controlled temperature and accumulated static recrystallization for grain refinement and its homogeneous distribution are found after 5 passes deformation. As the finishing temperature increases, the flow stress decreases gradually, but the dynamic recrystallization accelerates and softening effect increases, resulting in the larger grain size and homogeneous microstructure. The microhardness decreases sharply because the sufficient softening occurs in microstructure. When the finishing temperature is 890 °C, the carbide particles are precipitated in the vicinity of the grain boundaries, thus inhibiting the dislocation motion. Thus, the higher finishing temperature (≥970 °C) for centrifugal casting 42CrMo alloy should be avoided in non-isothermal multi-pass deformation, which is beneficial to grain refinement and properties improvement.

  6. Magnetocaloric effect in amorphous and partially crystallized Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 18} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thanveer, T.; Thomas, S., E-mail: senoythomas@gmail.com; Ramanujan, R. V.

    A study of magnetocaloric effect in amorphous and partially crystallized Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 18} alloys is reported. Amorphous Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 18}, near its magnetic ordering temperature (600 K) showed a magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M} of 1.1 J/KgK and a relative cooling power of 36 J/Kg in a field change of 10 kOe. Amorphous samples were partially crystallized by annealing at 700 K at different time intervals. Partially crystallized samples showed two distinct magnetic ordering temperature, one corresponding to the precipitated FeNi nanocrystals and the other one corresponding to the boron rich amorphous matrix. Magnetic ordering temperaturemore » of the residual amorphous matrix got shifted to the lower temperatures on increasing the annealing duration. Partially crystallised samples showed a magnetic entropy change of about 0.27 J/kgK near the magnetic ordering temperature of the amorphous matrix (540 K) in a field change of 10 kOe. The decrease in ΔS{sub M} on partial crystallisation is attributed to the biphasic magnetic nature of the sample.« less

  7. Ni.sub.3 Al-based intermetallic alloys having improved strength above 850.degree. C.

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    2000-01-01

    Intermetallic alloys composed essentially of: 15.5% to 17.0% Al, 3.5% to 5.5% Mo, 4% to 8% Cr, 0.04% to 0.2% Zr, 0.04% to 1.5% B, balance Ni, are characterized by melting points above 1200.degree. C. and superior strengths at temperatures above 1000.degree. C.

  8. Crystallographic characterizations of eutectic and secondary carbides in a Fe-12Cr-2.5Mo-1.5W-3V-1.25C alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Ligang; Feng, Yunli; Liu, Sha; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the morphology and structures of the eutectic and secondary carbides in a new high chromium Fe-12Cr-2.5Mo-1.5W-3V-1.25C designed for cold-rolling work roll were systematically studied. The precipitated carbides inside the grains and along the grain boundaries were investigated with optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction. Selected area diffraction patterns have been successfully used to identify the crystal formation and lattice constants of the carbides with different alloying elements. The results show that the eutectic carbides precipitated contain MC and M2C distributed along the grain boundaries with dendrite feature. The composition and crystal structure analysis shows that the eutectic MC carbides contain VC and WC with a cubic and hexagonal crystal lattice structures respectively, while the eutectic M2C carbides predominantly contain V2C and Mo2C with orthorhombic and hexagonal crystal lattices respectively. The secondary carbides contain MC, M2C, M7C3 formed along the grain boundaries and their sizes are much larger than the eutectic carbides ones. The secondary M23C6 is much small (0.3-0.5μm) and is distributed dispersively inside the grain. Similar to the eutectic carbides, the secondary carbides also contain VC, WC, V2C, and Mo2C. M7C3 is hexagonal (Fe,Cr)7C3, while M23C6 is indexed to be in a cubic crystal form.

  9. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium-based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid -Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium-based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid -Metal...including Al, Cu, Ni, Zr, Mg, Pd, Ga , Ca. Many new Al-based amorphous alloys were found within the numerous alloy systems studied in this project, and

  10. Organic bistable memory devices based on MoO3 nanoparticle embedded Alq3 structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhijith, T.; Kumar, T. V. Arun; Reddy, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Organic bistable memory devices were fabricated by embedding a thin layer of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) between two tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) layers. The device exhibited excellent switching characteristics with an ON/OFF current ratio of 1.15 × 103 at a read voltage of 1 V. The device showed repeatable write-erase capability and good stability in both the conductance states. These conductance states are non-volatile in nature and can be obtained by applying appropriate voltage pulses. The effect of MoO3 layer thickness and its location in the Alq3 matrix on characteristics of the memory device was investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of the MoO3 layer revealed the presence of isolated nanoparticles. Based on the experimental results, a mechanism has been proposed for explaining the conductance switching of fabricated devices.

  11. Hydroxyapatite Based 99Mo - 99Tc and 188W - 188Re Generator Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp Jr, Russ F; Monroy-Guzman, F.; Badillo, V. E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes studies evaluating the use of hydroxyapatite as the adsorbent material for both {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator systems. Hydroxyapatite is an insoluble solid with anion exchange properties. A study of the sorption behaviour of {sup 99}Mo, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}W and {sup 188}Re on hydroxyapatite in NaCl medium was evaluated by batch experiments. The results demonstrated that while {sup 99}Mo, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re are not adsorbed by the hydroxyapatite in NaCl solutions (Kd <5), {sup 188}W is strongly adsorbed (Kd >500). On the basis of these measurements, hydroxyapatite {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generatormore » systems were then constructed and eluted in NaCl solutions. The hydroxyapatite based {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re generator performances are presented.« less

  12. Organic bistable memory devices based on MoO3 nanoparticle embedded Alq3 structures.

    PubMed

    Abhijith, T; Kumar, T V Arun; Reddy, V S

    2017-03-03

    Organic bistable memory devices were fabricated by embedding a thin layer of molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ) between two tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq 3 ) layers. The device exhibited excellent switching characteristics with an ON/OFF current ratio of 1.15 × 10 3 at a read voltage of 1 V. The device showed repeatable write-erase capability and good stability in both the conductance states. These conductance states are non-volatile in nature and can be obtained by applying appropriate voltage pulses. The effect of MoO 3 layer thickness and its location in the Alq 3 matrix on characteristics of the memory device was investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of the MoO 3 layer revealed the presence of isolated nanoparticles. Based on the experimental results, a mechanism has been proposed for explaining the conductance switching of fabricated devices.

  13. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  14. A study of the micro- and nanoscale deformation behavior of individual austenitic dendrites in a FeCrMoVC cast alloy using micro- and nanoindentation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zeisig, J., E-mail: j.zeisig@ifw-dresden.de; Hufenbach, J.; Wendrock, H.

    2016-04-04

    Micro- and nanoindentation experiments were conducted to investigate the deformation mechanisms in a Fe79.4Cr13Mo5V1C1.6 (wt. %) cast alloy. This alloy consists of an as cast microstructure mainly composed of austenite, martensite, and a complex carbide network. During microhardness testing, metastable austenite transforms partially into martensite confirmed by electron backscatter diffraction. For nanoindentation tests, two different indenter geometries were applied (Berkovich and cube corner type). Load-displacement curves of nanoindentation in austenitic dendrites depicted pop-ins after transition into plastic deformation for both nanoindenters. Characterizations of the region beneath a nanoindent by transmission electron microscopy revealed a martensitic transformation as an activated deformationmore » mechanism and suggest a correlation with the pop-in phenomena of the load-displacement curves. Furthermore, due to an inhomogeneous chemical composition within the austenitic dendrites, more stabilized regions deform by mechanical twinning. This additional deformation mechanism was only observed for the cube corner indenter with the sharper geometry since higher shear stresses are induced beneath the contact area.« less

  15. Tribological Performance of Duplex-Annealed Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Titanium Alloy at Elevated Temperatures Under Dry Sliding Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilig, Sebastian; Ramezani, Maziar; Neitzert, Thomas; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-03-01

    Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (Ti-6-2-4-2) is a typical near-α titanium alloy developed for high-temperature applications. It offers numerous enhanced properties like an outstanding strength-to-weight ratio, a low Young's modulus and exceptional creep and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, titanium alloys are known for their weak resistance to wear. Ti-6-2-4-2 is mainly applied in aero engine component parts, which are exposed to temperatures up to 565 °C. Through an increasing demand on efficiency, engine components are exposed to higher combustion pressures and temperatures. Elevated temperature tribology tests were conducted on a pin-on-disk tribometer equipped with a heating chamber. The tests were carried out under dry conditions with a constant sliding distance of 600 m with a speed of 0.16 m/s at the ball point. The sliding partner was AISI E52100 steel ball with the hardness of 58HRC. The varied input variables are normal load and temperature. It can be concluded that the coefficient of friction (CoF) increases with increasing temperature, while the wear rate decreases to its minimum at 600 °C due to increasing adhesion and oxidation mechanisms. Wear track observations using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) including energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine the occurring wear mechanisms.

  16. Flow Behavior and Constitutive Equation of Ti-6.5Al-2Sn-4Zr-4Mo-1W-0.2Si Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuemei; Guo, Hongzhen; Liang, Houquan; Yao, Zekun; Yuan, Shichong

    2016-04-01

    In order to get a reliable constitutive equation for the finite element simulation, flow behavior of Ti-6.5Al-2Sn-4Zr-4Mo-1W-0.2Si alloy under high temperature was investigated by carrying a series of isothermal compression tests at temperatures of 1153-1293 K and strain rates of 0.01-10.0 s-1 on the Gleeble-1500 simulator. Results showed that the true stress-strain curves exhibited peaks at small strains, after which the flow stress decreased monotonically. Ultimately, the flow curves reached steady state at the strain of 0.6, showing a dynamic flow softening phenomenon. The effects of strain rate, temperature, and strain on the flow behavior were researched by establishing a constitutive equation. The relations among stress exponent, deformation activation energy, and strain were preliminarily discussed by using strain rate sensitivity exponent and dynamic recrystallization kinetics curve. Stress values predicted by the modified constitutive equation showed a good agreement with the experimental ones. The correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE) were 98.2% and 4.88%, respectively, which confirmed that the modified constitutive equation could give an accurate estimation of the flow stress for BT25y titanium alloy.

  17. Tribocorrosion behavior of CoCrMo alloy for hip prosthesis as a function of loads: a comparison between two testing systems

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, M.T.; Runa, M.J.; Laurent, M.; Jacobs, J.J.; Rocha, L.A.; Wimmer, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip prosthesis bearings have enjoyed renewed popularity, but concerns remain with wear debris and metal ion release causing a negative response in the surrounding tissues. Further understanding into the wear and corrosion mechanisms occurring in MOM hips is therefore essential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tribocorrosion behaviour, or interplay between corrosion and wear, of a low-carbon CoCrMo alloy as a function of loading. The tribocorrosion tests were performed using two tribometer configurations. In the first configuration, “System A”, a linearly reciprocating alumina ball slid against the flat metal immersed in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). In the second configuration, “System B”, the flat end of a cylindrical metal pin was pressed against an alumina ball that oscillated rotationally, using bovine calf serum (BCS) as the lubricant and electrolyte. System B was custom-built to emulate in vivo conditions. The tribocorrosion tests were performed under potentiostatic conditions at -0.345V, with a sliding duration of 1800 seconds and a frequency of 1Hz. In System A the applied loads were 0.05, 0.5, and 1N (138, 296 and 373MPa, respectively) and in System B were 16, 32, and 64N (474, 597, and 752MPa, respectively). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization resistance were estimated. The total mass loss (Kwc) in the CoCrMo was determined. The mass loss due to wear (Kw) and that due to corrosion (Kc) were determined. The dominant wear regime for the CoCrMo alloy subjected to sliding changes from wear-corrosion to mechanical wear as the contact stress increases. An attempt was made to compare both system, in their tribochemical responses and formulate some insights in the total degradation processes. Our results also suggest that the proteins in the serum lubricant assist in the generation of a protective layer against corrosion during sliding. The study highlights the need of adequate methodology

  18. Hydrogen uptake characteristics of mischmetal based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Ankur; Jain, R. K.; Jain, I. P.

    Hydrogen storage properties of Mm 39.2Ni 42.1Mn 4.9Al 1.25Co 10.2Fe 2.35 alloy have been systematically studied in the present work. An attempt is made to relate the content of hydrogen with change in resistance. It is found that the resistance of material increases with the increase in value of H/ M due to hydrogen absorption. Pressure composition (P-C-T) isotherm using water displacement method has been investigated in the temperature and pressure ranges of 308 ≤ T ≤ 338 K and 0.5 ≤ P ≤ 10 bar, respectively. The P-C isotherms show the presence of two single α and β regions one mixed α + β phase. The maximum H (wt%) was found to be around 1.53 at 308 K and around 6 bar. Since enthalpy is an index of thermochemical stability of metal hydride the thermo dynamical parameters viz., the relative partial molar enthalpy (Δ H) and relative partial molar entropy (Δ S) of dissolved hydrogen have been calculated by plotting the Van't Hoff plot. The variation of Δ H and Δ S with the hydrogen concentration confirm the phase boundaries.

  19. Wear Characteristics of Ni-Based Hardfacing Alloy Deposited on Stainless Steel Substrate by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Limaye, P. K.; Kumar, Santosh; Kushwaha, Ram P.; Viswanadham, C. S.; Srivastava, Dinesh; Soni, N. L.; Patel, R. J.; Dey, G. K.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, dry sliding wear characteristics of the Ni-based hardfacing alloy (Ni-Mo-Cr-Si) deposited on stainless steel SS316L substrate by laser cladding have been presented. Dry sliding wear behavior of the laser clad layer was evaluated against two different counter bodies, AISI 52100 chromium steel (~850 VHN) and tungsten carbide ball (~2200 VHN) to study both adhesive and abrasive wear characteristics, in comparison with the substrate SS316L using ball on plate reciprocating wear tester. The wear resistance was evaluated as a function of load and sliding speed for a constant sliding amplitude and sliding distance. The wear mechanisms were studied on the basis of wear surface morphology and microchemical analysis of the wear track using SEM-EDS. Laser clad layer of Ni-Mo-Cr-Si on SS316L exhibited much higher hardness (~700 VHN) than that of substrate SS316L (~200 VHN). The laser clad layer exhibited higher wear resistance as compared to SS316L substrate while sliding against both the counterparts. However, the improvement in the wear resistance of the clad layer as compared to the substrate was much higher while sliding against AISI 52100 chromium steel than that while sliding against WC, at the same contact stress intensity.

  20. Influence of strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior of iron aluminide-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T.

    Iron aluminides are receiving increasing attention as potential high temperature structural materials due to their excellent oxidation and sulfidation resistance. Although the influence of strain rate on the microstructure/property relationships of pure iron and a variety of iron alloys and steels has been extensively studied, the effect of strain rate on the stress-strain and deformation response of iron aluminides remains poorly understood. In this paper the influence of strain rate, varied between 0.001 and 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1}, and temperature, between 77 & 1073{degree}K, on the mechanical behavior of Fe-40Al-0.1B and Fe-16.12Al-5.44Cr-0.11Zr-0.13C-1.07Mo-006Y, called FAP-Y, (both in at.%) is presented. Themore » rate sensitivity and work hardening of Fe-40Al and the disordered alloy based on Fe-16% Al are discussed as a function of strain rate and temperature.« less

  1. Ni3Al-based alloys for die and tool application

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.; Bloom, Everett E.

    2001-01-01

    A novel Ni.sub.3 Al-based alloy exhibits strengths and hardness in excess of the standard base alloy IC-221M at temperatures of up to about 1000.degree. C. The alloy is useful in tool and die applications requiring such temperatures, and for structural elements in engineering systems exposed to such temperatures.

  2. Effect of Microstructure and Alloy Chemistry on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Precipitation-Hardened Ni-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obasi, G. C.; Zhang, Z.; Sampath, D.; Morana, Roberto; Akid, R.; Preuss, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) has been studied in respect of precipitation size distributions in two nickel-based superalloys: Alloy 718 (UNS N07718) and Alloy 945X (UNS N09946). Quantitative microstructure analysis was carried out by the combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). While Alloy 718 is mainly strengthened by γ″, and therefore readily forms intergranular δ phase, Alloy 945X has been designed to avoid δ formation by reducing Nb levels providing high strength through a combination of γ' and γ″. Slow strain rate tensile tests were carried out for different microstructural conditions in air and after cathodic hydrogen (H) charging. HE sensitivity was determined based on loss of elongation due to the H uptake in comparison to elongation to failure in air. Results showed that both alloys exhibited an elevated sensitivity to HE. Fracture surfaces of the H precharged material showed quasi-cleavage and transgranular cracks in the H-affected region, while ductile failure was observed toward the center of the sample. The crack origins observed on the H precharged samples exhibited quasi-cleavage with slip traces at high magnification. The sensitivity is slightly reduced for Alloy 718, by coarsening γ″ and reducing the overall strength of the alloy. However, on further coarsening of γ″, which promotes continuous decoration of grain boundaries with δ phase, the embrittlement index rose again indicating a change of hydrogen embrittlement mechanism from hydrogen-enhanced local plasticity (HELP) to hydrogen-enhanced decohesion embrittlement (HEDE). In contrast, Alloy 945X displayed a strong correlation between strength, based on precipitation size and embrittlement index, due to the absence of any significant formation of δ phase for the investigated microstructures. For the given test parameters, Alloy 945X did not display any reduced sensitivity to HE compared with

  3. Development of Ultra-high Purity (UHP) Fe-Based Alloys with High Creep and Oxidation Resistance for A-USC Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdani, Fethi; Das, Nishith K.; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2018-03-01

    The design of ultra-high purity (UHP) Fe-based model alloys for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) technology is attempted in this work. Creep testing has been performed in air at 700 °C and a stress level of 150 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surface and cross section of the crept specimen was performed. To evaluate the oxidation resistance in A-USC conditions, oxidation testing was performed in supercritical water (SCW) at 700 °C and 25 MPa. Weight gain (WG) measurements and meticulous characterization of the oxide scale were carried out. Based on thermodynamics and density functional theory calculations, some reactive elements in the Fe-Cr-Ni system were designated to promote precipitation strengthening and to improve the hydrogen-accelerated oxidation resistance. The addition of a 2 wt pct Mo into Fe-22Cr-22Ni-0.6Nb wt pct-based matrix did not significantly improve the creep resistance. The addition of 0.26 wt pct Zr coupled with cold working was effective for improving creep properties. The Mo-modified model alloy showed almost the same WG value as SUS310, while the Zr-modified alloy showed a higher WG value. Meanwhile, a Cr-enriched continuous oxide layer was formed at the oxidation front of the Zr-modified alloy and SUS310S after exposure to SCW conditions.

  4. Development of Ultra-high Purity (UHP) Fe-Based Alloys with High Creep and Oxidation Resistance for A-USC Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdani, Fethi; Das, Nishith K.; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    The design of ultra-high purity (UHP) Fe-based model alloys for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) technology is attempted in this work. Creep testing has been performed in air at 700 °C and a stress level of 150 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surface and cross section of the crept specimen was performed. To evaluate the oxidation resistance in A-USC conditions, oxidation testing was performed in supercritical water (SCW) at 700 °C and 25 MPa. Weight gain (WG) measurements and meticulous characterization of the oxide scale were carried out. Based on thermodynamics and density functional theory calculations, some reactive elements in the Fe-Cr-Ni system were designated to promote precipitation strengthening and to improve the hydrogen-accelerated oxidation resistance. The addition of a 2 wt pct Mo into Fe-22Cr-22Ni-0.6Nb wt pct-based matrix did not significantly improve the creep resistance. The addition of 0.26 wt pct Zr coupled with cold working was effective for improving creep properties. The Mo-modified model alloy showed almost the same WG value as SUS310, while the Zr-modified alloy showed a higher WG value. Meanwhile, a Cr-enriched continuous oxide layer was formed at the oxidation front of the Zr-modified alloy and SUS310S after exposure to SCW conditions.

  5. Elevated temperature tribology of cobalt and tantalum-based alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Scharf, T. W.; Prasad, S. V.; Kotula, P. G.; ...

    2014-12-31

    This paper describes the friction and wear behavior of a Co–Cr alloy sliding on a Ta–W alloy. Measurements were performed in a pin-on-flat configuration with a hemispherically tipped Co-base alloy pin sliding on a Ta–W alloy flat from ambient to 430°C. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the friction-induced changes to the chemistry and crystal structure in the subsurface regions of wear tracks. During sliding contact, transfer of material varied as a function of the test temperature, either from pin-to-flat, flat-to-pin, or both, resulting in either wear loss and/or volumemore » gain. Friction coefficients (μ) and wear rates also varied as a function of test temperature. The lowest friction coefficient (μ=0.25) and wear rate (1×10 –4 mm 3/N•m) were observed at 430°C in argon atmosphere. This was attributed to the formation of a Co-base metal oxide layer (glaze), predominantly (Co, Cr)O with Rocksalt crystal structure, on the pin surface. Part of this oxide film transferred to the wear track on Ta–W, providing a self-mated oxide-on-oxide contact. Once the oxide glaze is formed, it is able to provide friction reduction for the entire temperature range of this study, ambient to 430°C. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that glazing the surfaces of Haynes alloys with continuous layers of cobalt chrome oxide prior to wear could protect the cladded surfaces from damage.« less

  6. Elevated temperature tribology of cobalt and tantalum-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, T. W.; Prasad, S. V.; Kotula, P. G.

    This paper describes the friction and wear behavior of a Co–Cr alloy sliding on a Ta–W alloy. Measurements were performed in a pin-on-flat configuration with a hemispherically tipped Co-base alloy pin sliding on a Ta–W alloy flat from ambient to 430°C. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the friction-induced changes to the chemistry and crystal structure in the subsurface regions of wear tracks. During sliding contact, transfer of material varied as a function of the test temperature, either from pin-to-flat, flat-to-pin, or both, resulting in either wear loss and/or volumemore » gain. Friction coefficients (μ) and wear rates also varied as a function of test temperature. The lowest friction coefficient (μ=0.25) and wear rate (1×10 –4 mm 3/N•m) were observed at 430°C in argon atmosphere. This was attributed to the formation of a Co-base metal oxide layer (glaze), predominantly (Co, Cr)O with Rocksalt crystal structure, on the pin surface. Part of this oxide film transferred to the wear track on Ta–W, providing a self-mated oxide-on-oxide contact. Once the oxide glaze is formed, it is able to provide friction reduction for the entire temperature range of this study, ambient to 430°C. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that glazing the surfaces of Haynes alloys with continuous layers of cobalt chrome oxide prior to wear could protect the cladded surfaces from damage.« less

  7. Tungsten wire-nickel base alloy composite development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Moracz, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W-Hf-C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/square meters (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics.

  8. Analysis of thermoelectric properties of high-temperature complex alloys of nickel-base, iron-base and cobalt-base groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, R.

    1984-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties alloys of the nickel-base, iron-base, and cobalt-base groups containing from 1% to 25% 106 chromium were compared and correlated with the following material characteristics: atomic percent of the principle alloy constituent; ratio of concentration of two constituents; alloy physical property (electrical resistivity); alloy phase structure (percent precipitate or percent hardener content); alloy electronic structure (electron concentration). For solid-solution-type alloys the most consistent correlation was obtained with electron concentration, for precipitation-hardenable alloys of the nickel-base superalloy group, the thermoelectric potential correlated with hardener content in the alloy structure. For solid-solution-type alloys, no problems were found with thermoelectric stability to 1000; for precipitation-hardenable alloys, thermoelectric stability was dependent on phase stability. The effects of the compositional range of alloy constituents on temperature measurement uncertainty are discussed.

  9. Thermal transport properties, magnetic susceptibility and neutron diffraction studies of the (Cr100-xAlx)95Mo5 alloy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchono, B.; Sheppard, C. J.; Venter, A. M.; Prinsloo, A. R. E.

    2018-05-01

    The Seebeck coefficient has been used to investigate QCB in Cr alloys [8,9]. Plots of d S /d T (in the limit T → 2 K) as function of concentration for the (Cr97.8Si2.2)100-yMoy [8] and the (Cr84Re16)100-zVz [9] alloy systems depicted anomalies at the QCP. The possibility of QCB in the (Cr100-xAlx)95Mo5 alloy system is explored by analysing the S(T) data of Fig. 1 by performing a linear-least-squares fit through the 2 K < T < 6.5 K data points. The gradient was taken as dS / dT|T → 2K . Fig. 8 shows dS / dT|T → 2K for concentrations in the range 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 8.6. It increases rapidly to a maximum at x = 1.0, then decreases on further Al addition and displays a minimum just above x = 1.4. This is the concentration where magnetism is seen to disappear on the TN(x) magnetic phase diagram. dS / dT|T → 2K shows a second minimum just above x = 4.4, i.e. corresponding to the concentration where magnetism reappears on the TN(x) magnetic phase diagram (see Fig. 17). Similar minima were also observed at the QCP in the (Cr84Re16)100-zVz [9] and (Cr86Ru14)100-rVr [13] alloy systems. The relatively large error bars in Fig. 8 originate from the large errors in the fitting routine due to a significant scatter in the original Seebeck coefficient data at low temperatures. The solid line through the dS / dT|T → 2K data points is a guide to the eye, while the dotted vertical lines indicate the boundaries between the ISDW, P and CSDW phases. The minima observed in the dS / dT|T → 2K curve correlate to these boundaries.

  10. MO-D-BRC-03: Knowledge-Based Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q.

    Treatment planning is a central part of radiation therapy, including delineation in tumor volumes and critical organs, setting treatment goals of prescription doses to the tumor targets and tolerance doses to the critical organs, and finally generation of treatment plans to meet the treatment goals. National groups like RTOG have led the effort to standardize treatment goals of the prescription doses to the tumor targets and tolerance doses to the critical organs based on accumulated knowledge from decades of abundant clinical trial experience. The challenge for each clinical department is how to achieve or surpass these set goals within themore » time constraints of clinical practice. Using fifteen testing cases from different treatment sites such as head and neck, prostate with and without pelvic lymph nodes, SBRT spine, we will present clinically utility of advanced planning tools, including knowledge based, automatic based, and multiple criteria based tools that are clinically implemented. The objectives of this session are: Understand differences among these three advanced planning tools Provide clinical assessments on the utility of the advanced planning tools Discuss clinical challenges of treatment planning with large variations in tumor volumes and their relationships with adjacent critical organs. Ping Xia received research grant from Philips. Jackie Wu received research grant from Varian; P. Xia, Research support by Philips and Varian; Q. Wu, NIH, Varian Medical.« less

  11. Mechanical intermixing of components in (CoMoNi)-based systems and the formation of (CoMoNi)/WC nanocomposite layers on Ti sheets under ball collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romankov, S.; Park, Y. C.; Shchetinin, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni) components were simultaneously introduced onto titanium (Ti) surfaces from a composed target using ball collisions. Tungsten carbide (WC) balls were selected for processing as the source of a cemented carbide reinforcement phase. During processing, ball collisions continuously introduced components from the target and the grinding media onto the Ti surface and induced mechanical intermixing of the elements, resulting in formation of a complex nanocomposite structure onto the Ti surface. The as-fabricated microstructure consisted of uniformly dispersed WC particles embedded within an integrated metallic matrix composed of an amorphous phase with nanocrystalline grains. The phase composition of the alloyed layers, atomic reactions, and the matrix grain sizes depended on the combination of components introduced onto the Ti surface during milling. The as-fabricated layer exhibited a very high hardness compared to industrial metallic alloys and tool steel materials. This approach could be used for the manufacture of both cemented carbides and amorphous matrix composite layers.

  12. Dendritic growth and structure of undercooled nickel base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Shiohara, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The principal objectives of this overall investigation are to: study means for obtaining high undercooling in levitation melted droplets, and study structures produced upon the solidification of these undercooled specimens. Thermal measurements are made of the undercooling, and of the rapid recalescence, to develop an understanding of the solidification mechanism. Comparison of results is made with the modeling studies. Characterization and metallographic work is done to gain an understanding of the relationship between rapid solidification variables and the structures so produced. In ground based work to date, solidification of undercooled Ni-25 wt percent Sn alloy was observed by high-speed cinematography and the results compared with optical temperature measurements. Also in ground based work, high-speed optical temperature measurements were made of the solidification behavior of levitated metal samples within a transparent glass medium. Two undercooled Ni-Sn alloys were examined. Measurements were carried out on samples at undercoolings up to 330 K. Microstructures of samples produced in ground based work were determined by optical metallography and by SEM, and microsegregation by electron microprobe measurements. A series of flight tests were planned to conduct experiments similar to the ground based experiments. The Space Shuttle Columbia carried an alloy undercooled experiment in the STS 61-C mission in January 1986. A sample of Ni-32.5 wt percent Sn eutectic was melted and solidified under microgravity conditions.

  13. First-Principles Study of Mo Segregation in MoNi(111): Effects of Chemisorbed Atomic Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanlin; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Jianwei; Wang, Ligen

    2015-01-01

    Segregation at metal alloy surfaces is an important issue because many electrochemical and catalytic properties are directly correlated to the surface composition. We have performed density functional theory calculations for Mo segregation in MoNi(111) in the presence of chemisorbed atomic oxygen. In particular, the coverage dependence and possible adsorption-induced segregation phenomena are addressed by investigating segregation energies of the Mo atom in MoNi(111). The theoretical calculated results show that the Mo atom prefers to be embedded in the bulk for the clean MoNi(111), while it segregates to the top-most layer when the oxygen coverage is thicker than 1/9 monolayer (ML). Furthermore, we analyze the densities of states for the clean and oxygen-chemisorbed MoNi(111), and see a strong covalent bonding between Mo d-band states and O p-states. The present study provides valuable insight for exploring practical applications of Ni-based alloys as hydrogen evolution electrodes. PMID:28787811

  14. Effect of Molybdenum on the Corrosion Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys CoCrFeNi 2 and CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 under Sodium Chloride Aqueous Conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez, Alvaro A.; Tylczak, Joseph H.; Gao, Michael C.; ...

    2018-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) CoCrFeNi 2 and CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 was investigated in 3.5 wt. percent sodium chloride (NaCl) at 25°C by electrochemical methods. Their corrosion parameters were compared to those of HASTELLOY® C-276 (UNS N10276) and stainless steel 316L (UNS 31600) to assess the suitability of HEAs for potential industrial applications in NaCl simulating seawater type environments. The corrosion rates were calculated using corrosion current determined from electrochemical experiments for each of the alloys. In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements can indicate active, passive, and transpassive behavior of the metal as well as potential susceptibility to pittingmore » corrosion. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) can confirm the alloy susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) elucidates the corrosion mechanism under studied conditions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the corroded surfaces revealed general corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 and HASTELLOY C-276 and pitting corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi 2 and stainless steel 316L.« less

  15. Effect of Molybdenum on the Corrosion Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys CoCrFeNi 2 and CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 under Sodium Chloride Aqueous Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Alvaro A.; Tylczak, Joseph H.; Gao, Michael C.

    The corrosion behavior of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) CoCrFeNi 2 and CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 was investigated in 3.5 wt. percent sodium chloride (NaCl) at 25°C by electrochemical methods. Their corrosion parameters were compared to those of HASTELLOY® C-276 (UNS N10276) and stainless steel 316L (UNS 31600) to assess the suitability of HEAs for potential industrial applications in NaCl simulating seawater type environments. The corrosion rates were calculated using corrosion current determined from electrochemical experiments for each of the alloys. In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements can indicate active, passive, and transpassive behavior of the metal as well as potential susceptibility to pittingmore » corrosion. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) can confirm the alloy susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) elucidates the corrosion mechanism under studied conditions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the corroded surfaces revealed general corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi 2 Mo 0.25 and HASTELLOY C-276 and pitting corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi 2 and stainless steel 316L.« less

  16. An MPI-based MoSST core dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weiyuan; Kuang, Weijia

    2008-09-01

    Distributed systems are among the main cost-effective and expandable platforms for high-end scientific computing. Therefore scalable numerical models are important for effective use of such systems. In this paper, we present an MPI-based numerical core dynamics model for simulation of geodynamo and planetary dynamos, and for simulation of core-mantle interactions. The model is developed based on MPI libraries. Two algorithms are used for node-node communication: a "master-slave" architecture and a "divide-and-conquer" architecture. The former is easy to implement but not scalable in communication. The latter is scalable in both computation and communication. The model scalability is tested on Linux PC clusters with up to 128 nodes. This model is also benchmarked with a published numerical dynamo model solution.

  17. CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical DNA biosensor via enhanced chemiluminescence excitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yang; Lei, Jianping; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-03-15

    This work developed a CdS/MoS2 heterojunction-based photoelectrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of DNA under the enhanced chemiluminescence excitation of luminol catalyzed by hemin-DNA complex. The CdS/MoS2 photocathode was prepared by the stepwise assembly of MoS2 and CdS quantum dots (QDs) on indium tin oxide (ITO), and achieved about 280% increasing of photocurrent compared to pure CdS QDs electrode due to the formation of heterostructure. High photoconversion efficiency in the photoelectrochemical system was identified to be the rapid spatial charge separation of electron-hole pairs by the extension of electron transport time and electron lifetime. In the presence of target DNA, the catalytic hairpin assembly was triggered, and simultaneously the dual hemin-labeled DNA probe was introduced to capture DNA/CdS/MoS2 modified ITO electrode. Thus the chemiluminescence emission of luminol was enhanced via hemin-induced mimetic catalysis, leading to the physical light-free photoelectrochemical strategy. Under optimized conditions, the resulting photoelectrode was proportional to the logarithm of target DNA concentration in the range from 1 fM to 100 pM with a detection limit of 0.39 fM. Moreover, the cascade amplification biosensor demonstrated high selectivity, desirable stability and good reproducibility, showing great prospect in molecular diagnosis and bioanalysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1983-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  19. Method of polishing nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1981-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  20. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  1. TEM and XAS investigation of fission gas behaviors in U-Mo alloy fuels through ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Hang; Yun, Di; Mo, Kun; Wang, Kunpeng; Mohamed, Walid; Kirk, Marquis A.; Velázquez, Daniel; Seibert, Rachel; Logan, Kevin; Terry, Jeffrey; Baldo, Peter; Yacout, Abdellatif M.; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Yedong; Du, Yang; Liu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    In this study, smaller-grained (hundred nano-meter size grain) and larger-grained (micro-meter size grain) U-10Mo specimens have been irradiated (implanted) with 250 keV Xe+ beam and were in situ characterized by TEM. Xe bubbles were not seen in the specimen after an implantation fluence of 2 × 1020 ions/m2 at room temperature. Nucleation of Xe bubbles happened during heating of the specimen to a final temperature of 300 °C. By comparing measured Xe bubble statistics, the nucleation and growth behaviors of Xe bubbles were investigated in smaller-grained and larger-grained U-10Mo specimens. A multi-atom kind of nucleation mechanism has been observed in both specimens. X-ray Absorption spectroscopy showed the edge position in the bubbles to be the same as that of Xe gas. The size of Xe bubbles has been shown to be bigger in larger-grained specimens than in smaller-grained specimens at the same implantation conditions.

  2. Stability of nanocrystalline Ni-based alloys: coupling Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseda, O.; Goldenstein, H.; Silva, G. F. B. Lenz e.; Neiva, A.; Chantrenne, P.; Morthomas, J.; Perez, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Veiga, R. G. A.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal stability of nanocrystalline Ni due to small additions of Mo or W (up to 1 at%) was investigated in computer simulations by means of a combined Monte Carlo (MC)/molecular dynamics (MD) two-steps approach. In the first step, energy-biased on-lattice MC revealed segregation of the alloying elements to grain boundaries. However, the condition for the thermodynamic stability of these nanocrystalline Ni alloys (zero grain boundary energy) was not fulfilled. Subsequently, MD simulations were carried out for up to 0.5 μs at 1000 K. At this temperature, grain growth was hindered for minimum global concentrations of 0.5 at% W and 0.7 at% Mo, thus preserving most of the nanocrystalline structure. This is in clear contrast to a pure Ni model system, for which the transformation into a monocrystal was observed in MD simulations within 0.2 μs at the same temperature. These results suggest that grain boundary segregation of low-soluble alloying elements in low-alloyed systems can produce high-temperature metastable nanocrystalline materials. MD simulations carried out at 1200 K for 1 at% Mo/W showed significant grain boundary migration accompanied by some degree of solute diffusion, thus providing additional evidence that solute drag mostly contributed to the nanostructure stability observed at lower temperature.

  3. An investigation of the initiation stage of hot corrosion in Ni-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, T. T.; Meier, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    The commercial nickel base alloy, IN-738, and high purity laboratory alloys were prepared to simulate the effects of the major elements in IN-738. Results indicate that the initiation of hot corrosion attack of IN-738 and other similar alloys is the result of local penetration of molten salt through the protective oxide scale.

  4. Influence of high pressure hydrogen environment on creep deformation of Mo-Re, Haynes 188, and NARloy-Z alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, S. M. L.; Yang, Charles C.; Ouyang, Shewang; Jerina, K. L.; Schwartz, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    The present study focuses on the investigation of the influence of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of three types of alloys at elevated temperatures. The reasons for the consideration of hydrogen effects are the potential use of hydrogen as a coolant in gas-cooled reactors and fuel in advanced hypersonic vehicles. The materials used in hydrogen atmosphere must not be embrittled by hydrogen at ambient temperature and should have good strength in hydrogen atmosphere at elevated temperature. The paucity of information concerning the mechanical performance in hydrogen atmosphere at elevated temperature has been a limiting factor in the selection and design of structural components for operation in hydrogen environment.

  5. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOEpatents

    Natesan, K.

    1992-11-17

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

  6. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOEpatents

    Natesan, Krishnamurti

    1992-01-01

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

  7. Resistance of a directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime-delta eutectic alloy to recrystallization. [Ni-base alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Scheuermann, C. M.; Andrews, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    A lamellar nickel-base directionally-solidified eutectic gamma/gamma prime-delta alloy has potential as an advanced gas turbine blade material. The microstructural stability of this alloy was investigated. Specimens were plastically deformed by uniform compression or Brinell indentation, then annealed between 750 and 1120 C. Microstructural changes observed after annealing included gamma prime coarsening, pinch-off and spheroidization of delta lamellae, and appearance of an unidentified blocky phase in surface layers. All but the first of these was localized in severely deformed regions, suggesting that microstructural instability may not be a serious problem in the use of this alloy.

  8. Evolution of Constitution, Structure, and Morphology in FeCo-Based Multicomponent Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Stoica, M.; Liu, G.; Eckert, J.

    2010-07-01

    Constituent phases, melting behaviors, and microstructure of multicomponent (Fe0.5Co0.5) x (Mo0.1C0.2B0.5Si0.2)100- x alloys ( x = 95, 90, 85, 80, and 70) produced by copper mold casting were evaluated by various analysis techniques, i.e., X-ray diffractometry, scanning electronic microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and differential scanning calorimetry. Metastable Fe3C- and Cr23C6-type phases were identified in the chill-cast alloys. A schematic illustration was proposed to explain the evolution of constituent phases and microstructure for the alloys with x = 95, 90, and 85 during the solidification process, which could be applicable to controlling microstructural formation of other multicomponent alloys with similar microstructures by artificially adjusting the composition.

  9. Microstructural Characterization of a Directionally-Solidified Ni-33 (at. %)Al-31Cr-3Mo Eutectic Alloy as a Function of Withdrawal Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Salem, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Ni-33 (at. %)Al-3lCr-3Mo eutectic alloy was directionally-solidified (DS) at different rates, V(sub I), varying between 2.5 to 508 mm/ h. Detailed qualitative and quantitative metallographic and chemical analyses were conducted on the directionally-solidified rods. The microstructures consisted of eutectic colonies with parallel lamellar NiAl/(Cr,Mo) plates for solidification rates at and below 12.7 mm/ h. Cellular eutectic microstructures were observed at higher solidification rates, where the plates exhibited a radial pattern. The microstructures were demonstrated to be fairly uniform throughout a 100 mm length of the DS zone by quantitative metallography. The average cell size, bar-d, decreased with increasing growth rate to a value of 125 microns at 508 mm/ h according to the relation bar-d (microns) approx. = 465 V(sup -0.22, sub I), where V(sub I) is in mm/ h. Both the average NiAl plate thickness, bar-Delta(sub NiAl), and the interlamellar spacing, bar-lambda, were observed to be constant for V(sub I) less than or = 50.8 mm/ h but decreased with increasing growth rate above this value as 0.93 bar-Delta(sub NiAl)(microns) = 61.2 V(sup -0.93, sub I) and bar-lambda (microns) = 47.7 V(sup -0.64, sub I), respectively. The present results are detailed on a microstructural map. Keywords Optical microscopy, microstructure, compounds intermetallic, directional solidification

  10. MO-B-BRC-04: MRI-Based Prostate HDR

    SciTech Connect

    Mourtada, F.

    2016-06-15

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR ismore » U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions.« less

  11. MO-B-BRC-02: Ultrasound Based Prostate HDR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Z.

    2016-06-15

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR ismore » U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions.« less

  12. Half-metallic ferromagnetism prediction in MoS2-based two-dimensional superlattice from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yan-Ni; Gao, Peng-Fei; Xia, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Sheng-Li

    2018-03-01

    Half-metallic ferromagnetism (HMFM) has great potential application in spin filter. However, it is extremely rare, especially in two-dimensional (2D) materials. At present, 2D materials have drawn international interest in spintronic devices. Here, we use ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the structural stability and electrical and magnetic properties of the MoS2-based 2D superlattice formed by inserting graphene hexagonal ring in 6 × 6 × 1 MoS2 supercell. Two kinds of structures with hexagonal carbon ring were predicted with structural stability and were shown HMFM. The two structures combine the spin transport capacity of graphene with the magnetism of the defective 2D MoS2. And they have strong covalent bonding between the C and S or Mo atoms near the interface. This work is very useful to help us to design reasonable MoS2-based spin filter.

  13. Influence of oxide microstructure on corrosion behavior of zirconium-based model alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose Gomes Da

    The extensive utilization of zirconium-based alloys in fuel cladding and other reactor internal components in the nuclear power industry has led to the continuous improvement of these alloys. At the present moment, demands for better performing nuclear fuel cladding materials are increasing. Also, new reactor designs have been proposed that would require the materials to withstand even more rigorous conditions. One of the factors that limit s fuel cladding utilization in nuclear reactors is uniform corrosion and the consequent hydriding of the fuel. In an attempt to develop mechanistic understanding of the role of alloying elements in the growth of a stable protective oxide, a series of model zirconium-based alloys was prepared (Zr-xFe-yCr, Zr-xCu-yMo, Zr-xNb-ySn, for various x and y, pure Zr and Zircaloy-4) and examined with advanced characterization techniques. The alloys were corrosion tested in autoclaves under three different conditions: 360°C water, 500°C steam and 500°C supercritical water in excess of 400 days. These autoclave testing conditions simulate nuclear reactor environment for both current designs (360°C water) and the new supercritical water reactor (500°C steam and 500°C supercritical water) proposed by the generation-IV initiative. The oxide films formed were systematically examined at the Advanced Photon Source using microbeam synchrotron radiation diffraction and fluorescence of cross-sectional samples to determine the oxide phases present and their crystallographic texture as a function of distance from the metal/oxide interface. Also, the overall texture of the oxide layers was investigated using synchrotron radiation diffraction in frontal geometry. The corrosion kinetics is a function of the alloy system and showed a wide range of behaviors, from immediately unstable oxide growth to stable behavior. The corrosion weight gains from testing at high temperature are a factor of five higher than those measured at 360°C but the

  14. High Frequency Vibration Based Fatigue Testing of Developmental Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holycross, Casey M.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; George, Tommy J.; Tamirisakandala, Seshacharyulu; Russ, Stephan M.

    Many fatigue test methods have been previously developed to rapidly evaluate fatigue behavior. This increased test speed can come at some expense, since these methods may require non-standard specimen geometry or increased facility and equipment capability. One such method, developed by George et al, involves a base-excited plate specimen driven into a high frequency bending resonant mode. This resonant mode is of sufficient frequency (typically 1200 to 1700 Hertz) to accumulate 107 cycles in a few hours. One of the main limitations of this test method is that fatigue cracking is almost certainly guaranteed to be surface initiated at regions of high stress. This brings into question the validity of the fatigue test results, as compared to more traditional uniaxial, smooth-bar testing, since high stresses are subjecting only a small volume to fatigue damage. This limitation also brings into question the suitability of this method to screen developmental alloys, should their initiation life be governed by subsurface flaws. However, if applicable, the rapid generation of fatigue data using this method would facilitate faster design iterations, identifying more quickly, material and manufacturing process deficiencies. The developmental alloy used in this study was a powder metallurgy boron-modified Ti-6Al-4V, a new alloy currently being considered for gas turbine engine fan blades. Plate specimens were subjected to fully reversed bending fatigue. Results are compared with existing data from commercially available Ti-6Al-4V using both vibration based and more traditional fatigue test methods.

  15. Effect of Minor Alloying Elements on Localized Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum-Copper-Magnesium based Solid Solution Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburada, Tomohiro

    2011-12-01

    , nanometer, and micrometer scales. Technological implementations of the findings of the research are also discussed, including a new route to synthesize nanoporous materials with tunable porosity and new corrosion mitigation strategies for commercial Al-based alloys containing the detrimental Al2CuMg phase.

  16. Investigation on microstructure and mechanical properties of Mo2FeB2 based cermets with and without PVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yupeng; Huang, Zhifu; Jian, Yongxin; Yang, Ming; Li, Kemin

    2018-03-01

    Mo2FeB2 based cermets with and without PVA have been investigated by x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The density and transverse rupture strength (TRS) of green compact, relative density, hardness (HRA), fracture toughness (KIC) and TRS of Mo2FeB2 based cermets were also measured. The results indicate that, compared with the Mo2FeB2 based cermets without PVA, the density of green compact with PVA can be improved slightly at the same pressure. However, the much higher TRS is obtained for the green compact without PVA. Meanwhile, Mo2FeB2 particles exhibit the finer and less congruity feature for Mo2FeB2 based cermets without PVA. In addition, the higher relative density, hardness, fracture toughness and TRS can be acquired for the cermets without PVA. Obviously, considering the mechanical properties and preparation period of Mo2FeB2 based cermets, no adding PVA is the optimized process of powder molding in the manufacture of Mo2FeB2 based cermets.

  17. The Effect of Dilution on Microsegregation in AWS ER NiCrMo-14 Alloy Welding Claddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miná, Émerson Mendonça; da Silva, Yuri Cruz; Dille, Jean; Silva, Cleiton Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Dilution and microsegregation are phenomena inherent to claddings, which, in turn, directly affect their main properties. This study evaluated microsegregation in the fusion zone with different dilution levels. The overlays were welded by the TIG cold wire feed process. Dilution was calculated from the geometric characteristics of the claddings and from the conservation of mass equation using chemical composition measurements. Microsegregation was calculated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements of the dendrites and the chemical composition of the fusion zone. The dilution of the claddings was increased by reducing the wire feed rate. Fe showed potential to be incorporated into the solid phase ( k > 1), and this increased with the increase of dilution. Mo, in turn, was segregated into the liquid phase ( k < 1) and also increased with the increase of dilution. However, Cr and W showed a slight decrease in their partition coefficients ( k) with the increase of dilution.

  18. Role of alloying elements in adhesive transfer and friction of copper-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in a vacuum with binary-copper alloy riders sliding against a conventional bearing-steel surface with normal residual oxides present. The binary alloys contained 1 atomic percent of various alloying elements. Auger spectroscopy analysis was used to monitor the adhesive transfer of the copper alloys to the bearing-steel surface. A relation was found to exist between adhesive transfer and the reaction potential and free energy of formation of the alloying element in the copper. The more chemically active the element and the more stable its oxide, the greater was the adhesive transfer and wear of the copper alloy. Transfer occurred in all the alloys except copper-gold after relatively few (25) passes across the steel surface.

  19. Effects of Alloying Elements on Room and High Temperature Tensile Properties of Al-Si Cu-Mg Base Alloys =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyaldin, Loay

    In recent years, aluminum and aluminum alloys have been widely used in automotive and aerospace industries. Among the most commonly used cast aluminum alloys are those belonging to the Al-Si system. Due to their mechanical properties, light weight, excellent castability and corrosion resistance, these alloys are primarily used in engineering and in automotive applications. The more aluminum is used in the production of a vehicle, the less the weight of the vehicle, and the less fuel it consumes, thereby reducing the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The principal alloying elements in Al-Si alloys, in addition to silicon, are magnesium and copper which, through the formation of Al2Cu and Mg2Si precipitates, improve the alloy strength via precipitation hardening following heat treatment. However, most Al-Si alloys are not suitable for high temperature applications because their tensile and fatigue strengths are not as high as desired in the temperature range 230-350°C, which are the temperatures that are often attained in automotive engine components under actual service conditions. The main challenge lies in the fact that the strength of heat-treatable cast aluminum alloys decreases at temperatures above 200°C. The strength of alloys under high temperature conditions is improved by obtaining a microstructure containing thermally stable and coarsening-resistant intermetallics, which may be achieved with the addition of Ni. Zr and Sc. Nickel leads to the formation of nickel aluminide Al3Ni and Al 9FeNi in the presence of iron, while zirconium forms Al3Zr. These intermetallics improve the high temperature strength of Al-Si alloys. Some interesting improvements have been achieved by modifying the composition of the base alloy with additions of Mn, resulting in an increase in strength and ductility at both room and high temperatures. Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys such as the 354 (Al-9wt%Si-1.8wt%Cu-0.5wt%Mg) alloys show a greater response to heat treatment as a

  20. Effect of nitrogen on iron-manganese-based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariapour, Azita

    Shape memory effect is due to a reversible martensitic transformation. The major drawback in case of Fe-Mn-based shape memory alloys is their inferior shape memory effect compared to Ni-Ti and Cu-based shape memory alloys and their low strength and corrosion resistance compared to steel alloys. It is known that by increasing the alloy strength the shape memory effect can be improved. Nitrogen in solid solution can increase the strength of steels to a greater extent than other major alloying elements. However, its effect on shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-based alloys is ambiguous. In this work first we investigated the effect of nitrogen addition in solid solution on both shape memory effect (SME) and strength of a Fe-Mn-Cr-Ni-Si shape memory alloy (SMA). It was found that interstitial nitrogen suppressed the shape memory effect in these alloys. As an example addition of 0.24 wt % nitrogen in solid solution to the alloy system suppressed the SME by ˜80% and increased the strength by 20%. A reduction of martensitic phase formation was found to be the dominant factor in suppression of the SME. This was related, experimentally and theoretically to stacking fault energy of the alloy as well as the driving force and friction force during the transformation. The second approach was doping the alloy with both 0.36 wt% of nitrogen and 0.36 wt% of niobium. Niobium has great affinity for nitrogen and thus NbN dispersed particles can be produced in the alloy following hot rolling. Then particles prevent growth of the alloy and increase the strength of the alloy due to reduced grain size, and precipitation hardening. The improvement of SME in this alloy compared to the interstitial containing alloys was due to the large removal of the nitrogen from solid solution. In case of all the alloys studied in this work, the presence of nitrogen in solid solution improved the corrosion resistance of the alloy. This suggests that nitrogen can replace nickel in the alloy. One of the

  1. Friction and wear behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating during boundary lubricated sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovsepian, Papken Eh.; Mandal, Paranjayee; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Sáfrán, G.; Tietema, R.; Doerwald, D.

    2016-03-01

    A molybdenum and tungsten doped carbon-based coating (Mo-W-C) was developed in order to provide low friction in boundary lubricated sliding condition at ambient and at high temperature. The Mo-W-C coating showed the lowest friction coefficient among a number of commercially available state-of-the-art DLC coatings at ambient temperature. At elevated temperature (200 °C), Mo-W-C coating showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient with sliding distance in contrast to DLC coatings. Raman spectroscopy revealed the importance of combined Mo and W doping for achieving low friction at both ambient and high temperature. The significant decrease in friction and wear rate was attributed to the presence of graphitic carbon debris (from coating) and 'in situ' formed metal sulphides (WS2 and MoS2, where metals were supplied from coating and sulphur from engine oil) in the transfer layer.

  2. Lightweight design of automobile frame based on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, R.; Jiang, X.; Minoru, O.; Ju, D. Y.

    2018-06-01

    The structural performance and lightweighting of car base frame design is a challenging task due to all the performance targets that must be satisfied. In this paper, three kinds of materials (iron, aluminum and magnesium alloy) replacement along with section design optimization strategy is proposed to develop a lightweight car frame structure to satisfy the tensile and safety while reducing weight. Two kinds of cross-sections are considered as the design variables. Using Ansys static structure, the design optimization problem is solved, comparing the results of each step, structure of the base flame is optimized for lightweight.

  3. The effect of thermal cycling to 1100 C on the alpha /Mo/ phase in directionally solidified gamma/gamma-prime-alpha alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Specimens of gamma/gamma-prime-alpha (Mo) eutectic alloy were thermally cycled or isothermally exposed at temperatures of 1075 to 1100 C. Transmission electron microscopy examination of cycled specimens indicated that even an exposure of 10 minutes effected noticeable changes in the shape of the alpha phase, and that the changes were cumulative as more cycles were added. The cross sections of fine, smooth fibers changed from rectangles to octagons, while lamellae and irregular shapes spheroidized. These effects are attributed to the differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the alpha phase and the gamma/gamma-prime matrix, and to the higher diffusion rates prevailing at elevated temperatures. Where the configuration of the alpha phase is a simple shape, such as a fiber, increasing the temperature eventually brings about a stress free interface between the alpha phase and the matrix by differential thermal expansion. Where the shape of the alpha phase is more complex, a stressed interface persists to higher temperatures where diffusion produces the more drastic morphological changes.

  4. Effects of microstructural variation on Charpy impact properties in heavy-section Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel for reactor pressure vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seokmin; Song, Jaemin; Kim, Min-Chul; Choi, Kwon-Jae; Lee, Bong-Sang

    2016-03-01

    The effects of microstructural changes in heavy-section Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel on Charpy impact properties were investigated using a 210 mm thick reactor pressure vessel. Specimens were sampled from 5 different positions at intervals of 1/4 thickness from the inner surface to the outer surface. A detailed microstructural analysis of impact-fractured specimens showed that coarse carbides along the lath boundaries acted as fracture initiation sites, and cleavage cracks deviated at prior-austenite grain boundaries and bainite lath boundaries. Upper shelf energy was higher and energy transition temperature was lower at the surface positon, where fine bainitic microstructure with homogeneously distributed fine carbides were present. Toward the center, coarse upper bainite and precipitation of coarse inter-lath carbides were observed, which deteriorated impact properties. At the 1/4T position, the Charpy impact properties were worse than those at other positions owing to the combination of elongated-coarse inter-lath carbides and large effective grain size.

  5. Influence of strain rate on the structure/property behavior of the alpha-2 alloy Ti-24.5Al-10.5Nb-1.5Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III; Hong, Sun Ig; Marquardt, B.J.

    Preliminary dislocation g{center_dot}b analysis revealed that following room temperature deformation at low strain rate the majority of the dislocations are a-dislocations lying on basal planes, 2nd order pyramidal (a/2 + c) slip on [1211], and 1st order pyramidal a-slip on [1011]. Increasing the rate of deformation at room temperature to 6000 s{sup {minus}1} is seen to result in increased a-slip on prism planes and a decreased amount of basal slip. At high-strain-rates and elevated temperatures the substructure was seen to be generally similar to that observed following high-rate deformation at room temperature except for an increased amount of basal slipmore » and a somewhat higher incidence of 2nd order pyramidal slip. The defect generation and the rate sensitivity of Ti-24.5Al-10.5Nb-1.5Mo are discussed as a function of strain rate and temperature and contrasted to that observed in conventional titanium alloys and TiAl.« less

  6. Microstructure and wear resistance of laser cladded composite coatings prepared from pre-alloyed WC-NiCrMo powder with different laser spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Guolong; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Qunli; Liu, Rong

    2018-05-01

    The distribution of WC particles in laser cladded composite coatings can significantly affect the wear resistance of the coatings under aggressive environments. In this study, pre-alloyed WC-NiCrMo powder is deposited on SS316L via laser cladding with circular spot and wide-band spot, respectively. The microstructure and WC distribution of the coatings are investigated with optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear behavior of the coatings is investigated under dry sliding-wear test. The experimental results show that the partially dissolved WC particles are uniformly distributed in both coatings produced with circular spot and wide-band spot, respectively, and the microstructures consist of WC and M23C6 carbides and γ-(Ni, Fe) solid solution matrix. However, due to Fe dilution, the two coatings have different microstructural characteristics, resulting in different hardness and wear resistance. The wide-band spot laser prepared coating shows better performance than the circular spot laser prepared coating.

  7. My Experience with Ti-Ni-Based and Ti-Based Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2017-12-01

    The present author has been studying shape memory alloys including Cu-Al-Ni, Ti-Ni-based, and Ni-free Ti-based alloys since 1979. This paper reviews the present author's research results for the latter two materials since 1981. The topics on the Ti-Ni-based alloys include the achievement of superelasticity in Ti-Ni alloys through understanding of the role of microstructures consisting of dislocations and precipitates, followed by the contribution to the development of application market of shape memory effect and superelasticity, characterization of the R-phase and monoclinic martensitic transformations, clarification of the basic characteristics of fatigue properties, development of sputter-deposited shape memory thin films and fabrication of prototypes of microactuators utilizing thin films, development of high temperature shape memory alloys, and so on. The topics of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory alloys include the characterization of the orthorhombic phase martensitic transformation and related shape memory effect and superelasticity, the effects of texture, omega phase and adding elements on the martensitic transformation and shape memory properties, clarification of the unique effects of oxygen addition to induce non-linear large elasticity, Invar effect and heating-induced martensitic transformation, and so on.

  8. Microstructural characterization of an irradiated RERTR-6 U-7Mo/AA4043 alloy dispersion fuel plate specimen blister-tested to a final temperature of 500°C

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, Jr., Dennis D.; Jue, Jan -Fong; Gan, Jian

    The Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, in the past called the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is developing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels for application in research reactors. U–Mo alloy dispersion fuel is one type being developed. Blister testing has been performed on different fuel plate samples to determine the margin to failure for fuel plates irradiated to different fission densities. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy on a sample taken from a U-7Mo/AA4043 matrix dispersion fuel plate irradiated in the RERTR-6 experiment that was blister-tested up tomore » a final temperature of 500°C. The results indicated that two types of grain/cell boundaries were observed in the U- 7Mo fuel particles, one with a relatively low Mo content and fission gas bubbles and a second type enriched in Si, due to interdiffusion from the Si-containing matrix, with little evidence of fission gas bubbles. With respect to the behavior of the major fission gas Xe, a significant amount of the Xe was still observed within the U-7Mo fuel particle, along with microns into the AA4043 matrix. For the fuel/matrix interaction layers that form during fabrication and then grow during irradiation, they change from the as-irradiated amorphous structure to one that is crystalline after blister testing. In the AA4043 matrix, the original Si-rich precipitates, which are typically observed in as-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel, get consumed due to interdiffusion with the U-7Mo fuel particles during the blister test. Lastly, the fission gas bubbles that were originally around 2 nm in diameter and resided on a fission gas superlattice in the intragranular regions of as-irradiated U-7Mo fuel grew in size (up to ~20 nm diameter) during blister testing.« less

  9. Microstructural characterization of an irradiated RERTR-6 U-7Mo/AA4043 alloy dispersion fuel plate specimen blister-tested to a final temperature of 500°C

    DOE PAGES

    Keiser, Jr., Dennis D.; Jue, Jan -Fong; Gan, Jian; ...

    2017-02-27

    The Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, in the past called the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is developing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels for application in research reactors. U–Mo alloy dispersion fuel is one type being developed. Blister testing has been performed on different fuel plate samples to determine the margin to failure for fuel plates irradiated to different fission densities. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy on a sample taken from a U-7Mo/AA4043 matrix dispersion fuel plate irradiated in the RERTR-6 experiment that was blister-tested up tomore » a final temperature of 500°C. The results indicated that two types of grain/cell boundaries were observed in the U- 7Mo fuel particles, one with a relatively low Mo content and fission gas bubbles and a second type enriched in Si, due to interdiffusion from the Si-containing matrix, with little evidence of fission gas bubbles. With respect to the behavior of the major fission gas Xe, a significant amount of the Xe was still observed within the U-7Mo fuel particle, along with microns into the AA4043 matrix. For the fuel/matrix interaction layers that form during fabrication and then grow during irradiation, they change from the as-irradiated amorphous structure to one that is crystalline after blister testing. In the AA4043 matrix, the original Si-rich precipitates, which are typically observed in as-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel, get consumed due to interdiffusion with the U-7Mo fuel particles during the blister test. Lastly, the fission gas bubbles that were originally around 2 nm in diameter and resided on a fission gas superlattice in the intragranular regions of as-irradiated U-7Mo fuel grew in size (up to ~20 nm diameter) during blister testing.« less

  10. Strong, Tough, and Pest Resistant MoSi2-Base Hybrid Composite for Structural Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, M. G.; Nathal, M. V.

    1997-01-01

    Addition of about 30 to 50 vol % of Si3N4 particulate to MoSi2 improved resistance to low temperature accelerated oxidation by forming a Si2ON2 protective scale and thereby eliminating catastrophic 'pest failure'. The Si3N4 addition also improved the high temperature creep strength by nearly five orders of magnitude, doubled the room temperature toughness and significantly lowered the CTE of the MoSi2 and eliminated matrix cracking in SCS-6 reinforced composites even after thermal cycling. The SCS-6 fiber reinforcement improved the room temperature fracture toughness by seven times and impact resistance by five times. The composite exhibited excellent strength and toughness improvement up to 1400 C. More recently, tape casting was adopted as the preferred processing of MoSi2-base composites for improved fiber spacing, ability to use small diameter fibers, and for lower cost. Good strength and toughness values were also obtained with fine diameter Hi-Nicalon tow fibers. This hybrid composite remains competitive with ceramic matrix composites as a replacement for Ni-base superalloys in aircraft engine applications.

  11. Programmable Schottky Junctions Based on Ferroelectric Gated MoS2 Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhiyong; Song, Jingfeng; Drcharme, Stephen; Hong, Xia

    We report a programmable Schottky junction based on MoS2 field effect transistors with a SiO2 back gate and a ferroelectric copolymer poly(vinylidene-fluoride-trifluorethylene) (PVDF) top gate. We fabricated mechanically exfoliated single layer MoS2 flakes into two point devices via e-beam lithography, and deposited on the top of the devices ~20 nm PVDF thin films. The polarization of the PVDF layer is controlled locally by conducting atomic force microscopy. The devices exhibit linear ID-VD characteristics when the ferroelectric gate is uniformly polarized in one direction. We then polarized the gate into two domains with opposite polarization directions, and observed that the ID-VD characteristics of the MoS2 channel can be modulated between linear and rectified behaviors depending on the back gate voltage. The nonlinear ID-VD relation emerges when half of the channel is in the semiconductor phase while the other half is in the metallic phase, and it can be well described by the thermionic emission model with a Schottky barrier of ~0.5 eV. The Schottky junction can be erased by re-write the entire channel in the uniform polarization state. Our study facilitates the development of programmable, multifunctional nanoelectronics based on layered 2D TMDs..

  12. Influence of the thermodynamic parameters on the temper embrittlement of SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel with variation of Ni, Cr and Mn contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Gyu; Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Min, Ki-Deuk; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel offers improved fracture toughness and strength compared to commercial low alloy steels such as SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. In this study, the effects of Cr, Mn, and Ni on temper embrittlement in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel were evaluated from the viewpoint of thermodynamic parameters such as P diffusivity and C activity. The changes of the ductile-brittle transition temperatures before and after aging were correlated with varying alloying element content, and the diffusivity of P and the activity of C were calculated and correlated with the transition behaviors. The addition of Ni, Cr, and Mn reduce the resistance to temper embrittlement, showing increased Transition-Temperature Shift (TTS) and an increased fraction of intergranular fracture. Although the diffusivity of P is changed by the addition of alloying elements, it does not considerably affect the temper embrittlement. The Mn and Cr content in the matrix significantly reduce the C activity, with showing an inversely proportional relationship to TTS. The change of susceptibility to temper embrittlement caused by Cr and Mn addition could be explained by the variation of C activity. Unlike Cr and Mn, Ni has little effect on the temper embrittlement and C activity.

  13. Crystallization kinetics of Fe based amorphous alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker Rao, T.; Lilly Shanker Rao, T.

    2015-02-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry(DSC) experimental data under non-isothermal conditions for Fe based Metglas 2605SA1 (wt% Fe=85-95, Si=5-10, B=1-5) metallic glass ribbons are reported and discussed. The DSC Scans performed at different heating rates showed two step crystallization processes and are interpreted in terms of different models like Kissinger, Ozawa, Boswell, Augis & Bennett and Gao & Wang. From the heating rate dependence of the onset temperature (To) and the crystallization peak temperature (Tp), the kinetic triplet, activation energy of crystallization (E), Avrami exponent (n) and the frequency factor (A) are determined. The determined E for peak I is 354.5 ± 2.5 kJ/mol and for the peak II is 348.2 ± 2.2 kJ/mol, respectively. The frequency factor for peak I is 1.1 × 1023sec-1 and for peak II is 6.1 × 1020sec-1.

  14. Mechanical properties and the electronic structure of transition of metal alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arsenault, R. J.; Drew, H. D.

    1977-01-01

    This interdiscipline research program was undertaken in an effort to investigate the relationship between the mechanical strength of Mo based alloys with their electronic structure. Electronic properties of these alloys were examined through optical studies, and the classical solid solution strengthening mechanisms were considered, based on size and molecular differences to determine if these mechanisms could explain the hardness data.

  15. Calculations of hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys: Influence of alloying elements and effect of stress

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, J.; Jiang, C.; Zhang, Y.

    This report summarizes the progress on modeling hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys. The presence of hydrogen (H) can detrimentally affect the mechanical properties of many metals and alloys. To mitigate these detrimental effects requires fundamental understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics governing H pickup and hydride formation. In this work, we focus on H diffusion in Zr-based alloys by studying the effects of alloying elements and stress, factors that have been shown to strongly affect H pickup and hydride formation in nuclear fuel claddings. A recently developed accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo method is used for the study. It is foundmore » that for the alloys considered here, H diffusivity depends weakly on composition, with negligible effect at high temperatures in the range of 600-1200 K. Therefore, the small variation in compositions of these alloys is likely not a major cause of the very different H pickup rates. In contrast, stress strongly affects H diffusivity. This effect needs to be considered for studying hydride formation and delayed hydride cracking.« less

  16. Optimizing winter/snow removal operations in MoDOT St. Louis district : includes outcome based evaluation of operations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop fleet location, route decision, material selection, and treatment procedures for winter snow removal operations to improve MoDOTs services and lower costs. This work uses a systematic, heuristic-based o...

  17. Kinetic Parameters of Secondary Carbide Precipitation in High-Cr White Iron Alloyed by Mn-Ni-Mo-V Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremenko, V. G.; Chabak, Yu. G.; Brykov, M. N.

    2013-05-01

    This study presents kinetics of precipitation of secondary carbides in 14.55%Cr-Mn-Ni-Mo-V white cast iron during the destabilization heat treatment. The as-cast iron was heat treated at temperatures in the range of 800-1100 °C with soaking up to 6 h. Investigation was carried out by optical and electron microscopy, dilatometric analysis, Ms temperature measurement, and bulk hardness evaluation. TTT-curve of precipitation process of secondary carbides (M7C3, M23C6, M3C2) has been constructed in this study. It was determined that the precipitation occurs at the maximum rate at 950 °C where the process is started after 10 s and completed within 160 min further. The precipitation leads to significant increase of Ms temperature and bulk hardness; large soaking times at destabilization temperatures cause coarsening of secondary carbides and decrease in particles number, followed by decrease in hardness. The results obtained are discussed in terms of solubility of carbon in the austenite and diffusion activation of Cr atoms. The precipitation was found to consist of two stages with activation energies of 196.5 kJ/g-mole at the first stage and 47.1 kJ/g-mole at the second stage.

  18. Finite-element model to predict roll-separation force and defects during rolling of U-10Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Soulami, Ayoub; Burkes, Douglas E.; Joshi, Vineet V.

    This study used a finite element code, LSDYNA, as a predictive tool to optimize the rolling process. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel were conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. The study reported here discussed various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., waviness and thickness non-uniformity like dog boning). To investigate the influence of the cladding material on these rolling defects, other cases were simulated:  hot rolling with alternative can materials, namely, 304 stainless steel and Zircaloy-2, and bare-rolling.

  19. Alloy Effects on the Gas Nitriding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Sisson, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Alloy elements, such as Al, Cr, V, and Mo, have been used to improve the nitriding performance of steels. In the present work, plain carbon steel AISI 1045 and alloy steel AISI 4140 were selected to compare the nitriding effects of the alloying elements in AISI 4140. Fundamental analysis is carried out by using the "Lehrer-like" diagrams (alloy specific Lehrer diagram and nitriding potential versus nitrogen concentration diagram) and the compound layer growth model to simulate the gas nitriding process. With this method, the fundamental understanding for the alloy effect based on the thermodynamics and kinetics becomes possible. This new method paves the way for the development of new alloy for nitriding.

  20. Nickel aluminide alloy suitable for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1998-01-01

    Alloys for use in structural applications based upon NiAl to which are added selected elements to enhance room temperature ductility and high temperature strength. Specifically, small additions of molybdenum produce a beneficial alloy, while further additions of boron, carbon, iron, niobium, tantalum, zirconium and hafnium further improve performance of alloys at both room temperature and high temperatures. A preferred alloy system composition is Ni--(49.1.+-.0.8%)Al--(1.0.+-.0.8%)Mo--(0.7.+-.0.5%)Nb/Ta/Zr/Hf--(nearly zero to 0.03%)B/C, where the % is at. % in each of the concentrations. All alloys demonstrated good oxidation resistance at the elevated temperatures. The alloys can be fabricated into components using conventional techniques.

  1. Nickel aluminide alloy suitable for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    1998-03-10

    Alloys are disclosed for use in structural applications based upon NiAl to which are added selected elements to enhance room temperature ductility and high temperature strength. Specifically, small additions of molybdenum produce a beneficial alloy, while further additions of boron, carbon, iron, niobium, tantalum, zirconium and hafnium further improve performance of alloys at both room temperature and high temperatures. A preferred alloy system composition is Ni--(49.1{+-}0.8%)Al--(1.0{+-}0.8%)Mo--(0.7 + 0.5%)Nb/Ta/Zr/Hf--(nearly zero to 0.03%)B/C, where the % is at. % in each of the concentrations. All alloys demonstrated good oxidation resistance at the elevated temperatures. The alloys can be fabricated into components using conventional techniques. 4 figs.

  2. Alloy Development, Processing and Characterization of Devitrified Titanium Base Microcrystalline Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    cooling, but in disagreement with Newtonian cooling [28.311, where ! <D-1S* Sch deiation cannot be accounted for, since sufficient information in not...industrialized applications. It has been shown that general scientific principles involved in rapid solidification technology are also applicable to Ti alloy...formed, in principle , by continuous feeding of the fresh alloy into the crucible. In qC a H C * (T -T r (2 this case, preferably the feed alloy shoulb P T

  3. Integrated circuits and logic operations based on single-layer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Radisavljevic, Branimir; Whitwick, Michael Brian; Kis, Andras

    2011-12-27

    Logic circuits and the ability to amplify electrical signals form the functional backbone of electronics along with the possibility to integrate multiple elements on the same chip. The miniaturization of electronic circuits is expected to reach fundamental limits in the near future. Two-dimensional materials such as single-layer MoS(2) represent the ultimate limit of miniaturization in the vertical dimension, are interesting as building blocks of low-power nanoelectronic devices, and are suitable for integration due to their planar geometry. Because they are less than 1 nm thin, 2D materials in transistors could also lead to reduced short channel effects and result in fabrication of smaller and more power-efficient transistors. Here, we report on the first integrated circuit based on a two-dimensional semiconductor MoS(2). Our integrated circuits are capable of operating as inverters, converting logical "1" into logical "0", with room-temperature voltage gain higher than 1, making them suitable for incorporation into digital circuits. We also show that electrical circuits composed of single-layer MoS(2) transistors are capable of performing the NOR logic operation, the basis from which all logical operations and full digital functionality can be deduced.

  4. PoMo: An Allele Frequency-Based Approach for Species Tree Estimation

    PubMed Central

    De Maio, Nicola; Schrempf, Dominik; Kosiol, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Incomplete lineage sorting can cause incongruencies of the overall species-level phylogenetic tree with the phylogenetic trees for individual genes or genomic segments. If these incongruencies are not accounted for, it is possible to incur several biases in species tree estimation. Here, we present a simple maximum likelihood approach that accounts for ancestral variation and incomplete lineage sorting. We use a POlymorphisms-aware phylogenetic MOdel (PoMo) that we have recently shown to efficiently estimate mutation rates and fixation biases from within and between-species variation data. We extend this model to perform efficient estimation of species trees. We test the performance of PoMo in several different scenarios of incomplete lineage sorting using simulations and compare it with existing methods both in accuracy and computational speed. In contrast to other approaches, our model does not use coalescent theory but is allele frequency based. We show that PoMo is well suited for genome-wide species tree estimation and that on such data it is more accurate than previous approaches. PMID:26209413

  5. On the corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of palladium-based dental alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Desheng

    Palladium-based alloys have been used as dental restorative materials for about two decades with good clinical history. But there have been clinical case reports showing possible allergy effects from these alloys. The aim of this study was to characterize the corrosion behavior and mechanisms of several palladium-based dental alloys by potentiodynamic polarization methods, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy/atomic force microscopy (SKPFM/AFM), and to evaluate their biocompatibility by a cell culture technique and an animal model. Using SKPFM/AFM and scanning electron microscopy, the Ru-enriched phase from the use of ruthenium as a grain-refining element was identified as being slightly more noble than the palladium solid solution matrix in a high-palladium alloy. Other secondary precipitates that exist in the microstructures of these high-palladium alloys have minimal differences in Volta potential compared to the matrix. For high-palladium alloys, corrosion is generally uniform due to the predominant palladium content in the different phases. Potentiodynamic polarization and EIS have shown that representative palladium-silver alloys have low corrosion tendency and high corrosion resistance, which are equivalent to a well-known high-noble gold-palladium alloy in simulated body fluid and oral environments. The palladium-silver alloys tested are resistant to chloride ion corrosion. Passivation and dealloying have been identified for all of the tested palladium-silver alloys. The great similarity in corrosion behavior among the palladium-silver alloys is attributed to their similar chemical compositions. The variation in microstructures of palladium-silver alloys tested does not cause significant difference in corrosion behavior. The corrosion resistance of these palladium-silver alloys at elevated potentials relevant to oral environment is still satisfactory. The release of elements from representative dental

  6. Rare-earth metals in nickel aluminide-based alloys: III. Structure and properties of multicomponent Ni3Al-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyleva, O. A.; Povarova, K. B.; Kazanskaya, N. K.; Drozdov, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    The possibility of increasing the life of heterophase cast light Ni3Al-based superalloys at temperatures higher than 0.8 T m of Ni3Al is studied when their directional structure is additionally stabilized by nanoprecipitates, which form upon additional alloying of these alloys by refractory and active metals, and using special methods for preparing and melting of an alloy charge. The effect of the method of introducing the main components and refractory reaction-active and surface-active alloying elements into Ni3Al-based cast superalloys, which are thermally stable natural composite materials of the eutectic type, on the structure-phase state and the life of these alloys is studied. When these alloys are melted, it is necessary to perform a set of measures to form particles of refractory oxide cores covered with the β-NiAl phase and, then, γ'prim-Ni3Al phase precipitates during solidification. The latter phase forms the outer shell of grain nuclei, which provides high thermal stability and hot strength of an intermetallic compound-based alloy. As a result, a modified structure that is stabilized by the nanoprecipitates of nickel and aluminum lanthanides and the nanoprecipitates of phases containing refractory metals is formed. This structure enhances the life of the alloy at 1000 °C by a factor of 1.8-2.5.

  7. Luminescent monolayer MoS2 quantum dots produced by multi-exfoliation based on lithium intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Wen; Yan, Shiming; Song, Xueyin; Zhang, Xing; He, Xueming; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2015-12-01

    An effective multi-exfoliation method based on lithium (Li) intercalation has been demonstrated for preparing monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) quantum dots (QDs). The cutting mechanism of MoS2 QDs may involve the complete breakup around the defects and edges during the reaction of LixMoS2 with water and its following ultrasonication process. The multiply exfoliation make the MoS2 fragile and easier to break up. After the third exfoliation, a large number of monolayer MoS2 QDs is formed. The as-prepared MoS2 QDs show photoluminescence (PL) inactive due to the existence of 1T phase. After heating treatment, the PL intensity excited at 300 nm is enhanced by five times. The MoS2 QDs solution has an excitation-dependent luminescence emission which shifts to longer wavelengths when the excitation wavelength changes from 280 nm to 370 nm. The optical properties are explored based on the quantum confinement and edge effect.

  8. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened turbine blade alloy by mechanical alloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, H. F.; Curwick, L. R. R.; Kim, Y. G.

    1977-01-01

    There were three nickel-base alloys containing up to 18 wt. % of refractory metal examined initially for oxide dispersion strengthening. To provide greater processing freedom, however, a leaner alloy was finally selected. This base alloy, alloy D, contained 0.05C/15Cr / 2Mo/4W/2Ta/4.5Al/2.Ti/015Zr/0.01-B/Bal. Ni. Following alloy selection, the effect of extrusion, heat treatment, and oxide volume fraction and size on microstructure and properties were examined. The optimum structure was achieved in zone annealed alloy D which contained 2.5 vol. % of 35 mm Y2O3 and which was extruded 16:1 at 1038 C.

  9. The development of additive manufacturing technique for nickel-base alloys: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadi-Maad, Ahmad; Basuki, Arif

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-base alloys are an attractive alloy due to its excellent mechanical properties, a high resistance to creep deformation, corrosion, and oxidation. However, it is a hard task to control performance when casting or forging for this material. In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) process has been implemented to replace the conventional directional solidification process for the production of nickel-base alloys. Due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing process, AM is considered as a substitute technique for the existing. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the previous work related to the AM techniques for Ni-base alloys while highlighting current challenges and methods to solving them. The properties of conventionally manufactured Ni-base alloys are also compared with the AM fabricated alloys. The mechanical properties obtained from tension, hardness and fatigue test are included, along with discussions of the effect of post-treatment process. Recommendations for further work are also provided.

  10. Fabrication and electrical properties of MoS2 nanodisc-based back-gated field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weixia; Shen, Jiaoyan; Ma, Xiying

    2014-02-28

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an attractive alternative semiconductor material for next-generation low-power nanoelectronic applications, due to its special structure and large bandgap. Here, we report the fabrication of large-area MoS2 nanodiscs and their incorporation into back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) whose electrical properties we characterize. The MoS2 nanodiscs, fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD), are homogeneous and continuous, and their thickness of around 5 nm is equal to a few layers of MoS2. In addition, we find that the MoS2 nanodisc-based back-gated field effect transistors with nickel electrodes achieve very high performance. The transistors exhibit an on/off current ratio of up to 1.9 × 105, and a maximum transconductance of up to 27 μS (5.4 μS/μm). Moreover, their mobility is as high as 368 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the transistors have good output characteristics and can be easily modulated by the back gate. The electrical properties of the MoS2 nanodisc transistors are better than or comparable to those values extracted from single and multilayer MoS2 FETs.

  11. Method for improve x-ray diffraction determinations of residual stress in nickel-base alloys

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Robert M.; Cohen, Isadore

    1990-01-01

    A process for improving the technique of measuring residual stress by x-ray diffraction in pieces of nickel-base alloys which comprises covering part of a predetermined area of the surface of a nickel-base alloy with a dispersion, exposing the covered and uncovered portions of the surface of the alloy to x-rays by way of an x-ray diffractometry apparatus, making x-ray diffraction determinations of the exposed surface, and measuring the residual stress in the alloy based on these determinations. The dispersion is opaque to x-rays and serves a dual purpose since it masks off unsatisfactory signals such that only a small portion of the surface is measured, and it supplies an internal standard by providing diffractogram peaks comparable to the peaks of the nickel alloy so that the alloy peaks can be very accurately located regardless of any sources of error external to the sample.

  12. Method for improving x-ray diffraction determinations of residual stress in nickel-base alloys

    DOEpatents

    Berman, R.M.; Cohen, I.

    1988-04-26

    A process for improving the technique of measuring residual stress by x-ray diffraction in pieces of nickel-base alloys is discussed. Part of a predetermined area of the surface of a nickel-base alloy is covered with a dispersion. This exposes the covered and uncovered portions of the surface of the alloy to x-rays by way of an x-ray diffractometry apparatus, making x-ray diffraction determinations of the exposed surface, and measuring the residual stress in the alloy based on these determinations. The dispersion is opaque to x-rays and serves a dual purpose, since it masks off unsatisfactory signals such that only a small portion of the surface is measured, and it supplies an internal standard by providing diffractogram peaks comparable to the peaks of the nickel alloy so that the alloy peaks can be very accurately located regardless of any sources of error external to the sample. 2 figs.

  13. First principles study on Fe based ferromagnetic quaternary Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amudhavalli, A.; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.; Iyakutti, K.

    2017-11-01

    The study of stable half-metallic ferromagnetic materials is important from various fundamental and application points of view in condensed matter Physics. Structural phase stability, electronic structure, mechanical and magnetic properties of Fe-based quaternary Heusler alloys XX‧YZ (X = Co, Ni; X‧ = Fe; Y = Ti; Z = Si, Ge, As) for three different phases namely α, β and γ phases of LiMgPdSn crystal structure have been studied by density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation formulated by Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (GGA-PBE) and the Hubbard formalism (GGA-PBE + U). This work aims to identify the ferromagnetic and half-metallic properties of XX‧YZ (X = Co, Ni, X‧ = Fe; Y = Ti; Z = Si, Ge, As) quaternary Heusler alloys. The predicted phase stability shows that α-phase is found to be the lowest energy phase at ambient pressure. A pressure-induced structural phase transition is observed in CoFeTiSi, CoFeTiGe, CoFeTiAs, NiFeTiSi, NiFeTiGe and NiFeTiAs at the pressures of 151.6 GPa, 33.7 GPa, 76.4 GPa, 85.3 GPa, 87.7 GPa and 96.5 GPa respectively. The electronic structure reveals that these materials are half metals at normal pressure whereas metals at high pressure. The investigation of electronic structure and magnetic properties are performed to reveal the underlying mechanism of half metallicity. The spin polarized calculations concede that these quaternary Heusler compounds may exhibit the potential candidate in spintronics application. The magnetic moments for these quaternary Heusler alloys in all the three different phases (α, β and γ) are estimated.

  14. Development of Computational Tools for Modeling Thermal and Radiation Effects on Grain Boundary Segregation and Precipitation in Fe-Cr-Ni-based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying

    This work aims at developing computational tools for modeling thermal and radiation effects on solute segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) and precipitation. This report described two major efforts. One is the development of computational tools on integrated modeling of thermal equilibrium segregation (TES) and radiation-induced segregation (RIS), from which synergistic effects of thermal and radiation, pre-existing GB segregation have been taken into consideration. This integrated modeling was used in describing the Cr and Ni segregation in the Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. The other effort is thermodynamic modeling on the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo system which includes the major alloying elements in the investigated alloys inmore » the Advanced Radiation Resistant Materials (ARRM) program. Through thermodynamic calculation, we provide baseline thermodynamic stability of the hardening phase Ni2(Cr,Mo) in selected Ni-based super alloys, and contribute knowledge on mechanistic understanding on the formation of Ni2(Cr,Mo) in the irradiated materials. The major outcomes from this work are listed in the following: 1) Under the simultaneous thermal and irradiation conditions, radiation-induced segregation played a dominant role in the GB segregation. The pre-existing GB segregation only affects the subsequent radiation-induced segregation in the short time. For the same element, the segregation tendency of Cr and Ni due to TES is opposite to it from RIS. The opposite tendency can lead to the formation of W-shape profile. These findings are consistent with literature observation of the transitory W-shape profile. 2) While TES only affects the distance of one or two atomic layers from GBs, the RIS can affect a broader distance from GB. Therefore, the W-shape due to pre-existing GB segregation is much narrower than that due to composition gradient formed during the transient state. Considering the measurement resolution of Auger or STEM analysis, the segregation tendency due to RIS should play a

  15. γ' Precipitation Study of a Co-Ni-Based Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locq, D.; Martin, M.; Ramusat, C.; Fossard, F.; Perrut, M.

    2018-05-01

    A Co-Ni-based alloy strengthened by γ'-(L12) precipitates was utilized to investigate the precipitation evolution after various cooling rates and several aging conditions. In this study, the precipitate size and volume fraction have been studied via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of the precipitation evolution was measured via microhardness tests. The cooling rate study shows a more sluggish γ' precipitation reaction compared to that observed in a Ni-based superalloy. Following a rapid cooling rate, the application of appropriate double aging treatments allows for the increase of the γ' volume fraction as well as the control of the size and distribution of the precipitates. The highest hardness values reach those measured on supersolvus cast and wrought Ni-based superalloys. The observed γ' precipitation behavior should have implications for the production, the heat treatment, the welding, or the additive manufacturing of this new class of high-temperature materials.

  16. Gasoline-fueled solid oxide fuel cell using MoO2-Based Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiaoxue; Marin-Flores, Oscar; Kwon, Byeong Wan; Kim, Jinsoo; Norton, M. Grant; Ha, Su

    2014-12-01

    This short communication describes the performance of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) fueled by directly feeding premium gasoline to the anode without using external reforming. The novel component of the fuel cell that enables such operation is the mixed conductivity of MoO2-based anode. Using this anode, a fuel cell demonstrating a maximum power density of 31 mW/cm2 at 0.45 V was successfully fabricated. Over a 24 h period of operation, the open cell voltage remained stable at ∼0.92 V. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the anode surface pre- and post-testing showed no evidence of coking.

  17. Alloy design for intrinsically ductile refractory high-entropy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Saad; Shafeie, Samrand; Hu, Qiang; Ahlström, Johan; Persson, Christer; Veselý, Jaroslav; Zýka, Jiří; Klement, Uta; Guo, Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs), comprising group IV (Ti, Zr, Hf), V (V, Nb, Ta), and VI (Cr, Mo, W) refractory elements, can be potentially new generation high-temperature materials. However, most existing RHEAs lack room-temperature ductility, similar to conventional refractory metals and alloys. Here, we propose an alloy design strategy to intrinsically ductilize RHEAs based on the electron theory and more specifically to decrease the number of valence electrons through controlled alloying. A new ductile RHEA, Hf0.5Nb0.5Ta0.5Ti1.5Zr, was developed as a proof of concept, with a fracture stress of close to 1 GPa and an elongation of near 20%. The findings here will shed light on the development of ductile RHEAs for ultrahigh-temperature applications in aerospace and power-generation industries.

  18. Mossbauer and XRD characterization of the phase transformations in a Fe-Mn-Al-C-Mo-Si-Cu as cast alloy during tribology test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J.; Piamba, J. F.; Sánchez, H.; Alcazar, G. A. Pérez

    2015-06-01

    In present study Fe-29.0Mn-6Al-0.9C-1.8Mo-1.6Si-0.4Cu (%w) alloy was obtained after melted in an induction furnace, and then molded as an ingot. From the as cast ingot it were cut samples for the different characterization measurements. The microstructure of the as-cast sample is of dendritic type and its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of the austenite, with a big volumetric fraction, and the lines of the martensite, with small volumetric fraction. The Mössbauer spectrum of the sample was fitted with a broad singlet which corresponds to disordered austenite. After the tribology test, its XRD pattern was refined with the lines of two austenite phases, one similar to the previous one and other with bigger lattice parameter. The total volumetric fraction of the austenite is smaller than that obtained for sample without wear. It was added the lines of the martensite phase with bigger volumetric fraction than that of the previous sample. The Mössbauer spectrum of the weared sample was fitted with two paramagnetic sites which correspond to the two Fe austenite phases and a hyperfine magnetic field distribution which is associated to the disordered original martensite and the new one which appears in the surface as a consequence of the wear process. These results show that during wear process the original austenite phase is transformed in martensite and in a new austenite phase. The increases of the martensitic phase improves mechanical properties and wear behavior.

  19. Passivation Characteristics of Alloy Corrosion-Resistant Steel Cr10Mo1 in Simulating Concrete Pore Solutions: Combination Effects of pH and Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Zhiyong; Sun, Wei; Jiang, Jinyang; Song, Dan; Ma, Han; Zhang, Jianchun; Wang, Danqian

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour for passivation of new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 immersed in alkaline solutions with different pH values (13.3, 12.0, 10.5, and 9.0) and chloride contents (0.2 M and 1.0 M), was investigated by various electrochemical techniques: linear polarization resistance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and capacitance measurements. The chemical composition and structure of passive films were determined by XPS. The morphological features and surface composition of the immersed steel were evaluated by SEM together with EDS chemical analysis. The results evidence that pH plays an important role in the passivation of the corrosion-resistant steel and the effect is highly dependent upon the chloride contents. In solutions with low chloride (0.2 M), the corrosion-resistant steel has notably enhanced passivity with pH falling from 13.3 to 9.0, but does conversely when in presence of high chloride (1.0 M). The passive film on the corrosion-resistant steel presents a bilayer structure: an outer layer enriched in Fe oxides and hydroxides, and an inner layer, rich in Cr species. The film composition varies with pH values and chloride contents. As the pH drops, more Cr oxides are enriched in the film while Fe oxides gradually decompose. Increasing chloride promotes Cr oxides and Fe oxides to transform into their hydroxides with little protection, and this is more significant at lower pH (10.5 and 9.0). These changes annotate passivation characteristics of the corrosion-resistant steel in the solutions of different electrolyte. PMID:28773867

  20. Passivation Characteristics of Alloy Corrosion-Resistant Steel Cr10Mo1 in Simulating Concrete Pore Solutions: Combination Effects of pH and Chloride.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zhiyong; Sun, Wei; Jiang, Jinyang; Song, Dan; Ma, Han; Zhang, Jianchun; Wang, Danqian

    2016-09-01

    The electrochemical behaviour for passivation of new alloy corrosion-resistant steel Cr10Mo1 immersed in alkaline solutions with different pH values (13.3, 12.0, 10.5, and 9.0) and chloride contents (0.2 M and 1.0 M), was investigated by various electrochemical techniques: linear polarization resistance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and capacitance measurements. The chemical composition and structure of passive films were determined by XPS. The morphological features and surface composition of the immersed steel were evaluated by SEM together with EDS chemical analysis. The results evidence that pH plays an important role in the passivation of the corrosion-resistant steel and the effect is highly dependent upon the chloride contents. In solutions with low chloride (0.2 M), the corrosion-resistant steel has notably enhanced passivity with pH falling from 13.3 to 9.0, but does conversely when in presence of high chloride (1.0 M). The passive film on the corrosion-resistant steel presents a bilayer structure: an outer layer enriched in Fe oxides and hydroxides, and an inner layer, rich in Cr species. The film composition varies with pH values and chloride contents. As the pH drops, more Cr oxides are enriched in the film while Fe oxides gradually decompose. Increasing chloride promotes Cr oxides and Fe oxides to transform into their hydroxides with little protection, and this is more significant at lower pH (10.5 and 9.0). These changes annotate passivation characteristics of the corrosion-resistant steel in the solutions of different electrolyte.

  1. Effect of different alloyed layers on the high temperature oxidation behavior of newly developed Ti 2AlNb-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongyan; Zhang, Pingze; Zhao, Haofeng; Wang, Ling; Xie, Aigen

    2011-01-01

    The application of titanium aluminide orthorhombic alloys (O-phase alloys) as potential materials in aircraft and jet engines was limited by their poor oxidation resistance at high temperature. The Ti 2AlNb-based alloys were chromised (Cr), chromium-tungstened (Cr-W) and nickel-chromised (Ni-Cr) by the double glow plasma surface alloying process to improve their high temperature oxidation resistance. The discontinuous oxidative behavior of Cr, Cr-W and Ni-Cr alloyed layers on Ti 2AlNb-based alloy at 1093 K was explored in this study. After exposing at 1093 K, the TiO 2 layer was formed on the bare alloy and accompanied by the occurrence of crack, which promoted oxidation rate. The oxidation behavior of Ti 2AlNb-based alloys was improved by surface alloying due to the formation of protective Al 2O 3 scale or continuous and dense NiCr 2O 4 film. The Ni-Cr alloyed layer presented the best high-temperature oxidation resistance among three alloyed layers.

  2. Laser-assisted development of titanium alloys: the search for new biomedical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Amelia; Gupta, Dheeraj; Vilar, Rui

    2011-02-01

    Ti-alloys used in prosthetic applications are mostly alloys initially developed for aeronautical applications, so their behavior was not optimized for medical use. A need remains to design new alloys for biomedical applications, where requirements such as biocompatibility, in-body durability, specific manufacturing ability, and cost effectiveness are considered. Materials for this application must present excellent biocompatibility, ductility, toughness and wear and corrosion resistance, a large laser processing window and low sensitivity to changes in the processing parameters. Laser deposition has been investigated in order to access its applicability to laser based manufactured implants. In this study, variable powder feed rate laser cladding has been used as a method for the combinatorial investigation of new alloy systems that offers a unique possibility for the rapid and exhaustive preparation of a whole range of alloys with compositions variable along a single clad track. This method was used as to produce composition gradient Ti-Mo alloys. Mo has been used since it is among the few elements biocompatible, non-toxic β-Ti phase stabilizers. Alloy tracks with compositions in the range 0-19 wt.%Mo were produced and characterized in detail as a function of composition using microscale testing procedures for screening of compositions with promising properties. Microstructural analysis showed that alloys with Mo content above 8% are fully formed of β phase grains. However, these β grains present a cellular substructure that is associated to a Ti and Mo segregation pattern that occurs during solidification. Ultramicroindentation tests carried out to evaluate the alloys' hardness and Young's modulus showed that Ti-13%Mo alloys presented the lowest hardness and Young's modulus (70 GPa) closer to that of bone than common Ti alloys, thus showing great potential for implant applications.

  3. A comparison of the fatigue behavior of cast Ti-7.5Mo with c.p. titanium, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Ju, Chien-Ping; Chern Lin, Jiin-Huey

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare the high-cycle fatigue behavior of newly developed Ti-7.5Mo alloy with that of c.p. Ti, Ti-13Nb-13Zr and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in their as-cast state. Experimental results indicate that Ti-6Al-4V and c.p. Ti have higher stress-controlled fatigue resistance but lower strain-controlled fatigue resistance than Ti-7.5Mo and Ti-13Nb-13Zr. Among four materials Ti-7.5Mo demonstrates the best strain-controlled fatigue performance. The fracture surfaces of the present materials are comprised of three morphologically distinct zones: crack initiation zone, crack propagation zone, and the final-stage overload zone. The fatigue cracks almost always initiate from casting-induced surface/subsurface pores. A river pattern is observed in the propagation zone. In the overload zone dimples are typically observed. Three factors most significantly affecting the fatigue performance of the present materials are the presence of the casting-induced surface/subsurface pores; the location of the pores; and the inherent mechanical properties of the materials.

  4. Copper modified austenitic stainless steel alloys with improved high temperature creep resistance

    DOEpatents

    Swindeman, R.W.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1987-04-28

    An improved austenitic stainless steel that incorporates copper into a base Fe-Ni-Cr alloy having minor alloying substituents of Mo, Mn, Si, T, Nb, V, C, N, P, B which exhibits significant improvement in high temperature creep resistance over previous steels. 3 figs.

  5. Multifunctional tunneling devices based on graphene/h-BN/MoSe2 van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ruiqing; Wang, Feng; Yin, Lei; Xu, Kai; Ahmed Shifa, Tofik; Wen, Yao; Zhan, Xueying; Li, Jie; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Zhenxing; He, Jun

    2017-04-01

    The vertically stacked devices based on van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) of two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) have attracted considerable attention due to their superb properties. As a typical structure, graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)/graphene vdWH has been proved possible to make tunneling devices. Compared with graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides possess intrinsic bandgap, leading to high performance of electronic devices. Here, tunneling devices based on graphene/h-BN/MoSe2 vdWHs are designed for multiple functions. On the one hand, the device shows a typical tunneling field-effect transistor behavior. A high on/off ratio of tunneling current (5 × 103) and an ultrahigh current rectification ratio (7 × 105) are achieved, which are attributed to relatively small electronic affinity of MoSe2 and optimized thickness of h-BN. On the other hand, the same structure also realizes 2D non-volatile memory with a high program/erase current ratio (>105), large memory window (˜150 V from ±90 V), and good retention characteristic. These results could enhance the fundamental understanding of tunneling behavior in vdWHs and contribute to the design of ultrathin rectifiers and memory based on 2DLMs.

  6. Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Fine-Grain Nickel-Based Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Constant-Kmax fatigue crack growth tests were performed on two finegrain nickel-base alloys Inconel 718 (DA) and Ren 95 to determine if these alloys exhibit near-threshold time-dependent crack growth behavior observed for fine-grain aluminum alloys in room-temperature laboratory air. Test results showed that increases in K(sub max) values resulted in increased crack growth rates, but no evidence of time-dependent crack growth was observed for either nickel-base alloy at room temperature.

  7. Adhesion and friction of iron-base binary alloys in contact with silicon carbide in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Single pass sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron base binary alloys (alloying elements were Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with a single crystal silicon carbide /0001/ surface in vacuum. Results indicate that atomic size and concentration of alloying elements play an important role in controlling adhesion and friction properties of iron base binary alloys. The coefficient of friction generally increases with an increase in solute concentration. The coefficient of friction increases linearly as the solute to iron atomic radius ratio increases or decreases from unity. The chemical activity of the alloying elements was also an important parameter in controlling adhesion and friction of alloys, as these latter properties are highly dependent upon the d bond character of the elements.

  8. Progress in the Modeling of NiAl-Based Alloys Using the BFS Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Ferrante, John; Garg, Anita

    1997-01-01

    The BFS method has been applied to the study of NiAl-based materials to assess the effect of alloying additions on structure. Ternary, quaternary and even pent-alloys based on Ni-rich NiAl with additions of Ti, Cr and Cu were studied. Two approaches were used, Monte Carlo simulations to determine ground state structures and analytical calculations of high symmetry configurations which give physical insight into preferred bonding. Site occupancy energetics for ternary and the more complicated case of quaternary additions were determined, and solubility limits and precipitate formation with corresponding information concerning structure and lattice parameter were also 'observed' computationally. The method was also applied to determine the composition of alloy surfaces and interfaces. Overall, the results demonstrate that the BFS method for alloys is a powerful tool for alloy design and with its simplicity and obvious advantages can be used to complement any experimental alloy design program.

  9. Development of high temperature nickel-base alloys for jet engine turbine bucket applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigg, R. J.; Scheirer, S. T.

    1965-01-01

    A program has been initiated to develop a material with superior properties at elevated temperatures for utilization in turbine blade applications. A nickel-base superalloy can provide the necessary high temperature strength by using the maximum capability of the three available strengthening mechanisms - intermetallic gamma prime precipitation (Ni3Al), solid solution strengthening with refractory and precious metals, and stable carbide formations through the addition of strong carbide forming elements. A stress rupture test at 2000 deg F and 15,000 psi was formulated to approximate the desired properties. By adding varying amounts of refractory metals (Mo, W and Ta) it was possible to statistically analyze the effects of each in a basic superalloy composition containing fixed amounts of Co, Cr, C, B, Sr, and Ni at three separate levels of AL and Ta. Metallographic analysis correlated with the mechanical properties of the alloys; those with few strengthening phases were weak and ductile and those with excessive amounts of intermetallic phases present in undesirable morphologies were brittle.

  10. Machinability of nickel based alloys using electrical discharge machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Adam; Gokul, A. K.; Bharani Dharan, M. P.; Jeevakarthikeyan, R. V. S.; Uthayakumar, M.; Thirumalai Kumaran, S.; Duraiselvam, M.

    2018-04-01

    The high temperature materials such as nickel based alloys and austenitic steel are frequently used for manufacturing critical aero engine turbine components. Literature on conventional and unconventional machining of steel materials is abundant over the past three decades. However the machining studies on superalloy is still a challenging task due to its inherent property and quality. Thus this material is difficult to be cut in conventional processes. Study on unconventional machining process for nickel alloys is focused in this proposed research. Inconel718 and Monel 400 are the two different candidate materials used for electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Investigation is to prepare a blind hole using copper electrode of 6mm diameter. Electrical parameters are varied to produce plasma spark for diffusion process and machining time is made constant to calculate the experimental results of both the material. Influence of process parameters on tool wear mechanism and material removal are considered from the proposed experimental design. While machining the tool has prone to discharge more materials due to production of high energy plasma spark and eddy current effect. The surface morphology of the machined surface were observed with high resolution FE SEM. Fused electrode found to be a spherical structure over the machined surface as clumps. Surface roughness were also measured with surface profile using profilometer. It is confirmed that there is no deviation and precise roundness of drilling is maintained.

  11. A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Krishnan, V. B.; Singh, J. D.; Woodruff, T. R.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) can produce large strains when deformed (e.g., up to 8%). Heating results in a phase transformation and associated recovery of all the accumulated strain. This strain recovery can occur against large forces, resulting in their use as actuators. Thus an SMA element can integrate both sensory and actuation functions, by inherently sensing a change in temperature and actuating by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. Two aspects of our work on cryogenic SMAs are addressed here. First - a shape memory alloy based cryogenic thermal conduction switch for operation between dewars of liquid methane and liquid oxygen in a common bulkhead arrangement is discussed. Such a switch integrates the sensor element and the actuator element and can be used to create a variable thermal sink to other cryogenic tanks for liquefaction, densification, and zero boil-off systems for advanced spaceport applications. Second - fabrication via arc-melting and subsequent materials testing of SMAs with cryogenic transformation temperatures for use in the aforementioned switch is discussed.

  12. Oxidation/vaporization of silicide coated columbium base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Mass spectrometric and target collection experiments were made at 1600 K to elucidate the mode of oxidative vaporization of two columbium alloys, fused-slurry-coated with a complex silicide former (Si-20Cr-Fe). At oxygen pressures up to 0.0005 torr the major vapor component detected by mass spectrometry for oxidized samples was gaseous silicon monoxide. Analysis of condensates collected at oxygen pressures of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 torr revealed that chromium-, silicon-, iron- and tungsten- containing species were the major products of vaporization. Equilibrium thermochemical diagrams were constructed for the metal-oxygen system corresponding to each constituent metal in both the coating and base alloy. The major vaporizing species are expected to be the gaseous oxides of chromium, silicon, iron and tungsten. Plots of vapor phase composition and maximum vaporization rate versus oxygen pressure were calculated for each coating constituent. The major contribution to weight loss by vaporization at oxygen pressures above 1 torr was shown to be the chromium-containing species.

  13. Effect of Immersion Time on Corrosion Behavior of Single-Phase Alloy and Nanocomposite Bismuth Telluride-Based Thermoelectrics in NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash

    2018-05-01

    The corrosiveness of bismuth telluride-based thermoelectric materials (n-type single-phase alloy and a nanocomposite with MoS2 nanoinclusions), in 0.1 molar solution of sodium chloride (NaCl), was investigated. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy curves obtained after 1, 24, 48 and 72 h immersion time revealed the enhancement of the corrosion resistance of the nanocomposite specimen in a 0.1 molar NaCl solution in comparison with the single-phase bismuth telluride-based alloys, and the passivity increased by immersion time up to 72 h. The nanocomposite sample with submicron grains provided suitable nucleation sites for passive film nucleation that led to higher protective behavior.

  14. A multiple linear regression analysis of hot corrosion attack on a series of nickel base turbine alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine an equation for estimating hot corrosion attack for a series of Ni base cast turbine alloys. The U transform (i.e., 1/sin (% A/100) to the 1/2) was shown to give the best estimate of the dependent variable, y. A complete second degree equation is described for the centered" weight chemistries for the elements Cr, Al, Ti, Mo, W, Cb, Ta, and Co. In addition linear terms for the minor elements C, B, and Zr were added for a basic 47 term equation. The best reduced equation was determined by the stepwise selection method with essentially 13 terms. The Cr term was found to be the most important accounting for 60 percent of the explained variability hot corrosion attack.

  15. Near-infrared photodetectors utilizing MoS{sub 2}-based heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Min Ji; Min, Jung Ki; Yi, Sum-Gyun

    2015-07-28

    Near-infrared photodetectors are developed using graphene/MoS{sub 2} and WSe{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} vertical heterojunctions. These heterojunctions exhibit diode-rectifying behavior in the dark and enhanced photocurrent upon near-infrared irradiation. The photocurrent increases with increasing near-infrared power, leading to the photoresponsibility of 0.14 and 0.3 A W{sup −1} for the graphene/MoS{sub 2} and WSe{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} heterojunctions, respectively, which are much higher than the photoresponsibility reported for a multilayer MoS{sub 2} phototransistor.

  16. Effects of neutron irradiation on deformation behavior of nickel-base fastener alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, R.; Mills, W.J.; Kammenzind, B.F.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture behavior and deformation microstructure of high-strength nickel-base alloy fastener materials, Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625. Alloy X-750 in the HTH condition, and Alloy 625 in the direct aged condition were irradiated to a fluence of 2.4x10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} at 264 C in the Advanced Test Reactor. Deformation structures at low strains were examined. It was previously shown that Alloy X-750 undergoes hardening, a significant degradation in ductility and an increase in intergranular fracture. In contrast, Alloy 625 had shown softening with a concomitant increase in ductility and transgranularmore » failure after irradiation. The deformation microstructures of the two alloys were also different. Alloy X-750 deformed by a planar slip mechanism with fine microcracks forming at the intersections of slip bands with grain boundaries. Alloy 625 showed much more homogeneous deformation with fine, closely spaced slip bands and an absence of microcracks. The mechanism(s) of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) are discussed.« less

  17. Operation mode switchable charge-trap memory based on few-layer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiang; Yan, Xiao; Liu, Chunsen; Ding, Shijin; Zhang, David Wei; Zhou, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Ultrathin layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors like MoS2 and WSe2 have received a lot of attention because of their excellent electrical properties and potential applications in electronic devices. We demonstrate a charge-trap memory with two different tunable operation modes based on a few-layer MoS2 channel and an Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 charge storage stack. Our device shows excellent memory properties under the traditional three-terminal operation mode. More importantly, unlike conventional charge-trap devices, this device can also realize the memory performance with just two terminals (drain and source) because of the unique atomic crystal electrical characteristics. Under the two-terminal operation mode, the erase/program current ratio can reach up to 104 with a stable retention property. Our study indicates that the conventional charge-trap memory cell can also realize the memory performance without the gate terminal based on novel two dimensional materials, which is meaningful for low power consumption and high integration density applications.

  18. dbHiMo: a web-based epigenomics platform for histone-modifying enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Kim, Ki-Tae; Huh, Aram; Kwon, Seomun; Hong, Changyoung; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Jeon, Junhyun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, epigenetics has evolved into a key concept for understanding regulation of gene expression. Among many epigenetic mechanisms, covalent modifications such as acetylation and methylation of lysine residues on core histones emerged as a major mechanism in epigenetic regulation. Here, we present the database for histone-modifying enzymes (dbHiMo; http://hme.riceblast.snu.ac.kr/) aimed at facilitating functional and comparative analysis of histone-modifying enzymes (HMEs). HMEs were identified by applying a search pipeline built upon profile hidden Markov model (HMM) to proteomes. The database incorporates 11 576 HMEs identified from 603 proteomes including 483 fungal, 32 plants and 51 metazoan species. The dbHiMo provides users with web-based personalized data browsing and analysis tools, supporting comparative and evolutionary genomics. With comprehensive data entries and associated web-based tools, our database will be a valuable resource for future epigenetics/epigenomics studies. Database URL: http://hme.riceblast.snu.ac.kr/ PMID:26055100

  19. dbHiMo: a web-based epigenomics platform for histone-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Kim, Ki-Tae; Huh, Aram; Kwon, Seomun; Hong, Changyoung; Asiegbu, Fred O; Jeon, Junhyun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, epigenetics has evolved into a key concept for understanding regulation of gene expression. Among many epigenetic mechanisms, covalent modifications such as acetylation and methylation of lysine residues on core histones emerged as a major mechanism in epigenetic regulation. Here, we present the database for histone-modifying enzymes (dbHiMo; http://hme.riceblast.snu.ac.kr/) aimed at facilitating functional and comparative analysis of histone-modifying enzymes (HMEs). HMEs were identified by applying a search pipeline built upon profile hidden Markov model (HMM) to proteomes. The database incorporates 11,576 HMEs identified from 603 proteomes including 483 fungal, 32 plants and 51 metazoan species. The dbHiMo provides users with web-based personalized data browsing and analysis tools, supporting comparative and evolutionary genomics. With comprehensive data entries and associated web-based tools, our database will be a valuable resource for future epigenetics/epigenomics studies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Physical Properties of NiFeCrCo-based High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaddach, Alexander Joseph

    Conventional alloy design has been based on improving the properties of a single base, or solvent, element through relatively small additions of other elements. More recently, research has been conducted on alloys that contain multiple principal elements, particularly multi-component equiatomic alloys. When such alloys form solid solution phases, they are termed "high-entropy alloys" (HEAs) due to their high configurational entropy. These alloys often have favorable properties compared to conventional dilute solution alloys, but their compositional complexity and relative novelty means that they remain difficult to design and their basic properties are often unknown. The motivation for this work is a detailed experimental exploration of some of the basic physical properties of NiFeCrCo-based alloys. NiFeCrCoMn was one of the first equiatomic HEAs developed. As the compositional space within this single system is extremely large, this work focuses primarily on equiatomic alloys and a limited subset of non-equiatomic alloys chosen for their specific properties. Several alloys are prepared using both conventional methods (arc melting) and nonequilibrium methods (mechanical alloying). Properties studied include stacking fault energy, bulk mechanical properties, single crystal elastic constants, and magnetic properties. The equiatomic NiFeCrCo and NiFeCrCoMn alloys were found to have a moderate to low stacking fault energy, 18 -- 30 mJ m-2. As they are single-phase, fcc alloys, they have high tensile ductility. Additionally, they also exhibit high work-hardening rates, resulting in high toughness. NiFeCrCo outperforms the 5-component equiatomic alloy in ductility and toughness. A 5-component alloy with higher Co content to reduce the stacking fault energy also performs well. The single crystal elastic constants were measured using nanoindentation modulus measurements of grains of known orientation. The measured elastic constants were consistent with those calculated

  1. Experimental Verification of the Decomposition of Y2O3 in Fe-Based ODS Alloys During Mechanical Alloying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Jong Min; Park, Chun Woong; Do Kim, Young

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the state of Y2O3, as a major additive element in Fe-based ODS alloys, during mechanical alloying (MA) processes by thermodynamic approaches and experimental verification. For this purpose, we introduced Ti2O3 that formed different reaction products depending on the state of Y2O3 into the Fe-based ODS alloys. In addition, the reaction products of Ti2O3, Y, and Y2O3 powders were predicted approximately based on their formation enthalpy. The experimental results relating to the formation of Y-based complex oxides revealed that YTiO3 and Y2Ti2O7 were formed when Ti2O3 reacted with Y; in contrast, only Y2Ti2O7 was detected during the reaction between Ti2O3 and Y2O3. In the alloy of Fe-Cr-Y2O3 with Ti2O3, YTiO3 (formed by the reaction of Ti2O3 with Y) was detected after the MA and heat treatment processes were complete, even though Y2O3 was present in the system. Using these results, it was proved that Y2O3 decomposed into monoatomic Y and O during the MA process.

  2. Controllable synthesis of molybdenum tungsten disulfide alloy for vertically composition-controlled multilayer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeong-Gyu; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Lee, Su Jeong; Sim, Sangwan; Lee, Chang Wan; Choi, Taejin; Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Youngjun; Lee, Zonghoon; Myoung, Jae-Min; Dussarrat, Christian; Lansalot-Matras, Clement; Park, Jusang; Choi, Hyunyong; Kim, Hyungjun

    2015-01-01

    The effective synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides alloy is essential for successful application in electronic and optical devices based on a tunable band gap. Here we show a synthesis process for Mo1−xWxS2 alloy using sulfurization of super-cycle atomic layer deposition Mo1−xWxOy. Various spectroscopic and microscopic results indicate that the synthesized Mo1−xWxS2 alloys have complete mixing of Mo and W atoms and tunable band gap by systematically controlled composition and layer number. Based on this, we synthesize a vertically composition-controlled (VCC) Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer using five continuous super-cycles with different cycle ratios for each super-cycle. Angle-resolved X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer results reveal that a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer has different vertical composition and broadband light absorption with strong interlayer coupling within a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer. Further, we demonstrate that a VCC Mo1−xWxS2 multilayer photodetector generates three to four times greater photocurrent than MoS2- and WS2-based devices, owing to the broadband light absorption. PMID:26204328

  3. A theoretical study of thorium titanium-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obodo, K. O.; Chetty, N.

    2013-09-01

    Using theoretical quantum chemical methods, we investigate the dearth of ordered alloys involving thorium and titanium. Whereas both these elements are known to alloy very readily with various other elements, for example with oxygen, current experimental data suggests that Th and Ti do not alloy very readily with each other. In this work, we consider a variety of ordered alloys at varying stoichiometries involving these elements within the framework of density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange and correlation functional. By probing the energetics, electronic, phonon and elastic properties of these systems, we confirm the scarcity of ordered alloys involving Th and Ti, since for a variety of reasons many of the systems that we considered were found to be unfavorable. However, our investigations resulted in one plausible ordered structure: We propose ThTi3 in the Cr3Si structure as a metastable ordered alloy.

  4. Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment of a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    2001-01-01

    Existing Dual Microstructure Heat Treat (DMHT) technology was successfully applied to Alloy 10, a high strength, nickel-base disk alloy, to produce a disk with a fine grain bore and coarse grain rim. Specimens were extracted from the DMHT disk and tested in tension, creep, fatigue, and crack growth using conditions pertinent to disk applications. These data were then compared with data from "traditional" subsolvus and supersolvus heat treatments for Alloy 10. The results showed the DMHT disk to have a high strength, fatigue resistant bore comparable to that of subsolvus Alloy 10. Further, creep resistance of the DMHT rim was comparable to that of supersolvus Alloy 10. Crack growth resistance in the DMHT rim, while better than that for subsolvus, was inferior to that of supersolvus Alloy 10. The slow cool at the end of the DMHT conversion and/or the subsolvus resolution step are thought to be responsible for degrading rim DMHT crack growth resistance.

  5. Mechanically delaminated few layered MoS2 nanosheets based high performance wire type solid-state symmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Pazhamalai, Parthiban; Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Sang Jae

    2016-07-01

    Two dimensional nanostructures are increasingly used as electrode materials in flexible supercapacitors for portable electronic applications. Herein, we demonstrated a ball milling approach for achieving few layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) via exfoliation from their bulk. Physico-chemical characterizations such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and laser Raman analyses confirmed the occurrence of exfoliated MoS2 sheets with few layers from their bulk via ball milling process. MoS2 based wire type solid state supercapacitors (WSCs) are fabricated and examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge discharge (CD) measurements. The presence of rectangular shaped CV curves and symmetric triangular shaped CD profiles suggested the mechanism of charge storage in MoS2 WSC is due to the formation of electrochemical double layer capacitance. The MoS2 WSC device delivered a specific capacitance of 119 μF cm-1, and energy density of 8.1 nW h cm-1 with better capacitance retention of about 89.36% over 2500 cycles, which ensures the use of the ball milled MoS2 for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium in Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn eutectic based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, Dmitry S.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Yamshchikov, Leonid F.; Chukin, Andrey V.

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium in Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn eutectic based alloys were studied. Temperature dependences of gadolinium activity in the studied alloys were determined at 573-1073 K employing the EMF method. Solubility of gadolinium in the Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn alloys was measured at 462-1073 K using IMCs sedimentation method. Activity coefficients as well as partial and excess thermodynamic functions of gadolinium in the studied alloys were calculated on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  7. Steam Oxidation Behavior of Advanced Steels and Ni-Based Alloys at 800 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudziak, T.; Boroń, L.; Deodeshmukh, V.; Sobczak, J.; Sobczak, N.; Witkowska, M.; Ratuszek, W.; Chruściel, K.

    2017-03-01

    This publication studies the steam oxidation behavior of advanced steels (309S, 310S and HR3C) and Ni-based alloys (Haynes® 230®, alloy 263, alloy 617 and Haynes® 282®) exposed at 800 °C for 2000 h under 1 bar pressure, in a pure water steam system. The results revealed that all exposed materials showed relatively low weight gain, with no spallation of the oxide scale within the 2000 h of exposure. XRD analysis showed that Ni-based alloys developed an oxide scale consisting of four main phases: Cr2O3 (alloy 617, Haynes® 282®, alloy 263 and Haynes® 230®), MnCr2O4 (alloy 617, Haynes® 282® and Haynes® 230®), NiCr2O4 (alloy 617) and TiO2 (alloy 263, Haynes® 282®). In contrast, advanced steels showed the development of Cr2O3, MnCr2O4, Mn7SiO12, FeMn(SiO4) and SiO2 phases. The steel with the highest Cr content showed the formation of Fe3O4 and the thickest oxide scale.

  8. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Lisha; T, Hysen; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness and composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.

  9. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    R, Lisha; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.

    2015-06-24

    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness andmore » composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.« less

  10. Molybdenum-rhenium alloy based high-Q superconducting microwave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vibhor, E-mail: v.singh@tudelft.nl; Schneider, Ben H.; Bosman, Sal J.

    2014-12-01

    Superconducting microwave resonators (SMRs) with high quality factors have become an important technology in a wide range of applications. Molybdenum-Rhenium (MoRe) is a disordered superconducting alloy with a noble surface chemistry and a relatively high transition temperature. These properties make it attractive for SMR applications, but characterization of MoRe SMR has not yet been reported. Here, we present the fabrication and characterization of SMR fabricated with a MoRe 60–40 alloy. At low drive powers, we observe internal quality-factors as high as 700 000. Temperature and power dependence of the internal quality-factors suggest the presence of the two level systems from themore » dielectric substrate dominating the internal loss at low temperatures. We further test the compatibility of these resonators with high temperature processes, such as for carbon nanotube chemical vapor deposition growth, and their performance in the magnetic field, an important characterization for hybrid systems.« less

  11. Properties of Superconducting Mo, Mo2n and Trilayer Mo2n-Mo-Mo2n Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrentine, E. M.; Stevenson, T. R.; Brown, A. D.; Lowitz, A. E.; Noroozian, O.; U-Yen, K.; Eshan, N.; Hsieh, W. T.; Moseley, S. H.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the properties of thin film superconducting Mo, Mo2N and Mo2N/Mo/Mo2N trilayers of interest for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) applications. Using microwave resonator devices, we investigate the transition temperature, energy gaps, kinetic inductance, and internal quality factors of these materials. We present an Usadel-based interpretation of the trilayer transition temperature as a function of trilayer thicknesses, and a 2-gap interpretation to understand the change in kinetic inductance and internal resonance quality factor (Q) as a function of temperature.

  12. NEUTRON REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT UTILIZING ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.; Szumachowski, E.R.

    1957-11-12

    This patent relates to clad fuel elements for use in neutronic reactors and is drawn to such a fuel element which consists of a core of fissionable material, comprised of an alloy of zirconium and U/sup 235/ enriched uranium, encased in a jacket of a binary zirconium-tin alloy in which the tin content ranges between 1 and 15% by weight.

  13. Friction and wear of iron-base binary alloys in sliding contact with silicon carbide in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Multipass sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron base binary alloys in contact with a single crystal silicon carbide surface in vacuum. Results indicate that the atomic size and concentration of alloy elements play important roles in controlling the transfer and friction properties of iron base binary alloys. Alloys having high solute concentration produce more transfer than do alloys having low solute concentration. The coefficient of friction during multipass sliding generally increases with an increase in the concentration of alloying element. The change of friction with succeeding passes after the initial pass also increases as the solute to iron, atomic radius ratio increases or decreases from unity.

  14. Microstructural characterization of an irradiated RERTR-6 U-7Mo/AA4043 alloy dispersion fuel plate specimen blister-tested to a final temperature of 500 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Gan, Jian; Miller, Brandon D.; Robinson, Adam B.; Madden, James W.; Ross Finlay, M.; Moore, Glenn; Medvedev, Pavel; Meyer, Mitch

    2017-05-01

    The Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, in the past called the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is developing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels for application in research and test reactors. U-Mo alloy dispersion fuel is one type being developed. Blister testing has been performed on different fuel plate samples to determine the margin to failure for fuel plates irradiated to different fission densities. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy on a sample taken from a U-7Mo/AA4043 matrix dispersion fuel plate irradiated in the RERTR-6 experiment that was blister-tested up to a final temperature of 500 °C. The results indicated that two types of grain/cell boundaries were observed in the U-7Mo fuel particles, one with a relatively low Mo content and fission gas bubbles and a second type enriched in Si, due to interdiffusion from the Si-containing matrix, with little evidence of fission gas bubbles. With respect to the behavior of the major fission gas Xe, a significant amount of the Xe was still observed within the U-7Mo fuel particle, along with microns into the AA4043 matrix. For the fuel/matrix interaction layers that form during fabrication and then grow during irradiation, they change from the as-irradiated amorphous structure to one that is crystalline after blister testing. In the AA4043 matrix, the original Si-rich precipitates, which are typically observed in as-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel, get consumed due to interdiffusion with the U-7Mo fuel particles during the blister test. Finally, the fission gas bubbles that were originally around 3 nm in diameter and resided on a fission gas superlattice (FGS) in the intragranular regions of as-irradiated U-7Mo fuel grew in size (up to ∼20 nm diameter) during blister testing and, in many areas, are no longer organized as a superlattice.

  15. Development and study of chemical vapor deposited tantalum base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, G. H.; Bryant, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    A technique for the chemical vapor deposition of alloys was developed. The process, termed pulsing, involves the periodic injection of reactant gases into a previously-evacuated reaction chamber where they blanket the substrate almost instantaneously. Formation of alternating layers of the alloy components and subsequent homogenization allows the formation of an alloy of uniform composition with the composition being determined by the duration and relative numbers of the various cycles. The technique has been utilized to produce dense alloys of uniform thickness and composition (Ta- 10 wt % W) by depositing alternating layers of Ta and W by the hydrogen reduction of TaCl5 and WCl6. A similar attempt to deposit a Ta - 8 wt % W - 2 wt% Hf alloy was unsuccessful because of the difficulty in reducing HfCl4 at temperatures below those at which gas phase nucleation of Ta and W occurred.

  16. MoOx modified ZnGaO based transparent conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Titas; Gupta, P.; Bhosle, V.; Narayan, J.

    2009-03-01

    We report here the growth of high work function bilayered structures of thin MoOx (2.0MoOx layer, molybdenum exists in Mo4+, Mo5+, and Mo6+ oxidation states, and the ratio of (Mo4++Mo5+) to Mo6+ was determined to be ˜2:1. The bilayer films showed good optical transparency (≥80%) and low resistivity of ˜10-4 Ω cm. Different transport behavior of the MoOx/ZnGa0.05O films grown at different Ts (substrate temperature) was observed in temperature-dependent resistivity measurements. The bilayer film at higher Ts showed metallic conductivity behavior down to 113 K. Moreover, a blueshift of the absorption edge in the transmission spectrum was observed with the increase in Ts, indicating an increase in the carrier concentration. It was observed that the ZnGa0.05O films with ultrathin MoOx (˜1-2 nanometers) overlayer showed a higher work function (varying from 4.7 to 5.1 eV) as compared to the single layer ZnGa0.05O film work function (˜4.4 eV). A correlation between the surface work function and MoOx layer thickness is observed. The higher work function of the MoOx overlayer is envisaged to improve the transport of the carriers across the heterojunction in a solid state device, thus resulting an increase in device efficiency.

  17. Influence of S. mutans on base-metal dental casting alloy toxicity.

    PubMed

    McGinley, E L; Dowling, A H; Moran, G P; Fleming, G J P

    2013-01-01

    We have highlighted that exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to the acidogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans significantly increases cellular toxicity following exposure to immortalized human TR146 oral keratinocytes. With Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), S. mutans-treated nickel-based (Ni-based) and cobalt-chromium-based (Co-Cr-based) dental casting alloys were shown to leach elevated levels of metal ions compared with untreated dental casting alloys. We targeted several biological parameters: cell morphology, viable cell counts, cell metabolic activity, cell toxicity, and inflammatory cytokine expression. S. mutans-treated dental casting alloys disrupted cell morphology, elicited significantly decreased viable cell counts (p < 0.0001) and cell metabolic activity (p < 0.0001), and significantly increased cell toxicity (p < 0.0001) and inflammatory cytokine expression (p < 0.0001). S. mutans-treated Ni-based dental casting alloys induced elevated levels of cellular toxicity compared with S. mutans-treated Co-Cr-based dental casting alloys. While our findings indicated that the exacerbated release of metal ions from S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys was the likely result of the pH reduction during S. mutans growth, the exact nature of mechanisms leading to accelerated dissolution of alloy-discs is not yet fully understood. Given the predominance of S. mutans oral carriage and the exacerbated cytotoxicity observed in TR146 cells following exposure to S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys, the implications for the long-term stability of base-metal dental restorations in the oral cavity are a cause for concern.

  18. Creep-Rupture Behavior of Ni-Based Alloy Tube Bends for A-USC Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingledecker, John

    Advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) boiler designs will require the use of nickel-based alloys for superheaters and reheaters and thus tube bending will be required. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section II PG-19 limits the amount of cold-strain for boiler tube bends for austenitic materials. In this summary and analysis of research conducted to date, a number of candidate nickel-based A-USC alloys were evaluated. These alloys include alloy 230, alloy 617, and Inconel 740/740H. Uniaxial creep and novel structural tests and corresponding post-test analysis, which included physical measurements, simplified analytical analysis, and detailed microscopy, showed that different damage mechanisms may operate based on test conditions, alloy, and cold-strain levels. Overall, creep strength and ductility were reduced in all the alloys, but the degree of degradation varied substantially. The results support the current cold-strain limits now incorporated in ASME for these alloys for long-term A-USC boiler service.

  19. Alloy Development, Processing and Characterization of Devitrified Titanium Base Microcrystalline Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    quench rates (10V 10V [/sec). Since the heat transport and temperature profile of Ti melt in the cold copper crucible are not well known, melting...experiments in a cold copper crucible by arc heating were conducted using Ti-6.3Si alloy. The temperature measurement at both the surface and the bottom of the...melt spinning compart- ment B, and ribbon processing chamber C. The pre-melted alloy ingot is . - " charged directly into a cold copper crucible while

  20. Semitransparent inverted organic solar cell with improved absorption and reasonable transparency perception based on the nanopatterned MoO3/Ag/MoO3 anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ximin; Zhang, Ye; Hao, Yuying; Cui, Yanxia; Wang, Wenyan; Shi, Fang; Wang, Hua; Wei, Bin; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an inverted low bandgap semitransparent organic solar cell with improved absorption as well as reasonable transparency perception based on a nanopatterned MoO3/Ag/MoO3 (MAM) multilayer film as the transparent anode under illumination from the MAM side. The integrated absorption efficiency of the active layer at normal hybrid-polarized incidence considering an AM 1.5G solar spectrum is up to 51.69%, increased by 18.53% as compared to that of the equivalent planar device (43.61%) and reaching 77.3% of that of the corresponding opaque nanopatterned device (66.90%). Detailed investigations reveal that the excitation of plasmonic waveguide modes (at transverse magnetic polarization) and photonic modes (at transverse electric polarization) are responsible for the observed enhancement in absorption. Importantly, the proposed device exhibits an average transmittance of up to 28.4% and an average transparency perception of 26.3% for the human eyes under hybrid-polarized light illumination along with a good color rendering property. Additionally, our proposal works very well over a fairly wide angular range.

  1. Effects of heat treatment on U–Mo fuel foils with a zirconium diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Jue, Jan-Fong; Trowbridge, Tammy L.; Breckenridge, Cynthia R.

    A monolith fuel design based on U–Mo alloy has been selected as the fuel type for conversion of the United States’ high performance research reactors (HPRRs) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). In this fuel design, a thin layer of zirconium is used to eliminate the direct interaction between the U–Mo fuel meat and the aluminum-alloy cladding during irradiation. The co-rolling process used to bond the Zr barrier layer to the U–Mo foil during fabrication alters the microstructure of both the U–10Mo fuel meat and the U–Mo/Zr interface. This work studied the effects of post-rolling annealing treatmentmore » on the microstructure of the co-rolled U–Mo fuel meat and the U–Mo/Zr interaction layer. Microscopic characterization shows that the grain size of U–Mo fuel meat increases with the annealing temperature, as expected. The grain sizes were ~9, ~13, and ~20 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, and 850 °C, respectively. No abnormal grain growth was observed. The U–Mo/Zr interaction-layer thickness increased with the annealing temperature with an Arrhenius constant for growth of 184 kJ/mole, consistent with a previous diffusion-couple study. The interaction layer thickness was 3.2 ± 0.5 μm, 11.1 ± 2.1 μm, 27.1 ± 0.9 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, to 850 °C, respectively. The homogeneity of Mo improves with post rolling annealing temperature and with U–Mo coupon homogenization. The phases in the Zr/U–Mo interaction layer produced by co-rolling, however, differ from those reported in the previous diffusion couple studies.« less

  2. Effects of heat treatment on U-Mo fuel foils with a zirconium diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jue, Jan-Fong; Trowbridge, Tammy L.; Breckenridge, Cynthia R.; Moore, Glenn A.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Keiser, Dennis D.

    2015-05-01

    A monolith fuel design based on U-Mo alloy has been selected as the fuel type for conversion of the United States' high performance research reactors (HPRRs) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). In this fuel design, a thin layer of zirconium is used to eliminate the direct interaction between the U-Mo fuel meat and the aluminum-alloy cladding during irradiation. The co-rolling process used to bond the Zr barrier layer to the U-Mo foil during fabrication alters the microstructure of both the U-10Mo fuel meat and the U-Mo/Zr interface. This work studied the effects of post-rolling annealing treatment on the microstructure of the co-rolled U-Mo fuel meat and the U-Mo/Zr interaction layer. Microscopic characterization shows that the grain size of U-Mo fuel meat increases with the annealing temperature, as expected. The grain sizes were ∼9, ∼13, and ∼20 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, and 850 °C, respectively. No abnormal grain growth was observed. The U-Mo/Zr interaction-layer thickness increased with the annealing temperature with an Arrhenius constant for growth of 184 kJ/mole, consistent with a previous diffusion-couple study. The interaction layer thickness was 3.2 ± 0.5 μm, 11.1 ± 2.1 μm, 27.1 ± 0.9 μm for annealing temperature of 650, 750, to 850 °C, respectively. The homogeneity of Mo improves with post rolling annealing temperature and with U-Mo coupon homogenization. The phases in the Zr/U-Mo interaction layer produced by co-rolling, however, differ from those reported in the previous diffusion couple studies.

  3. Design and numerical analysis of highly sensitive Au-MoS2-graphene based hybrid surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. Saifur; Anower, Md. Shamim; Hasan, Md. Rabiul; Hossain, Md. Biplob; Haque, Md. Ismail

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive Au-MoS2-Graphene based hybrid surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for the detection of DNA hybridization. The performance parameters of the proposed sensor are investigated in terms of sensitivity, detection accuracy and quality factor at operating wavelength of 633 nm. We observed in the numerical study that sensitivity can be greatly increased by adding MoS2 layer in the middle of a Graphene-on-Au layer. It is shown that by using single layer of MoS2 in between gold and graphene layer, the proposed biosensor exhibits simultaneously high sensitivity of 87.8 deg/RIU, high detection accuracy of 1.28 and quality factor of 17.56 with gold layer thickness of 50 nm. This increased performance is due to the absorption ability and optical characteristics of graphene biomolecules and high fluorescence quenching ability of MoS2. On the basis of changing in SPR angle and minimum reflectance, the proposed sensor can sense nucleotides bonding happened between double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) helix structures. Therefore, this sensor can successfully detect the hybridization of target DNAs to the probe DNAs pre-immobilized on the Au-MoS2-Graphene hybrid with capability of distinguishing single-base mismatch.

  4. Corrosion assessment and enhanced biocompatibility analysis of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompa, Luis Enrique

    Magnesium alloys have raised immense interest to many researchers because of its evolution as a new third generation material. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium based alloys experience a natural phenomena to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosive activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, major concerns with such alloys are fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of an implant. In this investigation, three grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS.

  5. Fe-MoS4: An Effective and Stable LDH-Based Adsorbent for Selective Removal of Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Ali; Liao, Zhuwei; Zhou, Zhihua; Khan, Aimal; Wang, Ting; Ifthikar, Jerosha; Shahzad, Ajmal; Chen, Zhulei; Chen, Zhuqi

    2017-08-30

    It has always been a serious challenge to design efficient, selective, and stable absorbents for heavy-metal removal. Herein, we design layered double hydroxide (LDH)-based Fe-MoS 4 , a highly efficient adsorbent, for selective removal of heavy metals. We initially synthesized FeMgAl-LDH and then enriched its protective layers with MoS 4 2- anions as efficient binding sites for heavy metals. Various characterization tools, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), CHN analysis, and inductively coupled plasma analysis, were applied to confirm structural and compositional changes during the synthesis of Fe-MoS 4 as final product. The prepared Fe-MoS 4 offered excellent attraction for heavy metals, such as Hg 2+ , Ag + , Pb 2+ , and Cu 2+ , and displayed selectivity in the order Hg 2+ ∼ Ag + > Pb 2+ > Cu 2+ > Cr 6+ > As 3+ > Ni 2+ ∼ Zn 2+ ∼ Co 2+ . The immense capacities of Hg 2+ , Ag + , and Pb 2+ (583, 565, and 346 mg/g, respectively), high distribution coefficient (K d ∼ 10 7 -10 8 ), and fast kinetics place Fe-MoS 4 on the top of materials list known for removal of such metals. The sorption kinetics and isothermal studies conducted on Hg 2+ , Ag + , Pb 2+ , and Cu 2+ suit well pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer chemisorption mechanism through M-S linkages. XRD and FTIR studies suggested that adsorbed metals could result as coordinated complexes in LDH interlayer region. More interestingly, LDH structure offers protective space for MoS 4 2- anions to avoid oxidation under ambient environments, as confirmed by XPS studies. These features provide Fe-MoS 4 with enormous capacity, good reusability, and excellent selectivity even in the presence of huge concentration of common cations.

  6. Effects of chemical composition on the corrosion of dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Galo, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Rocha, Luís Augusto; de Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the oral environment on the corrosion of dental alloys with different compositions, using electrochemical methods. The corrosion rates were obtained from the current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of artificial saliva on the corrosion of dental alloys was dependent on alloy composition. Dissolution of the ions occurred in all tested dental alloys and the results were strongly dependent on the general alloy composition. Regarding the alloys containing nickel, the Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Ti alloys released 0.62 mg/L of Ni on average, while the Co-Cr dental alloy released ions between 0.01 and 0.03 mg/L of Co and Cr, respectively.The open-circuit potential stabilized at a higher level with lower deviation (standard deviation: Ni-Cr-6Ti = 32 mV/SCE and Co-Cr = 54 mV/SCE). The potenciodynamic curves of the dental alloys showed that the Ni-based dental alloy with >70 wt% of Ni had a similar curve and the Co-Cr dental alloy showed a low current density and hence a high resistance to corrosion compared with the Ni-based dental alloys. Some changes in microstructure were observed and this fact influenced the corrosion behavior for the alloys. The lower corrosion resistance also led to greater release of nickel ions to the medium. The quantity of Co ions released from the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was relatively small in the solutions. In addition, the quantity of Cr ions released into the artificial saliva from the Co-Cr alloy was lower than Cr release from the Ni-based dental alloys.

  7. Cost Estimate for Molybdenum and Tantalum Refractory Metal Alloy Flow Circuit Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert R.; Martin, James J.; Schmidt, George R.; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Bryhan, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been tasked by the Naval Reactors Prime Contract Team (NRPCT) to provide a cost and delivery rough order of magnitude estimate for a refractory metal-based lithium (Li) flow circuit. The design is based on the stainless steel Li flow circuit that is currently being assembled for an NRPCT task underway at the EFF-TF. While geometrically the flow circuit is not representative of a final flight prototype, knowledge has been gained to quantify (time and cost) the materials, manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, and operations to produce a testable configuration. This Technical Memorandum (TM) also identifies the following key issues that need to be addressed by the fabrication process: Alloy selection and forming, cost and availability, welding, bending, machining, assembly, and instrumentation. Several candidate materials were identified by NRPCT including molybdenum (Mo) alloy (Mo-47.5 %Re), tantalum (Ta) alloys (T-111, ASTAR-811C), and niobium (Nb) alloy (Nb-1 %Zr). This TM is focused only on the Mo and Ta alloys, since they are of higher concern to the ongoing effort. The initial estimate to complete a Mo-47%Re system ready for testing is =$9,000k over a period of 30 mo. The initial estimate to complete a T-111 or ASTAR-811C system ready for testing is =$12,000k over a period of 36 mo.

  8. Concentration dependence of sodium alloys based on tin surface tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alchagirov, B. B.; Kyasova, O. Kh; Uzdenova, A. N.; Khibiev, A. Kh

    2018-04-01

    The concentration dependence of the surface tension (ST) for alloys of the Sn-Na system in the range of compositions with a content of 0.06 to 5.00 at.% Na is studied by the large droplet method using high-purity components and a corresponding ST isotherm for T = 573 K is constructed. It has been established that small additions of sodium to tin significantly reduce ST of the studied melts. Calculations of sodium adsorption in alloys have shown that there is a maximum on the adsorption curve corresponding to alloys with a content of about 1.5 at.% Na in tin.

  9. A Solution-Based Approach for Mo-99 Production: Considerations for Nitrate versus Sulfate Media

    DOE PAGES

    Youker, Amanda J.; Chemerisov, Sergey D.; Kalensky, Michael; ...

    2013-01-01

    Molybdenum-99 is the parent of Technetium-99m, which is used in nearly 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. The medical community has been plagued by Mo-99 shortages due to aging reactors, such as the NRU (National Research Universal) reactor in Canada. There are currently no US producers of Mo-99, and NRU is scheduled for shutdown in 2016, which means that another Mo-99 shortage is imminent unless a potential domestic Mo-99 producer fills the void. Argonne National Laboratory is assisting two potential domestic suppliers of Mo-99 by examining the effects of a uranyl nitrate versus a uranyl sulfate target solution configuration onmore » Mo-99 production. Uranyl nitrate solutions are easier to prepare and do not generate detectable amounts of peroxide upon irradiation, but a high radiation field can lead to a large increase in pH, which can lead to the precipitation of fission products and uranyl hydroxides. Uranyl sulfate solutions are more difficult to prepare, and enough peroxide is generated during irradiation to cause precipitation of uranyl peroxide, but this can be prevented by adding a catalyst to the solution. A titania sorbent can be used to recover Mo-99 from a highly concentrated uranyl nitrate or uranyl sulfate solution; however, different approaches must be taken to prevent precipitation during Mo-99 production.« less

  10. Stiffness-constant variation in nickel-based alloys: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hennion, M.; Hennion, B.

    1979-01-01

    Recent measurements of the spin-wave stiffness constant in several nickel alloys at various concentrations are interpreted within a random-phase approximation, coherent-potential approximation (RPA-CPA) band model which uses the Hartree-Fock approximation to treat the intraatomic correlations. We give a theoretical description of the possible impurity states in the Hartree-Fock approximation. This allows the determination of the Hartree-Fock solutions which can account for the stiffness-constant behavior and the magnetic moment on the impurity for all the investigated alloys. For alloys such as NiCr, NiV, NiMo, and NiRu, the magnetizations of which deviate from the Slater-Pauling curve, our determination does not correspond tomore » previous works and is consequently discussed. The limits of the model appear mainly due to local-environment effects; in the case of NiMn, it is found that a ternary-alloy model with some Mn atoms in the antiferromagnetic state can account for both stiffness-constant and magnetization behaviors.« less

  11. Unprecedented {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} polymeric chains and four novel organic-inorganic hybrids based on Mo-POMs and azaheterocycles templates

    SciTech Connect

    Du Haijuan; Zunzhe Shu; Niu Yunyin, E-mail: niuyy@zzu.edu.cn

    2012-06-15

    Abstrct: Four novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on Mo-POMs and organic templates, namely [DEB] [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}] [NH{sub 4}]{sub 2} (1), [BMIM] [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (2), [BMIM] [1D-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5} (3) and {l_brace}3D-[Cu(DIE){sub 2}] [1D-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}{r_brace}{sub {infinity}} (4) [DEB= 1,1 Prime -diethyl-4,4 Prime -bipyridinium, BMIM=1,1 Prime -bis(1-methylimidazolium)methylene, DIE=1,2-diimidazoloethane] have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds 1 and 2 are POMs-based supramolecular compounds consisted of independent [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} anions and [DEB]{sup 2+} or [BMIM]{sup 2+} organic cations. Compound 3 is themore » first external template example of Mo-POMs-based supramolecular network incorporated with novel {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} polymeric chains. Compound 4 is a rare supramolecular structure that contains octamolybdate {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} polymeric chains interconnected via DIE ligands to form a 3D net. Moreover, it was indicated that these polyacid compounds had definite catalytic activities on the probe reaction of acetaldehyde oxidation to acetic acid with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Four novel organic templated polyoxometalates comprising of 0D, 1D and 3D supramolecular frameworks together with the catalytic activities on the acetaldehyde oxidation to acetic acid were reported. Highlights: Using cation templated self-assembly four novel polyoxometalates were prepared. Compounds 1 and 2 consisted of independent [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} anions and organic cations. Compound 3 is the first external template-assisted POMs with {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} chain. Compound 4 is a rare 3D

  12. Alloy catalysts for fuel cell-based alcohol sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavidel, Mohammadreza Zamanzad

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attractive from both economic and environmental standpoints for generating renewable energy and powering vehicles and portable electronic devices. There is a great interest recently in developing DEFC systems. The cost and performance of the DEFCs are mainly controlled by the Pt-base catalysts used at each electrode. In addition to energy conversion, DEFC technology is commonly employed in the fuel-cell based breath alcohol sensors (BrAS). BrAS is a device commonly used to measure blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and enforce drinking and driving laws. The BrAS is non-invasive and has a fast respond time. However, one of the most important drawback of the commercially available BrAS is the very high loading of Pt employed. One well-known and cost effective method to reduce the Pt loading is developing Pt-alloy catalysts. Recent studies have shown that Pt-transition metal alloy catalysts enhanced the electroactivity while decreasing the required loadings of the Pt catalysts. In this thesis, carbon supported Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu electrocatalysts were synthesized by different methods and the effects of heat treatment and structural modification on the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability of these samples were thoroughly studied. Finally, the selected Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu samples with the highest EOR activity were examined in a prototype BrAS system and compared to the Pt/C and Pt 3Sn/C commercial electrocatalysts. Studies on the Pt-Mn catalysts produced with and without additives indicate that adding trisodium citrate (SC) to the impregnation solution improved the particle dispersion, decreased particle sizes and reduced the time required for heat treatment. Further studies show that the optimum weight ratio of SC to the metal loading in the impregnation solution was 2:1 and optimum results achieved at pH lower than 4. In addition, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate

  13. Plate-shaped transformation products in zirconium-base alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, S.; Dey, G. K.; Srivastava, D.; Ranganathan, S.

    1997-11-01

    Plate-shaped products resulting from martensitic, diffusional, and mixed mode transformations in zirconium-base alloys are compared in the present study. These alloys are particularly suitable for the comparison in view of the fact that the lattice correspondence between the parent β (bcc) and the product α (hcp) or γ-hydride (fct) phases are remarkably similar for different types of transformations. Crystallographic features such as orientation relations, habit planes, and interface structures associated with these transformations have been compared, with a view toward examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables. Martensites exhibiting dislocated lath, internally twinned plate, and self-accommodating three-plate cluster morphologies have been encountered in Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Habit planes corresponding to all these morphologies have been found to be consistent with the predictions based on the invariant plane strain (IPS) criterion. Different morphologies have been found to reflect the manner in which the neighboring martensite variants are assembled. Lattice-invariant shears (LISs) for all these cases have been identified to be either {10 bar 11} α < bar 1123> α slip or twinning on {10 bar 11} α planes. Widmanstätten α precipitates, forming in a step-quenching treatment, have been shown to have a lath morphology, the α/β interface being decorated with a periodic array of < c + a> dislocations at a spacing of 8 to 10 nm. The line vectors of these dislocations are nearly parallel to the invariant lines. The α precipitates, forming in the retained β phase on aging, exhibit an internally twinned structure with a zigzag habit plane. Average habit planes for the morphologies have been found to lie near the {103} β — {113} β poles, which are close to the specific variant of the {112} β plane, which transforms into a prismatic plane of the type {1 bar 100} α . The crystallography of the

  14. Evaluation of Surface Roughness and Tensile Strength of Base Metal Alloys Used for Crown and Bridge on Recasting (Recycling)

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Syed W.; Rao, Yogesh; Garg, Akanksha

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental casting alloys play a prominent role in the restoration of the partial dentition. Casting alloys have to survive long term in the mouth and also have the combination of structure, molecules, wear resistance and biologic compatibility. According to ADA system casting alloys were divided into three groups (wt%); high noble, Noble and predominantly base metal alloys. Aim To evaluate the mechanical properties such as tensile strength and surface roughness of the new and recast base metal (nickel-chromium) alloys. Materials and Methods Recasting of the base metal alloys derived from sprue and button, to make it reusable has been done. A total of 200 test specimens were fabricated using specially fabricated jig of metal and divided into two groups- 100 specimens of new alloy and 100 specimens of recast alloys, which were tested for tensile strength on universal testing machine and surface roughness on surface roughness tester. Results Tensile strength of new alloy showed no statistically significant difference (p-value>0.05) from recast alloy whereas new alloy had statistically significant surface roughness (Maximum and Average surface roughness) difference (p-value<0.01) as compared to recast alloy. Conclusion Within the limitations of the study it is concluded that the tensile strength will not be affected by recasting of nickel-chromium alloy whereas surface roughness increases markedly. PMID:26393194

  15. Evaluation of Surface Roughness and Tensile Strength of Base Metal Alloys Used for Crown and Bridge on Recasting (Recycling).

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Amit; Hashmi, Syed W; Rao, Yogesh; Garg, Akanksha

    2015-07-01

    Dental casting alloys play a prominent role in the restoration of the partial dentition. Casting alloys have to survive long term in the mouth and also have the combination of structure, molecules, wear resistance and biologic compatibility. According to ADA system casting alloys were divided into three groups (wt%); high noble, Noble and predominantly base metal alloys. To evaluate the mechanical properties such as tensile strength and surface roughness of the new and recast base metal (nickel-chromium) alloys. Recasting of the base metal alloys derived from sprue and button, to make it reusable has been done. A total of 200 test specimens were fabricated using specially fabricated jig of metal and divided into two groups- 100 specimens of new alloy and 100 specimens of recast alloys, which were tested for tensile strength on universal testing machine and surface roughness on surface roughness tester. Tensile strength of new alloy showed no statistically significant difference (p-value>0.05) from recast alloy whereas new alloy had statistically significant surface roughness (Maximum and Average surface roughness) difference (p-value<0.01) as compared to recast alloy. Within the limitations of the study it is concluded that the tensile strength will not be affected by recasting of nickel-chromium alloy whereas surface roughness increases markedly.

  16. Selective thermal transformation of old computer printed circuit boards to Cu-Sn based alloy.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Ali; Pahlevani, Farshid; Cole, Ivan; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates, verifies and determines the optimal parameters for the selective thermal transformation of problematic electronic waste (e-waste) to produce value-added copper-tin (Cu-Sn) based alloys; thereby demonstrating a novel new pathway for the cost-effective recovery of resources from one of the world's fastest growing and most challenging waste streams. Using outdated computer printed circuit boards (PCBs), a ubiquitous component of e-waste, we investigated transformations across a range of temperatures and time frames. Results indicate a two-step heat treatment process, using a low temperature step followed by a high temperature step, can be used to produce and separate off, first, a lead (Pb) based alloy and, subsequently, a Cu-Sn based alloy. We also found a single-step heat treatment process at a moderate temperature of 900 °C can be used to directly transform old PCBs to produce a Cu-Sn based alloy, while capturing the Pb and antimony (Sb) as alloying elements to prevent the emission of these low melting point elements. These results demonstrate old computer PCBs, large volumes of which are already within global waste stockpiles, can be considered a potential source of value-added metal alloys, opening up a new opportunity for utilizing e-waste to produce metal alloys in local micro-factories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ignition characteristics of the nickel-based alloy UNS N07718 in pressurized oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bransford, James W.; Billiard, Phillip A.; Hurley, James A.; Mcdermott, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Isaura

    1989-01-01

    The development of ignition and combustion in pressurized oxygen atmospheres was studied for the nickel based alloy UNS N07718. Ignition of the alloy was achieved by heating the top. It was found that the alloy would autoheat to destruction from temperatures below the solidus temperature. In addition, endothermic events occurred as the alloy was heated, many at reproducible temperatures. Many endothermic events occurred prior to abrupt increases in surface temperature and appeared to accelerate the rate of increase in specimen temperature. It appeared that the source of some endotherms may increase the oxidation rate of the alloy. Ignition parameters are defined and the temperatures at which these parameters occur are given for the oxygen pressure range of 1.72 to 13.8 MPa (250 to 2000 psia).

  18. Microstructure and Properties of a Refractory NbCrMo0.5Ta0.5ZrTi Alloy (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    slightly enriched with Nb , Mo and Ta and depleted with Zr and Cr, and its lattice parameter after HIP was a = 324.76 ± 0.16 pm. The BCC2 phase was...FCC phase was highly enriched with Cr and it was identified as a Laves C15 phase, ( Zr ,Ta)(Cr,Mo, Nb )2, with the lattice parameter a = 733.38 ± 0.18 pm...with Nb , Mo and Ta and depleted with Zr and Cr, and its lattice parameter after HIP was a = 324.76 ± 0.16 pm. The BCC2 phase was enriched with Zr and Ti

  19. A MoTe2 based light emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bie, Ya-Qing; Heuck, M.; Grosso, G.; Furchi, M.; Cao, Y.; Zheng, J.; Navarro-Moratalla, E.; Zhou, L.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Kong, J.; Englund, D.; Jarillo-Herrero, P.

    A key challenge in photonics today is to address the interconnects bottleneck in high-speed computing systems. Silicon photonics has emerged as a leading architecture, partly because many components such as waveguides, interferometers and modulators, could be integrated on silicon-based processors. However, light sources and photodetectors present continued challenges. Common approaches for light source include off-chip or wafer-bonded lasers based on III-V materials, but studies show advantages for directly modulated light sources. The most advanced photodetectors in silicon photonics are based on germanium growth which increases system cost. The emerging two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offer a path for optical interconnects components that can be integrated with the CMOS processing by back-end-of-the-line processing steps. Here we demonstrate a silicon waveguide-integrated light source and photodetector based on a p-n junction of bilayer MoTe2, a TMD semiconductor with infrared band gap. The state-of-the-art fabrication technology provides new opportunities for integrated optoelectronic systems.

  20. Damage structures in fission-neutron irradiated Ni-based alloys at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, K.; Shimomura, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The defects formed in Ni based (Ni-Si, Ni-Cu and Ni-Fe) alloys which were irradiated with fission-neutrons were examined by electron microscopy. Irradiations were carried out at 473 K and 573 K. In the 473 K irradiated specimens, a high density of large interstitial loops and small vacancy clusters with stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) were observed. The number densities of these two types of defects did not strongly depend on the amount of solute atoms in each alloy. The density of the loops in Ni-Si alloys was much higher than those in Ni-Cu and Ni-Fe alloys, while the density of SFT only slightly depended on the kind of solute. Also, the size of the loops depended on the kinds and amounts of solute. In 573 K irradiated Ni-Cu specimens, a high density of dislocation lines developed during the growth of interstitial loops. In Ni-Si alloys, the number density and size of the interstitial loops changed as a function of the amount of solute. Voids were formed in Ni-Cu alloys but scarcely formed in Ni-Si alloys. The number density of voids was one hundredth of that of SFT observed in 473 K irradiated Ni-Cu alloys. Possible formation processes of interstitial loops, SFT dislocation lines and voids are discussed.