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Sample records for moab uranium mill

  1. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  2. Limited Groundwater Investigation of The Atlas Corporation Moab Mill, Moab, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, CE

    2001-11-05

    The project described in this report was conducted by personnel from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Grand Junction Office (ORNL/GJ). The purpose was to refine information regarding groundwater contamination emanating from the Atlas Corporation's former uranium mill in Moab, Utah.

  3. DOE/EIS-0355 Remediation of the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, Final Environmental Impact Statement (July 2005)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2005-08-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is proposing to clean up surface contamination and implement a ground water compliance strategy to address contamination that resulted from historical uranium-ore processing at the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Site (Moab site), Grand County, Utah. Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) {section} 4321 et seq., DOE prepared this environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the potential environmental impacts of remediating the Moab site and vicinity properties (properties where uranium mill tailings were used as construction or fill material before the potential hazards associated with the tailings were known). DOE analyzed the potential environmental impacts of both on-site and off-site remediation and disposal alternatives involving both surface and ground water contamination. DOE also analyzed the No Action alternative as required by NEPA implementing regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality. DOE has determined that its preferred alternatives are the off-site disposal of the Moab uranium mill tailings pile, combined with active ground water remediation at the Moab site. The preferred off-site disposal location is the Crescent Junction site, and the preferred method of transportation is rail. The basis for this determination is discussed later in this Summary. DOE has entered into agreements with 12 federal, tribal, state, and local agencies to be cooperating agencies in the development and preparation of this EIS. Several of the cooperating agencies have jurisdiction by law and intend to use the EIS to support their own decisionmaking. The others have expertise relevant to potential environmental, social, or economic impacts within their geographic regions. During the preparation of the EIS, DOE met with the cooperating agencies, provided them with opportunities to review preliminary versions of the document, and addressed their comments

  4. Tailings Pile Seepage Model The Atlas Corporation Moab Mill Moab, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, CE

    2001-11-05

    The project described in this report was conducted by personnel from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Grand Junction Office (ORNL/GJ). This report has been prepared as a companion report to the Limited Groundwater Investigation of the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill, Moab, Utah. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the tailings pile seepage modeling effort tasked by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  5. Supplemental Modeling and Analysis Report, Atlas Corporation Moab Mill, Moab, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, CE

    2001-11-05

    The purpose of this report is to provide additional numerical modeling and data evaluation for the Atlas tailings pile near Moab, Utah. A previous report (Tailings Pile Seepage Model: The Atlas Corporation Moab Mill, Moab, Utah, January 9, 1998) prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Grand Junction (ORNL/GJ) presented the results of steady-state modeling of water flow and subsequent discharge to the underlying groundwater system. At the request of the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), this model was expanded to evaluate the impact of drainage from the tailings pile in addition to recharge from precipitation in a transient mode simulation. In addition, the FWS requested transient simulations of contaminant transport in the alluvial aquifer. Subsequently, NRC requested an evaluation of additional hydrologic issues related to the results presented in the Tailings Pile Seepage Model (ORNL/GJ 1998a) and the Limited Groundwater Investigation (ORNL/GJ 1998b). Funding for the report was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy. The following section lists the individual tasks with subsequent sections providing the results. A map for the Atlas Moab Mill site is presented in Fig. 1.1.

  6. Final technical evaluation report for the proposed revised reclamation plan for the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This final Technical Evaluation Report (TER) summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff`s review of Atlas Corporation`s proposed reclamation plan for its uranium mill tailings pile near Moab, Utah. The proposed reclamation would allow Atlas to (1) reclaim the tailings pile for permanent disposal and long-term custodial care by a government agency in its current location on the Moab site, (2) prepare the site for closure, and (3) relinquish responsibility of the site after having its NRC license terminated. The NRC staff concludes that, subject to license conditions identified in the TER, the proposed reclamation plan meets the requirements identified in NRC regulations, which appear primarily in 10 CFR Part 40. 112 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions...

  8. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  9. Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Latkovich, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

  10. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  11. Domestic uranium mining and milling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A field hearing was held in Riverton, Wyoming on the erosion of the state's uranium industry as production and capital investment have declined and inventories have continued to rise because of a shift to foreign suppliers. The result has been serious unemployment in Wyoming and a decline in uranium mines from 5400 in 1980 to the present 1200. The seven witnesses spoke for the mining industry and state and federal government. Among the issues raised were mining regulations and the cancellation of nuclear rejects which have impacted the health of the industry. Additional statements and a report supplied for the record follow their testimony. (DCK)

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  13. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  14. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    SciTech Connect

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Tamura, T.; Williams, J.D.

    1984-03-01

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10/sup -3/ cm/s to values approaching 10/sup -7/ cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10/sup -8/ cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table.

  15. Intense alpha-particle emitting crystallites in uranium mill wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Stieff, L.R.; Germani, M.S.; Tanner, A.B.; Evans, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion microscopy has demonstrated the presence of small, intense ??-particle emitting crystallites in laboratory-produced tailings derived from the sulfuric acid milling of uranium ores. The ??-particle activity is associated with the isotope pair 210Pb 210Po, and the host mineral appears to be PbSO4 occurring as inclusions in gypsum laths. These particles represent potential inhalation hazards at uranium mill tailings disposal areas. ?? 1994.

  16. Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200/sup 0/C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the /sup 222/Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of ..cap alpha..-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature (500 to 1200(NiAsS) are considered possible species for consideraed. The calculated activity data of the various carbonate, sulfate and hydroxide species in the Li/sup +/Na/sup +/K/sup +//CO/sub 3/ = SO/sub 4/ = OH/sup -/ system have been combined f liquidus surfaces, and estimated error limits are given for each system. A comng payback period, but as the initial cost of the SAHPS is reduced and fuel prices increase, the payback period of a SAHPS will be shorter and could be competitive with other conventional heating/cooling systems.

  17. Measurements of uranium mill tailings consolidation characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M J

    1985-02-01

    A series of experiments were conducted on uranium mill tailings from the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, to determine their consolidation characteristics. Three materials (sand, sand/slimes mix, slimes) were loaded under saturated conditions to determine their saturated consolidated behavior. During a separate experiment, samples of the slimes material were kept under a constant load while the pore pressure was increased to determine the partially saturated consolidation behavior. Results of the saturated tests compared well with published data. Sand consolidated the least, while slimes consolidated the most. As each material consolidated, the measured hydraulic conductivity decreased in a linear fashion with respect to the void ratio. Partially saturated experiments with the slimes indicated that there was little consolidation as the pore pressure was increased progressively above 7 kPa. The small amount of consolidation that did occur was only a fraction of the amount of saturated consolidation. Preliminary measurements between pore pressures of 0 and 7 kPa indicated that measurable consolidation could occur in this range of pore pressure, but only if there was no load. 13 references, 13 figures.

  18. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action 1993 Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    The 1993 Roadmap for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project office is a tool to assess and resolve issues. The US Department of Energy (DOE) UMTRA Project Office uses the nine-step roadmapping process as a basis for Surface and Groundwater Project planning. This is the second year the Roadmap document has been used to identify key issues and assumptions, develop logic diagrams, and outline milestones. This document is a key element of the DOE planning process. A multi-interest group used the nine-step process to focus on issues, root cause analysis and resolutions. This core group updated and incorporated comments on the basic assumptions, then used these assumptions to identify issues. The list of assumptions was categorized into the following areas: institutional, regulatory compliance, project management, human resource requirements, and other site-specific assumptions. The group identified 10 issues in the analysis phase. All of the issues are ranked according to importance. The number one issue from the 1992 Roadmap, ``Lack of sufficient human resources,`` remained the number one issue in 1993. The issues and their ranking are as follows: Lack of sufficient human resources; increasing regulatory requirements; unresolved groundwater issues; extension of UMTRCA through September 30, 1998; lack of post-UMTRA and post-cell closure policies; unpredictable amounts and timing of Federal funding; lack of regulatory compliance agreements; problem with states providing their share of remedial action costs; different interests and priorities among participants; and technology development/transfer. The issues are outlined and analyzed in detail in Section 8.0, with a schedule for resolution of these issues in Section 9.0.

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  20. Accelerated aging tests of liners for uranium mill tailings disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, S.M.; Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.

    1981-11-01

    This document describes the results of accelerated aging tests to determine the long-term effectiveness of selected impoundment liner materials in a uranium mill tailings environment. The study was sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The study was designed to evaluate the need for, and the performance of, several candidate liners for isolating mill tailings leachate in conformance with proposed Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. The liners were subjected to conditions known to accelerate the degradation mechanisms of the various liners. Also, a test environment was maintained that modeled the expected conditions at a mill tailings impoundment, including ground subsidence and the weight loading of tailings on the liners. A comparison of installation costs was also performed for the candidate liners. The laboratory testing and cost information prompted the selection of a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane and a sodium bentonite-amended soil for fiscal year 1981 field testing.

  1. Reclamation and groundwater restoration in the uranium milling industry: An assessment of UMTRCA, title II

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    In 1978, Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) to regulate the disposal and reclamation of uranium mill tailings.This article examines the implementation of this legislation through eight cases of uranium mills in New Mexico, Wyoming, and Utah now being reclaimed. The eight cases examined here make up an important part of the total reclamation picture in the uranium milling industry.

  2. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. [UMTRA project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is explicitly stated and directed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereinafter referred to as the Act.'' Title I of the Act authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at designated inactive uranium processing sites (Attachment 1 and 2) and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials derived from the processing site. The purpose of the remedial actions is to stabilize and control such uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials in a safe and environmentally sound manner to minimize radiation health hazards to the public. The principal health hazards and environmental concerns are: the inhalation of air particulates contaminated as a result of the emanation of radon from the tailings piles and the subsequent decay of radon daughters; and the contamination of surface and groundwaters with radionuclides or other chemically toxic materials. This UMTRA Project Plan identifies the mission and objectives of the project, outlines the technical and managerial approach for achieving them, and summarizes the performance, cost, and schedule baselines which have been established to guide operational activity. Estimated cost increases by 15 percent, or if the schedule slips by six months. 4 refs.

  3. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling: an American view

    SciTech Connect

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-08-18

    The radiation dose rates to man from uranium milling activities are discussed. The sources of radiation, the radioisotopes involved, and the environmental exposure pathways are described. Risks of cancer to exposed individuals are presented and recommendations made for mitigation of contamination. (ACR)

  4. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

  5. Leaching of 226Ra from components of uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    A sequential extraction procedure was used to characterize the geochemical forms of 226Ra retained by mixtures of quartz sand and a variety of fine-grained rock and mineral species. These mixtures had previously been exposed to the sulfuric acid milling liquor of a simulated acid-leach uranium milling circuit. For most test cases, the major fraction of the 226Ra was extracted with 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and was deemed to be exchangeable. However, 226Ra retained by the barite-containing mixture was resistant to both 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and 1 mol/HCHCl extraction. ?? 1991.

  6. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

  7. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Sandia's activities in uranium mill tailings remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, S.

    1980-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 requires that remedial action be taken at over 20 inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the United States. Standards promulgated by the EPA under this act are to be the operative standards for this activity. Proposed standards must still undergo internal review, public comment, and receive Nuclear Regulatory Commission concurrence before being finalized. Briefly reviewed, the standards deal separately with new disposal sites (Part A) and cleanup of soil and contaminated structures at existing locations (Part B). In several cases, the present sites are felt to be too close to human habitations or to be otherwise unacceptably located. These tailings will probably be relocated. New disposal sites for relocated tailings must satisfy certain standards. The salient features of these standards are summarized.

  9. Uranium mill tailings remedial action project real estate management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This plan summarizes the real estate requirements of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Action (UMTRA) Project, identifies the roles and responsibilities of project participants involved in real estate activities, and describes the approaches used for completing these requirements. This document is intended to serve as a practical guide for all project participants. It is intended to be consistent with all formal agreements, but if a conflict is identified, the formal agreements will take precedence.

  10. Computational modelling of final covers for uranium mill tailings impoundments.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Guilherme Luís Menegassi; Almeida, Márcio de Souza Soares; Fernandes, Horst Monken

    2004-07-01

    To properly design a final cover for uranium mill tailings impoundments the designer must attempt to find an effective geotechnical solution which addresses the radiological and non-radiological potential impact and prevents geochemical processes from occurring within the tailings. This paper presents a computer-based method for evaluating the performance of engineered final covers for the remediation of uranium mill tailings impoundments. Three hypothetical final covers were taken from scientific literature to investigate the proposed method: (i) a compacted clay liner (CCL); (ii) a composite liner (CL) and (iii) a capillary barrier (CB). The processes investigated: (i) the saturated hydraulic flux; (ii) the unsaturated hydraulic flux (exclusively for the capillary barrier) and (iii) the radon exhalation to the atmosphere. The computer programs utilised for the analyses are: (i) Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP); (ii) SEEP/W and (iii) RADON. The site considered for the development of the research presented herein was the uranium mill tailings impoundment located at the Brazilian city of Poços de Caldas, in the Minas Gerais State. PMID:15177735

  11. Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from the changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are: rock cover, soil and revegetation, or a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment, heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%.

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Public Participation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to explain the Department of Energy`s plan for involving the public in the decision-making process related to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This project was authorized by Congress in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act provides for a cooperative effort with affected states and Indian tribes for the eventual cleanup of abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings sites, which are located in nine western states and in Pennsylvania. Section 111 of the Act states, ``in carrying out the provisions of this title, including the designation of processing sites, establishing priorities for such sites, the selection of remedial actions and the execution of cooperative agreements, the Secretary (of Energy), the Administrator (of the Environmental Protection Agency), and the (Nuclear Regulatory) Commission shall encourage public participation and, where appropriate, the Secretary shall hold public hearings relative to such matters in the States where processing sites and disposal sites are located.`` The objective of this document is to show when, where, and how the public will be involved in this project.

  13. Geochemical hosts of solubilized radionuclides in uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Bush, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The solubilization and subsequent resorption of radionuclides by ore components or by reaction products during the milling of uranium ores may have both economic and environmental consequences. Particle-size redistribution of radium during milling has been demonstrated by previous investigators; however, the identification of sorbing components in the tailings has received little experimental attention. In this study, uranium-bearing sandstone ore was milled, on a laboratory scale, with sulfuric acid. At regular intervals, filtrate from this suspension was placed in contact with mixtures of quartz sand and various potential sorbents which occur as gangue in uranium ores; the potential sorbents included clay minerals, iron and aluminum oxides, feldspar, fluorspar, barite, jarosite, coal, and volcanic glass. After equilibration, the quartz sand-sorbent mixtures were separated from the filtrate and radioassayed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the quantities of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb sorbed, and the radon emanation coefficients. Sorption of 238U was low in all cases, with maximal sorptions of 1-2% by the bentonite- and coal-bearing samples. 230Th sorption also was generally less than 1%; maximal sorption here was observed in the fluorspar-bearing sample and appears to be associated with the formation of gypsum during milling. 226Ra and 210 Pb generally showed higher sorption than the other nuclides - more than 60% of the 26Ra solubilized from the ore was sorbed on the barite-bearing sample. The mechanism (s) for this sorption by a wide variety of substrates is not yet understood. Radon emanation coefficients of the samples ranged from about 5 to 30%, with the coal-bearing samples clearly demonstrating an emanating power higher than any of the other materials. ?? 1990.

  14. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the october 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Option II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost is estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three prinicpal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  16. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. 1995 Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 23 1. 1, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, the DOE prepares an annual report to document the activities of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring program. This monitoring must comply with appropriate laws, regulations, and standards, and it must identify apparent and meaningful trends in monitoring results. The results of all monitoring activities must be communicated to the public. The UMTRA Project has prepared annual environmental reports to the public since 1989.

  17. 77 FR 35431 - Final Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, CO, Uranium Mill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... standards for a 30-day comment period (76 FR 70170; November 10, 2011). The public comment period and... COMMISSION Final Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, CO, Uranium Mill AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Uranium milling alternative standards. SUMMARY: This document announces that...

  18. The new nuclear west: Uranium milling as community on Colorado's western slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, Abraham S. D.

    In mid-2007, Energy Fuels, a Toronto-based uranium mining and milling company, announced their intent to build Piñon Ridge, the first new conventional uranium mill in the United States in 30 years. The prospect of a return to uranium milling has mobilized community support to bring back an industry some see as both familiar and capable of supporting and growing their communities. Using transcripts generated during the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment's public meetings and hearings during 2010 and 2012, this study examines how proponents of the mill frame the socioeconomic advantages of bringing the industry back. Applying Kinsella's bounded constitutive model of communication, this study shows that the community and the uranium mill are bound in a "sorge-enframing" duality where the care generated by each binds the other to the recalcitrant nature of the uranium industry and preconceived notions of socioeconomic development, respectively.

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Surface Project Management Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties (VP) containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials. The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project is to minimize or eliminate radiation health hazards to the public and the environment at the 24 sites and related VPs. This document describes the management organization, system, and methods used to manage the design, construction, and other activities required to clean up the designated sites and associated VPs, in accordance with the UMTRCA.

  20. Radon attenuation handbook for uranium mill tailings cover design

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, V.C.; Nielson, K.K.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1984-04-01

    This handbook has been prepared to facilitate the design of earthen covers to control radon emission from uranium mill tailings. Radon emissions from bare and covered uranium mill tailings can be estimated from equations based on diffusion theory. Basic equations are presented for calculating surface radon fluxes from covered tailings, or alternately, the cover thicknesses required to satisfy a given radon flux criterion. Also described is a computer code, RAECOM, for calculating cover thicknesses and surface fluxes. Methods are also described for measuring diffusion coefficients for radon, or for estimating them from empirical correlations. Since long-term soil moisture content is a critical parameter in determining the value of the diffusion coefficient, methods are given for estimating the long-term moisture contents of soils. The effects of cover defects or advection are also discussed and guidelines are given for determining if they are significant. For most practical cases, advection and cover defect effects on radon flux can be neglected. Several examples are given to demonstrate cover design calculations, and an extensive list of references is included. 63 references, 18 figures, 6 tables.

  1. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO/sub 3/) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    The Liner Evaluation for Uranium Mill Tailings Program was conducted to evaluate the need for and performance of prospective lining materials for the long-term management of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. On the basis of program results, two materials have been identified: natural foundation soil amended with 10% sodium bentonite; catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The study showed that, for most situations, calcareous soils typical of Western US sites adequately buffer tailings leachates and prevent groundwater contamination without additional liner materials or amendments. Although mathematical modeling of disposal sites is recommended on a site-specific basis, there appears to be no reason to expect significant infiltration through the cover for most Western sites. The major water source through the tailings would be groundwater movement at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Even so column leaching studies showed that contaminant source terms were reduced to near maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water within one or two pore volumes; thus, a limited source term for groundwater contamination exists. At sites where significant groundwater movement or infiltration is expected and the tailings leachates are alkaline, however, the sodium bentonite or asphalt membrane may be necessary.

  3. Assessment of uranium exposure in a community near former uranium mining and milling

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, M.A.; Ramanujam, V.M.S.; Alcock, N.; Au, W.W.

    1997-10-01

    The northern region of Karnes County, Texas has been the site of extensive mining and milling of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) for over 30 years. Measurements of {sup 238}U were conducted to test the hypothesis that past mining/milling efforts have increased the environmental burden of {sup 238}U in local residential areas. {sup 238}U concentrations and lead isotope ratios were measured by ICP-MS in soil, plant tissues, household furnace filters, carpet dusts and drinking water. Soil samples (n=75) were collected from the yards of previously studied homes at the surface and 30 cm subsurface. From each home carpet vacuums, filter entrapments and dust swabs were collected (total n=15) as were water wells samples when available (n=7). A site located over 8 miles south of the study area and with no history of mining or milling facilities was found to be consistently and statistically (p<0.05) higher than corresponding subsurface samples. Lead isotope ratio analysis of soil indicates a specific source of {sup 238}U contamination in the study area from high grade imported ore. The water sample near the largest mining/milling operation compared to the control site, indicating leaching into the groundwater. Analysis of dust samples indicates indoor contamination as {sup 238}U was as much as 10X higher in homes from the mining/milling areas compared to the control region. Data thus far indicates that uranium contamination from mining/milling activities is likely to be the cause of the previously documented biological effects and suggests increased health risks for these residents.

  4. Systematic evaluation of satellite remote sensing for identifying uranium mines and mills.

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Dianna Sue; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we systematically evaluate the ability of current-generation, satellite-based spectroscopic sensors to distinguish uranium mines and mills from other mineral mining and milling operations. We perform this systematic evaluation by (1) outlining the remote, spectroscopic signal generation process, (2) documenting the capabilities of current commercial satellite systems, (3) systematically comparing the uranium mining and milling process to other mineral mining and milling operations, and (4) identifying the most promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling that can be identified using satellite remote sensing. The Ranger uranium mine and mill in Australia serves as a case study where we apply and test the techniques developed in this systematic analysis. Based on literature research of mineral mining and milling practices, we develop a decision tree which utilizes the information contained in one or more observables to determine whether uranium is possibly being mined and/or milled at a given site. Promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling at the Ranger site included in the decision tree are uranium ore, sulfur, the uranium pregnant leach liquor, ammonia, and uranyl compounds and sulfate ion disposed of in the tailings pond. Based on the size, concentration, and spectral characteristics of these promising observables, we then determine whether these observables can be identified using current commercial satellite systems, namely Hyperion, ASTER, and Quickbird. We conclude that the only promising observables at Ranger that can be uniquely identified using a current commercial satellite system (notably Hyperion) are magnesium chlorite in the open pit mine and the sulfur stockpile. Based on the identified magnesium chlorite and sulfur observables, the decision tree narrows the possible mineral candidates at Ranger to uranium, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, the rare earths, and phosphorus, all of which are

  5. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, p<0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, p<0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p<0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent.

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.` different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning of the uranium mill and processing plant at Seelingstaedt, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Barnekow, Ulf; Bauroth, Matthias; Paul, Michael

    2007-07-01

    In Eastern Germany uranium mining lasted from 1946 till 1990 including a production of in total 220,000 t of uranium. The Seelingstaedt Uranium Mill and Processing Plant, located in Thuringia, Germany, was one of two large uranium mills owned by Wismut. The mill was erected by 1960 and covered an area of 93 ha. From 1961 till 1991 a total of about 110 million t of different types of uranium ores were milled and processed at the Seelingstaedt mill. The mill produced ca. 110,000 t of uranium (in yellow cake). Demolition of the buildings and industrial facilities of the Seelingstaedt mill and processing plant site are nearly completed. The site is being decommissioned with respect to after-use aiming at afforestation and grasslands allowing for a stable plant succession. Decommissioning includes excavation and relocation of contaminated materials, reshaping of the site and construction of ditches for granting a stable surface runoff as well construction of access and maintenance roads. About 85% of the demolition and relocation works have been completed till to date. Last decommissioning works shall be completed by 2015. The present paper presents experiences made and progress achieved till to date. (authors)

  8. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  9. Moab's Living Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Grand County Public Library (GCPL) which was awarded the 2007 Best Small Library in America, an award sponsored by "Library Journal" and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Some 4800 of Grand County, Utah's 8,826 people live in Moab and the rest in the adjacent Spanish Valley and environs. The locals are a sizable group…

  10. Psychosocial and health impacts of uranium mining and milling on Navajo lands.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Susan E; Madsen, Gary E

    2011-11-01

    The uranium industry in the American Southwest has had profoundly negative impacts on American Indian communities. Navajo workers experienced significant health problems, including lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases, and psychosocial problems, such as depression and anxiety. There were four uranium processing mills and approximately 1,200 uranium mines on the Navajo Nation's over 27,000 square miles. In this paper, a chronology is presented of how uranium mining and milling impacted the lives of Navajo workers and their families. Local community leaders organized meetings across the reservation to inform workers and their families about the relationship between worker exposures and possible health problems. A reservation-wide effort resulted in activists working with political leaders and attorneys to write radiation compensation legislation, which was passed in 1990 as the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) and included underground uranium miners, atomic downwinders, and nuclear test-site workers. Later efforts resulted in the inclusion of surface miners, ore truck haulers, and millworkers in the RECA Amendments of 2000. On the Navajo Nation, the Office of Navajo Uranium Workers was created to assist workers and their families to apply for RECA funds. Present issues concerning the Navajo and other uranium-impacted groups include those who worked in mining and milling after 1971 and are excluded from RECA. Perceptions about uranium health impacts have contributed recently to the Navajo people rejecting a resumption of uranium mining and milling on Navajo lands. PMID:21979550

  11. Safeguards on uranium ore concentrate? the impact of modern mining and milling process

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Increased purity in uranium ore concentrate not only raises the question as to whether Safeguards should be applied to the entirety of uranium conversion facilities, but also as to whether some degree of coverage should be moved back to uranium ore concentrate production at uranium mining and milling facilities. This paper looks at uranium ore concentrate production across the globe and explores the extent to which increased purity is evident and the underlying reasons. Potential issues this increase in purity raises for IAEA's strategy on the Starting Point of Safeguards are also discussed.

  12. Miscellaneous radioactive materials detected during uranium mill tailings surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management directed the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group in the conduct of radiological surveys on properties in Monticello, Utah, associated with the Mendaciously millsite National Priority List site. During these surveys, various radioactive materials were detected that were unrelated to the Monticello millsite. The existence and descriptions of these materials were recorded in survey reports and are condensed in this report. The radioactive materials detected are either naturally occurring radioactive material, such as rock and mineral collections, uranium ore, and radioactive coal or manmade radioactive material consisting of tailings from other millsites, mining equipment, radium dials, mill building scraps, building materials, such as brick and cinderblock, and other miscellaneous sources. Awareness of the miscellaneous and naturally occurring material is essential to allow DOE to forecast the additional costs and schedule changes associated with remediation activities. Also, material that may pose a health hazard to the public should be revealed to other regulatory agencies for consideration.

  13. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona: Phase 2, Construction, Subcontract documents: Appendix E, final report. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This appendix discusses Phase II construction and subcontract documents uranium mill site near Tuba City, Arizona. It contains the bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings.

  14. Forage uptake of uranium series radionuclides in the vicinity of the anaconda uranium mill

    SciTech Connect

    Rayno, D.R.; Momeni, M.H.; Sabau, C.

    1980-01-01

    Radiochemical analysis was performed on samples of soil and eight species of common vegetation growing on the Anaconda uranium mill site, located in New Mexico. The concentrations of the long-lived radionuclides U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210 in these forage plants were determined. The sampling procedures and analytical laboratory methods used are described. The highest radionuclide concentration found in a forage species was 130 pCi of Ra-226 per gram dry weight for grass growing on the main tailings pile at Anaconda, where the surface soil activity of Ra-226 was 236 pCi/g. A comparison of shoots activity with that of roots and soil was used to determine a distribution index and uptake coefficient for each species. The distribution index, the ratio of root activity to shoot activity, ranged from 0.30 (Th-230) in galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii) to 38.0 (Ra-226) in Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides). In nearly all instances, the roots contained higher radionuclide concentrations. The uptake coefficient, the ratio of vegetation activity to soil activity, ranged from 0.69 (U-238) in Indian ricegrass roots to 0.01 (U-238) in four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescans) shoots. The range of radionuclide concentrations in plants growing on the Anaconda mill site is compared to that in vegetation from a control site 20 km away.

  15. Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.

    1982-08-01

    This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost of the three systems. These analyses were based on a generic disposal site. Four different 3m thick earthen covers were tested and cost an average of $27/m/sup 2/. The least expensive earthen cover cost was about $21/m/sup 2/. The asphalt cover system (6 to 7 cm of asphalt topped with 0.6m of overburden) cost about $28/m/sup 2/. The four multilayer covers averaged $57/m/sup 2/, but materials handling problems encountered during the test inflated this cost above what was anticipated and significant cost reductions should be possible. The least expensive multilayer cover cost $43/m/sup 2/. Based on the results of the Grand Junction field test we estimated the cost of covering the tailings from three high priority sites, Durango, Shiprock, and Salt Lake City (Vitro). The cost of a 3m earthen cover ranged from $18 to 33/m/sup 2/ for the seven disposal sites (two or three at each location) studied. The cost of asphalt cover systems were $23 to 28/m/sup 2/ and the multilayer cover costs were between $31 to 36/m/sup 2/. The earthen cover costs are less than the Grand Junction field test cost primarily because cover material is available at or near most of the disposal sites selected. Earthen material was imported from 6 to 10 miles for the field test. Assuming more efficienct utilization of materials significantly reduced the cost of the multilayer covers.

  16. Uranium and thorium leached from uranium mill tailing of Guangdong Province, China and its implication for radiological risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Liu, J; Zhu, L; Qi, J Y; Chen, Y H; Xiao, T F; Fu, S M; Wang, C L; Li, J W

    2012-11-01

    The paper focused on the leaching behaviour of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) from uranium mill tailing collected from the Uranium Mill Plant in Northern Guangdong Province, China. Distilled water (pH 6) and sulphuric acid solution (pH 4 and 3) were used as solvent for the leaching over 22 weeks. It was found that the cumulative leach fraction from the mill tailing was 0.1, 0.1 and 0.7 % for U release, and overall 0.01 % for Th release, using distilled water, sulphuric acid solution of pH 4 and pH 3 as leaching agents, respectively. The results indicate that (1) the release of U and Th in uranium mill tailing is a slow and long-term process; (2) surface dissolution is the main mechanism for the release of U and Th when sulphuric acid solution of pH 3 is employed as the leaching agent; (3) both U and Th are released by diffusion when using sulphuric acid solution of pH 4 as the leaching agent and (4) U is released by surface dissolution, while Th is released by diffusion when using distilled water as the leaching agent. The implication for radiological risk in the real environment was also discussed.

  17. Scientific basis for risk assessment and management of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    A National Research Council study panel, convened by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management, has examined the scientific basis for risk assessment and management of uranium mill tailings and issued this final report containing a number of recommendations. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the problem. Chapter 2 examines the processes of uranium extraction and the mechanisms by which radionuclides and toxic chemicals contained in the ore can enter the environment. Chapter 3 is devoted to a review of the evidence on health risks associated with radon and its decay products. Chapter 4 provides a consideration of conventional and possible new technical alternatives for tailings management. Chapter 5 explores a number of issues of comparative risk, provides a brief history of uranium mill tailings regulation, and concludes with a discussion of choices that must be made in mill tailing risk management. 211 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  19. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  20. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  1. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  2. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  3. Regulatory impact analysis of environmental standards for uranium mill tailings at active sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency was directed by Congress, under PL 95-604, the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, to set standards of general application that provide protection from the hazards associated with uranium mill tailings. Title I of the Act pertains to tailings at inactive sites for which the Agency has developed standards as part of a separate rulemaking. Title II of the Act requires standards covering the processing and disposal of byproduct materials at mills which are currently licensed by the appropriate regulatory authorities. This Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) addresses the standards developed under Title II. There are two major parts of the standards for active mills: standards for control of releases from tailings during processing operations and prior to final disposal, and standards for protection of the public after the disposal of tailings. This report presents a detailed analysis of standards for disposal only, since the analysis required for the operations standards is very limited.

  4. Groundwater leaching of neutralized and untreated acid-leached uranium-mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.; Begej, C.W.; Campbell, A.C.; Sauter, N.N.; Opitz, B.E.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Tailings neutralization was examined to determine the effect of neutralization on contaminant release. Column leaching of acid extracted uranium mill tailings from Exxon Highland Mill, Wyoming, Pathfinder Gas Hills Mill, Wyoming, and the Dawn Midnite Mill, Washington, resulted in the flushing of high concentrations of salts in the first four pore volumes of leachate, followed by a steady decrease to the original groundwater salt concentrations. Neutralization decreased the concentration of salts and radionuclides leaching from the tailings and decreased the volume of solution required to return the solution to the groundwater pH and EC. Radium-226 and uranium-238 leached quickly from the tailings in the initial pore volumes of both neutralized and unneutralized tailings, and then decreased significantly. 6 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Mobilization of radionuclides from uranium mill tailings and related waste materials in anaerobic environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Specific extraction studies in our laboratory have shown that iron and manganese oxide- and alkaline earth sulfate minerals are important hosts of radium in uranium mill tailings. Iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria may enhance the release of radium (and its analog barium) from uranium mill tailings, oil field pipe scale [a major technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) waste], and jarosite (a common mineral in sulfuric acid processed-tailings). These research findings are reviewed and discussed in the context of nuclear waste forms (such as barium sulfate matrices), radioactive waste management practices, and geochemical environments in the Earth's surficial and shallow subsurface regions.

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project: Project plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-11

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) [Public Law (PL) 95-604, 42 United States Code (USC) 7901], hereinafter referred to as the ``Act,`` authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination. To fulfill this mission, the DOE has established two projects under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office. The Ground Water Project was established in April 1991 as a major project and a separate project plan will be prepared for that portion of the mission. This project plan covers the UMTRA Surface Project, a major system acquisition (MSA).

  7. Annual status report on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This eleventh annual status report summarizes activities of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project undertaken during Fiscal Year (FY) 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies. Project goals for FY 1990 are also presented. An annual report of this type was a statutory requirement through January 1, 1986, pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95--604. The DOE will continue to submit an annual report through project completion in order to inform the public of yearly project status. Title I of the UMTRCA authorizes the DOE, in cooperation with affected states and Indian tribes within whose boundaries designated uranium processing sites are located, to provide a program of assessment and remedial action at such sites. The purpose of the remedial action is to stabilize and control the tailings and other residual radioactive materials located on the inactive uranium processing sites in a safe and environmentally sound manner and to minimize or eliminate potential radiation health hazards. Commercial and residential properties in the vicinity of designated processing sites that are contaminated with material from the sites, herein referred to as vicinity properties,'' are also eligible for remedial action. Included in the UMTRA Project are 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties located in 10 states, and the vicinity properties associated with Edgemont, South Dakota, an inactive uranium mill currently owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).

  8. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chernoff, A.R. . Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office); Lacker, D.K. . Bureau of Radiation Control)

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

  9. Sustainability of uranium mining and milling: toward quantifying resources and eco-efficiency.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Gavin M; Diesendorf, Mark

    2008-04-01

    The mining of uranium has long been a controversial public issue, and a renewed debate has emerged on the potential for nuclear power to help mitigate against climate change. The central thesis of pro-nuclear advocates is the lower carbon intensity of nuclear energy compared to fossil fuels, although there remains very little detailed analysis of the true carbon costs of nuclear energy. In this paper, we compile and analyze a range of data on uranium mining and milling, including uranium resources as well as sustainability metrics such as energy and water consumption and carbon emissions with respect to uranium production-arguably the first time for modern projects. The extent of economically recoverable uranium resources is clearly linked to exploration, technology, and economics but also inextricably to environmental costs such as energy/water/chemicals consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and social issues. Overall, the data clearly show the sensitivity of sustainability assessments to the ore grade of the uranium deposit being mined and that significant gaps remain in complete sustainability reporting and accounting. This paper is a case study of the energy, water, and carbon costs of uranium mining and milling within the context of the nuclear energy chain. PMID:18505007

  10. Sustainability of uranium mining and milling: toward quantifying resources and eco-efficiency.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Gavin M; Diesendorf, Mark

    2008-04-01

    The mining of uranium has long been a controversial public issue, and a renewed debate has emerged on the potential for nuclear power to help mitigate against climate change. The central thesis of pro-nuclear advocates is the lower carbon intensity of nuclear energy compared to fossil fuels, although there remains very little detailed analysis of the true carbon costs of nuclear energy. In this paper, we compile and analyze a range of data on uranium mining and milling, including uranium resources as well as sustainability metrics such as energy and water consumption and carbon emissions with respect to uranium production-arguably the first time for modern projects. The extent of economically recoverable uranium resources is clearly linked to exploration, technology, and economics but also inextricably to environmental costs such as energy/water/chemicals consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and social issues. Overall, the data clearly show the sensitivity of sustainability assessments to the ore grade of the uranium deposit being mined and that significant gaps remain in complete sustainability reporting and accounting. This paper is a case study of the energy, water, and carbon costs of uranium mining and milling within the context of the nuclear energy chain.

  11. Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. 76 FR 59173 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; withdrawal. SUMMARY: On May 30, 2008 (73 FR 31152... availability of Draft Regulatory Guide (DG)-3024, ``Standard Format and Content of License Applications...

  13. Radon releases from Australian uranium mining and milling projects: assessing the UNSCEAR approach.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Gavin M

    2008-02-01

    The release of radon gas and progeny from the mining and milling of uranium-bearing ores has long been recognised as a potential radiological health hazard. The standards for exposure to radon and progeny have decreased over time as the understanding of their health risk has improved. In recent years there has been debate on the long-term releases (10,000 years) of radon from uranium mining and milling sites, focusing on abandoned, operational and rehabilitated sites. The primary purpose has been estimates of the radiation exposure of both local and global populations. Although there has been an increasing number of radon release studies over recent years in the USA, Australia, Canada and elsewhere, a systematic evaluation of this work has yet to be published in the international literature. This paper presents a detailed compilation and analysis of Australian studies. In order to quantify radon sources, a review of data on uranium mining and milling wastes in Australia, as they influence radon releases, is presented. An extensive compilation of the available radon release data is then assembled for the various projects, including a comparison to predictions of radon behaviour where available. An analysis of cumulative radon releases is then developed and compared to the UNSCEAR approach. The implications for the various assessments of long-term releases of radon are discussed, including aspects such as the need for ongoing monitoring of rehabilitation at uranium mining and milling sites and life-cycle accounting.

  14. Project Charter (MSA-143). [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    Public Law 95-604, The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978'' as amended assigns to DOE, other Federal agencies, and involved States and Indian tribes, responsibilities for remedial actions at 22 inactive uranium mill tailings sites listed in the Act, and for any other sites designated by the Secretary prior to November 8, 1979. The objective of the UMTRA Project is to provide remedial action at the mill tailings sites and associated vicinity properties in order to stabilize and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner and to eliminate potential health hazards caused by residual levels of uranium decay products that exceed EPA standards. A total of 24 uranium mill tailings sites. This Project Charter delineates the respective responsibilities and authorities of (The Office of Nuclear Energy) (NE) and (Albuquerque Operations Office) (AL), and defines the terms and conditions for management of the UMTRA Project. Supplementary Project management documents which have been and are being developed pursuant to this Charter include a Project Plan (PP), a Project Management Plan (PMP) and other plans governing the accomplishment of the Project mission Evolution of the program will require updates of the Project Plan and Project Management Plan.

  15. Isolation of uranium mill tailings and their component radionuclides from the biosphere; some earth science perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling is an expanding activity in the. Western United States. Although the milling process yields a uranium concentrate, the large volume of tailings remaining contains about 85 percent of the radioactivity originally associated with the ore. By virtue of the physical and chemical processing of the ore and the redistribution of the contained radionuclides at the Earth's surface, these tailings constitute a technologically enhanced source of natural radiation exposure. Sources of potential human radiation exposure from uranium mill tailings include the emanation of radon gas, the transport of particles by wind and water, and the transport of soluble radionuclides, seeping from disposal areas, by ground water. Due to the 77,000 year half-life of thorium-230, the parent of radium-226, the environmental effects associated with radionuclides contained in these railings must be conceived of within the framework of geologic processes operating over geologic time. The magnitude of erosion of cover materials and tailings and the extent of geochemical mobilization of the contained radionuclides to the atmosphere and hydrosphere should be considered in the evaluation of the potential, long-term consequences of all proposed uranium mill tailings management plans.

  16. Elemental composition of airborne particulates in uranium mining and milling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Paschoa, A.S.; Wrenn, M.E.; Jones, K.W.; Cholewa, M.; Carvalho, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    Airborne particulates were collected through filters in occupational areas of the uranium mining and milling complex located in Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. The filters were analyzed by microPIXE (particle induced x-ray emission) combined with Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) of the incident protons. The results are discussed in the paper. 4 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  17. Environmental control technology for mining and milling low-grade uranium resources

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Long, L.W.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1981-04-01

    This study examined the type and level of wastes that would be generated in the mining and milling of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ from four potential domestic sources of uranium. The estimated costs of the technology to control these wastes to different degrees of stringency are presented.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  19. Fractal and Chaos Analysis for Dynamics of Radon Exhalation from Uranium Mill Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongmei; Tan, Wanyu; Tan, Kaixuan; Liu, Zehua; Xie, Yanshi

    2016-08-01

    Tailings from mining and milling of uranium ores potentially are large volumes of low-level radioactive materials. A typical environmental problem associated with uranium tailings is radon exhalation, which can significantly pose risks to environment and human health. In order to reduce these risks, it is essential to study the dynamical nature and underlying mechanism of radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings. This motivates the conduction of this study, which is based on the fractal and chaotic methods (e.g. calculating the Hurst exponent, Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension) and laboratory experiments of the radon exhalation rates. The experimental results show that the radon exhalation rate from uranium mill tailings is highly oscillated. In addition, the nonlinear analyses of the time series of radon exhalation rate demonstrate the following points: (1) the value of Hurst exponent much larger than 0.5 indicates non-random behavior of the radon time series; (2) the positive Lyapunov exponent and non-integer correlation dimension of the time series imply that the radon exhalation from uranium tailings is a chaotic dynamical process; (3) the required minimum number of variables should be five to describe the time evolution of radon exhalation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the internal factors, including heterogeneous distribution of radium, and randomness of radium decay, as well as the fractal characteristics of the tailings, can result in the chaotic evolution of radon exhalation from the tailings.

  20. Cleanup of inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Sites in the Navajo Nation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978 to address potential and significant radiation health hazards to the public from active and inactive mill operations. Title I to the UMTRCA identified sites to be designated for remedial action. These include four uranium mill tailings remedial action (UMTRA) sites in the Navajo Nation. These sites are located in Shiprock, New Mexico; Tuba City, Arizona; Cane Valley, Arizona; and Halchita, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was directed to select and execute a plan of remedial action that provides long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials and satisfies the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards and other applicable laws and regulations.

  1. Uranium mining and milling work force characteristics in the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.A.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the socioeconomic characteristics associated with 11 uranium mine and mill operations in 5 Western States. Comparisons are made with the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews for coal mines and utility plants in eight Western States. Worker productivity also is compared with that in similar types of coal and uranium mining operations. We found that there existed no significant differences between the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews and the secondary employment impacts associated with uranium mines and mills when compared with those associated with coal mines and utility plants requiring similar skills at comparable locations. In addition, our survey includes a comparison of several characteristics associated with the households of basic and nonbasic work forces and concludes that significant changes have occurred in the last 5 yr. Accordingly, we recommend additional monitoring and updating of data used in several economic forecasting models to avoid unwarranted delays in achieving national energy goals.

  2. Estimated dose to man from uranium milling via the terrestrial food-chain pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Rayno, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    One of the major pathways of radiological exposure to man from uranium milling operations is through the terrestrial food chain. Studies by various investigators have shown the extent of uptake and distribution of U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-210, and Po-210 in plants and animals. These long-lived natural radioisotopes, all nuclides of the uranium decay series, are found in concentrated amounts in uranium mill tailings. Data from these investigations are used to estimate the dose to man from consumption of beef and milk contaminated by the tailings. This dose estimate from this technologically enhanced source is compared with that from average normal dietary intake of these radionuclides from natural sources.

  3. Remediation of uranium mill tailings by an integrated biological and chemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Dilute calcium chloride brine solution was found to be effective in the solubilization of toxic heavy metals and long half-life radionuclides (Th-230, Ra-226 and Pb-210) from uranium ores and mill tailings. The recovery of heavy metals and radionuclides from uranium mill tailing effluents was studied with calcium alginate beads. The maximum cadmium and zinc uptakes by calcium alginate beads were determined to be 2.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] and 2.3 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] mol/dry weight of alginate. The kinetic values, V[sub m] and K, were calculated for uranium uptake by calcium alginate to be 96.2 mg/l/s and 0.125 g/l, respectively.

  4. Remediation of uranium mill tailings by an integrated biological and chemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1992-12-31

    Dilute calcium chloride brine solution was found to be effective in the solubilization of toxic heavy metals and long half-life radionuclides (Th-230, Ra-226 and Pb-210) from uranium ores and mill tailings. The recovery of heavy metals and radionuclides from uranium mill tailing effluents was studied with calcium alginate beads. The maximum cadmium and zinc uptakes by calcium alginate beads were determined to be 2.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} and 2.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mol/dry weight of alginate. The kinetic values, V{sub m} and K, were calculated for uranium uptake by calcium alginate to be 96.2 mg/l/s and 0.125 g/l, respectively.

  5. In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles.

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the processing sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the ground water from further degradation. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the processing sites on land administered by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project.

  7. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 2: Small mammal food chains and bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-06-01

    Food chain transfer through the soil-vegetation-small mammal food chain was measured by concentration ratios (CRs) for uranium, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po at three sites near the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Plant/soil CRs, animal carcass/GI tract CRs, and animal/soil CRs were depressed at sites impacted by mill and tailings dusts relative to a nearby control site. Thus, radionuclides associated with large particulates in tailings and/or ore dusts may be less bioavailable to terrestrial plants and animals than natural sources of radioactive dust. These results show that reliance on default food chain transfer parameters, obtained from uncontaminated terrestrial ecosystems, may overpredict impacts at uranium mine and mill sites. Given the omnivorous diet of small mammals and birds, animal/soil CRs are recommended as the most cost-effective and robust means of predicting animal concentrations from environmental monitoring data at uranium mill facilities.

  8. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation.

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1989 by the US DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination in this risk assessment.

  10. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. {section}4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  12. Environmental isotopes as a useful tool for studies at mixed uranium mill tailings sites.

    PubMed

    Helling, C

    2000-01-01

    Groundwaters in the area of a mixed landfill (domestic waste above uranium mill tailings) in Dresden (Saxony, Germany) were investigated for their isotope signatures to distinguish between different groundwater types. To determine between the two contamination sources (waste and uranium mill tailings) a multi parameter interpretation was done using both, the main hydrochemical parameters the radionuclides 234U, 238U, 226Ra and 222Rn as well as the environmental isotopes of the elements hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and carbon. The seepage water from the landfill shows higher delta34S, delta18O and tritium values as the inflow. The tritium values give an idea about water movement in the dump and mean residence time of the groundwater. The water in the dump shows varying delta13C values which indicate different processes occurring in the dump.

  13. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  14. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  15. Review of Design Approaches Applicable to Dewatering Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Pits

    SciTech Connect

    Gutknecht, P. J.; Gates, T. E.

    1982-03-01

    This report is a review of design approaches in the literature that may be applicable to uranium mill tailings drainage. Tailings dewatering is required in the deep mined-out pits used for wet tailings disposal. Agricultural drainage theory is reviewed because it is seen as the most applicable technology. It is concluded that the standard drain-pipe envelope design criteria should be easily adapted. The differences in dewatering objectives and physical characteristics between agricultural and tailings drainage systems prevent direct technology transfer with respect to drain spacing calculations. Recommendations for further research are based on the drainage features unique to uranium mill tailings. It is recommended that transient solutions be applied to describe liquid movement through saturated and partially saturated tailings. Modeling should be used to evaluate the benefits of drainage design approaches after careful consideration of potential construction problems.

  16. Release of 226Ra from uranium mill tailings by microbial Fe(III) reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Lovley, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings were anaerobically incubated in the presence of H2 with Alteromonas putrefaciens, a bacterium known to couple the oxidation of H2 and organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) oxides. There was a direct correlation between the extent of Fe(III) reduction and the accumulation of dissolved 226Ra. In sterile tailings in which Fe(III) was not reduced, there was negligible leaching of 226Ra. The behavior of Ba was similar to that of Ra in inoculated and sterile systems. These results demonstrate that under anaerobic conditions, microbial reduction of Fe(III) may result in the release of dissolved 226Ra from uranium mill tailings. ?? 1991.

  17. Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met.

  18. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Uranium Mining and Milling in Canada.

    PubMed

    Parker, David J; McNaughton, Cameron S; Sparks, Gordon A

    2016-09-01

    Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of nuclear power (in g CO2e/kWh) are uncertain due partly to a paucity of data on emissions from individual phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. Here, we present the first comprehensive life cycle assessment of GHG emissions produced from the mining and milling of uranium in Canada. The study includes data from 2006-2013 for two uranium mine-mill operations in northern Saskatchewan (SK) and data from 1995-2010 for a third SK mine-mill operation. The mine-mill operations were determined to have GHG emissions intensities of 81, 64, and 34 kg CO2e/kg U3O8 at average ore grades of 0.74%, 1.54%, and 4.53% U3O8, respectively. The production-weighted average GHG emission intensity is 42 kg CO2e/kg U3O8 at an average ore grade of 3.81% U3O8. The production-weighted average GHG emission intensity drops to 24 kg CO2e/kg U3O8 when the local hydroelectric GHG emission factor (7.2 g CO2e/kWh) is substituted for the SK grid-average electricity GHG emission factor (768 g CO2e/kWh). This results in Canadian uranium mining-milling contributing only 1.1 g CO2e/kWh to total life cycle GHG emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle (0.7 g CO2e/kWh using the local hydroelectric emission factor). PMID:27471915

  19. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Uranium Mining and Milling in Canada.

    PubMed

    Parker, David J; McNaughton, Cameron S; Sparks, Gordon A

    2016-09-01

    Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of nuclear power (in g CO2e/kWh) are uncertain due partly to a paucity of data on emissions from individual phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. Here, we present the first comprehensive life cycle assessment of GHG emissions produced from the mining and milling of uranium in Canada. The study includes data from 2006-2013 for two uranium mine-mill operations in northern Saskatchewan (SK) and data from 1995-2010 for a third SK mine-mill operation. The mine-mill operations were determined to have GHG emissions intensities of 81, 64, and 34 kg CO2e/kg U3O8 at average ore grades of 0.74%, 1.54%, and 4.53% U3O8, respectively. The production-weighted average GHG emission intensity is 42 kg CO2e/kg U3O8 at an average ore grade of 3.81% U3O8. The production-weighted average GHG emission intensity drops to 24 kg CO2e/kg U3O8 when the local hydroelectric GHG emission factor (7.2 g CO2e/kWh) is substituted for the SK grid-average electricity GHG emission factor (768 g CO2e/kWh). This results in Canadian uranium mining-milling contributing only 1.1 g CO2e/kWh to total life cycle GHG emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle (0.7 g CO2e/kWh using the local hydroelectric emission factor).

  20. Benefit-cost aspects of long-term isolation of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, J.

    1983-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 provides for regulations for control of radon diffusion from uranium mill tailings to protect the public welfare. In developing these regulations, the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sought to establish the benefits and costs for alternative regulatory criteria. This report provides a perspective on some economic issues associated with long-term radiation effects from disposal of uranium mill tailings. The general problem of developing an economic rationale for regulating this activity is complicated by the very long-term and widespread effects which could result from radon gas diffusion associated with tailings piles. The economic issues are also complex because of the trade-offs between costs of disposal and intangible social values. When intergenerational implications were considered the traditional basis for discounting in a benefit-cost framework was found to shift. The appropriate rate of discount was found to depend on ethical assumptions and expectations about the relative welfare of future generations. 30 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  1. Paleoclimatic data applications: Long-term performance of uranium mill tailings repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Petersen, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    Abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners region are a lasting legacy of the Cold War. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is designing landfill repositories that will isolate hazardous constituents of tailings from biological intrusion, erosion, and the underlying aquifer for up to 1,000 years. With evidence of relatively rapid past climate change, and model predictions of global climatic variation exceeding the historical record, DOE recognizes a need to incorporate possible ranges of future climatic and ecological change in the repository design process. In the Four Corners region, the center of uranium mining and milling activities in the United States, proxy paleoclimatic records may be useful not only as a window on the past, but also as analogs of possible local responses to future global change. We reconstructed past climate change using available proxy data from tree rings, packrat middens, lake sediment pollen, and archaeological records. Interpretation of proxy paleoclimatic records was based on present-day relationships between plant distribution, precipitation, and temperature along a generalized elevational gradient for the region. For the Monticello, Utah, uranium mill tailings site, this first approximation yielded mean annual temperature and precipitation ranges of 2 to 10{degrees} C, and 38 to 80 cm, respectively, corresponding to late glacial and Altithermal periods. These data are considered to be reasonable ranges of future climatic conditions that can be input to evaluations of groundwater recharge, radon-gas escape, erosion, frost penetration, and biointrusion in engineered earthen barriers designed to isolate tailings.

  2. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office Quality Assurance Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project was established to accomplish remedial actions at inactive uranium mill tailings sites in accordance with Public Law 95-604, the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRA Project's mission is to stabilize and control the residual radioactive materials at designated sites in a safe and environmentally sound manner so as to minimize or eliminate radiation health hazards to the public. The US Department of Energy (DOE) UMTRA Project Office (UMTRA PO) directs the overall project. Since these efforts may involve possible risks to public health and safety, a quality assurance (QA) program that conforms to the applicable criteria (set forth in the reference documents) has been established to control the quality of the work. This document, the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP), brings into one document the essential criteria to be applied on a selective basis, depending upon the nature of the activity being conducted, and describes how those criteria shall be applied to the UMTRA Project. The UMTRA PO shall require each Project contractor to prepare and submit for approval a more detailed QAPP that is based on the applicable criteria of this QAPP and the referenced documents. All QAPPs on the UMTRA Project shall fit within the framework of this plan.

  3. Environmental factors affecting long-term stabilization of radon suppression covers for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Long, L.W.; Reis, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. To help determine design stresses for the tailings piles, environmental parameters are characterized for the five active uranium-producing regions on a site-specific basis. Only conventional uranium mills that are currently operating or that are scheduled to open in the mid 1980s are considered. Available data indicate that flooding has the most potential for disrupting a tailings pile. The arid regions of the Wyoming Basins and the Colorado Plateau are subject to brief storms of high intensity. The Texas Gulf Coast has the highest potential for extreme precipitation from hurricane-related storms. Wind data indicate average wind speeds from 3 to 6 m/sec for the sites, but extremes of 40 m/sec can be expected. Tornado risks range from low to moderate. The Colorado Plateau has the highest seismic potential, with maximum acceleration caused by earthquakes ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 g. Any direct effect from volcanic eruption is negligible, as all mills are located 90 km or more from an igneous or hydrothermal system.

  4. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    Results of radiological surveys of two inactive uranium-mill sites near Rifle, Colorado, in May 1976 are presented. These sites are referred to as Old Rifle and New Rifle. The calculated /sup 226/Ra inventory of the latter site is much higher than at the older mill location. Data on above-ground measurements of gamma exposure rates, surface and near-surface concentration of /sup 226/Ra in soil and sediment samples, concentration of /sup 226/Ra in water, calculated subsurface distribution of /sup 226/Ra, and particulate radionuclide concentrations in air samples are given. The data serve to define the extent of contamination in the vicinity of the mill sites and their immediate surrounding areas with tailings particles. Results of these measurements were utilized as technical input for an engineering assessment of these two sites.

  5. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah, are relatively low in /sup 226/Ra content and concentration (20 Ci and 140 pCi/g, respectively) because the mill was used to upgrade the uranium ore by separating the sand and slime fractions; most of the radium was transported along with the slimes to another mill site. Spread of tailings was observed in all directions, but near-background gamma exposure rates were reached at distances of 40 to 90 m from the edge of the pile. Water erosion of the tailings is evident and, since a significant fraction of the tailings pile lies in Brown's Wash, the potential exists for repetition of the loss of a large quantity of tailings such as occurred during a flood in 1959. In general, the level of surface contamination was low at this site, but some areas in the mill site, which were being used for nonuranium work, have gamma-ray exposure rates up to 143 ..mu..R/hr.

  6. Evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings, COMINAK Mine, Niger.

    PubMed

    Déjeant, Adrien; Galoisy, Laurence; Roy, Régis; Calas, Georges; Boekhout, Flora; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings from the COMINAK mine (Niger), in production since 1978. A multi-scale approach was used, which combined high resolution remote sensing imagery, ICP-MS bulk rock analyses, powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Focused Ion Beam--Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. Mineralogical analyses showed that some ore minerals, including residual uraninite and coffinite, undergo alteration and dissolution during tailings storage. The migration of uranium and other contaminants depends on (i) the chemical stability of secondary phases and sorbed species (dissolution and desorption processes), and (ii) the mechanical transport of fine particles bearing these elements. Uranium is stabilized after formation of secondary uranyl sulfates and phosphates, and adsorbed complexes on mineral surfaces (e.g. clay minerals). In particular, the stock of insoluble uranyl phosphates increases with time, thus contributing to the long-term stabilization of uranium. At the surface, a sulfate-cemented duricrust is formed after evaporation of pore water. This duricrust limits water infiltration and dust aerial dispersion, though it is enriched in uranium and many other elements, because of pore water rising from underlying levels by capillary action. Satellite images provided a detailed description of the tailings pile over time and allow monitoring of the chronology of successive tailings deposits. Satellite images suggest that uranium anomalies that occur at deep levels in the pile are most likely former surface duricrusts that have been buried under more recent tailings.

  7. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 3: Atmospheric deposition rates (pilot test)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-06-01

    Atmospheric deposition rates of uranium series radionuclides were directly measured at three sites near the operating Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Sites impacted by windblown tailings and mill dusts had elevated rates of uranium deposition near the mill and elevated {sup 226}Ra deposition near the tailings compared to a control site. Rainwater collectors, dust jars, and passive vinyl collectors previously used at the Ranger Mine in Australia were pilot-tested. Adhesive vinyl surfaces (1 m{sup 2}) were oriented horizontally, vertically, and facing the ground as a means of measuring gravitational settling, wind impaction, and soil resuspension, respectively. Although the adhesive glue on the vinyls proved difficult to digest, relative differences in deposition mode were found among radionuclides and among sites. Dry deposition was a more important transport mechanism for uranium, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb than rainfall, while more {sup 210}Po was deposited with rainfall.

  8. Radioecological investigations of uranium mill tailing systems. Sixth technical progress report, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W.; Ibrahim, S.A.

    1985-10-31

    This report provides a status report on studies of the integrity and transport of several radionuclides in active and reclaimed uranium mill tailings. The program is designed to provide basic information on the radioecology of uranium and progeny, responses of native biota to the landscape disruptions associated with uranium production, and guidance for impact analysis, mitigation and regulation of the uranium industry. The studies reported are being conducted at the Shirley Basin Uranium Mine, which is operated by the Pathfinder Mines Corporation. The mine/mill operation, located in southeastern Wyoming, is typical in terms of the ore body, mill process, and ecological setting of many uranium production centers in the western United States. The intent has been to quantitatively evaluate the release of important radionuclides from active and reclaimed uranium mill tailings and their entry into the food chain. An experimental plot was developed in which a uniform slab of tailings was covered with various depths of earthen materials and seeded with native range vegetation. Performance of this vegetation is monitored annually. The ability of roots to function in or near buried tailings is under long-term study as well. Experiments on radon flux versus overburden depth have been conducted and these are continuing with emphasis on understanding the role of soil moisture and climatic variables. Experimental colonies of prairie dogs were introduced to the tailings reclamation plot. The resulting disruptive effects in terms of soil movement, transport of radionuclides and the impact on radon emanation have been studied and reported.

  9. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive.

  11. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Riverton Site, Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon, and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Riverton site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Riverton, Wyoming. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 900,000 tons of tailings materials at the Riverton site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The nine alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontaminations of the tailings site (Options II through IX). Cost estimates for the nine options range from about $16,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $23,200,000 for disposal at a distance of 18 to 25 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Riverton tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $260 and $230/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach and conventional plant processes respectively. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive.

  12. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

  13. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Mexican Hat Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Mexican Hat site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.2 million tons of tailings at the Mexican Hat site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $15,200,000 for stabilization in place, to about $45,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Mexican Hat tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $115/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Mexican Hat tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive under present conditions.

  14. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Maybell Site, Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Maybell site in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Maybell, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Maybell site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The two alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to disposal of the tailings in a nearby open pit mine and decontamination of the tailings site (Option II). Cost estimates for the two options are about $11,700,000 for stabilization in-place and about $22,700,000 for disposal within a distance of 2 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Maybell tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $125 and $165/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach and conventional plant processes, respectively. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present.

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

  16. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing.The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

  17. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock Site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of the stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and(c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive.

  18. Trace element contamination in benthic macroinvertebrates from a small stream near a uranium mill tailings site.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M J; Smith, J G; Southworth, G R; Ryon, M G; Eddlemon, G K

    2002-03-01

    Direct measurement of the accumulation of non-radioactive trace elements in aquatic biota near uranium mining or processing sites has been relatively rare, with greater focus on the radiological activity in the adjacent soils and groundwater. To evaluate the potential ecological concern associated with trace elements at a former uranium mill site in southeastern Utah, benthic macroinvertebrates were collected and analyzed for 17 trace elements from multiple locations within a small on-site stream, Montezuma Creek, and a nearby reference stream. Key questions of this study relate to the spatial and temporal extent of contamination in aquatic biota, the potential ecological risks associated with that contamination, and the usefulness of benthic macroinvertebrates as a monitoring tool at this site. Composite samples of similar macroinvertebrate taxa and functional feeding groups were collected from each site over a two year period that was representative of normal and dry-year conditions. In both years, mean concentrations of arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium were significantly higher (a factor of 2-4 times: P < 0.05) in macroinvertebrates collected from one or both of the two Montezuma Creek sites immediately downstream of the mill tailing site in comparison to concentrations from reference locations. Mean uranium concentrations in invertebrates immediately downstream of the mill site were more than 10 times higher than at reference sites. The site-to-site pattern of contamination in Montezuma Creek invertebrates was similar in 1995 and 1996, with mill-related trace elements showing a downstream decreasing trend. However, nine of seventeen contaminant concentrations were higher in the second year of the study, possibly due to a higher influx of deep groundwater during the drier second year of the study. A preliminary assessment of ecological risks, based on the benthic macroinvertebrate bioaccumulation data, suggests that aquatic and terrestrial population

  19. Diversity and characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in groundwater at a uranium mill tailings site

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yun-Juan; Peacock, A D.; Long, Philip E. ); Stephen, John R.; McKinley, James P. ); Mcnaughton, Sarah J.; Hussain, A K M A.; Saxton, A M.; White, D C.

    2000-12-01

    Microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of U(VI) to U(TV) plays a role in both natural attenuation and accelerated bioremediation of uranium contaminated sites. To realize bioremediation potential and accurately predict natural attenuation, it is important to first understand the microbial diversity of such sites. In this paper, the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated groundwater associated with a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Shiprock, N.Mex,, was investigated. Two culture-independent analyses were employed: sequencing of clone libraries of PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene fragments and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis. A remarkable diversity among the DSR sequences was revealed, including sequences from F-Proteobacteria, gram-positive organisms, and the Nitrospira division. PLFA analysis detected at least,52 different mid-chain-branched saturate PLFA and included a high proportion of 10me16:0, Desulfotomaculum and Desulfotomaculum-like sequences were the most dominant DSR genes detected. Those belonging to SRB within F-Proteobacteria were mainly recovered from low-uranium (less than or equal to 302 ppb) samples. One Desulfotomaculum like sequence cluster overwhelmingly dominated high-U (> 1,500 ppb) sites. Logistic regression showed a significant influence of uranium concentration over the dominance of this cluster of sequences (P= 0.0001), This strong association indicates that Desulfotomaculum has remarkable tolerance and adaptation to high levels of uranium and suggests the organism's possible involvement in natural attenuation of uranium. The in situ activity level of Desulfotomaculum in uranium-contaminated environments and its comparison to the activities of other SRB and other functional groups should be an important area for future research.

  20. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  1. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Chou, K.D.; Ellis, B.S.

    1980-06-01

    Results of a radiological survey of two inactive mill sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in April 1976 are presented. One mill, referred to in this report as North Continent (NC), was operated primarily for recovery of radium and vanadium and, only briefly, uranium. The Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) mill produced a uranium concentrate for processing elsewhere and, although low-level contamination with /sup 226/Ra was widespread at this site, the concentration of this nuclide in tailings was much lower than at the NC site. The latter site also has an area with a high above-ground gamma dose rate (2700 ..mu..R/hr) and a high-surface /sup 226/Ra concentration (5800 pCi/g). This area, which is believed to have been a liquid disposal location during plant operations, is contained within a fence. A solid disposal area outside the present fence contains miscellaneous contaminated debris. The estimated concentration of /sup 226/Ra as a function of depth, based on gamma hole-logging data, is presented for 27 holes drilled at the two sites.

  2. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site, Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1986-11-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site located approximately six miles east of Tuba City, Arizona. The site covers 105 acres and contains 25 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  3. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Gunnison, Colorado. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, A.; Hoopes, J.; Morycz, D. ); Bone, M.; Cox, S.; Jones, D.; Lechel, D.; Meyer, C.; Nelson, M.; Peel, R.; Portillo, R.; Rogers, L.; Taber, B.; Zelle, P. , Inc., Washington, DC ); Rice, G. )

    1984-12-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Gunnison uranium of mill tailings site located 0.5 miles south of Gunnison, Colorado. The site covers 56 acres and contains 35 acres of tailings, 2 of the original mill buildings and a water tower. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control of Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated (vicinity) properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the occurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Four alternatives have been addressed in this document. The first alternative is to consolidate the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile on the southern portion of the existing site. A radon barrier of silty clay would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Two other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a location farther from the city of Gunnison. The no action alternative is also assessed.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  5. Radioecological investigations of uranium mill tailings systems. Progress report, September 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F W

    1980-10-10

    The initial 13 months of this program have been devoted to staffing, development of a radiochemistry capability, development of a mill tailings reclamation study, studies on hydraulic properties of soils, initiation of plant uptake studies, preparation for metabolic studies with deer and antelope, and sample collections. Through the addition of new personnel and equipment, we are rapidly developing analytical capabilities for /sup 238/U, /sup 230/Th, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in matrices such as soil, water, plant material, and animal tissues. A 4 acre study site was developed in cooperation with the Pathfinder Mines Corp. at the Shirley Basin Uranium Mine in Wyoming. The study site is designed for investigations on the influence of various kinds and thicknesses of mill tailings soil covers on the integrity of reclaimed tailings and inherent radionuclides. Studies on the hydraulic properties of various soil materials were conducted and data analysis is in progress. Plots and procedures for conducting plant uptake studies on uranium and progeny were established and long-term investigations have been initiated. A colony of tame mule deer and pronghorn antelope has been developed for studies on the uptake and retention of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po. Numerous collections of soil, vegetation and water from the Shirley Basin Uranium Mine environs were conducted and radiochemical assay is in progress.

  6. Uptake of Uranium and Other Elements of Concern by Plants Growing on Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, C. N.; Waugh, W.; Glenn, E.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for long-term stewardship of disposal cells for uranium mill tailings throughout the United States. Rock-armored disposal cell covers create favorable habitat for deep-rooted plants by reducing soil evaporation, increasing soil water storage, and trapping windblown dust, thereby providing water and nutrients for plant germination and establishment. DOE is studying the tradeoffs of potential detrimental and beneficial effects of plants growing on disposal cell covers to develop a rational and consistent vegetation management policy. Plant roots often extend vertically through disposal cell covers into underlying tailings, therefore, uptake of tailings contaminants and dissemination through animals foraging on stems and leaves is a possible exposure pathway. The literature shows that plant uptake of contaminants in uranium mill tailings occurs, but levels can vary widely depending on plant species, tailings and soil chemistry, and cover soil hydrology. Our empirical field study measured concentrations of uranium, radium, thorium, molybdenum, selenium, manganese, lead, and arsenic in above ground tissues harvested from plants growing on disposal cells near Native American communities in western states that represent a range of climates, cover designs, cover soil types, and vegetation types. For risk screening, contaminant levels in above ground tissues harvested from plants on disposal cells were compared to Maximum Tolerance Levels (MTLs) set for livestock by the National Research Council, and to tissue levels in the same plant species growing in reference areas near disposal cells. Although tailings were covered with uncontaminated soils, for 14 of 46 comparisons, levels of uranium and other contaminants were higher in plants growing on disposal cells compared to reference area plants, indicating possible mobilization of these elements from the tailing into plant tissues. However, with one exception, all plant

  7. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the slick rock Uranium Mill Tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VPs) associated with the sites. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 12 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 61 8,300 cubic yards. In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designated site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Remediation would be performed by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. All solid contaminated materials would be buried under 5 feet (ft) of rock and soil materials. The proposed disposal site area is currently used by ranchers for cattle grazing over a 7-month period. The closest residence to the proposed disposal site is 2 air mi. An estimated 44 ac of land would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future use.

  8. Swim performance and energy homeostasis in spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius) collected downstream of a uranium mill.

    PubMed

    Goertzen, Meghan M; Hauck, Dominic W; Phibbs, James; Weber, Lynn P; Janz, David M

    2012-01-01

    The Key Lake uranium milling operation (Saskatchewan, Canada) releases complex effluent into the local watershed. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether fish from an effluent-receiving waterbody exhibited differences in swimming performance and energy homeostasis compared to fish from a local reference site. Juvenile spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius) were collected from a lake downstream of the uranium mill, and compared to fish collected from a nearby reference lake. Critical swimming speed (U(crit); fatigue velocity), tail beat frequency, and tail amplitude did not differ significantly when comparing fish collected from the exposure lake and reference lake. Captured shiner used in swim tests were considered fatigued, and metabolic endpoints were compared between this group and non-fatigued fish, which were treated similarly but not subjected to swim tests. In both non-fatigued and fatigued shiner, liver glycogen was significantly greater in fish collected from the exposure lake compared to the reference lake. However, it is unclear if this effect, and others related to condition, were the result of contaminant exposure or other environmental factors. While there were no differences in plasma lactate, hematocrit or liver triglycerides in non-fatigued fish between sites, only fatigued reference fish had increased lactate and hematocrit and decreased triglycerides. In non-fatigued fish, plasma glucose did not significantly differ between sites, but significantly decreased after swimming only in fish from the exposure lake. In summary, shiner from the exposure site demonstrated similar swim endurance and possessed greater energy stores despite metabolic alterations compared to shiner from the reference site. Therefore, because fish collected downstream of the uranium mill operation had similar swimming ability as fish from the reference lake, U(crit) test results presented here may not reflect or be indicative of metabolic effects of complex

  9. Leaching of molybdenum and arsenic from uranium ore and mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    A sequential, selective extraction procedure was used to assess the effects of sulfuric acid milling on the geochemical associations of molybdenum and arsenic in a uranium ore blend, and the tailings derived therefrom. The milling process removed about 21% of the molybdenum and 53% of the arsenic initially present in the ore. While about one-half of the molybdenum in the ore was water soluble, only about 14% existed in this form in the tailings. The major portion of the extractable molybdenum in the tailings appears to be associated with hydrous oxides of iron, and with alkaline earth sulfate precipitates. In contrast with the pattern seen for molybdenum, the partitioning of arsenic into the various extractable fractions differs little between the ore and the tailings. ?? 1984.

  10. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River site, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $4,300,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $9,600,000 for disposal at a distance of about 30 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Green River tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill, and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $1,800/lb by heap leach and $1,600/lb by conventional plant processes.

  11. Characterization of long-lived radioactive dust in uranium mill operations.

    PubMed

    Bigu, J; DuPort, P

    1992-09-01

    The characteristics of long-lived radioactive dust clouds generated in several mechanical and physiochemical operations in a uranium mill have been investigated. The study consisted of the determination of dust size distribution and of the size distribution of radionuclides associated with particulate matter in the size range less than 0.1 to 26 microns. Experiments were conducted by using two different types of cascade impactors operating at different sampling flow rates. Radionuclide identification was done by using alpha-spectrometry. Long- and short-lived radionuclides were identified in dust samples. The characteristics of the dust clouds depended on the mill operation, such as crushing (vibrating grizzly, jaw crusher, cone crusher); screening; ore transportation; grinding; acid leaching; counter-current decantation; yellow cake precipitation and drying; and yellow cake packaging. In addition, other dust and radioactivity measurements have been carried out.

  12. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The inactive uranium-mill tailings pile at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, contains approximately 1520 Ci of /sup 226/Ra in 2.4 million metric tons of tailings covering an area of 43 hectares. All of the former mill buildings were intact and, at the time of this survey, several were in use. The tailings have not been stabilized, but the crusty surface is reported to be resistant to wind erosion. The average gamma-ray exposure rate 1 m above the tailings is 720 ..mu..R/h while the average rate in the former mill area is 150 ..mu..R/h. The adjacent area, between the mill site, ponds, and tailings pile, has an average exposure rate of 230 ..mu..R/h. Gamma radiation measurements outside these areas, as well as the results of analyses of surface or near-surface sediment and soil samples, show fairly wide dispersion of contamination around the site. The subsurface distribution of /sup 226/Ra in 18 holes drilled at the site, calculated from gamma-ray monitoring data, is presented graphically and compared with measured concentrations in two holes.

  13. Radiologic characterization of the Mexican Hat, Utah, uranium mill tailings remedial action site: Addendum D1

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This radiologic characterization of the inactive uranium millsite at Mexican Hat, Utah, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junctions Project Office in response to and in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. The objective of this project was to determine the horizontal and vertical extent of contamination that exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards at the Mexican Hat site. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the Mexican Hat tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. Some on- pile sampling was required to determine the depth of the 15-pCi/g Ra- 226 interface in an area where wind and water erosion has taken place.

  14. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project fiscal year 1997 annual report to stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The fiscal year (FY) 1997 annual report is the 19th report on the status of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. In 1978, Congress directed the DOE to assess and clean up contamination at 24 designated former uranium processing sites. The DOE is also responsible for cleaning up properties in the vicinity of the sites where wind and water erosion deposited tailings or people removed them from the site for use in construction or landscaping. Cleanup has been undertaken in cooperation with state governments and Indian tribes within whose boundaries the sites are located. It is being conducted in two phases: the surface project and the groundwater project. This report addresses specifics about the UMTRA surface project.

  15. Fiscal year 1996 annual report to stakeholders, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This is the Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 annual report on the status of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. In 1978, Congress directed the DOE to assess and clean up contamination at 24 designated former uranium processing sites. The DOE is also responsible for cleaning up properties in the vicinity of the sites where wind and water erosion deposited tailings or people removed them from the site for use in construction of landscaping. Cleanup is being undertaken in cooperation with state governments and Indian tribes within whose boundaries the sites are located. It is being conducted in two phases: the surface project and the ground water project. This report addresses specifics about the surface phase of the UMTRA Project.

  16. Leaching of radionuclides from uranium ore and mill tailings ( Ra- 226, Tn-230).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The major part of the extractable uranium is associated with a readily acid-soluble fraction in both ore and tailings. The major part of the extractable 226Ra was associated with an iron, manganese hydrous-oxide fraction in the ore and tailings. Thorium-230 was the least leachable of the radionuclides studied. The major portion of the extractable 230Th was associated with alkaline-earth sulphate precipitates, organic matter, or both. The specific effects of milling on each of the nuclides are discussed.-Author

  17. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands assessment (Assessment 2) are included as part of this EA. The following sections and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In 1992, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project experienced several health and safety related incidents at active remediation project sites. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) directed the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to establish a program increasing the DOE`s overall presence at operational remediation sites to identify and minimize risks in operations to the fullest extent possible (Attachments A and B). In response, the TAC, in cooperation with the DOE and the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), developed the Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program.

  19. Environmental Assessment of Remedial Action at the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1987-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0254) on the proposed remedial action at the inactive uranium milling site near Riverton, Wyoming. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required.

  20. Uranium mining and milling environmental studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental and social aspects of uranium mining, milling, and ore treatment. Environmental and social aspects include air and water pollution, public health, occupational safety, land reclamation, and waste disposal. The citations refer to monitoring and control of contaminants, and environmental surveys and impact statements for specific areas in the vicinity of mining and ore treatment facilities. There are also references to health studies performed on miners and millworkers. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Refining the site conceptual model at a former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    DOE PAGES

    Dam, William; Campbell, Sam; Johnson, Ray; Looney, Brian; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Babits, Steven J.

    2015-07-07

    Milling activities at a former uranium mill site near Riverton, Wyoming, USA, contaminated the shallow groundwater beneath and downgradient of the site. Although the mill operated for <6 years (1958-1963), its impact remains an environmental liability. Groundwater modeling predicted that contaminant concentrations were declining steadily, which confirmed the conceptual site model (CSM). However, local flooding in 2010 mobilized contaminants that migrated downgradient from the Riverton site and resulted in a dramatic increase in groundwater contaminant concentrations. This observation indicated that the original CSM was inadequate to explain site conditions and needed to be refined. In response to the new observationsmore » after the flood, a collaborative investigation to better understand site conditions and processes commenced. This investigation included installing 103 boreholes to collect soil and groundwater samples, sampling and analysis of evaporite minerals along the bank of the Little Wind River, an analysis of evaportranspiration in the shallow aquifer, and sampling naturally organic-rich sediments near groundwater discharge areas. The enhanced characterization revealed that the existing CSM did not account for high uranium concentrations in groundwater remaining on the former mill site and groundwater plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. Observations from the flood and subsequent investigations indicate that additional characterization is still needed to continue refining the CSM and determine the viability of the natural flushing compliance strategy. Additional sampling, analysis, and testing of soil and groundwater are necessary to investigate secondary contaminant sources, mobilization of contaminants during floods, geochemical processes, contaminant plume stagnation, distribution of evaporite minerals and organic-rich sediments, and mechanisms and rates of contaminant transfer from soil to groundwater. Future data collection will be used to

  2. Refining the site conceptual model at a former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, William; Campbell, Sam; Johnson, Ray; Looney, Brian; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Babits, Steven J.

    2015-07-07

    Milling activities at a former uranium mill site near Riverton, Wyoming, USA, contaminated the shallow groundwater beneath and downgradient of the site. Although the mill operated for <6 years (1958-1963), its impact remains an environmental liability. Groundwater modeling predicted that contaminant concentrations were declining steadily, which confirmed the conceptual site model (CSM). However, local flooding in 2010 mobilized contaminants that migrated downgradient from the Riverton site and resulted in a dramatic increase in groundwater contaminant concentrations. This observation indicated that the original CSM was inadequate to explain site conditions and needed to be refined. In response to the new observations after the flood, a collaborative investigation to better understand site conditions and processes commenced. This investigation included installing 103 boreholes to collect soil and groundwater samples, sampling and analysis of evaporite minerals along the bank of the Little Wind River, an analysis of evaportranspiration in the shallow aquifer, and sampling naturally organic-rich sediments near groundwater discharge areas. The enhanced characterization revealed that the existing CSM did not account for high uranium concentrations in groundwater remaining on the former mill site and groundwater plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. Observations from the flood and subsequent investigations indicate that additional characterization is still needed to continue refining the CSM and determine the viability of the natural flushing compliance strategy. Additional sampling, analysis, and testing of soil and groundwater are necessary to investigate secondary contaminant sources, mobilization of contaminants during floods, geochemical processes, contaminant plume stagnation, distribution of evaporite minerals and organic-rich sediments, and mechanisms and rates of contaminant transfer from soil to groundwater. Future data collection will be used to

  3. Evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings, COMINAK Mine, Niger.

    PubMed

    Déjeant, Adrien; Galoisy, Laurence; Roy, Régis; Calas, Georges; Boekhout, Flora; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the evolution of uranium distribution and speciation in mill tailings from the COMINAK mine (Niger), in production since 1978. A multi-scale approach was used, which combined high resolution remote sensing imagery, ICP-MS bulk rock analyses, powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Focused Ion Beam--Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. Mineralogical analyses showed that some ore minerals, including residual uraninite and coffinite, undergo alteration and dissolution during tailings storage. The migration of uranium and other contaminants depends on (i) the chemical stability of secondary phases and sorbed species (dissolution and desorption processes), and (ii) the mechanical transport of fine particles bearing these elements. Uranium is stabilized after formation of secondary uranyl sulfates and phosphates, and adsorbed complexes on mineral surfaces (e.g. clay minerals). In particular, the stock of insoluble uranyl phosphates increases with time, thus contributing to the long-term stabilization of uranium. At the surface, a sulfate-cemented duricrust is formed after evaporation of pore water. This duricrust limits water infiltration and dust aerial dispersion, though it is enriched in uranium and many other elements, because of pore water rising from underlying levels by capillary action. Satellite images provided a detailed description of the tailings pile over time and allow monitoring of the chronology of successive tailings deposits. Satellite images suggest that uranium anomalies that occur at deep levels in the pile are most likely former surface duricrusts that have been buried under more recent tailings. PMID:26747998

  4. Evaluation of residual uranium contamination in the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill.

    PubMed

    Glassford, Eric; Spitz, Henry; Lobaugh, Megan; Spitler, Grant; Succop, Paul; Rice, Carol

    2013-02-01

    A single, large, bulk sample of uranium-contaminated material from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill was separated into different types and sizes of aliquots to simulate samples that would be collected during site remediation. The facility rolled approximately 11,000 tons of hot-forged ingots of uranium metal approximately 60 y ago, and it has not been used since that time. Thirty small mass (≈ 0.7 g) and 15 large mass (≈ 70 g) samples were prepared from the heterogeneously contaminated bulk material to determine how measurements of the uranium contamination vary with sample size. Aliquots of bulk material were also resuspended in an exposure chamber to produce six samples of respirable particles that were obtained using a cascade impactor. Samples of removable surface contamination were collected by wiping 100 cm of the interior surfaces of the exposure chamber with 47-mm-diameter fiber filters. Uranium contamination in each of the samples was measured directly using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. As expected, results for isotopic uranium (i.e., U and U) measured with the large-mass and small-mass samples are significantly different (p < 0.001), and the coefficient of variation (COV) for the small-mass samples was greater than for the large-mass samples. The uranium isotopic concentrations measured in the air and on the wipe samples were not significantly different and were also not significantly different (p > 0.05) from results for the large- or small-mass samples. Large-mass samples are more reliable for characterizing heterogeneously distributed radiological contamination than small-mass samples since they exhibit the least variation compared to the mean. Thus, samples should be sufficiently large in mass to insure that the results are truly representative of the heterogeneously distributed uranium contamination present at the facility. Monitoring exposure of workers and the public as a result of uranium contamination resuspended

  5. Engineering solutions to the long-term stabilization and isolation of uranium mill tailings in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, D.R.; Lommler, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    Engineering solutions to the safe and environmentally protective disposal and isolation of uranium mill tailings in the US include many factors. Cover design, materials selection, civil engineering, erosive forces, and cost effectiveness are only a few of those factors described in this paper. The systems approach to the engineering solutions employed in the US is described, with emphasis on the standards prescribed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. Stabilization and isolation of the tailings from humans and the environment are the primary goals of the US uranium mill tailings control standards. The performance of cover designs with respect to water infiltration, radon exhalation, geotechnical stability, erosion protection, human and animal intrusion prevention, and longevity are addressed. The need for and frequency of surveillance efforts to ensure continued disposal system performance are also assessed.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  7. Comment and response document for the final remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document for the final remedial action plan and site design has been prepared for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Division as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action plan. Comments and responses are included for the site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado.

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  9. Engineering solutions for the long-term stabilization and isolation of uranium mill tailings in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lommler, J.C.; Cormier, C.; Sanders, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    Engineering solutions for the safe and environmentally protective disposal and isolation of uranium mill tailings in the United States include many factors. Among the factors discussed in this paper are cover design, materials selection, civil engineering, erosive forces, and cost effectiveness. Stabilization and isolation of tailings from humans and the environment are the primary goals of United States uranium mill tailings control standards. The performance of cover designs is addressed with respect to water infiltration, radon exhalation, geotechnical stability, erosion protection, human and animal intrusion prevention, and longevity. The need for and frequency of surveillance efforts to ensure continued disposal system performance are also assessed.

  10. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  11. Measurements of /sup 234/U, /sup 238/U and /sup 230/Th in excreta of uranium-mill crushermen

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Jackson, P.O.; Brodacynski, G.G.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1982-07-01

    Uranium and thorium levels in excreta of uranium mill crushermen who are routinely exposed to airborne uranium ore dust were measured. The purpose was to determine whether /sup 230/Th was preferentially retained over either /sup 234/U or /sup 238/U in the body. Urine and fecal samples were obtained from fourteen active crushermen with long histories of exposure to uranium ore dust, plus four retired crushermen and three control individuals for comparison. Radiochemical procedures were used to separate out the uranium and thorium fractions, which were then electroplated on stainless steel discs and assayed by alpha spectrometry. Significantly greater activity levels of /sup 234/U and /sup 238/U were measured in both urine and fecal samples obtained from uranium mill crushermen, indicating that uranium in the inhaled ore dust was cleared from the body with a shorter biological half-time than the daughter product /sup 230/Th. The measurements also indicated that uranium and thorium separate in vivo and have distinctly different metabolic pathways and transfer rates in the body. The appropriateness of current ICRP retention and clearance parameters for /sup 230/Th in ore dust is questioned.

  12. NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

    2003-08-01

    DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide

  13. Laboratory measurements of contaminant attenuation of uranium mill tailings leachates by sediments and clay liners

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1983-04-01

    We discuss FY82 progress on the development of laboratory tools to aid in the prediction of migration potential of contaminants present in acidic uranium mill tailings leachate. Further, empirical data on trace metal and radionuclide migration through a clay liner are presented. Acidic uranium mill tailings solution from a Wyoming mill was percolated through a composite sediment called Morton Ranch Clay liner. These laboratory columns and subsequent sediment extraction data show: (1) As, Cr, Pb, Ag, Th and V migrate very slowly; (2) U, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and similar transition metals are initially immobilized during acid neutralization but later are remobilized as the tailings solution exhausts the clay liner's acid buffering capacity. Such metals remain immobilized as long as the effluent pH remains above a pH value of 4 to 4.5, but they become mobile once the effluent pH drops below this range; and (3) fractions of the Se and Mo present in the influent tailings solution are very mobile. Possible controlling mechanisms for the pH-dependent immobilization-mobilization of the trace metals are discussed. More study is required to understand the controlling mechanisms for Se and Mo and Ra for which data were not successfully collected. Using several column lengths (from 4.5 to 65 cm) and pore volume residence times (from 0.8 to 40 days) we found no significant differences in contaminant migration rates or types and extent of controlling processes. Thus, we conclude that the laboratory results may be capable of extrapolation to actual disposal site conditions.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site began in 1995 and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results presented in this document and other evaluations will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  17. Economic evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings, Gunnison Site, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Teel, J H

    1982-12-01

    Mountain States Research and Development was contracted on March 1, 1981 to make an economic evaluation study at each of 12 abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in the western states. The objective of this work was to obtain the data necessary at each site to determine the possible revenue that could be derived from reprocessing the tailings. To accomplish this objective a drilling and sampling program was established for each site to determine the total amount of tailings and subbase material available for treatment and the amount of recoverable uranium, vanadium and molybdenum. These three metals were selected due to their common occurrence in uranium ores and common extractability in the leaching process. Laboratory leaching was then conducted on the samples obtained to determine the extractability of each of these metals and the optimum plant process to be applied. As the metal contents were generally low and represented mineral that had not been leached during previous processing, the economic evaluation is limited to consideration of the direct capital and operating costs required in connection with processing of each respective site material. Excavating, transportation and disposal of the material from each site in an environmentally acceptable location and manner was not within the scope of this project. It will be necessary to complete a separate study of these areas in order to determine the total costs involved. This report contains the results of the investigations of the Old Rifle Site.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards.

  19. MOAB : a mesh-oriented database.

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy James; Ernst, Corey; Stimpson, Clint; Meyers, Ray J.; Merkley, Karl

    2004-04-01

    A finite element mesh is used to decompose a continuous domain into a discretized representation. The finite element method solves PDEs on this mesh by modeling complex functions as a set of simple basis functions with coefficients at mesh vertices and prescribed continuity between elements. The mesh is one of the fundamental types of data linking the various tools in the FEA process (mesh generation, analysis, visualization, etc.). Thus, the representation of mesh data and operations on those data play a very important role in FEA-based simulations. MOAB is a component for representing and evaluating mesh data. MOAB can store structured and unstructured mesh, consisting of elements in the finite element 'zoo'. The functional interface to MOAB is simple yet powerful, allowing the representation of many types of metadata commonly found on the mesh. MOAB is optimized for efficiency in space and time, based on access to mesh in chunks rather than through individual entities, while also versatile enough to support individual entity access. The MOAB data model consists of a mesh interface instance, mesh entities (vertices and elements), sets, and tags. Entities are addressed through handles rather than pointers, to allow the underlying representation of an entity to change without changing the handle to that entity. Sets are arbitrary groupings of mesh entities and other sets. Sets also support parent/child relationships as a relation distinct from sets containing other sets. The directed-graph provided by set parent/child relationships is useful for modeling topological relations from a geometric model or other metadata. Tags are named data which can be assigned to the mesh as a whole, individual entities, or sets. Tags are a mechanism for attaching data to individual entities and sets are a mechanism for describing relations between entities; the combination of these two mechanisms is a powerful yet simple interface for representing metadata or application

  20. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  1. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The findings of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Gunnison, Colorado, conducted in May 1976, are presented. Results of surface soil sample analyses and direct gamma radiation measurements indicate limited spread of tailings off the site. The only significant above background measurements off the site were obtained in an area previously covered by the tailings pile. There was little evidence of contamination of the surface or of unconfined groundwater in the vicinity of the tailings pile; however, the hydrologic conditions at the site indicate a potential for such contamination. The concentration of /sup 226/Ra in all water samples except one from the tailings pile was well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The subsurface distribution of /sup 226/Ra in 14 bore holes located on and around the tailings pile was calculated from gamma ray monitoring data obtained jointly with Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc.

  2. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Durango, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Ellis, B.S.; Chou, K.D.

    1980-03-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Durango, Colorado, conducted in April 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented together with descriptions of the instruments and techniques used to obtain the data. Direct above-ground gamma measurements and analysis of surface soil and sediment samples indicate movement of tailings from the piles toward Lightner Creek on the north and the Animas River on the east side of the piles. The concentration of /sup 226/Ra in the former raffinate pond area is only slightly above the background level. Two structures in Durango were found to contain high concentrations of airborne radon daughters, where tailings are known to have been utilized in construction. Near-background concentrations of radon daughters were found in a well-ventilated building close to the tailings.

  3. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  4. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  5. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level.

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level.

  7. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation.

  8. Assessment of cover systems at the Grand Junction, Colorado, uranium mill tailings pile: 1987 field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.; Campbell, M.D.; Freeman, H.D.; Cline, J.F.

    1989-02-01

    Four Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientists and a technician conducted an onsite evaluation of radon gas exhalation, water content profiles, and plant and animal intrusion for a series of cover systems located on the uranium mill tailings pile at Grand Junction, Colorado. These six plots were sampled extensively down to the radon control layer (e.g., asphalt or wet clay) for soil moisture content and permeability. Radon gas emission through the surface was measured. Soil samples were collected and analyzed in the lab for particle-size distribution, particle density, bulk density, and ambient water content. Prairie dog burrows were excavated to discover the extent to which they penetrated the barriers. Plant type, density, and cover characteristics were measured.

  9. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.J.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site a Naturita, Colorado, conducted in May 1976, are presented. The spread of tailings was detected in the area surrounding the site by means of direct above ground gamma measurements and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples. Radiochemical analyses of water samples in the vicinity of the tailings pile indicate local surface water contamination immediately downstream from the pile, although the /sup 226/Ra concentration in the water at that point as well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The calculated subsoil distribution of /sup 226/Ra in onsite holes is presented graphically. The tailings at this site were removed and reprocessed at another location. This operation was completed and reclamation of the site was conducted in 1978. Consequently the information in this report documents radiological conditions that no longer exist.

  10. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Gray, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of 226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in 226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as 226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can 226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  11. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, E. R.; Gray, J. R.

    1995-07-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Lowman Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lowman, Idaho. Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts of stabilization on site of the contaminated materials at the Lowman uranium mill tailings site. The Lowman site is 0.5 road mile northeast of the unincorporated village of Lowman, Idaho, and 73 road miles from Boise, Idaho. The Lowman site consists of piles of radioactive sands, an ore storage area, abandoned mill buildings, and windblown/waterborne contaminated areas. A total of 29.5 acres of land are contaminated and most of this land occurs within the 35-acre designated site boundary. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings and other contaminated materials on the site. A radon barrier would be constructed over the consolidated residual radioactive materials and various erosion control measures would be implemented to ensure the long-term stability of the disposal cell. Radioactive constituents and other hazardous constituents were not detected in the groundwater beneath the Lowman site. The groundwater beneath the disposal cell would not become contaminated during or after remedial action so the maximum concentration limits or background concentrations for the contaminants listed in the draft EPA groundwater protection standards would be met at the point of compliance. No significant impacts were identified as a result of the proposed remedial action at the Lowman site.

  13. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Lakeview site, Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    This assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The three alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I) and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II and III). Cost estimates range from about $6,000,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $7,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 10 miles. Three alternatives for reprocessing the Lakeview tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill, and reprocessing at a new conventional mill. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $450/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ and hence reprocessing is not economical.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of limestone and lime neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings solution. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a two-step neutralization scheme for treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings solutions. Tailings solutions from the Lucky Mc Mill and Exxon Highland Mill, both in Wyoming, were neutralized with limestone, CaCO/sub 3/, to an intermediate pH of 4.0 or 5.0, followed by lime, Ca(OH)/sub 2/, neutralization to pH 7.3. The combination limestone/lime treatment methods, CaCO/sub 3/ neutralization to pH 4 followed by neutralization with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to pH 7.3 resulted in the highest quality effluent solution with respect to EPA's water quality guidelines. The combination method is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested in our studies. Neutralization experiments to evaluate the optimum solution pH for contaminant removal were performed on the same two tailings solutions using only lime Ca(OH)/sub 2/ as the neutralizing agent. The data indicate solution neutralization above pH 7.3 does not significantly increase removal of pH dependent contaminants from solution. Column leaching experiments were performed on the neutralized sludge material (the precipitated solid material which forms as the acidic tailings solutions are neutralized to pH 4 or above). The sludges were contacted with laboratory prepared synthetic ground water until several effluent pore volumes were collected. Effluent solutions were analyzed for macro ions, trace metals and radionuclides in an effort to evaluate the long term effectiveness of attenuating contaminants in sludges formed during solution neutralization. Neutralized sludge leaching experiments indicate that Ca, Na, Mg, Se, Cl, and SO/sub 4/ are the only constituents which show solution concentrations significantly higher than the synthetic ground water in the early pore volumes of long-term leaching studies.

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, fiscal year 1995 annual report to stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-30

    In 1978, Congress authorized the DOE to assess and clean up contamination at 24 designated former uranium processing sites. The DOE is also responsible for cleaning up properties in the vicinity of the sites where wind and water erosion deposited tailings or people removed them from the site for use in construction or landscaping projects. Cleanup is being undertaken in cooperation with state governments and Indian tribes within whose boundaries the sites are located. It is being conducted in two phases: the surface project and the ground water project. This report addresses specifics about both phases of the UMTRA Project. DOE`s UMTRA Project is the world`s largest materials management project ever undertaken to reduce or eliminate risk to the general public from exposure to potentially hazardous and radioactive materials. With an estimated cost at completion of nearly $2 billion for both phases of the UMTRA Project, and with the responsibility for encapsulating and isolating almost one-fourth of all the uranium mill tailings generated across the entire US (more than 44 million cubic yards), the UMTRA Project and its people have achieved a long record of safely and effectively completing its mission. It continually enhances its national reputation through its diligent process and cost efficiency as well as its international recognition for its technological innovation.

  16. Regulatory Oversight of the Legacy Gunner Uranium Mine and Mill Site in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada - 13434

    SciTech Connect

    Stenson, Ron; Howard, Don

    2013-07-01

    As Canada's nuclear regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is responsible for licensing all aspects of uranium mining, including remediation activities at legacy sites. Since these sites already existed when the current legislation came into force in 2000, and the previous legislation did not apply, they present a special case. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA), was written with cradle-to- grave oversight in mind. Applying the NSCA at the end of a 'facilities' life-cycle poses some challenges to both the regulator and the proponent. When the proponent is the public sector, even more challenges can present themselves. Although the licensing process for legacy sites is no different than for any other CNSC license, assuring regulatory compliance can be more complicated. To demonstrate how the CNSC has approached the oversight of legacy sites the history of the Commission's involvement with the Gunnar uranium mine and mill site provides a good case study. The lessons learned from the CNSC's experience regulating the Gunnar site will benefit those in the future who will need to regulate legacy sites under existing or new legislation. (authors)

  17. Comparative evaluation of liner materials for inactive uranium-mill-tailings piles

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Barnes, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    Under the funding of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed the initial accelerated testing phase of eight candidate liner materials. The tests were designed to comparatively evaluate the long term effectiveness of liner materials as a radionuclide and hazardous chemical leachate barrier. The eight materials tested were selected from a technical review of published literature and industrial specialists. Conditions were then identified that would accelerate the aging processes expected in a uranium tailings environment for 1000 years. High calcium leachates were forced through thin layers of clay liners to accelerate the ion exchange rate of sodium and calcium. Asphalt and synthetic materials were accelerated by exposure to elevate temperatures, high concentrations of oxygen, and increased strengths of aqueous oxidizing agents. By comparing the changes of permeability with time of exposure, the most acceptable materials were then identified. These materials are a catalytically airblown asphalt membrane and natural soil amended with sodium bentonite. Both materials showed an increased resistance to leachate penetration throughout the exposure period with final permeabilities less than 10/sup -7/ cm/s. In addition, the asphalt membrane and sodium bentonite are among the least expensive materials to install at a disposal site. Therefore based on their economic and technical merits, these two materials are being evaluated further in field tests at Grand Junction, Colorado.

  18. Radio-Ecological Conditions of Groundwater in the Area of Uranium Mining and Milling Facility - 13525

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, A.V.; Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Isaev, D.V.; Metlyaev, E.G.; Glagolev, A.V.; Klimova, T.I.; Sevtinova, E.B.; Zolotukhina, S.B.; Zhuravleva, L.A.

    2013-07-01

    Manmade chemical and radioactive contamination of groundwater is one of damaging effects of the uranium mining and milling facilities. Groundwater contamination is of special importance for the area of Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association, JSC 'PPMCA', because groundwater is the only source of drinking water. The paper describes natural conditions of the site, provides information on changes of near-surface area since the beginning of the company, illustrates the main trends of contaminators migration and assesses manmade impact on the quality and mode of near-surface and ground waters. The paper also provides the results of chemical and radioactive measurements in groundwater at various distances from the sources of manmade contamination to the drinking water supply areas. We show that development of deposits, mine water discharge, leakages from tailing dams and cinder storage facility changed general hydro-chemical balance of the area, contributed to new (overlaid) aureoles and flows of scattering paragenetic uranium elements, which are much smaller in comparison with natural ones. However, increasing flow of groundwater stream at the mouth of Sukhoi Urulyungui due to technological water infiltration, mixing of natural water with filtration streams from industrial reservoirs and sites, containing elevated (relative to natural background) levels of sulfate-, hydro-carbonate and carbonate- ions, led to the development and moving of the uranium contamination aureole from the undeveloped field 'Polevoye' to the water inlet area. The aureole front crossed the southern border of water inlet of drinking purpose. The qualitative composition of groundwater, especially in the southern part of water inlet, steadily changes for the worse. The current Russian intervention levels of gross alpha activity and of some natural radionuclides including {sup 222}Rn are in excess in drinking water; regulations for fluorine and manganese concentrations are also in excess

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in-place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Currently, no points of exposure (e.g. a drinking water well); and no receptors of contaminated ground water have been identified at the Maybell site. Therefore, there are no current human health and ecological risks associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Furthermore, if current site conditions and land- and water-use patterns do not change, it is unlikely that contaminated ground water would reach people or the ecological communities in the future.

  20. Remedial action and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (EPA, 1987). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 Public Law (PL) 95-604 (PL 95-604), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined that for Slick Rock, this assessment shall include hydrogeologic site characterization for two separate uranium processing sites, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site, and for the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination of the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas, evaluates potential impact to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former Susquehanna Western, Inc. (SWI), uranium mill processing site. This document fulfills the following objectives: determine if the site presents immediate or potential future health risks, determine the need for interim institutional controls, serve as a key input to project planning and prioritization, and recommend future data collection efforts to more fully characterize risk. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has begun its evaluation of ground water contamination at the Falls City site. This risk assessment is one of the first documents specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. The first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at or near the site. Evaluation of these data show the main contaminants in the Dilworth ground water are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate, and uranium. The data also show high levels of arsenic and manganese occur naturally in some areas.

  2. Comments and responses on the Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information concerning public comments and responses on the remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site in Grand Junction, Colorado.

  3. Contaminant distributions at typical U.S. uranium milling facilities and their effect on remedial action decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Hamp, S.; Jackson, T.J.; Dotson, P.W.

    1995-03-01

    Past operations at uranium processing sites throughout the US have resulted in local contamination of soils and ground water by radionuclides, toxic metals, or both. Understanding the origin of contamination and how the constituents are distributed is a basic element for planning remedial action decisions. This report describes the radiological and nonradiological species found in ground water at a typical US uranium milling facility. The report will provide the audience with an understanding of the vast spectrum of contaminants that must be controlled in planning solutions to the long-term management of these waste materials.

  4. Assessment of potential migration of radionuclides and trace elements from the White Mesa uranium mill to the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation and surrounding areas, southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Marston, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent evaluation of potential offsite migration of radionuclides and selected trace elements associated with the ore storage and milling process at an active uranium mill site near White Mesa, Utah. Specific objectives of this study were (1) to determine recharge sources and residence times of groundwater surrounding the mill site, (2) to determine the current concentrations of uranium and associated trace elements in groundwater surrounding the mill site, (3) to differentiate natural and anthropogenic contaminant sources to groundwater resources surrounding the mill site, (4) to assess the solubility and potential for offsite transport of uranium-bearing minerals in groundwater surrounding the mill site, and (5) to use stream sediment and plant material samples from areas surrounding the mill site to identify potential areas of offsite contamination and likely contaminant sources. The results of age-dating methods and an evaluation of groundwater recharge temperatures using dissolved-gas samples indicate that groundwater sampled in wells in the surficial aquifer in the vicinity of the mill is recharged locally by precipitation. Tritium/helium age dating methods found a "modern day" apparent age in water samples collected from springs in the study area surrounding the mill. This apparent age indicates localized recharge sources that potentially include artificial recharge of seepage from constructed wildlife refuge ponds near the mill. The stable oxygen isotope-ratio, delta oxygen-18, or δ(18O/16O), known as δ18O, and hydrogen isotope-ratio, delta deuterium, or δ(2H/1H), known as δD, data indicate that water discharging from Entrance Spring is isotopically enriched by evaporation and has a similar isotopic fingerprint as water from Recapture Reservoir, which is used as facilities water on the mill site. Water from Recapture

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  7. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site.

  8. Comment and response document for the ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) responses to comments from both the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Utah are provided in this document. The Proposed Ground Water Protection Strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah, presents the proposed (modified) ground water protection strategy for the disposal cell at the Green River disposal site for compliance with Subpart A of 40 CFR Part 192. Before the disposal cell was constructed, site characterization was conducted at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to determine an acceptable compliance strategy. Results of the investigation are reported in detail in the final remedial action plan (RAP) (DOE, 1991a). The NRC and the state of Utah have accepted the final RAP. The changes in this document relate only to a modification of the compliance strategy for ground water protection.

  9. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VP) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial actions at the Slick Rock sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  10. Initial-phase investigation of multi-dimensional streamflow simulations in the Colorado River, Moab Valley, Grand County, Utah, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    A multi-dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to aid in the assessment of the potential hazard posed to the uranium mill tailings near Moab, Utah, by flooding in the Colorado River as it flows through Moab Valley. Discharge estimates for the 100- and 500-year recurrence interval and for the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) were evaluated with the model for the existing channel geometry. These discharges also were modeled for three other channel-deepening configurations representing hypothetical scour of the channel at the downstream portal of Moab Valley. Water-surface elevation, velocity distribution, and shear-stress distribution were predicted for each simulation. The hydrodynamic model was developed from measured channel topography and over-bank topographic data acquired from several sources. A limited calibration of the hydrodynamic model was conducted. The extensive presence of tamarisk or salt cedar in the over-bank regions of the study reach presented challenges for determining roughness coefficients. Predicted water-surface elevations for the current channel geometry indicated that the toe of the tailings pile would be inundated by about 4 feet by the 100-year discharge and 25 feet by the PMF discharge. A small area at the toe of the tailings pile was characterized by velocities of about 1 to 2 feet per second for the 100-year discharge. Predicted velocities near the toe for the PMF discharge increased to between 2 and 4 feet per second over a somewhat larger area. The manner to which velocities progress from the 100-year discharge to the PMF discharge in the area of the tailings pile indicates that the tailings pile obstructs the over-bank flow of flood discharges. The predicted path of flow for all simulations along the existing Colorado River channel indicates that the current distribution of tamarisk in the over-bank region affects how flood-flow velocities are spatially distributed. Shear-stress distributions were predicted throughout the study reach

  11. Cancer incidence and mortality in populations living near uranium milling and mining operations in grants, New Mexico, 1950-2004.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J

    2010-11-01

    In a previous cohort study of workers engaged in uranium milling and mining activities near Grants, Cibola County, New Mexico, we found lung cancer mortality to be significantly increased among underground miners. Uranium mining took place from early in the 1950s to 1990, and the Grants Uranium Mill operated from 1958-1990. The present study evaluates cancer mortality during 1950-2004 and cancer incidence during 1982-2004 among county residents. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence (SIR) ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed, with observed numbers of cancer deaths and cases compared to expected values based on New Mexico cancer rates. The total numbers of cancer deaths and incident cancers were close to that expected (SMR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07; SIR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92-1.02). Lung cancer mortality and incidence were significantly increased among men (SMR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21; SIR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.64) but not women (SMR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85-1.10; SIR 1.01, 95% CI 0.78-1.29). Similarly, among the population of the three census tracts near the Grants Uranium Mill, lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated among men (SMR 1.57; 95% CI 1.21-1.99) but not women (SMR 1.12; 95% CI 0.75-1.61). Except for an elevation in mortality for stomach cancer among women (SMR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03-1.63), which declined over the 55-year observation period, no significant increases in SMRs or SIRs for 22 other cancers were found. Although etiological inferences cannot be drawn from these ecological data, the excesses of lung cancer among men seem likely to be due to previously reported risks among underground miners from exposure to radon gas and its decay products. Smoking, socioeconomic factors or ethnicity may also have contributed to the lung cancer excesses observed in our study. The stomach cancer increase was highest before the uranium mill began operation and then decreased to normal levels. With the exception of male lung cancer, this study provides no

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

  13. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment and a floodplain/wetlands assessment are included as part of this EA. This report and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

  15. Rock riprap design methods and their applicability to long-term protection of uranium mill tailings impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.

    1982-08-01

    This report reviews the more accepted or recommended riprap design methods currently used to design rock riprap protection against soil erosion by flowing water. The basic theories used to develop the various methods are presented. The Riprap Design with Safety Factors Method is identified as the logical choice for uranium mill tailings impoundments. This method is compared to the other methods and its applicability to the protection requirements of tailings impoundments is discussed. Other design problems are identified and investigative studies recommended.

  16. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    SciTech Connect

    Marple, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub.

  17. Biostimulation of Metal-Reducing Microbes at a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, A. D.; Anderson, R. T.; Chang, J.; Long, P. E.; White, D. C.

    2002-12-01

    In situ biological treatment strategies are currently being used or considered to address groundwater contamination at hundreds and perhaps thousands of sites in the United States. A key to demonstrating the effectiveness of biological treatment strategies at a site is establishing cause and effect relationships, which provide evidence that the desired bioprocesses are occurring, or are likely to occur. These methods involve directly measuring various biochemical constituents of the bacteria themselves (i.e. "biomarkers"), which are indicative of their metabolic processes, and therefore provide direct, relevant information regarding the environment in which they are growing. These biomarkers include the presence and viability of biomass, the ability of the organisms to degrade or transform target contaminant(s), the presence of nutrients to promote bacterial growth and activity, and the oxidation/reduction (redox) status of the system. Using these tools we monitored an in situ biostimulation test at the field scale at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, a former uranium ore processing facility located approximately 0.3 mile east of the city of Rifle in Garfield County, Colorado. The purpose of the study was to investigate if the addition of low concentrations of acetate (approx. 1 millimolar) as an electron donor into the subsurface would create anaerobic conditions that would stimulate growth of metal reducing bacteria capable of reducing soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), respiratory quinone, and DNA data showed that addition of acetate into the subsurface increased the microbial biomass and altered the microbial community structure to one that contained more anaerobic microorganisms (i.e. Geobacter sp.) capable of the reduction of U(VI).

  18. Characterization of Microbial Activities and U Reduction in a Shallow Aquifer Contaminated by Uranium Mill Tailing

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne A.; Krumholz, Lee R.; Wong, D; Long, Philip E.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2003-05-21

    A Characterization of the Shiprock, NM, uranium mill tailing site focused on the geochemical and microbiological factors governing in-situ uranium-redox reactions. Groundwater and aqueous extracts of sediment samples contained a wide concentration range of sulfate, nitrate, and U(VI) with median values of 21.2 mM, 16.1um, and 2.7 um, respectively. Iron (III) was not detected in groundwater, but a median value of 0.3 mM in sediment extracts was measured. Bacterial diversity down gradient from the disposal pile reflected the predominant geochemistry with relatively high numbers of sulfate-and nitrate-reducing microorganisms, and smaller numbers of acetogenic, methanogenic, nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing, Fe(III)-reducing, and sulfide oxidizing bacteria. In aquifer slurry incubations, nitrate reduction was always preferred and had a negative impact on sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U-reduction rates. We also found that sulfate-reduction rates decreased sharply in the presence of clay, while Fe(III)-reduction increased with no clear impact on U reduction. In the absence of clay, iron and sulfate reduction correlated with concentrations of Fe(III) and sulfate, respectively. Rates of U(VI) loss did not correlate with the concentration of any electron acceptor. With the exception of Fe(III), electron donor amendment was largely unsuccessful in stimulating electron acceptor loss over a 1-week incubation period, suggesting that endogenous forms of organic matter were sufficient to support microbial activity. Our findings suggest that efforts to accelerate biological U reduction should initially focus on stimulating nitrate removal.

  19. Post Audit of a Field Scale Reactive Transport Model of Uranium at a Former Mill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive transport of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) in a shallow alluvial aquifer at a former uranium mill tailings site near Naturita CO has been monitored for nearly 30 years by the US Department of Energy and the US Geological Survey. Groundwater at the site has high concentrations of chloride, alkalinity and U(VI) as a owing to ore processing at the site from 1941 to 1974. We previously calibrated a multicomponent reactive transport model to data collected at the site from 1986 to 2001. A two dimensional nonreactive transport model used a uniform hydraulic conductivity which was estimated from observed chloride concentrations and tritium helium age dates. A reactive transport model for the 2km long site was developed by including an equilibrium U(VI) surface complexation model calibrated to laboratory data and calcite equilibrium. The calibrated model reproduced both nonreactive tracers as well as the observed U(VI), pH and alkalinity. Forward simulations for the period 2002-2015 conducted with the calibrated model predict significantly faster natural attenuation of U(VI) concentrations than has been observed by the persistent high U(VI) concentrations at the site. Alternative modeling approaches are being evaluating evaluated using recent data to determine if the persistence can be explained by multirate mass transfer models developed from experimental observations at the column scale(~0.2m), the laboratory tank scale (~2m), the field tracer test scale (~1-4m) or geophysical observation scale (~1-5m). Results of this comparison should provide insight into the persistence of U(VI) plumes and improved management options.

  20. Biological assessment of remedial action at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site near Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to conduct remedial action to clean up the residual radioactive materials (RRM) at the Naturita uranium processing site in Colorado. The Naturita site is in Montrose County, Colorado, and is approximately 2 miles (mi) (3 kilometer [km]) from the unincorporated town of Naturita. The proposed remedial action is to remove the RRM from the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan disposal site. To address the potential impacts of the remedial action on threatened and endangered species, the DOE prepared this biological assessment. Informal consultations with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) were initiated in 1986, and the FWS provided a list of the threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. This list was updated by two FWS letters in 1988 and by verbal communication in 1990. A biological assessment was included in the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action that was prepared in 1990. This EA addressed the impacts of moving the Naturita RRM to the Dry Flats disposal site. In 1993, the design for the Dry Flats disposal alternative was changed. The FWS was again consulted in 1993 and provided a new list of threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. The Naturita EA and the biological assessment were revised in response to these changes. In 1994, remedial action was delayed because an alternate disposal site was being considered. The DOE decided to move the FIRM at the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan site. Due to this delay, the FWS was consulted in 1995 and a list of threatened and endangered species was provided. This biological assessment is a revision of the assessment attached to the Naturita EA and addresses moving the Naturita RRM to the Upper Burbank Quarry disposal site.

  1. Reconnaissance soil geochemistry at the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Site, Fremont County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David B.; Sweat, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Soil samples were collected and chemically analyzed from the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Site, which lies within the Wind River Indian Reservation in Fremont County, Wyoming. Nineteen soil samples from a depth of 0 to 5 centimeters were collected in August 2011 from the site. The samples were sieved to less than 2 millimeters and analyzed for 44 major and trace elements following a near-total multi-acid extraction. Soil pH was also determined. The geochemical data were compared to a background dataset consisting of 160 soil samples previously collected from the same depth throughout the State of Wyoming as part of another ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey. Risk from potentially toxic elements in soil from the site to biologic receptors and humans was estimated by comparing the concentration of these elements with soil screening values established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. All 19 samples exceeded the carcinogenic human health screening level for arsenic in residential soils of 0.39 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), which represents a one-in-one-million cancer risk (median arsenic concentration in the study area is 2.7 mg/kg). All 19 samples also exceeded the lead and vanadium screening levels for birds. Eighteen of the 19 samples exceeded the manganese screening level for plants, 13 of the 19 samples exceeded the antimony screening level for mammals, and 10 of 19 samples exceeded the zinc screening level for birds. However, these exceedances are also found in soils at most locations in the Wyoming Statewide soil database, and elevated concentrations alone are not necessarily cause for alarm. Uranium and thorium, two other elements of environmental concern, are elevated in soils at the site as compared to the Wyoming dataset, but no human or ecological soil screening levels have been established for these elements.

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1986 by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. This risk assessment follows the approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the floodplain groundwater are arsenic, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and uranium. The complete list of contaminants associated with the terrace groundwater could not be determined due to the lack of the background groundwater quality data. However, uranium, nitrate, and sulfate are evaluated since these chemicals are clearly associated with uranium processing and are highly elevated compared to regional waters. It also could not be determined if the groundwater occurring in the terrace is a usable water resource, since it appears to have originated largely from past milling operations. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if a drinking well were installed in the contaminated groundwater or if there were exposure to surface expressions of contaminated water. Potential exposures to surface water include incidental contact with contaminated water or sediments by children playing on the floodplain and consumption of meat and milk from domestic animals grazed and watered on the floodplain.

  4. A top-down assessment of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining

    SciTech Connect

    E. Schneider; B. Carlsen; E. Tavrides; C. van der Hoeven; U. Phathanapirom

    2013-11-01

    Land, water and energy use are key measures of the sustainability of uranium production into the future. As the most attractive, accessible deposits are mined out, future discoveries may prove to be significantly, perhaps unsustainably, more intensive consumers of environmental resources. A number of previous attempts have been made to provide empirical relationships connecting these environmental impact metrics to process variables such as stripping ratio and ore grade. These earlier attempts were often constrained by a lack of real world data and perform poorly when compared against data from modern operations. This paper conditions new empirical models of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining on contemporary data reported by operating mines. It shows that, at present, direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 1% of the electrical energy produced by the once-through fuel cycle. Projections of future energy intensity from uranium production are also possible by coupling the empirical models with estimates of uranium crustal abundance, characteristics of new discoveries, and demand. The projections show that even for the most pessimistic of scenarios considered, by 2100, the direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 3% of the electrical energy produced by the contemporary once-through fuel cycle.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  6. Assessment of potential migration of radionuclides and trace elements from the White Mesa uranium mill to the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation and surrounding areas, southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Marston, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent evaluation of potential offsite migration of radionuclides and selected trace elements associated with the ore storage and milling process at an active uranium mill site near White Mesa, Utah. Specific objectives of this study were (1) to determine recharge sources and residence times of groundwater surrounding the mill site, (2) to determine the current concentrations of uranium and associated trace elements in groundwater surrounding the mill site, (3) to differentiate natural and anthropogenic contaminant sources to groundwater resources surrounding the mill site, (4) to assess the solubility and potential for offsite transport of uranium-bearing minerals in groundwater surrounding the mill site, and (5) to use stream sediment and plant material samples from areas surrounding the mill site to identify potential areas of offsite contamination and likely contaminant sources. The results of age-dating methods and an evaluation of groundwater recharge temperatures using dissolved-gas samples indicate that groundwater sampled in wells in the surficial aquifer in the vicinity of the mill is recharged locally by precipitation. Tritium/helium age dating methods found a "modern day" apparent age in water samples collected from springs in the study area surrounding the mill. This apparent age indicates localized recharge sources that potentially include artificial recharge of seepage from constructed wildlife refuge ponds near the mill. The stable oxygen isotope-ratio, delta oxygen-18, or δ(18O/16O), known as δ18O, and hydrogen isotope-ratio, delta deuterium, or δ(2H/1H), known as δD, data indicate that water discharging from Entrance Spring is isotopically enriched by evaporation and has a similar isotopic fingerprint as water from Recapture Reservoir, which is used as facilities water on the mill site. Water from Recapture

  7. Physical stability of asphalt emulsion admix seal radon barrier for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.E.

    1983-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is investigating the use of an asphalt emulsion admix seal to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. A key requirement of any cover system is its long-term stability; the cover must withstand failure over very long periods of time. An important determinant of overall cover system stability is the integrity of the 6.35-cm (2.5-in.) thick asphalt admix seal. Therefore, the physical stability of this seal was examined. The investigation considered the mechanical interaction between the tailings pile and cover. The potential effect of differential settlement of the tailings pile on the integrity of the seal system was also examined. Results indicate that the minimum span length the seal could withstand without failing is 0.34 m (1.1 ft). This assumes a differential settlement of 4.92 cm (1.94 in.) at the center resulting from the application of a 0.76-m (2.5-ft) cover. At spans greater than 0.60 m (1.97 ft), no tensile strain would develop.

  8. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Burden, J.E.; Ellis, B.S.; Loy, E.T.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The results of the radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Lakeview, Oregon, show that the average gamma-ray exposure rate 1 m above the tailings pile and the evaporation pond area (now dry) is close to the average background level for the area (11 ..mu..R/hr). The /sup 226/Ra concentration in most of the surface soil and sediment samples is also at or below the average background value for surface soil samples in the area (0.8 pCi/g). Calculated /sup 226/Ra concentrations, based on gamma radiation measurements in shallow (1-m-deep) holes, are in agreement with the results of surface soil and sediment analyses and with gamma-ray exposure rate measurements. The tailings at this site have been stabilized by the addition of 46 to 60 cm (18 to 24 in.) of soil that supports vigorous growth of vegetation. This treatment, coupled with a low-level inventory of /sup 226/Ra in the tailings (50 Ci), has resulted in limited spread of tailings by wind and water.

  9. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Spook site, Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Spook site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings 48 mi northeast of Casper, in Converse County, Wyoming. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 187,000 tons of tailings at the Spook site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover makes and gamma densitometers for measuring cross-sectionally averaged mass velocity in steady steam-water flow are presented. The results are interpreted ntation.

  10. Radiological survey activities: uranium mill tailings remedial action project procedures manual

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.; Berven, B.A.; Carter, T.E.; Espegren, M.L.; O'Donnell, F.R.; Ramos, S.J.; Retolaza, C.D.; Rood, A.S.; Santos, F.A.; Witt, D.A.

    1986-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) was assigned the responsibility for conducting remedial action at 24 sites, which are located in one eastern and nine western states. The DOE's responsibilities are being met through its Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office (UMTRA-PO) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The purpose of this Procedures Manual is to provide a standardized set of procedures that document in an auditable manner the activities performed by the Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) group in the Dosimetry and Biophysical Transport Section (DABTS) of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in its role as the Inclusion Survey Contractor (ISC). Members of the RASA group assigned to the UMTRA Project are headquartered in the ORNL/RASA office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and report to the ORNL/RASA Project Manager. The Procedures Manual ensures that the organizational, administrative, and technical activities of the RASA/UMTRA group conform properly to those of the ISC as described in the Vicinity Properties Management and Implementation Manual and the Summary Protocol. This manual also ensures that the techniques and procedures used by the RASA/UMTRA group and contractor personnel meet the requirements of applicable governmental, scientific, and industrial standards.

  11. Survivability of ancient man-made earthen mounds: implications for uranium mill tailings impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Mishima, J.; King, S.E.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    As part of a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating long-term stabilization techniques for uranium mill impoundments. Part of this investigation involves the design of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of the underlying soil cover, which in turn prevents exposure of the tailings to the environment. However, the need for the armoring blanket, as well as the blanket's effectiveness, depends on the stability of the underlying soil cap (radon suppression cover) and on the tailings themselves. Compelling evidence in archaeological records suggests that large man-made earthen structures can remain sound and intact for time periods comparable to those required for the stabilization of the tailings piles if properly constructed. We present archaeological evidence on the existence and survivability of man-made earthen and rock structures through specific examples of such structures from around the world. We also review factors contributing to their survival or destruction and address the influence of climate, building materials, and construction techniques on survivability.

  12. Simulation of water flow and retention in earthen-cover materials overlying uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, C.S.; Gee, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    The water retention characteristics of a multilayer earthen cover for uranium mill tailings were simulated under arid weather conditions common to Grand Junction, Colorado. The multilayer system described in this report consists of a layer of wet clay/gravel (radon barrier), which is separated from a surface covering of fill soil by a washed rock material used as a capillary barrier. The capillary barrier is designed to prevent the upward migration of water and salt from the tailings to the soil surface and subsequent loss of water from the wet clay. The flow model, UNSATV, described in this report uses hydraulic properties of the layered materials and historical climatic data for two years (1976 and 1979) to simulate long-term hydrologic response of the multilayer system. Application of this model to simulate the processes of infiltration, evaporation and drainage is described in detail. Simulations over a trial period of one relatively wet and two dry years indicated that the clay-gravel layer remained near saturation, and hence, that the layer was an effective radon barrier. Estimates show that the clay-gravel layer would not dry out (i.e., revert to drying dominated by isothermal vapor-flow conditions) for at least 20 years, provided that the modeled dry-climate period continues.

  13. Mathematical simulation of contaminant distribution in and around the uranium mill tailing piles, Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Tokunaga, T.; White, A.F.; Smith, A.R.

    1983-02-01

    As part of the Research and Development phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has set itself the goal of explaining the physico-chemical evolution of the Riverton site on the basis of the already collected field data at the site (Tokunaga and Narasimhan, 1982, Smith and Moed, 1982; White et al., 1984). The predictive aspects as well as addressing the question of critical quantity of field data have to be considered during the design phase of the project as a joint effort between the LBL team and the construction engineers. At the present time, LBL is in the process of completing the Research and Development phase of the work. As of this writing, the development of an appropriate set of mathematical models has been completed. The computations of the soil-water regime at the upper tailings surface, involving climatological factors is nearing completion. Computations of chemical transport are still in progress. This paper is devoted to a description of the key mathematical issues, the mathematical models that are needed to address these issues and a discussion of the model results pertaining to the soil water regime at the tailings-atmosphere interface. 11 references, 3 figures.

  14. Analysis of BIOMOVS II Uranium Mill Tailings scenario 1.07 with the RESRAD computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanapragasam, E.K.; Yu, C.

    1997-08-01

    The residual radioactive material guidelines (RESRAD) computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory was selected for participation in the model intercomparison test scenario, version 1.07, conducted by the Uranium Mill Tailings Working Group in the second phase of the international Biospheric Model Validation Study. The RESRAD code was enhanced to provide an output attributing radiological dose to the nuclide at the point of exposure, in addition to the existing output attributing radiological dose to the nuclide in the contaminated zone. A conceptual model to account for off-site accumulation following atmospheric deposition was developed and showed the importance of considering this process for this off-site scenario. The RESRAD predictions for the atmospheric release compared well with most of the other models. The peak and steady-state doses and concentrations predicted by RESRAD for the groundwater release also agreed well with most of the other models participating in the study; however, the RESRAD plots shows a later breakthrough time and sharp changes compared with the plots of the predictions of other models. These differences were due to differences in the formulation for the retardation factor and to not considering the effects of longitudinal dispersion.

  15. Environmental assessment of ground water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of the Spook, Wyoming, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. It analyzes the impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action for ground water compliance. The proposed action is to comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for the UMTRA Project sites (40 CFR Part 192) by meeting supplemental standards based on the limited use ground water at the Spook site. This proposed action would not require site activities, including ground water monitoring, characterization, or institutional controls. Ground water in the uppermost aquifer was contaminated by uranium processing activities at the Spook site, which is in Converse County, approximately 48 miles (mi) (77 kilometers [km]) northeast of Casper, Wyoming. Constituents from the site infiltrated and migrated into the uppermost aquifer, forming a plume that extends approximately 2500 feet (ft) (800 meters [m]) downgradient from the site. The principal site-related hazardous constituents in this plume are uranium, selenium, and nitrate. Background ground water in the uppermost aquifer at the site is considered limited use. It is neither a current nor a potential source of drinking water because of widespread, ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using treatment methods reasonably employed in public water supply systems (40 CFR {section} 192.11 (e)). Background ground water quality also is poor due to first, naturally occurring conditions (natural uranium mineralization associated with an alteration front), and second, the effects of widespread human activity not related to uranium milling operations (uranium exploration and mining activities). There are no known exposure pathways to humans, animals, or plants from the contaminated ground water in the uppermost aquifer because it does not discharge to lower aquifers, to the surface, or to surface water.

  16. Parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement with MOAB.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2008-12-01

    In this report, we present the novel functionality of parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement which we have implemented in MOAB. This report details work done to implement parallel, edge-based, tetrahedral refinement into MOAB. The theoretical basis for this work is contained in [PT04, PT05, TP06] while information on design, performance, and operation specific to MOAB are contained herein. As MOAB is intended mainly for use in pre-processing and simulation (as opposed to the post-processing bent of previous papers), the primary use case is different: rather than refining elements with non-linear basis functions, the goal is to increase the number of degrees of freedom in some region in order to more accurately represent the solution to some system of equations that cannot be solved analytically. Also, MOAB has a unique mesh representation which impacts the algorithm. This introduction contains a brief review of streaming edge-based tetrahedral refinement. The remainder of the report is broken into three sections: design and implementation, performance, and conclusions. Appendix A contains instructions for end users (simulation authors) on how to employ the refiner.

  17. The source of groundwater and solutes to Many Devils Wash at a former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Austin, Stephen A.; Lawlis, Bryan R.

    2016-04-21

    The Shiprock Disposal Site is the location of the former Navajo Mill (Mill), a uranium ore-processing facility, located on a terrace overlooking the San Juan River in the town of Shiprock, New Mexico. Following the closure of the Mill, all tailings and associated materials were encapsulated in a disposal cell built on top of the former Mill and tailings piles. The milling operations, conducted at the site from 1954 to 1968, created radioactive tailings and process-related wastes that are now found in the groundwater. Elevated concentrations of constituents of concern—ammonium, manganese, nitrate, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and uranium—have also been measured in groundwater seeps in the nearby Many Devils Wash arroyo, leading to the inference that these constituents originated from the Mill. These constituents have also been reported in groundwater that is associated with Mancos Shale, the bedrock that underlies the site. The objective of this report is to increase understanding of the source of water and solutes to the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash and to establish the background concentrations for groundwater that is in contact with the Mancos Shale at the site. This report presents evidence on three working hypotheses: (1) the water and solutes in Many Devils Wash originated from the operations at the former Mill, (2) groundwater in deep aquifers is upwelling under artesian pressure to recharge the shallow groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash, and (3) the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash originates as precipitation that infiltrates into the shallow aquifer system and discharges to Many Devils Wash in a series of springs on the east side of the wash. The solute concentrations in the shallow groundwater of Many Devils Wash would result from the interaction of the water and the Mancos Shale if the source of water was upwelling from deep aquifers or precipitation.In order to compare the groundwater from various wells to groundwater that has been

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the EPA. the first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the contaminants of potential concern in the ground water are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sulfate, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and radium-226. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if they drank from a well installed in the contaminated ground water at the former processing site.

  19. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

  20. Screening of plant species for phytoremediation of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead contaminated soils from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-yue; Hu, Nan; Ding, De-xin; Zheng, Ji-fang; Liu, Yu-long; Wang, Yong-dong; Nie, Xiao-qin

    2011-06-01

    The concentrations of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead in the samples of the tailings and plant species collected from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. Then, the removal capability of a plant for a target element was assessed. It was found that Phragmites australis had the greatest removal capabilities for uranium (820 μg), thorium (103 μg) and lead (1,870 μg). Miscanthus floridulus had the greatest removal capabilities for barium (3,730 μg) and nickel (667 μg), and Parthenocissus quinquefolia had the greatest removal capability for strontium (3,920 μg). In this study, a novel coefficient, termed as phytoremediation factor (PF), was proposed, for the first time, to assess the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation of a target element contaminated soil. Phragmites australis has the highest PFs for uranium (16.6), thorium (8.68), barium (10.0) and lead (10.5). Miscanthus floridulus has the highest PF for Ni (25.0). Broussonetia papyrifera and Parthenocissus quinquefolia have the relatively high PFs for strontium (28.1 and 25.4, respectively). On the basis of the definition for a hyperaccumulator, only Cyperus iria and Parthenocissus quinquefolia satisfied the criteria for hyperaccumulator of uranium (36.4 μg/g) and strontium (190 μg/g), and could be the candidates for phytoremediation of uranium and strontium contaminated soils. The results show that the PF has advantage over the hyperaccumulator in reflecting the removal capabilities of a plant for a target element, and is more adequate for assessing the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation than conventional method.

  1. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  2. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings site, Shiprock, New Mexico: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the shiprock uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Indian Reservation, one mile south of Shiprock, New Mexico. The site contains 72 acres of tailings and four of the original mill buildings. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A seven-foot-thick radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Three other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed. 99 refs., 40 figs., 58 tabs.

  3. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), hereafter referred to as the UMTRCA, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miquel County. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 63 acres of the Union Carbide (UC) processing site and 15 ac of the North Continent (NC) processing site. The sites are within 1 mile of each other and are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain concrete foundations of mill buildings, tailings piles, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive tailings materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,300 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}). In addition to the contamination in the two processing site areas, four VPs were found to contain contamination. As a result of the tailings being exposed to the environment, contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into shallow ground water. Surface water has not been affected. The closest residence is approximately 0.3 air mi from either site. The proposed action is to remediate the UC and NC sites by removing all contaminated materials within the designing site boundaries or otherwise associated with the sites, and relocating them to, and stabilizing them at, a location approximately 5 road mi northeast of the sites on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

  4. Field testing of fugitive dust control techniques at a uranium mill tailings pile - 1982 Field Test, Gas Hills, Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-12-01

    A field test was conducted on a uranium tailings pile to evaluate the effectiveness of 15 chemical stabilizers for control of fugitive dust from uranium mill tailings. A tailings pile at the Federal American Partners (FAP) Uranium Mill, Gas Hills, Wyoming, was used for the field test. Preliminary laboratory tests using a wing tunnel were conducted to select the more promising stabilizers for field testing. Fourteen of the chemical stabilizers were applied with a field spray system pulled behind a tractor; one--Hydro Mulch--was applied with a hydroseeder. A portable weather station and data logger were installed to record the weather conditions at the test site. After 1 year of monitoring (including three site visits), all of the stabilizers have degraded to some degree; but those applied at the manufacturers' recommended rate are still somewhat effective in reducing fugitive emissions. The following synthetic polymer emulsions appear to be the more effective stabilizers: Wallpol 40-133 from Reichold Chemicals, SP-400 from Johnson and March Corporation, and CPB-12 from Wen Don Corporation. Installed costs for the test plots ranged from $8400 to $11,300/ha; this range results from differences in stabilizer costs. Large-scale stabilization costs of the test materials are expected to range from $680 to $3600/ha based on FAP experience. Evaluation of the chemical stabilizers will continue for approximately 1 year. 2 references, 33 figures, 22 tables.

  5. DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND SUSTAINABILITY OF ENGINEERED COVERS FOR URANIUM MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W. Jody

    2004-04-21

    Final remedies at most uranium mill tailings sites include engineered covers designed to contain metals and radionuclides in the subsurface for hundreds of years. Early cover designs rely on compacted soil layers to limit water infiltration and release of radon, but some of these covers inadvertently created habitats for deep-rooted plants. Root intrusion and soil development increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity several orders of magnitude above design targets. These covers may require high levels of maintenance to sustain long-term performance. Relatively low precipitation, high potential evapotranspiration, and thick unsaturated soils favor long-term hydrologic isolation of buried waste at arid and semiarid sites. Later covers were designed to mimic this natural soil-water balance with the goal of sustaining performance with little or no maintenance. For example, the cover for the Monticello, Utah, Superfund site relies on a thick soil-sponge layer overlying a sand-and-gravel capillary barrier to store precipitation while plants are dormant and on native vegetation to dry the soil sponge during the growing season. Measurements of both off-site caisson lysimeters and a large 3-ha lysimeter built into the final cover show that drainage has been well below a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency target of less than 3.0 mm/yr. Our stewardship strategy combines monitoring precursors to failure, probabilistic riskbased modeling, and characterization of natural analogs to project performance of covers for a range of possible future environmental scenarios. Natural analogs are needed to understand how ecological processes will influence cover performance, processes that cannot be predicted with short-term monitoring and existing numerical models.

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado. Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The presence of contaminated uranium mill tailings adjacent to the city of Gunnison has been a local concern for many years. The following issues were identified during public meetings that were held by the DOE prior to distribution of an earlier version of this EA. Many of these issues will require mitigation. Groundwater contamination; in December 1989, a herd of 105 antelope were introduced in an area that includes the Landfill disposal site. There is concern that remedial action-related traffic in the area would result in antelope mortality. The proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road may restrict antelope access to their water supply; a second wildlife issue concerns the potential reduction in sage grouse use of breeding grounds (leks) and nesting habitat; the proposed Tenderfoot Mountain haul road would cross areas designated as wetlands by US Army Corps of Engineers (COE); the proposed disposal site is currently used for grazing by cattle six weeks a year in the spring. Additional concerns were stated in comments on a previous version of this EA. The proposed action is to consolidate and remove all contaminated materials associated with the Gunnison processing site to the Landfill disposal site six air miles east of Gunnison. All structures on the site (e.g., water tower, office buildings) were demolished in 1991. The debris is being stored on the site until it can be incorporated into the disposal cell at the disposal site. All contaminated materials would be trucked to the Landfill disposal site on a to-be-constructed haul road that crosses BLM-administered land.

  7. Evaluation of liners for a uranium-mill tailings disposal site: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.; Barnes, S.M.; Silviera, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy is conducting a program designed to reclaim or stabilize inactive uranium-mill tailings sites. This report presents the status of the Liner Evaluation Program. The purpose of the study was to identify eight prospective lining materials or composites for laboratory testing. The evaluation was performed by 1) reviewing proposed regulatory requirements to define the material performance criteria; 2) reviewing published literature and communicating with industrial and government experts experienced with lining materials and techniques; and 3) characterizing the tailings at three of the sites for calcium concentration, a selection of anions, radionuclides, organic solvents, and acidity levels. The eight materials selected for laboratory testing are: natural soil amended with sodium-saturated montmorillonite (Volclay); locally available clay in conjunction with an asphalt emulsion radon suppression cover; locally available clay in conjunction with a multibarrier radon suppression cover; rubberized asphalt membrane; hydraulic asphalt concrete; chlorosulfonated polyethylene (hypalon) or high-density polyethylene; bentonite, sand and gravel mixture; and catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The materials will be exposed in test units now being constructed to conditions such as wet/dry cycles, temperature cycles, oxidative environments, ion-exchange elements, etc. The results of the tests will identify the best material for field study. The status report also presents the information gathered during the field studies at Grand Junction, Colorado. Two liners, a bentonite, sand and gravel mixture, and a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane, were installed in a prepared trench and covered with tailings. The liners were instrumented and are being monitored for migration of moisture, radionuclides, and hazardous chemicals. The two liner materials will also be subjected to accelerated laboratory tests for a comparative assessment.

  8. Acceleration of Microbially Mediated U(VI) Reduction at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Colorado Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Phil Long; Todd Anderson; Aaron Peacock; Steve Heald; Yun-Juan Chang; Dick Dayvault; Derek R. Lovley; C.T. Resch; Helen Vrionis; Irene Ortiz-Bernad; D.C. White

    2004-03-17

    A second field-scale electron donor amendment experiment was conducted in 2003 at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in Rifle, Colorado. The objective of the 2003 experiment (done in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy's UMTRA Groundwater Project) was to test the hypothesis that amendment of increased concentration of electron donor would result in an increased export of electron donor down gradient which in turn would create a larger zone of down-gradient U(VI) bioreduction sustained over a longer time period relative to the 2002 experiment (Anderson et al. 2003). During the first experiment (2002), {approx}3 mM acetate was amended to subsurface over a period of 3 months in a 15m by 18m by 2.5m volume comprised of 3 upgradient monitoring wells, 20 injection wells, and 15 down-gradient monitoring wells. After an initial one-month phase of metal reduction, bioavailable oxidized Fe was consumed near the injection gallery and the dominant terminal electron accepting process became sulfate reduction, rapidly consuming the injected acetate. For the 2003 experiment, we amended sufficient acetate ({approx}10 mM) to consume available sulfate and export acetate down-gradient where bioavailable oxidized Fe was still present. Data from the experiment indicate that acetate was exported further down gradient, resulting in a larger zone of microbial U(VI) reduction than for the 2002 experiment. Geohydrologic, geochemical, and microbiological data collected during the course of both experiments enable assessment of relative importance of a number of factors controlling the experimental outcomes. Companion posters by Anderson et al. and White et al. provide additional results.

  9. Groundwater contamination from an inactive uranium mill tailings pile. 2. Application of a dynamic mixing model

    SciTech Connect

    Narashimhan, T.N.; White, A.F.; Tokunaga, T.

    1986-12-01

    At Riverton, Wyoming, low pH process waters from an abandoned uranium mill tailings pile have been infiltrating into and contaminating the shallow water table aquifer. The contamination process has been governed by transient infiltration rates, saturated-unsaturated flow, as well as transient chemical reactions between the many chemical species present in the mixing waters and the sediments. In the first part of this two-part series the authors presented field data as well as an interpretation based on a static mixing models. As an upper bound, the authors estimated that 1.7% of the tailings water had mixed with the native groundwater. In the present work they present the results of numerical investigation of the dynamic mixing process. The model, DYNAMIX (DYNamic MIXing), couples a chemical speciation algorithm, PHREEQE, with a modified form of the transport algorithm, TRUMP, specifically designed to handle the simultaneous migration of several chemical constituents. The overall problem of simulating the evolution and migration of the contaminant plume was divided into three sub problems that were solved in sequential stages. These were the infiltration problem, the reactive mixing problem, and the plume-migration problem. The results of the application agree reasonably with the detailed field data. The methodology developed in the present study demonstrates the feasibility of analyzing the evolution of natural hydrogeochemical systems through a coupled analysis of transient fluid flow as well as chemical reactions. It seems worthwhile to devote further effort toward improving the physicochemical capabilities of the model as well as to enhance its computational efficiency.

  10. Groundwater contamination from an inactive uranium mill tailings pile: 2. Application of a dynamic mixing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.; White, A. F.; Tokunaga, T.

    1986-12-01

    At Riverton, Wyoming, low pH process waters from an abandoned uranium mill tailings pile have been infiltrating into and contaminating the shallow water table aquifer. The contamination process has been governed by transient infiltration rates, saturated-unsaturated flow, as well as transient chemical reactions between the many chemical species present in the mixing waters and the sediments. In the first part of this two-part series [White et al., 1984] we presented field data as well as an interpretation based on a static mixing model. As an upper bound, we estimated that 1.7% of the tailings water had mixed with the native groundwater. In the present work we present the results of numerical investigation of the dynamic mixing process. The model, DYNAMIX (DYNAmic MIXing), couples a chemical speciation algorithm, PHREEQE, with a modified form of the transport algorithm, TRUMP, specifically designed to handle the simultaneous migration of several chemical constituents. The overall problem of simulating the evolution and migration of the contaminant plume was divided into three sub problems that were solved in sequential stages. These were the infiltration problem, the reactive mixing problem, and the plume-migration problem. The results of the application agree reasonably with the detailed field data. The methodology developed in the present study demonstrates the feasibility of analyzing the evolution of natural hydrogeochemical systems through a coupled analysis of transient fluid flow as well as chemical reactions. It seems worthwhile to devote further effort toward improving the physicochemical capabilities of the model as well as to enhance its computational efficiency.

  11. A thick homogeneous vegetated cover design proves cost - and schedule-effective for the reclamation of uranium mills sites near Spokane, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Blacklaw, J.; Robertson, G.; Stoffel, D.; Ahmad, J.; Fordham, E.

    1997-08-01

    The Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has licensed two medium sized uranium mills with tailings impoundments covering 28 and 40 hectares (70 and 100 acres), respectively, The uranium mill licensees have submitted closure and reclamation plans to the state, and site-specific conditions have determined the closure design features, Conventional uranium mill cover designs usually incorporate an overall cap of one to three meters, which includes a low-permeability clay barrier layer. A technical evaluation of several uranium mill facilities that used this design was published in the fall of 1994 and reported that unexpected vegetation root damage had occurred in the low-permeability clay (or bentonite amended) barrier layers. The technical report suggested that the low-permeability design feature at some sites could be compromised within a very short time and the regulatory goal of 1,000 years performance might not be achieved. In October 1994, WDOH sponsored a technical forum meeting to consider design alternatives to address these reliability concerns. Representatives from the federal government, nuclear industry, licensees, engineering firms, and state regulatory agencies attended the workshop. Risk factors considered in the evaluation of the uranium mill reclamation plans include: (1) radon gas emanation through the cover (the air pathway), and (2) migration of hazardous and/or radioactive constituents (the groundwater pathway). Additional design considerations include site structural stability, longevity of 1,000 years, and no active (ongoing) maintenance. 9 refs.

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings site, Mexican Hat, Utah. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action at the Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Reservation in southern Utah. The site covers 235 acres and contains 69 acres of tailings and several of the original mill structures. Remedial action must be performed in accordance with standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Navajo Nation. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings within the present tailings site by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier of compacted earth would be constructed over the pile, and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document. 240 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Annotated bibliography of environmentally relevant investigations of uranium mining and milling in the Grants Mineral Belt, northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the natural environment in the Grants Mineral Belt in northwestern New Mexico have been conducted since the 1930s; however, few such investigations predate uranium mining and milling operations, which began in the early 1950s. This report provides an annotated bibliography of reports that describe the hydrology and geochemistry of groundwaters and surface waters and the geochemistry of soils and sediments in the Grants Mineral Belt and contiguous areas. The reports referenced and discussed provide a large volume of information about the environmental conditions in the area after mining started. Data presented in many of these studies, if evaluated carefully, may provide much basic information about the baseline conditions that existed over large parts of the Grants Mineral Belt prior to mining. Other data may provide information that can direct new work in efforts to discriminate between baseline conditions and the effects of the mining and milling on the natural environment.

  14. A Multifaceted Sampling Approach to Better Understanding Biogeochemical and Hydrogeological Controls on Uranium Mobility at a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Riverton, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, W. L.; Johnson, R. H.; Campbell, S.; Bone, S. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding uranium mobility in subsurface environments is not trivial. Obtaining sufficient data to accurately represent soil and aquifer characteristics can require unique approaches that evolve with added site knowledge. At Riverton, the primary source of uranium mill tailings remaining from ore processing was removed but contaminant plumes have persisted longer than predicted by groundwater modeling. What are the primary mechanisms controlling plume persistence? DOE is conducting new characterization studies to assist our understanding of underlying biogeochemical and hydrogeological mechanisms affecting secondary sources. A variety of field sampling techniques are being sequentially employed including augering, trenching, pore water sampling, and installing multi-level wells. In August 2012, vadose zone soil samples from 34 locations and groundwater from 103 boreholes were collected with Geoprobe ® direct push rods. Lower than expected uranium concentrations in composited shallow soils indicated the need for more focused and deeper samples. In May 2014, soil samples containing evaporites were collected along the bank of the Little Wind River; elevated uranium concentrations in evaporite minerals correlated with plume configurations and reflect contaminated groundwater discharge at the river. In September 2014, hand anger samples collected by the river and oxbow lake also indicated the presence of organic rich zones containing elevated uranium (>50 mg/kg). Subsequent samples collected from five backhoe trenches in May 2015 revealed a highly heterogeneous vadose zone composed of clay, silt, sand and cobbles containing evaporites and organic rich zones which may interact with groundwater plumes.Plans for August 2015 include sonic drilling to obtain continuous cores from the surface down to the base of the surficial aquifer with multi-level monitoring wells constructed in each borehole to assess vertical variation in groundwater chemistry. Temporary well

  15. Evaluation of health risks associated with proposed ground water standards at selected inactive uranium mill-tailings sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Nagy, J.; Lackey, K.

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed ground water standards applicable to all inactive uranium mill-tailings sites. The proposed standards include maximum concentration limits (MCL) for currently regulated drinking water contaminants, as well as the addition of standards for molybdenum, uranium, nitrate, and radium-226 plus radium-228. The proposed standards define the point of compliance to be everywhere downgradient of the tailings pile, and require ground water remediation to drinking water standards if MCLs are exceeded. This document presents a preliminary description of the Phase 2 efforts. The potential risks and hazards at Gunnison, Colorado and Lakeview, Oregon were estimated to demonstrate the need for a risk assessment and the usefulness of a cost-benefit approach in setting supplemental standards and determining the need for and level of restoration at UMTRA sites. 8 refs., 12 tabs.

  16. Radiologic characterization of the Mexican Hat, Utah, uranium mill tailings remedial action site: Appendix D, Addenda D1--D7

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This radiologic characterization of the inactive uranium millsite at Mexican Hat, Utah, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation foe the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junction Project Office, in response to and in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. the objective of this project was to determine the horizontal and vertical extent of contamination that exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards at the Mexican Hat site. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the Mexican Hat tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. Some on-pile sampling was required to determine the depth of the 15-pCi/g Ra-226 interface in an area where wind and water erosion has taken place.

  17. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1995 (1 July 1994 through 30 June 1995). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock, Colorado. Economic data were requested from the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  18. The ultrasonic ranging and data system for radiological surveys in the UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.; Berven, B.A.; Blair, M.S.; Dickerson, K.S.; Pickering, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) was developed to allow radiation exposure data and positional information to be collected, stored and analyzed in a more efficient manner than currently employed on the (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project. USRADS is a portable unit which employs ultrasonics, radio frequency transmissions, and a personal computer. Operational experience indicates that the system results in increased information about the property with decreased data analysis and transcription effort and only slightly more field effort. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the UMTRA Project site near Lakeview, Oregon, was completed in 1989. The mill operated from February 1958 to November 1960. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  1. TRANSPORT AND FATE OF AMMONIUM AND ITS IMPACT ON URANIUM AND OTHER TRACE ELEMENTS AT A FORMER URANIUM MILL TAILING SITE

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Ziheng; Nihat, Hakan; McMillan, Andrew Lee; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    The remediation of ammonium-containing groundwater discharged from uranium mill tailing sites is a difficult problem facing the mining industry. The Monument Valley site is a former uranium mining site in the southwest US with both ammonium and nitrate contamination of groundwater. In this study, samples collected from 14 selected wells were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace elements, and isotopic composition of ammonium and nitrate. In addition, geochemical data from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) database were analyzed. Results showing oxic redox conditions and correspondence of isotopic compositions of ammonium and nitrate confirmed the natural attenuation of ammonium via nitrification. Moreover, it was observed that ammonium concentration within the plume area is closely related to concentrations of uranium and a series of other trace elements including chromium, selenium, vanadium, iron, and manganese. It is hypothesized that ammonium-nitrate transformation processes influence the disposition of the trace elements through mediation of redox potential, pH, and possibly aqueous complexation and solid-phase sorption. Despite the generally relatively low concentrations of trace elements present in groundwater, their transport and fate may be influenced by remediation of ammonium or nitrate at the site. PMID:24357895

  2. TRANSPORT AND FATE OF AMMONIUM AND ITS IMPACT ON URANIUM AND OTHER TRACE ELEMENTS AT A FORMER URANIUM MILL TAILING SITE.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ziheng; Nihat, Hakan; McMillan, Andrew Lee; Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-11-01

    The remediation of ammonium-containing groundwater discharged from uranium mill tailing sites is a difficult problem facing the mining industry. The Monument Valley site is a former uranium mining site in the southwest US with both ammonium and nitrate contamination of groundwater. In this study, samples collected from 14 selected wells were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace elements, and isotopic composition of ammonium and nitrate. In addition, geochemical data from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) database were analyzed. Results showing oxic redox conditions and correspondence of isotopic compositions of ammonium and nitrate confirmed the natural attenuation of ammonium via nitrification. Moreover, it was observed that ammonium concentration within the plume area is closely related to concentrations of uranium and a series of other trace elements including chromium, selenium, vanadium, iron, and manganese. It is hypothesized that ammonium-nitrate transformation processes influence the disposition of the trace elements through mediation of redox potential, pH, and possibly aqueous complexation and solid-phase sorption. Despite the generally relatively low concentrations of trace elements present in groundwater, their transport and fate may be influenced by remediation of ammonium or nitrate at the site.

  3. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings " ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings." Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are in

  4. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 2, Appendices D and E: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  5. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Mexican Hat, Utah: Appendix D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-07-01

    This appendix is an assessment of the present conditions of the inactive uranium mill site near Mexican Hat, Utah. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan. Plan is to characterize the conditions at the mill and tailings site so that the Remedial Action Contractor may complete final designs of the remedial action.

  6. The source of groundwater and solutes to Many Devils Wash at a former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Austin, Stephen A.; Lawlis, Bryan R.

    2016-04-21

    The Shiprock Disposal Site is the location of the former Navajo Mill (Mill), a uranium ore-processing facility, located on a terrace overlooking the San Juan River in the town of Shiprock, New Mexico. Following the closure of the Mill, all tailings and associated materials were encapsulated in a disposal cell built on top of the former Mill and tailings piles. The milling operations, conducted at the site from 1954 to 1968, created radioactive tailings and process-related wastes that are now found in the groundwater. Elevated concentrations of constituents of concern—ammonium, manganese, nitrate, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and uranium—have also been measured in groundwater seeps in the nearby Many Devils Wash arroyo, leading to the inference that these constituents originated from the Mill. These constituents have also been reported in groundwater that is associated with Mancos Shale, the bedrock that underlies the site. The objective of this report is to increase understanding of the source of water and solutes to the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash and to establish the background concentrations for groundwater that is in contact with the Mancos Shale at the site. This report presents evidence on three working hypotheses: (1) the water and solutes in Many Devils Wash originated from the operations at the former Mill, (2) groundwater in deep aquifers is upwelling under artesian pressure to recharge the shallow groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash, and (3) the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash originates as precipitation that infiltrates into the shallow aquifer system and discharges to Many Devils Wash in a series of springs on the east side of the wash. The solute concentrations in the shallow groundwater of Many Devils Wash would result from the interaction of the water and the Mancos Shale if the source of water was upwelling from deep aquifers or precipitation.In order to compare the groundwater from various wells to groundwater that has been

  7. Radioecological investigations of uranium-mill-tailings systems. Second technical progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W.

    1981-10-15

    This document provides a status report on studies which address some of the problems and questions regarding the integrity and transport of uranium and certain radioactive progeny in active and reclaimed uranium mill tailings. The studies reported are being conducted at Pathfinder Mines Corporation's Shirley Basin Uranium Mine, located in a remote area of Carbon County in southeastern Wyoming. A considerable amount of effort, especially during the first few years of the study, must relate to basic characterization of the general environs as well as of specific study plots. Such characterization, which is essential for interpretation of analytical results for radionuclides, involves investigation of climate, soils, underground water, vegetation, and animals. Early results of such characterization work are reported herein. This investigation includes as a major component, studies relating to disposal of mill tailings by earthern covers. Of interest are the effects of various types and thicknesses of covers on radon emanation, ambient gamma radiation, biological incorporation of radionuclides, stability of soil and plant communities and physical migration of radioactivity. This report also summarizes work relating to levels of /sup 230/Th, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Po in water, soils and vegetation from background (uncontaminated) sites, from areas near the tailings pond, and from reclaimed overburden areas. Another major activity is the investigation of specific mechanisms which lead to contamination of vegetation with radionuclides. The processes of root uptake and aerial deposition are under study through a variety of designed experiments and sampling schemes. A small-scale study on the metabolism of /sup 210/Po by mule deer and antelope is also reported.

  8. Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Eidson, A.F.

    1984-05-01

    The problems addressed are the protection of uranium mill workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures and associated health risk estimates and will identify important bioassay procedures to improve evaluations of human exposures. A quantitative analytical method for yellowcake was developed based on the infrared absorption of ammonium diuranate and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ mixtures in KBr. The method was applied to yellowcake samples obtained from six operating mills. The composition of yellowcake from the six mills ranged from nearly pure ammonium diuranate to nearly pure U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The composition of yellowcake samples taken from lots from the same mill was only somewhat less variable. Because uranium mill workers might be exposed to yellowcake either by contamination of a wound or by inhalation, a study of retention and translocation of uranium after subcutaneous implantation in rats was done. The results showed that 49% of the implanted yellowcake cleared from the body with a half-time (T sub 1/2) in the body of 0.3 days, and the remainder was cleared with a T sub 1/2 of 11 to 30 days. Exposures of Beagle dogs by nose-only inhalation to aerosols of commercial yellowcake were completed. Biochemical indicators of kidney dysfunction that appeared in blood and urine 4 to 8 days after exposure to the more soluble yellowcake showed significant changes in dogs, but levels returned to normal by 16 days after exposure. No biochemical evidence of kidney dysfunction was observed in dogs exposed to the less soluble yellowcake form. 18 figures, 9 tables.

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Surface cleanup at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lakeview, Oregon was completed in 1989. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  13. The effect of exposure to employees from mining and milling operations in a uranium mine on lead isotopes--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian L; Mizon, Karen J; Dickson, Bruce L; Korsch, Michael J

    2005-03-01

    Potential exposure during mining and milling of uranium ore has resulted in the industry being highly regulated. Exposure can arise from inhalation of the daughter product radioactive gas radon (222Rn), inhalation of radioactive dust particles from mining and milling, direct irradiation from outside the body, and ingestion of radionuclides (e.g. uranium or radium) in food or water. Making use of the highly unusual lead isotopic signature for uranium ores (high 206Pb/204Pb from the high uranium content, low 208Pb/204Pb from the low Th/U ratio), we undertook a pilot study of nine male mine employees and three controls from the Ranger uranium mine in the Northern Territory Australia to determine if it was feasible to use lead isotopes in blood to identify exposure to uranium-derived materials. The lead isotopic data for the mine employees and controls plot in two distinct fields which are consistent with predicted isotopic patterns. Assuming retention of 10% of the ingested lead, then the increases seen in 206Pb represent intakes of between 0.9 and 15 mg, integrated over the years of exposure. The small amount of lead does not affect blood lead concentrations, but appears to be sufficient to be detectable with sensitive isotopic methods. Further studies, including those on urine, should be undertaken to confirm the veracity of the lead isotope method in monitoring exposure of uranium industry employees.

  14. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Remedial action selection report. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities that have been conducted by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium mill processing site near Durango, Colorado. Secondly, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado.

  15. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Remedial action selection report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities that have been conducted by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium mill processing site near Durango, Colorado. Secondly, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  18. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites. According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, (UMTRCA) the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined this assessment shall include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA groundwater protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment; characterization of existing groundwater quality; definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source; and description of local water resources.

  19. State policies and requirements for management of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. Vol. I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Vandevender, S.G.

    1980-02-01

    This volume summarizes the results of a cooperative effort with the State of New Mexico to study the potential environmental and resource-related problems associated with uranium mining and milling. Four issues identified in a conference jointly sponsored by the state and DOE's predecessor, ERDA, were addressed by three state agencies: The Office of the State Engineer, the Environmental Improvement Agency (EIA), and the Energy Resources Board. The individual studies of water availability, environmental quality, power availability and community impacts are published separately as Volumes II-V of this report. The recommendations are that DOE consider proposals from the State Engineer and the Environmental Improvement Division to develop programs which would lead to resolution of the issues they have presented. It is also recommended that DOE enter into discussions with the State Energy and Minerals Department (formerly ERB) to determine whether and to what extent DOE participation in their recommended programs is appropriate.

  20. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information.

  1. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  2. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) in 2013 at 19 uranium mill tailings disposal sites established under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978.1 These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title I disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE operates 18 UMTRCA Title I sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.27 (10 CFR 40.27). As required under the general license, a long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for each site was prepared by DOE and accepted by NRC. The Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site, one of the 19 Title I sites, will not be included under the general license until the open, operating portion of the cell is closed. The open portion will be closed either when it is filled or in 2023. This site is inspected in accordance with an interim LTSP. Long-term surveillance and maintenance services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective actions; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder relations, and other regulatory stewardship functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific LTSPs and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up or contingency inspections, or corrective action in accordance with the LTSP. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available on the Internet at http://www.lm.doe.gov/.

  3. Use of solvent extraction technique in Brazilian uranium mills - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gomiero, Luiz A.

    2008-07-01

    Solvent extraction has been applied to uranium-concentrate production in Brazil. At the first plant, uranium minerals associated with Zr and Mo were acid leached. Extraction was carried out by a mixture of Alamine 336 and Alamine 304, followed by selective Zr, U, and Mo stripping. At the currently operating facilities, a single U mineral is processed by acid heap leaching. Uranium is extracted with Alamine 336 and stripped with NaCl solution. As all water is recycled, chloride contents in the liquor have increased, causing detrimental effects to the extraction process. The current plant operating conditions and the improvements arisen from the research developed to solve these problems are presented. (authors)

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  5. The assessment of human exposure to radionuclides from a uranium mill tailings release and mine dewatering effluent.

    PubMed

    Ruttenber, A J; Kreiss, K; Douglas, R L; Buhl, T E; Millard, J

    1984-07-01

    This study provides an assessment of human exposure to radiation from a river system contaminated by radionuclides of the 238U decay series released through a dam break at a uranium mill tailings pond and by the continuous discharge of dewatering effluent from 2 uranium mines. The in vivo analyses of radionuclides in 6 Navajo Indians who lived near the river indicate no detectable elevations above background concentrations. Dose estimates for inhalation of suspended river sediment indicate a maximum annual 50-yr dose commitment of 204 mrem to the endosteum. Estimates of doses (50-yr dose commitments) from the ingestion of livestock range between 1 mrem (to liver) and 79 mrem (to bone) suggest that the major contribution to human exposure is from mine dewatering effluent that has been continuously released into the river system for many years. Although the estimated exposures do not exceed existing state or federal regulations, their magnitude justifies further measurement of radionuclides in animals and in the natural environment and the consideration of strategies to reduce radiation exposure to humans and animals.

  6. 76 FR 70170 - Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Uravan site began operations in 1912 as a radium mill and later expanded operations to include extraction... of radium-226 in soil, found in the Colorado Rules and Regulations Pertaining to Radiation Control, 6... exceeded by more than 5 pCi/g (picocuries per gram) of radium-226 averaged over the first 15...

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  8. Use of 234U and 238U isotopes to evaluate contamination of near-surface groundwater with uranium-mill effluent: A case study in south-central Colorado, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Chafin, D.T.; Banta, E.R.; Szabo, B. J.

    1997-01-01

    The 234U/238U alpha activity ratio (AR) was determined in 47 samples of variably uraniferous groundwater from the vicinity of a uranium mill near Canon City, Colorado. The results illustrate that uranium isotopes can be used to determine the distribution of uranium contamination in groundwater and to indicate processes such as mixing and chemical precipitation that affect uranium concentrations. Highly to moderately contaminated groundwater samples collected from the mill site and land immediately downgradient from the mill site contain more than 100 ??g/l of dissolved uranium and typically have AR values in the narrow range of 1.0-1.06. Other samples from the shallow alluvial aquifer farther downgradient from the mill contain 10-100 ??g/1 uranium and plot along a broad trend of increasing AR (1.06-1.46) with decreasing uranium concentration. The results are consistent with mixing of liquid mill waste (AR ??? 1.0) with alluvial groundwater of small, but variable, uranium concentrations and AR of 1.31.5. In the alluvial aquifer, the spatial distribution of wells with AR values less than 1.3 is consistent with previous estimates of the probable distribution of contamination, based on water chemistry and hydrology. Wells more distant from the area of probable contamination have AR values that are consistently greater than 1.3 and are indicative of little or no contamination. The methodology of this study can be extended usefully to similar sites of uranium mining, milling, or processing provided that local geohydrologic settings promote uranium mobility and that introduced uranium contamination is isotopically distinct from that of local groundwater.

  9. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at the Spook site, Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Chou, K.D.; Ellis, B.S.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-05-01

    Results of a radiological survey performed at the Spook site in Converse County, Wyoming, in June 1976, are presented. The mill at this site was located a short distance from the open-pit mine where the ore was obtained and where part of the tailings was dumped into the mine. Several piles of overburden or low-grade ore in the vicinity were included in the measurements of above-ground gamma exposure rate. The average exposure rate over these piles varied from 14 ..mu..R/hr, the average background exposure rate for the area, to 140 ..mu..R/hr. The average exposure rate for the tailings and former mill area was 220 ..mu..R/hr. Movement of tailings particles down dry washes was evident. The calculated concentration of /sup 226/Ra in ten holes as a function of depth is presented graphically.

  10. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Appendix D, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the proposed disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  11. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Ray Point, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Loy, E.T.; Lorenzo, D.

    1980-11-01

    The mill site and tailings pile near Ray Point, Texas, cover an area of approximately 140 hectares located 1.6 km west of Ray Point. The dry portion of the tailings pile is stabilized, and the whole pile is surrounded by a dike. It contains approximately 445,000 metric tons of material with an estimated average /sup 226/Ra concentration of 518 pCi/g. The average gamma-ray exposure rate 1 m above the pile is 300 ..mu..R/hr while the corresponding average for the mill site, including the former ore storage area, is 87 ..mu..R/hr. Soil and sediment sample analyses, as well as gamma-ray exposure rate measurements, show some spread of contamination off the site; however, it appears that control measures at this site have been effective in limiting the spread of tailings. Access to the area is limited by chain-link and barbed-wire fences, and continued surveillance of the area is maintained. The mill buildings have been maintained for possible future use.

  12. Use of asphalt emulsion sealants in disposal of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-07-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt % asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation.

  13. Environmental assessment of remedial action at vicinity properties associated with the former Climax Uranium Company Uranium Mill Site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the UMTRA Project vicinity properties in Mesa County, Colorado. Vicinity properties are homes, businesses, public buildings, and vacant lots which may have been contaminated during construction by the use of tailings as a building material or as fill material before the hazards associated with this material were known. It is estimated that 3585 contaminated properties remain to be formally included on the vicinity property list and thereby require remedial action. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy to perform remedial action at these properties. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulqated standards for remedial action (40 CRF Part 192). The alternatives addressed in this environmental assessment (EA) including taking no action toward remedial action at the vicinity properties, conducting remedial action at a rate of 500 properties per year, and conducting remedial action at a rate of 800 properties per year. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  15. Finding and evaluating potential radiological problems in the vicinity of uranium milling sites

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, W.A.; Yates, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    Tailings at inactive milling sites usually have a low frequency of human occupancy but continuously generate /sup 222/Rn into the atmosphere. Measurements of airborne /sup 222/Rn and /sup 222/Rn flux are made on the sites to define the tailings source term. Concurrently with these measurements, an ambient /sup 222/Rn monitoring network is established off-site and a meteolrololgical station is established at or near the mill site. Radioactivity can migrate to areas outside of site boundaries by wind and water erosion, groundwater transport, spillage of incoming purposes. In order to identify and assess off-site radioactivity on properties in the vicinity of milling sites, a combination of aerial and ground-level radiological monitoring techniques are used. The ground mobile gamma-ray scan is conducted using a vehicle equipped with sensitive gamma-ray detectors. The detectors are shielded so that gamma radiation input is viewed through only one side of the vehicle. This system is capable of precisely locating properties which have anomalously high gamma radiation levels caused by the presence of tailings. Subsequently, these properties are identified as candidate vicinity properties and are scheduled for radiological surveys subject to the property owner's consent. The comprehensive radiological surveys conducted at these vicinity properties determine the amount, type, and location of tailings materials. Structures on a vicinity property are carefully surveyed to determine the presence or absence of construction-related uses of tailings. If structural uses of tailings are found, air samples are analyzed for /sup 222/Rn progeny, short-term continuous /sup 222/Rn monitoring is instituted, and /sup 222/Rn flux rate from tailings are estimated. If warranted, long-term /sup 222/Rn and progeny measurements are made.

  16. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the page changes for Attachment 3, Ground Water Hydrology Report dated August, 1996 for the Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This portion of Attachment 3 contains the Table of Contents pages i and ii, and pages numbered 3-3 through 3-56 of the Ground Water Hydrology Report. Also included are the cover sheets for Appendix A, B, and C to Attachment 3.

  17. Modelling study on buffering pH and retaining U using a simplified uranium mill tailings pile example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Diederik; Simunek, Jirka

    2014-05-01

    The hypothetical problem that is presented here considers the release and migration of uranium from a simplified uranium mill tailings pile towards a river. The modeling exercise with the coupled reactive transport model HP2 illustrates the effect of the geochemical conceptual model for sorption on (i) the buffering of the pH in the soil/aquifer system and (ii) the retention of U in the soil. The HP2 module, which couples the PHREEQC geochemical code with HYDRUS (2D/3D), is a two-dimensional equivalent of the one-dimensional HP1 program that was first released in 2005 (Jacques et al., 2008), and used successfully in many applications. Sorption of U is described using a multi-site cation exchange model (see Jacques et al., 2008). This sorption model also buffers the acid pH due to proton exchange. Two scenarios are considered: a soil with a relatively low (8.1 × 10-3 mol/kg) and relatively high (8.1 × 10-2 mol/kg) sorption capacity. In the third scenario, specific sorption of U and other cations and anions on Fe-oxides is described using a non-electrostatic surface complexation model with a very low capacity (8.1 × 10-4 mol/kg), in addition to low exchange complexation. Proton exchange on the cation exchanger buffers the acidity by replacing calcium with protons on the exchanger; the spatial extent of the pH-perturbed region is smaller in the scenario with the higher exchange capacity. Specific sorption has only a small effect on the pH-perturbed zone, although it is important to note that its capacity is one order of magnitude lower than in the scenario with the low sorption capacity. U reaches the river system within 1000 d in scenarios with low and high exchange capacities. Only in the scenario with specific sorption, U migration within the ground water system is retarded, compared to the other two cases. The results of the three scenarios do not seem to be intuitive, especially the equally fast movement of U in the scenario with a high exchange capacity

  18. Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jocelyn M; Janz, David M

    2009-05-17

    Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most

  19. Remedial action plan for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. It presents the series of activities which are proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located near Monument Valley, Arizona It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE and the Navajo Nation and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  20. Environmental analysis and data report prepared for the environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This document contains information and data gathered in support of the preparation of the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Falls City, Texas. The Falls City EA was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the impacts of their actions on the environment. It examines the short- and long-term effects of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) remedial action for the Falls City site as well as the no action alternative. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented in the EA to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared. If the impacts are not determined to be significant, the DOE may issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and implement the proposed action. The information and data presented in this report are for background purposes only and are not required as part of the NEPA decision-making process.

  1. Mineralogical controls on aluminum and magnesium in uranium mill tailings: Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gomez, M A; Hendry, M J; Koshinsky, J; Essilfie-Dughan, J; Paikaray, S; Chen, J

    2013-07-16

    The mineralogy and evolution of Al and Mg in U mill tailings are poorly understood. Elemental analyses (ICP-MS) of both solid and aqueous phases show that precipitation of large masses of secondary Al and Mg mineral phases occurs throughout the raffinate neutralization process (pH 1-11) at the Key Lake U mill, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data from a suite of analytical methods (ICP-MS, EMPA, laboratory- and synchrotron-based XRD, ATR-IR, Raman, TEM, EDX, ED) and equilibrium thermodynamic modeling showed that nanoparticle-sized, spongy, porous, Mg-Al hydrotalcite is the dominant mineralogical control on Al and Mg in the neutralized raffinate (pH ≥ 6.7). The presence of this secondary Mg-Al hydrotalcite in mineral samples of both fresh and 15-year-old tailings indicates that the Mg-Al hydrotalcite is geochemically stable, even after >16 years in the oxic tailings body. Data shows an association between the Mg-Al hydrotalcite and both As and Ni and point to this Mg-Al hydrotalcite exerting a mineralogical control on the solubility of these contaminants. PMID:23802943

  2. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Preliminary final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-04

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (52 FR 36000 (1987)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, 42 USC {section}7901 et seq., the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined that for Slick Rock, this assessment shall include hydrogeologic site characterization for two separate uranium processing sites, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site, and for the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. The following site characterization activities are discussed in this attachment: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment, including hydrostratigraphy, ground water occurrence, aquifer parameters, and areas of recharge and discharge. Characterization of existing ground water quality by comparison with background water quality and the maximum concentration limits (MCL) of the proposed EPA ground water protection standards. Definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source, including concentration and leachability of the source in relation to migration in ground water and hydraulically connected surface water. Description of local water resources, including current and future use, availability, and alternative supplies.

  3. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Lorenzo, D.; Christian, D.J.; Chou, K.D.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Results of a radiological survey performed at the Riverton, Wyoming site in July 1976, are presented. The average external gamma exposure rate at 1 m over the tailings pile was 56 ..mu..R/hr. The corresponding rate for the former mill area was 97 ..mu..R/hr. Movement of tailings particles in a dry wash is evident; but it appears that, in general, the earth cover over the tailings pile has been effective in limiting both wind and water erosion of the tailings. The calculated concentration of /sup 226/Ra as a function of depth in 15 augered holes is presented graphically. A survey of the Teton Division Lumber Company property in Riverton showed a maximum external gamma exposure rate of 270 ..mu..R/hr.

  4. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    As required by the Romer-Twining Agreement of 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this annual economic impact study for the state of Colorado. This report assesses the economic impacts related to the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in Colorado during the state fiscal year (FY) between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1995. To estimate net economic benefit, employment, salaries and wages, and other related economic benefits are discussed, quantified, and then compared to the state`s 10 percent share of the remedial action costs. Actual data obtained from sites currently undergoing remedial action were used as the basis for analyses. If data were not available, estimates were used to derive economic indicators. This study describes the types of employment associated with the UMTRA Project and estimates of the numbers of people employed by UMTRA Project subcontractors in Colorado during state FY 1995. Employment totals are reported in estimated average annual jobs; however, the actual number of workers at the site fluctuates depending on weather and on the status of remedial action activities. In addition, the actual number of people employed on the Project during the year may be higher than the average annual employment reported due to the temporary nature of some of the jobs.

  5. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work.

  6. CURRENT STATUS AND RECLAMATION PLAN OF FORMER URANIUM MINING AND MILLING FACILITIES AT NINGYO-TOGE IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kazuhiko; Tokizawa, Takayuki

    2003-02-27

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) conducted research and development projects on uranium exploration in Japan from 1956 to 1987. Several mine facilities, such as waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond, were retained around Ningyo-toge after the projects ended. Although there is no legal issue in the mine in accordance with related law and agreements at present, JNC has a notion that it is important to reduce the burden of waste management on future generations. Thus, the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of JNC proposed a reclamation plan for these facilities with fundamental policy, an example of safety analysis and timetables. The plan has mainly three phases: Phase I is the planning stage, and this paper corresponds to this: Phase II is the stage to perform various tests for safety analysis and site designing: Phase III is the stage to accomplish measures. Preliminarily safety analyses suggested that our supposed cover designs for both waste rock and m ill tailing are enough to keep dose limit of 1mSv/y at site boundaries. The plan is primarily based on the Japanese Mine Safety Law, also refers to ICRP recommendations, IAEA reports, measures implemented overseas, etc. because this is the first case in Japan. For the accomplishment of this plan, it is important to establish a close relationship with local communities and governments, and to maintain a policy of open-to-public.

  7. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review. [203 references

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University.

  8. Hydro-geochemical studies of uranium mill tailing piles at Riverton, Wyoming and Maybell, Colorado. Annual report for FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Galbraith, R.M.; White, A.; Smith, A.; Schmidt, H.; Moed, B.; Tokunaga, T.

    1982-05-01

    The present study is the beginning phase of an effort to develop an understanding of the physico-chemical interactions that occur within two typical inactive uranium mill tailing piles under the jurisdiction of the UMTRA Program. These sites are located at Riverton, Wyoming and at Maybell, Colorado. The understanding is to be gained through integrated hydrological-geochemical-radiometric studies. Investigated are: (a) the release of contaminants to the interstitial fluid; and (b) the vertical transport of the contaminants either upward to the surface or downward to the water table. This investigation would determine the important contaminants, ascertain the influence of chemical/osmotic potentials (if any) on fluid movement, and investigate the possibility of temporal cycles in the upward/downward movement of fluids with seasonal changes in the moisture content of the piles. The field work carried out during fiscal 1981 extended from June to September. During this period, exploratory drilling was completed at six locations on the Riverton and Maybell piles. Over 141 Shelby tube samples were collected, which represent relatively undisturbed core samples of the tailings material. In order to gain a maximum advantage of the short time available before the onset of the winter, it was decided to concentrate the rest of the data collection at the Riverton site, where the water table is shallow.

  9. Pollution of ground water due to inactive uranium mill tailings. Summary of progress, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    An extensive program of characterization of several inactive uranium tailings piles has been carried out in the past year. The geotechnical engineering program conducted a drilling program at the Salt Lake City and Grand Junction sites. The locations of slimes and sands in these sites hve been characterized. In general, it was found that slimes exist in the impoundments in lower percentages than normally produced from mill tailings. Permeability tests were conducted yielding values ranging from 10/sup -3/ cm/sec to 10/sup -6/cm/sec. The geochemical studies made considerable progress in the past year. Extensive sampling of several sites was conducted. Sampling programs have been completed for seven sites and are underway for nine other sites. The work to date has indicated the importance of salts in controlling the direction and rate of movement of contaminants. The work has also indicated that a number of non-radioactive elements such as As are of environmental importance. The work also indicates the importance of the fact that the tailings piles are out of chemical equilibrium with their environment. Computer software was developed and implemented for data storage and retrieval. Automation hardware was installed and tested for the Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometer. A number of analytical protocols were developed for routine analyses. A comprehensive quality control program was implemented. More than 18,000 chemical analyses were performed.

  10. An assessment of plant biointrusion at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project rock-covered disposal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This study is one of a number of special studies that have been conducted regarding various aspects of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This special study was proposed following routine surveillance and maintenance surveys and observations reported in a special study of vegetative covers (DOE, 1988), in which plants were observed growing up through the rock erosion layer at recently completed disposal cells. Some of the plants observed were deep-rooted woody species, and questions concerning root intrusion into disposal cells and the need to control plant growth were raised. The special study discussed in this report was designed to address some of the ramifications of plant growth on disposal cells that have rock covers. The NRC has chosen rock covers over vegetative covers in the arid western United States because licenses cannot substantiate that the vegetative covers will be significantly greater than 30 percent and preferably 70 percent,'' which is the amount of vegetation required to reduce flow to a point of stability.'' The potential impacts of vegetation growing in rock covers are not addressed by the NRC (1990). The objectives, then, of this study were to determine the species of plants growing on two rock-covered disposal cells, study the rooting pattern of plants on these cells, and identify possible impacts of plant root penetration on these and other UMTRA Project rock-covered cells.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  12. Study of uranium oxide milling in order to obtain nanostructured UCx target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, Julien; Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Roussière, Brigitte; Barré-Boscher, Nicole; Brisset, François; Mhamed, Maher Cheikh; Lau, Christophe; Nowak, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    A R&D program is developed at the ALTO facility to provide new beams of exotic neutron-rich nuclei, as intense as possible. In the framework of European projects, it has been shown that the use of refractory targets with nanometric structure allows us to obtain beams of nuclei unreachable until now. The first parameter to be controlled in the processing to obtain targets with a homogeneous nanostructure is the grinding of uranium dioxide, down to 100 nm grain size. In this study, dry and wet grinding routes are studied and the powders are analyzed in terms of phase stabilization, specific surface area and grain morphology. It appears that the grinding, as well dry as wet, leads to the decrease of the particle size. The oxidation of UO2 is observed whatever the grinding. However, the dry grinding is the most efficient and leads to the oxidation of UO2 into U4O9 and U3O7 whose quantities increase with the grinding time while crystallite sizes decrease.

  13. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radiactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actons. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ content.

  14. Ethanol Addition for Enhancing Denitrification at the Uranium Mill Tailing Site in Monument Valley, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Borden, A. K.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; McMillan, Andrew; Akyol, N. H.; Berkompas, J.; Miao, Z.; Jordan, F.; Tick, Geoff; Waugh, W. J.; Glenn, E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium mining and processing near Monument Valley, Arizona resulted in the formation of a large nitrate plume in a shallow alluvial aquifer. The results of prior field characterization studies indicate that the nitrate plume is undergoing a slow rate of attenuation via denitrification, and the results of bench-scale studies suggest that denitrification rates can potentially be increased by an order of magnitude with the addition of ethanol as a carbon substrate. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential of ethanol amendment for enhancing the natural denitrification occurring in the alluvial aquifer. Pilot tests were conducted using the single well, push-pull method and a natural-gradient test. The results showed that the concentration of nitrate decreased, while the concentration of nitrous oxide (a product of denitrification) increased. In addition, changes in aqueous concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese indicate the ethanol amendment effected a change in prevailing redox conditions. The results of compound-specific stable isotope analysis for nitrogen indicated that the nitrate concentration reductions were biologically mediated. Continued monitoring after completion of the pilot tests has shown that nitrate concentrations in the injection zone have remained at levels three orders of magnitude lower than the initial values, indicating that the impacts of the pilot tests have been sustained for several months.

  15. Colorado economic impact study on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-12

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1993. To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are: Direct employment was estimated at 894 workers; An estimated 89 percent of all direct employment was local; Secondary employment resulting from remedial action at the active Colorado UMTRA Project sites and the Grand Junction vicinity property program is estimated at 546 workers. Total employment (direct and secondary) is estimated at 1440 workers for the period of study (July 1, 1992, to June 30, 1993). An estimated $24.1 million was paid in wages to UMTRA workers in Colorado during FY1993; Direct and secondary wage earnings were estimated at $39.9 million; Income tax payments to the state of Colorado were estimated at $843,400 during FY1993; The gross economic impact of UMTRA Project activities in the state of Colorado is estimated at $70 million during the 1-year study period; and the net economic benefit to the state of Colorado was estimated at $57.5 million, or $5.90 per dollar of funding provided by Colorado. This figure includes both direct and secondary benefits but does not include the impact of alternative uses of the state funding.

  16. Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Kastens, M.K.; Sheader, L.R.L.; Benson, C.H.; Albright, W.H.; Mushovic, P.S.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated on the design and monitoring of an alternative cover for the Monticello uranium mill tailings disposal cell, a Superfund site in southeastern Utah. Ground-water recharge is naturally limited at sites like Monticello where thick, fine-textured soils store precipitation until evaporation and plant transpiration seasonally return it to the atmosphere. The cover at Monticello uses local soils and a native plant community to mimic the natural soil water balance. The cover is fundamentally an evapotranspiration (ET) design with a capillary barrier. A 3-hectare drainage lysimeter was embedded in the cover during construction of the disposal cell in 2000. The lysimeter consists of a geo-membrane liner below the capillary barrier that directs percolation water to a monitoring system. Soil water storage is determined by integration of point water content measurements. Meteorological parameters are measured nearby. Plant cover, shrub density, and leaf area index (LAI) are monitored annually. The cover performed well over the 7-year monitoring period (2000-2007). The cumulative percolation was 4.2 mm (0.6 mm yr{sup -1}), satisfying an EPA goal of an average percolation of <3.0 mm yr{sup -1}. Almost all percolation can be attributed to the exceptionally wet winter and spring of 2004-2005 when soil water content slightly exceeded the water storage capacity of the cover. The diversity, percent cover, and LAI of vegetation increased over the monitoring period, although the density of native shrubs that extract water from deeper in the cover has remained less than revegetation targets. DOE and EPA are applying the monitoring results to plan for long-term surveillance and maintenance and to evaluate alternative cover designs for other waste disposal sites. (authors)

  17. Status of activities on the inactive uranium mill tailings sites remedial action program. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This report on the status of the Office of Environment's program for inactive uranium mill tailings sites is an analysis of the current status and a forecast of future activities of the Office of Environment. The termination date for receipt of information was September 30, 1980. Aerial radiological surveys and detailed ground radiological assessments of properties within the communities in the vicinity of the designated processing sites in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Boise, Idaho led to the designation of an initial group of vicinity properties for remedial action. The potential health effects of the residual radioactive materials on or near these properties were estimated, and the Assistant Secretary for Environment recommended priorities for performing remedial action to the Department's Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy. In designating these properties and establishing recommended priorities for performing remedial action, the Office of Environment consulted with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, representatives from the affected State and local governments, and individual property owners. After notifying the Governors of each of the affected States and the Navajo Nation of the Secretary of Energy's designation of processing sites within their areas of jurisdiction and establishment of remedial action priorities, a Sample Cooperative Agreement was developed by the Department in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and provided to the affected States and the Navajo Nation for comments. During September 1980, a Cooperative Agreement with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the designated Canonsburg processing site was executed by the Department. It is anticipated that a Cooperative Agreement between the State of Utah and the Department to perform remedial actions at the designated Salt Lake City site will be executed in the near future.

  18. State policies and requirements for management of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. Volume V. State policy needs for community impact assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Vandevender, S.G.

    1980-04-01

    The report contained in this volume describes a program for management of the community impacts resulting from the growth of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. The report, submitted to Sandia Laboratories by the New Mexico Department of Energy and Minerals, is reproduced without modification. The state recommends that federal funding and assistance be provided to implement a growth management program comprised of these seven components: (1) an early warning system, (2) a community planning and technical assistance capability, (3) flexible financing, (4) a growth monitoring system, (5) manpower training, (6) economic diversification planning, and (7) new technology testing.

  19. Innovative Approach to Prevent Acid Drainage from Uranium Mill Tailings Based on the Application of Na-Ferrate (VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, H.M.; Reinhart, D.; Lettie, L.; Franklin, M.R.; Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R.; Daly, L.J.

    2006-07-01

    The operation of uranium mining and milling plants gives rise to huge amounts of wastes from both mining and milling operations. When pyrite is present in these materials, the generation of acid drainage can take place and result in the contamination of underground and surface waters through the leaching of heavy metals and radionuclides. To solve this problem, many studies have been conducted to find cost-effective solutions to manage acid mine drainage; however, no adequate strategy to deal with sulfide-ric h wastes is currently available. Ferrate (VI) is a powerful oxidizing agent in aqueous media. Under acidic conditions, the redox potential of the Ferrate (VI) ion is the highest of any other oxidant used in wastewater treatment processes. The standard half cell reduction potential of ferrate (VI) has been determined as +2.20 V to + 0.72 V in acidic and basic solutions, respectively. Ferrate (VI) exhibits a multitude of advantageous properties, including higher reactivity and selectivity than traditional oxidant alternatives, as well as disinfectant, flocculating, and coagulant properties. Despite numerous beneficial properties in environmental applications, ferrate (VI) has remained commercially unavailable. Starting in 1953, different methods for producing a high purity, powdered ferrate (VI) product were developed. However, producing this dry, stabilized ferrate (VI) product required numerous process steps which led to excessive synthesis costs (over $20/lb) thereby preventing bulk industrial use. Recently a novel synthesis method for the production of a liquid ferrate (VI) based on hypochlorite oxidation of ferric ion in strongly alkaline solutions has been discovered (USPTO 6,790,428; September 14, 2004). This on-site synthesis process dramatically reduces manufacturing cost for the production of ferrate (VI) by utilizing common commodity feedstocks. This breakthrough means that for the first time ferrate (VI) can be an economical alternative to treating

  20. Report on game species of concern associated with the Gunnison Remedial Action Project, Gunnison, Colorado. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This report provides background information and data used in the analysis of potential impacts to game species reported in the Environmental Assessment of the Proposed Remedial Action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Gunnison, Colorado. That environmental assessment provides details regarding proposed remedial action at the Gunnison site along with a description of existing conditions and projected environmental impacts. A summary of the proposed action is provided. The uranium mill tailings and other contaminated materials at the Gunnison processing site would be transported to the Landfill disposal site via the Tenderfoot Mountain (TM) haul route. The remedial action would take place over a three-year period with two six-month winter shutdowns. The first year would consist of site preparation and haul road construction. The second year would consist of moving the tailings. Movement of the radon/infiltration barrier cover material and erosion protection material would take place during the third construction year. The material used to cover the pile is fine-grained material for the radon/infiltration barrier (Sixmile Lane borrow site) and rock for erosion protection from the Chance Gulch borrow site. The location of the borrow sites used to obtain these materials and the associated haul roads is shown.

  1. Predictive geochemical modeling of interactions between uranium-mill-tailings solutions and sediments in a flow-through system: model formulations and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Serne, R.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1983-08-01

    An equilibrium thermodynamic conceptual model consisting of minerals and solid phases was developed to represent a soil column. A computer program was used as a tool to solve the system of mathematical equations imposed by the conceptual chemical model. The combined conceptual model and computer program were used to predict aqueous phase compositions of effluent solutions from permeability cells packed with geologic materials and percolated with uranium mill tailings solutions. Initial calculations of ion speciation and mineral solubility and our understanding of the chemical processes occurring in the modeled system were used to select solid phases for inclusion in the conceptual model. The modeling predictions were compared to the analytically determined column effluent concentrations. Hypotheses were formed, based on modeling predictions and laboratory evaluations, as to the probable mechanisms controlling the migration of selected contaminants. An assemblage of minerals and other solid phases could be used to predict the concentrations of several of the macro constituents (e.g., Ca, SO/sub 4/, Al, Fe, and Mn) but could not be used to predict trace element concentrations. These modeling conclusions are applicable to situations where uranium mill tailings solutions of low pH and high total dissolved solids encounter either clay liners or natural geologic materials that contain inherent acid neutralizing capacities. 116 references, 22 figures, 6 tables.

  2. Evaluation of Background Concentrations of Contaminants in an Unusual Desert Arroyo Near a Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Cell - 12260

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, Richard P.; Morrison, Stan J.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages 27 sites that have groundwater containing uranium concentrations above background levels. The distal portions of the plumes merge into background groundwater that can have 50 μg/L or more uranium. Distinguishing background from site-related uranium is often problematic, but it is critical to determining if remediation is warranted, establishing appropriate remediation goals, and evaluating disposal cell performance. In particular, groundwater at disposal cells located on the upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale may have relatively high background concentrations of uranium. Elevated concentrations of nitrate, selenium, and sulfate accompany the uranium. LM used geologic analogs and uranium isotopic signatures to distinguish background groundwater from groundwater contaminated by a former uranium processing site. The same suite of contaminants is present in groundwater near former uranium processing sites and in groundwater seeps emanating from the Mancos Shale over a broad area. The concentrations of these contaminants in Many Devils Wash, located near LM's Shiprock disposal cell, are similar to those in samples collected from many Mancos seeps, including two analog sites that are 8 to 11 km from the disposal cell. Samples collected from Many Devils Wash and the analog sites have high AR values (about 2.0)-in contrast, groundwater samples collected near the tailings disposal cell have AR values near 1.0. These chemical signatures raise questions about the origin of the contamination seeping into Many Devils Wash. (authors)

  3. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Maybell, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, Geology report, Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [m]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd{sup 3} (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3} (420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}). Information presented in this Final Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and referenced in supporting documents represents the current disposal cell design features and ground water compliance strategy proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the Maybell, Colorado, tailings site. Both the disposal cell design and the ground water compliance strategy have changed from those proposed prior to the preliminary final RAP document as a result of prudent site-specific technical evaluations.

  4. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Mexican Hat, Utah: Appendix E. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-07-01

    This document provides Appendix E of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP) presented in 1988 for the stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings at the Mexican Hat, Utah site. The RAP was developed to serve a two- fold purpose. It presents the activities proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials (RRM) from Monument Valley, Arizona, and Mexican Hat, Utah, at the Mexican Hat disposal site. It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the Navajo Nation and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement. The RAP has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat sites. It includes specific design and construction requirements for the remedial action.

  5. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Remedial Action Selection Report. Preliminary final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This proposed remedial action plan incorporates the results of detailed investigation of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the proposed disposal site. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/waterborne materials to a permanent repository at the proposed Burro Canyon disposal cell. The proposed disposal site will be geomorphically stable. Seismic design parameters were developed for the geotechnical analyses of the proposed cell. Cell stability was analyzed to ensure long-term performance of the disposal cell in meeting design standards, including slope stability, settlement, and liquefaction potential. The proposed cell cover and erosion protection features were also analyzed and designed to protect the RRM (residual radioactive materials) against surface water and wind erosion. The location of the proposed cell precludes the need for permanent drainage or interceptor ditches. Rock to be used on the cell top-, side-, and toeslopes was sized to withstand probable maximum precipitation events.

  6. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes.

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T; Majstrenko, T; Geras'kin, S; Brown, J E; Belykh, E

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to alpha-, beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and (226)Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles=5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  7. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Remedial action selection report, Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small town of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated UMTRA sites at Slick Rock, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The UC site is approximately 1 mile (mi) [2 kilometers (km)] downstream of the NC site. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres (ac) [22 hectares (ha)] at the UC site and 12 ac (4.9 ha) at the NC site. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 620, 000 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [470,000 cubic meters (m{sup 3})]. In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, four vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into groundwater.

  8. Effects of grazing on leaf area index, fractional cover and evapotranspiration by a desert phreatophyte community at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau.

    PubMed

    Bresloff, Cynthia J; Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P; Waugh, Jody; Nagler, Pamela L

    2013-01-15

    This study employed ground and remote sensing methods to monitor the effects of grazing on leaf area index (LAI), fractional cover (f(c)) and evapotranspiration (ET) of a desert phreatophyte community over an 11 year period at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau, U.S. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate are migrating away from the mill site in a shallow alluvial aquifer. The phreatophyte community, consisting of Atriplex canescens (ATCA) and Sarcobatus vermiculatus (SAVE) shrubs, intercepts groundwater and could potentially slow the movement of the contaminant plume through evapotranspiration (ET). However, the site has been heavily grazed by livestock, reducing plant cover and LAI. We used livestock exclosures and revegetation plots to determine the effects of grazing on LAI, f(c) and ET, then projected the findings over the whole site using multi-platform remote sensing methods. We show that ET is approximately equal to annual precipitation at the site, but when ATCA and SAVE are protected from grazing they can develop high f(c) and LAI values, and ET can exceed annual precipitation, with the excess coming from groundwater discharge. Therefore, control of grazing could be an effective method to slow migration of contaminants at this and similar sites in the western U.S. PMID:23220605

  9. Evaluation of uranium geochemical anomalies in the Spartanburg 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS area near Pacolet Mills, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, J.

    1981-06-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) was involved in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program from 1974 through 1981. The SRL role was to design, conduct, and report the data from a geochemical reconnaissance of almost half the continental United States. The purpose of this work was to provide a basis for evaluating the uranium potential of areas and to identify areas meriting conventional geological followup. In this program over 275,000 samples of stream sediment, soil vegetation, and ground or surface water were collected. As a part of the development program to support interpretation of the geochemical data, SRL conducted a series of anomaly verification field studies. Each study area was chosen on the basis of a geochemical anomaly in reconnaissance data. Subcontractors were selected to conduct field scintillometer surveys, compile geologic maps, collect additional samples, or provide other services as deemed appropriate for a given study. This report, which summarizes the results of a study in the Spartanburg 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle, was compiled for SRL by Jerry Owen and is published as a facsimile of this report to SRL. Normal editing was not done so that the report could be placed in the public domain prior to the termination of the NURE program. This study is one of a series designed to provide a basis for interpretation of SRL regional geochemical reconnaissance data. It contains a synthesis of published data and results of a four-channel gamma spectrometer survey of an area near Pacolet Mills, South Carolina.

  10. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado. Attachment 5, Supplemental radiological data: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Diffusion coefficients for radon gas in earthen materials are required to design suitable radon-barrier covers for uranium tailings impoundments and other materials that emit radon gas. Many early measurements of radon diffusion coefficients relied on the differences in steady-state radon fluxes measured from radon source before and after installation of a cover layer of the material being tested. More recent measurements have utilized the small-sample transient (SST) technique for greater control on moistures and densities of the test soils, greater measurement precision, and reduced testing time and costs. Several of the project sites for the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Program contain radiologically contaminated subsurface material composed predominantly of cobbles, gravels andsands. Since remedial action designs require radon diffusion coefficients for the source materials as well as the cover materials, these cobbly and gravelly materials also must be tested. This report contains the following information: a description of the test materials used and the methods developed to conduct the SST radon diffusion measurements on cobbly soils; the protocol for conducting radon diffusion tests oncobbly soils; the results of measurements on the test samples; and modifications to the FITS computer code for analyzing the time-dependent radon diffusion data.

  11. Adding a MOAB Geometry Interface to SHARP Structural Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Ferencz, R M; Hodge, N E

    2012-05-28

    The authors briefly summarize the development of, and test experience with, an initial data interface between the structural mechanics code Diablo and the SHARP reactor simulation system data hub MOAB. That interface has been exercised both to write MOAB databases from Diablo, and then also to use such a database to read in part of a simulation definition for a subsequent Diablo execution. All enhancements are integrated into the central Diablo source repository. The SHARP software system for advanced simulation of nuclear reactors and power plant systems is sponsored by DOE's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. SHARP has been architected as a federation of single-physics simulation tools to permit flexibility in programming langugages and leveraging of past and on-going investments. Solution of multi-physics problems will be coordinated by, and data passed through, a central 'hub'. SHARP's hub implementation is utilizing MOAB: a Mesh-Oriented datABase. This same data hub approach is also intended to enable multi-resolution simulations, e.g, lower-dimension plant-scale simulations can be informed by high-fidelity 3D models of particular critical components.

  12. Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report.

  13. Remedial actions at the former Climax Uranium Company, Uranium Mill site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. Volume 1, Text: Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1986-12-01

    This statement evaluates and compares the environmental impacts associated with the remedial actions of the residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site and associated vicinity properties at Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. This statement is also intended to aid the BLM in amending their management framework plans and final resource management plan, as well as assisting in compliance with the withdrawal application as appropriate. The site is a 114-acre tract of private and state owned land which contains approximately 3.1 million cubic yards of tailings and associated contaminated soils. The vicinity properties are homes, businesses, public buildings, and vacant lots which may have been contaminated during construction by the use of tailings as building material. An estimated 3465 vicinity properties would be cleaned up during remedial action of the tailings pile. The tailings were produced by the former Climax Uranium Company which processed uranium ore, which it sold to the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1951 to 1966 and to private sources from 1966 to 1970. This statement evaluates six alternatives for stabilization and disposal of the tailings and other contaminated materials: (1) No action. (2) Stabilization at the Grand Junction site. (3) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with truck transport. (4) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with train and truck transport. (5) Disposal at the Two Road site with truck transport. (6) Disposal at the Two Road site with train and truck transport. All of the alternatives except no action include remedial action at an estimated 3465 vicinity properties. Alternative 3 is DOE`s preferred alternative.

  14. Compilation of data on the uranium and equivalent uranium content of samples analyzed by U.S. Geological Survey during a program of sampling mine, mill, and smelter products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Marlene Louise; Butler, Arthur Pierce

    1952-01-01

    In 1942 the Geological Survey began to collect, in response to a request made by the War Production Board, samples of mine, mill, and smelter products. About 1,400 such samples were collected and analyzed spectrographically for about 20 elements that were of strategic importance, in order to determine whether any of the products analyzed might be possible sources of some of the needed elements. When attention was directed to radioactive elements in 1943, most of the samples were scanned for radioactivity. Part of the work was done on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the Atomic Energy Commission. The sources, mine mill, smelter, or prospect, from which these samples were collected, the kind of material sampled, i.e. ores, concentrates, middlings, tailings, flue dusts, and so forth, and the radioactivity of the samples are listed in this report. Samples of the materials collected in the course of the Geological Survey’s investigations for uranium are excluded, but about 500 such samples were analyzed spectrographically for some or all of the same 20 elements sought in the samples that are the subject of this report. Most of the samples were tested only for their radioactivity, but a few were analyzed chemically for uranium. The radioactivity of many of the samples tested in the early screening was determined only qualitatively. Several samples were tested at one time, and if the count obtained did not exceed a predetermined minimum above background, the samples were not tested individually. If the count was more than this minimum, the samples were tested individually to identify the radioactive sample or samples and to obtain a quantitative value for the radioactivity. In general, the rough screening served as a basis for separating samples in which the radioactivity amount to less than 0.003 percent equivalent uranium from those in which it exceeded that amount. Some aspects of various phases of the investigation of radioactivity in these samples have

  15. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium-mill tailings, Bowman Site, Bowman, North Dakota. [Burning of uranium-bearing lignite

    SciTech Connect

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive residues from the burning of uranium-bearing lignite at Bowman, North Dakota. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash residues and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 97,000 tons of ash and contaminated materials at the Bowman site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although windblown ash and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the contaminated materials to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the ashing site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,740,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $3,060,000 for disposal at a distance of about 4 mi. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ content.

  16. Field analyses of (238)U and (226)Ra in two uranium mill tailings piles from Niger using portable HPGe detector.

    PubMed

    Déjeant, Adrien; Bourva, Ludovic; Sia, Radia; Galoisy, Laurence; Calas, Georges; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The radioactivities of (238)U and (226)Ra in mill tailings from the U mines of COMINAK and SOMAÏR in Niger were measured and quantified using a portable High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The (238)U and (226)Ra activities were measured under field conditions on drilling cores with 600s measurements and without any sample preparation. Field results were compared with those obtained by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and emanometry techniques. This comparison indicates that gamma-ray absorption by such geological samples does not cause significant deviations. This work shows the feasibility of using portable HPGe detector in the field as a preliminary method to observe variations of radionuclides concentration with the aim of identifying samples of interest. The HPGe is particularly useful for samples with strong secular disequilibrium such as mill tailings. PMID:25036918

  17. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Lowman, Idaho: Remedial action selection report for the Lowman UMTRA project site, Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.L.; Nagel, J.

    1991-09-01

    The inactive uranium mill tailings site near Lowman, Idaho, was designated as one of 24 abandoned uranium tailings sites to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan and certify that the remedial action complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The remedial action plan (RAP), which includes this remedial action selection report (RAS), has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Lowman, Idaho. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Idaho, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement (No. DE-FC04-85AL20535) between the DOE and the State of Idaho.

  18. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, Geology report; Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report; Attachment 4, Water resources protection strategy: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chernoff, A.R.; Lacker, D.K.

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

  19. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Lowman, Idaho: Remedial action selection report for the Lowman UMTRA project site, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.L. . Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office); Nagel, J. . Div. of Environmental Quality)

    1991-09-01

    The inactive uranium mill tailings site near Lowman, Idaho, was designated as one of 24 abandoned uranium tailings sites to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan and certify that the remedial action complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The remedial action plan (RAP), which includes this remedial action selection report (RAS), has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Lowman, Idaho. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Idaho, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement (No. DE-FC04-85AL20535) between the DOE and the State of Idaho.

  20. Environmental analysis and data report prepared for the environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This document contains information and data gathered in support of the preparation of the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Falls City, Texas. The Falls City EA was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the impacts of their actions on the environment. It examines the short- and long-term effects of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) remedial action for the Falls City site as well as the no action alternative. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented in the EA to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared. If the impacts are not determined to be significant, the DOE may issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and implement the proposed action. The information and data presented in this report are for background purposes only and are not required as part of the NEPA decision-making process.

  1. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,; MOMENI, H.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.

  2. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for applicationmore » to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.« less

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards.

  4. Remedial Action Plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Spook, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M L; Sullivan, M

    1990-04-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities which are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at an inactive uranium processing site northeast of Casper, Wyoming, and referred to as the Spook site. It provides a characterization of the present conditions at the site and also serves to document the concurrence of the State of Wyoming and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the State of Wyoming, and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  5. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities which are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Tuba City, Arizona. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the site. It also serves to document the concurrence of the Navajo Nation, the Hopi Tribe, US Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE, the Navajo Nation, and the Hopi Tribe, and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement. Following the introduction, contents are as follows: Section 2.0 presents the EPA standards, including a discussion of their objectives. Section 3.0 summarizes the present site characteristics and provides a definition of site-specific problems. Section 4.0 is the site design for the proposed action. Section 5.0 summarizes the plan for ensuring environmental, health, and safety protection for the surrounding community and the on-site workers. Section 6.0 presents a detailed listing of the responsibilities of the project participants. Section 7.0 describes the features of the long-term surveillance and maintenance plan. Section 8.0 presents the quality assurance aspects of the project. Section 9.0 documents the ongoing activities to keep the public informed and participating in the project.

  6. 9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES WERE USED TO FORM COMPONENTS INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPE. IN THE FOUNDRY, ENRICHED URANIUM WAS CAST INTO SPHERICAL SHAPES OR INGOT FROM WHICH WEAPONS COMPONENTS WERE FABRICATED. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Uranium mill tailings remedial action program. Radiological survey of Shiprock vicinity property SH03, Shiprock, NM, July-November 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, K F; Justus, A L; Sholeen, C M; Smith, W H; Wynveen, R A

    1984-04-01

    A comprehensive survey of the vicinity property designated as SH03 was conducted on an intermittent basis from July 26 to November 11, 1982. At the time of the survey, three structures were located on the property - a residential trailer, the main structure, and an old gas pump housing. The lands surrounding the structures were either sparsely covered with arid vegetation or paved. The assessment activities included determination of indoor and outdoor surface radiation levels, for both fixed and removable contamination, through direct instrument and smear (indoor only) surveys; measurement of ambient external penetrating radiation levels at 1-meter heights; and analyses of air, soil, and other material samples. No evidence of radioactive contamination was found inside the trailer. However, the results of the radiological assessment did indicate the occurrence of elevated levels of gamma, surface alpha, and radon daughter radioactivity within the main structure. The short-term radon daughter measurements exceeded the limit of 0.02 Working Level for average annual concentration including background. The assessment also indicated elevated levels of radioactivity in the outdoor environs, encompassing about 32,000 ft/sup 2/ of the grounds adjacent to and surrounding the main structure on the east, south, and west sides. The contamination appeared to be due to the presence of unprocessed uranium ore. Analysis of surface soil samples collected from the environs indicated radium concentrations in excess of the limit of 5 pCi/g above background specified in the EPA Standard. Subsurface soil sampling was not conducted, and thus the vertical extent of the radiological contamination is not known. Since the surface soil contamination levels exceeded the limits specified in the EPA Standard, remedial action for this vicinity site should be considered.

  8. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants` effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site.

  9. Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan).

    PubMed

    Corcho Alvarado, J A; Balsiger, B; Röllin, S; Jakob, A; Burger, M

    2014-12-01

    An assessment of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources at the former uranium mines and processing sites of Mailuu-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, was carried out. A large number of water samples were collected from the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), rivers, shallow aquifers and drainage water from the mine tailings. Radionuclides and trace metal contents in water from the DWDS were low in general, but were extremely high for Fe, Al and Mn. These elements were associated with the particle fractions in the water and strongly correlated with high turbidity levels. Overall, these results suggest that water from the DWDS does not represent a serious radiological hazard to the Mailuu Suu population. However, due to the high turbidities and contents of some elements, this water is not good quality drinking water. Water from artesian and dug wells were characterized by elevated levels of U (up to 10 μg/L) and some trace elements (e.g. As, Se, Cr, V and F) and anions (e.g. Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). In two artesian wells, the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L for As in water was exceeded. As the artesian wells are used as a source of drinking water by a large number of households, special care should be taken in order to stay within the WHO recommended guidelines. Drainage water from the mine tailings was as expected highly contaminated with many chemicals (e.g. As) and radioactive contaminants (e.g. U). The concentrations of U were more than 200 times the WHO guideline value of 30 μg/L for U in drinking water. A large variation in (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratios in water was observed, with values near equilibrium at the mine tailings and far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching ratios of 2.3 in the artesian well). This result highlights the potential use of this ratio as an indicator of the origin of U contamination in Mailuu Suu.

  10. MOAB: a spatially explicit, individual-based expert system for creating animal foraging models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.; Finn, John T.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the development, structure, and corroboration process of a simulation model of animal behavior (MOAB). MOAB can create spatially explicit, individual-based animal foraging models. Users can create or replicate heterogeneous landscape patterns, and place resources and individual animals of a goven species on that landscape to simultaneously simulate the foraging behavior of multiple species. The heuristic rules for animal behavior are maintained in a user-modifiable expert system. MOAB can be used to explore hypotheses concerning the influence of landscape patttern on animal movement and foraging behavior. A red fox (Vulpes vulpes L.) foraging and nest predation model was created to test MOAB's capabilities. Foxes were simulated for 30-day periods using both expert system and random movement rules. Home range size, territory formation and other available simulation studies. A striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis L.) model also was developed. The expert system model proved superior to stochastic in respect to territory formation, general movement patterns and home range size.

  11. Near-Real-Time Geophysical and Biological Monitoring of Bioremediation Methods at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrell, A. N.; Haas, A.; Revil, A.; Figueroa, L. A.; Rodriguez, D.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    Bioremediation has been utilized on subsurface uranium contamination at the Rifle IRFC site in Colorado by injecting acetate as an electron donor. However, successfully monitoring the progress of subsurface bioremediation over time is difficult and requires long-term stewardship considerations to ensure cost effective treatment due to biological, chemical, and hydrological heterogeneity. In order to better understand the complex heterogeneities of the subsurface and the resultant effect on microbial activity, innovative subsurface monitoring techniques must be investigated. The key hypothesis of this work is that a combination of data from electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation reduction potential, and water level sensors will provide sufficient information for identifying and localizing bioremediation activity and will provide better predictions of deleterious biogeochemical change. In order to test the proof-of-concept of these sensing techniques and to deconvolve the redox activity from other electric potential changing events involved in bioremediation, a 2D tank (2.4m x 1.2m x 0.6m) experiment has been developed. Field material obtained from the Rifle IRFC site will be packed in the tank and an artificial groundwater will flow across the tank through constant-head boundaries. The experiment will utilize sensors for electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation-reduction potential, and water level monitoring. Electrode-based microbial monitoring will be used to estimate microbial activity by measuring how much electrical current indigenous bacteria are producing. Self potential monitoring will be used to measure the natural electrical voltage potential between sampled points, providing indications of when and where electrical activity is occurring; such as reduction of radionuclides. In addition to the application of sensing technologies, this work will explore the application of a wireless sensor

  12. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailing site Maybell, Colorado. Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from former uranium processing activities at inactive uranium processing sites (40 CFR Part 192 (1993)) (52 FR 36000 (1978)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has decided that each assessment will include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes the proposed action compliance with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4, Water Resources Protection Strategy. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include the following: (1) Definition of the hydrogeologic characteristics of the environment, including hydrostratigraphy, aquifer parameters, areas of aquifer recharge and discharge, potentiometric surfaces, and ground water velocities. (2) Definition of background ground water quality and comparison with proposed EPA ground water protection standards. (3) Evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the contaminant source and/or residual radioactive materials. (4) Definition of existing ground water contamination by comparison with the EPA ground water protection standards. (5) Description of the geochemical processes that affect the migration of the source contaminants at the processing site. (6) Description of water resource use, including availability, current and future use and value, and alternate water supplies.

  13. Statistical data of the uranium industry

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on US uranium reserves, potential resources, exploration, mining, drilling, milling, and other activities of the uranium industry through 1980. The compendium reflects the basic programs of the Grand Junction Office. Statistics are based primarily on information provided by the uranium exploration, mining, and milling companies. Data on commercial U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ sales and purchases are included. Data on non-US uranium production and resources are presented in the appendix. (DMC)

  14. Ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final, Revision 2, Version 5: Appendix E to the remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this appendix is to provide a ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Green River, Utah. Compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water protection standards will be achieved by applying supplemental standards (40 CFR {section} 192.22(a); 60 FR 2854) based on the limited use ground water present in the uppermost aquifer that is associated with widespread natural ambient contamination (40 CFR {section} 192.11(e); 60 FR 2854). The strategy is based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. The strategy will result in compliance with Subparts A and C of the EPA final ground water protection standards (60 FR 2854). The document contains sufficient information to support the proposed ground water protection strategy, with monitor well information and ground water quality data included as a supplement. Additional information is available in the final remedial action plan (RAP) (DOE, 1991a), the final completion report (DOE, 1991b), and the long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) (DOE, 1994a).

  15. Comparison of two numerical modelling approaches to a field experiment of unsaturated radon transport in a covered uranium mill tailings soil (Lavaugrasse, France).

    PubMed

    Saâdi, Zakaria; Guillevic, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainties on the mathematical modelling of radon ((222)Rn) transport in an unsaturated covered uranium mill tailings (UMT) soil at field scale can have a great impact on the estimation of the average measured radon exhalation rate to the atmosphere at the landfill cover. These uncertainties are usually attributed to the numerical errors from numerical schemes dealing with soil layering, and to inadequate modelling of physical processes at the soil/plant/atmosphere interface and of the soil hydraulic and transport properties, as well as their parameterization. In this work, we demonstrate how to quantify these uncertainties by comparing simulation results from two different numerical models to experimental data of radon exhalation rate and activity concentration in the soil-gas measured in a covered UMT-soil near the landfill site Lavaugrasse (France). The first approach is based on the finite volume compositional (i.e., water, radon, air) transport model TOUGH2/EOS7Rn (Transport Of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat version 2/Equation Of State 7 for Radon; Saâdi et al., 2014), while the second one is based on the finite difference one-component (i.e., radon) transport model TRACI (Transport de RAdon dans la Couche Insaturée; Ferry et al., 2001). Transient simulations during six months of variable rainfall and atmospheric air pressure showed that the model TRACI usually overestimates both measured radon exhalation rate and concentration. However, setting effective unsaturated pore diffusivities of water, radon and air components in soil-liquid and gas to their physical values in the model EOS7Rn, allowed us to enhance significantly the modelling of these experimental data. Since soil evaporation has been neglected, none of these two models was able to simulate the high radon peaks observed during the dry periods of summer. However, on average, the radon exhalation rate calculated by EOS7Rn was 34% less than that was calculated by TRACI, and much closer to the

  16. Structural characterization of poorly-crystalline scorodite, iron(III)-arsenate co-precipitates and uranium mill neutralized raffinate solids using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N; Jiang, D T; Cutler, J; Kotzer, T; Jia, Y F; Demopoulos, G P; Rowson, J W

    2009-12-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is used to characterize the mineralogy of the iron(III)-arsenate(V) precipitates produced during the raffinate (aqueous effluent) neutralization process at the McClean Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. To facilitate the structural characterization of the precipitated solids derived from the neutralized raffinate, a set of reference compounds were synthesized and analyzed. The reference compounds include crystalline scorodite, poorly-crystalline scorodite, iron(III)-arsenate co-precipitates obtained under different pH conditions, and arsenate-adsorbed on goethite. The poorly-crystalline scorodite (prepared at pH 4 with Fe/As = 1) has similar As local structure as that of crystalline scorodite. Both As and Fe K-edge XAFS of poorly-crystalline scorodite yield consistent results on As-Fe (or Fe-As) shell. From As K-edge analysis the As-Fe shell has an inter-atomic distance of 3.33 ± 0.02 Å and coordination number of 3.2; while from Fe K-edge analysis the Fe-As distance and coordination number are 3.31 ± 0.02 Å and 3.8, respectively. These are in contrast with the typical arsenate adsorption on bidentate binuclear sites on goethite surfaces, where the As-Fe distance is 3.26 ± 0.03 Å and coordination number is close to 2. A similar local structure identified in the poorly-crystalline scorodite is also found in co-precipitation solids (Fe(III)/As(V) = 3) when precipitated at the same pH (pH = 4): As-Fe distance 3.30 ± 0.03 Å and coordination number 3.9; while at pH = 8 the co-precipitate has As-Fe distance of 3.27 ± 0.03 Å and coordination number about 2, resembling more closely the adsorption case. The As local structure in the two neutralized raffinate solid series (precipitated at pH values up to 7) closely resembles that in the poorly-crystalline scorodite. All of the raffinate solids have the same As-Fe inter-atomic distance as that in the poorly-crystalline scorodite, and a systematic decrease in the

  17. Comparison of two numerical modelling approaches to a field experiment of unsaturated radon transport in a covered uranium mill tailings soil (Lavaugrasse, France).

    PubMed

    Saâdi, Zakaria; Guillevic, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainties on the mathematical modelling of radon ((222)Rn) transport in an unsaturated covered uranium mill tailings (UMT) soil at field scale can have a great impact on the estimation of the average measured radon exhalation rate to the atmosphere at the landfill cover. These uncertainties are usually attributed to the numerical errors from numerical schemes dealing with soil layering, and to inadequate modelling of physical processes at the soil/plant/atmosphere interface and of the soil hydraulic and transport properties, as well as their parameterization. In this work, we demonstrate how to quantify these uncertainties by comparing simulation results from two different numerical models to experimental data of radon exhalation rate and activity concentration in the soil-gas measured in a covered UMT-soil near the landfill site Lavaugrasse (France). The first approach is based on the finite volume compositional (i.e., water, radon, air) transport model TOUGH2/EOS7Rn (Transport Of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat version 2/Equation Of State 7 for Radon; Saâdi et al., 2014), while the second one is based on the finite difference one-component (i.e., radon) transport model TRACI (Transport de RAdon dans la Couche Insaturée; Ferry et al., 2001). Transient simulations during six months of variable rainfall and atmospheric air pressure showed that the model TRACI usually overestimates both measured radon exhalation rate and concentration. However, setting effective unsaturated pore diffusivities of water, radon and air components in soil-liquid and gas to their physical values in the model EOS7Rn, allowed us to enhance significantly the modelling of these experimental data. Since soil evaporation has been neglected, none of these two models was able to simulate the high radon peaks observed during the dry periods of summer. However, on average, the radon exhalation rate calculated by EOS7Rn was 34% less than that was calculated by TRACI, and much closer to the

  18. Remedial action and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Attachment 2, Geology report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This report presents geologic considerations that are pertinent to the Remedial Action Plan for Slick Rock mill tailings. Topics covered include regional geology, site geology, geologic stability, and geologic suitability.

  19. Remedial Action Plan and Site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Revision 1. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, geology report, Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small community of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites at Slick Rock: the Union Carbide site and the North Continent site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,000 cubic yards (475,000 cubic meters). In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, 13 vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into ground water. Pursuant to the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), the proposed remedial action plan (RAP) will satisfy the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in 40 CFR Part 192 (60 FR 2854) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of the residual radioactive material (RRM) (tailings and other contaminated materials) at the disposal site at Burro Canyon. The requirements for control of the RRM (Subpart A) will be satisfied by the construction of an engineered disposal cell. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/weaterborne materials to a permanent repository at the Burro Canyon disposal site. The site is approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the mill sites on land recently transferred to the DOE by the Bureau of Land Management.

  20. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado: Final report. Volume 4, Addenda D1--D5 to Appendix D

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, James W.

    1990-02-01

    This radiologic characterization of tho two inactive uranium millsites at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junction Projects Office, in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. (Jacobs). The purpose of this project is to define the extent of radioactive contamination at the Rifle sites that exceeds US Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) standards for UMTRA sites. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. An orientation visit to the study area was conducted on 31 July--1 August 1984, in conjunction with Jacobs, to determine the approximate extent of contaminated area surrounding tho piles. During that visit, survey control points were located and baselines were defined from which survey grids would later be established; drilling requirements were assessed; and radiologic and geochemical data were collected for use in planning the radiologic fieldwork. The information gained from this visit was used by Jacobs, with cooperation by Bendix, to determine the scope of work required for the radiologic characterization of the Rifle sites. Fieldwork at Rifle was conducted from 1 October through 16 November 1984.

  1. Remedial Action Plan and final design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. Volume 1, Text, Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.L.; Alkema, K.

    1991-03-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located near Green River, Utah. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the site. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of Utah and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of Utah, and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix 8 of the Cooperative Agreement.

  2. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  3. Statistical data of the uranium industry

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Statistical Data of the Uranium Industry is a compendium of information relating to US uranium reserves and potential resources and to exploration, mining, milling, and other activities of the uranium industry through 1981. The statistics are based primarily on data provided voluntarily by the uranium exploration, mining, and milling companies. The compendium has been published annually since 1968 and reflects the basic programs of the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) of the US Department of Energy. The production, reserves, and drilling information is reported in a manner which avoids disclosure of proprietary information.

  4. Geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1954-01-01

    The geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, located about 12 miles northwest of Moab, Utah, in the Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah, was studied to determine the habits, ore controls, and possible origin of the deposit. Rocks of Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic age crop out in the area mapped, and uranium deposits are found in three zones in the lower 25 feet of the Chinle formation of Late Triassic age. The Shinarump No. 1 mine, which is in the lowermost zone, is located on the west flank of the Moab anticline near the Moab fault. The Shinarump No. 1 uranium deposit consists of discontinuous lenticular layers of mineralized rock, irregular in outline, that, in general, follow the bedding. Ore minerals, mainly uraninite, impregnate the rock. High-grade ore seams of uraninite and chalcocite occur along bedding planes. Uraninite formed later than, or simultaneous with, most sulfides, and the chalcocite may be of two ages, with some being later than uraninite. Uraninite and chalcocite are concentrated in the more poorly sorted parts of siltstones. In the Seven Mile Canyon area guides to ore inferred from the study of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit are the presence of bleached siltstone, carbonaceous matter, and copper sulfides. Results of spectrographic analysis indicate that the mineralizing solutions contained important amounts of barium, vanadium, uranium, and copper, as well as lesser amounts of strontium, chromium, boron, yttrium, lead, and zinc. The origin of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit is thought to be hydrothermal.

  5. Anti-EGFR MoAb treatment in colorectal cancer: limitations, controversies, and contradictories.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Ren, Wei; Xie, Li; Li, Ming; Liu, Jiang; Hu, Jing; Liu, Bao-Rui; Qian, Xiao-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Anti-epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) treatment for chemotherapy refractory or metastatic colorectal cancer has obtained great achievement. However, not every colorectal patient responds to such molecular-targeted agent well. Biomarkers associated with anti-EGFR resistance are not limited to KRAS mutation up to now. It was recently reported that cross-talking molecular effectors interacted with EGFR-related pathway were also negative predictor for anti-EGFR treatment. However, the limited data, controversial results, and contradictories between in vitro and clinical studies restrict the clinical application of these new biomarkers. Although the current theory of tumor microenvironment supported the application of multi-target treatment, the results from the clinical studies were less than expected. Moreover, WHO or RECIST guideline for response assessment in anti-EGFR MoAb treatment was also queried by recent AIO KRK-0306 trial. This review focuses on these controversies, contradictories, and limitations, in order to uncover the unmet needs in current status of anti-EGFR MoAb treatment in colorectal cancer. PMID:24916545

  6. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report, attachment 2, geology report; attachment 3, groundwater hydrology report; and attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

  7. Uranium industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world`s largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market.

  8. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona. Text, Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities which are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Tuba City, Arizona. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the site. It also serves to document the concurrence of the Navajo Nation, the Hopi Tribe, US Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE, the Navajo Nation, and the Hopi Tribe, and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement. Following the introduction, contents are as follows: Section 2.0 presents the EPA standards, including a discussion of their objectives. Section 3.0 summarizes the present site characteristics and provides a definition of site-specific problems. Section 4.0 is the site design for the proposed action. Section 5.0 summarizes the plan for ensuring environmental, health, and safety protection for the surrounding community and the on-site workers. Section 6.0 presents a detailed listing of the responsibilities of the project participants. Section 7.0 describes the features of the long-term surveillance and maintenance plan. Section 8.0 presents the quality assurance aspects of the project. Section 9.0 documents the ongoing activities to keep the public informed and participating in the project.

  9. Concurrent Evolution of Structural Deformation and Carbonate Diagenesis within the Moab Fault, UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, K. R.; Crider, J. G.; Huntington, K. W.; Luetkemeyer, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid-driven diagenetic processes within the fault damage zone drive direct feedbacks to mechanical and fluid-permeability properties of the host rock. Because these factors can be of great importance to fault seismicity and reservoir integrity, it is important to constrain their evolution over the lifespan of a fault zone. The Moab Fault, SE Utah, is a prime location to address these questions, representing an exhumed fault system offsetting a package of paleo-reservoir rocks. We return to a well-studied segment linkage zone, Courthouse Junction, building upon detailed earlier work. Here, the fault zone contains multiple phases of structural deformation, expressed as distinct structural elements. Associated carbonate mineralization provides a record of past fluid flow through the fault zone. Earlier bulk and clumped isotope measurements of the carbonate have demonstrated a range of isotopic compositions and precipitation temperatures. In this work, we apply new carbonate isotope and trace element geochemistry, cathodoluminescence microscopy, and fluid inclusion analysis to synthesize the structural and diagenetic histories of the Moab Fault. Carbonate trace element signatures and clumped isotope-based precipitation temperatures allow us to identify variability in parent fluid composition and characterize fluid sources, constraining migration pathways through the fault zone. Distinct phases of carbonate deposition display different cathodoluminescence, allowing us to observe their textural relationships to the host rock and each other, as well as constrain the relative timing of episodes of carbonate deposition and structural deformation. Taken together, these data provide new perspective into the co-evolution of permeability and structural deformation in the Moab Fault by connecting variability in fluid transmission and source to changes in the style of structural deformation.

  10. The crystal structure of escherichia coli MoaB suggests a probable role in molybdenum cofactor synthesis.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanishvili, R.; Beasley, S.; Skarina, T; Glesne, D; Joachimiak, A; Edwards, A; Savchenko, A.; Univ. Health Network; Univ. of Toronto

    2004-10-01

    The crystal structure of Escherichia coli MoaB was determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction phasing and refined at 1.6 Angstrom resolution. The molecule displayed a modified Rossman fold. MoaB is assembled into a hexamer composed of two trimers. The monomers have high structural similarity with two proteins, MogA and MoeA, from the molybdenum cofactor synthesis pathway in E. Coli, as well as with domains of mammalian gephyrin and plant Cnx1, which are also involved in molybdopterin synthesis. Structural comparison between these proteins and the amino acid conservation patterns revealed a putative active site in MoaB. The structural analysis of this site allowed to advance several hypothesis which can be tested in further studies.

  11. Imaging findings and pharmacokinetics of 111-indium ZME-018 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) in malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.L.; Rosenblum, M.; Lamki, L.; Haynie, T.P.; Glenn, H.; Jahns, M.; Plager, C.; Hersh, E.M.; Unger, M.; Carlo, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    13 patients with metastatic melanoma were studied using 5 mCi of In-111 labeled MoAb ZME-018 which reacts with GP 240 melanoma-associated antigen. The MoAb was infused over 2 h at doses of 2.5 mg (5 pts), 5 mg (5 pts), and 10 mg (3 pts). Total body tomograms and planar spot views with region of interest analysis were performed at 4, 24 and 72 hours post infusion. No adverse side effects were noted. There was rapid distribution to spleen, bone, bone marrow, liver, and testes. Tumor sites could be visualized as early as 24 hours but were more easily seen at 72 hours when the background activity was less. 20 of 46 (43%) previously documented metastases were identified. More sites imaged with increasing concentrations of MoAB, I.E., 25% at 2.5 mg; 67% at 5 mg; 70% at 10 mg. Tumor localization occurred in a significant number of patients especially at MoAb doses above 2.5 mg. In two instances, uptake of 111-In occurred in previously undiagnosed sites. The pharmacokinetics of MoAb were analyzed at each dose level. At the 5 mg dose, the terminal phase half-life for 111-In in plasma was 24.5 +- 2.7 hours. The apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was 4.03 +- 5iota similar to the plasma value, and the calculated clearance rate for 111-In label was 0.0259 + 0.002 ml/kg/min. Mean urinary excretion of 111-In label was 8.7 +- 0.6% of the administered dose over 48 hours after administration. The calculated pharmacokinetic parameters were independent of antibody dose. ZME 018 was cleared more rapidly from plasma, compared to previous studies with P97 antimelanoma MoAb.

  12. Statistical data of the uranium industry

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    This report is a compendium of information relating to US uranium reserves and potential resources and to exploration, mining, milling, and other activities of the uranium industry through 1982. The statistics are based primarily on data provided voluntarily by the uranium exploration, mining and milling companies. The compendium has been published annually since 1968 and reflects the basic programs of the Grand Junction Area Office of the US Department of Energy. Statistical data obtained from surveys conducted by the Energy Information Administration are included in Section IX. The production, reserves, and drilling data are reported in a manner which avoids disclosure of proprietary information.

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Microvirga sp. Strain BSC39, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Alexis C; Kellom, Matthew; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Noonan, Kathryn; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Raymond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Microvirga sp. BSC39 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC39 genome contains iron siderophore uptake and hydrolysis enzymes; however, it lacks siderophore synthesis pathways, suggesting the uptake of siderophores produced by neighboring microbes. PMID:25395650

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. Strain BSC154, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Alexis C; Kellom, Matthew; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Noonan, Kathryn; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Raymond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore production, nitrate reduction, mixed acid-butanediol fermentation, and assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate metabolism pathways. PMID:25395651

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Massilia sp. Strain BSC265, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Alexis C; Kellom, Matthew; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Noonan, Kathryn; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Raymond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Massilia sp. BSC265 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC265 genome contains a complete dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathway as well as a TCA cycle, making it a facultative anaerobe. PMID:25395652

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. Strain BSC154, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Alexis C.; Kellom, Matthew; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.; Noonan, Kathryn; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore production, nitrate reduction, mixed acid-butanediol fermentation, and assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate metabolism pathways. PMID:25395651

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Massilia sp. Strain BSC265, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Alexis C.; Kellom, Matthew; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.; Noonan, Kathryn; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2014-01-01

    Massilia sp. BSC265 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC265 genome contains a complete dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathway as well as a TCA cycle, making it a facultative anaerobe. PMID:25395652

  19. A new approach to quantification of DTPA incorporation into monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) labeled by the cyclic anhydride DTPA method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.S.T.; Ng, A.K.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Alsedairy, S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-05-01

    A method for determining the ratio of DTPA molecules attached per molecule of Ab was developed and used to examine the immunoreactivity of different Abs as a function of the amount of incorporated DTPA. The bicyclic anhydride of DTPA(2-C-14)acetic acid (BADTPA-C-14) was synthesized by reacting DTPA(2-C-14)acetic acid (1mCi/mmo1) and acetic anhydride. BADTPA-C-14 then was reacted with a MoAb to a melanoma associated antigen (MA) and to a MoAb to human HLA class II antigen (HLA) at 2mg/m1 of MoAb concentration, at MoAb to BADTPA-C-14 ratios (mmo1/mmo1) of l:1, 1:10, 1:00, l:200. The conjugate was dialyzed exhaustively against HEPES at pH 7.0. The MoAb concentration was measured at 280mm of uv; the DTPA/MoAb ratio was calculated based on the specific activity of BADTPA-C-14, and the immunoreactivity was assessed by direct cell-binding to melanoma, the HLA antigen and control (lymphoma) cells. Percent binding to the lymphoid cell line was less than 3%. The authors' results demonstrated a method for directly determining the number of DTPA molecules attached to a MOAb, and demonstrated variations in immunoreactivity as the number of DTPA groups per MoAb is altered.

  20. Uranium series disequilibrium in the Bargmann property area of Karnes County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.R.

    1998-02-01

    Historical evidence is presented for natural uranium series radioactive disequilibrium in uranium bearing soils in the Bargmann property area of karnes County on the Gulf Coastal Plain of south Texas. The early history of uranium exploration in the area is recounted and records of disequilibrium before milling and mining operations began are given. The property contains an open pit uranium mine associated with a larger ore body. In 1995, the US Department of Energy (DOE) directed Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the Bargmann tract for the presence of uranium mill tailings (ORNL 1996). There was a possibility that mill tailings had washed onto or blown onto the property from the former tailings piles in quantities that would warrant remediation under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project. Activity ratios illustrating disequilibrium between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 238}U in background soils during 1986 are listed and discussed. Derivations of uranium mass-to-activity conversion factors are covered in detail.

  1. Transient proteinuria and aminoaciduria in rodents following uranium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, K.W.; Stockwell, D.R.; Britt, K.A.; Kerr, C.B.

    1985-03-01

    Alternative human bioassay procedures for uranium are being investigated. Aminoaciduria in uranium hexafluoride and uranium mill employees has been examined. Although not conclusive, the results suggest that chronic human urinary uranium concentrations of 30-50 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ produce marked changes in the amino acid excretion profile although no consistent patterns emerged. As part of a program to examine alternative bioassay techniques for occupationally exposed uranium workers and to assist in interpretation of amino acid obtained from human incident exposures, the authors have examined the occurrence of transient aminoaciduria following uranium intoxication in female rats.

  2. Structural evolution of fault zones in sandstone by multiple deformation mechanisms: Moab fault, southeast Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davatzes, N.C.; Eichhubl, P.; Aydin, A.

    2005-01-01

    Faults in sandstone are frequently composed of two classes of structures: (1) deformation bands and (2) joints and sheared joints. Whereas the former structures are associated with cataclastic deformation, the latter ones represent brittle fracturing, fragmentation, and brecciation. We investigated the distribution of these structures, their formation, and the underlying mechanical controls for their occurrence along the Moab normal fault in southeastern Utah through the use of structural mapping and numerical elastic boundary element modeling. We found that deformation bands occur everywhere along the fault, but with increased density in contractional relays. Joints and sheared joints only occur at intersections and extensional relays. In all locations , joints consistently overprint deformation bands. Localization of joints and sheared joints in extensional relays suggests that their distribution is controlled by local variations in stress state that are due to mechanical interaction between the fault segments. This interpretation is consistent with elastic boundary element models that predict a local reduction in mean stress and least compressive principal stress at intersections and extensional relays. The transition from deformation band to joint formation along these sections of the fault system likely resulted from the combined effects of changes in remote tectonic loading, burial depth, fluid pressure, and rock properties. In the case of the Moab fault, we conclude that the structural heterogeneity in the fault zone is systematically related to the geometric evolution of the fault, the local state of stress associated with fault slip , and the remote loading history. Because the type and distribution of structures affect fault permeability and strength, our results predict systematic variations in these parameters with fault evolution. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  3. Measurements of uranium in soils and small mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Miera, F.R. Jr.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of uranium to a single species of small mammal, Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus (Merriam), white-footed deer mouse, from two different source terms: a Los Alamos National Laboratory dynamic weapons testing site in north central New Mexico, where an estimated 70,000 kg of uranium have been expended over a 31-y period; and an inactive uranium mill tailings pile located in west central New Mexico near Grants, which received wastes over a 5-y period from the milling of 2.7 x 10/sup 9/ kg of uranium ore.

  4. Geology of the Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine, Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1953-01-01

    The Shinarump No. 1 uranium mine is located about 12 miles northwest of Moab, Utah, in the Seven Mile Canyon area, Grand County, Utah. A study was made of the geology of the Shinarump No. 1 mine in order to determine the habits, ore controls, and possible origin of the deposit. Rocks of Permain, Triassic, and Jurassic age crop out in the area mapped. Uranium deposits are found in three zones in the lower 25 feet of the Upper Triassic Chinle formation. The Shinarump No. 1 mine, which is in the lowermost zone, is located on the west flank of the Moab anticline near the Moab fault. The Shinarump No. 1 uranium deposit consists of discontinuous lenticular layers of mineralized rock, irregular in outline, that, in general, follow the bedding. Ore minerals, mainly uranite, impregnate the rock. High-grade seams of uranite and chalcocite occur along bedding planes. Formation of unraninite is later than or simultaneous with most sulfides. Chalcocite may be of two ages, with some being later than uraninite. Uraninite and chalcocite are concentrated in the poorer sorted parts of siltstones. Guides to ore in the Seven Mile Canyon area inferred from the study of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit are the presence of bleached siltstone, copper sulfides, and carbonaceous matter. Results of spectrographic analysis indicated that the mineralizing solutions contained important amounts of barium, vanadium, uranium, and copper as well as lesser amounts of strontium, chromium, boron, yttrium, lead, and zinc. The origin of the Shinarump No. 1 deposit is thought to be hydrothermal, dated as later or early.

  5. The Paleoflood Record of the Upper Colorado River near Moab, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, N.; Harden, T.; Baker, V. R.; Weisheit, J. S.; Cline, M. L.; Halevi, R.; Dohrenwend, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The paleoflood record of the Upper Colorado River was reconstructed 17 km upstream of the town of Moab, Utah (drainage area about 62,470 km2) using paleostage indicaters. The 4.5 km long study reach is a bedrock canyon incised some 300-350 m into the sandstone of the Colorado Plateau with a general gradient of 0.0004. The largest floods documented at the Cisco gauging station (1914-2011) - 30 km upstream, is the historical 1884 flood - 3540 m3s-1, the 1917 flood - 2175 m3s-1 and the 1984 flood - 1990 m3s-1. The paleostage indicators in the form of slackwater deposits and driftwood lines at this site are up to 15 m above the summer water discharge of July 2005 (425 m3 s-1). The detailed paleoflood stratigraphy was performed using a series of 14 pits across the SWD relict with a depth of up to 2 m. Dating of the paleoflood deposits include 14 OSL ages and 4 radiocarbon ages of wooden debris and charcoal. The canyon and channel geometry was reconstructed using a field survey of 24 cross sections during 2005. In 2010 a complementary survey of the underwater channel geometry using a sonar was conducted. Water surface profiles, peak discharges and hydraulic analyses where preformed using HECRAS hydraulic program. The water surface profiles were calibrated using the observed water levels of the floods of 25-26.5.2005 - 1140 m3s-1 and the 25-26 June 2011 - 260 m3s-1. The results indicate evidence of about 40 floods that occurred during the last 2140 +/- 220 years. The flow regime for the high-magnitude floods is subcritical and the canyon is relatively narrow, therefore the peak discharges are very sensitive to Manning`s n roughness coefficient. Due to the very low gradient the discharge results are also sensitive to the initial boundary conditions downstream. The peak discharges range from about 1600 m3s-1 and up to between 8,500 and 10,500 m3s-1 depending on the Manning n. At least 2 floods in this record exceeded the conservative value (8500 m3s-1) which is higher than

  6. Regional hydrology of the Green River-Moab area, northwestern Paradox basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rush, F.E.; Whitfield, M.S.; Hart, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Green River-Moab area encompasses about 7,800 square kilometers or about 25 percent of the Paradox basin. The entire Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite (salt) beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Confining beds consist of evaporite beds of mostly salt, and overlying and underlying thick sequences of rocks with minimal permeability; above and below these confining beds are aquifers. The upper Mesozoic sandstone aquifer, probably is the most permeable hydrogeologic unit of the area and is the subject of this investigation. The principal component of groundwater outflow from this aquifer probably is subsurface flow to regional streams (the Green and Colorado Rivers) and is about 100 million cubic meters per year. All other components of outflow are relatively small. The average annual recharge to the aquifer is about 130 million cubic meters, of which about 20 million cubic meters is from local precipitation. For the lower aquifer, all recharge and discharge probably is by subsurface flow and was not estimated. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the hounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. Brines are present in the confining beds, but solution of beds of salt probably is very slow in most parts of the area. No brine discharges' have been identified.

  7. Neocrystallization, fabrics and age of clay minerals from an exposure of the Moab Fault, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solum, John G.; van der Pluijm, Ben A.; Peacor, Donald R.

    2005-09-01

    Pronounced changes in clay mineral assemblages are preserved along the Moab Fault (Utah). Gouge is enriched up to ˜40% in 1M d illite relative to protolith, whereas altered protolith in the damage zone is enriched ˜40% in illite-smectite relative to gouge and up to ˜50% relative to protolith. These mineralogical changes indicate that clay gouge is formed not solely through mechanical incorporation of protolith, but also through fault-related authigenesis. The timing of mineralization is determined using 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of size fractions of fault rocks with varying detrital and authigenic clay content. We applied Ar dating of illite-smectite samples, as well as a newer approach that uses illite polytypes. Our analysis yields overlapping, early Paleocene ages for neoformed (1M d) gouge illite (63±2 Ma) and illite-smectite in the damage zone (60±2 Ma), which are compatible with results elsewhere. These ages represent the latest period of major fault motion, and demonstrate that the fault fabrics are not the result of recent alteration. The clay fabrics in fault rocks are poorly developed, indicating that fluids were not confined to the fault zone by preferentially oriented clays; rather we propose that fluids in the illite-rich gouge were isolated by adjacent lower permeability, illite-smectite-bearing rocks in the damage zone.

  8. Neocrystallization, fabrics and age of clay minerals from an exposure of the Moab Fault, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solum, J.G.; van der Pluijm, B.A.; Peacor, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Pronounced changes in clay mineral assemblages are preserved along the Moab Fault (Utah). Gouge is enriched up to ???40% in 1Md illite relative to protolith, whereas altered protolith in the damage zone is enriched ???40% in illite-smectite relative to gouge and up to ???50% relative to protolith. These mineralogical changes indicate that clay gouge is formed not solely through mechanical incorporation of protolith, but also through fault-related authigenesis. The timing of mineralization is determined using 40Ar/39Ar dating of size fractions of fault rocks with varying detrital and authigenic clay content. We applied Ar dating of illite-smectite samples, as well as a newer approach that uses illite polytypes. Our analysis yields overlapping, early Paleocene ages for neoformed (1Md) gouge illite (63??2 Ma) and illite-smectite in the damage zone (60??2 Ma), which are compatible with results elsewhere. These ages represent the latest period of major fault motion, and demonstrate that the fault fabrics are not the result of recent alteration. The clay fabrics in fault rocks are poorly developed, indicating that fluids were not confined to the fault zone by preferentially oriented clays; rather we propose that fluids in the illite-rich gouge were isolated by adjacent lower permeability, illite-smectite-bearing rocks in the damage zone. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Active salt deformation and rapid, transient incision along the Colorado River near Moab, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochems, Andrew P.; Pederson, Joel L.

    2015-04-01

    In certain settings, erosion is driven by and balanced with tectonic uplift, but the evolution of many landscapes is dominated by other factors such as geologic substrate, drainage history, and transient incision. The Colorado Plateau is an example where these controls are debated and where salt deformation is hypothesized to be locally active and driven by differential unloading, although this is unconfirmed and unquantified in most places. We use luminescence-dated Colorado River terraces upstream of Moab, Utah, to quantify rates of salt-driven subsidence and uplift at the local scale. Active deformation in the study area is also supported by patterns of concavity along tributary drainages crossing salt structures. Subsidence in Professor Valley at a time-averaged rate of ~500 m/Myr (meters/million years) is superimposed upon rapid bedrock incision rates that increase from ~600 to ~900 m/Myr upstream through the study area. Such high rates are unexpected given the absence of sources of regional tectonic uplift here. Instead, the incision rate pattern across the greater area is consistent with a transient signal, perhaps still from ancient drainage integration through Grand Canyon far downstream, and then amplified by unloading at both the broad regional scale and at the local canyon scale.

  10. Ga-67 vs In-111-DTPA-anti-p97 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) for scintigraphic detection of metastatic melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R.D.; Kirkwood, J.M.; Zoghbi, S.S.; Ernstoff, M.S.; Cornelius, E.A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Gottschalk, A.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have initiated a prospective comparative evaluation of tomographic (Pho/Con) Ga-67 (10 mCi) scintigraphy versus computerized gamma camera radioimmunoscintigraphy using anti-p97 murine MoAb (5 mCi In-111-DTPA conjugated to 1 mg MoAb + 19 mgs ''cold'' MoAb) for detection of metastatic melanoma. To date 9 patients have had both a Ga-67 scan and an anti-p97 MoAb study within a 1 month interval. The 9 patients had 45 known sites of disease greater than 1 cm minimum diameter, located in skin, soft tissue, and/or viscea. In-111-anti-p97 scans were done 72 hrs after i.v. administration of the radiolabeled MoAb mixed together with the ''cold'' carrier MoAb. Ga-67 scans were done 48-72 hrs after injection. MoAb scans detected 30/45 known sites (sensitivity=67%) while the Ga-67 scans found 29/45 of these known sites (sensitivity=64%). Heterogeneity of metastases was evident with the detection of partly overlapping subsets of metastases by the two techniques, i.e. some mets were localized with both techniques while other mets were detected by only one of the two methods. Combined detection with both techniques improved sensitivity from 64-67% to 91%. These preliminary data suggest: 1) comparable sensitivities for Ga-67 and In-111-DTPA anti-p97 scans, 2) heterogeneity of metastases with regard to the localization of these two agents, and 3) improved sensitivity by combining both techniques.

  11. 10 CFR 40.28 - General license for custody and long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license for custody and long-term care of uranium... long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal sites. (a) A general license is... in this part for uranium or thorium mill tailings sites closed under title II of the Uranium...

  12. 10 CFR 40.28 - General license for custody and long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General license for custody and long-term care of uranium... long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal sites. (a) A general license is... in this part for uranium or thorium mill tailings sites closed under title II of the Uranium...

  13. 10 CFR 40.28 - General license for custody and long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General license for custody and long-term care of uranium... long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal sites. (a) A general license is... in this part for uranium or thorium mill tailings sites closed under title II of the Uranium...

  14. 10 CFR 40.28 - General license for custody and long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General license for custody and long-term care of uranium... long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal sites. (a) A general license is... in this part for uranium or thorium mill tailings sites closed under title II of the Uranium...

  15. 10 CFR 40.28 - General license for custody and long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General license for custody and long-term care of uranium... long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal sites. (a) A general license is... in this part for uranium or thorium mill tailings sites closed under title II of the Uranium...

  16. Optimization of preparation of Rh-105 labeled (B72.3) MOAB using an amine oxime ligand and comparison of its biodistribution with I-131 labeled B72.3 MOAB

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesh, M.; Kilcoin, T.T.; Schlemper, E.O.

    1994-05-01

    Propyleneamineoxime ligands with the four N donor atoms form stable complexes with Rh(III). The p-aminobenzylpropyleneamineoxime ligand (L) was made to act as a bifunctional chelating agent to label proteins with Rh-105. This study encompasses the optimization of formation of the Rh-105 complex of L, its purification, activation with thiophosgene, conjugation the B72.3 MOAB, purification by gel filtration, determination of its stability in physiological buffers and in human serum and comparison of the biodistribution Rh-105 labeled antibody with I-131 labeled antibody in normal healthy mice. Rh-105 was complexed with the ligand L by refluxing at pH 5-6 for 45 min. CuCl, was added to form a charged complex and the neutral activated Rh-105 complex extracted into chloroform. Following evaporation of CHC1{sub 3}, the complex was dissolved in 20 {mu}1 of DMF and reconstituted with 0.5 ml of saline. This was then reacted with the B72.3 MOAB in 0.05 M bicarbonate buffer at pH 9 and incubated for 3 h at 37{degrees}C. The complexation yields were generally 95% and the conjugation yields {approximately}60%. The Rh-105 conjugate was stable at room temperature in phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4), bicarbonate buffer saline (pH 8.5) and human serum at 37{degrees}C for 4 days. >95% of the conjugate remained immunoreactive using mucin-bound to sepharose as the antigen. I-131 labeled antibody was prepared by using iodogen as the oxidizing agent. The two labeled antibodies were co-injected into healthy mice and the biodistribution studied at different time intervals. The biodistribution studies show good correlation between I-131 and Rh-105 labeled B72.3 MOAB preparations over 20 h demonstrating good in vivo stability. This ligand may be useful as a bifunctional chelating agent for Rh-105 labeled antibody.

  17. Preparation and immunoreactivity of high specific activity indium-111-DTPA labeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) using ultrapure indium-111

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, S.S.; Neumann, R.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1986-10-01

    The preparation of high-specific activity /sup 111/In-DTPA-MoAb without increasing the number of DTPA molecules per Ab was investigated. Instant thin layer chromatography was used to assay the relationship between labeling efficiencies and specific activities. With ultrapurified /sup 111/In, the specific activity of the radiolabeled MoAb approached the expected theoretic maximum of 100 muCi/microgram. The bioactivity of such high-specific activity preparation showed no degradation as measured by in vitro cell binding assay.

  18. URANIUM COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Allen, N.P.; Grogan, J.D.

    1959-05-12

    This patent relates to high purity uranium alloys characterized by improved stability to thermal cycling and low thermal neutron absorption. The high purity uranium alloy contains less than 0.1 per cent by weight in total amount of any ore or more of the elements such as aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, tin, lead, bismuth, niobium, and zinc.

  19. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Opitz, B.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.; Hartley, J.N.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Walters, W.H.; Fayer, M.J.; Wogman, N.A.; Nelson, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies dealing with mill tailings: long-term stabilizaton; interim stabilization of mill tailings piles; tailings dewatering techniques; tailings neutralization and other alternatives in immobilizing toxic materials in tailings; evaluation of seepage and leachate transport from tailings disposal facilities; effluent and environmental monitoring methods and equipment and instrument testing; attenuation of radon emissions; assessment of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings; and methods of minimizing ground water contamination in in-situ leach uranium mining.

  20. 12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK CHILEAN) FROM EAST, c. 1912. ELEVATOR No. 1 ADJACENT TO MILL. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. Distribution and nature of fault architecture in a layered sandstone and shale sequence: An example from the Moab fault, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davatzes, N.C.; Aydin, A.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the distribution of fault rock and damage zone structures in sandstone and shale along the Moab fault, a basin-scale normal fault with nearly 1 km (0.62 mi) of throw, in southeast Utah. We find that fault rock and damage zone structures vary along strike and dip. Variations are related to changes in fault geometry, faulted slip, lithology, and the mechanism of faulting. In sandstone, we differentiated two structural assemblages: (1) deformation bands, zones of deformation bands, and polished slip surfaces and (2) joints, sheared joints, and breccia. These structural assemblages result from the deformation band-based mechanism and the joint-based mechanism, respectively. Along the Moab fault, where both types of structures are present, joint-based deformation is always younger. Where shale is juxtaposed against the fault, a third faulting mechanism, smearing of shale by ductile deformation and associated shale fault rocks, occurs. Based on the knowledge of these three mechanisms, we projected the distribution of their structural products in three dimensions along idealized fault surfaces and evaluated the potential effect on fluid and hydrocarbon flow. We contend that these mechanisms could be used to facilitate predictions of fault and damage zone structures and their permeability from limited data sets. Copyright ?? 2005 by The American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

  2. Formation of Potholes by Surficial and Endolithic Bacteria on the Colorado Plateau Near Moab, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, K.; Southam, G.

    2004-05-01

    The area of the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah is home to an ecosystem delicately balanced on a substrate of Triassic and Jurassic aeolian sandstones with little to no soil. Any surface feature in which the limited precipitation can be captured helps sustain the desert life in this semi-arid environment. Naturally occurring "potholes" fulfill this function in certain sandstone surfaces. Potholes range in size from shallow depressions to large swimming-pool sized features that can retain water throughout most of the year. In this study we focused on circular potholes that showed no indication of joint control, and held 5 to 9 gallons of water. Their formation is controlled by three types of bacterial growth: 1)black biofilms that line each pothole, 2)bacteria in the accumulated bottom sediments of the potholes and 3)the ubiquitous cryptoendolithic cyanobacterial communities found centimetres beneath the surface of the host sandstone. On-site and in-lab water testing were conducted during the dry season with de-ionized water to quantify the of ion concentrations extracted from the rock as an estimate of the overall bacterial activity and to determine what in the arenitic quartz sandstones is providing sustenance to these communities. ICP-MS showed elevated Ca++ (up to 14 mg/L) and Si++ (up to 2 mg/L) ion concentrations indicating that the calcite cement as well as the quartz grains are being dissolved. Daily fluctuations in phosphate levels were also observed which correlate with on-site water monitoring that showed pronounced diurnal cycling of pH values, between pH 8 and 10, indicating biological activity. Further exploration was conducted using SEM studies identified thick biofilms coating the sandstone surface as well as large fungal populations. The electron microprobe was used to determine distributions of ions in feldspar grains across the grain profile in areas exposed to the biofilms to determine if any local leaching had occurred. Our investigations show

  3. 78 FR 19330 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Ross In-Situ Uranium Recovery Project in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... COMMISSION Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Ross In-Situ Uranium Recovery Project in Crook... for the proposed Ross In-Situ Uranium Recovery (ISR) Project (Ross Project) proposed to be located in... Environmental Impact Statement for In-Situ Leach Uranium Milling Facilities.'' DATES: Submit comments by May...

  4. 16. VIEW OF A ROLLING MILL THAT WAS USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF A ROLLING MILL THAT WAS USED TO CREATE A METAL SHEET (SHOWN). (4/16/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING BEGAN IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING IN 1962. (11/5/73) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  7. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

  8. Mills at Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William

    1995-01-01

    Offers an insightful and perceptive portrait of the legendary sociologist C. Wright Mills by one of his former graduate students. Traces Mills's areas of interest from occupational characteristics to power groups leading to the publication of his seminal work, "The Power Elite." Discusses Mills's teaching styles and academic career. (MJP)

  9. JACKETING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.

    1959-07-14

    The bonding to uranium of sheathing of iron or cobalt, or nickel, or alloys thereof is described. The bonding is accomplished by electro-depositing both surfaces to be joined with a coating of silver and amalgamating or alloying the silver layer with mercury or indium. Then the silver alloy is homogenized by exerting pressure on an assembly of the uranium core and the metal jacket, reducing the area of assembly and heating the assembly to homogenize by diffusion.

  10. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Volume 1, Text, Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.L.; Mitzelfelt, R.

    1991-11-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a dual purpose. It presents the series of activities that is proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control radioactive materials at the inactive Phillips/United Nuclear uranium processing site designated as the Ambrosia Lake site in McKinley County, New Mexico. It also serves to document the concurrence of both State of New Mexico and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  11. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment - various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field preliminary results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

  12. Clumped isotopes reveal the influence of deformation style on fluid flow and cementation along the Moab Fault, Paradox Basin, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, K. W.; Bergman, S.; Crider, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Brittle fault systems can serve as either conduits or barriers to fluid flow, impacting mass and heat transfer in the crust and influencing the potential storage and migration of hydrocarbons and geothermal fluids. For fault systems in porous sandstones, different classes of structures control both hydrological and mechanical behavior during fault evolution: while cataclastic deformation bands form zones of localized deformation and crushed grains that reduce permeability within and across fault zones, joints can act as significant conduits for fluid. We investigate the relationship between structures and fluid flow in porous sandstones by studying calcite cements along the Moab Fault, a large normal fault system in the Paradox Basin, Utah. We use clumped isotope thermometry of fault cements to independently determine both the temperature and δ18O of the water from which the cements grew, placing new constraints on the source and path of diagenetic fluids in the basin. Based on fluid inclusion micro-thermometry and stable isotopic analysis of calcite cements from the Moab Fault, previous workers have hypothesized that joints served as conduits for the ascension of warm (84-125 °C) basinal fluids and deeply circulating meteoric waters. At the minor joint-dominated fault segment from which these data were collected, clumped isotope temperatures range from 57±10 to 101±2°C (2 SE), consistent with this hypothesis. However, at the nearby intersection of two major fault segments - in a zone characterized by both deformation bands and abundant joints - we find a broad range of temperatures (12±4 to 78±4°C) that vary spatially with distance from the fault and correlate with variations in secondary deformation structures (joints and deformation bands). These data provide the first evidence for cement growth from Earth surface-temperature fluids along the Moab Fault and suggests that the Fault served as a conduit for both ascending and descending fluids. The spatial

  13. 40Ar/39Ar age and chemistry of manganese mineralization in the Moab and Lisbon fault systems, southeastern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Marjorie A.; Parry, William T.; Petersen, Erich U.; Hall, Chris M.

    2001-04-01

    Diagenetic iron and manganese mineralization is associated with the Moab and Lisbon faults and is an important indicator of fluid flow in Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of southeastern Utah. Reducing brines originating from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation (with or without hydrocarbons) mobilized disseminated iron and manganese in the Jurassic sandstones and mixed with shallow, oxygenated groundwater to precipitate both iron and manganese mineralization. Mineralization consists of colliform and concretionary hematite, pyrolusite, and cryptomelane-hollandite that contains 1.33 2.12 wt% K. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of vacuum-encapsulated cryptomelane yields age estimates of 25 20 Ma, indicating mineralization coincident with either a Colorado Plateau uplift episode or La Sal Mountains volcanism.

  14. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. A 2000 year natural record of magnitudes and frequencies for the largest Upper Colorado River floods near Moab, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Noam; Harden, Tessa M.; Baker, Victor R.; Weisheit, John; Cline, Michael L.; Porat, Naomi; Halevi, Rafi; Dohrenwend, John

    2014-06-01

    Using well-established procedures for paleoflood hydrology and employing optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) geochronology, we analyzed a very well-preserved natural record of 44 Upper Colorado River extreme floods with discharges ranging from 1800 to 9200 m3s-1. These are the largest floods occurring during the last 2140 ± 220 years, and this natural record indicates that large floods are much more frequent than can be estimated by extrapolation from the stream gaging record that extends back to 1914. Most of these large floods occurred during the last 500 years, and the two largest floods in the record both exceeded the probable maximum flood (PMF) estimated at 8500 m3s-1 (300,000 cfs) for nearby Moab, Utah. Another four floods, with discharges greater than 7000 m3s-1, occurred during the last two millennia. Flood frequency analyses using the FLDFRQ3 model yields the following values, depending on the Manning n roughness coefficients: 100 yr flood—4670-4990 m3s-1; 500 yr flood—6675-7270 m3s-1; 1000 yr flood—7680-8440 m3s-1. The presumed PMF discharge (8500 m3s-1) gets assigned a recurrence interval of about 1000 years, and the largest historical 1884 flood (3540 m3s-1)—a recurrence interval of <100 years. Flood frequency analysis for the Moab Valley based on the gaged record (1914-2012) yield 2730 m3s-1 for the 100 yr flood and 3185 m3s-1 for the 500 yr flood. This underestimation of the frequency of large floods from the gage data results from effects on that record by modern regulation of upstream river flow and associated water extraction for agriculture.

  16. 70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL DISCHARGED INTO LAUNDER WHICH PIERCED THE SIDE OF THE CLASSIFIER PAN. WOOD LAUNDER WITHIN CLASSIFIER VISIBLE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS). HORIZONTAL WOOD PLANKING BEHIND MILL IS FEED BOX. MILL SOLUTION PIPING RUNS ALONG BASE OF WEST SIDE OF CLASSIFIER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. Uranium bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroot, Gerard

    2009-11-01

    Enrico Fermi was a brilliant physicist, but he did occasionally get things wrong. In 1934 he famously bombarded a sample of uranium with neutrons. The result was astounding: the experiment had, Fermi concluded, produced element 93, later called neptunium. The German physicist Ida Noddack, however, came to an even more spectacular conclusion, namely that Fermi had split the uranium nucleus to produce lighter elements. Noddack's friend Otto Hahn judged that idea preposterous and advised her to keep quiet, since ridicule could ruin a female physicist. She ignored that advice, and was, indeed, scorned.

  18. Directory and profile of licensed uranium-recovery facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Warkentien, J.S.; Busch, L.S.; DePue, J.; Sundell, R.; Gordon, C.Z.

    1982-07-01

    Information on licensed uranium production facilities as of December 1981 has been compiled. Conventional mills, in-situ projects, heap leach operations, and other types of uranium recovery systems are described in essay and tabular form. The data base includes all licensed facilities in the Agreement and Non-Agreement States. This report also contains a description of the system used for storage and retrieval of all information presented.

  19. Nonlinear mill control.

    PubMed

    Martin, G; McGarel, S

    2001-01-01

    A mill is a mechanical device that grinds mined or processed material into small particles. The process is known to display significant deadtime, and, more notably, severe nonlinear behavior. Over the past 25 years attempts at continuous mill control have met varying degrees of failure, mainly due to model mismatch caused by changes in the mill process gains. This paper describes an on-line control application on a closed-circuit cement mill that uses nonlinear model predictive control technology. The nonlinear gains for the control model are calculated on-line from a neural network model of the process.

  20. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-12-14

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

  1. Statistical data of the uranium industry

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This document is a compilation of historical facts and figures through 1979. These statistics are based primarily on information provided voluntarily by the uranium exploration, mining, and milling companies. The production, reserves, drilling, and production capability information has been reported in a manner which avoids disclosure of proprietary information. Only the totals for the $1.5 reserves are reported. Because of increased interest in higher cost resources for long range planning purposes, a section covering the distribution of $100 per pound reserves statistics has been newly included. A table of mill recovery ranges for the January 1, 1980 reserves has also been added to this year's edition. The section on domestic uranium production capability has been deleted this year but will be included next year. The January 1, 1980 potential resource estimates are unchanged from the January 1, 1979 estimates.

  2. Directory and profile of licensed uranium-recovery facilities. Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.S.

    1984-03-01

    Information on licensed uranium production facilities as of Fall 1983 has been compiled. Conventional mills (29), in-situ projects and heap leach operations (28), and other types of uranium recovery systems are described in essay and tabular form. The data base includes all licensed facilities in the Agreement and Non-Agreement States. 24 references, 4 tables.

  3. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  4. Uranium, natural

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , natural ; CASRN 7440 - 61 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  5. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  6. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  7. A murine monoclonal antibody, MoAb HMSA-5, against a melanosomal component highly expressed in early stages, and common to normal and neoplastic melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Der, J. E.; Dixon, W. T.; Jimbow, K.; Horikoshi, T.

    1993-01-01

    The melanosome is a secretory organelle unique to the melanocyte and its neoplastic counterpart, malignant melanoma. The synthesis and assembly of these intracytoplasmic organelles is not yet fully understood. We have developed a murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against melanosomes isolated from human melanocytes (newborn foreskin) cultured in the presence of 12-O tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This MoAb, designated HMSA-5 (Human Melanosome-Specific Antigen-5) (IgG1), recognised a cytoplasmic antigen in both normal human melanocytes and neoplastic cells, such as common and dysplastic melanocytic nevi, and malignant melanoma. None of the carcinoma or sarcoma specimens tested showed positive reactivity with MoAb HMSA-5. Under immunoelectron microscopy, immuno-gold deposition was seen on microvesicles associated with melanosomes, and a portion of the ER-Golgi complexes. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that the HMSA-5 reactive antigen was a glycoprotein of M(r) 69 to 73 kDa. A pulse-chase time course study showed that the amount of antigen detected by MoAb HMSA-5 decreased over a 24 h period without significant expression on the cell surface, or corresponding appearance of the antigen in the culture supernatant. This glycoprotein appears to play a role in the early stages of melanosomal development, and the HMSA-5 reactive epitope may be lost during subsequent maturation processes. Importantly, HMSA-5 can be identified in all forms of human melanocytes, hence it can be considered a new common melanocytic marker even on routine paraffin sections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7678981

  8. The history of uranium mining and the Navajo people.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Goble, Rob

    2002-09-01

    From World War II until 1971, the government was the sole purchaser of uranium ore in the United States. Uranium mining occurred mostly in the southwestern United States and drew many Native Americans and others into work in the mines and mills. Despite a long and well-developed understanding, based on the European experience earlier in the century, that uranium mining led to high rates of lung cancer, few protections were provided for US miners before 1962 and their adoption after that time was slow and incomplete. The resulting high rates of illness among miners led in 1990 to passage of the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act.

  9. The History of Uranium Mining and the Navajo People

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Goble, Rob

    2002-01-01

    From World War II until 1971, the government was the sole purchaser of uranium ore in the United States. Uranium mining occurred mostly in the southwestern United States and drew many Native Americans and others into work in the mines and mills. Despite a long and well-developed understanding, based on the European experience earlier in the century, that uranium mining led to high rates of lung cancer, few protections were provided for US miners before 1962 and their adoption after that time was slow and incomplete. The resulting high rates of illness among miners led in 1990 to passage of the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act. PMID:12197966

  10. The United States Uranium Industry, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1993-08-01

    Low prices and foreign competition continue to plague the United States uranium industry. For eight years (1984-1991) the Secretary of Energy has declared the industry to be nonviable. A similar declaration is expected late in 1993 for 1992. Surface drilling for uranium in 1993 is expected to be about 1 million ft., because deposits are developed prior to mining. Drilling for claim assessment purposes has ceased due to changes in the mining law. All conventional mining and milling in the United States ceased in early 1992 when the last open-pit mine closed. Underground mining ceased in late 1990. Current uranium production is from solution mining (in-situ leaching) in Wyoming, Texas, and Nebraska. Uranium is recovered from Florida phosphate rock processed in Louisiana and from mine water in New Mexico. Uranium concentrate production in 1993 is expected to be about 5 million lbs U[sub 3]O[sub 8]. The United States has large reserves of uranium, but a significant price increase is needed for the industry to rebound.

  11. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. 13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS CHALMERS BALL MILL) FROM EAST, c. 1919. ELECTRIC MOTOR AND DRIVE SHAFT CLEARLY VISIBLE. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  13. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  14. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  16. Navajo Uranium Education Programs: The Search for Environmental Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charley, Perry H.; Dawson, Susan E.; Madsen, Gary E.; Spykerman, Bryan R.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling in the Four Corners' area of the American Southwest has had serious negative impacts on American Indian workers, their families, and their communities. In this article, we will examine Navajo education programs which inform citizens about risks and health impacts associated with radiation exposures. Because the Navajo…

  17. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. 13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, TRESTLES, A WAREHOUSE AT THE RIGHT SIDE TO THE PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE PIPE IN THE LOWER CENTER FOREGROUND. THIS IS A RUIN OF THE TAILING LINE THAT RAN FROM THE MILL TO THE CYANIDE PLANT ABOUT 1800 FEET NORTH OF THE MILL. DETERIORATED PIECES OF THE WOOD TRESTLE THAT CARRIED THE PIPE ARE SCATTERED AROUND THE PIPE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  19. BIOREMEDIATION OF URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND WASTES.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    1998-09-17

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (i) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (ii) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na released into solution are removed, thus reducing the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

  20. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  1. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  2. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  3. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  4. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  5. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM MONOCARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Powers, R.M.

    1962-07-24

    A method of making essentially stoichiometric uranium monocarbide by pelletizing a mixture of uranium tetrafluoride, silicon, and carbon and reacting the mixture at a temperature of approximately 1500 to 1700 deg C until the reaction goes to completion, forming uranium monocarbide powder and volatile silicon tetrafluoride, is described. The powder is then melted to produce uranium monocarbide in massive form. (AEC)

  6. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. 77 FR 70486 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Dewey-Burdock In-Situ Uranium Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment a draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SEIS) for the Dewey-Burdock In-Situ Uranium Recovery (ISR) Project in Custer and Fall River Counties, South Dakota. The Draft SEIS is Supplement 4 to NUREG-1910, ``Generic Environmental Impact Statement for In-Situ Leach Uranium Milling Facilities,'' May 2009.......

  8. Tags to Track Illicit Uranium and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M. Jonathan; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    With the expansion of nuclear power, it is essential to avoid nuclear materials from falling into the hands of rogue nations, terrorists, and other opportunists. This paper examines the idea of detection and attribution tags for nuclear materials. For a detection tag, it is proposed to add small amounts [about one part per billion (ppb)] of {sup 232}U to enriched uranium to brighten its radioactive signature. Enriched uranium would then be as detectable as plutonium and thus increase the likelihood of intercepting illicit enriched uranium. The use of rare earth oxide elements is proposed as a new type of 'attribution' tag for uranium and thorium from mills, uranium and plutonium fuels, and other nuclear materials. Rare earth oxides are chosen because they are chemically compatible with the fuel cycle, can survive high-temperature processing operations in fuel fabrication, and can be chosen to have minimal neutronic impact within the nuclear reactor core. The mixture of rare earths and/or rare earth isotopes provides a unique 'bar code' for each tag. If illicit nuclear materials are recovered, the attribution tag can identify the source and lot of nuclear material, and thus help police reduce the possible number of suspects in the diversion of nuclear materials based on who had access. (authors)

  9. DECONTAMINATION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Chellew, N.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent deals with the separation of rare earth and other fission products from neutron bombarded uranium. This is accomplished by melting the uranium in contact with either thorium oxide, maguesium oxide, alumnum oxide, beryllium oxide, or uranium dioxide. The melting is preferably carried out at from 1150 deg to 1400 deg C in an inert atmosphere, such as argon or helium. During this treatment a scale of uranium dioxide forms on the uranium whtch contains most of the fission products.

  10. Secondary Fe- and Mn-Oxides Associated with Faults Near Moab, Utah: Records of Past Fluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V. H.; Reiners, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary Fe- and Mn-oxides are locally common near faults and fractures, and as cements within sandstones of the Colorado Plateau, and provide evidence of past fluid-flow. Here we describe textural, mineralogic, and geochronologic observations from fault-zone Fe- and Mn-oxide mineralization in Flat Iron Mesa, near Moab, Utah. Several hypotheses have been proposed for their origin, including reactions associated with the mixing of deep reduced and near-surface oxygenated waters. We integrate field observations, detailed SEM and petrographic observations, geochemical models, (U-Th)/He and Ar/Ar dating, and other data to develop interpretations of the formation of these deposits. SEM imaging shows that sandstone matrix cement adjacent to the faults follows two precipitation sequences: Fe-oxide followed by barite and Fe-oxide followed by Mn-oxide. Dense oxide layers also accumulated in cm-scale fractures near faults, and show the following precipitation sequence: Fe-oxide, barite, Ba rich Mn-oxide, and pure Mn-oxide. The latter sequence is observed at larger scale across faults in one site in Flat Iron Mesa. Our new He dates for Mn-oxides are 1.7-2.9 Ma while Fe-oxide dates are 2.7-3.0 Ma. If these dates represent formation ages, they are consistent with the interpreted precipitation sequence but would require protracted mineralization over Ma-timescales. Alternatively, they may represent varying degrees of He retentivity in earlier formed deposits. Previous Ar/Ar dates have been interpreted as a 20-25 Ma formation age. Ongoing Ar/Ar and He diffusion studies will resolve this discordance. Assuming the previous Ar dates do not reflect contamination by detrital K-bearing phases and do reflect oxide formation, potential interpretations for the younger He ages include recent U-Th addition, recrystallization, later oxide growth, or large diffusive He loss at low temperatures.

  11. Structural Basis of Thermal Stability of the Tungsten Cofactor Synthesis Protein MoaB from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Havarushka, Nastassia; Fischer-Schrader, Katrin; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Schwarz, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten cofactors share a similar pterin-based scaffold, which hosts an ene-dithiolate function being essential for the coordination of either molybdenum or tungsten. The biosynthesis of both cofactors involves a multistep pathway, which ends with the activation of the metal binding pterin (MPT) by adenylylation before the respective metal is incorporated. In the hyperthermophilic organism Pyrococcus furiosus, the hexameric protein MoaB (PfuMoaB) has been shown to catalyse MPT-adenylylation. Here we determined the crystal structure of PfuMoaB at 2.5 Å resolution and identified key residues of α3-helix mediating hexamer formation. Given that PfuMoaB homologues from mesophilic organisms form trimers, we investigated the impact on PfuMoaB hexamerization on thermal stability and activity. Using structure-guided mutagenesis, we successfully disrupted the hexamer interface in PfuMoaB. The resulting PfuMoaB-H3 variant formed monomers, dimers and trimers as determined by size exclusion chromatography. Circular dichroism spectroscopy as well as chemical cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry confirmed a wild-type-like fold of the protomers as well as inter-subunits contacts. The melting temperature of PfuMoaB-H3 was found to be reduced by more than 15°C as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, thus demonstrating hexamerization as key determinant for PfuMoaB thermal stability. Remarkably, while a loss of activity at temperatures higher than 50°C was observed in the PfuMoaB-H3 variant, at lower temperatures, we determined a significantly increased catalytic activity. The latter suggests a gain in conformational flexibility caused by the disruption of the hexamerization interface. PMID:24465852

  12. Structural basis of thermal stability of the tungsten cofactor synthesis protein MoaB from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Havarushka, Nastassia; Fischer-Schrader, Katrin; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Schwarz, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten cofactors share a similar pterin-based scaffold, which hosts an ene-dithiolate function being essential for the coordination of either molybdenum or tungsten. The biosynthesis of both cofactors involves a multistep pathway, which ends with the activation of the metal binding pterin (MPT) by adenylylation before the respective metal is incorporated. In the hyperthermophilic organism Pyrococcus furiosus, the hexameric protein MoaB (PfuMoaB) has been shown to catalyse MPT-adenylylation. Here we determined the crystal structure of PfuMoaB at 2.5 Å resolution and identified key residues of α3-helix mediating hexamer formation. Given that PfuMoaB homologues from mesophilic organisms form trimers, we investigated the impact on PfuMoaB hexamerization on thermal stability and activity. Using structure-guided mutagenesis, we successfully disrupted the hexamer interface in PfuMoaB. The resulting PfuMoaB-H3 variant formed monomers, dimers and trimers as determined by size exclusion chromatography. Circular dichroism spectroscopy as well as chemical cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry confirmed a wild-type-like fold of the protomers as well as inter-subunits contacts. The melting temperature of PfuMoaB-H3 was found to be reduced by more than 15 °C as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, thus demonstrating hexamerization as key determinant for PfuMoaB thermal stability. Remarkably, while a loss of activity at temperatures higher than 50 °C was observed in the PfuMoaB-H3 variant, at lower temperatures, we determined a significantly increased catalytic activity. The latter suggests a gain in conformational flexibility caused by the disruption of the hexamerization interface. PMID:24465852

  13. URANIUM DECONTAMINATION

    DOEpatents

    Buckingham, J.S.; Carroll, J.L.

    1959-12-22

    A process is described for reducing the extractability of ruthenium, zirconium, and niobium values into hexone contained in an aqueous nitric acid uranium-containing solution. The solution is made acid-deficient, heated to between 55 and 70 deg C, and at that temperature a water-soluble inorganic thiosulfate is added. By this, a precipitate is formed which carries the bulk of the ruthenium, and the remainder of the ruthenium as well as the zirconium and niobium are converted to a hexone-nonextractable form. The rutheniumcontaining precipitate can either be removed from the solu tion or it can be dissolved as a hexone-non-extractable compound by the addition of sodium dichromate prior to hexone extraction.

  14. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. In-111 chelate conjugates of human transferrin (HTr) and mouse monoclonal anti human transferrin receptor antibody (. cap alpha. HTrR MoAb) for tumor imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, D.A.; Meares, C.F.; Diamanti, C.I.; McCall, M.; McTigue, M.; Torti, F.; Martin, B.

    1984-01-01

    At least one of the major pathways of uptake of the commonly used tumor scanning agent Ga-67 is via the transferrin receptor. This suggested the use of stably radio-labeled HTr, and ..cap alpha..HTrR MoAb for tumor imaging in humans. HTr and mouse ..cap alpha..HTrR MoAb were alkylated with 1-(parabromacetamidobenzyl)-EDTA. The mM Alkylproteins, approx. =1 chelate/molecule were labeled with 1-3 mCi In-111 citrate pH/sub 5/ (Sp Act approx. = 100-300 Ci/m mole). Images were made 24 hours after 1 mCi IV and in some patients blood levels, urine excretion and digitized whole body scans were obtained at 1, 24,48 and 96 hours post injection. Ten patients with biopsy proven prostate cancer were studied with In-111 HTr, and four with In-111 ..cap alpha.. HTrR MoAb; all had positive mets on bone scan. In-111 HTr persisted in the circulation with a T1/2 of approx. = four days, approx. = 5%/day being excreted in the urine, to a total of approx. = 60% in 21 days. Nine of ten scans were false negative due to the high blood background. In-111 ..cap alpha..HTrR disappeared rapidly from the blood; with most in the bone marrow at 24 hours. ROI analysis of three patients showed whole body 94% at 24 hours, 89% at 48 hours, and 82% at 96 hours (T1/2 = 10.7 days); liver 19% at 1 hour, 25% at 24 hours, and 21% at 96 hours; spleen 3% at 1 hour, 8% at 24 hours, 7.3% at 48 hours, and 3% at 96 hours. The high bone marrow background allowed only a few of the bone mets seen as bone scan to be visualized. Other tumor types not located in bone may be more easily seen.

  16. New Technique for Speciation of Uranium in Sediments Following Acetate-Stimulated Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-22

    Acetate-stimulated bioremediation is a promising new technique for sequestering toxic uranium contamination from groundwater. The speciation of uranium in sediments after such bioremediation attempts remains unknown as a result of low uranium concentration, and is important to analyzing the stability of sequestered uranium. A new technique was developed for investigating the oxidation state and local molecular structure of uranium from field site sediments using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and was implemented at the site of a former uranium mill in Rifle, CO. Glass columns filled with bioactive Rifle sediments were deployed in wells in the contaminated Rifle aquifer and amended with a hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) stock solution to increase uranium concentration while maintaining field conditions. This sediment was harvested and XAS was utilized to analyze the oxidation state and local molecular structure of the uranium in sediment samples. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) data was collected and compared to known uranium spectra to determine the local molecular structure of the uranium in the sediment. Fitting was used to determine that the field site sediments did not contain uraninite (UO{sub 2}), indicating that models based on bioreduction using pure bacterial cultures are not accurate for bioremediation in the field. Stability tests on the monomeric tetravalent uranium (U(IV)) produced by bioremediation are needed in order to assess the efficacy of acetate-stimulation bioremediation.

  17. 168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. 68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  19. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  20. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  1. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  2. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  3. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  4. 2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE 2-1/1-STORY MAIN BLOCK, ERECTED IN 1855, HAS OVERTONES OF THE GREEK REVIVAL STYLE. Photographer: louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWOHIGH HANDOPERATED MILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWO-HIGH HAND-OPERATED MILLS (ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE), PRIOR TO THEIR OPERATION; THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM THE OVERHEAD CRANE - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  6. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL RIVER CULVERT (HAER NY-112) IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT HAND CORNER. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  7. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  8. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

  9. Radiochronological Age of a Uranium Metal Sample from an Abandoned Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, L A; Williams, R W; Glover, S E; LaMont, S P; Stalcup, A M; Spitz, H B

    2012-03-16

    A piece of scrap uranium metal bar buried in the dirt floor of an old, abandoned metal rolling mill was analyzed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (MC-ICP-MS). The mill rolled uranium rods in the 1940s and 1950s. Samples of the contaminated dirt in which the bar was buried were also analyzed. The isotopic composition of uranium in the bar and dirt samples were both the same as natural uranium, though a few samples of dirt also contained recycled uranium; likely a result of contamination with other material rolled at the mill. The time elapsed since the uranium metal bar was last purified can be determined by the in-growth of the isotope {sup 230}Th from the decay of {sup 234}U, assuming that only uranium isotopes were present in the bar after purification. The age of the metal bar was determined to be 61 years at the time of this analysis and corresponds to a purification date of July 1950 {+-} 1.5 years.

  10. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  11. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  12. PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-01-26

    A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

  13. Field performance assessment of synthetic liners for uranium tailings ponds: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.H.; Spanner, G.E.

    1984-03-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a database to support US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing of uranium tailings leachate isolation impoundments. This objective is being accomplished by determining the effectiveness of design, installation, and quality assurance practices associated with uranium mill tailings impoundments with flexible membrane liners. The program includes testing of chemical resistance and physical performance of liners, leak detection systems, and seam inspection techniques. This report presents the status of the program through September 1983. The report addresses impoundment design, installation, and inspection techniques used by the uranium milling industry. To determine the relative successes of these techniques, information has been collected from consultants, mill operators, and the synthetic liner industry. Progress in experimental tasks on chemical resistance of liners, physical properties of liners, and nondestructive examination of seams is reported. 25 references, 9 figures, 13 tables.

  14. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. Long-term protection of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Beedlow, P.A.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    US Environmental Protection Agency standards for the cleanup and disposal of inactive tailings sites require that control measures for disposal of tailings be designed to be effective for up to 1000 years if reasonably achievable, and, in any case, for 200 years at least. To control the escape of contaminants over such long periods, containment systems must be capable of adjusting to changing environmental conditions. Elements of a containment system include surface covers, biotic barriers, radon barriers, and, in some cases, liners. Each element of the system affects the others, and the whole system responds to the surrounding environment. Interaction is facilitated primarily by soil moisture. Consequently, the control of soil moisture is critical to the effectiveness of containment systems. Protective covers are necessary to prevent disruption of the containment system by physical or biological factors, to provide for the effective functioning of the radon barrier, and to prevent infiltration of excess water that could cause leaching. In order to design protective covers, a working knowledge of the factors and processes impacting tailings piles is required. This report characterizes the major factors and processes, and presents generic solutions based on current research. 65 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Annual status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The purpose, scope, history, requirements, and management organization of the UMTRA Program are summarized in the Introduction. The remainder of the report describes progress made during the past year (F 1980) and discusses future plants and activities. Early emphasis has been on the four highest-priority sites because of their proximity to population centers. These sites are: (1) Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; (2) Salt Lake City, Utah; (3) Durango, Colorado; and (4) Shiprock, New Mexico (Navajo Reservation). To date, twenty-five vicinity properties near the Canonsburg site and two such properties near the Salt Lake City site have been designated for remedial action. A research effort was undertaken at a major vicinity property, the Mountain States Supply Company in Salt Lake City, to study the effects of heating-and-ventilating-system modification on indoor radon-daughter concentrations. A cooperative agreement was executed between DOE and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. A similar agreement with the State of Utah is expected to be executed in early FY 1981. Further, it is expected that additional cooperative agreements will be negotiated during FY 1981 with the States of Colorado and Wyoming and the Navajo Nation. It is expected that the processing site at Canonsburg, PA (the Canonsburg Industrial Park) will be acquired during FY 1981. Draft Environmental Impact Statements for the four highest-priority sites will be completed during FY 1981.

  17. Fault-related clay authigenesis along the Moab Fault: Implications for calculations of fault rock composition and mechanical and hydrologic fault zone properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solum, J.G.; Davatzes, N.C.; Lockner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of clays in fault rocks influences both the mechanical and hydrologic properties of clay-bearing faults, and therefore it is critical to understand the origin of clays in fault rocks and their distributions is of great importance for defining fundamental properties of faults in the shallow crust. Field mapping shows that layers of clay gouge and shale smear are common along the Moab Fault, from exposures with throws ranging from 10 to ???1000 m. Elemental analyses of four locations along the Moab Fault show that fault rocks are enriched in clays at R191 and Bartlett Wash, but that this clay enrichment occurred at different times and was associated with different fluids. Fault rocks at Corral and Courthouse Canyons show little difference in elemental composition from adjacent protolith, suggesting that formation of fault rocks at those locations is governed by mechanical processes. Friction tests show that these authigenic clays result in fault zone weakening, and potentially influence the style of failure along the fault (seismogenic vs. aseismic) and potentially influence the amount of fluid loss associated with coseismic dilation. Scanning electron microscopy shows that authigenesis promotes that continuity of slip surfaces, thereby enhancing seal capacity. The occurrence of the authigenesis, and its influence on the sealing properties of faults, highlights the importance of determining the processes that control this phenomenon. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Fault-related clay authigenesis along the Moab Fault: Implications for calculations of fault rock composition and mechanical and hydrologic fault zone properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solum, John G.; Davatzes, Nicholas C.; Lockner, David A.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of clays in fault rocks influences both the mechanical and hydrologic properties of clay-bearing faults, and therefore it is critical to understand the origin of clays in fault rocks and their distributions is of great importance for defining fundamental properties of faults in the shallow crust. Field mapping shows that layers of clay gouge and shale smear are common along the Moab Fault, from exposures with throws ranging from 10 to ˜1000 m. Elemental analyses of four locations along the Moab Fault show that fault rocks are enriched in clays at R191 and Bartlett Wash, but that this clay enrichment occurred at different times and was associated with different fluids. Fault rocks at Corral and Courthouse Canyons show little difference in elemental composition from adjacent protolith, suggesting that formation of fault rocks at those locations is governed by mechanical processes. Friction tests show that these authigenic clays result in fault zone weakening, and potentially influence the style of failure along the fault (seismogenic vs. aseismic) and potentially influence the amount of fluid loss associated with coseismic dilation. Scanning electron microscopy shows that authigenesis promotes that continuity of slip surfaces, thereby enhancing seal capacity. The occurrence of the authigenesis, and its influence on the sealing properties of faults, highlights the importance of determining the processes that control this phenomenon.

  19. The impact of syn-faulting porosity reduction on damage zone architecture in porous sandstone: an outcrop example from the Moab Fault, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Tord Erlend Skeie; Fossen, Haakon; Kluge, Richard

    2005-08-01

    Deformation structures in the Jurassic Moab Member of the Entrada Sandstone have been studied in the Courthouse area where two major fault segments (Segments A and B) of the Moab Fault are connected. Field data show that Segment A developed from an early stage of (thick) deformation band formation and that distinctively thinner deformation bands and fractures were subsequently added to its damage zone at a later stage. Only the second stage is expressed along Segment B. Geometric and kinematic evidence indicates that Segment B linked with Segment A at the time when Segment A (and its thick deformation bands) was already present in the Courthouse area. We attribute the transition from thick deformation bands to thin deformation bands to pore-space reduction caused by syn-faulting quartz dissolution and precipitation that changed the mechanical properties of the rock. In this model, thin deformation bands formed as porosity was reduced during quartz diagenesis. The observations underscore the importance of syn-kinematic diagenetic changes and the variation in small-scale structures along faults that apparently formed during the same faulting event in porous sandstones.

  20. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  1. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-04-26

    A process is given for purifying a uranium-base nuclear material. The nuclear material is dissolved in zinc or a zinc-magnesium alloy and the concentration of magnesium is increased until uranium precipitates.

  2. Uranium from phosphate ores

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant.

  3. Uranium production in Eastern Europe and its environmental impact: A literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    A survey of the unclassified literature was made to determine the location, technology, throughput, and environmental status of the uranium mines and mills that have historically made up uranium production capability in Eastern Europe. Included in that survey were the following countries: the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), now part of a reunited Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland. Until recently, uranium was being produced in five of these six countries (Poland stopped production 20 years ago). The production began directly after World War II in support of weapons production in the Soviet Union. Eastern Europe has produced about two-thirds of the total Soviet uranium inventory historically, or about 330,000 metric tonnes of uranium (NM) [730 million pounds of uranium (MlbU)l out of a total of about 490,000 MTU (1090 NlbU).

  4. PREPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Lawroski, S.; Jonke, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1959-10-01

    A process is described for preparing uranium hexafluoride from carbonate- leach uranium ore concentrate. The briquetted, crushed, and screened concentrate is reacted with hydrogen fluoride in a fluidized bed, and the uranium tetrafluoride formed is mixed with a solid diluent, such as calcium fluoride. This mixture is fluorinated with fluorine and an inert diluent gas, also in a fluidized bed, and the uranium hexafluoride obtained is finally purified by fractional distillation.

  5. PROCESS OF PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Orlemann, E.F.; Jensen, L.H.

    1958-12-23

    A method of obtaining substantially pure uranium from a uranium composition contaminated with light element impurities such as sodium, magnesium, beryllium, and the like is described. An acidic aqueous solution containing tetravalent uranium is treated with a soluble molybdate to form insoluble uranous molybdate which is removed. This material after washing is dissolved in concentrated nitric acid to obtaln a uranyl nitrate solution from which highly purified uranium is obtained by extraction with ether.

  6. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Burns, Peter C.

    2005-06-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB's, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorous amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection.

  7. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Peter C.

    2004-12-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection.

  8. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  9. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

  10. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, W.E.; Spenceley, R.M.; Teetzel, F.M.

    1959-08-01

    A method is presented for producing uranium tetrafluoride from the gaseous hexafluoride by feeding the hexafluoride into a high temperature zone obtained by the recombination of molecularly dissociated hydrogen. The molal ratio of hydrogen to uranium hexnfluoride is preferably about 3 to 1. Uranium tetrafluoride is obtained in a finely divided, anhydrous state.

  11. Decommissioning of U.S. uranium production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    From 1980 to 1993, the domestic production of uranium declined from almost 44 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to about 3 million pounds. This retrenchment of the U.S. uranium industry resulted in the permanent closing of many uranium-producing facilities. Current low uranium prices, excess world supply, and low expectations for future uranium demand indicate that it is unlikely existing plants will be reopened. Because of this situation, these facilities eventually will have to be decommissioned. The Uranium Mill Tailings and Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) vests the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with overall responsibility for establishing environmental standards for decommissioning of uranium production facilities. UMTRCA also gave the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the responsibility for licensing and regulating uranium production and related activities, including decommissioning. Because there are many issues associated with decommissioning-environmental, political, and financial-this report will concentrate on the answers to three questions: (1) What is required? (2) How is the process implemented? (3) What are the costs? Regulatory control is exercised principally through the NRC licensing process. Before receiving a license to construct and operate an uranium producing facility, the applicant is required to present a decommissioning plan to the NRC. Once the plan is approved, the licensee must post a surety to guarantee that funds will be available to execute the plan and reclaim the site. This report by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) represents the most comprehensive study on this topic by analyzing data on 33 (out of 43) uranium production facilities located in Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  12. The utilization of uranium industry technology and relevant chemistry to leach uranium from mixed-waste solids

    SciTech Connect

    Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for the chemical extraction of uranium from a number of refractory uranium-containing minerals found in nature have been in place and employed by the uranium mining and milling industry for nearly half a century. These same methods, in conjunction with the principles of relevant uranium chemistry, have been employed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to chemically leach depleted uranium from mixed-waste sludge and soil. The removal of uranium from what is now classified as mixed waste may result in the reclassification of the waste as hazardous, which may then be delisted. The delisted waste might eventually be disposed of in commercial landfill sites. This paper generally discusses the application of chemical extractive methods to remove depleted uranium from a biodenitrification sludge and a storm sewer soil sediment from the Y-12 weapons plant in Oak Ridge. Some select data obtained from scoping leach tests on these materials are presented along with associated limitations and observations which might be useful to others performing such test work. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry. [Radiological impact of uranium extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  14. Uranium ore treatment. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of uranium ores. Emphasis is place upon the primary step within the process, acid leaching. Tailing disposal and proper handling of radioactive materials is also emphasized. Primary treatment procedures include ion-exchange, sulfuric acid leaching, solvent extraction, and sedimentation. Environmental aspects of uranium milling and mining are examined in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 112 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Uranium ore treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of uranium ores. Emphasis is place upon the primary step within the process, acid leaching. Tailing disposal and proper handling of radioactive materials is also emphasized. Primary treatment procedures include ion-exchange, sulfuric acid leaching, solvent extraction, and sedimentation. Environmental aspects of uranium milling and mining are examined in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 115 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of uranium from a mixture of uranium and thorium by organic solvent extraction from an aqueous solution is described. The uranium is separrted from an aqueous mixture of uranium and thorium nitrates 3 N in nitric acid and containing salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate, so as to bring ihe total nitrate ion concentration to a maximum of about 8 N by contacting the mixture with an immiscible aliphatic oxygen containing organic solvent such as diethyl carbinol, hexone, n-amyl acetate and the like. The uranium values may be recovered from the organic phase by back extraction with water.

  17. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

    1958-04-15

    The production of uranium metal by the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride is described. Massive uranium metal of high purily is produced by reacting uranium tetrafluoride with 2 to 20% stoichiometric excess of magnesium at a temperature sufficient to promote the reaction and then mantaining the reaction mass in a sealed vessel at temperature in the range of 1150 to 2000 d C, under a superatomospheric pressure of magnesium for a period of time sufficient 10 allow separation of liquid uranium and liquid magnesium fluoride into separate layers.

  18. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Yeager, J.H.

    1958-08-12

    In the prior art processing of uranium ores, the ore is flrst digested with nitric acid and filtered, and the uranium values are then extracted tom the filtrate by contacting with an organic solvent. The insoluble residue has been processed separately in order to recover any uranium which it might contain. The improvement consists in contacting a slurry, composed of both solution and residue, with the organic solvent prior to filtration. Tbe result is that uranium values contained in the residue are extracted along with the uranium values contained th the solution in one step.

  19. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  20. Mills, Bernard Yarnton (1920-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Australian engineer and astronomer, born near Sydney, and worked with the Australian CSIR Division of Radiophysics. He measured the position of Cygnus A and identified a faint nebulosity as its origin, confirmed by a more accurate position by F. G. Smith and 200 in photographs by W BAADE and R MINKOWSKI showing Cygnus A as a peculiar galaxy. Mills built a cross-type radio interferometer at the...

  1. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.

    2002-01-01

    The ion figuring system at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been successfully used for at least three previous investigations into the ion milling of metals. The research was directed toward improving the surface quality of X-ray directing optics. These studies were performed on surfaces that were already hand polished to an excellent surface quality and were intended to remove the residual unwanted figure left by those techniques. The ion milling was typically carried out on test surfaces or mandrels that were several centimeters in width and length. The good thermal conductivity of the metal samples allowed the ion beam to be directed onto the sample for an indefinite period of time. This is not true of sapphire or most electrical insulators and problems have arisen in recent attempts to ion mill thin samples of sapphire. The failure and fracture of the material was likely due to thermal stresses and the relatively low thermal conductivity of sapphire (compared to most metals), These assumed stresses actually provided the key as to how they might be monitored. A thermal gradient in the sapphire sample will induce an effective index of refraction change and because of the shape constraint and the crystal structure and simple thermal expansion, this index change will be nonuniform across the sample. In all but simple cubic crystal structures, this leads to a spatially nonuniform optical retardance induced on any polarized optical beam traversing the sample, and it is this retardance that can be monitored using standard polarimetric procedures.

  2. Process water treatment at the Ranger uranium mine, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Topp, H; Russell, H; Davidson, J; Jones, D; Levy, V; Gilderdale, M; Davis, S; Ring, R; Conway, G; Macintosh, P; Sertorio, L

    2003-01-01

    The conceptual development and piloting of an innovative water treatment system for process water produced by a uranium mine mill is described. The process incorporates lime/CO2 softening (Stage 1), reverse osmosis (Stage 2) and biopolishing (Stage 3) to produce water of quality suitable for release to the receiving environment. Comprehensive performance data are presented for each stage. The unique features of the proposed process are: recycling of the lime/CO2 softening sludge to the uranium mill as a neutralant, the use of power station off-gas for carbonation, the use of residual ammonia as the pH buffer in carbonation; and the recovery and recycling of ammonia from the RO reject stream.

  3. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  4. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  5. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  6. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  7. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  8. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  9. Mechanical controls on the spatial and temporal variability of faulting mechanisms in sandstone along the Moab normal fault, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davatzes, N. C.; Aydin, A.

    2003-12-01

    Segmentation is a fundamental characteristic of faults. However, the effect of segmentation on the process of fault development, the architecture of the fault zone, and the properties of faults are poorly understood. Along the Moab fault, a basin scale normal fault with ~1 km of throw in SE Utah, segmentation is associated with localized changes in the density and types of structures associated with faulting in sandstone. Changes in the types of structural elements are associated with fault development by two different mechanisms in sandstone: (1) cataclastic shear failure that produces deformation bands and (2) the repeated formation and subsequent shearing of joints that leads to the formation of a brecciated fault zone. Deformation bands are prevalent along the entire length of the fault system and band density is greatest within relays between normal fault segments that are subjected to a component of strike-parallel contraction. The joints and sheared joints only occur at intersections between normal fault segments and relays that are subjected to strike-parallel extension where they overprint deformation bands. We contend that spatial variation of the faulting mechanisms in sandstone is associated with the stress perturbation around the fault. We used the geometry and kinematics of the fault segments and an estimated burial depth of 2 km to simulate the mechanical behavior of the fault system in linear elastic boundary element models using Poly3D. We looked specifically for changes in the stress state that would cause a transition from deformation band formation to joint formation because joints are the youngest structural elements wherever they occur. Joints form normal to the least compressive principal stress when this stress exceeds the tensile strength of the rock. We also note that cataclasis in deformation bands represent a loss of volume, whereas jointing and breccia formation are dilatant processes. Consequently the mean stress can act as an

  10. Isotopic fractionation of uranium in sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosholt, J.N.; Shields, W.R.; Garner, E.L.

    1963-01-01

    Relatively unoxidized black uranium ores from sandstone deposits in the western United States show deviations in the uranium-235 to uranium-234 ratio throughout a range from 40 percent excess uranium-234 to 40 percent deficient uranium-234 with respect to a reference uranium-235 to uranium-234 ratio. The deficient uranium-234 is leached preferentially to uranium-238 and the excess uranium-234 is believed to result from deposition of uranium-234 enriched in solutions from leached deposits.

  11. Remediation of the closed-down uranium mine in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, P.; Sundblad, B.

    1993-12-31

    During the 1960s uranium was extracted from alum shale deposits at Ranstad in the south of Sweden. This mine was part of the development of a Swedish nuclear power program based on the heavy-water/natural uranium concept. In this report the history of Swedish uranium production is briefly presented as well as the reason for the closing-down of the mine at Ranstad. In 1985 the planning of the restoration of the area started. The aim of the remediation work was to find a permanent solution that excluded the need for any maintenance in the future. The procedures and techniques for remedial action are described for the open pit mine and the mill tailing deposits. As the leachate from the mill tailings was collected and purified, there was no urgent need for action. Investigations could be made to find an effective way for reducing the weathering of the pyrite in the tailings and the authorities concerned could accept the remediation plan after a detailed review. The main part of the plan has now been implemented and many experiences from the performance technique and the significant quality assurance program have been obtained. The old open pit mine has already been transformed into a lake and the mill tailings are covered by a leaktight barrier and a protective layer. The natural environment in the whole area has been reestablished.

  12. Dissolution rates of uranium compounds in simulated lung fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Maximum dissolution rates of uranium into simulated lung fluid from a variety of materials were measured at 37/sup 0/in the where f/sub i/ is in order to estimate clearance rates from the deep lung. A batch procedure was utilized in which samples containing as little as 10 ..mu..g of natural uranium could be tested. The materials included: products of uranium mining, milling and refining operations, coal fly ash, an environmental sample from a site exposed to multiple uranium sources, and purified samples of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, UO/sub 2/, and UF/sub 4/. Dissolution of uranium from several materials indicated the presence of more than one type of uranium compound; but in all cases, the fraction F of uranium remaining undissolved at any time t could be represented by the sum of up to three terms in the series: F = ..sigma../sub i/f/sub i/ exp (-0.693t/UPSILON/sub i/), where f/sub i/ is the initial fraction of component i with dissolution half-time epsilon/sub i/. Values of epsilon/sub i/ varied from 0.01 day to several thousand days depending on the physical and chemical form of the uranium. Dissolution occurred predominantly by formation of the (UO/sub 2/(CO/sub 3/)/sub 3/)/sup 4 -/ ion; and as a result, tetravalent uranium compounds dissolved slowly. Dissolution rates of size-separated yellow-cake aerosols were found to be more closely correlated with specific surface area than with aerodynamic diameter.

  13. Uranium hexafluoride public risk

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Hui, T.E.; Yurconic, M.; Johnson, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    The limiting value for uranium toxicity in a human being should be based on the concentration of uranium (U) in the kidneys. The threshold for nephrotoxicity appears to lie very near 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. There does not appear to be strong scientific support for any other improved estimate, either higher or lower than this, of the threshold for uranium nephrotoxicity in a human being. The value 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney is the concentration that results from a single intake of about 30 mg soluble uranium by inhalation (assuming the metabolism of a standard person). The concentration of uranium continues to increase in the kidneys after long-term, continuous (or chronic) exposure. After chronic intakes of soluble uranium by workers at the rate of 10 mg U per week, the concentration of uranium in the kidneys approaches and may even exceed the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. Precise values of the kidney concentration depend on the biokinetic model and model parameters assumed for such a calculation. Since it is possible for the concentration of uranium in the kidneys to exceed 3 {mu}g per gram tissue at an intake rate of 10 mg U per week over long periods of time, we believe that the kidneys are protected from injury when intakes of soluble uranium at the rate of 10 mg U per week do not continue for more than two consecutive weeks. For long-term, continuous occupational exposure to low-level, soluble uranium, we recommend a reduced weekly intake limit of 5 mg uranium to prevent nephrotoxicity in workers. Our analysis shows that the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissues is not exceeded after long-term, continuous uranium intake at the intake rate of 5 mg soluble uranium per week.

  14. Bioremediation of uranium contamination with enzymatic uranium reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic uranium reduction by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans readily removed uranium from solution in a batch system or when D. desulfuricans was separated from the bulk of the uranium-containing water by a semipermeable membrane. Uranium reduction continued at concentrations as high as 24 mM. Of a variety of potentially inhibiting anions and metals evaluated, only high concentrations of copper inhibited uranium reduction. Freeze-dried cells, stored aerobically, reduced uranium as fast as fresh cells. D. desulfuricans reduced uranium in pH 4 and pH 7.4 mine drainage waters and in uraniumcontaining groundwaters from a contaminated Department of Energy site. Enzymatic uranium reduction has several potential advantages over other bioprocessing techniques for uranium removal, the most important of which are as follows: the ability to precipitate uranium that is in the form of a uranyl carbonate complex; high capacity for uranium removal per cell; the formation of a compact, relatively pure, uranium precipitate.

  15. Russian Experience in the Regulatory Supervision of the Uranium Legacy Sites - 12441

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, M.F.; Romanov, V.V.; Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Seregin, V.A.; Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.; Khokhlova, E.A.

    2012-07-01

    Management of the uranium legacy is accompanied with environmental impact intensity of which depends on the amount of the waste generated, the extent of that waste localization and environmental spreading. The question is: how hazardous is such impact on the environment and human health? The criterion for safety assurance is adequate regulation of the uranium legacy. Since the establishment of the uranium industry, the well done regulatory system operates in the FMBA of Russia. Such system covers inter alia, the uranium legacy. This system includes the extent laboratory network of independent control and supervision, scientific researches, regulative practices. The current Russian normative and legal basis of the regulation and its application practice has a number of problems relating to the uranium legacy, connected firstly with the environmental remediation. To improve the regulatory system, the urgent tasks are: -To introduce the existing exposure situation into the national laws and standards in compliance with the ICRP system. - To develop criteria for site remediation and return, by stages, to uncontrolled uses. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary storage of SNF and RW. - To consider possibilities and methods of optimization for the remediation strategies under development. - To separate the special category - RW resulted from uranium ore mining and dressing. The current Russian RW classification is based on the waste subdivision in terms of the specific activities. Having in mind the new RW-specific law, we receive the opportunity to separate some special category - RW originated from the uranium mining and milling. Introduction of such category can simplify significantly the situation with management of waste of uranium mining and milling processes. Such approach is implemented in many countries and approved by IAEA. The category of 'RW originated from

  16. 83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and its dredged reflecting pond illustrating how the parkway has manipulated the landscape to make it more picturesque. Looking north-northwest from interpretative trail. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  17. 252. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and the NPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    252. Mabry Mill. View of the mill and the NPS dredged reflecting pond which illustrates how the parkway has manipulated the landscape to make it more picturesque. Looking north-northwest from interpretative trail. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. Important Questions about "Diploma Mills" and "Accreditation Mills."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet discusses "diploma mills" and "accreditation mills," dubious providers of educational offerings or operations that offer certificates and degrees that are considered bogus. Because it is not always easy to identify these operations, questions are provided to help the potential student determine whether a provider is a diploma mill…

  19. Ground-water conditions in the Grand County area Utah, with emphasis on the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley Area

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater conditions were evaluated in bedrock aquifers in Grand County and parts of northern San Juan County, Utah. Special emphasis was given to the aquifers in the Entrada, Navajo, and Wingate Sandstones, and to the Glen Canyon aquifer in the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area. Springs and flowing wells producing water from the Cedar Mountain Formation and the Brushy Basin Shale and Salt Wash Sandstone Members of the Morrison Formation locally discharges lightly saline water at rates typically less than 1 gal/min. Springs issuing from the Entrada, Navajo, and Wingate Sandstone locally discharge freshwater throughout their outcrop areas at rates typically less than 5 gal/min. Wells drilled in the Cutler Formation on the west side of Castle Valley produce slightly saline to moderately saline water at rates of about 1 to 40 gal/min, and the water typically has concentrations of selenium larger than the State of Utah's primary drinking-water standard of 10 microg/L. In the City of Moab well field, spring and well discharges from the Glen Canyon aquifer reportedly area as large as 390 gal/min and 2,000 gal/min, respectively, and concentrations of dissolved solids are typically less than 200 mg/L. The largest discharges are from the fractured rocks of the Glen Canyon aquifer. Small concentrations of dissolved solids similar to values for water in recharge areas are the result of groundwater mocing in the area primarily from outcrops of the Glen Canyon Group to the east. West and south of the city of Moab well field, the concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate increase as the ratio of water from the outcrop area to water from farther up Spanish Valley decreases.

  20. Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1993-02-01

    Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60[degree]C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO[sub 4] in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.