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Sample records for mobile robot speed

  1. Automatic Welding System Using Speed Controllable Autonomous Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewon; Suto, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Junya; Kim, Jongcheol; Suga, Yasuo

    A prototype of autonomous mobile robot with two vision sensors for automatic welding of steel plates was constructed. The robot can move straight, steer and turn around the robot center by controlling the driving speed of the two wheels respectively. At the tip of the movable arm, two CCD cameras are fixed. A local camera observes the welding line near the welding torch and another wide camera observes relatively wide area in front of the welding part. The robot controls the traveling speed in accordance with the shape of the welding line. In the case of straight welding line, the speed of the robot is accelerated and the welding efficiency is improved. However, if the robot finds a corner of welding line, the speed is decelerated in order to realize the precise seam tracking and stable welding. Therefore, the robot can realize precise and high speed seam-tracking by controlling the travel speed. The effectiveness of the control system is confirmed by welding experiments.

  2. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  3. Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has created codes that ensure that a robot will come to a stop at a precise, specified distance from any obstacle regardless of the robot's initial speed, its physical characteristics, and the responsiveness of the low-level motor control schema. This Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots system iteratively adjusts the robot's action in response to information about the robot's environment.

  4. Speed Control of a Sonar-Based Mobile Robot by Considering the Limitation of Accelerated Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emaru, Takanori; Hoshino, Yohei; Kobayashi, Yukinori

    In an autonomous mobile robot, ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) ranging systems are widely used for distance measurements. However, ultrasonic TOF ranging systems tend to neglect infinitesimal reflected waves below a threshold level. Therefore, we have proposed an integration-type ultrasonic wave sensor that utilizes the integration value of the sonar's reflected wave to recognize a traversable area for an autonomous mobile robot. The proposed method simultaneously determines the path and velocity; however, the calculated velocity varies significantly because of sensor noise or error. This paper presents a novel approach to filter the velocity by considering the accelerated velocity. This enables us to consider the limitation of the force exerted by the robot. The validity of the proposed method is investigated in various environments by applying this method to an autonomous mobile robot.

  5. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  6. Teleautonomous guidance for mobile robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borenstein, J.; Koren, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Teleautonomous guidance (TG), a technique for the remote guidance of fast mobile robots, has been developed and implemented. With TG, the mobile robot follows the general direction prescribed by an operator. However, if the robot encounters an obstacle, it autonomously avoids collision with that obstacle while trying to match the prescribed direction as closely as possible. This type of shared control is completely transparent and transfers control between teleoperation and autonomous obstacle avoidance gradually. TG allows the operator to steer vehicles and robots at high speeds and in cluttered environments, even without visual contact. TG is based on the virtual force field (VFF) method, which was developed earlier for autonomous obstacle avoidance. The VFF method is especially suited to the accommodation of inaccurate sensor data (such as that produced by ultrasonic sensors) and sensor fusion, and allows the mobile robot to travel quickly without stopping for obstacles.

  7. Networking a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Gerard T.

    1994-10-01

    Conventional mobile robotic systems are `stand alone'. Program development involves loading programs into the mobile, via an umbilical. Autonomous operation, in this context, means `isolation': the user cannot interact with the program as the robot is moving around. Recent research in `swarm robotics' has exploited wireless networks as a means of providing inter- robot communication, but the population is still isolated from the human user. In this paper we report on research we are conducting into the provision of mobile robots as resources on a local area computer network, and thus breaking the isolation barrier. We are making use of new multimedia workstation and wireless networking technology to link the robots to the network in order to provide a new type of resource for the user. We model the robot as a set of resources and propose a client-server architecture as the basis for providing user access to the robots. We describe the types of resources each robot can provide and we outline the potential for cooperative robotics, human-robot cooperation, and teleoperation and autonomous robot behavior within this context.

  8. Analysis of the kinematic characteristics of a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion: Mobility, kinematics, and singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study introduces a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion. This robot exhibits a promising prospect in realizing high-speed pick-andplace manipulation for packaging production lines. The robot has four identical limbs and a single platform. Its compact structure and single-platform concept provides this robot with good dynamic response potential. A line graph method based on Grassmann line geometry is used to investigate the mobility characteristics of the proposed robot. A generalized Blanding rule is also introduced into this procedure to realize mutual conversion between the line graphs for motions and constraints. Subsequently, the inverse kinematics is derived, and the singularity issue of the robot is investigated using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Input and output transmission singularity indices are defined based on the reciprocal product in screw theory and the virtual coefficient by considering motion/force transmission performance. Thereafter, the singular loci of the proposed robot with specific geometric parameters are derived. The mobility analysis, inverse kinematics modeling, and singularity analysis conducted in this study are helpful in developing the robot.

  9. The Uranus Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Schematics 26 Wi List of Figures 1 Neptune and Pluto .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ... ... ... ... .... 2 2 Uranus...began building our first mobile robot, Pluto (see Figure 1 a). We envisioned Pluto as the ultimate indoor robot within the grasp of current technology...smooth arced trajectory while rotating about its center. This omni-directionality combined with very precise positioning would allow Pluto to easily

  10. Mobile robot knowledge base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath Pastore, Tracy; Barnes, Mitchell; Hallman, Rory

    2005-05-01

    Robot technology is developing at a rapid rate for both commercial and Department of Defense (DOD) applications. As a result, the task of managing both technology and experience information is growing. In the not-to-distant past, tracking development efforts of robot platforms, subsystems and components was not too difficult, expensive, or time consuming. To do the same today is a significant undertaking. The Mobile Robot Knowledge Base (MRKB) provides the robotics community with a web-accessible, centralized resource for sharing information, experience, and technology to more efficiently and effectively meet the needs of the robot system user. The resource includes searchable information on robot components, subsystems, mission payloads, platforms, and DOD robotics programs. In addition, the MRKB website provides a forum for technology and information transfer within the DOD robotics community and an interface for the Robotic Systems Pool (RSP). The RSP manages a collection of small teleoperated and semi-autonomous robotic platforms, available for loan to DOD and other qualified entities. The objective is to put robots in the hands of users and use the test data and fielding experience to improve robot systems.

  11. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  12. Autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Mattaboni, P.J.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes a mobile robot of the type having (a) a vision system, (b) memory means for storing data derived from the robot vision system, and (c) a computer for processing data derived from the robot's vision system, the improvement wherein the robot's vision system comprises (i) a first array of ranging transducers for obtaining data on the position and distance of far objects in a volume of space, the transducers of the first array being symmetrically disposed on the mobile robot with respect to an axis of symmetry within the mobile robot. Each transducer of the first array is fixed in position with respect to that axis of symmetry and sees a portion of the volume of space seen by its entire array; (ii) a second array of ranging transducers for obtaining data of the position and distance of near objects in the same or an overlapping volume of space, the transducers of the second array being symmetrically disposed on the mobile robot with respect to the axis of symmetry. Each transducer of the second array is fixed in position with respect to the axis of symmetry and sees a portion of the volume of space seen by its entire array, the angle of view of the transducers of the second array being different from the angle of view of the transducers of the first array with respect to the same object in space; and (iii) means for polling the ranging transducers in sequences determined by the computer.

  13. Semiautonomous navigation of mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Johan; Hogstrom, Thomas; Wernersson, Ake V.

    1995-01-01

    The paper is on operations for semi-autonomous mobile robots. The robot is assumed to be remotely controlled by an operator. It is difficult for an operator to directly control the robot, especially over a communication link with low bandwidth and/or time delays. Therefore it is necessary to close the control loop in the robot with the operator giving high level commands. The operator is still needed as the fully autonomous robot does not exist today, except for limited scenarios. The scene around the robot is sensed using a scanning range measuring laser and a camera. The high level scene interpretation is done by the operator who also does the high level planning. Which operations the robot are to perform is indicated by pointing in the images or in a map created by the robot. Operations are functions that the robot can perform autonomously. They can be simple, like `Travel 2 m ahead', or more advanced, like `Follow the corridor and take the first door to the right'. Some typical operations are: (1) Lock the heading of the robot when driving on a `straight' line and preprogrammed 90 and 180 turns. (2) Automatically enter a camera defined line; the direction of the camera is used to drop a new coordinate frame at any time (using a knob on the keyboard). The robot will automatically enter this new line and also compensate for the overshoot. (3) Travelling along corridors. The operation is both robust and precise. The precision is about 1 cm at 1 m/s and the robot is not disturbed by people passing it in the corridor. (4) Command for passage through a door works within 1 cm and 0.5 degrees at a speed of 0.5 m/s. The range weighted Hough Transform on laser measurements extracts the walls in an indoor environment. This is used to create an internal map in the robot which is used for operations like corridor following or passing through doors. The map is also useful when presenting information to the operator.

  14. Integrated mobile-robot design

    SciTech Connect

    Kortenkamp, D.; Huber, M.; Cohen, C.; Raschke, U.; Bidlack, C.; Congdon, C.B.; Koss, F.; Weymouth, T.

    1993-08-01

    Ten mobile robots entered the AAAI '92 Robot Competition, held at last year's national conference. Carmel, the University of Michigan entry, won. The competition consisted of three stages. The first stage required roaming a 22[times]22-meter arena while avoiding static and dynamic obstacles; the second involved searching for and visiting 10 objects in the same arena. The obstacles were at least 1.5 meters apart, while the objects were spaced roughly evenly throughout the arena. Visiting was defined as moving to within two robot diameters of the object. The last stage was a timed race to visit three of the objects located earlier and return home. Since the first stage was primarily a subset of the second-stage requirements, and the third-stage implementation was very similar to that of the second, the authors' focus here on the second stage. Carmel (Computer-Aided Robotics for Maintenance, Emergency, and Life support) is based on a commercially available Cybermotion K2A mobile-robot platform. It has a top speed of approximately 800 millimeters per second and moves on three synchronously driven wheels. For sensing, Carmel, has a ring of 24 Polaroid sonar sensors and a single black-and-white charge-coupled-device camera mounted on a rotating table. Carmel has three processors: one controls the drive motors, one fires the sonar ring, and the third, a 486-based PC clone, executes all the high-level modules. The 486 also has a frame grabber for acquiring images. All computation and power are contained on-board.

  15. Mobile robot sense net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  16. An autonomous vision-based mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Eric Thomas

    This dissertation describes estimation and control methods for use in the development of an autonomous mobile robot for structured environments. The navigation of the mobile robot is based on precise estimates of the position and orientation of the robot within its environment. The extended Kalman filter algorithm is used to combine information from the robot's drive wheels with periodic observations of small, wall-mounted, visual cues to produce the precise position and orientation estimates. The visual cues are reliably detected by at least one video camera mounted on the mobile robot. Typical position estimates are accurate to within one inch. A path tracking algorithm is also developed to follow desired reference paths which are taught by a human operator. Because of the time-independence of the tracking algorithm, the speed that the vehicle travels along the reference path is specified independent from the tracking algorithm. The estimation and control methods have been applied successfully to two experimental vehicle systems. Finally, an analysis of the linearized closed-loop control system is performed to study the behavior and the stability of the system as a function of various control parameters.

  17. Learning for intelligent mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Liao, Xiaoqun; Alhaj Ali, Souma M.

    2003-10-01

    Unlike intelligent industrial robots which often work in a structured factory setting, intelligent mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. However, such machines have many potential applications in medicine, defense, industry and even the home that make their study important. Sensors such as vision are needed. However, in many applications some form of learning is also required. The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion of recent technical advances in learning for intelligent mobile robots. During the past 20 years, the use of intelligent industrial robots that are equipped not only with motion control systems but also with sensors such as cameras, laser scanners, or tactile sensors that permit adaptation to a changing environment has increased dramatically. However, relatively little has been done concerning learning. Adaptive and robust control permits one to achieve point to point and controlled path operation in a changing environment. This problem can be solved with a learning control. In the unstructured environment, the terrain and consequently the load on the robot"s motors are constantly changing. Learning the parameters of a proportional, integral and derivative controller (PID) and artificial neural network provides an adaptive and robust control. Learning may also be used for path following. Simulations that include learning may be conducted to see if a robot can learn its way through a cluttered array of obstacles. If a situation is performed repetitively, then learning can also be used in the actual application. To reach an even higher degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. Recently learning theories such as the adaptive critic have been proposed. In this type of learning a critic provides a grade to the controller of an action module such as a robot. The creative control process is used that is "beyond the adaptive critic." A

  18. ARIES: A mobile robot inspector

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) is a mobile robot inspection system being developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) to survey and inspect drums containing mixed and low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at DOE facilities. The drums are typically stacked four high and arranged in rows with three-foot aisle widths. The robot will navigate through the aisles and perform an autonomous inspection operation, typically performed by a human operator. It will make real-time decisions about the condition of the drums, maintain a database of pertinent information about each drum, and generate reports.

  19. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  20. Motion vision for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrb, Matthieu

    The problem of using computer vision in mobile robots is dealt with. The datacube specialized cards and a parallel machine using a transputer network are studied. The tracking and localization of a three dimensional object in a sequence of images is examined, using first order prediction of the motion in the image plane and verification by a maximal clique search in the graph of mutually compatible matchings. A dynamic environment modeling module, using numerical fusion between trinocular stereovision and tracking of stereo matched primitives is presented. The integration of this perception system in the control architecture of a mobile robot is examined to achieve various functions, such as vision servo motion and environment modeling. The functional units implementing vision tasks and the data exchanged with other units are outlined. Experiments realized with the mobile robot Hilare 1.5 allowed the proposed algorithms and concepts to be validated.

  1. Coordinated Control Of Mobile Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1995-01-01

    Computationally efficient scheme developed for on-line coordinated control of both manipulation and mobility of robots that include manipulator arms mounted on mobile bases. Applicable to variety of mobile robotic manipulators, including robots that move along tracks (typically, painting and welding robots), robots mounted on gantries and capable of moving in all three dimensions, wheeled robots, and compound robots (consisting of robots mounted on other robots). Theoretical basis discussed in several prior articles in NASA Tech Briefs, including "Increasing the Dexterity of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801), "Redundant Robot Can Avoid Obstacles" (NPO-17852), "Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities" (NPO-18556), "More Uses for Configuration Control of Robots" (NPO-18607/NPO-18608).

  2. [Mobile autonomous robots-Possibilities and limits].

    PubMed

    Maehle, E; Brockmann, W; Walthelm, A

    2002-02-01

    Besides industrial robots, which today are firmly established in production processes, service robots are becoming more and more important. They shall provide services for humans in different areas of their professional and everyday environment including medicine. Most of these service robots are mobile which requires an intelligent autonomous behaviour. After characterising the different kinds of robots the relevant paradigms of intelligent autonomous behaviour for mobile robots are critically discussed in this paper and illustrated by three concrete examples of robots realized in Lübeck. In addition a short survey of actual kinds of surgical robots as well as an outlook to future developments is given.

  3. Mobile autonomous robot for radiological surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Wagner, D.G.; Teese, G.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The robotics development group at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is developing a mobile autonomous robot that performs radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot is called SIMON, which stands for Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator. Certain areas of SRL are classified as radiologically controlled areas (RCAs). In an RCA, radioactive materials are frequently handled by workers, and thus, the potential for contamination is ever present. Current methods used for floor radiological surveying includes labor-intensive manual scanning or random smearing of certain floor locations. An autonomous robot such as SIMON performs the surveying task in a much more efficient manner and will track down contamination before it is contacted by humans. SIMON scans floors at a speed of 1 in./s and stops and alarms upon encountering contamination. Its environment is well defined, consisting of smooth building floors with wide corridors. The kind of contaminations that SIMON is capable of detecting are alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels of interest are low to moderate.

  4. Mobile Robot Positioning - Sensors and Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems Mobile Robots.” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 11, No. 3, June, pp. 328-342. 4. Battin, R. H., 1987...Results from Internal Odometry Error Correction With the OmniMate Mobile Platform." Submitted to the IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, July 1996

  5. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  6. Mobile autonomous robotic apparatus for radiologic characterization

    DOEpatents

    Dudar, A.M.; Ward, C.R.; Jones, J.D.; Mallet, W.R.; Harpring, L.J.; Collins, M.X.; Anderson, E.K.

    1999-08-10

    A mobile robotic system is described that conducts radiological surveys to map alpha, beta, and gamma radiation on surfaces in relatively level open areas or areas containing obstacles such as stored containers or hallways, equipment, walls and support columns. The invention incorporates improved radiation monitoring methods using multiple scintillation detectors, the use of laser scanners for maneuvering in open areas, ultrasound pulse generators and receptors for collision avoidance in limited space areas or hallways, methods to trigger visible alarms when radiation is detected, and methods to transmit location data for real-time reporting and mapping of radiation locations on computer monitors at a host station. A multitude of high performance scintillation detectors detect radiation while the on-board system controls the direction and speed of the robot due to pre-programmed paths. The operators may revise the preselected movements of the robotic system by ethernet communications to remonitor areas of radiation or to avoid walls, columns, equipment, or containers. The robotic system is capable of floor survey speeds of from 1/2-inch per second up to about 30 inches per second, while the on-board processor collects, stores, and transmits information for real-time mapping of radiation intensity and the locations of the radiation for real-time display on computer monitors at a central command console. 4 figs.

  7. Mobile autonomous robotic apparatus for radiologic characterization

    DOEpatents

    Dudar, Aed M.; Ward, Clyde R.; Jones, Joel D.; Mallet, William R.; Harpring, Larry J.; Collins, Montenius X.; Anderson, Erin K.

    1999-01-01

    A mobile robotic system that conducts radiological surveys to map alpha, beta, and gamma radiation on surfaces in relatively level open areas or areas containing obstacles such as stored containers or hallways, equipment, walls and support columns. The invention incorporates improved radiation monitoring methods using multiple scintillation detectors, the use of laser scanners for maneuvering in open areas, ultrasound pulse generators and receptors for collision avoidance in limited space areas or hallways, methods to trigger visible alarms when radiation is detected, and methods to transmit location data for real-time reporting and mapping of radiation locations on computer monitors at a host station. A multitude of high performance scintillation detectors detect radiation while the on-board system controls the direction and speed of the robot due to pre-programmed paths. The operators may revise the preselected movements of the robotic system by ethernet communications to remonitor areas of radiation or to avoid walls, columns, equipment, or containers. The robotic system is capable of floor survey speeds of from 1/2-inch per second up to about 30 inches per second, while the on-board processor collects, stores, and transmits information for real-time mapping of radiation intensity and the locations of the radiation for real-time display on computer monitors at a central command console.

  8. Survey of Mobile Robots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    STANDARDS-1963-A IMY Techical Report ND. 450-90G-1R-ODWa p. 00 SURVEY OF MOBLE ROBOTS ’ Anita N& Flym Research Scientist !; "IT Artificlal Intelligence...case of an attempt at system building before the technology for the components was available. 1.3 The Stanford Cart 1973-1981 From 1973 to 1981, work...autonomous and yet still exhibit a high level of sophistication. Rapidly changing technology , including both the advent of the home computer and

  9. Certainty grids for mobile robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moravec, H. P.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical representation of uncertain and incomplete sensor knowledge called Certainty Grids has been used successfully in several mobile robot control programs, and has proven itself to be a powerful and efficient unifying solution for sensor fusion, motion planning, landmark identification, and many other central problems. Researchers propose to build a software framework running on processors onboard the new Uranus mobile robot that will maintain a probabilistic, geometric map of the robot's surroundings as it moves. The certainty grid representation will allow this map to be incrementally updated in a uniform way from various sources including sonar, stereo vision, proximity and contact sensors. The approach can correctly model the fuzziness of each reading, while at the same time combining multiple measurements to produce sharper map features, and it can deal correctly with uncertainties in the robot's motion. The map will be used by planning programs to choose clear paths, identify locations (by correlating maps), identify well-known and insufficiently sensed terrain, and perhaps identify objects by shape. The certainty grid representation can be extended in the same dimension and used to detect and track moving objects.

  10. Communications Systems for Mobile Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Futterman, J A; Pao, H

    2003-12-08

    Performance Confirmation is the activity by which the Yucca Mountain Project confirms that the engineered and natural containment barriers of this national nuclear waste repository are performing as predicted, so that an eventual decision to close the repository can be made. This activity involves systems that must be inspected and, in some cases, serviced by mobile robots. This paper discusses systems for underground mobile robot communications, including requirements, environments, options, issues, and down-select criteria. We reviewed a variety of systems, including Slotted Waveguide, Powerline Carrier, Leaky Feeder, Photonic Bandgap Fiber, Free-Space Optics, Millimeter Waves, Terahertz Systems, and RF Systems (including IEEE 802.11 a,b, and g, and Ultra-Wideband radio).

  11. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    SciTech Connect

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  12. Mobile robotics research at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-09-01

    Sandia is a National Security Laboratory providing scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs for both government and industry. As part of this mission, the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center conducts research and development in robotics and intelligent machine technologies. An overview of Sandia`s mobile robotics research is provided. Recent achievements and future directions in the areas of coordinated mobile manipulation, small smart machines, world modeling, and special application robots are presented.

  13. The Terregator Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Configuration 17 4.3 Locomotor 19 4.3.1 Base Frame 20 4.3.2 Motors and Drive Train 21 4.3.3 Roll Frame 25 4.3.4 Rack Mount Enclosure 26 4.4 On-Board...Constraints The Terregator, designed to support various sensors, supplies a mounting surface on the maneuverable base vehicle. The real-time computer...mobile base to deploy and develop these navigation modes. The vehicle, therefore, had to supply a mounting surface on a maneuverable base vehicle; but

  14. Adaptive mobility for rescue robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blitch, John G.

    2003-09-01

    It has often been observed that the most daunting aspect of any crisis response is managing the "unknown unknowns" that inevitably plague incident commanders and emergency personnel at all levels responsible for life and death decisions on a minute by minute basis. In structural collapse situations, for example, rescue crews rarely have even a coarse picture of the number or disposition of people or material scattered amongst the twisted beams and piles of concrete that typically entomb would-be survivors. How can the incident commander decide which beam to lift or even which section of the building to search first in the absence of information of what lies beneath. Even the slightest tug on a concrete slab can collapse potential life harboring void spaces below killing potential survivors in the process. In deploying mobile robots to assist in rescue operations we combined the traditional advantages of machine immunity to fatigue, hazardous materials and environmental controls, with the mechanical design freedom that allowed small platforms to penetrate deep into rubble to expand both situational awareness and operational influence of rescue services at the World Trade Center and mountainous snow-bound caves in Afghanistan. We learned a great deal from these experiences with regard to robot emloyment and design. This paper endeavors to share a few of our more prominent lessons learned regarding portable robot mobility as a means to manage user expectations and stimulate more innovative and adaptive design.

  15. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  16. Portable control device for networked mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Feddema, John T.; Byrne, Raymond H.; Bryan, Jon R.; Harrington, John J.; Gladwell, T. Scott

    2002-01-01

    A handheld control device provides a way for controlling one or multiple mobile robotic vehicles by incorporating a handheld computer with a radio board. The device and software use a personal data organizer as the handheld computer with an additional microprocessor and communication device on a radio board for use in controlling one robot or multiple networked robots.

  17. Modular Track System For Positioning Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual system for positioning mobile robotic manipulators on large main structure includes modular tracks and ancillary structures assembled easily along with main structure. System, called "tracked robotic location system" (TROLS), originally intended for application to platforms in outer space, but TROLS concept might also prove useful on Earth; for example, to position robots in factories and warehouses. T-cross-section rail keeps mobile robot on track. Bar codes mark locations along track. Each robot equipped with bar-code-recognizing circuitry so it quickly finds way to assigned location.

  18. Link Quality Estimator for a Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    several years. This is especially true for Explosive Ordnance Disposal ( EOD ) teams that use robots to investigate and neutralize Improvised Explosive...LINK QUALITY ESTIMATOR FOR A MOBILE ROBOT Narek Pezeshkian, Joseph D. Neff, and Abraham Hart SPAWAR Systems Center, Pacific, San Diego, CA 92152...narek.pezeshkian@navy.mil Keywords: Link Quality: Video Quality: Estimator: Metric: Mobile Robot Abstract: Maintaining link connectivity between a

  19. Ecological Interfaces for Improving Mobile Robot Teleoperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS , VOL. 23, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007 927 Ecological Interfaces for Improving Mobile Robot Teleoperation Curtis W. Nielsen...928 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS , VOL. 23, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007 technologies in the user studies, while Section VI concludes the paper and summarizes...done by 930 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS , VOL. 23, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007 Fig. 2. Ecological paradigm combines information into a single integrated display

  20. A dragline-forming mobile robot inspired by spiders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyu; Culha, Utku; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-03-01

    Mobility of wheeled or legged machines can be significantly increased if they are able to move from a solid surface into a three-dimensional space. Although that may be achieved by addition of flying mechanisms, the payload fraction will be the limiting factor in such hybrid mobile machines for many applications. Inspired by spiders producing draglines to assist locomotion, the paper proposes an alternative mobile technology where a robot achieves locomotion from a solid surface into a free space. The technology resembles the dragline production pathway in spiders to a technically feasible degree and enables robots to move with thermoplastic spinning of draglines. As an implementation, a mobile robot has been prototyped with thermoplastic adhesives as source material of the draglines. Experimental results show that a dragline diameter range of 1.17-5.27 mm was achievable by the 185 g mobile robot in descending locomotion from the solid surface of a hanging structure with a power consumption of 4.8 W and an average speed of 5.13 cm min(-1). With an open-loop controller consisting of sequences of discrete events, the robot has demonstrated repeatable dragline formation with a relative deviation within -4% and a length close to the metre scale.

  1. Automatic learning by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Killough, S.M.; Pin, F.G.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes recent research in automatic learning by the autonomous mobile robot HERMIES-IIB at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). By acting on the environment and observing the consequences during a set of training examples, the robot learns a sequence of successful manipulations on a simulated control panel. The robot learns to classify panel configurations in order to deal with new configurations that are not part of the original training set. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms

    DOEpatents

    Salton, Jonathan R [Albuquerque, NM; Buttz, James H [Albuquerque, NM; Garretson, Justin [Albuquerque, NM; Hayward, David R [Wetmore, CO; Hobart, Clinton G [Albuquerque, NM; Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K.

    2012-07-24

    A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

  3. Extensible Hardware Architecture for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Eric; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a new mobile robot hardware architecture designed for extensibility and reconfigurability. Currently implemented on the k9 rover. and won to be integrated onto the K10 series of human-robot collaboration research robots, this architecture allows for rapid changes in instrumentation configuration and provides a high degree of modularity through a synergistic mix of off-the-shelf and custom designed components, allowing eased transplantation into a wide vane6 of mobile robot platforms. A component level overview of this architecture is presented along with a description of the changes required for implementation on K10 , followed by plans for future work.

  4. Defining proprioceptive behaviors for autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, James L.; Hudas, Greg R.; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2002-07-01

    Proprioception is a sense of body position and movement that supports the control of many automatic motor functions such as posture and locomotion. This concept, normally relegated to the fields of neural physiology and kinesiology, is being utilized in the field of unmanned mobile robotics. This paper looks at developing proprioceptive behaviors for use in controlling an unmanned ground vehicle. First, we will discuss the field of behavioral control of mobile robots. Next, a discussion of proprioception and the development of proprioceptive sensors will be presented. We will then focus on the development of a unique neural-fuzzy architecture that will be used to incorporate the control behaviors coming directly from the proprioceptive sensors. Finally we will present a simulation experiment where a simple multi-sensor robot, utilizing both external and proprioceptive sensors, is presented with the task of navigating an unknown terrain to a known target position. Results of the mobile robot utilizing this unique fusion methodology will be discussed.

  5. Autonomous Navigation for Mobile Robots with Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, James; Johns, Edward; Valibeik, Salman; Wong, Charence; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    Dynamic and complex indoor environments present a challenge for mobile robot navigation. The robot must be able to simultaneously map the environment, which often has repetitive features, whilst keep track of its pose and location. This chapter introduces some of the key considerations for human guided navigation. Rather than letting the robot explore the environment fully autonomously, we consider the use of human guidance for progressively building up the environment map and establishing scene association, learning, as well as navigation and planning. After the guide has taken the robot through the environment and indicated the points of interest via hand gestures, the robot is then able to use the geometric map and scene descriptors captured during the tour to create a high-level plan for subsequent autonomous navigation within the environment. Issues related to gesture recognition, multi-cue integration, tracking, target pursuing, scene association and navigation planning are discussed.

  6. Multiple mobile robots real-time visual search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Caixia; Zhan, Qiang

    2010-08-01

    A multiple mobile robots visual real-time locating system is introduced, in which the global search algorithm and track search algorithm are combined together to identify the real-time position and orientation(pose) of multiple mobile robots. The switching strategy between the two algorithms is given to ensure the accuracy and improve retrieval speed. The grid search approach is used to identify target while searching globally. By checking the location in the previous frame, the maximum speed and the frame time interval, thus the track search can determine the area target robot may appear in the next frame. Then, a new search will be performed in the certain area. The global search is used if target robot is not found in the previous search otherwise track search will be used. With the experiment on the static and dynamic recognition of three robots, the search method here is proved to be high precise, fast, stable and easy to extend, all the design requirements can be well met.

  7. Tandem robot control system and method for controlling mobile robots in tandem

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.

    2002-01-01

    A control system for controlling mobile robots provides a way to control mobile robots, connected in tandem with coupling devices, to navigate across difficult terrain or in closed spaces. The mobile robots can be controlled cooperatively as a coupled system in linked mode or controlled individually as separate robots.

  8. Application of mobile robot localization using sonar

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.; Hill, K.H.

    1994-12-31

    A sonar-based mobile robot has been developed for inspection of low-level radioactive waste drums. An algorithm was developed which gives the robot the ability to refence itself to cylindrical objects. The drum-following algorithm has been demonstrated in 4-ft drum aisles at the Mobile Robotics Laboratory at the University of South Carolina. The final version has proven to be robust through extensive long-term navigation tests. Future enhancements will employ a narrow-aisle version of the Nav-master to allow navigation in 3-ft drum aisles. The final version of the inspection robot will include the drum-navigation algorithm as a low-level primitive instruction. The onboard management system will be dedicated to more of the high-level functions, such as planning, now provided by the offboard supervisory system.

  9. A Lane Following Mobile Robot Navigation System Using Mono Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yeongcheol; Kim, Seungwoo; Park, Seongkeun

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we develop a lane following mobile robot using mono camera. By using camera, robot can recognize its left and right side lane, and maintain the center line of robot track. We use Hough Transform for detecting lane, and PID controller for control direction of mobile robot. The validity of our robot system is performed in a real world robot track environment which is built up in our laboratory.

  10. Evolutionary neurocontrollers for autonomous mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Floreano, D; Mondada, F

    1998-10-01

    In this article we describe a methodology for evolving neurocontrollers of autonomous mobile robots without human intervention. The presentation, which spans from technological and methodological issues to several experimental results on evolution of physical mobile robots, covers both previous and recent work in the attempt to provide a unified picture within which the reader can compare the effects of systematic variations on the experimental settings. After describing some key principles for building mobile robots and tools suitable for experiments in adaptive robotics, we give an overview of different approaches to evolutionary robotics and present our methodology. We start reviewing two basic experiments showing that different environments can shape very different behaviours and neural mechanisms under very similar selection criteria. We then address the issue of incremental evolution in two different experiments from the perspective of changing environments and robot morphologies. Finally, we investigate the possibility of evolving plastic neurocontrollers and analyse an evolved neurocontroller that relies on fast and continuously changing synapses characterized by dynamic stability. We conclude by reviewing the implications of this methodology for engineering, biology, cognitive science and artificial life, and point at future directions of research.

  11. Intelligent modular manipulation for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culbertson, John

    2008-04-01

    As mobile robots continue to gain acceptance across a variety of applications within the defense and civilian markets, the number of tasks that these robot platforms are expected to accomplish are expanding. Robot operators are asked to do more with the same platforms - from EOD missions to reconnaissance and inspection operations. Due to the fact that a majority of missions are dangerous in nature, it is critical that users are able to make remote adjustments to the systems to ensure that they are kept out of harm's way. An efficient way to expand the capabilities of existing robot platforms, improve the efficiency of robot missions, and to ultimately improve the operator's safety is to integrate JAUS-enabled Intelligent Modular Manipulation payloads. Intelligent Modular Manipulation payloads include both simple and dexterous manipulator arms with plug-and-play end-effector tools that can be changed based on the specific mission. End-effectors that can be swapped down-range provide an added benefit of decreased time-on-target. The intelligence in these systems comes from semi-autonomous mobile manipulation actions that enable the robot operator to perform manipulation task with the touch of a button on the OCU. RE2 is supporting Unmanned Systems Interoperability by utilizing the JAUS standard as the messaging protocol for all of its manipulation systems. Therefore, they can be easily adapted and integrated onto existing JAUS-enabled robot platforms.

  12. SIR-1: An autonomous mobile sentry robot

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, J.J.; Klarer, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype mobile robot system configured to function as part of an overall security system at a high security facility. The features of this robot system include specialized software and sensors for navigation without the need for external locator beacons or sign posts, sensors for remote imaging and intruder detection, and data link facilities to communicate information either directly to an electronic security system or to a manned central control center. Other features of the robot system include low weight, compact size, and low power consumption. The robot system can operate either by remote manual control, or it can operate autonomously where the need for direct human control is limited to the global command level. The robot can act as a mobile remote sensing platform for visual alarm assessment or roving patrol, or as an exploratory device in situations potentially hazardous to humans. This robot system may also be used to walk-test intrusion detection sensors as part of a routine test and maintenance program for an interior intrusion detection system (IDS), and to provide a programmable, temporary sensor capability to backup an IDS sensor that has failed. This capability may also be used to provide improved sensor coverage of an area that will be secured on a temporary or short term basis, thereby eliminating the need for a permanent sensor installation. The hardware, software, and operation of this robot system are briefly described.

  13. SIR-1: An autonomous mobile sentry robot

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, J.J.; Klarer, P.R.

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes a prototype mobile robot system configured to function as part of an overall security system at a high security facility. The features of this robot system include specialized software and sensors for navigation without the need for external locator beacons or sign posts, sensors for remote imaging and intruder detection, and data link facilities to communicate information either directly to an electronic security system or to a manned central control center. Other features of the robot system include low weight, compact size, and low power consumption. The robot system can operate either by remote manual control, or it can operate autonomously where the need for direct human control is limited to the global command level. The robot can act as a mobile remote sensing platform for visual alarm assessment or roving patrol, or as an exploratory device in situations potentially hazardous to humans. This robot system may also be used to walk-test intrusion detection sensors as part of a routine test and maintenance program for an interior intrusion detection system (IDS), and to provide a programmable, temporary sensor capability to backup an IDS sensor that has failed. This capability may also be used to provide improved sensor coverage of an area that will be secured on a temporary or short term basis, thereby eliminating the need for a permanent sensor installation. The hardware, software, and operation of this robot system will be briefly described herein.

  14. Autonomous mobile robot for radiologic surveys

    DOEpatents

    Dudar, A.M.; Wagner, D.G.; Teese, G.D.

    1994-06-28

    An apparatus is described for conducting radiologic surveys. The apparatus comprises in the main a robot capable of following a preprogrammed path through an area, a radiation monitor adapted to receive input from a radiation detector assembly, ultrasonic transducers for navigation and collision avoidance, and an on-board computer system including an integrator for interfacing the radiation monitor and the robot. Front and rear bumpers are attached to the robot by bumper mounts. The robot may be equipped with memory boards for the collection and storage of radiation survey information. The on-board computer system is connected to a remote host computer via a UHF radio link. The apparatus is powered by a rechargeable 24-volt DC battery, and is stored at a docking station when not in use and/or for recharging. A remote host computer contains a stored database defining paths between points in the area where the robot is to operate, including but not limited to the locations of walls, doors, stationary furniture and equipment, and sonic markers if used. When a program consisting of a series of paths is downloaded to the on-board computer system, the robot conducts a floor survey autonomously at any preselected rate. When the radiation monitor detects contamination, the robot resurveys the area at reduced speed and resumes its preprogrammed path if the contamination is not confirmed. If the contamination is confirmed, the robot stops and sounds an alarm. 5 figures.

  15. A mobile autonomous robot for radiological surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Wagner, D.G.; Teese, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot (SIMON) to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A base, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It uses an ultrasonic ranging system for collision avoidance. In addition, two safety bumpers located in the front and the back of the robot will stop the robots motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robots motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/0 interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A.

  16. A mobile autonomous robot for radiological surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Wagner, D.G.; Teese, G.D.

    1992-10-01

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot (SIMON) to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A base, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It uses an ultrasonic ranging system for collision avoidance. In addition, two safety bumpers located in the front and the back of the robot will stop the robots motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robots motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/0 interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A.

  17. Autonomous mobile robot for radiologic surveys

    DOEpatents

    Dudar, Aed M.; Wagner, David G.; Teese, Gregory D.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for conducting radiologic surveys. The apparatus comprises in the main a robot capable of following a preprogrammed path through an area, a radiation monitor adapted to receive input from a radiation detector assembly, ultrasonic transducers for navigation and collision avoidance, and an on-board computer system including an integrator for interfacing the radiation monitor and the robot. Front and rear bumpers are attached to the robot by bumper mounts. The robot may be equipped with memory boards for the collection and storage of radiation survey information. The on-board computer system is connected to a remote host computer via a UHF radio link. The apparatus is powered by a rechargeable 24-volt DC battery, and is stored at a docking station when not in use and/or for recharging. A remote host computer contains a stored database defining paths between points in the area where the robot is to operate, including but not limited to the locations of walls, doors, stationary furniture and equipment, and sonic markers if used. When a program consisting of a series of paths is downloaded to the on-board computer system, the robot conducts a floor survey autonomously at any preselected rate. When the radiation monitor detects contamination, the robot resurveys the area at reduced speed and resumes its preprogrammed path if the contamination is not confirmed. If the contamination is confirmed, the robot stops and sounds an alarm.

  18. Mobile robot and mobile manipulator research towards ASTM standards development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Legowik, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Performance standards for industrial mobile robots and mobile manipulators (robot arms onboard mobile robots) have only recently begun development. Low cost and standardized measurement techniques are needed to characterize system performance, compare different systems, and to determine if recalibration is required. This paper discusses work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and within the ASTM Committee F45 on Driverless Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles. This includes standards for both terminology, F45.91, and for navigation performance test methods, F45.02. The paper defines terms that are being considered. Additionally, the paper describes navigation test methods that are near ballot and docking test methods being designed for consideration within F45.02. This includes the use of low cost artifacts that can provide alternatives to using relatively expensive measurement systems.

  19. Herbert: A Second Generation Mobile Robot.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    PROJECT. TASK S Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A WORK UNIT NUMBERS ’ ~ 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME...AD-AI93 632 WMRT: A SECOND GENERTION MOBILE ROWT(U) / MASSACHUSETTS IMST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB R BROOKS ET AL .JAN l8 Al-M...MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A. I. Memo 1016 January, 1988 HERBERT: A SECOND GENERATION MOBILE ROBOT Rodney A

  20. The design of mobile robot control system for the aged and the disabled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wang; Lei, Shi; Xiang, Gao; Jin, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper designs a control system of mobile robot for the aged and the disabled, which consists of two main parts: human-computer interaction and drive control module. The data of the two parts is transferred via universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter. In the former part, the speed and direction information of the mobile robot is obtained by hall joystick. In the latter part, the electronic differential algorithm is developed to implement the robot mobile function by driving two-wheel motors. In order to improve the comfort of the robot when speed or direction is changed, the least squares algorithm is used to optimize the speed characteristic curves of the two motors. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the designed system.

  1. Fuzzy Logic Based Control for Autonomous Mobile Robot Navigation.

    PubMed

    Omrane, Hajer; Masmoudi, Mohamed Slim; Masmoudi, Mohamed

    This paper describes the design and the implementation of a trajectory tracking controller using fuzzy logic for mobile robot to navigate in indoor environments. Most of the previous works used two independent controllers for navigation and avoiding obstacles. The main contribution of the paper can be summarized in the fact that we use only one fuzzy controller for navigation and obstacle avoidance. The used mobile robot is equipped with DC motor, nine infrared range (IR) sensors to measure the distance to obstacles, and two optical encoders to provide the actual position and speeds. To evaluate the performances of the intelligent navigation algorithms, different trajectories are used and simulated using MATLAB software and SIMIAM navigation platform. Simulation results show the performances of the intelligent navigation algorithms in terms of simulation times and travelled path.

  2. Fuzzy Logic Based Control for Autonomous Mobile Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Masmoudi, Mohamed Slim; Masmoudi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the implementation of a trajectory tracking controller using fuzzy logic for mobile robot to navigate in indoor environments. Most of the previous works used two independent controllers for navigation and avoiding obstacles. The main contribution of the paper can be summarized in the fact that we use only one fuzzy controller for navigation and obstacle avoidance. The used mobile robot is equipped with DC motor, nine infrared range (IR) sensors to measure the distance to obstacles, and two optical encoders to provide the actual position and speeds. To evaluate the performances of the intelligent navigation algorithms, different trajectories are used and simulated using MATLAB software and SIMIAM navigation platform. Simulation results show the performances of the intelligent navigation algorithms in terms of simulation times and travelled path. PMID:27688748

  3. Autonomous mobile robot research using the HERMIES-III robot

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Beckerman, M.; Spelt, P.F.; Robinson, J.T.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the status and future directions in the research, development and experimental validation of intelligent control techniques for autonomous mobile robots using the HERMIES-III robot at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced research (CESAR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). HERMIES-III is the fourth robot in a series of increasingly more sophisticated and capable experimental test beds developed at CESAR. HERMIES-III is comprised of a battery powered, onmi-directional wheeled platform with a seven degree-of-freedom manipulator arm, video cameras, sonar range sensors, laser imaging scanner and a dual computer system containing up to 128 NCUBE nodes in hypercube configuration. All electronics, sensors, computers, and communication equipment required for autonomous operation of HERMIES-III are located on board along with sufficient battery power for three to four hours of operation. The paper first provides a more detailed description of the HERMIES-III characteristics, focussing on the new areas of research and demonstration now possible at CESAR with this new test-bed. The initial experimental program is then described with emphasis placed on autonomous performance of human-scale tasks (e.g., valve manipulation, use of tools), integration of a dexterous manipulator and platform motion in geometrically complex environments, and effective use of multiple cooperating robots (HERMIES-IIB and HERMIES- III). The paper concludes with a discussion of the integration problems and safety considerations necessarily arising from the set-up of an experimental program involving human-scale, multi-autonomous mobile robots performance. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Robust performance of multiple tasks by a mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckerman, Martin; Barnett, Deanna L.; Dickens, Mike; Weisbin, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    While there have been many successful mobile robot experiments, only a few papers have addressed issues pertaining to the range of applicability, or robustness, of robotic systems. The purpose of this paper is to report results of a series of benchmark experiments done to determine and quantify the robustness of an integrated hardware and software system of a mobile robot.

  5. Redundant Sensors for Mobile Robot Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Robot Path Planning Sensors Nvgation Mal) Making 20 ABSTRACT (C.~tfn* On ~ e e14- Of Ro...ew drt Id-ifI ry Mock .abor) Re.dundant se-nsorc- aro ne-dod...on ariob-,il robot so that the accurac wi th;w~ it its surroundings can no increased. Sonar and i nfrarc d s n-or, art, u-s ci he r, in tandem, each...Iated Nork on Intelligent Mobile Robots 11 2 1 Shakc 19o71969 11 2 1c ic Propulsion i.b rmor) Mars Rover 1970-1973 15 2.3 11,: Stant(rd Girt 1973-1981

  6. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  7. Neurobiologically Inspired Mobile Robot Navigation and Planning

    PubMed Central

    Cuperlier, Nicolas; Quoy, Mathias; Gaussier, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    After a short review of biologically inspired navigation architectures, mainly relying on modeling the hippocampal anatomy, or at least some of its functions, we present a navigation and planning model for mobile robots. This architecture is based on a model of the hippocampal and prefrontal interactions. In particular, the system relies on the definition of a new cell type “transition cells” that encompasses traditional “place cells”. PMID:18958274

  8. Advances in learning for intelligent mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Xiaoqun S.; Alhaj Ali, Souma M.

    2004-10-01

    Intelligent mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths to accomplish a variety of tasks. Such machines have many potential useful applications in medicine, defense, industry and even the home so that the design of such machines is a challenge with great potential rewards. Even though intelligent systems may have symbiotic closure that permits them to make a decision or take an action without external inputs, sensors such as vision permit sensing of the environment and permit precise adaptation to changes. Sensing and adaptation define a reactive system. However, in many applications some form of learning is also desirable or perhaps even required. A further level of intelligence called understanding may involve not only sensing, adaptation and learning but also creative, perceptual solutions involving models of not only the eyes and brain but also the mind. The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion of recent technical advances in learning for intelligent mobile robots with examples of adaptive, creative and perceptual learning. The significance of this work is in providing a greater understanding of the applications of learning to mobile robots that could lead to important beneficial applications.

  9. Navigation and Control of a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 615- 620, (2000). [10] J. Guldner and...V. I. Utkin, �Sliding Mode Con- trol for Gradient Tracking and Robot Navigation Us- ing ArtiÞcial Potential Fields,� IEEE Transactions on Robotics and...P. Laumond, P. E. Jacobs, M. Taix, and R. M. Murray, �A Motion Planner for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots,� IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automa-

  10. Robotic mobile servicing platform for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, S. H.; Vanerden, L.

    1987-01-01

    The semi-autonomous inspection and servicing of the Space Station's major thermal, electrical, mechanical subsystems are critical needs for the safe and reliable operation of the station. A conceptual design is presented of a self-intelligent, small and highly mobile robotic platform. Equipped with suitable inspection sensors (cameras, ammonia detectors, etc.), this system's primary mission is to perform routine, autonomous inspection of the Station's primary subsystems. Typical tasks include detection of leaks from thermal fluid or refueling lines, as well as detection of micro-meteroid damage to the primary structure. Equipped with stereo cameras and a dexterous manipulator, simple teleoperator repairs and small On-orbit Replacement Unit (ORU) changeout can also be accomplished. More difficult robotic repairs would be left to the larger, more sophisticated Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS). An ancillary function is to ferry crew members and equipment around the station. The primary design objectives were to provide a flexible, but uncomplicated robotic platform, one which caused minimal impact to the design of the Station's primary structure but could accept more advanced telerobotic technology as it evolves.

  11. Autonomous Navigation by a Mobile Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    ROAMAN is a computer program for autonomous navigation of a mobile robot on a long (as much as hundreds of meters) traversal of terrain. Developed for use aboard a robotic vehicle (rover) exploring the surface of a remote planet, ROAMAN could also be adapted to similar use on terrestrial mobile robots. ROAMAN implements a combination of algorithms for (1) long-range path planning based on images acquired by mast-mounted, wide-baseline stereoscopic cameras, and (2) local path planning based on images acquired by body-mounted, narrow-baseline stereoscopic cameras. The long-range path-planning algorithm autonomously generates a series of waypoints that are passed to the local path-planning algorithm, which plans obstacle-avoiding legs between the waypoints. Both the long- and short-range algorithms use an occupancy-grid representation in computations to detect obstacles and plan paths. Maps that are maintained by the long- and short-range portions of the software are not shared because substantial localization errors can accumulate during any long traverse. ROAMAN is not guaranteed to generate an optimal shortest path, but does maintain the safety of the rover.

  12. Mobile robot navigation modulated by artificial emotions.

    PubMed

    Lee-Johnson, C P; Carnegie, D A

    2010-04-01

    For artificial intelligence research to progress beyond the highly specialized task-dependent implementations achievable today, researchers may need to incorporate aspects of biological behavior that have not traditionally been associated with intelligence. Affective processes such as emotions may be crucial to the generalized intelligence possessed by humans and animals. A number of robots and autonomous agents have been created that can emulate human emotions, but the majority of this research focuses on the social domain. In contrast, we have developed a hybrid reactive/deliberative architecture that incorporates artificial emotions to improve the general adaptive performance of a mobile robot for a navigation task. Emotions are active on multiple architectural levels, modulating the robot's decisions and actions to suit the context of its situation. Reactive emotions interact with the robot's control system, altering its parameters in response to appraisals from short-term sensor data. Deliberative emotions are learned associations that bias path planning in response to eliciting objects or events. Quantitative results are presented that demonstrate situations in which each artificial emotion can be beneficial to performance.

  13. Using real-time stereopsis for mobile robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasso, R. P.; Nishihara, H. K.

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes on-going work in using range and motion data generated at video-frame rates as the basis for long-range perception in a mobile robot. A current approach in the artificial intelligence community to achieve timecritical perception for situated reasoning is to use low-level perception for motor reflex-like activity and higher-level but more computationally intense perception for path planning reconnaissance and retrieval activities. Typically inclinometers and a compass or an infra-red beacon system provide stability and orientation maintenance and ultrasonic or infra-red sensors serve as proximity detectors for obstacle avoidance. For distant ranging and area occupancy determination active imaging systems such as laser scanners can be prohibitivtly expensive and heretofore passive systems typically performed more slowly than the cycle time of the control system causing the robot to halt periodically along its way. However a recent stereo system developed by Nishihara known as PRISM (Practical Real-time Imaging Stereo Matcher) matches stereo pairs using a sign-correlation technique that gives range and motion at video frame rates. We are integrating this technique with constant-time control software for distant ranging and object detection at a speed that is comparable with the cycle-times of the low-level sensors. Possibilities for a variety of uses in a leader-follower mobile robot situation are discussed.

  14. Robot speeds assays and enhances safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, P.F.; Powell, W.D.; Blankenship, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, a robotics system utilizing a gantry robot and an automated inventory system operates five calorimeters and two gamma isotopic assay instruments. This system has significantly improved safeguards, because the opportunity for diversion has been greatly reduced. Not only is the accountability much more timely because throughput has doubled but the special nuclear material has been made physically more secure in several ways. First, items awaiting assay are kept in the inventory system, whose doors remain locked whenever the robot is unattended. An alarm sounds if the doors are unlocked without authorization. Second, light curtains surround the robot's work envelope and pressure-sensitive pads cover the floor to detect entry into the assay area. Third, the robot weighs each item whenever it is moved, and the result is compared with the weight that was measured when the item was first put into inventory. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Mobile robots IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, Nov. 6, 7, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.J.; Chun, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on mobile robot systems discusses high-speed machine perception based on passive sensing, wide-angle optical ranging, three-dimensional path planning for flying/crawling robots, navigation of autonomous mobile intelligence in an unstructured natural environment, mechanical models for the locomotion of a four-articulated-track robot, a rule-based command language for a semiautonomous Mars rover, and a computer model of the structured light vision system for a Mars rover. Also discussed are optical flow and three-dimensional information for navigation, feature-based reasoning trail detection, a symbolic neural-net production system for obstacle avoidance and navigation, intelligent path planning for robot navigation in an unknown environment, behaviors from a hierarchical control system, stereoscopic TV systems, the REACT language for autonomous robots, and a man-amplifying exoskeleton.

  16. Full-state tracking control of a mobile robot using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, V Sree Krishna

    2005-10-01

    In this paper a nonholonomic mobile robot with completely unknown dynamics is discussed. A mathematical model has been considered and an efficient neural network is developed, which ensures guaranteed tracking performance leading to stability of the system. The neural network assumes a single layer structure, by taking advantage of the robot regressor dynamics that expresses the highly nonlinear robot dynamics in a linear form in terms of the known and unknown robot dynamic parameters. No assumptions relating to the boundedness is placed on the unmodeled disturbances. It is capable of generating real-time smooth and continuous velocity control signals that drive the mobile robot to follow the desired trajectories. The proposed approach resolves speed jump problem existing in some previous tracking controllers. Further, this neural network does not require offline training procedures. Lyapunov theory has been used to prove system stability. The practicality and effectiveness of the proposed tracking controller are demonstrated by simulation and comparison results.

  17. Indoor Mobile Robot Navigation by Central Following Based on Monocular Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Takeshi; Tada, Naoya; Konishi, Ryosuke

    This paper develops the indoor mobile robot navigation by center following based on monocular vision. In our method, based on the frontal image, two boundary lines between the wall and baseboard are detected. Then, the appearance based obstacle detection is applied. When the obstacle exists, the avoidance or stop movement is worked according to the size and position of the obstacle, and when the obstacle does not exist, the robot moves at the center of the corridor. We developed the wheelchair based mobile robot. We estimated the accuracy of the boundary line detection, and obtained fast processing speed and high detection accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our mobile robot by the stopping experiments with various obstacles and moving experiments.

  18. High Altitude Platforms Mobile Robotic Telesurgery (HAPsMRT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    improve soldier survival as well as decrease the cost and risk of delivering medical care. Remote robotic surgery , or telesurgery, has not been...Medical Center MEO Mid Earth Orbit MIM Mission Information Management Mbps Mega bits per second MOR Mobile Operating Room MRT Mobile Robotic ... Surgery NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NEEMO NASA Extreme Environments Mission Operations NIH National Institutes of Health

  19. SyRoTek--Distance Teaching of Mobile Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, M.; Chudoba, J.; Kosnar, K.; Krajnik, T.; Faigl, J.; Preucil, L.

    2013-01-01

    E-learning is a modern and effective approach for training in various areas and at different levels of education. This paper gives an overview of SyRoTek, an e-learning platform for mobile robotics, artificial intelligence, control engineering, and related domains. SyRoTek provides remote access to a set of fully autonomous mobile robots placed in…

  20. Characterization Parameters for a Three Degree of Freedom Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Robotic Crustacean NMEA National Marine Electronics Association NPS Naval Postgraduate School PID Proportional Integral Derivative xiii THIS PAGE...develop solutions to the mobility problem. The design of our platform, a Durable Au- tonomous Robotic Crustacean (DARc), was inspired by a crab’s mobility

  1. Sensor fusion for mobile robot navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, M.; Zhu, X.; Kalata, P.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review techniques for sensor fusion in robot navigation, emphasizing algorithms for self-location. These find use when the sensor suite of a mobile robot comprises several different sensors, some complementary and some redundant. Integrating the sensor readings, the robot seeks to accomplish tasks such as constructing a map of its environment, locating itself in that map, and recognizing objects that should be avoided or sought. The review describes integration techniques in two categories: low-level fusion is used for direct integration of sensory data, resulting in parameter and state estimates; high-level fusion is used for indirect integration of sensory data in hierarchical architectures, through command arbitration and integration of control signals suggested by different modules. The review provides an arsenal of tools for addressing this (rather ill-posed) problem in machine intelligence, including Kalman filtering, rule-based techniques, behavior based algorithms and approaches that borrow from information theory, Dempster-Shafer reasoning, fuzzy logic and neural networks. It points to several further-research needs, including: robustness of decision rules; simultaneous consideration of self-location, motion planning, motion control and vehicle dynamics; the effect of sensor placement and attention focusing on sensor fusion; and adaptation of techniques from biological sensor fusion.

  2. Autonomous environment modeling by a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutarlier, Philippe

    1991-02-01

    Internal geometric representation of the environment is considered. The autonomy of a mobile robot partly relies on its ability to build a reliable representation of its environment. On the other hand, an autonomous environment building process requires that model be adapted to plan motions and perception actions. Therefore, the modeling process must be a reversible interface between perception motion devices and the model itself. Several kinds of models are necessary in order to achieve an autonomous process. Sensors give stochastic information on the surface, navigation needs free-space representation, and perception planning requires aspect graphs. The functions of stochastic surface modeling, free space representation, and topological graph computing are presented through the integrated geometric model builder called 'Yaka.' Since all environment data uncertainties are correlated together through the robot location inaccuracy, classical filtering methods are inadequate. A method of computing a linear variance estimator, that is adapted to the problem, is proposed. This general formalism is validated by a large number of experimentation wherein the robot incrementally builds a surfacic representation of its environment. Free space cannot be deduced directly, at each step, from the surfacic data provided by the sensors. Innacuracies on object surfaces and uncertainties on the visibility of objects by the sensor as well as the possible motion of objects must all be taken into account for building the free space incrementally. Then, motion and perception planning for autonomous environment modeling are achieved using this free space model and topological location and aspect graphs.

  3. Meeting the challenges of installing a mobile robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decorte, Celeste

    1994-01-01

    The challenges of integrating a mobile robotic system into an application environment are many. Most problems inherent to installing the mobile robotic system fall into one of three categories: (1) the physical environment - location(s) where, and conditions under which, the mobile robotic system will work; (2) the technological environment - external equipment with which the mobile robotic system will interact; and (3) the human environment - personnel who will operate and interact with the mobile robotic system. The successful integration of a mobile robotic system into these three types of application environment requires more than a good pair of pliers. The tools for this job include: careful planning, accurate measurement data (as-built drawings), complete technical data of systems to be interfaced, sufficient time and attention of key personnel for training on how to operate and program the robot, on-site access during installation, and a thorough understanding and appreciation - by all concerned - of the mobile robotic system's role in the security mission at the site, as well as the machine's capabilities and limitations. Patience, luck, and a sense of humor are also useful tools to keep handy during a mobile robotic system installation. This paper will discuss some specific examples of problems in each of three categories, and explore approaches to solving these problems. The discussion will draw from the author's experience with on-site installations of mobile robotic systems in various applications. Most of the information discussed in this paper has come directly from knowledge learned during installations of Cybermotion's SR2 security robots. A large part of the discussion will apply to any vehicle with a drive system, collision avoidance, and navigation sensors, which is, of course, what makes a vehicle autonomous. And it is with these sensors and a drive system that the installer must become familiar in order to foresee potential trouble areas in the

  4. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  5. Mobile robot GPS/DR integrated navigation positioning technique research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingkun; Zhang, Yuanliang; Li, Bifu; Chong, Kil To

    2010-01-01

    GPS is widely used for global positioning system. But GPS signal is easily interrupted when it is used alone. DR (dead reckoning) can calculate the position of mobile robots by using direction and speed sensors. However, DR system error can accumulate over time due to the error of electronic compass and odometer sensors. So DR system can't be used separately for a long time. The integrated navigation system combined GPS with DR will effectively integrated advantages of these two systems, higher positioning precision and reliability. In this paper Kalman filter model for GPS/DR integrated navigation system is set up to filter the GPS and DR data. And then the outputs of Kalman filter are inputted to a BP neural network for training. BP neural network is employed to predict next sampling time GPS output and a new Kalman filter based data fusion method is proposed to do the navigation information fusion with encoders and compass system. Simulation is done to validate the proposed fusion method. The simulation result shows the potential of this fusion method for outside used mobile robot navigation. Finally experiments are done to validate the proposed fusion method.

  6. Mobile robot GPS/DR integrated navigation positioning technique research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingkun; Zhang, Yuanliang; Li, Bifu; Chong, Kil To

    2009-12-01

    GPS is widely used for global positioning system. But GPS signal is easily interrupted when it is used alone. DR (dead reckoning) can calculate the position of mobile robots by using direction and speed sensors. However, DR system error can accumulate over time due to the error of electronic compass and odometer sensors. So DR system can't be used separately for a long time. The integrated navigation system combined GPS with DR will effectively integrated advantages of these two systems, higher positioning precision and reliability. In this paper Kalman filter model for GPS/DR integrated navigation system is set up to filter the GPS and DR data. And then the outputs of Kalman filter are inputted to a BP neural network for training. BP neural network is employed to predict next sampling time GPS output and a new Kalman filter based data fusion method is proposed to do the navigation information fusion with encoders and compass system. Simulation is done to validate the proposed fusion method. The simulation result shows the potential of this fusion method for outside used mobile robot navigation. Finally experiments are done to validate the proposed fusion method.

  7. Mobile Robotics Activities in DOE Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Lujan; Jerry Harbour; John T. Feddema; Sharon Bailey; Jacob Barhen; David Reister

    2005-03-01

    This paper will briefly outline major activities in Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories focused on mobile platforms, both Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV’s) as well as Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV’s). The activities will be discussed in the context of the science and technology construct used by the DOE Technology Roadmap for Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM)1 published in 1998; namely, Perception, Reasoning, Action, and Integration. The activities to be discussed span from research and development to deployment in field operations. The activities support customers in other agencies. The discussion of "perception" will include hyperspectral sensors, complex patterns discrimination, multisensor fusion and advances in LADAR technologies, including real-world perception. "Reasoning" activities to be covered include cooperative controls, distributed systems, ad-hoc networks, platform-centric intelligence, and adaptable communications. The paper will discuss "action" activities such as advanced mobility and various air and ground platforms. In the RIM construct, "integration" includes the Human-Machine Integration. Accordingly the paper will discuss adjustable autonomy and the collaboration of operator(s) with distributed UGV’s and UAV’s. Integration also refers to the applications of these technologies into systems to perform operations such as perimeter surveillance, large-area monitoring and reconnaissance. Unique facilities and test beds for advanced mobile systems will be described. Given that this paper is an overview, rather than delve into specific detail in these activities, other more exhaustive references and sources will be cited extensively.

  8. Efficiency and Speed in Legged Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-22

    Alexander, Gregory Czerniak , Dr. Dave Bednarz and Sean Hadley, my co-authors on related conference publications. My committee members Professor C. J...2008) Bipedal Walkiing Army Science Conference. Orlando, FL. 102 Muench. P., Cheok, K. C., Czerniak , G., & Bednarz, D. (2009). Optimal Time and...Muench, P., Cheok, K.C., Czerniak , G., (2010) Optimal Powering Schemes for Legged Robotics. SPl£. Orlando, FL. NeIder. 1. A., and Mead, R. (1965). A

  9. Acoustic formation control for nonholonomic mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedus, Michael James

    Two leader-follower formation controllers are proposed for a group of nonholonomic mobile robots. Each controller is installed on the following robot and requires local sensory stimuli to move the follower into its formation's desired position. As a result, communication between robots is not necessary to maintain a desired formation. The first proposed controller utilizes range and bearing data from an acoustic sensor to move the follower into position. It assumes an acoustic source is attached to the leader and a stationary landmark. The second proposed controller is a landmark-less formation controller that assume two sources are attached to the leader, and the follower is equipped with an acoustic array and inertial sensor. Results show each controller exponentially reduces the tracking error to a steady-state level and can maintain stability, even in regions where the formation kinematics becomes singular. For two-dimensional passive arrays, a general method is described that ranks and selects multiple microphone configurations within the array that are likely to produce accurate position estimates. This method segments a two-dimensional array into various combinations and configurations of microphone pairs and flattens these configurations into one-dimension for comparison. Each configuration is ranked based on the microphones' spatial information (known a-priori) and incoming bearing estimates. These rankings select different microphone pair configurations, whose position estimates are combined in an adaptive weighted-average algorithm. Simulations and experimental results show that this method selects microphone configurations that provide the least position error. Through a fusion algorithm, which combines individual microphone pair data, an array's position accuracy can improve.

  10. Navigation strategies for multiple autonomous mobile robots moving in formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of deriving navigation strategies for a fleet of autonomous mobile robots moving in formation is considered. Here, each robot is represented by a particle with a spherical effective spatial domain and a specified cone of visibility. The global motion of each robot in the world space is described by the equations of motion of the robot's center of mass. First, methods for formation generation are discussed. Then, simple navigation strategies for robots moving in formation are derived. A sufficient condition for the stability of a desired formation pattern for a fleet of robots each equipped with the navigation strategy based on nearest neighbor tracking is developed. The dynamic behavior of robot fleets consisting of three or more robots moving in formation in a plane is studied by means of computer simulation.

  11. Embedded mobile farm robot for identification of diseased plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadistap, S. S.; Botre, B. A.; Pandit, Harshavardhan; Chandrasekhar; Rao, Adesh

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a mobile robot used in farms for identification of diseased plants. It puts forth two of the major aspects of robotics namely automated navigation and image processing. The robot navigates on the basis of the GPS (Global Positioning System) location and data obtained from IR (Infrared) sensors to avoid any obstacles in its path. It uses an image processing algorithm to differentiate between diseased and non-diseased plants. A robotic platform consisting of an ARM9 processor, motor drivers, robot mechanical assembly, camera and infrared sensors has been used. Mini2440 microcontroller has been used wherein Embedded linux OS (Operating System) is implemented.

  12. Steering control system for a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolli, Kaylan C.; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a steering mechanism for an autonomous mobile robot. The steering mechanism replaces a manually turned rack and pinion arrangement with a crank mechanism driven by a linear actuator that in turn is powered by a brushless dc motor. The system was modeled, analyzed, and redesigned to meet the requirements. A 486 computer through a 3-axis motion controller supervises the steering control. The steering motor is a brushless dc motor powered by three phase signals. It is run in current loop mode. The steering control system is supervised by a personal computer through a multi-axis motion controller. Testing of these systems has been done in the lab as well as on an outside test track with positive results.

  13. Mamdani Fuzzy System for Indoor Autonomous Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. K. A. Ahamed; Rashid, Razif; Elamvazuthi, I.

    2011-06-01

    Several control algorithms for autonomous mobile robot navigation have been proposed in the literature. Recently, the employment of non-analytical methods of computing such as fuzzy logic, evolutionary computation, and neural networks has demonstrated the utility and potential of these paradigms for intelligent control of mobile robot navigation. In this paper, Mamdani fuzzy system for an autonomous mobile robot is developed. The paper begins with the discussion on the conventional controller and then followed by the description of fuzzy logic controller in detail.

  14. Toward the Automated Synthesis of Cooperative Mobile Robot Teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    A current limitation in the real-world use of cooperating mobiIe robots is the difficulty in determining the proper team composition for a given robotic application. Present technology restricts the design and implementation of cooperative robot teams to the expertise of a robotics researcher, who has to develop robot teams on an application-specific basis. The objective of our research is to reduce the complexity of cooperative robotic systems through the development of a methodology that enables the automated synthesis of cooperative robot teams. We propose an approach to this problem that uses a combination of the theories of sensori-computational systems and information invariants, building on the earlier work of Donald, Rus, et al. We describe the notion of defining equivalence classes that serve as fundamental building blocks of more complex cooperative mobile robot behaviors. We postulate a methodology for framing mission requirements in terms of the goals and constraints of the problem, incorporating issues such as multi-robot interference, communication, control strategy, robot complexity, and so forth, into the mechanism. Our initial work restricts the robot application and design space to three multi-robot application domains we have previously studied and implemented: keeping formation, "mock" hazardous waste cleanup, and cooperative observation. This paper presents the foundational ideas upon which our approach to cooperative team design is based. Keywords: Cooperative behaviors, behavior synthesis, multi-robot learning

  15. Autonomous Mobile Platform for Research in Cooperative Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daemi, Ali; Pena, Edward; Ferguson, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a platform for research in cooperative mobile robotics. The structure and mechanics of the vehicles are based on R/C cars. The vehicle is rendered mobile by a DC motor and servo motor. The perception of the robot's environment is achieved using IR sensors and a central vision system. A laptop computer processes images from a CCD camera located above the testing area to determine the position of objects in sight. This information is sent to each robot via RF modem. Each robot is operated by a Motorola 68HC11E micro-controller, and all actions of the robots are realized through the connections of IR sensors, modem, and motors. The intelligent behavior of each robot is based on a hierarchical fuzzy-rule based approach.

  16. Mode Switching Control for Personal Mobility Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Noriaki; Sukigara, Kazutoshi; Kajima, Hideki; Yamaoka, Masaaki

    The present paper introduces a novel standing-up control strategy based on Initial Value Compensation (IVC) for a Personal Mobility Robot (PMR). PMRs, which are wheeled-inverted-pendulum-type mobility-assist devices, offer the following advantages: (1) they can turn at a point; (2) they can maintain a level seating posture on a slope; and (3) they have a smaller footprint than conventional electric wheelchairs with four wheels. On the other hand, the user must maintain the posture of the PMR by using additional assist wheels on the ground when mounting/dismounting the PMR and working while seated on the PMR. In order to satisfy these requirements, we propose the following approach. First, the PMR accelerates to lift its assist wheels off the ground and determines whether the assist wheels are in contact with the ground. The feedback controller is then switched to wheeled-inverted-pendulum mode using the proposed IVC. The proposed IVC is designed such that the transient responses are improved and the amplitude of the control input and the jerk component are suppressed, in order to reduce the shock felt by the driver. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been verified by conducting numerical simulations and experiments using a prototype PMR.

  17. Integrating Mobile Robotics and Vision with Undergraduate Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cielniak, G.; Bellotto, N.; Duckett, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of robotics education into an undergraduate Computer Science curriculum. The proposed approach delivers mobile robotics as well as covering the closely related field of Computer Vision and is directly linked to the research conducted at the authors' institution. The paper describes the most relevant details of…

  18. Concurrent algorithms for a mobile robot vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P.; Mann, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The application of computer vision to mobile robots has generally been hampered by insufficient on-board computing power. The advent of VLSI-based general purpose concurrent multiprocessor systems promises to give mobile robots an increasing amount of on-board computing capability, and to allow computation intensive data analysis to be performed without high-bandwidth communication with a remote system. This paper describes the integration of robot vision algorithms on a 3-dimensional hypercube system on-board a mobile robot developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The vision system is interfaced to navigation and robot control software, enabling the robot to maneuver in a laboratory environment, to find a known object of interest and to recognize the object's status based on visual sensing. We first present the robot system architecture and the principles followed in the vision system implementation. We then provide some benchmark timings for low-level image processing routines, describe a concurrent algorithm with load balancing for the Hough transform, a new algorithm for binary component labeling, and an algorithm for the concurrent extraction of region features from labeled images. This system analyzes a scene in less than 5 seconds and has proven to be a valuable experimental tool for research in mobile autonomous robots. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. A Contest-Oriented Project for Learning Intelligent Mobile Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; Su, Juing-Huei; Lee, Chyi-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    A contest-oriented project for undergraduate students to learn implementation skills and theories related to intelligent mobile robots is presented in this paper. The project, related to Micromouse, Robotrace (Robotrace is the title of Taiwanese and Japanese robot races), and line-maze contests was developed by the embedded control system research…

  20. An Autonomous Mobile Robot for Tsukuba Challenge: JW-Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Katsuharu; Kaji, Hirotaka; Negoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Makoto; Mizutani, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Tomoya; Nakamura, Katsu

    “Tsukuba Challenge” is the only of its kind to require mobile robots to work autonomously and safely on public walkways. In this paper, we introduce the outline of our robot “JW-Future”, developed for this experiment based on an electric wheel chair. Additionally, the significance of participation to such a technical trial is discussed from the viewpoint of industries.

  1. Modular control systems for teleoperated and autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadonoff, Mark B.; Parish, David W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss components of a modular hardware and software architecture for mobile robots that supports both teleoperation and autonomous control. The Modular Autonomous Robot System architecture enables rapid development of control systems for unmanned vehicles for a wide variety of commercial and military applications.

  2. Mars Exploration Rover mobility and robotic arm operational performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward; Maimone, Mark; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Yen, Jeng; Petras, Richard; Wilson, Reg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an actual instance of a practical human-robot system used on a NASA Mars rover mission that has been underway since January 2004 involving daily intercation between humans on Earth and mobile robots on Mars.

  3. ARK: Autonomous mobile robot in an industrial environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, S. B.; Jasiobedzki, P.; Jenkin, M.; Jepson, A.; Milios, E.; Down, B.; Service, J. R. R.; Terzopoulos, D.; Tsotsos, J.; Wilkes, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes research on the ARK (Autonomous Mobile Robot in a Known Environment) project. The technical objective of the project is to build a robot that can navigate in a complex industrial environment using maps with permanent structures. The environment is not altered in any way by adding easily identifiable beacons and the robot relies on naturally occurring objects to use as visual landmarks for navigation. The robot is equipped with various sensors that can detect unmapped obstacles, landmarks and objects. In this paper we describe the robot's industrial environment, it's architecture, a novel combined range and vision sensor and our recent results in controlling the robot in the real-time detection of objects using their color and in the processing of the robot's range and vision sensor data for navigation.

  4. Object detection techniques applied on mobile robot semantic navigation.

    PubMed

    Astua, Carlos; Barber, Ramon; Crespo, Jonathan; Jardon, Alberto

    2014-04-11

    The future of robotics predicts that robots will integrate themselves more every day with human beings and their environments. To achieve this integration, robots need to acquire information about the environment and its objects. There is a big need for algorithms to provide robots with these sort of skills, from the location where objects are needed to accomplish a task up to where these objects are considered as information about the environment. This paper presents a way to provide mobile robots with the ability-skill to detect objets for semantic navigation. This paper aims to use current trends in robotics and at the same time, that can be exported to other platforms. Two methods to detect objects are proposed, contour detection and a descriptor based technique, and both of them are combined to overcome their respective limitations. Finally, the code is tested on a real robot, to prove its accuracy and efficiency.

  5. Object Detection Techniques Applied on Mobile Robot Semantic Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Astua, Carlos; Barber, Ramon; Crespo, Jonathan; Jardon, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The future of robotics predicts that robots will integrate themselves more every day with human beings and their environments. To achieve this integration, robots need to acquire information about the environment and its objects. There is a big need for algorithms to provide robots with these sort of skills, from the location where objects are needed to accomplish a task up to where these objects are considered as information about the environment. This paper presents a way to provide mobile robots with the ability-skill to detect objets for semantic navigation. This paper aims to use current trends in robotics and at the same time, that can be exported to other platforms. Two methods to detect objects are proposed, contour detection and a descriptor based technique, and both of them are combined to overcome their respective limitations. Finally, the code is tested on a real robot, to prove its accuracy and efficiency. PMID:24732101

  6. Interaction dynamics of multiple mobile robots with simple navigation strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1989-01-01

    The global dynamic behavior of multiple interacting autonomous mobile robots with simple navigation strategies is studied. Here, the effective spatial domain of each robot is taken to be a closed ball about its mass center. It is assumed that each robot has a specified cone of visibility such that interaction with other robots takes place only when they enter its visibility cone. Based on a particle model for the robots, various simple homing and collision-avoidance navigation strategies are derived. Then, an analysis of the dynamical behavior of the interacting robots in unbounded spatial domains is made. The article concludes with the results of computer simulations studies of two or more interacting robots.

  7. Vibration suppression of speed-controlled robots with nonlinear control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscariol, Paolo; Gasparetto, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a simple nonlinear control strategy for the simultaneous position tracking and vibration damping of robots is presented. The control is developed for devices actuated by speed-controlled servo drives. The conditions for the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system are derived by ensuring its passivity. The capability of achieving improved trajectory tracking and vibration suppression is shown through experimental tests conducted on a three-axis Cartesian robot. The control is aimed to be compatible with most industrial applications given the simplicity of implementation, the reduced computational requirements, and the use of joint position as the only measured signal.

  8. Robust mobile robot localization: From single-robot uncertainties to multi-robot interdependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumeliotis, Stergios I.

    2000-10-01

    Robust localization is the problem of determining the position of a mobile robot with respect to a global or local frame of reference in the presence of sensor noise, uncertainties and potential failures. Previous work in this field has used Kalman filters to reduce the effects of sensor noise on updates of the vehicle position estimate or Bayesian multiple hypothesis to resolve the ambiguity associated with the identification of detected landmarks. This dissertation introduces a general framework for localization that subsumes both approaches in a single architecture and applies it to the general problem of localizing a mobile robot within a known environment. Odometric and/or inertial sensors are fused with data obtained from exteroceptive sensors. The approach is validated by solution of the "kidnapped robot" problem. The second problem treated in this dissertation concerns the common assumption that all sensors provide information at the same rate. This assumption is relaxed by allowing high rate noisy odometric or inertial data from kinetic sensors while absolute attitude and/or position data (e.g., from sun sensors) are obtained infrequently. We address the resulting observability limitation by incorporating a Smoother in the attitude estimation algorithm. Smoothing of the attitude estimates reduces the overall uncertainty and allows for longer traverses before a new absolute orientation measurement is required. Simulation examples also show the ability of this method to increase the accuracy of robot mapping. The third problem concerns multiple robots collaborating on a single task. In prior research with a group of, say M, robots the group localization problem is usually approached by independently solving M pose estimation problems. When collaboration among robots exists, current methods usually require that at least one member of the group holds a fixed position while visual contact with all the other members of the team is maintained. If these two

  9. A Mobile Service Robot for Life Science Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulenburg, Erik; Elkmann, Norbert; Fritzsche, Markus; Teutsch, Christian

    In this paper we presents a project that is developing a mobile service robot to assist users in biological and pharmaceutical laboratories by executing routine jobs such as filling and transporting microplates. A preliminary overview of the design of the mobile platform with a robotic arm is provided. Safety aspects are one focus of the project since the robot and humans will share a common environment. Hence, several safety sensors such as laser scanners, thermographie components and artificial skin are employed. These are described along with the approaches to object recognition.

  10. Verification hybrid control of a wheeled mobile robot and manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muszynska, Magdalena; Burghardt, Andrzej; Kurc, Krzysztof; Szybicki, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    In this article, innovative approaches to realization of the wheeled mobile robots and manipulator tracking are presented. Conceptions include application of the neural-fuzzy systems to compensation of the controlled system's nonlinearities in the tracking control task. Proposed control algorithms work on-line, contain structure, that adapt to the changeable work conditions of the controlled systems, and do not require the preliminary learning. The algorithm was verification on the real object which was a Scorbot - ER 4pc robotic manipulator and a Pioneer - 2DX mobile robot.

  11. Simulation and Experimental Elaboration of Acoustic Sensors for Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Wheeled mobile robot “ Argonaut -2” equipped with acoustic audition systems is shown on Fig. 1. The left picture shows the 1st release of a system, and the...2 RTO-MP-SET-092 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Figure 1: The “ Argonaut -2” Mobile Robot Equipped with Audition Sensors. 2.1...onboard part of control system is given on Fig. 2. Figure 2: Control System of a Robot “ Argonaut -2”. Simulation and Experimental Elaboration of

  12. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation.

    PubMed

    Almasri, Marwah; Elleithy, Khaled; Alajlan, Abrar

    2015-12-26

    Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot's wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot's movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes.

  13. Laser-Camera Vision Sensing for Spacecraft Mobile Robot Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Khalil, Ahmad S.; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    The advent of spacecraft mobile robots-free-flyng sensor platforms and communications devices intended to accompany astronauts or remotely operate on space missions both inside and outside of a spacecraft-has demanded the development of a simple and effective navigation schema. One such system under exploration involves the use of a laser-camera arrangement to predict relative positioning of the mobile robot. By projecting laser beams from the robot, a 3D reference frame can be introduced. Thus, as the robot shifts in position, the position reference frame produced by the laser images is correspondingly altered. Using normalization and camera registration techniques presented in this paper, the relative translation and rotation of the robot in 3D are determined from these reference frame transformations.

  14. Towards Principled Experimental Study of Autonomous Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Erann

    1995-01-01

    We review the current state of research in autonomous mobile robots and conclude that there is an inadequate basis for predicting the reliability and behavior of robots operating in unengineered environments. We present a new approach to the study of autonomous mobile robot performance based on formal statistical analysis of independently reproducible experiments conducted on real robots. Simulators serve as models rather than experimental surrogates. We demonstrate three new results: 1) Two commonly used performance metrics (time and distance) are not as well correlated as is often tacitly assumed. 2) The probability distributions of these performance metrics are exponential rather than normal, and 3) a modular, object-oriented simulation accurately predicts the behavior of the real robot in a statistically significant manner.

  15. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Lloyd, James W. (Inventor); Alahuzos, George A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm is presented. This robot inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  16. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Lloyd, James W.; Alahuzos, George A.

    1995-08-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm is presented. This robot inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  17. BALI development environment for small mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Willie Y.

    1995-12-01

    The design and prototyping of a development environment, called BALI, for a small robot, viz., the MIT 6.270 robot, is presented in this paper. BALI is being developed and used for research work using a 6.270-based robot. Building on the experience with IC (interactive-C) for programming the 6.270 robot and new technologies like Java, a more powerful and low cost robot development environment is possible. The goal of BALI is to provide a flexible, customizable, and extensible development environment so that robot researchers can quickly tailor BALI to their robots. Given that the 6.270 robot is really a building kit made up of LEGO blocks (or similar kinds of physical building blocks), the 68HC11-based motherboard, and a variety of sensors, BALI cannot be specially built for one 'instance' of the 6.270 robot. Rather the guiding principles for building BALI should be to provide the GUI (graphical user interface) 'primitives' from which one can assemble and build his or her development environment. Thus GUI primitives for displaying status information, sensor readings, robot orientation, and environment maps must be provided. Much of these primitives are already provided in Java. It is the robot-specific ones that have to be developed for BALI. The Java- like language that forms the core of BALI is the main focus of this paper.

  18. Visual world perception modeling and control of cooperative mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2003-10-01

    There has been a great interest in the recent years in visual coordination and target tracking for mobile robots cooperating in unstructured environments. This paper describes visual servo control techniques suitable for intelligent task planning of cooperative robots operating in unstructured environment. In this paper, we have considered a team of semi-autonomous robots controlled by a remote supervisory control system. We have presented an algorithm for visual position tracking of individual cooperative robots within their working environment. Initially, we present a technique suitable for visual servoing of a robot toward its landmark targets. Secondly, we present an image-processing technique that utilizes images from a remote surveillance camera for localization of the robots within the operational environment. In this algorithm, the surveillance camera can be either stationary or mobile. The supervisor control system keeps tracks of relative locations of individual robots and utilizes relative coordinate information of the robots to plan their cooperative activities. We presented some results of this research effort that illustrates effectiveness of the proposed algorithms for cooperative robotic systems visual team working and target tracking.

  19. Hands-free operation of a small mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    AMAI,WENDY A.; FAHRENHOLTZ,JILL C.; LEGER,CHRIS L.

    2000-03-14

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center of Sandia National laboratories has an ongoing research program in advanced user interfaces. As part of this research, promising new transduction devices, particularly hands-free devices, are being explored for the control of mobile and floor-mounted robotic systems. Brainwave control has been successfully demonstrated by other researchers in a variety of fields. In the research described here, Sandia developed and demonstrated a proof-of-concept brainwave-controlled mobile robot system. Preliminary results were encouraging. Additional work required to turn this into a reliable. fieldable system for mobile robotic control is identified. Used in conjunction with other controls, brainwave control could be an effective control method in certain circumstances.

  20. Online Tracking Control of Autonomous Mobile Robot Utilizing Optimal Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirakoso, Nobuto; Takizawa, Takahiro; Ishihara, Masaaki; Aoki, Kouzou

    In this study, the objective is to build a wheeled mobile robot which can move independently avoiding obstacles. To move autonomously, this robot is enabled to detect obstacles' shapes and conduct self-localization. Also, this robot can move by tracking trajectories designed by the robot itself, based on the information about the obstacles' shapes and the robot's position and attitude angle. The optimal trajectories which lead the robot to its destination are designed by using a unique optimization method. As convergent calculation is performed by setting the variables within a certain range in this proposed optimization method, the optimal solutions can be obtained approximately, even in cases where there is a difference between the number of input and output variables, and when the nonlinearity is strong with restraint conditions. In this thesis, the effectiveness of the optimal track designing method used is proven and the method deemed as appropriate.

  1. Object guided autonomous exploration for mobile robots in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Granda, Carlos; Choudhary, Siddarth; Rogers, John G.; Twigg, Jeff; Murali, Varun; Christensen, Henrik I.

    2014-06-01

    Autonomous mobile robotic teams are increasingly used in exploration of indoor environments. Accurate modeling of the world around the robot and describing the interaction of the robot with the world greatly increases the ability of the robot to act autonomously. This paper demonstrates the ability of autonomous robotic teams to find objects of interest. A novel feature of our approach is the object discovery and the use of it to augment the mapping and navigation process. The generated map can then be decomposed into semantic regions while also considering the distance and line of sight to anchor points. The advantage of this approach is that the robot can return a dense map of the region around an object of interest. The robustness of this approach is demonstrated in indoor environments with multiple platforms with the objective of discovering objects of interest.

  2. How do walkers avoid a mobile robot crossing their way?

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Christian; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Souères, Philippe; Crétual, Armel; Stasse, Olivier; Pettré, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Robots and Humans have to share the same environment more and more often. In the aim of steering robots in a safe and convenient manner among humans it is required to understand how humans interact with them. This work focuses on collision avoidance between a human and a robot during locomotion. Having in mind previous results on human obstacle avoidance, as well as the description of the main principles which guide collision avoidance strategies, we observe how humans adapt a goal-directed locomotion task when they have to interfere with a mobile robot. Our results show differences in the strategy set by humans to avoid a robot in comparison with avoiding another human. Humans prefer to give the way to the robot even when they are likely to pass first at the beginning of the interaction.

  3. Google glass-based remote control of a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Song; Wen, Xi; Li, Wei; Chen, Genshe

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to remote control of a mobile robot via a Google Glass with the multi-function and compact size. This wearable device provides a new human-machine interface (HMI) to control a robot without need for a regular computer monitor because the Google Glass micro projector is able to display live videos around robot environments. In doing it, we first develop a protocol to establish WI-FI connection between Google Glass and a robot and then implement five types of robot behaviors: Moving Forward, Turning Left, Turning Right, Taking Pause, and Moving Backward, which are controlled by sliding and clicking the touchpad located on the right side of the temple. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed Google Glass-based remote control system, we navigate a virtual Surveyor robot to pass a maze. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed control system achieves the desired performance.

  4. Infrared sensor system for mobile-robot positioning in intelligent spaces.

    PubMed

    Gorostiza, Ernesto Martín; Galilea, José Luis Lázaro; Meca, Franciso Javier Meca; Monzú, David Salido; Zapata, Felipe Espinosa; Puerto, Luis Pallarés

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to position a Mobile Robot in an Intelligent Space, and this paper presents a sensorial system for measuring differential phase-shifts in a sinusoidally modulated infrared signal transmitted from the robot. Differential distances were obtained from these phase-shifts, and the position of the robot was estimated by hyperbolic trilateration. Due to the extremely severe trade-off between SNR, angle (coverage) and real-time response, a very accurate design and device selection was required to achieve good precision with wide coverage and acceptable robot speed. An I/Q demodulator was used to measure phases with one-stage synchronous demodulation to DC. A complete set of results from real measurements, both for distance and position estimations, is provided to demonstrate the validity of the system proposed, comparing it with other similar indoor positioning systems.

  5. Infrared Sensor System for Mobile-Robot Positioning in Intelligent Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Gorostiza, Ernesto Martín; Galilea, José Luis Lázaro; Meca, Franciso Javier Meca; Monzú, David Salido; Zapata, Felipe Espinosa; Puerto, Luis Pallarés

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to position a Mobile Robot in an Intelligent Space, and this paper presents a sensorial system for measuring differential phase-shifts in a sinusoidally modulated infrared signal transmitted from the robot. Differential distances were obtained from these phase-shifts, and the position of the robot was estimated by hyperbolic trilateration. Due to the extremely severe trade-off between SNR, angle (coverage) and real-time response, a very accurate design and device selection was required to achieve good precision with wide coverage and acceptable robot speed. An I/Q demodulator was used to measure phases with one-stage synchronous demodulation to DC. A complete set of results from real measurements, both for distance and position estimations, is provided to demonstrate the validity of the system proposed, comparing it with other similar indoor positioning systems. PMID:22163907

  6. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Lloyd, James (Inventor); Alahuzos, George (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  7. Hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Lloyd, James; Alahuzos, George

    1992-07-01

    A simple or unsophisticated robot incapable of effecting straight-line motion at the end of its arm inserts a key held in its end effector or hand into a door lock with nearly straight-line motion by gently thrusting its back heels downwardly so that it pivots forwardly on its front toes while holding its arm stationary. The relatively slight arc traveled by the robot's hand is compensated by a complaint tool with which the robot hand grips the door key. A visible beam is projected through the axis of the hand or gripper on the robot arm end at an angle to the general direction in which the robot thrusts the gripper forward. As the robot hand approaches a target surface, a video camera on the robot wrist watches the beam spot on the target surface fall from a height proportional to the distance between the robot hand and the target surface until the beam spot is nearly aligned with the top of the robot hand. Holes in the front face of the hand are connected through internal passages inside the arm to an on-board chemical sensor. Full rotation of the hand or gripper about the robot arm's wrist is made possible by slip rings in the wrist which permit passage of the gases taken in through the nose holes in the front of the hand through the wrist regardless of the rotational orientation of the wrist.

  8. A new mobile robot control approach via fusion of control signals.

    PubMed

    Freire, Eduardo; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano; Sarcinelli-Filho, Mário; Carelli, Ricardo

    2004-02-01

    This paper proposes an alternative approach to address the problem of coordinating behaviors in mobile robot navigation: fusion of control signals. Such approach is based on a set of two decentralized information filters, which accomplish the data fusion involved. Besides these two fusion engines, control architectures designed according to this approach also embed a set of different controllers that generate reference signals for the robot linear and angular speeds. Such signals are delivered to the two decentralized information filters, which estimate suitable overall reference signals for the robot linear and angular speeds, respectively. Thus, the background for designing such control architectures is provided by the nonlinear systems theory, which makes this approach different from any other yet proposed. This background also allows checking control architectures designed according to the proposed approach for stability. Such analysis is carried out in the paper, and shows that the robot always reaches its final destination, in spite of either obstacles along its path or the environment layout. As an example, a control architecture is designed to guide a mobile robot in an experiment, whose results allows checking the good performance of the control architecture and validating the design approach proposed as well.

  9. Intelligent wheeled mobile robot for spherical tank welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junbo; Sun, Zhenguo; Ji, Meng; Chen, Qiang; Jiang, Lipei; Jiao, Xiangdong; Xue, Long

    2002-02-01

    At present, spherical tank manufacture is still staying at the level of manual welding or semi-automation. In order to improve quality of weld seam and guarantee safe operating of spherical tank, automatic welding equipment is needed urgently. A intelligent wheeled mobile robot equipped with CCD based visual sensor has been developed to acquire better weld quality in this research. Special mechanical structure has been proposed based a wheeled mobile robot body to realize reliably and flexibly absorbing and moving on the surface of spherical tank. A 3-DOF welding manipulator has been fixed on the robot to carry out welding tasks. A CCD sensor has been used to detect weld seam for the trajectory planing of both the mobile robot and the welding torch, control strategy for nonholonomic system with redundant DOF has been put forward to realize the accurate tracing of weld torch, an intelligent controller has been designed. In this paper, mechanical structure of robot, principle of CCD sensor, tracing model for robot and welding torch, and intelligent controller have been presented in details respectively. Experiments show that this robot can fulfill all-position welding tasks freely on the surface of tank with high weld torch tracing accuracy(up to +/- 0.5mm).

  10. A Mobile Robot for Small Object Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, Ondřej; Szűcsová, Hana; Grimmer, Vladimír; Popelka, Jan; Vonásek, Vojtěch; Krajník, Tomáš; Chudoba, Jan

    The aim of this paper is to present an intelligent autonomous robot capable of small object manipulation. The design of the robot is influenced mainly by the rules of EUROBOT 09 competition. In this challenge, two robots pick up objects scattered on a planar rectangular playfield and use these elements to build models of Hellenistic temples. This paper describes the robot hardware, i.e. electro-mechanics of the drive, chassis and manipulator, as well as the software, i.e. localization, collision avoidance, motion control and planning algorithms.

  11. Mobile robots: motor challenges and materials solutions.

    PubMed

    Madden, John D

    2007-11-16

    Bolted-down robots labor in our factories, performing the same task over and over again. Where are the robots that run and jump? Equaling human performance is very difficult for many reasons, including the basic challenge of demonstrating motors and transmissions that efficiently match the power per unit mass of muscle. In order to exceed animal agility, new actuators are needed. Materials that change dimension in response to applied voltage, so-called artificial muscle technologies, outperform muscle in most respects and so provide a promising means of improving robots. In the longer term, robots powered by atomically perfect fibers will outrun us all.

  12. On-Line Method and Apparatus for Coordinated Mobility and Manipulation of Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A simple and computationally efficient approach is disclosed for on-line coordinated control of mobile robots consisting of a manipulator arm mounted on a mobile base. The effect of base mobility on the end-effector manipulability index is discussed. The base mobility and arm manipulation degrees-of-freedom are treated equally as the joints of a kinematically redundant composite robot. The redundancy introduced by the mobile base is exploited to satisfy a set of user-defined additional tasks during the end-effector motion. A simple on-line control scheme is proposed which allows the user to assign weighting factors to individual degrees-of-mobility and degrees-of-manipulation, as well as to each task specification. The computational efficiency of the control algorithm makes it particularly suitable for real-time implementations. Four case studies are discussed in detail to demonstrate the application of the coordinated control scheme to various mobile robots.

  13. Fish-robot interactions in a free-swimming environment: Effects of speed and configuration of robots on live fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butail, Sachit; Polverino, Giovanni; Phamduy, Paul; Del Sette, Fausto; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    We explore fish-robot interactions in a comprehensive set of experiments designed to highlight the effects of speed and configuration of bioinspired robots on live zebrafish. The robot design and movement is inspired by salient features of attraction in zebrafish and includes enhanced coloration, aspect ratio of a fertile female, and carangiform/subcarangiformlocomotion. The robots are autonomously controlled to swim in circular trajectories in the presence of live fish. Our results indicate that robot configuration significantly affects both the fish distance to the robots and the time spent near them.

  14. Evaluation of a Home Biomonitoring Autonomous Mobile Robot.

    PubMed

    Dorronzoro Zubiete, Enrique; Nakahata, Keigo; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Sekine, Masashi; Sun, Guanghao; Gomez, Isabel; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing population age demands more services in healthcare domain. It has been shown that mobile robots could be a potential solution to home biomonitoring for the elderly. Through our previous studies, a mobile robot system that is able to track a subject and identify his daily living activities has been developed. However, the system has not been tested in any home living scenarios. In this study we did a series of experiments to investigate the accuracy of activity recognition of the mobile robot in a home living scenario. The daily activities tested in the evaluation experiment include watching TV and sleeping. A dataset recorded by a distributed distance-measuring sensor network was used as a reference to the activity recognition results. It was shown that the accuracy is not consistent for all the activities; that is, mobile robot could achieve a high success rate in some activities but a poor success rate in others. It was found that the observation position of the mobile robot and subject surroundings have high impact on the accuracy of the activity recognition, due to the variability of the home living daily activities and their transitional process. The possibility of improvement of recognition accuracy has been shown too.

  15. Evaluation of a Home Biomonitoring Autonomous Mobile Robot

    PubMed Central

    Dorronzoro Zubiete, Enrique; Nakahata, Keigo; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Sekine, Masashi; Sun, Guanghao; Gomez, Isabel; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing population age demands more services in healthcare domain. It has been shown that mobile robots could be a potential solution to home biomonitoring for the elderly. Through our previous studies, a mobile robot system that is able to track a subject and identify his daily living activities has been developed. However, the system has not been tested in any home living scenarios. In this study we did a series of experiments to investigate the accuracy of activity recognition of the mobile robot in a home living scenario. The daily activities tested in the evaluation experiment include watching TV and sleeping. A dataset recorded by a distributed distance-measuring sensor network was used as a reference to the activity recognition results. It was shown that the accuracy is not consistent for all the activities; that is, mobile robot could achieve a high success rate in some activities but a poor success rate in others. It was found that the observation position of the mobile robot and subject surroundings have high impact on the accuracy of the activity recognition, due to the variability of the home living daily activities and their transitional process. The possibility of improvement of recognition accuracy has been shown too. PMID:27212940

  16. Adaptive neural networks for mobile robotic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Jeff R.; Dagli, Cihan H.

    2001-03-01

    Movement of a differential drive robot has non-linear dependence on the current position and orientation. A controller must be able to deal with the non-linearity of the plant. The controller must either linearize the plant and deal with special cases, or be non-linear itself. Once the controller is designed, implementation on a real robotic platform presents challenges due to the varying parameters of the plant. Robots of the same model may have different motor frictions. The surface the robot maneuvers on may change e.g. carpet to tile. Batteries will drain, providing less power over time. A feed-forward neural network controller could overcome these challenges. The network could learn the non- linearities of the plant and monitor the error for parameter changes and adapt to them. In this manner, a single controller can be designed for an ideal robot, and then used to populate a multi-robot colony without manually fine tuning the controller for each robot. This paper shall demonstrate such a controller, outlining design in simulation and implementation on Khepera robotic platforms.

  17. SMARBot: a modular miniature mobile robot platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yan; Johnson, Kerry; Simms, Brian; Conforth, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Miniature robots have many advantages over their larger counterparts, such as low cost, low power, and easy to build a large scale team for complex tasks. Heterogeneous multi miniature robots could provide powerful situation awareness capability due to different locomotion capabilities and sensor information. However, it would be expensive and time consuming to develop specific embedded system for different type of robots. In this paper, we propose a generic modular embedded system architecture called SMARbot (Stevens Modular Autonomous Robot), which consists of a set of hardware and software modules that can be configured to construct various types of robot systems. These modules include a high performance microprocessor, a reconfigurable hardware component, wireless communication, and diverse sensor and actuator interfaces. The design of all the modules in electrical subsystem, the selection criteria for module components, and the real-time operating system are described. Some proofs of concept experimental results are also presented.

  18. The case for planetary surface mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giralt, G.; Boissier, L.; Lamboley, M.; Moura, D.

    1992-08-01

    Concepts for an automated planetary vehicle (APV) are examined in the context of mission characteristics, resources and system constraints, and operational robot concepts. Both lunar and Martian missions are discussed in terms of exploratory missions and work-site development that require distance and time goals of 1000 km and several years, respectively. Resource and system constraints emphasized in the areas of: rover material technologies, terrain characteristics, and communications. Operational robot concepts are described and compared in light of the constraints and mission requirements, and four candidate classes of robots are given: master-slave teleoperation, advanced teleprogramming, autonomous reactive machines, and autonomous task-level programmable robots. It is shown that these robotic concepts can provide the foundation for implementing lunar and martian exploratory missions.

  19. Rice-obot 1: An intelligent autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defigueiredo, R.; Ciscon, L.; Berberian, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Rice-obot I is the first in a series of Intelligent Autonomous Mobile Robots (IAMRs) being developed at Rice University's Cooperative Intelligent Mobile Robots (CIMR) lab. The Rice-obot I is mainly designed to be a testbed for various robotic and AI techniques, and a platform for developing intelligent control systems for exploratory robots. Researchers present the need for a generalized environment capable of combining all of the control, sensory and knowledge systems of an IAMR. They introduce Lisp-Nodes as such a system, and develop the basic concepts of nodes, messages and classes. Furthermore, they show how the control system of the Rice-obot I is implemented as sub-systems in Lisp-Nodes.

  20. A Mobile Robot Sonar System with Obstacle Avoidance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    vehicle, robot, obstacle avoidance, sonar sensing 102 17. SECURITY CLASSWIFCATION 1S. SECURITY CLASINFICATION I& SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. UMITATION...WITH OBSTACLE - AVOIDANCE __ by __ Patrick Gerard Byrne March 1994 Thesis Advisor: Yutaka Kanayama Approved for public release; distribution is...SEOLY(Lae anO r Iff TDT, Master’s Thesis _____________ 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE L FUMNING NUMBR A Mobile Robot Sonar System With Obstacle Avoidance (U

  1. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  2. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  3. Navigating a mobile robot by a traversability field histogram.

    PubMed

    Ye, Cang

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an autonomous terrain navigation system for a mobile robot. The system employs a two-dimensional laser range finder (LRF) for terrain mapping. A so-called "traversability field histogram" (TFH) method is proposed to guide the robot. The TFH method first transforms a local terrain map surrounding the robot's momentary position into a traversability map by extracting the slope and roughness of a terrain patch through least-squares plane fitting. It then computes a so-called "polar traversability index" (PTI) that represents the overall difficulty of traveling along the corresponding direction. The PTIs are represented in a form of histogram. Based on this histogram, the velocity and steering commands of the robot are determined. The concept of a virtual valley and an exit condition are proposed and used to direct the robot such that it can reach the target with a finite-length path. The algorithm is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  4. Development of mobile robot for pipe welding with visual sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Suga, Yasuo; Saito, Keishin; Ishii, Hideaki

    1994-12-31

    An autonomous mobile robot with visual sensor and four driving axes for pipe welding was constructed. The robot can move along a pipe, and detect the weld line to be welded by visual sensor. Moreover, in order to perform welding automatically, the welding torch can track the weld line of the pipes by rotating the robot head. In the case of welding of T-joint of pipes, the robot can detect the contact angle between the two base metals to be welded, and the torch angle changes according to the contact angle. As the result of tracking test by the robot system, it was made clear that the recognition of the geometry of the T-joint by the laser lighting method and automatic seam tracking were possible. The average tracking error was 0.4 mm approximately and the torch angle could be always kept at the optimum angle.

  5. Object Transportation by Two Mobile Robots with Hand Carts

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tatsunori

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology by which two small mobile robots can grasp, lift, and transport large objects using hand carts. The specific problems involve generating robot actions and determining the hand cart positions to achieve the stable loading of objects onto the carts. These problems are solved using nonlinear optimization, and we propose an algorithm for generating robot actions. The proposed method was verified through simulations and experiments using actual devices in a real environment. The proposed method could reduce the number of robots required to transport large objects with 50–60%. In addition, we demonstrated the efficacy of this task in real environments where errors occur in robot sensing and movement. PMID:27433499

  6. Passivity-based control of an omnidirectional mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chao; Sun, Yi; Ma, Shugen

    This paper studies passivity-based trajectory tracking control of an omnidirectional mobile robot. The proposed control design is simple to be implemented in practice, because of an effective exploitation of the structure of robot dynamics. First, the passivity property of the prototype robot is analyzed. Then the control system is designed based on the energy shaping plus damping approach. We find that the prototype robot itself has enough damping forces. As a result, only energy shaping is needed in our proposed controller, while the damping injection is unnecessary for our robot. In other words, the disadvantages of differential feedback, such as amplifying the measurement noise, can be avoided. Globally asymptotic stability is guaranteed. Both simulations and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control design.

  7. A New Conflict Resolution Method for Multiple Mobile Robots in Cluttered Environments With Motion-Liveness.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Mohammadali; Biglarbegian, Mohammad

    2016-12-09

    This paper presents a new conflict resolution methodology for multiple mobile robots while ensuring their motion-liveness, especially for cluttered and dynamic environments. Our method constructs a mathematical formulation in a form of an optimization problem by minimizing the overall travel times of the robots subject to resolving all the conflicts in their motion. This optimization problem can be easily solved through coordinating only the robots' speeds. To overcome the computational cost in executing the algorithm for very cluttered environments, we develop an innovative method through clustering the environment into independent subproblems that can be solved using parallel programming techniques. We demonstrate the scalability of our approach through performing extensive simulations. Simulation results showed that our proposed method is capable of resolving the conflicts of 100 robots in less than 1.23 s in a cluttered environment that has 4357 intersections in the paths of the robots. We also developed an experimental testbed and demonstrated that our approach can be implemented in real time. We finally compared our approach with other existing methods in the literature both quantitatively and qualitatively. This comparison shows while our approach is mathematically sound, it is more computationally efficient, scalable for very large number of robots, and guarantees the live and smooth motion of robots.

  8. Using advanced computer vision algorithms on small mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, G.; Birchmore, F.; Biagtan Pacis, E.; Everett, H. R.

    2006-05-01

    The Technology Transfer project employs a spiral development process to enhance the functionality and autonomy of mobile robot systems in the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) Robotic Systems Pool by converging existing component technologies onto a transition platform for optimization. An example of this approach is the implementation of advanced computer vision algorithms on small mobile robots. We demonstrate the implementation and testing of the following two algorithms useful on mobile robots: 1) object classification using a boosted Cascade of classifiers trained with the Adaboost training algorithm, and 2) human presence detection from a moving platform. Object classification is performed with an Adaboost training system developed at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Computer Vision Lab. This classification algorithm has been used to successfully detect the license plates of automobiles in motion in real-time. While working towards a solution to increase the robustness of this system to perform generic object recognition, this paper demonstrates an extension to this application by detecting soda cans in a cluttered indoor environment. The human presence detection from a moving platform system uses a data fusion algorithm which combines results from a scanning laser and a thermal imager. The system is able to detect the presence of humans while both the humans and the robot are moving simultaneously. In both systems, the two aforementioned algorithms were implemented on embedded hardware and optimized for use in real-time. Test results are shown for a variety of environments.

  9. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Almasri, Marwah; Elleithy, Khaled; Alajlan, Abrar

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot’s wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot’s movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes. PMID:26712766

  10. Scarecrow: An Implementation of Behavioral Control on a Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbott, James R.; Anderson, Tracy L.; Donath, Max

    1990-03-01

    Traditional planning and programming techniques for mobile robot control do not do well in unknown and unstructured environments. The successful implementation of a control strategy for an autonomous mobile robot is presented where the motion of the vehicle is strictly based upon the integrated response of multiple uncoupled primitive reflexive behaviors which incorporate no planning. We previously demonstrated the resulting motion of a robot based upon this approach by using computer simulation. Those results show that such a robot is capable of performing many relatively complex tasks in unknown environments, with only a limited set of such primitive behaviors. In this paper, the hardware and software implementation issues required to bring these concepts into reality on an actual machine are discussed. These issues include range sensor interfacing, communications between multiple on board processors, real time control within an object-oriented environment, robot safety, and robustness in the presence of sensor error. The resulting motion of an actual mobile robot, Scarecrow, is then compared with the simulation results for a number of different higher level behaviors. The observed behavior was found to be similar to that predicted by simulation, despite significant sensor limitations.

  11. Lattice Independent Component Analysis for Mobile Robot Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaverde, Ivan; Fernandez-Gauna, Borja; Zulueta, Ekaitz

    This paper introduces an approach to appearance based mobile robot localization using Lattice Independent Component Analysis (LICA). The Endmember Induction Heuristic Algorithm (EIHA) is used to select a set of Strong Lattice Independent (SLI) vectors, which can be assumed to be Affine Independent, and therefore candidates to be the endmembers of the data. Selected endmembers are used to compute the linear unmixing of the robot's acquired images. The resulting mixing coefficients are used as feature vectors for view recognition through classification. We show on a sample path experiment that our approach can recognise the localization of the robot and we compare the results with the Independent Component Analysis (ICA).

  12. Optical flow based velocity estimation for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuzhi; Zhao, Guanrong; Jia, Songmin; Qin, Baoling; Yang, Ailin

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an optical flow based novel technique to perceive the instant motion velocity of mobile robots. The primary focus of this study is to determine the robot's ego-motion using displacement field in temporally consecutive image pairs. In contrast to most previous approaches for estimating velocity, we employ a polynomial expansion based dense optical flow approach and propose a quadratic model based RANSAC refinement of flow fields to render our method more robust with respect to noise and outliers. Accordingly, techniques for geometrical transformation and interpretation of the inter-frame motion are presented. Advantages of our proposal are validated by real experimental results conducted on Pioneer robot.

  13. Path Relaxation: Path Planning for a Mobile Robot.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    15213 April 1984 JUN 5 1984 Copyright © 1984 Mobile Robot Laboratory, Carnegie-Mellon University The CMU Rover has been supported at the Carnegie-Mellon...particular robot or mission. Path Relaxation is part of Fido, the vision and navigation system of the CM L Rover mol)ile robot. [29, 411 The Rover , under...their 31) positions relative to the Rover . The Rover will then move about half a meter, take a new pair of pictires, find the 40 tracked points in each of

  14. Mobile robot navigation and control: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, N.; Dudek, G.; Daum, M.

    1996-12-31

    Robotic systems (and in particular mobile autonomous agents) embody a complex interaction of computational processes, mechanical systems, sensors, and communications hardware. System integration can present significant difficulties to the construction of a real system, because the hardware is often built around convenience of design rather than convenience of system integration. Nonetheless, in order for robots to perform real-world tasks such as navigation, localization and exploration, the different subsystems of motion, sensing and computation must be merged into a single, realisable unit. Our group is investigating particular problems in the domain of computational perception, in the context of mobile robotics. In particular, we are concerned with environment exploration, position estimation, and map construction. We have several mobile platforms integrating different sensing modalities, which we are able to control simultaneously from a single source.

  15. Robotic Technology Applied to Army Mobility Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    side it necessary and Identify by block number) Robotics Sensors Microprocessor Control Control Theory Robotic Technology /. _ 2& ABSTRACT (Cae a...optical encoders mounted on the bucket, dipper, boom, and swing assembly of the backhoe. (See Figure 2.) 4 i side view top view Angle Encoderf 2 * 3 b...zero into these registers which are subsequently incremented within the actual data transmision portion of the code amid the multiple transfer portion

  16. Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W.

    2016-01-01

    An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller—advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)—that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot. PMID:27123001

  17. Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W

    2016-01-01

    An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller--advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)--that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot.

  18. Experimentation and concept formation by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; deSaussure, G.; Oliver, G.; Silliman, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) conducts basic research in the area of intelligent machines. In this paper, we describe our approach to a class of machine learning which involves autonomous concept formation using feedback from trial-and-error experimentation with the environment. Our formulation was experimentally validated on an autonomous mobile robot, which learned the task of control panel monitoring and manipulation for effective process control. Conclusions are drawn concerning the applicability of the system to a more general class of learning problems, and implications for the use of autonomous mobile robots in hostile and unknown environments are discussed. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Collective search by mobile robots using alpha-beta coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Robinett, R. III

    1998-04-01

    One important application of mobile robots is searching a geographical region to locate the origin of a specific sensible phenomenon. Mapping mine fields, extraterrestrial and undersea exploration, the location of chemical and biological weapons, and the location of explosive devices are just a few potential applications. Teams of robotic bloodhounds have a simple common goal; to converge on the location of the source phenomenon, confirm its intensity, and to remain aggregated around it until directed to take some other action. In cases where human intervention through teleoperation is not possible, the robot team must be deployed in a territory without supervision, requiring an autonomous decentralized coordination strategy. This paper presents the alpha beta coordination strategy, a family of collective search algorithms that are based on dynamic partitioning of the robotic team into two complementary social roles according to a sensor based status measure. Robots in the alpha role are risk takers, motivated to improve their status by exploring new regions of the search space. Robots in the beta role are motivated to improve but are conservative, and tend to remain aggregated and stationary until the alpha robots have identified better regions of the search space. Roles are determined dynamically by each member of the team based on the status of the individual robot relative to the current state of the collective. Partitioning the robot team into alpha and beta roles results in a balance between exploration and exploitation, and can yield collective energy savings and improved resistance to sensor noise and defectors. Alpha robots waste energy exploring new territory, and are more sensitive to the effects of ambient noise and to defectors reporting inflated status. Beta robots conserve energy by moving in a direct path to regions of confirmed high status.

  20. Tactical mobile robots for urban search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blitch, John; Sidki, Nahid; Durkin, Tim

    2000-07-01

    Few disasters can inspire more compassion for victims and families than those involving structural collapse. Video clips of children's bodies pulled from earthquake stricken cities and bombing sties tend to invoke tremendous grief and sorrow because of the totally unpredictable nature of the crisis and lack of even the slightest degree of negligence (such as with those who choose to ignore storm warnings). Heartbreaking stories of people buried alive for days provide a visceral and horrific perspective of some of greatest fears ever to be imagined by human beings. Current trends toward urban sprawl and increasing human discord dictates that structural collapse disasters will continue to present themselves at an alarming rate. The proliferation of domestic terrorism, HAZMAT and biological contaminants further complicates the matter further and presents a daunting problem set for Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) organizations around the world. This paper amplifies the case for robot assisted search and rescue that was first presented during the KNOBSAR project initiated at the Colorado School of Mines in 1995. It anticipates increasing technical development in mobile robot technologies and promotes their use for a wide variety of humanitarian assistance missions. Focus is placed on development of advanced robotic systems that are employed in a complementary tool-like fashion as opposed to traditional robotic approaches that portend to replace humans in hazardous tasks. Operational challenges for USAR are presented first, followed by a brief history of mobiles robot development. The paper then presents conformal robotics as a new design paradigm with emphasis on variable geometry and volumes. A section on robot perception follows with an initial attempt to characterize sensing in a volumetric manner. Collaborative rescue is then briefly discussed with an emphasis on marsupial operations and linked mobility. The paper concludes with an emphasis on Human Robot Interface

  1. Curb Mounting, Vertical Mobility, and Inverted Mobility on Rough Surfaces Using Microspine-Enabled Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Three robots that extend microspine technology to enable advanced mobility are presented. First, the Durable Reconnaissance and Observation Platform (DROP) and the ReconRobotics Scout platform use a new rotary configuration of microspines to provide improved soldier-portable reconnaissance by moving rapidly over curbs and obstacles, transitioning from horizontal to vertical surfaces, climbing rough walls and surviving impacts. Next, the four-legged LEMUR robot uses new configurations of opposed microspines to anchor to both manmade and natural rough surfaces. Using these anchors as feet enables mobility in unstructured environments, from urban disaster areas to deserts and caves.

  2. A fuzzy logic controller for an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Pfluger, Nathan

    1993-01-01

    The ability of a mobile robot system to plan and move intelligently in a dynamic system is needed if robots are to be useful in areas other than controlled environments. An example of a use for this system is to control an autonomous mobile robot in a space station, or other isolated area where it is hard or impossible for human life to exist for long periods of time (e.g., Mars). The system would allow the robot to be programmed to carry out the duties normally accomplished by a human being. Some of the duties that could be accomplished include operating instruments, transporting objects, and maintenance of the environment. The main focus of our early work has been on developing a fuzzy controller that takes a path and adapts it to a given environment. The robot only uses information gathered from the sensors, but retains the ability to avoid dynamically placed obstacles near and along the path. Our fuzzy logic controller is based on the following algorithm: (1) determine the desired direction of travel; (2) determine the allowed direction of travel; and (3) combine the desired and allowed directions in order to determine a direciton that is both desired and allowed. The desired direction of travel is determined by projecting ahead to a point along the path that is closer to the goal. This gives a local direction of travel for the robot and helps to avoid obstacles.

  3. Sensor-based navigation of air duct inspection mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Kyoungchul; Choi, H. J.; Kim, Jae-Seon; Ko, Kuk Won; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper deals with an image sensor system and its position estimation algorithm for autonomous duct cleaning and inspection mobile robots. For the real application, a hierarchical control structure that consists of robot motion controller and image sensor system is designed considering the efficient and autonomous motion behaviors in narrow space such as air ducts. The sensor's system consists of a CCD camera and two laser sources to generate slit beams. The image of the structured lights is used for calculating the geometric parameters of the air ducts which are usually designed with a rectangular section. With the acquired 3D information about the environment, the mobile robot with two differential driving wheels is able to autonomously navigates along the duct path without any human intervention. For real time navigation, the relative position estimation of the robot are performed from 3D image reconstructed by the sensor system. The calibration and image processing methods used for the sensor system are presented with the experimental data. The experimental results show the possibility of the sensor based navigation which is important for effective duct cleaning by small mobile robots.

  4. Real-time mobile robot navigation is possible with off-the-shelf hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, David J.; Bolotski, Michael

    1992-11-01

    We describe a real-time vision contest that took place in January 1992 at the MIT AI lab. The task was high speed visual navigation along a 60 foot winding indoor course. The computational power available was a conventional Sun Sparcstation 1 with a Sun color framegrabber. The imaging device was a standard color Pulnix CCD camera with an auto iris 4.8 mm lens. The robot base was a commercial B12 mobile robot from Real World Interface. The winning entry completed the course in 1:07 minutes about three times faster than a human controlling the robot using the same video input. Approximately ten person days of work was required to program an entry that would complete the course.

  5. Mobile robots exploration through cnn-based reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Tai, Lei; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Exploration in an unknown environment is an elemental application for mobile robots. In this paper, we outlined a reinforcement learning method aiming for solving the exploration problem in a corridor environment. The learning model took the depth image from an RGB-D sensor as the only input. The feature representation of the depth image was extracted through a pre-trained convolutional-neural-networks model. Based on the recent success of deep Q-network on artificial intelligence, the robot controller achieved the exploration and obstacle avoidance abilities in several different simulated environments. It is the first time that the reinforcement learning is used to build an exploration strategy for mobile robots through raw sensor information.

  6. Application of a Chaotic Oscillator in an Autonomous Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlelo-Cuautle, Esteban; Ramos-López, Hugo C.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Mauro; Pano-Azucena, Ana D.; Sánchez-Gaspariano, Luis A.; Núñez-Pérez, José C.; Camas-Anzueto, Jorge L.

    2014-05-01

    Terrain exploration robots can be of great usefulness in critical navigation circumstances. However, the challenge is how to guarantee a control for covering a full terrain area. That way, the application of a chaotic oscillator to control the wheels of an autonomous mobile robot, is introduced herein. Basically, we describe the realization of a random number generator (RNG) based on a double-scroll chaotic oscillator, which is used to guide the robot to cover a full terrain area. The resolution of the terrain exploration area is determined by both the number of bits provided by the RNG and the characteristics of step motors. Finally, the experimental results highlight the covered area by painting the trajectories that the robot explores.

  7. Homography-based visual servo regulation of mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongchun; Dixon, Warren E; Dawson, Darren M; Chawda, Prakash

    2005-10-01

    A monocular camera-based vision system attached to a mobile robot (i.e., the camera-in-hand configuration) is considered in this paper. By comparing corresponding target points of an object from two different camera images, geometric relationships are exploited to derive a transformation that relates the actual position and orientation of the mobile robot to a reference position and orientation. This transformation is used to synthesize a rotation and translation error system from the current position and orientation to the fixed reference position and orientation. Lyapunov-based techniques are used to construct an adaptive estimate to compensate for a constant, unmeasurable depth parameter, and to prove asymptotic regulation of the mobile robot. The contribution of this paper is that Lyapunov techniques are exploited to craft an adaptive controller that enables mobile robot position and orientation regulation despite the lack of an object model and the lack of depth information. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the performance of the controller.

  8. Bioinspired, Mobile Robots With High Stability, Functionality and Low Cost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-19

    MOBILE ROBOTS WITH HIGH STABILITY, FUNCTIONALITY AND LOW COST W911NF-11-1-0094 FINAL REPORT 2/15/11 – 9/30/13 THE HARVARD TEAM DARPA /DSO...ATTN: BAA 10-65 Dr. Gill Pratt 3701 North Fairfax Drive Arlington VA 22203-1714 Technical POC: Dr. Gill Pratt, DARPA /DSO Submission

  9. Teaching Robotics Software with the Open Hardware Mobile Manipulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vona, M.; Shekar, N. H.

    2013-01-01

    The "open hardware mobile manipulator" (OHMM) is a new open platform with a unique combination of features for teaching robotics software and algorithms. On-board low- and high-level processors support real-time embedded programming and motor control, as well as higher-level coding with contemporary libraries. Full hardware designs and…

  10. An emergency response mobile robot for operations in combustible atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Ohm, Timothy R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A mobile, self-powered, self-contained, and remote-controlled robot is presented. The robot is capable of safely operating in a combustible atmosphere and providing information about the atmosphere to the operator. The robot includes non-sparking and non-arcing electro-mechanical and electronic components designed to prevent the robot from igniting the combustible atmosphere. The robot also includes positively pressurized enclosures that house the electromechanical and electronic components of the robot and prevent intrusion of the combustible atmosphere into the enclosures. The enclosures are interconnected such that a pressurized gas injected into any one of the enclosures is routed to all the other enclosures through the interconnections. It is preferred that one or more sealed internal channels through structures intervening between the enclosures be employed. Pressure transducers for detecting if the pressure within the enclosures falls below a predetermined level are included. The robot also has a sensing device for determining the types of combustible substances in the surrounding atmosphere, as well as the concentrations of each type of substance relative to a pre-determined lower explosive limit (LEL). In addition, the sensing device can determine the percent level of oxygen present in the surrounding atmosphere.

  11. Emergency response mobile robot for operations in combustible atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W. (Inventor); Ohm, Timothy R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A mobile, self-powered, self-contained, and remote-controlled robot is presented. The robot is capable of safely operating in a combustible atmosphere and providing information about the atmosphere to the operator. The robot includes non-sparking and non-arcing electro-mechanical and electronic components designed to prevent the robot from igniting the combustible atmosphere. The robot also includes positively pressurized enclosures that house the electromechanical and electronic components of the robot and prevent intrusion of the combustible atmosphere into the enclosures. The enclosures are interconnected such that a pressurized gas injected into any one of the enclosures is routed to all the other enclosures through the interconnections. It is preferred that one or more sealed internal channels through structures intervening between the enclosures be employed. Pressure transducers for detecting if the pressure within the enclosures falls below a predetermined level are included. The robot also has a sensing device for determining the types of combustible substances in the surrounding atmosphere, as well as the concentrations of each type of substance relative to a pre-determined lower explosive limit (LEL). In addition, the sensing device can determine the percent level of oxygen present in the surrounding atmosphere.

  12. Task-Based Flocking Algorithm for Mobile Robot Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongsheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Tong, Guofeng

    In this paper, one task-based flocking algorithm that coordinates a swarm of robots is presented and evaluated based on the standard simulation platform. Task-based flocking algorithm(TFA) is an effective framework for mobile robots cooperation. Flocking behaviors are integrated into the cooperation of the multi-robot system to organize a robot team to achieve a common goal. The goal of the whole team is obtained through the collaboration of the individual robot’s task. The flocking model is presented, and the flocking energy function is defined based on that model to analyze the stability of the flocking and the task switching criterion. The simulation study is conducted in a five-versus-five soccer game, where the each robot dynamically selects its task in accordance with status and the whole robot team behaves as a flocking. Through simulation results and experiments, it is proved that the task-based flocking algorithm can effectively coordinate and control the robot flock to achieve the goal.

  13. System safety analysis of an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Bartos, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of the safety of operating and maintaining the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) II in a hazardous environment at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was completed. The SWAMI II is a version of a commercial robot, the HelpMate{trademark} robot produced by the Transitions Research Corporation, which is being updated to incorporate the systems required for inspecting mixed toxic chemical and radioactive waste drums at the FEMP. It also has modified obstacle detection and collision avoidance subsystems. The robot will autonomously travel down the aisles in storage warehouses to record images of containers and collect other data which are transmitted to an inspector at a remote computer terminal. A previous study showed the SWAMI II has economic feasibility. The SWAMI II will more accurately locate radioactive contamination than human inspectors. This thesis includes a System Safety Hazard Analysis and a quantitative Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The objectives of the analyses are to prevent potentially serious events and to derive a comprehensive set of safety requirements from which the safety of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots can be evaluated. The Computer-Aided Fault Tree Analysis (CAFTA{copyright}) software is utilized for the FTA. The FTA shows that more than 99% of the safety risk occurs during maintenance, and that when the derived safety requirements are implemented the rate of serious events is reduced to below one event per million operating hours. Training and procedures in SWAMI II operation and maintenance provide an added safety margin. This study will promote the safe use of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots in the emerging technology of mobile robotic inspection.

  14. Worker selection of safe speed and idle condition in simulated monitoring of two industrial robots.

    PubMed

    Karwowski, W; Rahimi, M

    1991-05-01

    Industrial robots often operate at high speed, with unpredictable motion patterns and erratic idle times. Serious injuries and deaths have occurred due to operator misperception of these robot design and performance characteristics. The main objective of the research project was to study human perceptual aspects of hazardous robotics workstations. Two laboratory experiments were designed to investigate workers' perceptions of two industrial robots with different physical configurations and performance capabilities. Twenty-four subjects participated in the study. All subjects were chosen from local industries, and had had considerable exposure to robots and other automated equipment in their working experience. Experiment 1 investigated the maximum speed of robot arm motions that workers, who were experienced with operation of industrial robots, judged to be 'safe' for monitoring tasks. It was found that the selection of safe speed depends on the size of the robot and the speed with which the robot begins its operation. Speeds of less than 51 cm/s and 63 cm/s for large and small robots, respectively, were perceived as safe, i.e., ones that did not result in workers feeling uneasy or endangered when working in close proximity to the robot and monitoring its actions. Experiment 2 investigated the minimum value of robot idle time (inactivity) perceived by industrial workers as system malfunction, and an indication of the 'safe-to-approach' condition. It was found that idle times of 41 s and 28 s or less for the small and large robots, respectively, were perceived by workers to be a result of system malfunction. About 20% of the workers waited only 10 s or less before deciding that the robot had stopped because of system malfunction. The idle times were affected by the subjects' prior exposure to a simulated robot accident. Further interpretations of the results and suggestions for operational limitations of robot systems are discussed.

  15. Mobile robot on-board vision system

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, V.W.; Nai-Yung Chen.

    1993-06-15

    An automatic robot system is described comprising: an AGV transporting and transferring work piece, a control computer on board the AGV, a process machine for working on work pieces, a flexible robot arm with a gripper comprising two gripper fingers at one end of the arm, wherein the robot arm and gripper are controllable by the control computer for engaging a work piece, picking it up, and setting it down and releasing it at a commanded location, locating beacon means mounted on the process machine, wherein the locating beacon means are for locating on the process machine a place to pick up and set down work pieces, vision means, including a camera fixed in the coordinate system of the gripper means, attached to the robot arm near the gripper, such that the space between said gripper fingers lies within the vision field of said vision means, for detecting the locating beacon means, wherein the vision means provides the control computer visual information relating to the location of the locating beacon means, from which information the computer is able to calculate the pick up and set down place on the process machine, wherein said place for picking up and setting down work pieces on the process machine is a nest means and further serves the function of holding a work piece in place while it is worked on, the robot system further comprising nest beacon means located in the nest means detectable by the vision means for providing information to the control computer as to whether or not a work piece is present in the nest means.

  16. Intelligent control and cooperation for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stingu, Petru Emanuel

    The topic discussed in this work addresses the current research being conducted at the Automation & Robotics Research Institute in the areas of UAV quadrotor control and heterogenous multi-vehicle cooperation. Autonomy can be successfully achieved by a robot under the following conditions: the robot has to be able to acquire knowledge about the environment and itself, and it also has to be able to reason under uncertainty. The control system must react quickly to immediate challenges, but also has to slowly adapt and improve based on accumulated knowledge. The major contribution of this work is the transfer of the ADP algorithms from the purely theoretical environment to the complex real-world robotic platforms that work in real-time and in uncontrolled environments. Many solutions are adopted from those present in nature because they have been proven to be close to optimal in very different settings. For the control of a single platform, reinforcement learning algorithms are used to design suboptimal controllers for a class of complex systems that can be conceptually split in local loops with simpler dynamics and relatively weak coupling to the rest of the system. Optimality is enforced by having a global critic but the curse of dimensionality is avoided by using local actors and intelligent pre-processing of the information used for learning the optimal controllers. The system model is used for constructing the structure of the control system, but on top of that the adaptive neural networks that form the actors use the knowledge acquired during normal operation to get closer to optimal control. In real-world experiments, efficient learning is a strong requirement for success. This is accomplished by using an approximation of the system model to focus the learning for equivalent configurations of the state space. Due to the availability of only local data for training, neural networks with local activation functions are implemented. For the control of a formation

  17. The research of autonomous obstacle avoidance of mobile robot based on multi-sensor integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Han, Baoling

    2016-11-01

    The object of this study is the bionic quadruped mobile robot. The study has proposed a system design plan for mobile robot obstacle avoidance with the binocular stereo visual sensor and the self-control 3D Lidar integrated with modified ant colony optimization path planning to realize the reconstruction of the environmental map. Because the working condition of a mobile robot is complex, the result of the 3D reconstruction with a single binocular sensor is undesirable when feature points are few and the light condition is poor. Therefore, this system integrates the stereo vision sensor blumblebee2 and the Lidar sensor together to detect the cloud information of 3D points of environmental obstacles. This paper proposes the sensor information fusion technology to rebuild the environment map. Firstly, according to the Lidar data and visual data on obstacle detection respectively, and then consider two methods respectively to detect the distribution of obstacles. Finally fusing the data to get the more complete, more accurate distribution of obstacles in the scene. Then the thesis introduces ant colony algorithm. It has analyzed advantages and disadvantages of the ant colony optimization and its formation cause deeply, and then improved the system with the help of the ant colony optimization to increase the rate of convergence and precision of the algorithm in robot path planning. Such improvements and integrations overcome the shortcomings of the ant colony optimization like involving into the local optimal solution easily, slow search speed and poor search results. This experiment deals with images and programs the motor drive under the compiling environment of Matlab and Visual Studio and establishes the visual 2.5D grid map. Finally it plans a global path for the mobile robot according to the ant colony algorithm. The feasibility and effectiveness of the system are confirmed by ROS and simulation platform of Linux.

  18. Recognizing and interpreting gestures on a mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Kortenkamp, D.; Huber, E.; Bonasso, R.P.

    1996-12-31

    Gesture recognition is an important skill for robots that work closely with humans. Gestures help to clarify spoken commands and are a compact means of relaying geometric information. We have developed a real-time, three-dimensional gesture recognition system that resides on-board a mobile robot. Using a coarse three-dimensional model of a human to guide stereo measurements of body parts, the system is capable of recognizing six distinct gestures made by an unadorned human in an unaltered environment. An active vision approach focuses the vision system`s attention on small, moving areas of space to allow for frame rate processing even when the person and/or the robot are moving. This paper describes the gesture recognition system, including the coarse model and the active vision approach. This paper also describes how the gesture recognition system is integrated with an intelligent control architecture to allow for complex gesture interpretation and complex robot action. Results from experiments with an actual mobile robot are given.

  19. A natural-language interface to a mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalowski, S.; Crangle, C.; Liang, L.

    1987-01-01

    The present work on robot instructability is based on an ongoing effort to apply modern manipulation technology to serve the needs of the handicapped. The Stanford/VA Robotic Aid is a mobile manipulation system that is being developed to assist severely disabled persons (quadriplegics) in performing simple activities of everyday living in a homelike, unstructured environment. It consists of two major components: a nine degree-of-freedom manipulator and a stationary control console. In the work presented here, only the motions of the Robotic Aid's omnidirectional motion base have been considered, i.e., the six degrees of freedom of the arm and gripper have been ignored. The goal has been to develop some basic software tools for commanding the robot's motions in an enclosed room containing a few objects such as tables, chairs, and rugs. In the present work, the environmental model takes the form of a two-dimensional map with objects represented by polygons. Admittedly, such a highly simplified scheme bears little resemblance to the elaborate cognitive models of reality that are used in normal human discourse. In particular, the polygonal model is given a priori and does not contain any perceptual elements: there is no polygon sensor on board the mobile robot.

  20. Improving mobile robot localization: grid-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Junchi

    2012-02-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have been widely studied not only as advanced facilities for industrial and daily life automation, but also as a testbed in robotics competitions for extending the frontier of current artificial intelligence. In many of such contests, the robot is supposed to navigate on the ground with a grid layout. Based on this observation, we present a localization error correction method by exploring the geometric feature of the tile patterns. On top of the classical inertia-based positioning, our approach employs three fiber-optic sensors that are assembled under the bottom of the robot, presenting an equilateral triangle layout. The sensor apparatus, together with the proposed supporting algorithm, are designed to detect a line's direction (vertical or horizontal) by monitoring the grid crossing events. As a result, the line coordinate information can be fused to rectify the cumulative localization deviation from inertia positioning. The proposed method is analyzed theoretically in terms of its error bound and also has been implemented and tested on a customary developed two-wheel autonomous mobile robot.

  1. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Matthew Oley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Mckay, Mark D; Willis, Walter David; Gunderson, R.W.; Flann, N.S.

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University’s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in realtime. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  2. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    M.D. McKay; M.O. Anderson; N.S. Flann; R.A. Kinoshita; R.W. Gunderson; W.D. Willis

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University�s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in real-time. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  3. JOMAR: Joint Operations with Mobile Autonomous Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-21

    improvements in GPS- aided navigation. * A data-association algorithm with applications to target tracking and computer vision applications, named the...A characterization of Global Positioning System (GPS) noise models in the MaxMixture framework, allowing significant improvements in GPS- aided ...autonomous tractor operations,” Autonomous Robots, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 87–104, 2002. [11] J. Kim and S. Sukkarieh, “SLAM aided GPS/INS navigation in GPS

  4. Robust and efficient vision system for group of cooperating mobile robots with application to soccer robots.

    PubMed

    Klancar, Gregor; Kristan, Matej; Kovacic, Stanislav; Orqueda, Omar

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a global vision scheme for estimation of positions and orientations of mobile robots is presented. It is applied to robot soccer application which is a fast dynamic game and therefore needs an efficient and robust vision system implemented. General applicability of the vision system can be found in other robot applications such as mobile transport robots in production, warehouses, attendant robots, fast vision tracking of targets of interest and entertainment robotics. Basic operation of the vision system is divided into two steps. In the first, the incoming image is scanned and pixels are classified into a finite number of classes. At the same time, a segmentation algorithm is used to find corresponding regions belonging to one of the classes. In the second step, all the regions are examined. Selection of the ones that are a part of the observed object is made by means of simple logic procedures. The novelty is focused on optimization of the processing time needed to finish the estimation of possible object positions. Better results of the vision system are achieved by implementing camera calibration and shading correction algorithm. The former corrects camera lens distortion, while the latter increases robustness to irregular illumination conditions.

  5. Distributed cooperating processes in a mobile robot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, Thomas L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A mobile inspection robot has been proposed for the NASA Space Station. It will be a free flying autonomous vehicle that will leave a berthing unit to accomplish a variety of inspection tasks around the Space Station, and then return to its berth to recharge, refuel, and transfer information. The Flying Eye robot will receive voice communication to change its attitude, move at a constant velocity, and move to a predefined location along a self generated path. This mobile robot control system requires integration of traditional command and control techniques with a number of AI technologies. Speech recognition, natural language understanding, task and path planning, sensory abstraction and pattern recognition are all required for successful implementation. The interface between the traditional numeric control techniques and the symbolic processing to the AI technologies must be developed, and a distributed computing approach will be needed to meet the real time computing requirements. To study the integration of the elements of this project, a novel mobile robot control architecture and simulation based on the blackboard architecture was developed. The control system operation and structure is discussed.

  6. A Qualitative Approach to Mobile Robot Navigation Using RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M.; Rashid, M. M.; Bhuiyan, M. M. I.; Ahmed, S.; Akhtaruzzaman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system allows automatic identification of items with RFID tags using radio-waves. As the RFID tag has its unique identification number, it is also possible to detect a specific region where the RFID tag lies in. Recently it is widely been used in mobile robot navigation, localization, and mapping both in indoor and outdoor environment. This paper represents a navigation strategy for autonomous mobile robot using passive RFID system. Conventional approaches, such as landmark or dead-reckoning with excessive number of sensors, have complexities in establishing the navigation and localization process. The proposed method satisfies less complexity in navigation strategy as well as estimation of not only the position but also the orientation of the autonomous robot. In this research, polar coordinate system is adopted on the navigation surface where RFID tags are places in a grid with constant displacements. This paper also presents the performance comparisons among various grid architectures through simulation to establish a better solution of the navigation system. In addition, some stationary obstacles are introduced in the navigation environment to satisfy the viability of the navigation process of the autonomous mobile robot.

  7. Multiagent collaboration for experimental calibration of an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, Bertrand; Berge-Cherfaoui, Veronique

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents an action in mission SOCRATES whose aim is the development of a self-calibration method for an autonomous mobile robot. The robot has to determine the precise location of the coordinate system shared by its sensors. Knowledge of this system is a sine qua non condition for efficient multisensor fusion and autonomous navigation in an unknown environment. But, as perceptions and motions are not accurate, this knowledge can only be achieved by multisensor fusion. The application described highlights this kind of problem. Multisensor fusion is used here especially in its symbolic aspect. Useful knowledge includes both numerous data coming from various sensors and suitable ways to process these data. A blackboard architecture has been chosen to manage useful information. Knowledge sources are called agents and the implement physical sensors (perceptors or actuators) as well as logical sensors (high level data processors). The problem to solve is self- calibration which includes the determination of the coordinate system R of the robot and the transformations necessary to convert data from sensor reference to R. The origin of R has been chosen to be O, the rotation center of the robot. As its genuine location may vary due to robot or ground characteristics, an experimental determination of O is attempted. A strategy for measuring distances in approximate positions is proposed. This strategy must take into account the fact that motions of the robot as well as perceptions may be inaccurate. Results obtained during experiments and future extensions of the system are discussed.

  8. Locomotion of an all-terrain mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iagolnitzer, M.; Richard, F.; Samson, J. F.; Tournassoud, P.

    The authors introduce a framework and prospective solutions for intelligent locomotion, defined as the ability for a mobile robot to cross over obstacles along a path roughly determined either through teleoperation or by a navigation path-finder. Then, they present a simple but efficient control scheme derived from these concepts, taking into account ground clearance, vehicle safety, and possible occlusions in the vision field. This control scheme is applied to Rami, a four tiltable track robot equipped with force sensors, an inertial reference system, a laser-stripe range finder, and extensive real-time computing facilities based on a decentralized architecture.

  9. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site.

  10. Dynamic World Modeling for an Intelligent Mobile Robot Using a Rotating Ultra-Sonic Ranging Device.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    RD-Ai149 979 DYNAMIC WRLD MODELING FOR AN INTELLIGENT MOBILE ROBOT i/i USING A ROTATING U_.(U) CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA ROBOTICS INST J L...Intelligent Mobile Robot Using a Rotating Ultra-Sonic flanging Device James L. Crowley CMU-RI-TR-84-27 The Laboratory for Household Robotics The Robotics ...sponsored 1’, (Cotnmodore Business Machines. Inc., Denning Mobile Robotics , Inc., and the Commonwealth of P,.ris𔃻lvania. * .Re Unclassiflied. *SECURITY

  11. Active objects programming for military autonomous mobile robots software prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.

    2001-09-01

    While designing mobile robots, we do think that the prototyping phase is really critical. Good and clever choices have to be made. Indeed, we may not easily upgrade such robots, and most of all, when the robot is on its own, any change in both the software and the physical body is going to be very difficult, if not impossible. Thus, a great effort has to be made when prototyping the robot. Furthermore, I think that the kind of programming is very important. If your programming model is not expressive enough, you may experience a great deal of difficulties to add all the features you want, in order to give your robot reactiveness and decision making autonomy. Moreover, designing, and prototyping the on-board software of a reactive robot brings other difficulties. A reactive robot does not include any matter of rapidity. A reactive system is a system able to respond to a huge pannel of situations of which it does not have the schedule. In other words, for instance, the robot does not know when a particular situation may occur, and overall, what it would be doing at this time, and what would be its internal state. This kind of robot must be able to take a decision and to act even if they do not have all the contextual information. To do so, we use a computer language named oRis featuring object and active object oriented programming, but also parallel and dynamic code, (the code can be changed during its own execution). This last point has been made possible because oRis is fully interpreted. However oRis may call fully compiled code, but also Prolog and Java code. An oRis program may be distributed on several computers using TCP/IP network connections. The main issue in this paper is to show how active objet oriented programming, as a modern extension of object oriented programming, may help us in designing autonomous mobile robots. Based on a fully parallel software programming, an active object code allows us to give many features to a robot, and to easily solve

  12. Active object programming for military autonomous mobile robot software prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.

    2001-10-01

    While designing mobile robots, we do think that the prototyping phase is really critical. Good and clever choices have to be made. Indeed, we may not easily upgrade such robots, and most of all, when the robot is on its own, any change in both the software and the physical body is going to be very difficult, if not impossible. Thus, a great effort has to be made when prototyping the robot. Furthermore, I think that the kind of programming is very important. If your programming model is not expressive enough, you may experience a great deal of difficulties to add all the features you want, in order to give your robot reactiveness and decision making autonomy. Moreover, designing, and prototyping the on-board software of a reactive robot brings other difficulties. A reactive robot does not include any matter of rapidity. A reactive system is a system able to respond to a huge panel of situations of which it does not have the schedule. In other words, for instance, the robot does not know when a particular situation may occur, and overall, what it would be doing at this time, and what would be its internal state. This kind of robot must be able to take a decision and to act even if they do not have all the contextual information. To do so, we use a computer language named oRis featuring object and active object oriented programming, but also parallel and dynamic code, (the code can be changed during its own execution). This last point has been made possible because oRis is fully interpreted. However oRis may call fully compiled code, but also Prolog and Java code. An oRis program may be distributed on several computers using TCP/IP network connections. The main issue in this paper is to show how active objet oriented programming, as a modern extension of object oriented programming, may help us in designing autonomous mobile robots. Based on a fully parallel software programming, an active object code allows us to give many features to a robot, and to easily solve

  13. Embodied Computation: An Active-Learning Approach to Mobile Robotics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riek, L. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a newly designed upper-level undergraduate and graduate course, Autonomous Mobile Robots. The course employs active, cooperative, problem-based learning and is grounded in the fundamental computational problems in mobile robotics defined by Dudek and Jenkin. Students receive a broad survey of robotics through lectures, weekly…

  14. RoCoMAR: robots' controllable mobility aided routing and relay architecture for mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Le, Duc Van; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-07-05

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  15. Vision based object pose estimation for mobile robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Annie; Bidlack, Clint; Katkere, Arun; Feague, Roy; Weymouth, Terry

    1994-01-01

    Mobile robot navigation using visual sensors requires that a robot be able to detect landmarks and obtain pose information from a camera image. This paper presents a vision system for finding man-made markers of known size and calculating the pose of these markers. The algorithm detects and identifies the markers using a weighted pattern matching template. Geometric constraints are then used to calculate the position of the markers relative to the robot. The selection of geometric constraints comes from the typical pose of most man-made signs, such as the sign standing vertical and the dimensions of known size. This system has been tested successfully on a wide range of real images. Marker detection is reliable, even in cluttered environments, and under certain marker orientations, estimation of the orientation has proven accurate to within 2 degrees, and distance estimation to within 0.3 meters.

  16. Virtual Door-Based Coverage Path Planning for Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Hyun; Jeon, Hae-Min; Jeong, Woo-Yeon; Bang, Seok-Won

    This paper presents a novel coverage path planning method in indoor environment for a mobile robot such as cleaning robot. Overall region is divided into several sub-regions based on the virtually extracted doors. The algorithm is inspired from the usual way of dividing an indoor environment into sub-regions, i.e., rooms based on the identification of doors. The virtual door algorithm extracts the virtual doors by combining a Generalized Voronoi Diagram (GVD) and a configuration space eroded by the half of the door size. The region to region cleaning algorithm is also proposed based on the closing and opening operations of virtual doors. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on various real indoor environments using a commercially available cleaning robot.

  17. Real-time optical flow estimation on a GPU for a skied-steered mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniaz, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate egomotion estimation is required for mobile robot navigation. Often the egomotion is estimated using optical flow algorithms. For an accurate estimation of optical flow most of modern algorithms require high memory resources and processor speed. However simple single-board computers that control the motion of the robot usually do not provide such resources. On the other hand, most of modern single-board computers are equipped with an embedded GPU that could be used in parallel with a CPU to improve the performance of the optical flow estimation algorithm. This paper presents a new Z-flow algorithm for efficient computation of an optical flow using an embedded GPU. The algorithm is based on the phase correlation optical flow estimation and provide a real-time performance on a low cost embedded GPU. The layered optical flow model is used. Layer segmentation is performed using graph-cut algorithm with a time derivative based energy function. Such approach makes the algorithm both fast and robust in low light and low texture conditions. The algorithm implementation for a Raspberry Pi Model B computer is discussed. For evaluation of the algorithm the computer was mounted on a Hercules mobile skied-steered robot equipped with a monocular camera. The evaluation was performed using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and experiments with Hercules mobile robot. Also the algorithm was evaluated using KITTY Optical Flow 2015 dataset. The resulting endpoint error of the optical flow calculated with the developed algorithm was low enough for navigation of the robot along the desired trajectory.

  18. Classifying and recovering from sensing failures in autonomous mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.R.; Hershberger, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a characterization of sensing failures in autonomous mobile robots, a methodology for classification and recovery, and a demonstration of this approach on a mobile robot performing landmark navigation. A sensing failure is any event leading to defective perception, including sensor malfunctions, software errors, environmental changes, and errant expectations. The approach demonstrated in this paper exploits the ability of the robot to interact with its environment to acquire additional information for classification (i.e., active perception). A Generate and Test strategy is used to generate hypotheses to explain the symptom resulting from the sensing failure. The recovery scheme replaces the affected sensing processes with an alternative logical sensor. The approach is implemented as the Sensor Fusion Effects Exception Handling (SFX-EH) architecture. The advantages of SFX-EH are that it requires only a partial causal model of sensing failure, the control scheme strives for a fast response, tests are constructed so as to prevent confounding from collaborating sensors which have also failed, and the logical sensor organization allows SFX-EH to be interfaced with the behavioral level of existing robot architectures.

  19. The Challenge of Planning and Execution for Spacecraft Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for spacecraft mobile robots continues to grow. These robots offer the potential to increase the capability, productivity, and duration of space missions while decreasing mission risk and cost. Spacecraft Mobile Robots (SMRs) can serve a number of functions inside and outside of spacecraft from simpler tasks, such as performing visual diagnostics and crew support, to more complex tasks, such as performing maintenance and in-situ construction. One of the predominant challenges to deploying SMRs is to reduce the need for direct operator interaction. Teleoperation is often not practical due to the communication latencies incurred because of the distances involved and in many cases a crewmember would directly perform a task rather than teleoperate a robot to do it. By integrating a mixed-initiative constraint-based planner with an executive that supports adjustably autonomous control, we intend to demonstrate the feasibility of autonomous SMRs by deploying one inside the International Space Station (ISS) and demonstrate in simulation one that operates outside of the ISS. This paper discusses the progress made at NASA towards this end, the challenges ahead, and concludes with an invitation to the research community to participate.

  20. Mobile robotic sensors for perimeter detection and tracking.

    PubMed

    Clark, Justin; Fierro, Rafael

    2007-02-01

    Mobile robot/sensor networks have emerged as tools for environmental monitoring, search and rescue, exploration and mapping, evaluation of civil infrastructure, and military operations. These networks consist of many sensors each equipped with embedded processors, wireless communication, and motion capabilities. This paper describes a cooperative mobile robot network capable of detecting and tracking a perimeter defined by a certain substance (e.g., a chemical spill) in the environment. Specifically, the contributions of this paper are twofold: (i) a library of simple reactive motion control algorithms and (ii) a coordination mechanism for effectively carrying out perimeter-sensing missions. The decentralized nature of the methodology implemented could potentially allow the network to scale to many sensors and to reconfigure when adding/deleting sensors. Extensive simulation results and experiments verify the validity of the proposed cooperative control scheme.

  1. Dynamic map building for an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.J.; Durrant-Whyte, H.F. ); Cox, I.J. )

    1992-08-01

    This article presents an algorithm for autonomous map building and maintenance for a mobile robot. The authors believe that mobile robot navigation can be treated as a problem of tracking geometric features that occur naturally in the environment. They represent each feature in the map by a location estimate (the feature state vector) and two distinct measures of uncertainty: a covariance matrix to represent uncertainty in feature location, and a credibility measure to represent their belief in the validity of the feature. During each position update cycle, predicted measurements are generated for each geometric feature in the map and compared with actual sensor observations. Successful matches cause a feature's credibility to be increased. Unpredicted observations are used to initialize new geometric features, while unobserved predictions result in a geometric feature's credibility being decreased. They also describe experimental results obtained with the algorithm that demonstrate successful map building using real sonar data.

  2. Using insects to drive mobile robots - hybrid robots bridge the gap between biological and artificial systems.

    PubMed

    Ando, Noriyasu; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2017-03-18

    The use of mobile robots is an effective method of validating sensory-motor models of animals in a real environment. The well-identified insect sensory-motor systems have been the major targets for modeling. Furthermore, mobile robots implemented with such insect models attract engineers who aim to avail advantages from organisms. However, directly comparing the robots with real insects is still difficult, even if we successfully model the biological systems, because of the physical differences between them. We developed a hybrid robot to bridge the gap. This hybrid robot is an insect-controlled robot, in which a tethered male silkmoth (Bombyx mori) drives the robot in order to localize an odor source. This robot has the following three advantages: 1) from a biomimetic perspective, the robot enables us to evaluate the potential performance of future insect-mimetic robots; 2) from a biological perspective, the robot enables us to manipulate the closed-loop of an onboard insect for further understanding of its sensory-motor system; and 3) the robot enables comparison with insect models as a reference biological system. In this paper, we review the recent works regarding insect-controlled robots and discuss the significance for both engineering and biology.

  3. Hierarchical loop detection for mobile outdoor robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dagmar; Winkens, Christian; Häselich, Marcel; Paulus, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Loop closing is a fundamental part of 3D simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) that can greatly enhance the quality of long-term mapping. It is essential for the creation of globally consistent maps. Conceptually, loop closing is divided into detection and optimization. Recent approaches depend on a single sensor to recognize previously visited places in the loop detection stage. In this study, we combine data of multiple sensors such as GPS, vision, and laser range data to enhance detection results in repetitively changing environments that are not sufficiently explained by a single sensor. We present a fast and robust hierarchical loop detection algorithm for outdoor robots to achieve a reliable environment representation even if one or more sensors fail.

  4. Sensing and modelling concepts for autonomous and remote mobile robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, S. K.; McMath, W. S.; Necsulescu, D.; Petriu, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    Sensing functions and modeling concepts for autonomous and remote mobile robot control in an unstructured environment are discussed. Sensing methods for robot position recovery, object recognition, and tactile teleoperator feedback are presented.

  5. Model-based description of environment interaction for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Carlo; Pagello, Enrico; Vianello, Marco

    1999-01-01

    We consider a mobile robot that attempts to accomplish a task by reaching a given goal, and interacts with its environment through a finite set of actions and observations. The interaction between robot and environment is modeled by Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDP). The robot takes its decisions in presence of uncertainty about the current state, by maximizing its reward gained during interactions with the environment. It is able to self-locate into the environment by collecting actions and perception histories during the navigation. To make the state estimation more reliable, we introduce an additional information in the model without adding new states and without discretizing the considered measures. Thus, we associate to the state transition probabilities also a continuous metric given through the mean and the variance of some significant sensor measurements suitable to be kept under continuous form, such as odometric measurements, showing that also such unreliable data can supply a great deal of information to the robot. The overall control system of the robot is structured as a two-levels layered architecture, where the low level implements several collision avoidance algorithms, while the upper level takes care of the navigation problem. In this paper, we concentrate on how to use POMDP models at the upper level.

  6. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, S.

    1996-06-01

    It is widely accepted that dead-reckoning based on the rolling with no-slip condition on the wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The authors establish that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  7. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, S.

    1997-03-01

    It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The author establishes that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  8. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, S.

    1997-03-01

    It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. We establish that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  9. Avoiding moving obstacles by deviation from a mobile robot`s nominal path

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoularis, A.; Kambhampati, C.

    1999-05-01

    This paper deals with the problem of obstacle avoidance by deviation from the nominal path. Deviation is the only option available to the robot when the acceleration or deceleration plan on the nominal path fails to produce a viable avoidance strategy. The obstacle avoidance on the nominal path was dealt with in the authors` previous development, where the robot`s motion was only subject to an upper bound on its speed. When the robot has to deviate, its motion is subject to a maximum steering constraint and a maximum deviation constraint in addition to the maximum speed constraint. The problem is solved geometrically by identifying final states for the robot that are reachable, satisfy all the constraints, and guarantee collision avoidance. The final state-reachability conditions that the authors obtain in the process ensure that no unnecessary deviation plan is initiated. These conditions, along with the simplicity of the geometric arguments they employ, make the scheme an attractive option for on-line implementation. The only significant complexity arises when minimizing the performance index. They have suggested dynamic programming as an optimization took, but any other nonlinear optimization technique can be adopted.

  10. Vision-based stabilization of nonholonomic mobile robots by integrating sliding-mode control and adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhengcai; Yin, Longjie; Fu, Yili

    2013-01-01

    Vision-based pose stabilization of nonholonomic mobile robots has received extensive attention. At present, most of the solutions of the problem do not take the robot dynamics into account in the controller design, so that these controllers are difficult to realize satisfactory control in practical application. Besides, many of the approaches suffer from the initial speed and torque jump which are not practical in the real world. Considering the kinematics and dynamics, a two-stage visual controller for solving the stabilization problem of a mobile robot is presented, applying the integration of adaptive control, sliding-mode control, and neural dynamics. In the first stage, an adaptive kinematic stabilization controller utilized to generate the command of velocity is developed based on Lyapunov theory. In the second stage, adopting the sliding-mode control approach, a dynamic controller with a variable speed function used to reduce the chattering is designed, which is utilized to generate the command of torque to make the actual velocity of the mobile robot asymptotically reach the desired velocity. Furthermore, to handle the speed and torque jump problems, the neural dynamics model is integrated into the above mentioned controllers. The stability of the proposed control system is analyzed by using Lyapunov theory. Finally, the simulation of the control law is implemented in perturbed case, and the results show that the control scheme can solve the stabilization problem effectively. The proposed control law can solve the speed and torque jump problems, overcome external disturbances, and provide a new solution for the vision-based stabilization of the mobile robot.

  11. Navigation of Autonomous Mobile Robot under Decision-making Strategy tuned by Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Kamano, Takuya; Yasuno, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Harada, Hironobu

    This paper describes a novel application of genetic algorithm for navigation of an autonomous mobile robot (AMR) under unknown environments. In the navigation system, the AMR is controlled by the decision-making block, which consists of neural network. To achieve both successful navigation to the goal and the suitable obstacle avoidance, the connection weights of the neural network and speed gains for predefined actions are encoded as genotypes and are tuned simultaneously by genetic algorithm so that the static and dynamic danger-degrees, the energy consumption and the distance and direction errors decrease during the navigation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed navigation system.

  12. Gyro and Accelerometer Based Navigation System for a Mobile Autonomous Robot.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-02

    8217[ C) ~OF ~ FEB 13 1986 J GYRO AND ACCELEROMETER BASED NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR A MOBILE AUTONOMOUS ROBOT Roland J. Bloom William J. Ramey, Jr. Captain...ACCELEROMETER BASED NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR A MOBILE AUTONOMOUS ROBOT THESIS Roland J. Bloom William J. Ramey, Jr. Captain, USAF Captain, USAF AF IT/GA/GE/ENG/85D...MOBILE AUTONOMOUS ROBOT THE SI S Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University In

  13. Viewing and controlling a mobile robot with common Web technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Eric; Baudoin, Yvan

    1998-08-01

    Despite enthusiastic researches all over the world, completely autonomous robots are yet today an utopia. But pure teleoperated Robotics System, as generally used in unknown or dangerous environment, have also their limitations and drawbacks. The introduction of a partial autonomy, where appropriate, could greatly enhance the performances of the man-machine systems. The interactive autonomy objective is to hide sophisticated systems behind simple interfaces and to transparently provide help to the user. These principles can be implemented to control a manipulation arm or a mobile vehicle. Telecontrol is generally associated with video images, nevertheless in specific applications or under special circumstances, the images have a poor quality, can be degraded when using the systems or are not available. This implies the introduction of a 3D model that can be used as stand alone or as augmented reality display. Existing internet technologies can be used for interfacing the real and the virtual worlds. VRML provides the 3D aspects, Java is the unifying language between different computer system, browsers and plug-ins are completing the team. Using these technologies we have developed a multi client/server application to remotely view and control a mobile robot. In this paper we give the description of this application and we provide a basic presentation of the tools.

  14. Design, characterization and control of the Unique Mobility Corporation robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velasco, Virgilio B., Jr.; Newman, Wyatt S.; Steinetz, Bruce; Kopf, Carlo; Malik, John

    1994-01-01

    Space and mass are at a premium on any space mission, and thus any machinery designed for space use should be lightweight and compact, without sacrificing strength. It is for this reason that NASA/LeRC contracted Unique Mobility Corporation to exploit their novel actuator designs to build a robot that would advance the present state of technology with respect to these requirements. Custom-designed motors are the key feature of this robot. They are compact, high-performance dc brushless servo motors with a high pole count and low inductance, thus permitting high torque generation and rapid phase commutation. Using a custom-designed digital signal processor-based controller board, the pulse width modulation power amplifiers regulate the fast dynamics of the motor currents. In addition, the programmable digital signal processor (DSP) controller permits implementation of nonlinear compensation algorithms to account for motoring vs. regeneration, torque ripple, and back-EMF. As a result, the motors produce a high torque relative to their size and weight, and can do so with good torque regulation and acceptably high velocity saturation limits. This paper presents the Unique Mobility Corporation robot prototype: its actuators, its kinematic design, its control system, and its experimental characterization. Performance results, including saturation torques, saturation velocities and tracking accuracy tests are included.

  15. Navigating a Mobile Robot Across Terrain Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Howard, Ayanna; Bon, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    A strategy for autonomous navigation of a robotic vehicle across hazardous terrain involves the use of a measure of traversability of terrain within a fuzzy-logic conceptual framework. This navigation strategy requires no a priori information about the environment. Fuzzy logic was selected as a basic element of this strategy because it provides a formal methodology for representing and implementing a human driver s heuristic knowledge and operational experience. Within a fuzzy-logic framework, the attributes of human reasoning and decision- making can be formulated by simple IF (antecedent), THEN (consequent) rules coupled with easily understandable and natural linguistic representations. The linguistic values in the rule antecedents convey the imprecision associated with measurements taken by sensors onboard a mobile robot, while the linguistic values in the rule consequents represent the vagueness inherent in the reasoning processes to generate the control actions. The operational strategies of the human expert driver can be transferred, via fuzzy logic, to a robot-navigation strategy in the form of a set of simple conditional statements composed of linguistic variables. These linguistic variables are defined by fuzzy sets in accordance with user-defined membership functions. The main advantages of a fuzzy navigation strategy lie in the ability to extract heuristic rules from human experience and to obviate the need for an analytical model of the robot navigation process.

  16. Embodying a cognitive model in a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, D. Paul; Lyons, Damian; Lonsdale, Deryle

    2006-10-01

    The ADAPT project is a collaboration of researchers in robotics, linguistics and artificial intelligence at three universities to create a cognitive architecture specifically designed to be embodied in a mobile robot. There are major respects in which existing cognitive architectures are inadequate for robot cognition. In particular, they lack support for true concurrency and for active perception. ADAPT addresses these deficiencies by modeling the world as a network of concurrent schemas, and modeling perception as problem solving. Schemas are represented using the RS (Robot Schemas) language, and are activated by spreading activation. RS provides a powerful language for distributed control of concurrent processes. Also, The formal semantics of RS provides the basis for the semantics of ADAPT's use of natural language. We have implemented the RS language in Soar, a mature cognitive architecture originally developed at CMU and used at a number of universities and companies. Soar's subgoaling and learning capabilities enable ADAPT to manage the complexity of its environment and to learn new schemas from experience. We describe the issues faced in developing an embodied cognitive architecture, and our implementation choices.

  17. Two-axis hydraulic joint for high speed, heavy lift robotic operations

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, M.R.; Robinett, R.D.; Phelan, J.R.; VanZuiden, D.M.

    1994-04-01

    A hydraulically driven universal joint was developed for a heavy lift, high speed nuclear waste remediation application. Each axis is driven by a simple hydraulic cylinder controlled by a jet pipe servovalve. Servovalve behavior is controlled by a force feedback control system, which damps the hydraulic resonance. A prototype single joint robot was built and tested. A two joint robot is under construction.

  18. A Mobile Robot Operation with Instruction of Neck Movement using Laser Pointer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Yamamoto, Tomonori; Jindai, Mitsuru

    A human-robot system in which a mobile robot follows the movement of the laser spot projected on the floor by the laser pointer attached at the human head is considered. Human gives instruction of desired movement to the omni-directional mobile robot by rotating his or her head. The mobile robot can realize intended movement by following the movement of the laser spot on the floor. By projecting an instructive point to be followed by the mobile robot, the user can clearly recognize the relation between the direction being faced and the desired position of the mobile robot. In addition, the user can convey a motion trajectory to the mobile robot continuously. Kansei transfer function is introduced between the instruction movement of the laser spot and following motion of the robot to realize psychologically acceptable motion of the robot. In addition, three modes, stopping mode, following mode, and autonomous motion mode to the target, are considered. The effectiveness of the proposed system was discussed experimentally, and confirmed by the smooth trajectory of the following motion of the mobile robot and good psychological evaluations.

  19. Narrow-aisle mobile robot navigation in hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.R.; Henshaw, A.M.; Arkin, R.C.; Wester, W.D.

    1994-12-31

    Routine monitoring of stored radioactive materials can be performed safely by mobile robots. In order to accomplish this in an environment consisting of aisles of drums, it is necessary to have a reliable means of aisle-following. This work describes the adaptation of successful road-following methods based on visual recognition of road boundaries to the waste storage problem. Since the effort is targeted for near-term usage in normal operating conditions, special emphasis has been given to the implementation of the visual processing on practical (i.e., small, low-cost, and low-power) hardware platforms. The system described here has been implemented onboard a robot in our laboratory.

  20. Positional estimation techniques for an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandhakumar, N.; Aggarwal, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques for positional estimation of a mobile robot navigation in an indoor environment are described. A comprehensive review of the various positional estimation techniques studied in the literature is first presented. The techniques are divided into four different types and each of them is discussed briefly. Two different kinds of environments are considered for positional estimation; mountainous natural terrain and an urban, man-made environment with polyhedral buildings. In both cases, the robot is assumed to be equipped with single visual camera that can be panned and tilted and also a 3-D description (world model) of the environment is given. Such a description could be obtained from a stereo pair of aerial images or from the architectural plans of the buildings. Techniques for positional estimation using the camera input and the world model are presented.

  1. Simulation of cooperating robot manipulators on a mobile platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Stephen H.; Wen, John Ting-Yung; Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic equations of motion are presented for two or more cooperating manipulators on a freely moving mobile platform. The system of cooperating robot manipulators forms a closed kinematic chain where the force of interaction must be included in the formulation of robot and platform dynamics. The formulation includes the full dynamic interactions from arms to platform and arm tip to arm tip, and the possible translation and rotation of the platform. The equations of motion are shown to be identical in structure to the fixed-platform cooperative manipulator dynamics. The number of DOFs of the system is sufficiently large to make recursive dynamic calculation methods potentially more efficient than closed-form solutions. A complete simulation with two 6-DOF manipulators of a free-floating platform is presented along a with a multiple-arm controller to position the common load.

  2. CoMRoS: Cooperative mobile robots Stuttgart

    SciTech Connect

    Braeunl, T.; Kalbacher, M.; Levi, P.; Mamier, G.

    1996-12-31

    Project CoMRoS has the goal to develop intelligent cooperating mobile robots. Several different vehicles are to solve a single task autonomously by exchanging plans without a central control. We use {open_quotes}Robuter II{close_quotes} vehicles from Robosoft France, adapted to our needs. The standard vehicle has very little local intelligence (VME bus system) and is controlled remotely by wireless Ethernet for sending steering commands and receiving sonar sensor data. A wireless video link is used to transmit camera images. Data exchange between vehicles is then performed among the corresponding workstations. The remote control is basically used to simplify testing and debugging of robot programs. However, each vehicle can also be driven completely autonomous by using a laptop PC.

  3. Sonar sensor models and their application to mobile robot localization.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Antoni; González, Yolanda; Oliver, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to mobile robot localization using sonar sensors. This approach is based on the use of particle filters. Each particle is augmented with local environment information which is updated during the mission execution. An experimental characterization of the sonar sensors used is provided in the paper. A probabilistic measurement model that takes into account the sonar uncertainties is defined according to the experimental characterization. The experimental results quantitatively evaluate the presented approach and provide a comparison with other localization strategies based on both the sonar and the laser. Some qualitative results are also provided for visual inspection.

  4. Modeling, Control and Simulation of a Novel Mobile Robotic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiaoli; Davis, Jeremy; Doebbler, James; Turner, James D.; Junkins, John L.

    We in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at Texas A&M University are developing an autonomous mobile robotic system to emulate six degree of freedom (DOF) relative spacecraft motion during proximity operations. The base uses an active split offset castor (ASOC) drive train to achieve omni-directional planar motion with desired tracking position errors in the ± 1 cm range and heading angle error in the ±0.5° range. With six independently controlled wheels, we achieve a nominally uniform motor torque distribution and reduce the total disturbances with system control redundancy. A CAD (Computer-aided Design) sketch of our onethird scale model prototype is shown.

  5. A Mobile Robots Experimental Environment with Event-Based Wireless Communication

    PubMed Central

    Guinaldo, María; Fábregas, Ernesto; Farias, Gonzalo; Dormido-Canto, Sebastián; Chaos, Dictino; Sánchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    An experimental platform to communicate between a set of mobile robots through a wireless network has been developed. The mobile robots get their position through a camera which performs as sensor. The video images are processed in a PC and a Waspmote card sends the corresponding position to each robot using the ZigBee standard. A distributed control algorithm based on event-triggered communications has been designed and implemented to bring the robots into the desired formation. Each robot communicates to its neighbors only at event times. Furthermore, a simulation tool has been developed to design and perform experiments with the system. An example of usage is presented. PMID:23881139

  6. International space station mobile servicing system robotic workstation displays and overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Susan H.

    1997-07-01

    The International Space Station (ISSP) currently under development is equipped with robotic workstations to perform and provide information on the mobile servicing system robotic functions in use. The workstations include conventional and special developed hardware, software displays, and control software configurations. The robotic activities are critical to the ISSP during assembly and maintenance activities resulting in detailed crew interface requirements. Operational scenarios were used to develop the requirements of the ISSP Robotic activities resulting in the specification and configuration of the Mobile Servicing System Robotic Workstation.

  7. A mobile robots experimental environment with event-based wireless communication.

    PubMed

    Guinaldo, María; Fábregas, Ernesto; Farias, Gonzalo; Dormido-Canto, Sebastián; Chaos, Dictino; Sánchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián

    2013-07-22

    An experimental platform to communicate between a set of mobile robots through a wireless network has been developed. The mobile robots get their position through a camera which performs as sensor. The video images are processed in a PC and a Waspmote card sends the corresponding position to each robot using the ZigBee standard. A distributed control algorithm based on event-triggered communications has been designed and implemented to bring the robots into the desired formation. Each robot communicates to its neighbors only at event times. Furthermore, a simulation tool has been developed to design and perform experiments with the system. An example of usage is presented.

  8. 3D position measurement using square marker for automatic mobile robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Ohmori, Koji

    2010-11-01

    A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of movement in a given environment. Many techniques of automatic control are proposed. A line tracer is one of the most popular robots. The line tracer goes along a white line on the floor. The authors developed a mobile robot which moves to indicated point automatically. All you have to do is to indicate a goal point. In this paper, we propose an automatic mobile robot system controlled by an invisible marker and remote indication using the augmented reality technology.

  9. First results in the development of a mobile robot with trajectory planning and object recognition capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islamgozhayev, Talgat; Kalimoldayev, Maksat; Eleusinov, Arman; Mazhitov, Shokan; Mamyrbayev, Orken

    2016-11-01

    The use of mobile robots is becoming popular in many areas of service because they ensure safety and good performance while working in dangerous or unreachable locations. Areas of application of mobile robots differ from educational research to detection of bombs and their disposal. Based on the mission of the robot they have different configurations and abilities - some of them have additional arms, cranes and other tools, others use sensors and built-in image processing and object recognition systems to perform their missions. The robot that is described in this paper is mobile robot with a turret mounted on top of it. Different approaches have been tested while searching for best method suitable for image processing and template matching goals. Based on the information from image processing unit the system executes appropriate actions for planning motions and trajectory of the mobile robot.

  10. A monocular leader-follower system for small mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, Camille S.; German, Stan; Ostapchenko, Andrey

    2012-06-01

    Current generation UGV control systems typically require operators to physically control a platform through teleoperation, even for simple tasks such as travelling from one location to another. While vision-based control technologies promise to significantly reduce the burden on UGV operators, most schemes rely on specialized sensing hardware, such as LIDAR or stereo cameras, or require additional operator-worn equipment or markers to differentiate the leader from nearby pedestrians. We present a system for robust leader-follower control of small UGVs using only a single monocular camera, which is ubiquitous on mobile platforms. The system allows a user to control a mobile robot by leading the way and issuing commands through arm/hand gestures, and differentiates between the leader and nearby pedestrians. The software achieves this by integrating efficient algorithms for pedestrian detection, online appearance learning, and kinematic tracking with a lightweight technique for camera-based gesture recognition.

  11. Sensor fusion by pseudo information measure: a mobile robot application.

    PubMed

    Asharif, Mohammad Reza; Moshiri, Behzad; HoseinNezhad, Reza

    2002-07-01

    In any autonomous mobile robot, one of the most important issues to be designed and implemented is environment perception. In this paper, a new approach is formulated in order to perform sensory data integration for generation of an occupancy grid map of the environment. This method is an extended version of the Bayesian fusion method for independent sources of information. The performance of the proposed method of fusion and its sensitivity are discussed. Map building simulation for a cylindrical robot with eight ultrasonic sensors and mapping implementation for a Khepera robot have been separately tried in simulation and experimental works. A new neural structure is introduced for conversion of proximity data that are given by Khepera IR sensors to occupancy probabilities. Path planning experiments have also been applied to the resulting maps. For each map, two factors are considered and calculated: the fitness and the augmented occupancy of the map with respect to the ideal map. The length and the least distance to obstacles were the other two factors that were calculated for the routes that are resulted by path planning experiments. Experimental and simulation results show that by using the new fusion formulas, more informative maps of the environment are obtained. By these maps more appropriate routes could be achieved. Actually, there is a tradeoff between the length of the resulting routes and their safety and by choosing the proper fusion function, this tradeoff is suitably tuned for different map building applications.

  12. A 3D world model builder with a mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Faugeras, O. )

    1992-08-01

    This article describes a system to incrementally build a world model with a mobile robot in an unknown environment. The model is, for the moment, segment based. A trinocular stereo system is used to build a local map about the environment. A global map is obtained by integrating a sequence of stereo frames taken when the robot navigates in the environment. The emphasis of this article is on the representation of the uncertainty of 3D segments from stereo and on the integration of segments from multiple views. The proposed representation is simple and very convenient to characterize the uncertainty of segment. A Kalman filter is used to merge matched line segments. An important characteristic of this integration strategy is that a segment observed by the stereo system corresponds only to one part of the segment in space, so the union of the different observations gives a better estimate on the segment in space. The authors have succeeded in integrating 35 stereo frames taken in their robot room.

  13. Knowledge/geometry-based Mobile Autonomous Robot Simulator (KMARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Linfu; Mckendrick, John D.; Liu, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Ongoing applied research is focused on developing guidance system for robot vehicles. Problems facing the basic research needed to support this development (e.g., scene understanding, real-time vision processing, etc.) are major impediments to progress. Due to the complexity and the unpredictable nature of a vehicle's area of operation, more advanced vehicle control systems must be able to learn about obstacles within the range of its sensor(s). A better understanding of the basic exploration process is needed to provide critical support to developers of both sensor systems and intelligent control systems which can be used in a wide spectrum of autonomous vehicles. Elcee Computek, Inc. has been working under contract to the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio to develop a Knowledge/Geometry-based Mobile Autonomous Robot Simulator (KMARS). KMARS has two parts: a geometry base and a knowledge base. The knowledge base part of the system employs the expert-system shell CLIPS ('C' Language Integrated Production System) and necessary rules that control both the vehicle's use of an obstacle detecting sensor and the overall exploration process. The initial phase project has focused on the simulation of a point robot vehicle operating in a 2D environment.

  14. Cooperative system and method using mobile robots for testing a cooperative search controller

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Raymond H.; Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A test system for testing a controller provides a way to use large numbers of miniature mobile robots to test a cooperative search controller in a test area, where each mobile robot has a sensor, a communication device, a processor, and a memory. A method of using a test system provides a way for testing a cooperative search controller using multiple robots sharing information and communicating over a communication network.

  15. A virtual structure approach to formation control of unicycle mobile robots using mutual coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowska, Anna; van den Broek, Thijs; Huijberts, Henri; van de Wouw, Nathan; Kostić, Dragan; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2011-11-01

    In this article, the formation control problem for unicycle mobile robots is studied. A distributed virtual structure control strategy with mutual coupling between the robots is proposed. The rationale behind the introduction of the coupling terms is the fact that these introduce additional robustness of the formation with respect to perturbations as compared to typical leader-follower approaches. The applicability of the proposed approach is shown in simulations and experiments with a group of wirelessly controlled mobile robots.

  16. Optimizing a mobile robot control system using GPU acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuck, Nat; McGuinness, Michael; Martin, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes our attempt to optimize a robot control program for the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) by running computationally intensive portions of the system on a commodity graphics processing unit (GPU). The IGVC Autonomous Challenge requires a control program that performs a number of different computationally intensive tasks ranging from computer vision to path planning. For the 2011 competition our Robot Operating System (ROS) based control system would not run comfortably on the multicore CPU on our custom robot platform. The process of profiling the ROS control program and selecting appropriate modules for porting to run on a GPU is described. A GPU-targeting compiler, Bacon, is used to speed up development and help optimize the ported modules. The impact of the ported modules on overall performance is discussed. We conclude that GPU optimization can free a significant amount of CPU resources with minimal effort for expensive user-written code, but that replacing heavily-optimized library functions is more difficult, and a much less efficient use of time.

  17. Insect-controlled Robot: A Mobile Robot Platform to Evaluate the Odor-tracking Capability of an Insect.

    PubMed

    Ando, Noriyasu; Emoto, Shuhei; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-12-19

    Robotic odor source localization has been a challenging area and one to which biological knowledge has been expected to contribute, as finding odor sources is an essential task for organism survival. Insects are well-studied organisms with regard to odor tracking, and their behavioral strategies have been applied to mobile robots for evaluation. This "bottom-up" approach is a fundamental way to develop biomimetic robots; however, the biological analyses and the modeling of behavioral mechanisms are still ongoing. Therefore, it is still unknown how such a biological system actually works as the controller of a robotic platform. To answer this question, we have developed an insect-controlled robot in which a male adult silkmoth (Bombyx mori) drives a robot car in response to odor stimuli; this can be regarded as a prototype of a future insect-mimetic robot. In the cockpit of the robot, a tethered silkmoth walked on an air-supported ball and an optical sensor measured the ball rotations. These rotations were translated into the movement of the two-wheeled robot. The advantage of this "hybrid" approach is that experimenters can manipulate any parameter of the robot, which enables the evaluation of the odor-tracking capability of insects and provides useful suggestions for robotic odor-tracking. Furthermore, these manipulations are non-invasive ways to alter the sensory-motor relationship of a pilot insect and will be a useful technique for understanding adaptive behaviors.

  18. Graphical analysis of power systems for mobile robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raade, Justin William

    The field of mobile robotics places stringent demands on the power system. Energetic autonomy, or the ability to function for a useful operation time independent of any tether, refueling, or recharging, is a driving force in a robot designed for a field application. The focus of this dissertation is the development of two graphical analysis tools, namely Ragone plots and optimal hybridization plots, for the design of human scale mobile robotic power systems. These tools contribute to the intuitive understanding of the performance of a power system and expand the toolbox of the design engineer. Ragone plots are useful for graphically comparing the merits of different power systems for a wide range of operation times. They plot the specific power versus the specific energy of a system on logarithmic scales. The driving equations in the creation of a Ragone plot are derived in terms of several important system parameters. Trends at extreme operation times (both very short and very long) are examined. Ragone plot analysis is applied to the design of several power systems for high-power human exoskeletons. Power systems examined include a monopropellant-powered free piston hydraulic pump, a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine with hydraulic actuators, and a fuel cell with electric actuators. Hybrid power systems consist of two or more distinct energy sources that are used together to meet a single load. They can often outperform non-hybrid power systems in low duty-cycle applications or those with widely varying load profiles and long operation times. Two types of energy sources are defined: engine-like and capacitive. The hybridization rules for different combinations of energy sources are derived using graphical plots of hybrid power system mass versus the primary system power. Optimal hybridization analysis is applied to several power systems for low-power human exoskeletons. Hybrid power systems examined include a fuel cell and a solar panel coupled with

  19. Small, Untethered, Mobile Robots for Inspecting Gas Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Small, untethered mobile robots denoted gas-pipe explorers (GPEXs) have been proposed for inspecting the interiors of pipes used in the local distribution natural gas. The United States has network of gas-distribution pipes with a total length of approximately 109 m. These pipes are often made of iron and steel and some are more than 100 years old. As this network ages, there is a need to locate weaknesses that necessitate repair and/or preventive maintenance. The most common weaknesses are leaks and reductions in thickness, which are caused mostly by chemical reactions between the iron in the pipes and various substances in soil and groundwater. At present, mobile robots called pigs are used to inspect and clean the interiors of gas-transmission pipelines. Some carry magnetic-flux-leakage (MFL) sensors for measuring average wall thicknesses, some capture images, and some measure sizes and physical conditions. The operating ranges of pigs are limited to fairly straight sections of wide transmission- type (as distinguished from distribution- type) pipes: pigs are too large to negotiate such obstacles as bends with radii comparable to or smaller than pipe diameters, intrusions of other pipes at branch connections, and reductions in diameter at valves and meters. The GPEXs would be smaller and would be able to negotiate sharp bends and other obstacles that typically occur in gas-distribution pipes.

  20. Perception for mobile robot navigation: A survey of the state of the art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kortenkamp, David

    1994-01-01

    In order for mobile robots to navigate safely in unmapped and dynamic environments they must perceive their environment and decide on actions based on those perceptions. There are many different sensing modalities that can be used for mobile robot perception; the two most popular are ultrasonic sonar sensors and vision sensors. This paper examines the state-of-the-art in sensory-based mobile robot navigation. The first issue in mobile robot navigation is safety. This paper summarizes several competing sonar-based obstacle avoidance techniques and compares them. Another issue in mobile robot navigation is determining the robot's position and orientation (sometimes called the robot's pose) in the environment. This paper examines several different classes of vision-based approaches to pose determination. One class of approaches uses detailed, a prior models of the robot's environment. Another class of approaches triangulates using fixed, artificial landmarks. A third class of approaches builds maps using natural landmarks. Example implementations from each of these three classes are described and compared. Finally, the paper presents a completely implemented mobile robot system that integrates sonar-based obstacle avoidance with vision-based pose determination to perform a simple task.

  1. Olfaction and Hearing Based Mobile Robot Navigation for Odor/Sound Source Search

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kai; Liu, Qi; Wang, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Bionic technology provides a new elicitation for mobile robot navigation since it explores the way to imitate biological senses. In the present study, the challenging problem was how to fuse different biological senses and guide distributed robots to cooperate with each other for target searching. This paper integrates smell, hearing and touch to design an odor/sound tracking multi-robot system. The olfactory robot tracks the chemical odor plume step by step through information fusion from gas sensors and airflow sensors, while two hearing robots localize the sound source by time delay estimation (TDE) and the geometrical position of microphone array. Furthermore, this paper presents a heading direction based mobile robot navigation algorithm, by which the robot can automatically and stably adjust its velocity and direction according to the deviation between the current heading direction measured by magnetoresistive sensor and the expected heading direction acquired through the odor/sound localization strategies. Simultaneously, one robot can communicate with the other robots via a wireless sensor network (WSN). Experimental results show that the olfactory robot can pinpoint the odor source within the distance of 2 m, while two hearing robots can quickly localize and track the olfactory robot in 2 min. The devised multi-robot system can achieve target search with a considerable success ratio and high stability. PMID:22319401

  2. A Miniature Mobile Robot for Navigation and Positioning on the Beating Heart

    PubMed Central

    Patronik, Nicholas A.; Ota, Takeyoshi; Zenati, Marco A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2010-01-01

    Robotic assistance enhances conventional endoscopy; yet, limitations have hindered its mainstream adoption for cardiac surgery. HeartLander is a miniature mobile robot that addresses several of these limitations by providing precise and stable access over the surface of the beating heart in a less-invasive manner. The robot adheres to the heart and navigates to any desired target in a semiautonomous fashion. The initial therapies considered for HeartLander generally require precise navigation to multiple surface targets for treatment. To balance speed and precision, we decompose any general target acquisition into navigation to the target region followed by fine positioning to each target. In closed-chest, beating-heart animal studies, we demonstrated navigation to targets located around the circumference of the heart, as well as acquisition of target patterns on the anterior and posterior surfaces with an average error of 1.7 mm. The average drift encountered during station-keeping was 0.7 mm. These preclinical results demonstrate the feasibility of precise semiautonomous delivery of therapy to the surface of the beating heart using HeartLander. PMID:20179783

  3. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  4. Experiments in augmented teleoperation for mobile robots: I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn; Ellis, R. Darrin

    2007-04-01

    Teleoperated mobile robots are beginning to be used for a variety of tasks that require movement in close quarters in the vicinity of moving and parked vehicles, buildings and other man-made structures, and the target object for inspection or manipulation. The robots must be close enough to deploy short-range sensors and manipulators, and must be able to maneuver without potentially damaging collisions. Teleoperation is fatiguing and stressful even without the requirement for close positioning. In cooperation with the TARDEC Robotic Mobility Laboratory (TRML), we are investigating approaches to reduce workload and improve performance through augmented teleoperation. Human-robot interfaces for teleoperation commonly provide two degrees-of-freedom (DoF) motion control with visual feedback from an on-board egocentric camera and no supplemental distance or orientation cueing. This paper reports on the results of preliminary experiments to assess the effects on man-machine task performance of several options for augmented teleoperation: (a) 3 DoF motion control (rotation and omni-directional translation) versus 2 DoF control (rotation and forward/reverse motion), (b) on-board egocentric camera versus fixed-position overwatch camera versus dual egocentric-and-overwatch cameras, and (c) presence or absence of distance and orientation visual cueing. We examined three dimensions of performance: completion time, spatial accuracy, and workspace area. We investigated effects on the expected completion time and on the variance in completion time. Spatial accuracy had three components: orientation, aimpoint, and distance. We collected performance under different task conditions: (a) three position-and-orientation tolerance or accuracy objectives, and (b) four travel distances between successive inspection points. We collected data from three subjects. We analyzed the main effects and conditional interaction effects among the teleoperation options and task conditions. We were

  5. System design of a hand-held mobile robot for craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Kane, Gavin; Eggers, Georg; Boesecke, Robert; Raczkowsky, Jörg; Wörn, Heinz; Marmulla, Rüdiger; Mühling, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This contribution reports the development and initial testing of a Mobile Robot System for Surgical Craniotomy, the Craniostar. A kinematic system based on a unicycle robot is analysed to provide local positioning through two spiked wheels gripping directly onto a patients skull. A control system based on a shared control system between both the Surgeon and Robot is employed in a hand-held design that is tested initially on plastic phantom and swine skulls. Results indicate that the system has substantially lower risk than present robotically assisted craniotomies, and despite being a hand-held mobile robot, the Craniostar is still capable of sub-millimetre accuracy in tracking along a trajectory and thus achieving an accurate transfer of pre-surgical plan to the operating room procedure, without the large impact of current medical robots based on modified industrial robots.

  6. Perspectives on mobile robots as tools for child development and pediatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Michaud, François; Salter, Tamie; Duquette, Audrey; Laplante, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Mobile robots (i.e., robots capable of translational movements) can be designed to become interesting tools for child development studies and pediatric rehabilitation. In this article, the authors present two of their projects that involve mobile robots interacting with children: One is a spherical robot deployed in a variety of contexts, and the other is mobile robots used as pedagogical tools for children with pervasive developmental disorders. Locomotion capability appears to be key in creating meaningful and sustained interactions with children: Intentional and purposeful motion is an implicit appealing factor in obtaining children's attention and engaging them in interaction and learning. Both of these projects started with robotic objectives but are revealed to be rich sources of interdisciplinary collaborations in the field of assistive technology. This article presents perspectives on how mobile robots can be designed to address the requirements of child-robot interactions and studies. The authors also argue that mobile robot technology can be a useful tool in rehabilitation engineering, reaching its full potential through strong collaborations between roboticists and pediatric specialists.

  7. Development of an advanced mobile base for personal mobility and manipulation appliance generation II robotic wheelchair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Candiotti, Jorge; Shino, Motoki; Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development of a mobile base for the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance Generation II (PerMMA Gen II robotic wheelchair), an obstacle-climbing wheelchair able to move in structured and unstructured environments, and to climb over curbs as high as 8 inches. The mechanical, electrical, and software systems of the mobile base are presented in detail, and similar devices such as the iBOT mobility system, TopChair, and 6X6 Explorer are described. Findings The mobile base of PerMMA Gen II has two operating modes: “advanced driving mode” on flat and uneven terrain, and “automatic climbing mode” during stair climbing. The different operating modes are triggered either by local and dynamic conditions or by external commands from users. A step-climbing sequence, up to 0.2 m, is under development and to be evaluated via simulation. The mathematical model of the mobile base is introduced. A feedback and a feed-forward controller have been developed to maintain the posture of the passenger when driving over uneven surfaces or slopes. The effectiveness of the controller has been evaluated by simulation using the open dynamics engine tool. Conclusion Future work for PerMMA Gen II mobile base is implementation of the simulation and control on a real system and evaluation of the system via further experimental tests. PMID:23820149

  8. GENERAL: Collision avoidance for a mobile robot based on radial basis function hybrid force control technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Shu-Huan

    2009-10-01

    Collision avoidance is always difficult in the planning path for a mobile robot. In this paper, the virtual force field between a mobile robot and an obstacle is formed and regulated to maintain a desired distance by hybrid force control algorithm. Since uncertainties from robot dynamics and obstacle degrade the performance of a collision avoidance task, intelligent control is used to compensate for the uncertainties. A radial basis function (RBF) neural network is used to regulate the force field of an accurate distance between a robot and an obstacle in this paper and then simulation studies are conducted to confirm that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  9. A Vision-Based Emergency Response System with a Paramedic Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Il-Woong; Choi, Jin; Cho, Kyusung; Seo, Yong-Ho; Yang, Hyun Seung

    Detecting emergency situation is very important to a surveillance system for people like elderly live alone. A vision-based emergency response system with a paramedic mobile robot is presented in this paper. The proposed system is consisted of a vision-based emergency detection system and a mobile robot as a paramedic. A vision-based emergency detection system detects emergency by tracking people and detecting their actions from image sequences acquired by single surveillance camera. In order to recognize human actions, interest regions are segmented from the background using blob extraction method and tracked continuously using generic model. Then a MHI (Motion History Image) for a tracked person is constructed by silhouette information of region blobs and model actions. Emergency situation is finally detected by applying these information to neural network. When an emergency is detected, a mobile robot can help to diagnose the status of the person in the situation. To send the mobile robot to the proper position, we implement mobile robot navigation algorithm based on the distance between the person and a mobile robot. We validate our system by showing emergency detection rate and emergency response demonstration using the mobile robot.

  10. Navigable points estimation for mobile robots using binary image skeletonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez S., Fernando; Jacinto G., Edwar; Montiel A., Holman

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the use of image skeletonization for the estimation of all the navigable points, inside a scene of mobile robots navigation. Those points are used for computing a valid navigation path, using standard methods. The main idea is to find the middle and the extreme points of the obstacles in the scene, taking into account the robot size, and create a map of navigable points, in order to reduce the amount of information for the planning algorithm. Those points are located by means of the skeletonization of a binary image of the obstacles and the scene background, along with some other digital image processing algorithms. The proposed algorithm automatically gives a variable number of navigable points per obstacle, depending on the complexity of its shape. As well as, the way how the algorithm can change some of their parameters in order to change the final number of the resultant key points is shown. The results shown here were obtained applying different kinds of digital image processing algorithms on static scenes.

  11. Development and enhancement of mobile robot arms for EOD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkemeier, Matthew; Poulson, Eric; Aston, Eric; Johnston, Josh; Smith, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Autonomous Solutions has multiple projects involving mobile robot arms for EOD applications. This paper will describe 3 such projects. In the first, a 5 DOF robot arm of our own design is mounted on a 4-wheeled omni-directional platform. The arm is capable of lifting 100 pounds at close to full extension, and it can lift significantly more at shorter distances. The operator can specify either individual joint control or "fly the gripper" control, where the individual joint velocities are automatically calculated in response to commanded gripper velocities. In the second project, 3D data of a scene of interest is gathered and then presented to the EOD technician, along with a representation of the arm. The technician can then rotate the scene and arm to obtain the best possible view for the task. In the final project, a 3 DOF arm will be mounted to an omni-directional platform. The arm and platform will be treated as a single 6 DOF manipulator, and the operator will specify 6 DOF gripper velocity commands using a 6-axis input device, such as those used for solid modeling programs.

  12. Mechanical deployment system on aries an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, D.N.

    1995-12-01

    ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) is under development for the Department of Energy (DOE) to survey and inspect drums containing low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at DOE facilities. This paper focuses on the mechanical deployment system-referred to as the camera positioning system (CPS)-used in the project. The CPS is used for positioning four identical but separate camera packages consisting of vision cameras and other required sensors such as bar-code readers and light stripe projectors. The CPS is attached to the top of a mobile robot and consists of two mechanisms. The first is a lift mechanism composed of 5 interlocking rail-elements which starts from a retracted position and extends upward to simultaneously position 3 separate camera packages to inspect the top three drums of a column of four drums. The second is a parallelogram special case Grashof four-bar mechanism which is used for positioning a camera package on drums on the floor. Both mechanisms are the subject of this paper, where the lift mechanism is discussed in detail.

  13. Passive Infrared Thermographic Imaging for Mobile Robot Object Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinders, M. K.; Fehlman, W. L.

    2010-02-01

    The usefulness of thermal infrared imaging as a mobile robot sensing modality is explored, and a set of thermal-physical features used to characterize passive thermal objects in outdoor environments is described. Objects that extend laterally beyond the thermal camera's field of view, such as brick walls, hedges, picket fences, and wood walls as well as compact objects that are laterally within the thermal camera's field of view, such as metal poles and tree trunks, are considered. Classification of passive thermal objects is a subtle process since they are not a source for their own emission of thermal energy. A detailed analysis is included of the acquisition and preprocessing of thermal images, as well as the generation and selection of thermal-physical features from these objects within thermal images. Classification performance using these features is discussed, as a precursor to the design of a physics-based model to automatically classify these objects.

  14. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  15. Experiments in mobile robot navigation and range imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P. ); Dorum, O.H. . Div. of Computer Systems and Telematics); Andersen, C.S.; Jacobsen, S.V.; Jensen, M.S.; Kierkeby, N.O.S.; Kristensen, S.; Madsen, C.B.; Nielsen, H.M.; Sorensen, E.; Sorensen, J.J.; Christensen, H.I. . Lab. of Image Analysis)

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes some experiments in sensor-based mobile robot navigation conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory over the past several years. Two implemented systems are described. One uses a laser range camera as the sole sensor. The other uses, in addition, an array of sonars and a stereo vision system. We discuss a communication system for heterogeneous LAN-connected multiprocessor systems, useful in reasonably large development projects such as these. We also describe some work on the estimation of curvature in range images which introduces a new variational principle motivated by minimization of the change of curvature. Application of this principle is shown to produce results which are more desirable in some respects than those obtained using standard quadratic variation.

  16. Experiments in mobile robot navigation and range imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P.; Dorum, O.H.; Andersen, C.S.; Jacobsen, S.V.; Jensen, M.S.; Kierkeby, N.O.S.; Kristensen, S.; Madsen, C.B.; Nielsen, H.M.; Sorensen, E.; Sorensen, J.J.; Christensen, H.I.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes some experiments in sensor-based mobile robot navigation conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory over the past several years. Two implemented systems are described. One uses a laser range camera as the sole sensor. The other uses, in addition, an array of sonars and a stereo vision system. We discuss a communication system for heterogeneous LAN-connected multiprocessor systems, useful in reasonably large development projects such as these. We also describe some work on the estimation of curvature in range images which introduces a new variational principle motivated by minimization of the change of curvature. Application of this principle is shown to produce results which are more desirable in some respects than those obtained using standard quadratic variation.

  17. HAZBOT - A hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, H. W.; Edmonds, G.

    The authors describe the progress that has been made towards the development of a mobile robot that can be used by hazardous materials emergency response teams to perform a variety of tasks including incident localization and characterization, hazardous material identification/classification, site surveillance and monitoring, and ultimately incident mitigation. In September of 1991, the HAZBOT II vehicle performed its first end-to-end demonstration involving a scenario in which the vehicle: navigated to the incident location from a distant (150-200 ft.) deployment site; entered a building through a door with thumb latch style handle and door closer; located and navigated to the suspected incident location (a chemical storeroom); unlocked and opened the storeroom's door; climbed over the storeroom's 12 in. high threshold to enter the storeroom; and located and identified a broken container of benzene.

  18. Calibration and control for range imaging in mobile robot navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Dorum, O.H.; Hoover, A.; Jones, J.P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper addresses some issues in the development of sensor-based systems for mobile robot navigation which use range imaging sensors as the primary source for geometric information about the environment. In particular, we describe a model of scanning laser range cameras which takes into account the properties of the mechanical system responsible for image formation and a calibration procedure which yields improved accuracy over previous models. In addition, we describe an algorithm which takes the limitations of these sensors into account in path planning and path execution. In particular, range imaging sensors are characterized by a limited field of view and a standoff distance -- a minimum distance nearer than which surfaces cannot be sensed. These limitations can be addressed by enriching the concept of configuration space to include information about what can be sensed from a given configuration, and using this information to guide path planning and path following.

  19. Control of a nonholonomic mobile robot using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Fierro, R; Lewis, F L

    1998-01-01

    A control structure that makes possible the integration of a kinematic controller and a neural network (NN) computed-torque controller for nonholonomic mobile robots is presented. A combined kinematic/torque control law is developed using backstepping and stability is guaranteed by Lyapunov theory. This control algorithm can be applied to the three basic nonholonomic navigation problems: tracking a reference trajectory, path following, and stabilization about a desired posture. Moreover, the NN controller proposed in this work can deal with unmodeled bounded disturbances and/or unstructured unmodeled dynamics in the vehicle. On-line NN weight tuning algorithms do no require off-line learning yet guarantee small tracking errors and bounded control signals are utilized.

  20. A Self-Position Recognition Method for Mobile Robots Based on Robot Calling by a User Using a Cellular Phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yasuo; Choi, Yongwoon; Iyota, Taketoshi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Yuzuru

    A service robot system consisting of a cellular phone available to common users and mobile robots has been investigated and developed for the purpose of supporting such human activities as the delivering documents and goods, guiding visitors and patrolling an indoor environment. The system has the feature that is spontaneously able to recognize the robot location on it using the notion of Map-matching, by complying with the request called by a user with a cellular phone. This is possible because the robot's location can be corrected with a barcode of simple structure which is detected by a slit-ray sensor on the robot and a QR-code including location information to be read by a cellular phone. These codes also have the features that are simple to install them in the environment and easy to operate because users don't use an exclusive controller like keyboard on computers, but their own accustomed cellular phone for calling the robot. From the repeated experiments performed with the robot in an indoor corridor, the proposed system was successfully evaluated in the measurement accuracy for some self-positions of the robot called and the reliability for practical navigation. In addition, when the robot was called at a certain location, its behaviors to unexpected action of the user and the effect affected on it are discussed.

  1. A novel traveling wave piezoelectric actuated tracked mobile robot utilizing friction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Shu, Chengyou; Jin, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhui

    2017-03-01

    A novel traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot with potential application to robotic rovers was proposed and investigated in this study. The proposed tracked mobile robot is composed of a parallelogram-frame-structure piezoelectric transducer with four rings and a metal track. Utilizing the converse piezoelectric and friction effects, traveling waves were propagated in the rings and then the metal track was actuated by the piezoelectric transducer. Compared with traditional tracked mechanisms, the proposed tracked mobile robot has a simpler and more compact structure without lubricant, which eliminates the problem of lubricant volatilization and deflation, thus, it could be operated in the vacuum environment. Dynamic characteristics were simulated and measured to reveal the mechanism of actuating track of the piezoelectric transducer. Experimental investigations of the traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot were then carried out, and the results indicated that the robot prototype with a pair of exciting voltages of 460 Vpp is able to achieve a maximum velocity of 57 mm s‑1 moving on the foam plate and possesses the obstacle crossing capability with a maximum height of 27 mm. The proposed tracked mobile robot exhibits potential to be the driving system of robotic rovers.

  2. A cognitive approach to vision for a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, D. Paul; Funk, Christopher; Lyons, Damian

    2013-05-01

    We describe a cognitive vision system for a mobile robot. This system works in a manner similar to the human vision system, using saccadic, vergence and pursuit movements to extract information from visual input. At each fixation, the system builds a 3D model of a small region, combining information about distance, shape, texture and motion. These 3D models are embedded within an overall 3D model of the robot's environment. This approach turns the computer vision problem into a search problem, with the goal of constructing a physically realistic model of the entire environment. At each step, the vision system selects a point in the visual input to focus on. The distance, shape, texture and motion information are computed in a small region and used to build a mesh in a 3D virtual world. Background knowledge is used to extend this structure as appropriate, e.g. if a patch of wall is seen, it is hypothesized to be part of a large wall and the entire wall is created in the virtual world, or if part of an object is recognized, the whole object's mesh is retrieved from the library of objects and placed into the virtual world. The difference between the input from the real camera and from the virtual camera is compared using local Gaussians, creating an error mask that indicates the main differences between them. This is then used to select the next points to focus on. This approach permits us to use very expensive algorithms on small localities, thus generating very accurate models. It also is task-oriented, permitting the robot to use its knowledge about its task and goals to decide which parts of the environment need to be examined. The software components of this architecture include PhysX for the 3D virtual world, OpenCV and the Point Cloud Library for visual processing, and the Soar cognitive architecture, which controls the perceptual processing and robot planning. The hardware is a custom-built pan-tilt stereo color camera. We describe experiments using both

  3. The effect of waist twisting on walking speed of an amphibious salamander like robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xin-Yan; Jia, Li-Chao; Wang, Chen; Xie, Guang-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Amphibious salamanders often swing their waist to coordinate quadruped walking in order to improve their crawling speed. A robot with a swing waist joint, like an amphibious salamander, is used to mimic this locomotion. A control method is designed to allow the robot to maintain the rotational speed of its legs continuous and avoid impact between its legs and the ground. An analytical expression is established between the amplitude of the waist joint and the step length. Further, an optimization amplitude is obtained corresponding to the maximum stride. The simulation results based on automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS) and physical experiments verify the rationality and validity of this expression.

  4. Design and simulation of an image-based fuzzy tracking controller for a wheeled mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiao, Ying Shing; Wu, Ching Wei

    2011-12-01

    Image processing algorithms and fuzzy logic method are used to design a visual tracking controller for mobile robot navigation. In this paper, a wheeled mobile robot is equipped with a camera for detecting its task space. The grabbed environmental images are treated using image recognition processing to obtain target's size and position. The images are treated using input membership functions as the fuzzy logic controller input. The recognized target's size and position are input into a fuzzy logic controller in which fuzzy rules are used for inference. The inference results are output to the defuzzifier to obtain a physical control signal to control the mobile robot's movement. The velocity and direction of the mobile robot are the output of fuzzy logic controller. The differences in velocities for two wheels are used to control the robot's movement directions. The fuzzy logic controller outputs the control commands to drive the mobile robot to reach a position 50cm front of the target location. The simulation results verify that the proposed FLC is effective in navigating the mobile robot to track a moving target.

  5. Applications of tactical mobile robot technology to urban search and rescue: lessons learned at the World Trade Center disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, S. S.; Alibozek, Fred; Frost, Thomas; Norman, Christopher O.; Shein, Andrew M.; Smith, Christopher

    2002-07-01

    In the wake of the World Trade Center tragedy on Sept. 11th 2001, robots developed for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Tactical Mobile Robot program were used under the direction of CRASAR, the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue, to provide technical support to the relief effort. The TMR's (Tactical Mobile Robots) were used to search the disaster scene for casualties, locate victims, and assess building integrity. During the effort the Tactical Mobile Robots were presented with unprecedented obstacles and challenges. This paper serves to outline lessons learned at the WTC (World Trade Center) disaster and provide information for the development of more capable search and rescue robots.

  6. Control of Speed and Power in a Humanoid Robot Arm Using Pneumatic Actuators for Human-Robot Coexisting Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Kiyoshi

    A new type of humanoid robot arm which can coexist and be interactive with human beings are looked for. For the purpose of implementation of human smooth and fast movement to a pneumatic robot, the author used a humanoid robot arm with pneumatic agonist-antagonist actuators as endoskeletons which has control mechanism in the stiffness of each joint, and the controllability was experimentally discussed. Using Kitamori's method to experimentally decide the control gains and using I-PD controller, three joints of the humanoid robot arm were experimentally controlled. The damping control algorithm was also adopted to the wrist joint, to modify the speed in accordance with the power. The results showed that the controllability to step-wise input was less than one degree in error to follow the target angles, and the time constant was less than one second. The simultaneous input of command to three joints was brought about the overshoot of about ten percent increase in error. The humanoid robot arm can generate the calligraphic motions, moving quickly at some times but slowly at other times, or particularly softly on some occasions but stiffly on other occasions at high accuracy.

  7. Object Detection Applied to Indoor Environments for Mobile Robot Navigation.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alejandra Carolina; Gómez, Clara; Crespo, Jonathan; Barber, Ramón

    2016-07-28

    To move around the environment, human beings depend on sight more than their other senses, because it provides information about the size, shape, color and position of an object. The increasing interest in building autonomous mobile systems makes the detection and recognition of objects in indoor environments a very important and challenging task. In this work, a vision system to detect objects considering usual human environments, able to work on a real mobile robot, is developed. In the proposed system, the classification method used is Support Vector Machine (SVM) and as input to this system, RGB and depth images are used. Different segmentation techniques have been applied to each kind of object. Similarly, two alternatives to extract features of the objects are explored, based on geometric shape descriptors and bag of words. The experimental results have demonstrated the usefulness of the system for the detection and location of the objects in indoor environments. Furthermore, through the comparison of two proposed methods for extracting features, it has been determined which alternative offers better performance. The final results have been obtained taking into account the proposed problem and that the environment has not been changed, that is to say, the environment has not been altered to perform the tests.

  8. Object Detection Applied to Indoor Environments for Mobile Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alejandra Carolina; Gómez, Clara; Crespo, Jonathan; Barber, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    To move around the environment, human beings depend on sight more than their other senses, because it provides information about the size, shape, color and position of an object. The increasing interest in building autonomous mobile systems makes the detection and recognition of objects in indoor environments a very important and challenging task. In this work, a vision system to detect objects considering usual human environments, able to work on a real mobile robot, is developed. In the proposed system, the classification method used is Support Vector Machine (SVM) and as input to this system, RGB and depth images are used. Different segmentation techniques have been applied to each kind of object. Similarly, two alternatives to extract features of the objects are explored, based on geometric shape descriptors and bag of words. The experimental results have demonstrated the usefulness of the system for the detection and location of the objects in indoor environments. Furthermore, through the comparison of two proposed methods for extracting features, it has been determined which alternative offers better performance. The final results have been obtained taking into account the proposed problem and that the environment has not been changed, that is to say, the environment has not been altered to perform the tests. PMID:27483264

  9. Participatory design and validation of mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Daveler, Brandon; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Candiotti, Jorge; Wang, Hongwu; Cooper, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    The design of the mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair (MEBot) was based on input from electric powered wheelchair (EPW) users regarding the conditions they encounter when driving in both indoor and outdoor environments that may affect their safety and result in them becoming immobilized, tipping over, or falling out of their wheelchair. Phase I involved conducting a participatory design study to understand the conditions and barriers EPW users found to be difficult to drive in/over. Phase II consisted of creating a computer-aided design (CAD) prototype EPW to provide indoor and outdoor mobility that addressed these conditions with advanced applications. Phase III involved demonstrating the advanced applications and gathering feedback from end users about the likelihood they would use the advanced applications. The CAD prototype incorporated advanced applications, including self-leveling, curb climbing, and traction control, that addressed the challenging conditions and barriers discussed with EPW users (n = 31) during the participatory design study. Feedback of the CAD design and applications in phase III from end users (n = 12) showed a majority would use self-leveling (83%), traction control (83%), and curb climbing (75%). The overall design of MEBot received positive feedback from EPW users. However, these opinions will need to be reevaluated through user trials as the design advances.

  10. Symbolic dynamic filtering and language measure for behavior identification of mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Mallapragada, Goutham; Ray, Asok; Jin, Xin

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a procedure for behavior identification of mobile robots, which requires limited or no domain knowledge of the underlying process. While the features of robot behavior are extracted by symbolic dynamic filtering of the observed time series, the behavior patterns are classified based on language measure theory. The behavior identification procedure has been experimentally validated on a networked robotic test bed by comparison with commonly used tools, namely, principal component analysis for feature extraction and Bayesian risk analysis for pattern classification.

  11. Integrated High-Speed Torque Control System for a Robotic Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A control system for achieving high-speed torque for a joint of a robot includes a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) having a collocated joint processor and high-speed communication bus. The PCBA may also include a power inverter module (PIM) and local sensor conditioning electronics (SCE) for processing sensor data from one or more motor position sensors. Torque control of a motor of the joint is provided via the PCBA as a high-speed torque loop. Each joint processor may be embedded within or collocated with the robotic joint being controlled. Collocation of the joint processor, PIM, and high-speed bus may increase noise immunity of the control system, and the localized processing of sensor data from the joint motor at the joint level may minimize bus cabling to and from each control node. The joint processor may include a field programmable gate array (FPGA).

  12. Tool for Experimenting with Concepts of Mobile Robotics as Applied to Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Jojoa, E. M.; Bravo, E. C.; Bacca Cortes, E. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a tool for experimenting with mobile robotics concepts, primarily for use by children and teenagers, or by the general public, without previous experience in robotics. This tool helps children learn about science in an approachable and interactive way, using scientific research principles in…

  13. From Sci-Fi to Reality--Mobile Robots Get the Job Done

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2006-01-01

    Robots are simply computers that can interact with their environment. Some are fixed in place in industrial assembly plants for cars, appliances, micro electronic circuitry, and pharmaceuticals. Another important category of robots is the mobiles, machines that can be driven to the workplace, often designed for hazardous duty operation or…

  14. SNEAKY: a small highly mobile vision-enabled IP-ready tele-operable robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Vin J.; Natarajan, Narasimhamurthi; Lakshmanan, Sridhar

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a desirable set of features for small mobile robotic vehicles-features that are desirable both in terms of usefulness and versatility. A generic robotic architecture with these desirable features is discussed. The paper concludes by presenting SNEAKY, a commercial product available from M-Bots, that possesses most of the features included in the architecture.

  15. Dynamic modelling and link mechanism design of four-legged mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Ho

    In order to apply the advanced biological phenomena to the leg design of mobile robots, the structural and locomotive characteristics of several selected animals and insects are studied, and the four-legged mobile robot which can cover all existing leg arrangements and locomotion patterns is modeled by a rigid multibody system consisting of links and joints. The model is simulated to prove that the given structure or locomotive conditions satisfy the requirement of minimum energy expenditure. According to the first simulation, there exist ideal forward and backward stroke distances for each pair leg. Therefore, the walking volume and link lengths of existing legged mobile robots should be modified. Also, for other structural and locomotive characteristics which have been used by living creatures, the model is simulated to determine whether or not the actual or possible biological phenomena can be applied to the leg mechanism design of mobile robot.

  16. Self-localization for an autonomous mobile robot based on an omni-directional vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Shu-Yin; Lin, Kuang-Yu; Chia, Tsorng-Lin

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we designed an autonomous mobile robot based on the rules of the Federation of International Robotsoccer Association (FIRA) RoboSot category, integrating the techniques of computer vision, real-time image processing, dynamic target tracking, wireless communication, self-localization, motion control, path planning, and control strategy to achieve the contest goal. The self-localization scheme of the mobile robot is based on the algorithms featured in the images from its omni-directional vision system. In previous works, we used the image colors of the field goals as reference points, combining either dual-circle or trilateration positioning of the reference points to achieve selflocalization of the autonomous mobile robot. However, because the image of the game field is easily affected by ambient light, positioning systems exclusively based on color model algorithms cause errors. To reduce environmental effects and achieve the self-localization of the robot, the proposed algorithm is applied in assessing the corners of field lines by using an omni-directional vision system. Particularly in the mid-size league of the RobotCup soccer competition, selflocalization algorithms based on extracting white lines from the soccer field have become increasingly popular. Moreover, white lines are less influenced by light than are the color model of the goals. Therefore, we propose an algorithm that transforms the omni-directional image into an unwrapped transformed image, enhancing the extraction features. The process is described as follows: First, radical scan-lines were used to process omni-directional images, reducing the computational load and improving system efficiency. The lines were radically arranged around the center of the omni-directional camera image, resulting in a shorter computational time compared with the traditional Cartesian coordinate system. However, the omni-directional image is a distorted image, which makes it difficult to recognize the

  17. Mobility-Dependent Motion Planning for High Speed Robotic Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-25

    constraints and measures of optimality. As a consequence, many results from the theory of optimal controL in particular, those that guarantee time optimalitY1... Control Systen1s 1 pages 1-12, 2004. R Goebel and A.R Teel. Solutions to hybrid inclusions via set and graphical convergence with stability theory ... Control , pages 410-415, 1999. [11j 1. S. Pontryagin, V. G. Boltyanskij, R V. Gamkrelidze 1 and E. F. 1VIishchenko. The mathematical theory of optimal

  18. Exhaustive geographic search with mobile robots along space-filling curves

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, S.V.; Goldsmith, S.Y.

    1998-03-01

    Swarms of mobile robots can be tasked with searching a geographic region for targets of interest, such as buried land mines. The authors assume that the individual robots are equipped with sensors tuned to the targets of interest, that these sensors have limited range, and that the robots can communicate with one another to enable cooperation. How can a swarm of cooperating sensate robots efficiently search a given geographic region for targets in the absence of a priori information about the target`s locations? Many of the obvious approaches are inefficient or lack robustness. One efficient approach is to have the robots traverse a space-filling curve. For many geographic search applications, this method is energy-frugal, highly robust, and provides guaranteed coverage in a finite time that decreases as the reciprocal of the number of robots sharing the search task. Furthermore, it minimizes the amount of robot-to-robot communication needed for the robots to organize their movements. This report presents some preliminary results from applying the Hilbert space-filling curve to geographic search by mobile robots.

  19. Mobile robots II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 5, 6, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.J.; Chun, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Topics discussed are autonomous vehicle guidance, three-dimensional systems, the Mars rover, motion analysis, and planning and navigation. Particular papers are presented on a real-time system architecture for a mobile robot, distributed scene analysis for autonomous road vehicle guidance, the vision system for a Mars rover, the recovery of motion parameters using optical flow, and Prolog-based world models for mobile robot navigation.

  20. Vision-Based Leader/Follower Tracking for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    06/#1 Title: Vision-based Leader / Follower Tracking for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots Authors: Hariprasad Kannan, Vilas. K. Chitrakaran, Darren. M...number. 1. REPORT DATE 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vision-Based Leader / Follower Tracking...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Vision-Based Leader / Follower Tracking for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots Hariprasad Kannan, Vilas K

  1. Automating CapCom Using Mobile Agents and Robotic Assistants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhaus, Maarten; Alena, Richard L.; Berrios, Daniel; Dowding, John; Graham, Jeffrey S.; Tyree, Kim S.; Hirsh, Robert L.; Garry, W. Brent; Semple, Abigail

    2005-01-01

    We have developed and tested an advanced EVA communications and computing system to increase astronaut self-reliance and safety, reducing dependence on continuous monitoring and advising from mission control on Earth. This system, called Mobile Agents (MA), is voice controlled and provides information verbally to the astronauts through programs called personal agents. The system partly automates the role of CapCom in Apollo-including monitoring and managing EVA navigation, scheduling, equipment deployment, telemetry, health tracking, and scientific data collection. EVA data are stored automatically in a shared database in the habitat/vehicle and mirrored to a site accessible by a remote science team. The program has been developed iteratively in the context of use, including six years of ethnographic observation of field geology. Our approach is to develop automation that supports the human work practices, allowing people to do what they do well, and to work in ways they are most familiar. Field experiments in Utah have enabled empirically discovering requirements and testing alternative technologies and protocols. This paper reports on the 2004 system configuration, experiments, and results, in which an EVA robotic assistant (ERA) followed geologists approximately 150 m through a winding, narrow canyon. On voice command, the ERA took photographs and panoramas and was directed to move and wait in various locations to serve as a relay on the wireless network. The MA system is applicable to many space work situations that involve creating and navigating from maps (including configuring equipment for local topology), interacting with piloted and unpiloted rovers, adapting to environmental conditions, and remote team collaboration involving people and robots.

  2. Increasing the Mobility of Dismounted Marines. Small Unit Mobility Enhancement Technologies: Unmanned Ground Vehicles Market Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Robotic Porter (Israel Aerospace Industries, Ltd.) ...........................................16 10 . Ranlo (Defense Technologies, Inc... 10 5. Selected Data for Top 15 Candidate Systems...26 10 . Vehicle Mobility (Speed) Scoring

  3. Mobile robot worksystem (Rosie). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) have developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. Rosie is a mobile robot worksystem developed for nuclear facilities D and D. Rosie performs mechanical dismantlement of radiologically contaminated structures by remotely deploying other tools or systems. At the CP-5 reactor site, Rosie is a mobile platform used to support reactor assembly demolition through its long reach, heavy lift capability and its deployment and positioning of a Kraft Predator dexterous manipulator arm. Rosie is a tethered, 50 m (165 ft) long, robotic system controlled via teleoperation from a control console that is located outside of the radiological containment area. The operator uses Rosie to move, lift or offload radioactive materials using its integral lifting hook or to position the Kraft Predator arm in locations where the arm can be used to dismantle parts of the CP-5 reactor. The specific operating areas were concentrated in two high radiation areas, one at the top of the reactor structure atop and within the reactor tank assembly and the second at a large opening on the west side of the reactor`s biological shield called the west thermal column. In the first of these areas, low level radioactive waste size previously segmented or dismantled by the Dual Arm Work Platform (DAWP) and placed into a steel drum or transfer can were moved to a staging area for manual packaging. In the latter area, the manipulator arm removed and transferred shielding blocks from the west thermal column area of the reactor into waste containers. Rosie can also deploy up to twelve remotely controlled television cameras, some with microphones, which can be used

  4. Real-time Cooperative Behavior for Tactical Mobile Robot Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) to provide feedback during teleoperation of a small Koala Robot (Figure 47). The robot is equipped with...perception of driving across uneven terrain or through minor obstruc- tions, humps, etc. Figure 47: Koala robot used for teleoperation with

  5. a Novel Obstacle Avoidance Approach for Mobile Robot System Including Target Capturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kamel, M. A.; Beji, L.; Abichou, A.; Mammar, S.

    2009-03-01

    In this work we focused on the study of how a mobile robot with kinematic model can reach a target in an hostile environment, with one obstacle. We developed a new approach which breaks up the control law into the sum of a repulsive part ur and an attractive part ua to make a mobile robot converge to the target, while avoiding the obstacle. Our approach is based on Lyapunov technique and transformation to polar coordinates in order to built a control law without analytic switch among different cases of robot's navigation. Simulations are carried out for two scenarios of navigation for target capturing.

  6. Control of autonomous mobile robots using custom-designed qualitative reasoning VLSI chips and boards

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Pattay, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Two types of computer boards including custom-designed VLSI chips have been developed to provide a qualitative reasoning capability for the real-time control of autonomous mobile robots. The design and operation of these boards are described and an example of application of qualitative reasoning for the autonomous navigation of a mobile robot in a-priori unknown environments is presented. Results concerning consistency and modularity in the development of qualitative reasoning schemes as well as the general applicability of these techniques to robotic control domains are also discussed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Homophily and the speed of social mobilization: the effect of acquired and ascribed traits.

    PubMed

    Alstott, Jeff; Madnick, Stuart; Velu, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale mobilization of individuals across social networks is becoming increasingly prevalent in society. However, little is known about what affects the speed of social mobilization. Here we use a framed field experiment to identify and measure properties of individuals and their relationships that predict mobilization speed. We ran a global social mobilization contest and recorded personal traits of the participants and those they recruited. We studied the effects of ascribed traits (gender, age) and acquired traits (geography, and information source) on the speed of mobilization. We found that homophily, a preference for interacting with other individuals with similar traits, had a mixed role in social mobilization. Homophily was present for acquired traits, in which mobilization speed was faster when the recuiter and recruit had the same trait compared to different traits. In contrast, we did not find support for homophily for the ascribed traits. Instead, those traits had other, non-homophily effects: Females mobilized other females faster than males mobilized other males. Younger recruiters mobilized others faster, and older recruits mobilized slower. Recruits also mobilized faster when they first heard about the contest directly from the contest organization, and decreased in speed when hearing from less personal source types (e.g. family vs. media). These findings show that social mobilization includes dynamics that are unlike other, more passive forms of social activity propagation. These findings suggest relevant factors for engineering social mobilization tasks for increased speed.

  8. Homophily and the Speed of Social Mobilization: The Effect of Acquired and Ascribed Traits

    PubMed Central

    Alstott, Jeff; Madnick, Stuart; Velu, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale mobilization of individuals across social networks is becoming increasingly prevalent in society. However, little is known about what affects the speed of social mobilization. Here we use a framed field experiment to identify and measure properties of individuals and their relationships that predict mobilization speed. We ran a global social mobilization contest and recorded personal traits of the participants and those they recruited. We studied the effects of ascribed traits (gender, age) and acquired traits (geography, and information source) on the speed of mobilization. We found that homophily, a preference for interacting with other individuals with similar traits, had a mixed role in social mobilization. Homophily was present for acquired traits, in which mobilization speed was faster when the recuiter and recruit had the same trait compared to different traits. In contrast, we did not find support for homophily for the ascribed traits. Instead, those traits had other, non-homophily effects: Females mobilized other females faster than males mobilized other males. Younger recruiters mobilized others faster, and older recruits mobilized slower. Recruits also mobilized faster when they first heard about the contest directly from the contest organization, and decreased in speed when hearing from less personal source types (e.g. family vs. media). These findings show that social mobilization includes dynamics that are unlike other, more passive forms of social activity propagation. These findings suggest relevant factors for engineering social mobilization tasks for increased speed. PMID:24740123

  9. An intelligent hybrid behavior coordination system for an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chaomin; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark; Fallouh, Samer

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, development of a low-cost PID controller with an intelligent behavior coordination system for an autonomous mobile robot is described that is equipped with IR sensors, ultrasonic sensors, regulator, and RC filters on the robot platform based on HCS12 microcontroller and embedded systems. A novel hybrid PID controller and behavior coordination system is developed for wall-following navigation and obstacle avoidance of an autonomous mobile robot. Adaptive control used in this robot is a hybrid PID algorithm associated with template and behavior coordination models. Software development contains motor control, behavior coordination intelligent system and sensor fusion. In addition, the module-based programming technique is adopted to improve the efficiency of integrating the hybrid PID and template as well as behavior coordination model algorithms. The hybrid model is developed to synthesize PID control algorithms, template and behavior coordination technique for wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance systems. The motor control, obstacle avoidance, and wall-following navigation algorithms are developed to propel and steer the autonomous mobile robot. Experiments validate how this PID controller and behavior coordination system directs an autonomous mobile robot to perform wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance. Hardware configuration and module-based technique are described in this paper. Experimental results demonstrate that the robot is successfully capable of being guided by the hybrid PID controller and behavior coordination system for wall-following navigation with obstacle avoidance.

  10. A Simple Interface for 3D Position Estimation of a Mobile Robot with Single Camera

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chun-Tang; Chung, Ming-Hsuan; Chiou, Juing-Shian; Wang, Chi-Jo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile robots controlled by a smart phone or tablet. This paper proposes a visual control interface for a mobile robot with a single camera to easily control the robot actions and estimate the 3D position of a target. In this proposal, the mobile robot employed an Arduino Yun as the core processor and was remote-controlled by a tablet with an Android operating system. In addition, the robot was fitted with a three-axis robotic arm for grasping. Both the real-time control signal and video transmission are transmitted via Wi-Fi. We show that with a properly calibrated camera and the proposed prototype procedures, the users can click on a desired position or object on the touchscreen and estimate its 3D coordinates in the real world by simple analytic geometry instead of a complicated algorithm. The results of the measurement verification demonstrates that this approach has great potential for mobile robots. PMID:27023556

  11. Methods in the analysis of mobile robots behavior in unstructured environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondoc, Alina; Dolga, Valer; Gorie, Nina

    2012-11-01

    A mobile robot can be described as a mechatronic system that must execute an application in a working environment. From mechatronic concept, the authors highlight mechatronic system structure based on its secondary function. Mobile robot will move, either in a known environment - structured environment may be described in time by an appropriate mathematical model or in an unfamiliar environment - unstructured - the random aspects prevail. Starting from a point robot must reach a START STOP point in the context of functional constraints imposed on the one hand, the application that, on the other hand, the working environment. The authors focus their presentation on unstructured environment. In this case the evolution of mobile robot is based on obtaining information in the work environment, their processing and integration results in action strategy. Number of sensory elements used is subject to optimization parameter. Starting from a known structure of mobile robot, the authors analyze the possibility of developing a mathematical model variants mathematical contact wheel - ground. It analyzes the various types of soil and the possibility of obtaining a "signature" on it based on sensory information. Theoretical aspects of the problem are compared to experimental results obtained in robot evolution. The mathematical model of the robot system allowed the simulation environment and its evolution in comparison with the experimental results estimated.

  12. Mobile robot trajectory tracking using noisy RSS measurements: an RFID approach.

    PubMed

    Miah, M Suruz; Gueaieb, Wail

    2014-03-01

    Most RF beacons-based mobile robot navigation techniques rely on approximating line-of-sight (LOS) distances between the beacons and the robot. This is mostly performed using the robot's received signal strength (RSS) measurements from the beacons. However, accurate mapping between the RSS measurements and the LOS distance is almost impossible to achieve in reverberant environments. This paper presents a partially-observed feedback controller for a wheeled mobile robot where the feedback signal is in the form of noisy RSS measurements emitted from radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The proposed controller requires neither an accurate mapping between the LOS distance and the RSS measurements, nor the linearization of the robot model. The controller performance is demonstrated through numerical simulations and real-time experiments.

  13. A new efficient optimal path planner for mobile robot based on Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Prases K.; Parhi, Dayal R.

    2014-12-01

    Planning of the shortest/optimal route is essential for efficient operation of autonomous mobile robot or vehicle. In this paper Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO), a new meta-heuristic algorithm, has been implemented for solving the path planning problem of mobile robot in partially or totally unknown environments. This meta-heuristic optimization is based on the colonizing property of weeds. First we have framed an objective function that satisfied the conditions of obstacle avoidance and target seeking behavior of robot in partially or completely unknown environments. Depending upon the value of objective function of each weed in colony, the robot avoids obstacles and proceeds towards destination. The optimal trajectory is generated with this navigational algorithm when robot reaches its destination. The effectiveness, feasibility, and robustness of the proposed algorithm has been demonstrated through series of simulation and experimental results. Finally, it has been found that the developed path planning algorithm can be effectively applied to any kinds of complex situation.

  14. Space-time modeling using environmental constraints in a mobile robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    Grid-based models of a robot's local environment have been used by many researchers building mobile robot control systems. The attraction of grid-based models is their clear parallel between the internal model and the external world. However, the discrete nature of such representations does not match well with the continuous nature of actions and usually serves to limit the abilities of the robot. This work describes a spatial modeling system that extracts information from a grid-based representation to form a symbolic representation of the robot's local environment. The approach makes a separation between the representation provided by the sensing system and the representation used by the action system. Separation allows asynchronous operation between sensing and action in a mobile robot, as well as the generation of a more continuous representation upon which to base actions.

  15. Automating CapCom Using Mobile Agents and Robotic Assistants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Alena, Richard L.; Graham, Jeffrey S.; Tyree, Kim S.; Hirsh, Robert L.; Garry, W. Brent; Semple, Abigail; Shum, Simon J. Buckingham; Shadbolt, Nigel; Rupert, Shannon M.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Agents (MA) is an advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) communications and computing system to increase astronaut self-reliance and safety, reducing dependence on continuous monitoring and advising from mission control on Earth. MA is voice controlled and provides information verbally to the astronauts through programs called "personal agents." The system partly automates the role of CapCom in Apollo-including monitoring and managing navigation, scheduling, equipment deployment, telemetry, health tracking, and scientific data collection. Data are stored automatically in a shared database in the habitat/vehicle and mirrored to a site accessible by a remote science team. The program has been developed iteratively in authentic work contexts, including six years of ethnographic observation of field geology. Analog field experiments in Utah enabled empirically discovering requirements and testing alternative technologies and protocols. We report on the 2004 system configuration, experiments, and results, in which an EVA robotic assistant (ERA) followed geologists approximately 150 m through a winding, narrow canyon. On voice command, the ERA took photographs and panoramas and was directed to serve as a relay on the wireless network.

  16. Multihierarchical interactive task planning: application to mobile robotics.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Cipriano; Fernández-Madrigal, Juan-Antonio; González, Javier

    2008-06-01

    To date, no solution has been proposed to human-machine interactive task planning that deals simultaneously with two important issues: 1) the capability of processing large amounts of information in planning (as it is needed in any real application) and 2) being efficient in human-machine communication (a proper set of symbols for human-machine interaction may not be suitable for efficient automatic planning and vice versa). In this paper, we formalize a symbolic model of the environment to solve these issues in a natural form through a human-inspired mechanism that structures knowledge in multiple hierarchies. Planning with a hierarchical model may be efficient even in cases where the lack of hierarchical information would make it intractable. However, in addition, our multihierarchical model is able to use the symbols that are most familiar to each human user for interaction, thus achieving efficiency in human-machine communication without compromising the task-planning performance. We formalize here a general interactive task-planning process which is then particularized to be applied to a mobile robotic application. The suitability of our approach has been demonstrated with examples and experiments.

  17. A Scalable Distributed Approach to Mobile Robot Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin; Browning, Robert L.; Gribble, William S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper documents our progress during the first year of work on our original proposal entitled 'A Scalable Distributed Approach to Mobile Robot Vision'. We are pursuing a strategy for real-time visual identification and tracking of complex objects which does not rely on specialized image-processing hardware. In this system perceptual schemas represent objects as a graph of primitive features. Distributed software agents identify and track these features, using variable-geometry image subwindows of limited size. Active control of imaging parameters and selective processing makes simultaneous real-time tracking of many primitive features tractable. Perceptual schemas operate independently from the tracking of primitive features, so that real-time tracking of a set of image features is not hurt by latency in recognition of the object that those features make up. The architecture allows semantically significant features to be tracked with limited expenditure of computational resources, and allows the visual computation to be distributed across a network of processors. Early experiments are described which demonstrate the usefulness of this formulation, followed by a brief overview of our more recent progress (after the first year).

  18. Improvement in Visual Target Tracking for a Mobile Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won; Ansar, Adnan; Madison, Richard

    2006-01-01

    In an improvement of the visual-target-tracking software used aboard a mobile robot (rover) of the type used to explore the Martian surface, an affine-matching algorithm has been replaced by a combination of a normalized- cross-correlation (NCC) algorithm and a template-image-magnification algorithm. Although neither NCC nor template-image magnification is new, the use of both of them to increase the degree of reliability with which features can be matched is new. In operation, a template image of a target is obtained from a previous rover position, then the magnification of the template image is based on the estimated change in the target distance from the previous rover position to the current rover position (see figure). For this purpose, the target distance at the previous rover position is determined by stereoscopy, while the target distance at the current rover position is calculated from an estimate of the current pose of the rover. The template image is then magnified by an amount corresponding to the estimated target distance to obtain a best template image to match with the image acquired at the current rover position.

  19. Path optimisation of a mobile robot using an artificial neural network controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. K.; Parhi, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    This article proposed a novel approach for design of an intelligent controller for an autonomous mobile robot using a multilayer feed forward neural network, which enables the robot to navigate in a real world dynamic environment. The inputs to the proposed neural controller consist of left, right and front obstacle distance with respect to its position and target angle. The output of the neural network is steering angle. A four layer neural network has been designed to solve the path and time optimisation problem of mobile robots, which deals with the cognitive tasks such as learning, adaptation, generalisation and optimisation. A back propagation algorithm is used to train the network. This article also analyses the kinematic design of mobile robots for dynamic movements. The simulation results are compared with experimental results, which are satisfactory and show very good agreement. The training of the neural nets and the control performance analysis has been done in a real experimental setup.

  20. Controlling of a mobile robot with a trailer and its nilpotent approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardentov, Andrey A.

    2016-12-01

    This work studies a number of approaches to solving the motion planning problem for a mobile robot with a trailer. Different control models of car-like robots are considered from the differential-geometric point of view. The same models can also be used for controlling a mobile robot with a trailer. However, in cases where the position of the trailer is of importance, i.e., when it is moving backward, a more complex approach should be applied. At the end of the article, such an approach, based on recent works in sub-Riemannian geometry, is described. It is applied to the problem of reparking a trailer and implemented in the algorithm for parking a mobile robot with a trailer.

  1. An integrated collision prediction and avoidance scheme for mobile robots in non-stationary environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyriakopoulos, K. J.; Saridis, G. N.

    1993-01-01

    A formulation that makes possible the integration of collision prediction and avoidance stages for mobile robots moving in general terrains containing moving obstacles is presented. A dynamic model of the mobile robot and the dynamic constraints are derived. Collision avoidance is guaranteed if the distance between the robot and a moving obstacle is nonzero. A nominal trajectory is assumed to be known from off-line planning. The main idea is to change the velocity along the nominal trajectory so that collisions are avoided. A feedback control is developed and local asymptotic stability is proved if the velocity of the moving obstacle is bounded. Furthermore, a solution to the problem of inverse dynamics for the mobile robot is given. Simulation results verify the value of the proposed strategy.

  2. Distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feitian; Lagor, Francis D; Yeo, Derrick; Washington, Patrick; Paley, Derek A

    2015-10-23

    Flexibility plays an important role in fish behavior by enabling high maneuverability for predator avoidance and swimming in turbulent flow. This paper presents a novel flexible fish robot equipped with distributed pressure sensors for flow sensing. The body of the robot is molded from soft, hyperelastic material, which provides flexibility. Its Joukowski-foil shape is conducive to modeling the fluid analytically. A quasi-steady potential-flow model is adopted for real-time flow estimation, whereas a discrete-time vortex-shedding flow model is used for higher-fidelity simulation. The dynamics for the flexible fish robot yield a reduced model for one-dimensional swimming. A recursive Bayesian filter assimilates pressure measurements to estimate flow speed, angle of attack, and foil camber. The closed-loop speed-control strategy combines an inverse-mapping feedforward controller based on an average model derived for periodic actuation of angle-of-attack and a proportional-integral feedback controller utilizing the estimated flow information. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the estimation and control strategy. The paper provides a systematic approach to distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot by regulating the flapping amplitude.

  3. Studying the dynamics of high-speed elastic kinematically controlled robot-manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavrashina, T. V.; Zavrashina, N. M.

    The authors set out the problem on controlling kinematically spatial motions of a flexible multi-link space robot-manipulator under conditions of its high-speed manoevering. The constructed mathematical model of the system dynamics takes into account the distributed properties of elasticity and inertia of the manipulator links, which are at the state of compound motion. They give an example of the numerical investigation of the dynamical characteristics of two-link robot when it is employed to carry a load.

  4. Localization of Mobile Robots Using an Extended Kalman Filter in a LEGO NXT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, M.; Moreira, A. P.; Matos, A.

    2012-01-01

    The inspiration for this paper comes from a successful experiment conducted with students in the "Mobile Robots" course in the fifth year of the integrated Master's program in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (FEUP), Porto, Portugal. One of the topics in this Mobile Robots…

  5. Controlling flexible robot arms using a high speed dynamics process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor); Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Described here is a robot controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges, and flexible in plural deformation modes. It is operated by computing articulated body qualities for each of the bodies from the respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables. Computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each of the bodies, beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, and then, for each one of the bodies beginning with the innermost body, computing a modal body acceleration from a modal body acceleration of a previous body, computing a modal deformation acceleration and hinge acceleration from the resulting hinge acceleration and from the modal body acceleration.

  6. Controlling Flexible Robot Arms Using High Speed Dynamics Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A robot manipulator controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges and flexible in plural deformation modes corresponding to respective modal spatial influence vectors relating deformations of plural spaced nodes of respective bodies to the plural deformation modes, operates by computing articulated body quantities for each of the bodies from respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables, and computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each one of the bodies beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body and from the vector of deformation and hinge configuration variables, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, the residual body force and the articulated hinge inertia, and revising the residual body force modal body acceleration.

  7. A mobile robot system for ground servicing operations on the space shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, K.; Bennett, R.; Blackwell, M.; Graham, T.; Gatrall, S.; O'Toole, R.; Schempf, H.

    1992-11-01

    A mobile system for space shuttle servicing, the Tessellator, has been configured, designed and is currently being built and integrated. Robot tasks include chemical injection and inspection of the shuttle's thermal protection system. This paper outlines tasks, rationale, and facility requirements for the development of this system. A detailed look at the mobile system and manipulator follow with a look at mechanics, electronics, and software. Salient features of the mobile robot include omnidirectionality, high reach, high stiffness and accuracy with safety and self-reliance integral to all aspects of the design. The robot system is shown to meet task, facility, and NASA requirements in its design resulting in unprecedented specifications for a mobile-manipulation system.

  8. A mobile robot system for ground servicing operations on the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, K.; Bennett, R.; Blackwell, M.; Graham, T.; Gatrall, S.; O'Toole, R.; Schempf, H.

    1992-01-01

    A mobile system for space shuttle servicing, the Tessellator, has been configured, designed and is currently being built and integrated. Robot tasks include chemical injection and inspection of the shuttle's thermal protection system. This paper outlines tasks, rationale, and facility requirements for the development of this system. A detailed look at the mobile system and manipulator follow with a look at mechanics, electronics, and software. Salient features of the mobile robot include omnidirectionality, high reach, high stiffness and accuracy with safety and self-reliance integral to all aspects of the design. The robot system is shown to meet task, facility, and NASA requirements in its design resulting in unprecedented specifications for a mobile-manipulation system.

  9. Passive mapping and intermittent exploration for mobile robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engleson, Sean P.

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive state space architecture is combined with diktiometric representation to provide the framework for designing a robot mapping system with flexible navigation planning tasks. This involves indexing waypoints described as expectations, geometric indexing, and perceptual indexing. Matching and updating the robot's projected position and sensory inputs with indexing waypoints involves matchers, dynamic priorities, transients, and waypoint restructuring. The robot's map learning can be opganized around the principles of passive mapping.

  10. Sensor and Guidance Technology Related to Mobile Robots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    interior finish is applied. Finish Work Finish work involves insulating, drywalling , painting, and installing floor coverings, roofing, and any type of final...Purpose Robot would do the interior connecting and finishing work, such as insulating, drywalling , and painting. An Exterior Wall Robot would not be needed...on the interior of an Army building under construction. Typical tasks envisioned for such a robot are nailing sheets of drywall or plywood, taping

  11. A Mobile Robot Localization via Indoor Fixed Remote Surveillance Cameras.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Hong; Cho, Young Im

    2016-02-04

    Localization, which is a technique required by service robots to operate indoors, has been studied in various ways. Most localization techniques have the robot measure environmental information to obtain location information; however, this is a high-cost option because it uses extensive equipment and complicates robot development. If an external device is used to determine a robot's location and transmit this information to the robot, the cost of internal equipment required for location recognition can be reduced. This will simplify robot development. Thus, this study presents an effective method to control robots by obtaining their location information using a map constructed by visual information from surveillance cameras installed indoors. With only a single image of an object, it is difficult to gauge its size due to occlusion. Therefore, we propose a localization method using several neighboring surveillance cameras. A two-dimensional map containing robot and object position information is constructed using images of the cameras. The concept of this technique is based on modeling the four edges of the projected image of the field of coverage of the camera and an image processing algorithm of the finding object's center for enhancing the location estimation of objects of interest. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by analyzing the resulting movement of a robot in response to the location information obtained from the two-dimensional map. The accuracy of the multi-camera setup was measured in advance.

  12. A satellite orbital testbed for SATCOM using mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Dan; Lu, Wenjie; Wang, Zhonghai; Jia, Bin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Tao; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops and evaluates a satellite orbital testbed (SOT) for satellite communications (SATCOM). SOT can emulate the 3D satellite orbit using the omni-wheeled robots and a robotic arm. The 3D motion of satellite is partitioned into the movements in the equatorial plane and the up-down motions in the vertical plane. The former actions are emulated by omni-wheeled robots while the up-down motions are performed by a stepped-motor-controlled-ball along a rod (robotic arm), which is attached to the robot. The emulated satellite positions will go to the measure model, whose results will be used to perform multiple space object tracking. Then the tracking results will go to the maneuver detection and collision alert. The satellite maneuver commands will be translated to robots commands and robotic arm commands. In SATCOM, the effects of jamming depend on the range and angles of the positions of satellite transponder relative to the jamming satellite. We extend the SOT to include USRP transceivers. In the extended SOT, the relative ranges and angles are implemented using omni-wheeled robots and robotic arms.

  13. Introduction to autonomous mobile robotics using Lego Mindstorms NXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akın, H. Levent; Meriçli, Çetin; Meriçli, Tekin

    2013-12-01

    Teaching the fundamentals of robotics to computer science undergraduates requires designing a well-balanced curriculum that is complemented with hands-on applications on a platform that allows rapid construction of complex robots, and implementation of sophisticated algorithms. This paper describes such an elective introductory course where the Lego Mindstorms NXT kits are used as the robot platform. The aims, scope and contents of the course are presented, and the design of the laboratory sessions as well as the term projects, which address several core problems of robotics and artificial intelligence simultaneously, are explained in detail.

  14. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant, cooperative control of heterogeneous mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  15. Remote wave measurements using autonomous mobile robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkin, Andrey; Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyakov, Vladimir; Tyugin, Dmitry; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-04-01

    The project covers the development of a technology for monitoring and forecasting the state of the coastal zone environment using radar equipment transported by autonomous mobile robotic systems (AMRS). Sought-after areas of application are the eastern and northern coasts of Russia, where continuous collection of information on topographic changes of the coastal zone and carrying out hydrodynamic measurements in inaccessible to human environment are needed. The intensity of the reflection of waves, received by radar surveillance, is directly related to the height of the waves. Mathematical models and algorithms for processing experimental data (signal selection, spectral analysis, wavelet analysis), recalculation of landwash from data on heights of waves far from the shore, determination of the threshold values of heights of waves far from the shore have been developed. There has been developed the program complex for functioning of the experimental prototype of AMRS, comprising the following modules: data loading module, reporting module, module of georeferencing, data analysis module, monitoring module, hardware control module, graphical user interface. Further work will be connected with carrying out tests of manufactured experimental prototype in conditions of selected routes coastline of Sakhalin Island. Conducting field tests will allow to reveal the shortcomings of development and to identify ways of optimization of the structure and functioning algorithms of AMRS, as well as functioning the measuring equipment. The presented results have been obtained in Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R. Alekseev in the framework of the Federal Target Program «Research and development on priority directions of scientific-technological complex of Russia for 2014 - 2020 years» (agreement № 14.574.21.0089 (unique identifier of agreement - RFMEFI57414X0089)).

  16. Finite-time tracking control for multiple non-holonomic mobile robots based on visual servoing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Meiying; Li, Shihua; Wang, Chaoli

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates finite-time tracking control problem of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots via visual servoing. It is assumed that the pinhole camera is fixed to the ceiling, and camera parameters are unknown. The desired reference trajectory is represented by a virtual leader whose states are available to only a subset of the followers, and the followers have only interaction. First, the camera-objective visual kinematic model is introduced by utilising the pinhole camera model for each mobile robot. Second, a unified tracking error system between camera-objective visual servoing model and desired reference trajectory is introduced. Third, based on the neighbour rule and by using finite-time control method, continuous distributed cooperative finite-time tracking control laws are designed for each mobile robot with unknown camera parameters, where the communication topology among the multiple mobile robots is assumed to be a directed graph. Rigorous proof shows that the group of mobile robots converges to the desired reference trajectory in finite time. Simulation example illustrates the effectiveness of our method.

  17. Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robotics Using "Lego Mindstorms" NXT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, H. Levent; Meriçli, Çetin; Meriçli, Tekin

    2013-01-01

    Teaching the fundamentals of robotics to computer science undergraduates requires designing a well-balanced curriculum that is complemented with hands-on applications on a platform that allows rapid construction of complex robots, and implementation of sophisticated algorithms. This paper describes such an elective introductory course where the…

  18. Maneuverability and mobility in palm-sized legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohut, Nicholas J.; Birkmeyer, Paul M.; Peterson, Kevin C.; Fearing, Ronald S.

    2012-06-01

    Palm sized legged robots show promise for military and civilian applications, including exploration of hazardous or difficult to reach places, search and rescue, espionage, and battlefield reconnaissance. However, they also face many technical obstacles, including- but not limited to- actuator performance, weight constraints, processing power, and power density. This paper presents an overview of several robots from the Biomimetic Millisystems Laboratory at UC Berkeley, including the OctoRoACH, a steerable, running legged robot capable of basic navigation and equipped with a camera and active tail; CLASH, a dynamic climbing robot; and BOLT, a hybrid crawling and flying robot. The paper also discusses, and presents some preliminary solutions to, the technical obstacles listed above plus issues such as robustness to unstructured environments, limited sensing and communication bandwidths, and system integration.

  19. Motion generation of peristaltic mobile robot with particle swarm optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Takahiro; Kamamichi, Norihiro

    2015-03-01

    In developments of robots, bio-mimetics is attracting attention, which is a technology for the design of the structure and function inspired from biological system. There are a lot of examples of bio-mimetics in robotics such as legged robots, flapping robots, insect-type robots, fish-type robots. In this study, we focus on the motion of earthworm and aim to develop a peristaltic mobile robot. The earthworm is a slender animal moving in soil. It has a segmented body, and each segment can be shorted and lengthened by muscular actions. It can move forward by traveling expanding motions of each segment backward. By mimicking the structure and motion of the earthworm, we can construct a robot with high locomotive performance against an irregular ground or a narrow space. In this paper, to investigate the motion analytically, a dynamical model is introduced, which consist of a series-connected multi-mass model. Simple periodic patterns which mimic the motions of earthworms are applied in an open-loop fashion, and the moving patterns are verified through numerical simulations. Furthermore, to generate efficient motion of the robot, a particle swarm optimization algorithm, one of the meta-heuristic optimization, is applied. The optimized results are investigated by comparing to simple periodic patterns.

  20. A maintenance scheme of communication link in mobile robot ad hoc networks based on potential field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong; Jin, WenPing; Yang, GyoYing; Li, LeiMin

    2007-12-01

    Maintaining communication link in mobile robot networks between task robots and a control center is very important in some urgent application occasions such as remote danger detections. To offer a reliable multi-hop communication link, a link maintaining scheme based on artificial potential field is presented. The scheme is achieved by a task robot and communication relay ones. The task robot performs predefined tasks, and relay ones are simple robots which form a communication relay chain. When robots move towards destination in formation, a kind of attractive force created by communication quality is added to traditional potential field, and relay robots follow the task robot and automatically stop at adequate locations to form a relay chain from the control station to the task robot. In order to increase relay usage efficiency, when some relays are replaced by other short cut relays, the redundant relays can be reused by initiating another moving toward specified location. Simulation results show that the scheme can provide a reliable multi-hop communication link, and that the communication connection can be obtained through minimal number of relays.

  1. Mobile robot based electrostatic spray system for controlling pests on cotton plants in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mamury, M.; Manivannan, N.; Al-Raweshidy, H.; Balachandran, W.

    2015-10-01

    A mobile robot based electrostatic spray system was developed to combat pest infestation on cotton plants in Iraq. The system consists of a charged spray nozzle, a CCD camera, a mobile robot (vehicle and arm) and Arduino microcontroller. Arduino microcontroller is used to control the spray nozzle and the robot. Matlab is used to process the image from the CCD camera and to generate the appropriate control signals to the robot and the spray nozzle. COMSOL multi-physics FEM software was used to design the induction electrodes to achieve maximum charge transfer onto the fan spray liquid film resulting in achieving the desired charge/mass ratio of the spray. The charged spray nozzle was operated on short duration pulsed spray mode. Image analysis was employed to investigate the spray deposition on improvised insect targets on an artificial plant.

  2. The Longitudinal Impact of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training on Driving Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Myers, Charlsie; Ross, Lesley A.; Roenker, Daniel L.; Cissell, Gayla M.; McLaughlin, Alexis M.; Ball, Karlene K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how cognitive speed of processing training affects driving mobility across a 3-year period among older drivers. Design and Methods: Older drivers with poor Useful Field of View (UFOV) test performance (indicating greater risk for subsequent at-fault crashes and mobility declines) were randomly assigned to either a speed of…

  3. Using sensor habituation in mobile robots to reduce oscillatory movements in narrow corridors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Carolina

    2005-11-01

    Habituation is a form of nonassociative learning observed in a variety of species of animals. Arguably, it is the simplest form of learning. Nonetheless, the ability to habituate to certain stimuli implies plastic neural systems and adaptive behaviors. This paper describes how computational models of habituation can be applied to real robots. In particular, we discuss the problem of the oscillatory movements observed when a Khepera robot navigates through narrow hallways using a biologically inspired neurocontroller. Results show that habituation to the proximity of the walls can lead to smoother navigation. Habituation to sensory stimulation to the sides of the robot does not interfere with the robot's ability to turn at dead ends and to avoid obstacles outside the hallway. This paper shows that simple biological mechanisms of learning can be adapted to achieve better performance in real mobile robots.

  4. Event-Based Control Strategy for Mobile Robots in Wireless Environments.

    PubMed

    Socas, Rafael; Dormido, Sebastián; Dormido, Raquel; Fabregas, Ernesto

    2015-12-02

    In this paper, a new event-based control strategy for mobile robots is presented. It has been designed to work in wireless environments where a centralized controller has to interchange information with the robots over an RF (radio frequency) interface. The event-based architectures have been developed for differential wheeled robots, although they can be applied to other kinds of robots in a simple way. The solution has been checked over classical navigation algorithms, like wall following and obstacle avoidance, using scenarios with a unique or multiple robots. A comparison between the proposed architectures and the classical discrete-time strategy is also carried out. The experimental results shows that the proposed solution has a higher efficiency in communication resource usage than the classical discrete-time strategy with the same accuracy.

  5. Event-Based Control Strategy for Mobile Robots in Wireless Environments

    PubMed Central

    Socas, Rafael; Dormido, Sebastián; Dormido, Raquel; Fabregas, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new event-based control strategy for mobile robots is presented. It has been designed to work in wireless environments where a centralized controller has to interchange information with the robots over an RF (radio frequency) interface. The event-based architectures have been developed for differential wheeled robots, although they can be applied to other kinds of robots in a simple way. The solution has been checked over classical navigation algorithms, like wall following and obstacle avoidance, using scenarios with a unique or multiple robots. A comparison between the proposed architectures and the classical discrete-time strategy is also carried out. The experimental results shows that the proposed solution has a higher efficiency in communication resource usage than the classical discrete-time strategy with the same accuracy. PMID:26633412

  6. Evolving mobile robots in simulated and real environments.

    PubMed

    Miglino, O; Lund, H H; Nolfi, S

    1995-01-01

    The problem of the validity of simulation is particularly relevant for methodologies that use machine learning techniques to develop control systems for autonomous robots, as, for instance, the artificial life approach known as evolutionary robotics. In fact, although it has been demonstrated that training or evolving robots in real environments is possible, the number of trials needed to test the system discourages the use of physical robots during the training period. By evolving neural controllers for a Khepera robot in computer simulations and then transferring the agents obtained to the real environment we show that (a) an accurate model of a particular robot-environment dynamics can be built by sampling the real world through the sensors and the actuators of the robot; (b) the performance gap between the obtained behaviors in simulated and real environments may be significantly reduced by introducing a "conservative" form of noise; (c) if a decrease in performance is observed when the system is transferred to a real environment, successful and robust results can be obtained by continuing the evolutionary process in the real environment for a few generations.

  7. Development and Control of Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Mobile Robot for Acquisition of Road Environmental Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Naoya; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Acquisition of information about the environment around a mobile robot is important for purposes such as controlling the robot from a remote location and in situations such as that when the robot is running autonomously. In many researches, audiovisual information is used. However, acquisition of information about force sensation, which is included in environmental information, has not been well researched. The mobile-hapto, which is a remote control system with force information, has been proposed, but the robot used for the system can acquire only the horizontal component of forces. For this reason, in this research, a three-wheeled mobile robot that consists of seven actuators was developed and its control system was constructed. It can get information on horizontal and vertical forces without using force sensors. By using this robot, detailed information on the forces in the environment can be acquired and the operability of the robot and its capability to adjust to the environment are expected to improve.

  8. Omni-Directional Scanning Localization Method of a Mobile Robot Based on Ultrasonic Sensors.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wei-Yi; Zhang, Guang-Peng; Huang, Yu-Mei; Yang, Xin-Gang; Liu, Hong-Yan; Yan, Wen

    2016-12-20

    Improved ranging accuracy is obtained by the development of a novel ultrasonic sensor ranging algorithm, unlike the conventional ranging algorithm, which considers the divergence angle and the incidence angle of the ultrasonic sensor synchronously. An ultrasonic sensor scanning method is developed based on this algorithm for the recognition of an inclined plate and to obtain the localization of the ultrasonic sensor relative to the inclined plate reference frame. The ultrasonic sensor scanning method is then leveraged for the omni-directional localization of a mobile robot, where the ultrasonic sensors are installed on a mobile robot and follow the spin of the robot, the inclined plate is recognized and the position and posture of the robot are acquired with respect to the coordinate system of the inclined plate, realizing the localization of the robot. Finally, the localization method is implemented into an omni-directional scanning localization experiment with the independently researched and developed mobile robot. Localization accuracies of up to ±3.33 mm for the front, up to ±6.21 for the lateral and up to ±0.20° for the posture are obtained, verifying the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed localization method.

  9. Dynamic multisensor fusion for mobile robot navigation in an indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Taeseok; Lee, Jang-Myung; Luk, Bing L.; Tso, Shiu K.

    2001-10-01

    In this study, as the preliminary step for developing a multi-purpose Autonomous robust carrier mobile robot to transport trolleys or heavy goods and serve as robotic nursing assistant in hospital wards. The aim of this paper is to present the use of multi-sensor data fusion such as sonar, CCD camera dn IR sensor for map-building mobile robot to navigate, and presents an experimental mobile robot designed to operate autonomously within both indoor and outdoor environments. Smart sensory systems are crucial for successful autonomous systems. We will give an explanation for the robot system architecture designed and implemented in this study and a short review of existing techniques, since there exist several recent thorough books and review paper on this paper. Instead we will focus on the main results with relevance to the intelligent service robot project at the Centre of Intelligent Design, Automation & Manufacturing (CIDAM). We will conclude by discussing some possible future extensions of the project. It is first dealt with the general principle of the navigation and guidance architecture, then the detailed functions recognizing environments updated, obstacle detection and motion assessment, with the first results form the simulations run.

  10. A Remote Lab for Experiments with a Team of Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Casini, Marco; Garulli, Andrea; Giannitrapani, Antonio; Vicino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a remote lab for experimenting with a team of mobile robots is presented. Robots are built with the LEGO Mindstorms technology and user-defined control laws can be directly coded in the Matlab programming language and validated on the real system. The lab is versatile enough to be used for both teaching and research purposes. Students can easily go through a number of predefined mobile robotics experiences without having to worry about robot hardware or low-level programming languages. More advanced experiments can also be carried out by uploading custom controllers. The capability to have full control of the vehicles, together with the possibility to define arbitrarily complex environments through the definition of virtual obstacles, makes the proposed facility well suited to quickly test and compare different control laws in a real-world scenario. Moreover, the user can simulate the presence of different types of exteroceptive sensors on board of the robots or a specific communication architecture among the agents, so that decentralized control strategies and motion coordination algorithms can be easily implemented and tested. A number of possible applications and real experiments are presented in order to illustrate the main features of the proposed mobile robotics remote lab. PMID:25192316

  11. Omni-Directional Scanning Localization Method of a Mobile Robot Based on Ultrasonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Wei-Yi; Zhang, Guang-Peng; Huang, Yu-Mei; Yang, Xin-Gang; Liu, Hong-Yan; Yan, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Improved ranging accuracy is obtained by the development of a novel ultrasonic sensor ranging algorithm, unlike the conventional ranging algorithm, which considers the divergence angle and the incidence angle of the ultrasonic sensor synchronously. An ultrasonic sensor scanning method is developed based on this algorithm for the recognition of an inclined plate and to obtain the localization of the ultrasonic sensor relative to the inclined plate reference frame. The ultrasonic sensor scanning method is then leveraged for the omni-directional localization of a mobile robot, where the ultrasonic sensors are installed on a mobile robot and follow the spin of the robot, the inclined plate is recognized and the position and posture of the robot are acquired with respect to the coordinate system of the inclined plate, realizing the localization of the robot. Finally, the localization method is implemented into an omni-directional scanning localization experiment with the independently researched and developed mobile robot. Localization accuracies of up to ±3.33 mm for the front, up to ±6.21 for the lateral and up to ±0.20° for the posture are obtained, verifying the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed localization method. PMID:27999396

  12. Noninvasive brain-actuated control of a mobile robot by human EEG.

    PubMed

    Millán, José del R; Renkens, Frédéric; Mouriño, Josep; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2004-06-01

    Brain activity recorded noninvasively is sufficient to control a mobile robot if advanced robotics is used in combination with asynchronous electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis and machine learning techniques. Until now brain-actuated control has mainly relied on implanted electrodes, since EEG-based systems have been considered too slow for controlling rapid and complex sequences of movements. We show that two human subjects successfully moved a robot between several rooms by mental control only, using an EEG-based brain-machine interface that recognized three mental states. Mental control was comparable to manual control on the same task with a performance ratio of 0.74.

  13. Ambient Intelligence Application Based on Environmental Measurements Performed with an Assistant Mobile Robot

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Marco, Santiago; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of an autonomous assistant mobile robot in order to monitor the environmental conditions of a large indoor area and develop an ambient intelligence application. The mobile robot uses single high performance embedded sensors in order to collect and geo-reference environmental information such as ambient temperature, air velocity and orientation and gas concentration. The data collected with the assistant mobile robot is analyzed in order to detect unusual measurements or discrepancies and develop focused corrective ambient actions. This paper shows an example of the measurements performed in a research facility which have enabled the detection and location of an uncomfortable temperature profile inside an office of the research facility. The ambient intelligent application has been developed by performing some localized ambient measurements that have been analyzed in order to propose some ambient actuations to correct the uncomfortable temperature profile. PMID:24681671

  14. Location-Driven Image Retrieval for Images Collected by a Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kanji; Hirayama, Mitsuru; Okada, Nobuhiro; Kondo, Eiji

    Mobile robot teleoperation is a method for a human user to interact with a mobile robot over time and distance. Successful teleoperation depends on how well images taken by the mobile robot are visualized to the user. To enhance the efficiency and flexibility of the visualization, an image retrieval system on such a robot’s image database would be very useful. The main difference of the robot’s image database from standard image databases is that various relevant images exist due to variety of viewing conditions. The main contribution of this paper is to propose an efficient retrieval approach, named location-driven approach, utilizing correlation between visual features and real world locations of images. Combining the location-driven approach with the conventional feature-driven approach, our goal can be viewed as finding an optimal classifier between relevant and irrelevant feature-location pairs. An active learning technique based on support vector machine is extended for this aim.

  15. Ambient intelligence application based on environmental measurements performed with an assistant mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Marco, Santiago; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-03-27

    This paper proposes the use of an autonomous assistant mobile robot in order to monitor the environmental conditions of a large indoor area and develop an ambient intelligence application. The mobile robot uses single high performance embedded sensors in order to collect and geo-reference environmental information such as ambient temperature, air velocity and orientation and gas concentration. The data collected with the assistant mobile robot is analyzed in order to detect unusual measurements or discrepancies and develop focused corrective ambient actions. This paper shows an example of the measurements performed in a research facility which have enabled the detection and location of an uncomfortable temperature profile inside an office of the research facility. The ambient intelligent application has been developed by performing some localized ambient measurements that have been analyzed in order to propose some ambient actuations to correct the uncomfortable temperature profile.

  16. Using custom-designed VLSI fuzzy inferencing chips for the autonomous navigation of a mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Pattay, R.S. ); Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Symon, J. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    Two types of computer boards including custom-designed VLSI fuzzy inferencing chips have been developed to add a qualitative reasoning capability to the real-time control of autonomous mobile robots. The design and operation of these boards are first described and an example of their use for the autonomous navigation of mobile robot is presented. The development of qualitative reasoning schemes emulating human-like navigation in apriori unknown environments is discussed. An approach using superposition of elemental sensor-based behaviors is shown to alloy easy development and testing of the inferencing rule base, while providing for progressive addition of behaviors to resolve situations of increasing complexity. The efficiency of such schemes, which can consist of as little as a dozen qualitative rules, is illustrated in experiments involving an autonomous mobile robot navigating on the basis of very sparse and inaccurate sensor data. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Autonomous navigation of a mobile robot using custom-designed qualitative reasoning VLSI chips and boards

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Pattay, R.S. ); Watanabe, H.; Symon, J. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    Two types of computer boards including custom-designed VLSI chips have been developed to add a qualitative reasoning capability to the real-time control of autonomous mobile robots. The design and operation of these boards are first described and an example of their use for the autonomous navigation of a mobile robot is presented. The development of qualitative reasoning schemes emulating human-like navigation is a-priori unknown environments is discussed. The efficiency of such schemes, which can consist of as little as a dozen qualitative rules, is illustrated in experiments involving an autonomous mobile robot navigating on the basis of very sparse inaccurate sensor data. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Cyclone: A laser scanner for mobile robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjiv; West, Jay

    1991-09-01

    Researchers at Carnegie Mellon's Field Robotics Center have designed and implemented a scanning laser rangefinder. The device uses a commercially available time-of-flight ranging instrument that is capable of making up to 7200 measurements per second. The laser beam is reflected by a rotating mirror, producing up to a 360 degree view. Mounted on a robot vehicle, the scanner can be used to detect obstacles in the vehicle's path or to locate the robot on a map. This report discusses the motivation, design, and some applications of the scanner.

  19. Multisensor-based human detection and tracking for mobile service robots.

    PubMed

    Bellotto, Nicola; Hu, Huosheng

    2009-02-01

    One of fundamental issues for service robots is human-robot interaction. In order to perform such a task and provide the desired services, these robots need to detect and track people in the surroundings. In this paper, we propose a solution for human tracking with a mobile robot that implements multisensor data fusion techniques. The system utilizes a new algorithm for laser-based leg detection using the onboard laser range finder (LRF). The approach is based on the recognition of typical leg patterns extracted from laser scans, which are shown to also be very discriminative in cluttered environments. These patterns can be used to localize both static and walking persons, even when the robot moves. Furthermore, faces are detected using the robot's camera, and the information is fused to the legs' position using a sequential implementation of unscented Kalman filter. The proposed solution is feasible for service robots with a similar device configuration and has been successfully implemented on two different mobile platforms. Several experiments illustrate the effectiveness of our approach, showing that robust human tracking can be performed within complex indoor environments.

  20. Soil sampling sensor system on a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peter M.; Hall, Ernest L.; Zhang, Evan

    2003-10-01

    Determining if a segment of property is suitable for use as an aircraft is a vitally important task that is currently performed by humans. However, this task can also put our people in harms way from land mines, sniper and artillery attacks. The objective of this research is to build a soil survey manipulator that can be carried by a lightweight, portable, autonomous vehicle, sensors and controls to navigate in assault zone. The manipulators permit both surface and sub surface measurements. An original soil sampling tube was constructed with linear actuator as manipulator and standard penetrometer as sampling sensor. The controls provide local control of the robot as well as the soil sampling mechanism. GPS has been selected to perform robot global navigation. The robot was constructed and tested on the test field. The results verified the concepts of using soil sampling robot to survey runway is feasible.

  1. Experiences in Deploying Test Arenas for Autonomous Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    wallpaper and other types of materials pose challenges to stereo vision algorithms. Compliant objects that may visually look like rigid obstacles...c.) Soft materials, victim under bedb.) Curved wall Figure 3: Features from the Yellow arena robot and find alternate routes to exit the arenas that...Figure 2. The Yellow arena is the easiest in terms of traversability. Researchers who may not have very agile robot platforms, yet want to test their

  2. Mobile robots III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 10, 11, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Topics discussed include path planning, terrain classification, planetary rovers, navigation, architecture and control, three-dimensional sensing, and behavior specification. Particular papers are presented on a minimum path algorithm among three-dimensional polyhedral objects, parallel off-road perception processing on the autonomous land vehicle, hazard avoidance for a Mars rover, color vision for road following, a pipeline architecture for near real-time stereo range detection, a computational structure for enforcing reactive behavior in a mobile robot, and homeostatic control for a mobile robot.

  3. Concept formation and generalization based on experimentation by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; deSaussure, G.; Lyness, E.; Oliver, G.; Silliman, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) conducts basic research in the area of intelligent machines. In this paper, we describe our approach to a class of machine learning problems which involves autonomous concept formation using feedback from trial-and-error learning. Our formulation was experimentally validated on an autonomous mobile robot, which learned the task of control panel monitoring and manipulation for effective process control. Conclusions are drawn concerning the applicability of the system to a more general class of learning problems, and implications for the use of autonomous mobile robots in hostile and unknown environments are discussed. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Symmetric caging formation for convex polygonal object transportation by multiple mobile robots based on fuzzy sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanyan; Kim, YoonGu; Wee, SungGil; Lee, DongHa; Lee, SukGyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of object caging and transporting is considered for multiple mobile robots. With the consideration of minimizing the number of robots and decreasing the rotation of the object, the proper points are calculated and assigned to the multiple mobile robots to allow them to form a symmetric caging formation. The caging formation guarantees that all of the Euclidean distances between any two adjacent robots are smaller than the minimal width of the polygonal object so that the object cannot escape. In order to avoid collision among robots, the parameter of the robots radius is utilized to design the caging formation, and the A⁎ algorithm is used so that mobile robots can move to the proper points. In order to avoid obstacles, the robots and the object are regarded as a rigid body to apply artificial potential field method. The fuzzy sliding mode control method is applied for tracking control of the nonholonomic mobile robots. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that multiple mobile robots are able to cage and transport the polygonal object to the goal position, avoiding obstacles.

  5. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  6. Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures. PMID:23202171

  7. Robotic automation for space: planetary surface exploration, terrain-adaptive mobility, and multirobot cooperative tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Paul S.; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Pirjanian, Paolo; Baumgartner, Eric T.; Aghazarian, Hrand; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Leger, Patrick C.; Cheng, Yang; Backes, Paul G.; Tunstel, Edward; Dubowsky, Steven; Iagnemma, Karl D.; McKee, Gerard T.

    2001-10-01

    During the last decade, there has been significant progress toward a supervised autonomous robotic capability for remotely controlled scientific exploration of planetary surfaces. While planetary exploration potentially encompasses many elements ranging from orbital remote sensing to subsurface drilling, the surface robotics element is particularly important to advancing in situ science objectives. Surface activities include a direct characterization of geology, mineralogy, atmosphere and other descriptors of current and historical planetary processes-and ultimately-the return of pristine samples to Earth for detailed analysis. Toward these ends, we have conducted a broad program of research on robotic systems for scientific exploration of the Mars surface, with minimal remote intervention. The goal is to enable high productivity semi-autonomous science operations where available mission time is concentrated on robotic operations, rather than up-and-down-link delays. Results of our work include prototypes for landed manipulators, long-ranging science rovers, sampling/sample return mobility systems, and more recently, terrain-adaptive reconfigurable/modular robots and closely cooperating multiple rover systems. The last of these are intended to facilitate deployment of planetary robotic outposts for an eventual human-robot sustained scientific presence. We overview our progress in these related areas of planetary robotics R&D, spanning 1995-to-present.

  8. Speed-dependent reference joint trajectory generation for robotic gait support.

    PubMed

    Koopman, B; van Asseldonk, E H F; van der Kooij, H

    2014-04-11

    For the control of actuated orthoses, or gait rehabilitation robotics, kinematic reference trajectories are often required. These trajectories, consisting of joint angles, angular velocities and accelerations, are highly dependent on walking-speed. We present and evaluate a novel method to reconstruct body-height and speed-dependent joint trajectories. First, we collected gait kinematics in fifteen healthy (middle) aged subjects (47-68), at a wide range of walking-speeds (0.5-5 kph). For each joint trajectory multiple key-events were selected (among which its extremes). Second, we derived regression-models that predict the timing, angle, angular velocity and acceleration for each key-event, based on walking-speed and the subject׳s body-height. Finally, quintic splines were fitted between the predicted key-events to reconstruct a full gait cycle. Regression-models were obtained for hip ab-/adduction, hip flexion/extension, knee flexion/extension and ankle plantar-/dorsiflexion. Results showed that the majority of the key-events were dependent on walking-speed, both in terms of timing and amplitude, whereas the body-height had less effect. The reconstructed trajectories matched the measured trajectories very well, in terms of angle, angular velocity and acceleration. For the angles the RMSE between the reconstructed and measured trajectories was 2.6°. The mean correlation coefficient between the reconstructed and measured angular trajectories was 0.91. The method and the data presented in this paper can be used to generate speed-dependent gait patterns. These patterns can be used for the control of several robotic gait applications. Alternatively they can assist the assessment of pathological gait, where they can serve as a reference for "normal" gait.

  9. Auto-preview camera orientation for environment perception on a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovnikovich, Micho; Vempaty, Pavan K.; Cheok, Ka C.

    2010-01-01

    Using wide-angle or omnidirectional camera lenses to increase a mobile robot's field of view introduces nonlinearity in the image due to the 'fish-eye' effect. This complicates distance perception, and increases image processing overhead. Using multiple cameras avoids the fish-eye complications, but involves using more electrical and processing power to interface them to a computer. Being able to control the orientation of a single camera, both of these disadvantages are minimized while still allowing the robot to preview a wider area. In addition, controlling the orientation allows the robot to optimize its environment perception by only looking where the most useful information can be discovered. In this paper, a technique is presented that creates a two dimensional map of objects of interest surrounding a mobile robot equipped with a panning camera on a telescoping shaft. Before attempting to negotiate a difficult path planning situation, the robot takes snapshots at different camera heights and pan angles and then produces a single map of the surrounding area. Distance perception is performed by making calibration measurements of the camera and applying coordinate transformations to project the camera's findings into the vehicle's coordinate frame. To test the system, obstacles and lines were placed to form a chicane. Several snapshots were taken with different camera orientations, and the information from each were stitched together to yield a very useful map of the surrounding area for the robot to use to plan a path through the chicane.

  10. Multi Sensor Fusion Framework for Indoor-Outdoor Localization of Limited Resource Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Leonardo; Vallés, Marina; Soriano, Ángel; Valera, Ángel; Albertos, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor fusion framework that improves the localization of mobile robots with limited computational resources. It employs an event based Kalman Filter to combine the measurements of a global sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) on an event based schedule, using fewer resources (execution time and bandwidth) but with similar performance when compared to the traditional methods. The event is defined to reflect the necessity of the global information, when the estimation error covariance exceeds a predefined limit. The proposed experimental platforms are based on the LEGO Mindstorm NXT, and consist of a differential wheel mobile robot navigating indoors with a zenithal camera as global sensor, and an Ackermann steering mobile robot navigating outdoors with a SBG Systems GPS accessed through an IGEP board that also serves as datalogger. The IMU in both robots is built using the NXT motor encoders along with one gyroscope, one compass and two accelerometers from Hitecnic, placed according to a particle based dynamic model of the robots. The tests performed reflect the correct performance and low execution time of the proposed framework. The robustness and stability is observed during a long walk test in both indoors and outdoors environments. PMID:24152933

  11. Multi sensor fusion framework for indoor-outdoor localization of limited resource mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Marín, Leonardo; Vallés, Marina; Soriano, Ángel; Valera, Ángel; Albertos, Pedro

    2013-10-21

    This paper presents a sensor fusion framework that improves the localization of mobile robots with limited computational resources. It employs an event based Kalman Filter to combine the measurements of a global sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) on an event based schedule, using fewer resources (execution time and bandwidth) but with similar performance when compared to the traditional methods. The event is defined to reflect the necessity of the global information, when the estimation error covariance exceeds a predefined limit. The proposed experimental platforms are based on the LEGO Mindstorm NXT, and consist of a differential wheel mobile robot navigating indoors with a zenithal camera as global sensor, and an Ackermann steering mobile robot navigating outdoors with a SBG Systems GPS accessed through an IGEP board that also serves as datalogger. The IMU in both robots is built using the NXT motor encoders along with one gyroscope, one compass and two accelerometers from Hitecnic, placed according to a particle based dynamic model of the robots. The tests performed reflect the correct performance and low execution time of the proposed framework. The robustness and stability is observed during a long walk test in both indoors and outdoors environments.

  12. Life-long optimization of the symbolic model of indoor environments for a mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Cipriano; Fernández-Madrigal, Juan-Antonio; González, Javier; Saffiotti, Alessandro; Buschka, Pär

    2007-10-01

    The use of a symbolic model of the spatial environment becomes crucial for a mobile robot that is intended to operate optimally and intelligently in indoor scenarios. Constructing such a model involves important problems that are not solved completely at present. One is called anchoring, which implies to maintain a correct dynamic correspondence between the real world and the symbols in the model. The other problem is adaptation: among the numerous possible models that could be constructed for representing a given environment, optimization involves the selection of one that improves as much as possible the operations of the robot. To cope with both problems, in this paper, we propose a framework that allows an indoor mobile robot to learn automatically a symbolic model of its environment and to optimize it over time with respect to changes in both the environment and the robot operational needs through an evolutionary algorithm. For coping efficiently with the large amounts of information that the real world provides, we use abstraction, which also helps in improving task planning. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework is suitable for providing an indoor mobile robot with a good symbolic model and adaptation capabilities.

  13. A 3-class asynchronous BCI controlling a simulated mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tao; Dyson, Matthew; Tsui, Chun S L; Gan, John Q

    2007-01-01

    We present our design and online experiments of a 3-class asynchronous BCI controlling a simulated robot in an indoor environment. Two characteristics of our design have efficiently decreased the false positive rate during the NC (No Control) mode. First, three one-vs-rest LDA classifiers are combined to control the switching between NC and IC (In Control) mode. Second, the hierarchical structure of our controller allows the most reliable class (mental task) in a specific subject to play a dominant role in the robot control. A group of simple rules triggered by local sensor signals are designed for safety and obstacle avoidance in the NC mode. In online experiments, subjects successfully controlled the robot to circumnavigate obstacles and reach small targets in separate rooms.

  14. Quantifying Traversability of Terrain for a Mobile Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna; Seraji, Homayoun; Werger, Barry

    2005-01-01

    A document presents an updated discussion on a method of autonomous navigation for a robotic vehicle navigating across rough terrain. The method involves, among other things, the use of a measure of traversability, denoted the fuzzy traversability index, which embodies the information about the slope and roughness of terrain obtained from analysis of images acquired by cameras mounted on the robot. The improvements presented in the report focus on the use of the fuzzy traversability index to generate a traversability map and a grid map for planning the safest path for the robot. Once grid traversability values have been computed, they are utilized for rejecting unsafe path segments and for computing a traversalcost function for ranking candidate paths, selected by a search algorithm, from a specified initial position to a specified final position. The output of the algorithm is a set of waypoints designating a path having a minimal-traversal cost.

  15. Electroencephalography (EEG) Based Control in Assistive Mobile Robots: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, N. Murali; Mariappan, Muralindran; Muthukaruppan, Karthigayan; Hijazi, Mohd Hanafi Ahmad; Kitt, Wong Wei

    2016-03-01

    Recently, EEG based control in assistive robot usage has been gradually increasing in the area of biomedical field for giving quality and stress free life for disabled and elderly people. This study reviews the deployment of EGG based control in assistive robots, especially for those who in need and neurologically disabled. The main objective of this paper is to describe the methods used for (i) EEG data acquisition and signal preprocessing, (ii) feature extraction and (iii) signal classification methods. Besides that, this study presents the specific research challenges in the designing of these control systems and future research directions.

  16. Training a Network of Electronic Neurons for Control of a Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vromen, T. G. M.; Steur, E.; Nijmeijer, H.

    An adaptive training procedure is developed for a network of electronic neurons, which controls a mobile robot driving around in an unknown environment while avoiding obstacles. The neuronal network controls the angular velocity of the wheels of the robot based on the sensor readings. The nodes in the neuronal network controller are clusters of neurons rather than single neurons. The adaptive training procedure ensures that the input-output behavior of the clusters is identical, even though the constituting neurons are nonidentical and have, in isolation, nonidentical responses to the same input. In particular, we let the neurons interact via a diffusive coupling, and the proposed training procedure modifies the diffusion interaction weights such that the neurons behave synchronously with a predefined response. The working principle of the training procedure is experimentally validated and results of an experiment with a mobile robot that is completely autonomously driving in an unknown environment with obstacles are presented.

  17. A Multi-Agent Emotion Generating System for Mobile Robots System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Shivashankar B.; Kim, Dong Hwa

    Emotions are a complex phenomenon and are in constant research for so long. Emotions can be presupposed as a dynamic association of cells on elicitation. The use of agents for emotions generation and emotion modeling are on the rise in the recent years. In this work, we propose a dynamic emotion generation system based on multiple agents. A Multi-Agent System (MAS) to generate emotions targeted towards a mobile robot has been implemented. The agent-robot communication is still being investigated. An illustration of the use of this emotion generation module is explained in the context of the emotion system. Some ancillary investigations performed in using mobile robots for localization and terrain mapping have also been described.

  18. Optimal motion planning for collision avoidance of mobile robots in non-stationary environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyriakopoulos, K. J.; Saridis, G. N.

    1992-01-01

    An optimal control formulation of the problem of collision avoidance of mobile robots moving in general terrains containing moving obstacles is presented. A dynamic model of the mobile robot and the dynamic constraints are derived. Collision avoidance is guaranteed if the minimum distance between the robot and the object is nonzero. A nominal trajectory is assumed to be known from off-line planning. The main idea is to change the velocity along the nominal trajectory so that collisions are avoided. Time consistency with the nominal plan is desirable. A numerical solution of the optimization problem is obtained. A perturbation control type of approach is used to update the optimal plan. Simulation results verify the value of the proposed strategy.

  19. Simultaneous localization and mapping of mobile robot using a RGB-D camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Junqin; Han, Baoling; Ge, Zhuo; Liang, Guanhao; Zhao, Jiahang

    2016-10-01

    Localization algorithm based on machine vision is a hot topic in the field of intelligent mobile robot A fast method for mobile robot 3D SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) was presented to address the problem of 3D modeling in complex indoor environment. After filtering, the SIFT feature is extracted and matched between every two frames of the sequence. According to the camera calibration model and the image feature extraction and matching procedure, the association between two 3D point clouds was established. On the basis of the RANSAC (random sample consensus) algorithm, the correspondence based iterative closest point arithmetic model was solved to realize the robot's precise localization effectively. With the key frame-to-frame selection mechanism, the 3D map method and the unique normal characteristic of a spatial point were used for maintaining and updating the global map. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in the indoor environment.

  20. Robust formation tracking control of mobile robots via one-to-one time-varying communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasdemir, Janset; Loría, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    We solve the formation tracking control problem for mobile robots via linear control, under the assumption that each agent communicates only with one 'leader' robot and with one follower, hence forming a spanning-tree topology. We assume that the communication may be interrupted on intervals of time. As in the classical tracking control problem for non-holonomic systems, the swarm is driven by a fictitious robot which moves about freely and which is a leader to one robot only. Our control approach is decentralised and the control laws are linear with time-varying gains; in particular, this accounts for the case when position measurements may be lost over intervals of time. For both velocity-controlled and force-controlled systems, we establish uniform global exponential stability, hence consensus formation tracking, for the error system under a condition of persistency of excitation on the reference angular velocity of the virtual leader and on the control gains.

  1. Learning from adaptive neural network output feedback control of a unicycle-type mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Wang, Qinghui; Liu, Fenglin; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies learning from adaptive neural network (NN) output feedback control of nonholonomic unicycle-type mobile robots. The major difficulties are caused by the unknown robot system dynamics and the unmeasurable states. To overcome these difficulties, a new adaptive control scheme is proposed including designing a new adaptive NN output feedback controller and two high-gain observers. It is shown that the stability of the closed-loop robot system and the convergence of tracking errors are guaranteed. The unknown robot system dynamics can be approximated by radial basis function NNs. When repeating same or similar control tasks, the learned knowledge can be recalled and reused to achieve guaranteed stability and better control performance, thereby avoiding the tremendous repeated training process of NNs.

  2. Autonomous discovery and learning by a mobile robot in unstructured environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Barnett, D.L.; Killough, S.M.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents recent research activities at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) in the area of autonomous discovery and learning of emergency and maintenance tasks in unstructured environments by a mobile robot. The methodologies for learning basic operating principles of control devices, and for using the acquired knowledge to solve new problems with conditions not encountered before are presented. The algorithms necessary for the robot to discover problem-solving sequences of actions, through experimentation with the environment, in the two cases of immediate feedback and delayed feedback are described. The inferencing schemes allowing the robot to classify the information acquired from a reduced set of examples and to generalize its knowledge to a much wider problem-solving domain are also provided. A demonstration of the successful implementation of the algorithms on our HERMIES-IIB autonomous robot is then presented. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  3. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    automobiles. ?? Community Noise: Hub and smaller GA airports are facing increasing noise restrictions, and while commercial airliners have dramatically decreased their community noise footprint over the past 30 years, GA aircraft noise has essentially remained same, and moreover, is located in closer proximity to neighborhoods and businesses. ?? Operating Costs: GA operating costs have risen dramatically due to average fuel costs of over $6 per gallon, which has constrained the market over the past decade and resulted in more than 50% lower sales and 35% less yearly operations. Infusion of autonomy and electric propulsion technologies can accomplish not only a transformation of the GA market, but also provide a technology enablement bridge for both larger aircraft and the emerging civil Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) markets. The NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) project successfully used a similar approach to enable the introduction of primary composite structures and flat panel displays in the 1990s, establishing both the technology and certification standardization to permit quick adoption through partnerships with industry, academia, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Regional and airliner markets are experiencing constant pressure to achieve decreasing levels of community emissions and noise, while lowering operating costs and improving safety. But to what degree can these new technology frontiers impact aircraft safety, the environment, operations, cost, and performance? Are the benefits transformational enough to fundamentally alter aircraft competiveness and productivity to permit much greater aviation use for high speed and On-Demand Mobility (ODM)? These questions were asked in a Zip aviation system study named after the Zip Car, an emerging car-sharing business model. Zip Aviation investigates the potential to enable new emergent markets for aviation that offer "more flexibility than the existing transportation solutions

  4. Bioinspired Intelligent Algorithm and Its Applications for Mobile Robot Control: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianjun; Wu, Liuying; Fan, Xinnan; Yang, Simon X.

    2016-01-01

    Bioinspired intelligent algorithm (BIA) is a kind of intelligent computing method, which is with a more lifelike biological working mechanism than other types. BIAs have made significant progress in both understanding of the neuroscience and biological systems and applying to various fields. Mobile robot control is one of the main application fields of BIAs which has attracted more and more attention, because mobile robots can be used widely and general artificial intelligent algorithms meet a development bottleneck in this field, such as complex computing and the dependence on high-precision sensors. This paper presents a survey of recent research in BIAs, which focuses on the research in the realization of various BIAs based on different working mechanisms and the applications for mobile robot control, to help in understanding BIAs comprehensively and clearly. The survey has four primary parts: a classification of BIAs from the biomimetic mechanism, a summary of several typical BIAs from different levels, an overview of current applications of BIAs in mobile robot control, and a description of some possible future directions for research. PMID:26819582

  5. Tracking control of two-wheel driven mobile robot using compound sine function neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a compound sine function neural network (NN) with continuous learning algorithm for the velocity and orientation angle tracking control of a mobile robot. Herein, two NN controllers embedded in the closed-loop control system are capable of on-line continuous learning and do not require any knowledge of the dynamics model. The neuron function of the hidden layer in the three-layer feed-forward network structure is on the basis of combining a sine function with a unipolar sigmoid function. In the NN algorithm, the weight values are only adjusted between the nodes in hidden layer and the output nodes, while the weight values between the input layer and the hidden layer are one, that is, constant, without the weight adjustment. The developed NN controllers have simple algorithm and fast learning convergence. Therefore, the proposed NN controllers can be suitable for the real-time tracking control of the mobile robots. The simulation results show that the proposed NN controller has better control performance in the tracking control of the mobile robot. The compound sine function NN provides a new way to solve tracking control problems for a mobile robot.

  6. Using LEGO NXT Mobile Robots with LabVIEW for Undergraduate Courses on Mechatronics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-de-Gabriel, J. M.; Mandow, A.; Fernandez-Lozano, J.; Garcia-Cerezo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes lab work and student competitions based on the LEGO NXT Mindstorms kits and standard LabVIEW. The goal of this combination is to stimulate design and experimentation with real hardware and representative software in courses where mobile robotics is adopted as a motivating platform to introduce mechatronics competencies. Basic…

  7. Real-World Validation of Three Tipover Algorithms for Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Algorithms The robot model and the algorithms are coded using computational engineering software programs MATLAB and Scilab. The following will...Dynamic modeling of tip-over stability of mobile manipulators considering the friction effects,” Robotica , vol. 23, pp. 189–196, 2005. 4436

  8. Bioinspired Intelligent Algorithm and Its Applications for Mobile Robot Control: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianjun; Wu, Liuying; Fan, Xinnan; Yang, Simon X

    2016-01-01

    Bioinspired intelligent algorithm (BIA) is a kind of intelligent computing method, which is with a more lifelike biological working mechanism than other types. BIAs have made significant progress in both understanding of the neuroscience and biological systems and applying to various fields. Mobile robot control is one of the main application fields of BIAs which has attracted more and more attention, because mobile robots can be used widely and general artificial intelligent algorithms meet a development bottleneck in this field, such as complex computing and the dependence on high-precision sensors. This paper presents a survey of recent research in BIAs, which focuses on the research in the realization of various BIAs based on different working mechanisms and the applications for mobile robot control, to help in understanding BIAs comprehensively and clearly. The survey has four primary parts: a classification of BIAs from the biomimetic mechanism, a summary of several typical BIAs from different levels, an overview of current applications of BIAs in mobile robot control, and a description of some possible future directions for research.

  9. Configuration Control of a Mobile Dextrous Robot: Real-Time Implementation and Experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, David; Seraji, Homayoun

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a real-time control system with multiple modes of operation for a mobile dexterous manipulator. The manipulator under study is a kinematically redundant seven degree-of-freedom arm from Robotics Research Corporation, mounted on a one degree-of-freedom motorized platform.

  10. The magic glove: a gesture-based remote controller for intelligent mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chaomin; Chen, Yue; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a gesture-based Human Robot Interface (HRI) for an autonomous mobile robot entered in the 2010 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). While the robot is meant to operate autonomously in the various Challenges of the competition, an HRI is useful in moving the robot to the starting position and after run termination. In this paper, a user-friendly gesture-based embedded system called the Magic Glove is developed for remote control of a robot. The system consists of a microcontroller and sensors that is worn by the operator as a glove and is capable of recognizing hand signals. These are then transmitted through wireless communication to the robot. The design of the Magic Glove included contributions on two fronts: hardware configuration and algorithm development. A triple axis accelerometer used to detect hand orientation passes the information to a microcontroller, which interprets the corresponding vehicle control command. A Bluetooth device interfaced to the microcontroller then transmits the information to the vehicle, which acts accordingly. The user-friendly Magic Glove was successfully demonstrated first in a Player/Stage simulation environment. The gesture-based functionality was then also successfully verified on an actual robot and demonstrated to judges at the 2010 IGVC.

  11. Application of a zero-speed fin stabilizer for roll reduction of a marine robot near the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yannan; Jin, Hongzhang; Zhou, Shengbin

    2012-06-01

    A zero-speed fin stabilizer system was developed for rolling control of a marine robot. As a robot steering device near the sea surface with low speed, it will have rolling motion due to disturbance from waves. Based on the working principle of a zero-speed fin stabilizer and a marine robot's dynamic properties, a roll damping controller was designed with a master-slave structure. It was composed of a sliding mode controller and an output tracking controller that calculates the desired righting moment and drives the zero-speed fin stabilizer. The methods of input-output linearization and model reference were used to realize the tracking control. Simulations were presented to demonstrate the validity of the control law proposed.

  12. Thermal tracking in mobile robots for leak inspection activities.

    PubMed

    Ibarguren, Aitor; Molina, Jorge; Susperregi, Loreto; Maurtua, Iñaki

    2013-10-09

    Maintenance tasks are crucial for all kind of industries, especially in extensive industrial plants, like solar thermal power plants. The incorporation of robots is a key issue for automating inspection activities, as it will allow a constant and regular control over the whole plant. This paper presents an autonomous robotic system to perform pipeline inspection for early detection and prevention of leakages in thermal power plants, based on the work developed within the MAINBOT (http://www.mainbot.eu) European project. Based on the information provided by a thermographic camera, the system is able to detect leakages in the collectors and pipelines. Beside the leakage detection algorithms, the system includes a particle filter-based tracking algorithm to keep the target in the field of view of the camera and to avoid the irregularities of the terrain while the robot patrols the plant. The information provided by the particle filter is further used to command a robot arm, which handles the camera and ensures that the target is always within the image. The obtained results show the suitability of the proposed approach, adding a tracking algorithm to improve the performance of the leakage detection system.

  13. Agent-based Multimodal Interface for Dynamically Autonomous Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Recognition Process The gesture recognition process utilizes a structured-light rangefinder which emits a horizontal plane of laser light. A camera...statements, will be spoken by the robot through its on-board voice synthesizer, and also sent as a text string back to the desktop GUI. 4.1. Gesture

  14. On autonomous terrain model acquistion by a mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, N. S. V.; Iyengar, S. S.; Weisbin, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    The following problem is considered: A point robot is placed in a terrain populated by an unknown number of polyhedral obstacles of varied sizes and locations in two/three dimensions. The robot is equipped with a sensor capable of detecting all the obstacle vertices and edges that are visible from the present location of the robot. The robot is required to autonomously navigate and build the complete terrain model using the sensor information. It is established that the necessary number of scanning operations needed for complete terrain model acquisition by any algorithm that is based on scan from vertices strategy is given by the summation of i = 1 (sup n) N(O sub i)-n and summation of i = 1 (sup n) N(O sub i)-2n in two- and three-dimensional terrains respectively, where O = (O sub 1, O sub 2,....O sub n) set of the obstacles in the terrain, and N(O sub i) is the number of vertices of the obstacle O sub i.

  15. Thermal Tracking in Mobile Robots for Leak Inspection Activities

    PubMed Central

    Ibarguren, Aitor; Molina, Jorge; Susperregi, Loreto; Maurtua, Iñaki

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance tasks are crucial for all kind of industries, especially in extensive industrial plants, like solar thermal power plants. The incorporation of robots is a key issue for automating inspection activities, as it will allow a constant and regular control over the whole plant. This paper presents an autonomous robotic system to perform pipeline inspection for early detection and prevention of leakages in thermal power plants, based on the work developed within the MAINBOT (http://www.mainbot.eu) European project. Based on the information provided by a thermographic camera, the system is able to detect leakages in the collectors and pipelines. Beside the leakage detection algorithms, the system includes a particle filter-based tracking algorithm to keep the target in the field of view of the camera and to avoid the irregularities of the terrain while the robot patrols the plant. The information provided by the particle filter is further used to command a robot arm, which handles the camera and ensures that the target is always within the image. The obtained results show the suitability of the proposed approach, adding a tracking algorithm to improve the performance of the leakage detection system. PMID:24113684

  16. On autonomous terrain model acquisition by a mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.; Iyengar, S.S.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1987-01-20

    The following problem is considered: A point robot is placed in a terrain populated by unknown number of polyhedral obstacles of varied sizes and locations in two/three dimensions. The robot is equipped with a sensor capable of detecting all the obstacle vertices and edges that are visible from the present location of the robot. The robot is required to autonomously navigate and build the complete terrain model using the sensor information. It is established that the necessary number of scanning operations needed for complete terrain model acquisition by any algorithm that is based on 'scan from vertices' strategy is given by ..sigma../sub i = 1/sup n/N(O/sub i/) - n and ..sigma../sub i = 1/sup n/N(O/sub i/) - 2n in two and three dimensional terrains respectively, where O = )O/sub 1/,O/sub 2/,...,O/sub n/) set of the obstacles in the terrain, and N(O/sub i/) is the number of vertices of the obstacle O/sub i/.

  17. Evaluation of mobile phone camera benchmarking using objective camera speed and image quality metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-11-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of image quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system has not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become a more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. First, the most important image quality and speed-related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and, also, novel speed metrics are identified. Second, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones on the market. The measurements are done toward application programming interface of different operating systems. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The paper defines a solution to combine different image quality and speed metrics to a single benchmarking score. A proposal of the combined benchmarking metric is evaluated using measurements of 25 mobile phone cameras on the market. The paper is a continuation of a previous benchmarking work expanded with visual noise measurement and updates of the latest mobile phone versions.

  18. Telerobotic control of a mobile coordinated robotic server, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    This interim report continues with the research effort on advanced adaptive controls for space robotics systems. In particular, previous results developed by the principle investigator and his research team centered around fuzzy logic control (FLC) in which the lack of knowledge of the robotic system as well as the uncertainties of the environment are compensated for by a rule base structure which interacts with varying degrees of belief of control action using system measurements. An on-line adaptive algorithm was developed using a single parameter tuning scheme. In the effort presented, the methodology is further developed to include on-line scaling factor tuning and self-learning control as well as extended to the multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) case. Classical fuzzy logic control requires tuning input scale factors off-line through trial and error techniques. This is time-consuming and cannot adapt to new changes in the process. The new adaptive FLC includes a self-tuning scheme for choosing the scaling factors on-line. Further the rule base in classical FLC is usually produced by soliciting knowledge from human operators as to what is good control action for given circumstances. This usually requires full knowledge and experience of the process and operating conditions, which limits applicability. A self-learning scheme is developed which adaptively forms the rule base with very limited knowledge of the process. Finally, a MIMO method is presented employing optimization techniques. This is required for application to space robotics in which several degrees-of-freedom links are commonly used. Simulation examples are presented for terminal control - typical of robotic problems in which a desired terminal point is to be reached for each link. Future activities will be to implement the MIMO adaptive FLC on an INTEL microcontroller-based circuit and to test the algorithm on a robotic system at the Mars Mission Research Center at North Carolina State University.

  19. A cognitive robotic system based on the Soar cognitive architecture for mobile robot navigation, search, and mapping missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanford, Scott D.

    Most unmanned vehicles used for civilian and military applications are remotely operated or are designed for specific applications. As these vehicles are used to perform more difficult missions or a larger number of missions in remote environments, there will be a great need for these vehicles to behave intelligently and autonomously. Cognitive architectures, computer programs that define mechanisms that are important for modeling and generating domain-independent intelligent behavior, have the potential for generating intelligent and autonomous behavior in unmanned vehicles. The research described in this presentation explored the use of the Soar cognitive architecture for cognitive robotics. The Cognitive Robotic System (CRS) has been developed to integrate software systems for motor control and sensor processing with Soar for unmanned vehicle control. The CRS has been tested using two mobile robot missions: outdoor navigation and search in an indoor environment. The use of the CRS for the outdoor navigation mission demonstrated that a Soar agent could autonomously navigate to a specified location while avoiding obstacles, including cul-de-sacs, with only a minimal amount of knowledge about the environment. While most systems use information from maps or long-range perceptual capabilities to avoid cul-de-sacs, a Soar agent in the CRS was able to recognize when a simple approach to avoiding obstacles was unsuccessful and switch to a different strategy for avoiding complex obstacles. During the indoor search mission, the CRS autonomously and intelligently searches a building for an object of interest and common intersection types. While searching the building, the Soar agent builds a topological map of the environment using information about the intersections the CRS detects. The agent uses this topological model (along with Soar's reasoning, planning, and learning mechanisms) to make intelligent decisions about how to effectively search the building. Once the

  20. Model Predictive Control considering Reachable Range of Wheels for Leg / Wheel Mobile Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Naito; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    Obstacle avoidance is one of the important tasks for mobile robots. In this paper, we study obstacle avoidance control for mobile robots equipped with four legs comprised of three DoF SCARA leg/wheel mechanism, which enables the robot to change its shape adapting to environments. Our previous method achieves obstacle avoidance by model predictive control (MPC) considering obstacle size and lateral wheel positions. However, this method does not ensure existence of joint angles which achieves reference wheel positions calculated by MPC. In this study, we propose a model predictive control considering reachable mobile ranges of wheels positions by combining multiple linear constraints, where each reachable mobile range is approximated as a convex trapezoid. Thus, we achieve to formulate a MPC as a quadratic problem with linear constraints for nonlinear problem of longitudinal and lateral wheel position control. By optimization of MPC, the reference wheel positions are calculated, while each joint angle is determined by inverse kinematics. Considering reachable mobile ranges explicitly, the optimal joint angles are calculated, which enables wheels to reach the reference wheel positions. We verify its advantages by comparing the proposed method with the previous method through numerical simulations.

  1. Disturbance observer and feedforward design for a 2-DOF high-speed/high-accuracy robotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jing; Chu, Zhongyi

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, a novel 2-DOF high-speed/high-accuracy robotic system is proposed, which consists of two permanent linear DC servomotors and a planar parallel mechanism. Analysis of robotic dynamical model verifies that load variation is violent. Due to the direct-drive principle of a linear motor, the load disturbance can have a significant effect on position accuracy. For this purpose, a discrete-time disturbance observer, feedback controller and ZPECT feedforward controller is presented. The disturbance observer, which is applied to the plant velocity loop, provides robustness for design of both the feedback controller and the feedforward controller. The feedback controller is intended to make the command following properties fast, and the feedforward term realized as a Zero Phase Error Tracking Controller improves tracking. In the experiment, robotic max acceleration is equal to 20m/s2, max velocity is more than 1 m/s, and resolution is 0.5 μm. While the tracking errors are less than 50 μm, the steady-state errors are less than 1 μm, and steady time is less then 42 ms. Experiment results show that: high-performance motion system can be obtained with this discrete-time controller, even in large load variance motion system.

  2. A Car Transportation System in Cooperation by Multiple Mobile Robots for Each Wheel: iCART II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yusuke; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shinozuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koki; Ono, Yuki

    The authors proposed a car transportation system, iCART (intelligent Cooperative Autonomous Robot Transporters), for automation of mechanical parking systems by two mobile robots. However, it was difficult to downsize the mobile robot because the length of it requires at least the wheelbase of a car. This paper proposes a new car transportation system, iCART II (iCART - type II), based on “a-robot-for-a-wheel” concept. A prototype system, MRWheel (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel), is designed and downsized less than half the conventional robot. First, a method for lifting up a wheel by MRWheel is described. In general, it is very difficult for mobile robots such as MRWheel to move to desired positions without motion errors caused by slipping, etc. Therefore, we propose a follower's motion error estimation algorithm based on the internal force applied to each follower by extending a conventional leader-follower type decentralized control algorithm for cooperative object transportation. The proposed algorithm enables followers to estimate their motion errors and enables the robots to transport a car to a desired position. In addition, we analyze and prove the stability and convergence of the resultant system with the proposed algorithm. In order to extract only the internal force from the force applied to each robot, we also propose a model-based external force compensation method. Finally, proposed methods are applied to the car transportation system, the experimental results confirm their validity.

  3. Insect–computer hybrid legged robot with user-adjustable speed, step length and walking gait

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Choo, Hao Yu

    2016-01-01

    We have constructed an insect–computer hybrid legged robot using a living beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata; Coleoptera). The protraction/retraction and levation/depression motions in both forelegs of the beetle were elicited by electrically stimulating eight corresponding leg muscles via eight pairs of implanted electrodes. To perform a defined walking gait (e.g. gallop), different muscles were individually stimulated in a predefined sequence using a microcontroller. Different walking gaits were performed by reordering the applied stimulation signals (i.e. applying different sequences). By varying the duration of the stimulation sequences, we successfully controlled the step frequency and hence the beetle's walking speed. To the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first demonstration of living insect locomotion control with a user-adjustable walking gait, step length and walking speed. PMID:27030043

  4. Insect-computer hybrid legged robot with user-adjustable speed, step length and walking gait.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Choo, Hao Yu; Sato, Hirotaka

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed an insect-computer hybrid legged robot using a living beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata; Coleoptera). The protraction/retraction and levation/depression motions in both forelegs of the beetle were elicited by electrically stimulating eight corresponding leg muscles via eight pairs of implanted electrodes. To perform a defined walking gait (e.g., gallop), different muscles were individually stimulated in a predefined sequence using a microcontroller. Different walking gaits were performed by reordering the applied stimulation signals (i.e., applying different sequences). By varying the duration of the stimulation sequences, we successfully controlled the step frequency and hence the beetle's walking speed. To the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first demonstration of living insect locomotion control with a user-adjustable walking gait, step length and walking speed.

  5. Non-destructive inspection in industrial equipment using robotic mobile manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurtua, Iñaki; Susperregi, Loreto; Ansuategui, Ander; Fernández, Ane; Ibarguren, Aitor; Molina, Jorge; Tubio, Carlos; Villasante, Cristobal; Felsch, Torsten; Pérez, Carmen; Rodriguez, Jorge R.; Ghrissi, Meftah

    2016-05-01

    MAINBOT project has developed service robots based applications to autonomously execute inspection tasks in extensive industrial plants in equipment that is arranged horizontally (using ground robots) or vertically (climbing robots). The industrial objective has been to provide a means to help measuring several physical parameters in multiple points by autonomous robots, able to navigate and climb structures, handling non-destructive testing sensors. MAINBOT has validated the solutions in two solar thermal plants (cylindrical-parabolic collectors and central tower), that are very demanding from mobile manipulation point of view mainly due to the extension (e.g. a thermal solar plant of 50Mw, with 400 hectares, 400.000 mirrors, 180 km of absorber tubes, 140m height tower), the variability of conditions (outdoor, day-night), safety requirements, etc. Once the technology was validated in simulation, the system was deployed in real setups and different validation tests carried out. In this paper two of the achievements related with the ground mobile inspection system are presented: (1) Autonomous navigation localization and planning algorithms to manage navigation in huge extensions and (2) Non-Destructive Inspection operations: thermography based detection algorithms to provide automatic inspection abilities to the robots.

  6. Mobile Robot for Exploring Cold Liquid/Solid Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergh, Charles; Zimmerman, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Planetary Autonomous Amphibious Robotic Vehicle (PAARV), now at the prototype stage of development, was originally intended for use in acquiring and analyzing samples of solid, liquid, and gaseous materials in cold environments on the shores and surfaces, and at shallow depths below the surfaces, of lakes and oceans on remote planets. The PAARV also could be adapted for use on Earth in similar exploration of cold environments in and near Arctic and Antarctic oceans and glacial and sub-glacial lakes.

  7. Using Advanced Computer Vision Algorithms on Small Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-20

    Lab. This classification algorithm has been used to successfully detect the license plates of automobiles in motion in real-time. While working...use in real-time. Test results are shown for a variety of environments. KEYWORDS: robotics, computer vision, car /license plate detection, SIFT...when detecting the make and model of automobiles , SIFT can be used to achieve very high detection rates at the expense of a hefty performance cost when

  8. Effect of Media Usage Selection on Social Mobilization Speed: Facebook vs E-Mail.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Madnick, Stuart; Li, Xitong; Alstott, Jeff; Velu, Chander

    2015-01-01

    Social mobilization is a process that enlists a large number of people to achieve a goal within a limited time, especially through the use of social media. There is increasing interest in understanding the factors that affect the speed of social mobilization. Based on the Langley Knights competition data set, we analyzed the differences in mobilization speed between users of Facebook and e-mail. We include other factors that may influence mobilization speed (gender, age, timing, and homophily of information source) in our model as control variables in order to isolate the effect of such factors. We show that, in this experiment, although more people used e-mail to recruit, the mobilization speed of Facebook users was faster than that of those that used e-mail. We were also able to measure and show that the mobilization speed for Facebook users was on average seven times faster compared to e-mail before controlling for other factors. After controlling for other factors, we show that Facebook users were 1.84 times more likely to register compared to e-mail users in the next period if they have not done so at any point in time. This finding could provide useful insights for future social mobilization efforts.

  9. Effect of Media Usage Selection on Social Mobilization Speed: Facebook vs E-Mail

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Madnick, Stuart; Li, Xitong; Alstott, Jeff; Velu, Chander

    2015-01-01

    Social mobilization is a process that enlists a large number of people to achieve a goal within a limited time, especially through the use of social media. There is increasing interest in understanding the factors that affect the speed of social mobilization. Based on the Langley Knights competition data set, we analyzed the differences in mobilization speed between users of Facebook and e-mail. We include other factors that may influence mobilization speed (gender, age, timing, and homophily of information source) in our model as control variables in order to isolate the effect of such factors. We show that, in this experiment, although more people used e-mail to recruit, the mobilization speed of Facebook users was faster than that of those that used e-mail. We were also able to measure and show that the mobilization speed for Facebook users was on average seven times faster compared to e-mail before controlling for other factors. After controlling for other factors, we show that Facebook users were 1.84 times more likely to register compared to e-mail users in the next period if they have not done so at any point in time. This finding could provide useful insights for future social mobilization efforts. PMID:26422171

  10. A mobile robot therapist for under-supervised training with robot/computer assisted motivating systems.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Yuniya; Johnson, Michelle J

    2008-01-01

    Robot assisted therapy is a new and promising area in stroke rehabilitation and has shown to be effective in reducing motor impairment, but is a costly solution for home rehabilitation. High medical costs could be reduced if we could improve rehabilitation exercise in unsupervised environments such as the home. Hence, there is an augmented need for a cost effective rehabilitation system that can be used outside the clinic. This paper presents the design concept for an autonomous robotic assistant that is low-cost and effective in engaging the users while assisting them with therapy in any under-supervised area. We investigated how the robot assistant can support TheraDrive, our low-cost therapy system. We present the design methods and a case study demonstrating the arm and video collection system.

  11. A layered goal-oriented fuzzy motion planning strategy for mobile robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Moallem, Mehrdad; Patel, Rajni V

    2005-12-01

    Most conventional motion planning algorithms that are based on the model of the environment cannot perform well when dealing with the navigation problem for real-world mobile robots where the environment is unknown and can change dynamically. In this paper, a layered goal-oriented motion planning strategy using fuzzy logic is developed for a mobile robot navigating in an unknown environment. The information about the global goal and the long-range sensory data are used by the first layer of the planner to produce an intermediate goal, referred to as the way-point, that gives a favorable direction in terms of seeking the goal within the detected area. The second layer of the planner takes this way-point as a subgoal and, using short-range sensory data, guides the robot to reach the subgoal while avoiding collisions. The resulting path, connecting an initial point to a goal position, is similar to the path produced by the visibility graph motion planning method, but in this approach there is no assumption about the environment. Due to its simplicity and capability for real-time implementation, fuzzy logic has been used for the proposed motion planning strategy. The resulting navigation system is implemented on a real mobile robot, Koala, and tested in various environments. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy navigation system.

  12. Mobile phone camera benchmarking: combination of camera speed and image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. For example, ISO 15781 defines several measurements to evaluate various camera system delays. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system have not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. Firstly, the most important image quality metrics are collected from the standards and papers. Secondly, the speed related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and also novel speed metrics are identified. Thirdly, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones in the market. The measurements are done towards application programming interface of different operating system. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The result of this work gives detailed benchmarking results of mobile phone camera systems in the market. The paper defines also a proposal of combined benchmarking metrics, which includes both quality and speed parameters.

  13. Situationally driven local navigation for mobile robots. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Marc Glenn

    1990-01-01

    For mobile robots to autonomously accommodate dynamically changing navigation tasks in a goal-directed fashion, they must employ navigation plans. Any such plan must provide for the robot's immediate and continuous need for guidance while remaining highly flexible in order to avoid costly computation each time the robot's perception of the world changes. Due to the world's uncertainties, creation and maintenance of navigation plans cannot involve arbitrarily complex processes, as the robot's perception of the world will be in constant flux, requiring modifications to be made quickly if they are to be of any use. This work introduces navigation templates (NaT's) which are building blocks for the construction and maintenance of rough navigation plans which capture the relationship that objects in the world have to the current navigation task. By encoding only the critical relationship between the objects in the world and the navigation task, a NaT-based navigation plan is highly flexible; allowing new constraints to be quickly incorporated into the plan and existing constraints to be updated or deleted from the plan. To satisfy the robot's need for immediate local guidance, the NaT's forming the current navigation plan are passed to a transformation function. The transformation function analyzes the plan with respect to the robot's current location to quickly determine (a few times a second) the locally preferred direction of travel. This dissertation presents NaT's and the transformation function as well as the needed support systems to demonstrate the usefulness of the technique for controlling the actions of a mobile robot operating in an uncertain world.

  14. Self-organization of spiking neural network that generates autonomous behavior in a real mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Alnajjar, Fady; Murase, Kazuyuki

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, we propose self-organization algorithm of spiking neural network (SNN) applicable to autonomous robot for generation of adoptive and goal-directed behavior. First, we formulated a SNN model whose inputs and outputs were analog and the hidden unites are interconnected each other. Next, we implemented it into a miniature mobile robot Khepera. In order to see whether or not a solution(s) for the given task(s) exists with the SNN, the robot was evolved with the genetic algorithm in the environment. The robot acquired the obstacle avoidance and navigation task successfully, exhibiting the presence of the solution. After that, a self-organization algorithm based on a use-dependent synaptic potentiation and depotentiation at synapses of input layer to hidden layer and of hidden layer to output layer was formulated and implemented into the robot. In the environment, the robot incrementally organized the network and the given tasks were successfully performed. The time needed to acquire the desired adoptive and goal-directed behavior using the proposed self-organization method was much less than that with the genetic evolution, approximately one fifth.

  15. Terrain coverage of an unknown room by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    VanderHeide, J.R.

    1995-12-05

    Terrain coverage problems are nearly as old as mankind: they were necessary early in our history for basic activities such as finding food and other necessities. As our societies and their associated machineries have grown more complex, we have not outgrown the need for this primitive skill. It is still used on a small scale for cleaning tasks and on a large scale for {open_quotes}search and report{close_quotes} missions of various kinds. The motivation for automating this process may not lie in the novelty of anything we might gain as an end product, but in freedom from something which we as humans find tedious, time-consuming and sometimes dangerous. Here we consider autonomous coverage of a terrain, typically indoor rooms, by a mobile robot that has no a priori model of the terrain. In evaluating its surroundings, the robot employs only inexpensive and commercially available ultrasonic and infrared sensors. The proposed solution is a basic step - a proof of principle - that can contribute to robots capable of autonomously performing tasks such as vacuum cleaning, mopping, radiation scanning, etc. The area of automatic terrain coverage and the closely related problem of terrain model acquisition have been studied both analytically and experimentally. Compared to the existing works, the following are three major distinguishing aspects of our study: (1) the theory is actually applied to an existing robot, (2) the robot has no a priori knowledge of the terrain, and (3) the robot can be realized relatively inexpensively.

  16. Automatic generation of modules of object categorization for autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbenko, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Many robotic tasks require advanced systems of visual sensing. Robotic systems of visual sensing must be able to solve a number of different complex problems of visual data analysis. Object categorization is one of such problems. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatic generation of computationally effective modules of object categorization for autonomous mobile robots. This approach is based on the consideration of the stack cover problem. In particular, it is assumed that the robot is able to perform an initial inspection of the environment. After such inspection, the robot needs to solve the stack cover problem by using a supercomputer. A solution of the stack cover problem allows the robot to obtain a template for computationally effective scheduling of object categorization. Also, we consider an efficient approach to solve the stack cover problem. In particular, we consider an explicit reduction from the decision version of the stack cover problem to the satisfiability problem. For different satisfiability algorithms, the results of computational experiments are presented.

  17. Design considerations for an intelligent mobile robot for mixed-waste inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Sias, F.R.; Dawson, D.M.; Schalkoff, R.J.; Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1993-06-01

    Large quantities of low-level radioactive waste are stored in steel drums at various Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the United States. Much of the stored waste qualifies as mixed waste and falls under Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations that require periodic inspection. A semi-autonomous mobile robot is being developed during Phase 1 of a DOE contract to perform the inspection task and consequently reduce the radiation exposure of inspection personnel to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). The nature of the inspection process, the resulting robot design requirements, and the current status of the project are the subjects of this paper.

  18. People detection method using graphics processing units for a mobile robot with an omnidirectional camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungil; Roh, Annah; Nam, Bodam; Hong, Hyunki

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a novel vision system for people detection using an omnidirectional camera mounted on a mobile robot. In order to determine regions of interest (ROI), we compute a dense optical flow map using graphics processing units, which enable us to examine compliance with the ego-motion of the robot in a dynamic environment. Shape-based classification algorithms are employed to sort ROIs into human beings and nonhumans. The experimental results show that the proposed system detects people more precisely than previous methods.

  19. An optimal control strategy for collision avoidance of mobile robots in non-stationary environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyriakopoulos, K. J.; Saridis, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    An optimal control formulation of the problem of collision avoidance of mobile robots in environments containing moving obstacles is presented. Collision avoidance is guaranteed if the minimum distance between the robot and the objects is nonzero. A nominal trajectory is assumed to be known from off-line planning. The main idea is to change the velocity along the nominal trajectory so that collisions are avoided. Furthermore, time consistency with the nominal plan is desirable. A numerical solution of the optimization problem is obtained. Simulation results verify the value of the proposed strategy.

  20. Optimization of the computational load of a hypercube supercomputer onboard a mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, N.; Protopopescu, V.

    1987-01-01

    A combinatorial optimization methodology is developed, which enables the efficient use of hypercube multiprocessors onboard mobile intelligent robots dedicated to time-critical missions. The methodology is implemented in terms of large-scale concurrent algorithms based either on fast simulated annealing, or on nonlinear asynchronous neural networks. In particular, analytic expressions are given for the effect of single-neuron perturbations on the systems' configuration energy. Compact neuromorphic data structures are used to model effects such as precedence constraints, processor idling times, and task-schedule overlaps. Results for a typical robot-dynamics benchmark are presented.

  1. Trial Development of a Mobile Feeding Assistive Robotic Arm for People with Physical Disabilities of the Extremities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Hideyuki; Higa, Hiroki; Soken, Takashi; Namihira, Yoshinori

    A mobile feeding assistive robotic arm for people with physical disabilities of the extremities has been developed in this paper. This system is composed of a robotic arm, microcontroller, and its interface. The main unit of the robotic arm can be contained in a laptop computer's briefcase. Its weight is 5kg, including two 12-V lead acid rechargeable batteries. This robotic arm can be also mounted on a wheelchair. To verify performance of the mobile robotic arm system, drinking tea task was experimentally performed by two able-bodied subjects as well as three persons suffering from muscular dystrophy. From the experimental results, it was clear that they could smoothly carry out the drinking task, and that the robotic arm could firmly grasp a commercially available 500-ml plastic bottle. The eating task was also performed by the two able-bodied subjects. The experimental results showed that they could eat porridge by using a spoon without any difficulty.

  2. Real-time Cooperative Behavior for Tactical Mobile Robot Teams: Skills Impact Study for Tactical Mobile Robot Operational Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    effective operation of teleoperated (not teleautonomous) robots with keys on a pendant de- vice [Laird 00], but it requires the dedicated use of both...the force feedback often made the difference in being able to drive through a maze without collisions. It was determined to be an “ effective interface...the need for a response. It is a consequence of the psychological refractory period effect , which provides a fundamental limit on human parallel task

  3. HOPIS: Hybrid Omnidirectional and Perspective Imaging System for Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huei-Yung.; Wang, Min-Liang.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for the hybrid omnidirectional and perspective robot vision system. Based on the hybrid imaging geometry, a generalized stereo approach is developed via the construction of virtual cameras. It is then used to rectify the hybrid image pair using the perspective projection model. The proposed method not only simplifies the computation of epipolar geometry for the hybrid imaging system, but also facilitates the stereo matching between the heterogeneous image formation. Experimental results for both the synthetic data and real scene images have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach. PMID:25192317

  4. Distributed Planning and Control for Teams of Cooperating Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    2004-06-15

    This CRADA project involved the cooperative research of investigators in ORNL's Center for Engineering Science Advanced Research (CESAR) with researchers at Caterpillar, Inc. The subject of the research was the development of cooperative control strategies for autonomous vehicles performing applications of interest to Caterpillar customers. The project involved three Phases of research, conducted over the time period of November 1998 through December 2001. This project led to the successful development of several technologies and demonstrations in realistic simulation that illustrated the effectiveness of the control approaches for distributed planning and cooperation in multi-robot teams.

  5. Mechatronic demonstrator for testing sensors to be used in mobile robotics functioning on the inverted pendulum concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandru, L.; Dolga, V.; Moldovan, C.; Savu, D.

    2016-08-01

    As the educational system is evolving, there are a lot of Mechatronic demonstrators used in schools and universities to demonstrate some technical, theoretical principle and analyzing new concept to apply this studied information, build practical hardware parts. The idea of using mobile robots for different applications is very common today. For choosing the best hardware and software configuration for the mobile robot it is necessary to make a documented analysis of the environment in which the mobile robot will perform. In our demonstrator we want to collect information from an optical sensor what can be used to maintain stability in a mobile robot equilibrium reading the reflected light from a surface. After hardware build we make a particularity study to see how optical sensors response in different ambient light and surface. To show some reference point we are collecting data from gyroscopic, accelerometer or rotation sensors.

  6. Dynamic object recognition and tracking of mobile robot by monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Yongji

    2007-11-01

    Monocular Vision is widely used in mobile robot's motion control for its simple structure and easy using. An integrated description to distinguish and tracking the specified color targets dynamically and precisely by the Monocular Vision based on the imaging principle is the major topic of the paper. The mainline is accordance with the mechanisms of visual processing strictly, including the pretreatment and recognition processes. Specially, the color models are utilized to decrease the influence of the illumination in the paper. Some applied algorithms based on the practical application are used for image segmentation and clustering. After recognizing the target, however the monocular camera can't get depth information directly, 3D Reconstruction Principle is used to calculate the distance and direction from robot to target. To emend monocular camera reading, the laser is used after vision measuring. At last, a vision servo system is designed to realize the robot's dynamic tracking to the moving target.

  7. Returning Motion from the State of Falling Sideways for Articulated Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunobiki, Masayuki; Okuda, Koichi; Hasegawa, Motoyoshi

    We developed an inchworm-type mobile robot. It consisted of only six segments connected by four pitch joints and one yaw joint. Although this robot had neither legs nor wheels, it was able to advance by using vertically undulatory motion of whole body. Even if it became upside down, it was able to move just like normal posture. But if it fell sideways, it was not able to move until returning to normal posture. In this study, we proposed a returning method by which the angular moment around roll axis was generated by twisting itself. To analyze this motion, we developed a mathematical model for this returning motion by considering the robot to be an underactuated mechanical system that consisted of a base frame and two link frames. We confirmed this returning motion was able to equate with a falling down motion of an underactuated two-linked system.

  8. Idiotypic immune networks in mobile-robot control.

    PubMed

    Whitbrook, Amanda M; Aickelin, Uwe; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

    2007-12-01

    Jerne's idiotypic-network theory postulates that the immune response involves interantibody stimulation and suppression, as well as matching to antigens. The theory has proved the most popular artificial immune system (AIS) model for incorporation into behavior-based robotics, but guidelines for implementing idiotypic selection are scarce. Furthermore, the direct effects of employing the technique have not been demonstrated in the form of a comparison with nonidiotypic systems. This paper aims to address these issues. A method for integrating an idiotypic AIS network with a reinforcement-learning (RL)-based control system is described, and the mechanisms underlying antibody stimulation and suppression are explained in detail. Some hypotheses that account for the network advantage are put forward and tested using three systems with increasing idiotypic complexity. The basic RL, a simplified hybrid AIS-RL that implements idiotypic selection independently of derived concentration levels, and a full hybrid AIS-RL scheme are examined. The test bed takes the form of a simulated Pioneer robot that is required to navigate through maze worlds detecting and tracking door markers.

  9. Distributing Planning and Control for Teams of Cooperating Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    2004-07-19

    This CRADA project involved the cooperative research of investigators in ORNL's Center for Engineering Science Advanced Research (CESAR) with researchers at Caterpillar, Inc. The subject of the research was the development of cooperative control strategies for autonomous vehicles performing applications of interest to Caterpillar customers. The project involved three Phases of research, conducted over the time period of November 1998 through December 2001. This project led to the successful development of several technologies and demonstrations in realistic simulation that illustrated the effectiveness of our control approaches for distributed planning and cooperation in multi-robot teams. The primary objectives of this research project were to: (1) Develop autonomous control technologies to enable multiple vehicles to work together cooperatively, (2) Provide the foundational capabilities for a human operator to exercise oversight and guidance during the multi-vehicle task execution, and (3) Integrate these capabilities to the ALLIANCE-based autonomous control approach for multi-robot teams. These objectives have been successfully met with the results implemented and demonstrated in a near real-time multi-vehicle simulation of up to four vehicles performing mission-relevant tasks.

  10. Toward a mobile autonomous robotic system for Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, P.; Di Giamberardino, P.; Fortuna, L.; La Gala, F.; Monaco, S.; Muscato, G.; Rizzo, A.; Ronchini, R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the results obtained up to now in the design and realization of mobile platforms, wheeled and legged ones, for autonomous deployment in unknown and hostile environments: a work developed in the framework of a project supported by the Italian Space Agency. The paper is focused on the description of the hierarchical architecture adopted for the planning, the supervision and the control of their mobility. Experimental results validate the solutions proposed, evidencing the capabilities of the platforms to explore environments in presence of irregular ground shape and obstacles of different dimensions.

  11. Flexible Virtual Structure Consideration in Dynamic Modeling of Mobile Robots Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kamel, A. Essghaier; Beji, L.; Lerbet, J.; Abichou, A.

    2009-03-01

    In cooperative mobile robotics, we look for formation keeping and maintenance of a geometric configuration during movement. As a solution to these problems, the concept of a virtual structure is considered. Based on this idea, we have developed an efficient flexible virtual structure, describing the dynamic model of n vehicles in formation and where the whole formation is kept dependant. Notes that, for 2D and 3D space navigation, only a rigid virtual structure was proposed in the literature. Further, the problem was limited to a kinematic behavior of the structure. Hence, the flexible virtual structure in dynamic modeling of mobile robots formation presented in this paper, gives more capabilities to the formation to avoid obstacles in hostile environment while keeping formation and avoiding inter-agent collision.

  12. A Petri-net coordination model for an intelligent mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F.-Y.; Kyriakopoulos, K. J.; Tsolkas, A.; Saridis, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a Petri net model of the coordination level of an intelligent mobile robot system (IMRS). The purpose of this model is to specify the integration of the individual efforts on path planning, supervisory motion control, and vision systems that are necessary for the autonomous operation of the mobile robot in a structured dynamic environment. This is achieved by analytically modeling the various units of the system as Petri net transducers and explicitly representing the task precedence and information dependence among them. The model can also be used to simulate the task processing and to evaluate the efficiency of operations and the responsibility of decisions in the coordination level of the IMRS. Some simulation results on the task processing and learning are presented.

  13. Ultra Wide-Band Localization and SLAM: A Comparative Study for Mobile Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Marcelo J.; Auat Cheein, Fernando A.; Toibero, Juan M.; Mut, Vicente; Carelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a comparative study between an Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) localization system and a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm is presented. Due to its high bandwidth and short pulses length, UWB potentially allows great accuracy in range measurements based on Time of Arrival (TOA) estimation. SLAM algorithms recursively estimates the map of an environment and the pose (position and orientation) of a mobile robot within that environment. The comparative study presented here involves the performance analysis of implementing in parallel an UWB localization based system and a SLAM algorithm on a mobile robot navigating within an environment. Real time results as well as error analysis are also shown in this work. PMID:22319397

  14. Automatic detection and classification of obstacles with applications in autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Rosas-Miranda, Dario I.

    2016-04-01

    Hardware implementation of an automatic detection and classification of objects that can represent an obstacle for an autonomous mobile robot using stereo vision algorithms is presented. We propose and evaluate a new method to detect and classify objects for a mobile robot in outdoor conditions. This method is divided in two parts, the first one is the object detection step based on the distance from the objects to the camera and a BLOB analysis. The second part is the classification step that is based on visuals primitives and a SVM classifier. The proposed method is performed in GPU in order to reduce the processing time values. This is performed with help of hardware based on multi-core processors and GPU platform, using a NVIDIA R GeForce R GT640 graphic card and Matlab over a PC with Windows 10.

  15. Design of a high-mobility multi-terrain robot based on eccentric paddle mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Yang, Yang; Ma, Shugen; Pu, Huayan

    Gaining high mobility on versatile terrains is a crucial target for designing a mobile robot toward tasks such as search and rescue, scientific exploration, and environment monitoring. Inspired by dextrous limb motion of animals, a novel form of locomotion has been established in our previous study, by proposing an eccentric paddle mechanism (ePaddle) for integrating paddling motion into a traditional wheeled mechanism. In this paper, prototypes of an ePaddle mechanism and an ePaddle-based quadruped robot are presented. Several locomotion modes, including wheeled rolling, legged crawling, legged race-walking, rotational paddling, oscillating paddling, and paddle-aided rolling, are experimentally verified on testbeds with fabricated prototypes. Experimental results confirm that paddle's motion is useful in all the locomotion modes.

  16. Einsatz einer Echtzeit-Publish/Subscribe-Kommunikation für die Teleoperation mobiler Roboter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Timo; Herms, André; Schulze, Michael

    In der Telerobotik werden mobile Roboter über ein Kommunikationsnetz durch einen Operator ferngesteuert. Um interaktiv zu operieren, mussen Daten in beide Richtungen in Echtzeit kommuniziert werden. Zusätzlich ist eine hohe Ausfallsicherheit des Systems zu gewährleisten. Diese Arbeit beschreibt die Umsetzung ernes solchen Szenarios unter Verwendung einer Echtzeit-Publish/Subscribe-Kommunikation. Ein drahtloses Mesh-Netzwerk erfüllt durch redundante Verbindungen die Anforderungen an die Kommunikation. Eine Publish/Subscribe-Middleware ermöglicht eine inhaltsbasierte Kommunikation und erlaubt dadurch eine hohe Flexibilität der Teilnehmer. Durch die modulare Software-Architektur der Applikationen entsteht ein verteiltes System, in dem mobile Roboter durch netzwerktransparente Kommunikation gesteuert werden.

  17. Control of mechanical systems with rolling constraints: Application to dynamic control of mobile robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, Nilanjan; Yun, Xiaoping; Kumar, Vijay

    1994-01-01

    There are many examples of mechanical systems that require rolling contacts between two or more rigid bodies. Rolling contacts engender nonholonomic constraints in an otherwise holonomic system. In this article, we develop a unified approach to the control of mechanical systems subject to both holonomic and nonholonomic constraints. We first present a state space realization of a constrained system. We then discuss the input-output linearization and zero dynamics of the system. This approach is applied to the dynamic control of mobile robots. Two types of control algorithms for mobile robots are investigated: trajectory tracking and path following. In each case, a smooth nonlinear feedback is obtained to achieve asymptotic input-output stability and Lagrange stability of the overall system. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control algorithms and to compare the performane of trajectory-tracking and path-following algorithms.

  18. Control of mechanical systems with rolling constraints: Application to dynamic control of mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Nilanjan; Yun, Xiaoping; Kumar, Vijay

    1994-02-01

    There are many examples of mechanical systems that require rolling contacts between two or more rigid bodies. Rolling contacts engender nonholonomic constraints in an otherwise holonomic system. In this article, we develop a unified approach to the control of mechanical systems subject to both holonomic and nonholonomic constraints. We first present a state space realization of a constrained system. We then discuss the input-output linearization and zero dynamics of the system. This approach is applied to the dynamic control of mobile robots. Two types of control algorithms for mobile robots are investigated: trajectory tracking and path following. In each case, a smooth nonlinear feedback is obtained to achieve asymptotic input-output stability and Lagrange stability of the overall system. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control algorithms and to compare the performane of trajectory-tracking and path-following algorithms.

  19. An adaptive actuator failure compensation scheme for two linked 2WD mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yajie; Al-Dujaili, Ayad; Cocquempot, Vincent; El Badaoui El Najjar, Maan

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a new adaptive compensation control scheme for two linked mobile robots with actuator failurs. A configuration with two linked two-wheel drive (2WD) mobile robots is proposed, and the modelling of its kinematics and dynamics are given. An adaptive failure compensation scheme is developed to compensate actuator failures, consisting of a kinematic controller and a multi-design integration based dynamic controller. The kinematic controller is a virtual one, and based on which, multiple adaptive dynamic control signals are designed which covers all possible failure cases. By combing these dynamic control signals, the dynamic controller is designed, which ensures system stability and asymptotic tracking properties. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive failure compensation scheme.

  20. Sensor-driven robot control and mobility: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, G.P.

    1989-05-01

    The work performed under contract 57-2312 which is presented in this Final Report consists of the following tasks: Continued development of the UNM/SNL controller for the dexterous hand, and evaluation of this controller in a demonstration assembly task. This is the first documented use of a dexterous hand in an actual assembly task; Development of the necessary theory for effective fingertip force calculation when using the dexterous hand to manipulate an object. This theory, unlike previous formulations, makes use of internal force to prevent the fingers from sliding or breaking contact; ongoing development of the controller for the Adept-2 pedestal robot. The effort here has primarily been in identifying an appropriate waveform for commutation of the NSK direct-drive variable-reluctance motor. We have developed a simulation of the motor, which aids in waveform synthesis.

  1. Relation between repeatability and speed of robot-based systems for composite aircraft production through multilateration sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, M.; Perner, M.; Krombholz, C.; Beykirch, B.

    2015-03-01

    Fiber composites are becoming increasingly important in different fields of lightweight application. To guarantee the estimated demand of components made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the use of industrial robots is suggested in production. High velocity of the layup process is addressed to significantly increase the production rate. Today, the layup of the fiber material is performed by gantry systems. They are heavy weight, slow and the variety of possible part shapes is limited. Articulated robots offer a huge operational area in relation to their construction size. Moreover, they are flexible enough to layup fiber material into different shaped molds. Thus, standard articulated robots are less accurate and more susceptible to vibration than gantry systems. Therefore, this paper illustrates an approach to classify volumetric errors to obtain a relation between the achievable speed in production and precision. The prediction of a precision at a defined speed is the result. Based on the measurement results the repeatability of the robotic unit within the workspace is calculated and presented. At the minimum speed that is applicable in production the repeatability is less than 30 mm. Subsequently, an online strategy for path error compensation is presented. The approach uses a multilateration system that consists of four laser tracer units and measures the current absolute position of a reflector mounted at the end-effector of the robot. By calculating the deviation between the planned and the actual position a compensated motion is applied. The paper concludes with a discussion for further investigations.

  2. (abstract) A Mobile Robot for Remote Response to Incidents Involving Hazardous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Richard V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will report the status of the Emergency Response Robotics project, a teleoperated mobile robot system being developed at JPL for use by the JPL Fire Department/HAZMAT Team. The project, which began in 1991, has been focused on developing a robotic vehicle which can be quickly deployed by HAZMAT Team personnel for first entry into an incident site. The primary goals of the system are to gain access to the site, locate and identify the hazard, and aid in its mitigation. The involvement of JPL Fire Department/HAZMAT Team personnel has been critical in guiding the design and evaluation of the system. A unique feature of the current robot, called HAZBOT III, is its special design for operation in combustible environments. This includes the use of all solid state electronics, brushless motors, and internal pressurization. Demonstration and testing of the system with HAZMAT Team personnel has shown that teleoperated robots, such as HAZBOT III, can successfully gain access to incident sites locating and identifying hazardous material spills. Work is continuing to enable more complex missions through the addition of appropriate sensor technology and enhancement of the operator interface.

  3. Autonomous Mobile Robot System for Monitoring and Control of Penetration during Fixed Pipes Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Masahiro; Suga, Yasuo; Mori, Kazuhiro

    In order to obtain sound welded joints in the welding of horizontal fixed pipes, it is important to control the back bead width in the first pass. However, it is difficult to obtain optimum back bead width, because the proper welding conditions change with welding position. In this paper, in order to fully automatize the welding of fixed pipes, a new method is developed to control the back bead width with monitoring the shape and dimensions of the molten pool from the reverse side by autonomous mobile robot system. This robot has spherical shape so as to move in a complex route including curved pipe, elbow joint and so on. It has also a camera to observe inner surface of pipe and recognize a route in which the robot moves. The robot moves to welding point in the pipe, and monitors the reverse side shape of molten pool during welding. The host computer processes the images of molten pool acquired by the robot vision system, and calculates the optimum welding conditions to realize adaptive control of welding. As a result of the welding control experiments, the effectiveness of this system for the penetration control of fixed pipes is demonstrated.

  4. Formation tracker design of multiple mobile robots with wheel perturbations: adaptive output-feedback approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sung Jin

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a theoretical design approach for output-feedback formation tracking of multiple mobile robots under wheel perturbations. It is assumed that these perturbations are unknown and the linear and angular velocities of the robots are unmeasurable. First, adaptive state observers for estimating unmeasurable velocities of the robots are developed under the robots' kinematics and dynamics including wheel perturbation effects. Then, we derive a virtual-structure-based formation tracker scheme according to the observer dynamic surface design procedure. The main difficulty of the output-feedback control design is to manage the coupling problems between unmeasurable velocities and unknown wheel perturbation effects. These problems are avoided by using the adaptive technique and the function approximation property based on fuzzy logic systems. From the Lyapunov stability analysis, it is shown that point tracking errors of each robot and synchronisation errors for the desired formation converge to an adjustable neighbourhood of the origin, while all signals in the controlled closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded.

  5. A Detailed Evaluation of a Laser Triangulation Ranging System for Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    A RPI TECHNICAL REPORT MP-82 A DETAILED EVALUATION OF A LASER - TRIANGULATION RANGING SYSTEM FOR MOBILE ROBOTS by Thomas J. Clement Contract MDA-903...ML/MD VISION SYSTEM THEORY............................... 7 2.1 Laser Triangulation......................................... 7 2.1.1 ML/MD Vision...System Accuracy Factors..................10 2.1.2 Detector "Cone of Vision" Problem ..................... 10 2. 1.3 Laser Triangulation Justification

  6. Learning-based Nonlinear Model Predictive Control to Improve Vision-based Mobile Robot Path Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    feedback control to generate desired lateral and angular velocities to compensate for vehicle slip rates. Finally, they use the robot’s inverse dynamics to...Learning-based Nonlinear Model Predictive Control to Improve Vision-based Mobile Robot Path Tracking Chris J. Ostafew Institute for Aerospace Studies...paper presents a Learning-based Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (LB-NMPC) algorithm to achieve high-performance path tracking in challenging off-road

  7. High-Speed Mobile Communications in Hostile Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, S.; Sierra, R.; Chapron, F.

    2015-12-01

    With the inexorable increase in the use of mobile devices, wireless connectivity is expected by users anywhere, anytime. In general, this requirement is addressed in office buildings or public locations through the use of Wi-Fi technology but Wi-Fi is not well adapted for use in large experiment halls and complex underground environments, especially those where radiation exposure is an issue, such as the LHC tunnel and experimental caverns. 4G/LTE technology, however, looks to be well adapted to addressing mobility needs in such areas. We report here the studies CERN has undertaken on the use of 4G/LTE in the LHC tunnel, presenting results on the data throughput that can be achieved and discussing issues such as the provision of a consistent user experience.

  8. Fuzzy mobile-robot positioning in intelligent spaces using wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Herrero, David; Martínez, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development and experimental evaluation of a method based on fuzzy logic to locate mobile robots in an Intelligent Space using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The problem consists of locating a mobile node using only inter-node range measurements, which are estimated by radio frequency signal strength attenuation. The sensor model of these measurements is very noisy and unreliable. The proposed method makes use of fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information. Besides, the proposed approach is compared with a probabilistic technique showing that the fuzzy approach is able to handle highly uncertain situations that are difficult to manage by well-known localization methods.

  9. Two-Dimensional Radial Laser Scanning for Circular Marker Detection and External Mobile Robot Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Teixidó, Mercè; Pallejà, Tomàs; Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Moreno, Javier; Palacín, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the use of an external fixed two-dimensional laser scanner to detect cylindrical targets attached to moving devices, such as a mobile robot. This proposal is based on the detection of circular markers in the raw data provided by the laser scanner by applying an algorithm for outlier avoidance and a least-squares circular fitting. Some experiments have been developed to empirically validate the proposal with different cylindrical targets in order to estimate the location and tracking errors achieved, which are generally less than 20 mm in the area covered by the laser sensor. As a result of the validation experiments, several error maps have been obtained in order to give an estimate of the uncertainty of any location computed. This proposal has been validated with a medium-sized mobile robot with an attached cylindrical target (diameter 200 mm). The trajectory of the mobile robot was estimated with an average location error of less than 15 mm, and the real location error in each individual circular fitting was similar to the error estimated with the obtained error maps. The radial area covered in this validation experiment was up to 10 m, a value that depends on the radius of the cylindrical target and the radial density of the distance range points provided by the laser scanner but this area can be increased by combining the information of additional external laser scanners. PMID:23443390

  10. Application of neural models as controllers in mobile robot velocity control loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerkala, Jakub; Jadlovska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of an inverse neural models used as controllers in comparison to classical PI controllers for velocity tracking control task used in two-wheel, differentially driven mobile robot. The PI controller synthesis is based on linear approximation of actuators with equivalent load. In order to obtain relevant datasets for training of feed-forward multi-layer perceptron based neural network used as neural model, the mathematical model of mobile robot, that combines its kinematic and dynamic properties such as chassis dimensions, center of gravity offset, friction and actuator parameters is used. Neural models are trained off-line to act as an inverse dynamics of DC motors with particular load using data collected in simulation experiment for motor input voltage step changes within bounded operating area. The performances of PI controllers versus inverse neural models in mobile robot internal velocity control loops are demonstrated and compared in simulation experiment of navigation control task for line segment motion in plane.

  11. Applying High-Speed Vision Sensing to an Industrial Robot for High-Performance Position Regulation under Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shouren; Bergström, Niklas; Yamakawa, Yuji; Senoo, Taku; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2016-07-29

    It is traditionally difficult to implement fast and accurate position regulation on an industrial robot in the presence of uncertainties. The uncertain factors can be attributed either to the industrial robot itself (e.g., a mismatch of dynamics, mechanical defects such as backlash, etc.) or to the external environment (e.g., calibration errors, misalignment or perturbations of a workpiece, etc.). This paper proposes a systematic approach to implement high-performance position regulation under uncertainties on a general industrial robot (referred to as the main robot) with minimal or no manual teaching. The method is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy that involves configuring an add-on module for the main robot's end effector. The add-on module consists of a 1000 Hz vision sensor and a high-speed actuator to compensate for accumulated uncertainties. The main robot only focuses on fast and coarse motion, with its trajectories automatically planned by image information from a static low-cost camera. Fast and accurate peg-and-hole alignment in one dimension was implemented as an application scenario by using a commercial parallel-link robot and an add-on compensation module with one degree of freedom (DoF). Experimental results yielded an almost 100% success rate for fast peg-in-hole manipulation (with regulation accuracy at about 0.1 mm) when the workpiece was randomly placed.

  12. Maximum walking speeds obtained using treadmill and overground robot system in persons with post-stroke hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated that stroke survivors have a limited capacity to increase their walking speeds beyond their self-selected maximum walking speed (SMWS). The purpose of this study was to determine the capacity of stroke survivors to reach faster speeds than their SMWS while walking on a treadmill belt or while being pushed by a robotic system (i.e. “push mode”). Methods Eighteen chronic stroke survivors with hemiplegia were involved in the study. We calculated their self-selected comfortable walking speed (SCWS) and SMWS overground using a 5-meter walk test (5-MWT). Then, they were exposed to walking at increased speeds, on a treadmill and while in “push mode” in an overground robotic device, the KineAssist, until they were tested at a speed that they could not sustain without losing balance. We recorded the time and number of steps during each trial and calculated gait speed, average cadence and average step length. Results Maximum walking speed in the “push mode” was 13% higher than the maximum walking speed on the treadmill and both were higher (“push mode”: 61%; treadmill: 40%) than the maximum walking speed overground. Subjects achieved these faster speeds by initially increasing both step length and cadence and, once individuals stopped increasing their step length, by only increasing cadence. Conclusions With post-stroke hemiplegia, individuals are able to walk at faster speeds than their SMWS overground, when provided with a safe environment that provides external forces that requires them to attempt dynamic stability maintenance at higher gait speeds. Therefore, this study suggests the possibility that, given the appropriate conditions, people post-stroke can be trained at higher speeds than previously attempted. PMID:23057500

  13. Finding NEMO (novel electromaterial muscle oscillator): a polypyrrole powered robotic fish with real-time wireless speed and directional control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Scott; Alici, Gursel; Truong, Van-Tan; Spinks, Geoffrey

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the development of an autonomously powered and controlled robotic fish that incorporates an active flexural joint tail fin, activated through conducting polymer actuators based on polypyrrole (PPy). The novel electromaterial muscle oscillator (NEMO) tail fin assembly on the fish could be controlled wirelessly in real time by varying the frequency and duty cycle of the voltage signal supplied to the PPy bending-type actuators. Directional control was achieved by altering the duty cycle of the voltage input to the NEMO tail fin, which shifted the axis of oscillation and enabled turning of the robotic fish. At low speeds, the robotic fish had a turning circle as small as 15 cm (or 1.1 body lengths) in radius. The highest speed of the fish robot was estimated to be approximately 33 mm s-1 (or 0.25 body lengths s-1) and was achieved with a flapping frequency of 0.6-0.8 Hz which also corresponded with the most hydrodynamically efficient mode for tail fin operation. This speed is approximately ten times faster than those for any previously reported artificial muscle based device that also offers real-time speed and directional control. This study contributes to previously published studies on bio-inspired functional devices, demonstrating that electroactive polymer actuators can be real alternatives to conventional means of actuation such as electric motors.

  14. Sensors Fusion based Online Mapping and Features Extraction of Mobile Robot in the Road Following and Roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohammed A. H.; Mailah, Musa; Yussof, Wan Azhar B.; Hamedon, Zamzuri B.; Yussof, Zulkifli B.; Majeed, Anwar P. P.

    2016-02-01

    A road feature extraction based mapping system using a sensor fusion technique for mobile robot navigation in road environments is presented in this paper. The online mapping of mobile robot is performed continuously in the road environments to find the road properties that enable the robot to move from a certain start position to pre-determined goal while discovering and detecting the roundabout. The sensors fusion involving laser range finder, camera and odometry which are installed in a new platform, are used to find the path of the robot and localize it within its environments. The local maps are developed using camera and laser range finder to recognize the roads borders parameters such as road width, curbs and roundabout. Results show the capability of the robot with the proposed algorithms to effectively identify the road environments and build a local mapping for road following and roundabout.

  15. Recognition and Classification of Road Condition on the Basis of Friction Force by Using a Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tatsuhito; Katsura, Seiichiro

    A person operating a mobile robot in a remote environment receives realistic visual feedback about the condition of the road on which the robot is moving. The categorization of the road condition is necessary to evaluate the conditions for safe and comfortable driving. For this purpose, the mobile robot should be capable of recognizing and classifying the condition of the road surfaces. This paper proposes a method for recognizing the type of road surfaces on the basis of the friction between the mobile robot and the road surfaces. This friction is estimated by a disturbance observer, and a support vector machine is used to classify the surfaces. The support vector machine identifies the type of the road surface using feature vector, which is determined using the arithmetic average and variance derived from the torque values. Further, these feature vectors are mapped onto a higher dimensional space by using a kernel function. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experimental results.

  16. Simulation of cooperating robot manipulators on a mobile platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic equations of motion for two manipulators holding a common object on a freely moving mobile platform are developed. The full dynamic interactions from arms to platform and arm-tip to arm-tip are included in the formulation. The development of the closed chain dynamics allows for the use of any solution for the open topological tree of base and manipulator links. In particular, because the system has 18 degrees of freedom, recursive solutions for the dynamic simulation become more promising for efficient calculations of the motion. Simulation of the system is accomplished through a MATLAB program, and the response is visualized graphically using the SILMA Cimstation.

  17. Implementation of Obstacle-Avoidance Control for an Autonomous Omni-Directional Mobile Robot Based on Extension Theory

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Neng-Sheng; Hsieh, Hung-Hui; Lai, Yi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a following robot with omni-directional wheels, which is able to take action to avoid obstacles. The robot design is based on both fuzzy and extension theory. Fuzzy theory was applied to tune the PMW signal of the motor revolution, and correct path deviation issues encountered when the robot is moving. Extension theory was used to build a robot obstacle-avoidance model. Various mobile models were developed to handle different types of obstacles. The ultrasonic distance sensors mounted on the robot were used to estimate the distance to obstacles. If an obstacle is encountered, the correlation function is evaluated and the robot avoids the obstacle autonomously using the most appropriate mode. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was verified through several tracking experiments, which demonstrates the feasibility of a fuzzy path tracker as well as the extensible collision avoidance system. PMID:23202029

  18. Implementation of obstacle-avoidance control for an autonomous omni-directional mobile robot based on extension theory.

    PubMed

    Pai, Neng-Sheng; Hsieh, Hung-Hui; Lai, Yi-Chung

    2012-10-16

    The paper demonstrates a following robot with omni-directional wheels, which is able to take action to avoid obstacles. The robot design is based on both fuzzy and extension theory. Fuzzy theory was applied to tune the PMW signal of the motor revolution, and correct path deviation issues encountered when the robot is moving. Extension theory was used to build a robot obstacle-avoidance model. Various mobile models were developed to handle different types of obstacles. The ultrasonic distance sensors mounted on the robot were used to estimate the distance to obstacles. If an obstacle is encountered, the correlation function is evaluated and the robot avoids the obstacle autonomously using the most appropriate mode. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was verified through several tracking experiments, which demonstrates the feasibility of a fuzzy path tracker as well as the extensible collision avoidance system.

  19. Design, Development, and Mobility Test of an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot for Rough Terrain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    the robot as well as executes local feedback control for wheel angular velocity. Two actuators (MAXOS RE35) with planetary gear heads are located...vertically between the wheels (see Fig. 3), each of which is connected to the left/right wheel via bevel gear . The wheel angular velocity is measured

  20. Time optimal trajectories for mobile robots with two independently driven wheels

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.; Pin, F.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of time-optional motions for a mobile platform in a planar environment. The platform has two non-steerable independently driven wheels. The overall mission of the robot is expressed in terms of a sequence of via points at which the platform must be at rest in a given configuration (position and orientation). The objective is to plan time-optimal trajectories between these configurations assuming an unobstructed environment. Using Pontryagin`s maximum principle (PMP), we formally demonstrate that all time optimal motions of the platform for this problem occur for bang-bang controls on the wheels (at each instant, the acceleration on each wheel is either at its upper or lower limit). The PMP, however, only provides necessary conditions for time optimality. To find the time optimal robot trajectories, we first parameterize the bang-bang trajectories using the switch times on the wheels (the times at which the wheel accelerations change sign). With this parameterization, we can fully search the robot trajectory space and find the switch times that will produce particular paths to a desired final configuration of the platform. We show numerically that robot trajectories with three switch times (two on one wheel, one on the other) can reach any position, while trajectories with four switch times can reach any configuration. By numerical comparison with other trajectories involving similar or greater numbers of switch times, we then identify the sets of time-optimal trajectories. These are uniquely defined using ranges of the parameters, and consist of subsets of trajectories with three switch times for the problem when the final orientation of the robot is not specified, and four switch times when a full final configuration is specified. We conclude with a description of the use of the method for trajectory planning for one of our robots.

  1. Time optimal trajectories for mobile robots with two independently driven wheels

    SciTech Connect

    Reister, D.B.; Pin, F.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of time-optional motions for a mobile platform in a planar environment. The platform has two non-steerable independently driven wheels. The overall mission of the robot is expressed in terms of a sequence of via points at which the platform must be at rest in a given configuration (position and orientation). The objective is to plan time-optimal trajectories between these configurations assuming an unobstructed environment. Using Pontryagin's maximum principle (PMP), we formally demonstrate that all time optimal motions of the platform for this problem occur for bang-bang controls on the wheels (at each instant, the acceleration on each wheel is either at its upper or lower limit). The PMP, however, only provides necessary conditions for time optimality. To find the time optimal robot trajectories, we first parameterize the bang-bang trajectories using the switch times on the wheels (the times at which the wheel accelerations change sign). With this parameterization, we can fully search the robot trajectory space and find the switch times that will produce particular paths to a desired final configuration of the platform. We show numerically that robot trajectories with three switch times (two on one wheel, one on the other) can reach any position, while trajectories with four switch times can reach any configuration. By numerical comparison with other trajectories involving similar or greater numbers of switch times, we then identify the sets of time-optimal trajectories. These are uniquely defined using ranges of the parameters, and consist of subsets of trajectories with three switch times for the problem when the final orientation of the robot is not specified, and four switch times when a full final configuration is specified. We conclude with a description of the use of the method for trajectory planning for one of our robots.

  2. Task performance evaluation of asymmetric semiautonomous teleoperation of mobile twin-arm robotic manipulators.

    PubMed

    Malysz, Pawel; Sirouspour, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    A series of human factors experiments involving maneuvering and grasping tasks are carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel asymmetric semiautonomous teleoperation (AST) control design framework for teleoperation of mobile twin-arm robotic manipulators. Simplified configurations are examined first to explore control strategies for different aspects of such teleoperation tasks. These include teleoperation of a nonholonomic mobile base, telemanipulation of a dual-arm robot, and dual-arm/dual-operator teleoperation task scenarios. In two sets of experiments with a planar nonholonomic mobile base, teleoperation via a 3DOF planar haptic interface with position mapping and force reflection of the nonholonomic constraint decreases task-completion-time (TCT) and reduces unwanted collisions. In dual-arm and dual-operator teleoperation maneuverability experiments, the assignment of decoupled and nonconflicting control frames reduces TCT and unwanted contacts. The use of so-called "soft" constraints via passive semiautonomous control reduces TCT and unwanted block drops in telegrasping experiments with a twin-arm manipulator. A final comprehensive experiment encompassing elements of the simplified configurations demonstrates the effectiveness of AST control framework in dual-operator teleoperation of a twin-arm mobile manipulator.

  3. Training toddlers seated on mobile robots to drive indoors amidst obstacles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Ragonesi, Christina; Galloway, James C; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2011-06-01

    Mobility is a causal factor in development. Children with mobility impairments may rely upon power mobility for independence and thus require advanced driving skills to function independently. Our previous studies show that while infants can learn to drive directly to a goal using conventional joysticks in several months of training, they are unable in this timeframe to acquire the advanced skill to avoid obstacles while driving. Without adequate driving training, children are unable to explore the environment safely, the consequences of which may in turn increase their risk for developmental delay. The goal of this research therefore is to train children seated on mobile robots to purposefully and safely drive indoors. In this paper, we present results where ten typically-developing toddlers are trained to drive a robot within an obstacle course. We also report a case study with a toddler with spina-bifida who cannot independently walk. Using algorithms based on artificial potential fields to avoid obstacles, we create force field on the joystick that trains the children to navigate while avoiding obstacles. In this "assist-as-needed" approach, if the child steers the joystick outside a force tunnel centered on the desired direction, the driver experiences a bias force on the hand. Our results suggest that the use of a force-feedback joystick may yield faster learning than the use of a conventional joystick.

  4. Mag-muBots: Magnetic micro-robots capable of mobility, manipulation, and modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawashe, Chytra Shashikant

    Micro-robots are mobile devices that operate in micro-scale environments, and have future applications, such as being used to manipulate or construct micro-devices, and being used as diagnostic and analysis tools in biological systems. Being sub-millimeter in size, micro-robots require very different approaches to fabricating, powering, and controlling them. As opposed to conventional large-scale robots, it is infeasible to integrate conventional-style motors, actuators, and power sources into micro-scale devices. In this work, the Magnetic Micro-Robot (Mag-muBot) is presented, which is a versatile permanent magnet-based mobile robot under 1 mm in all dimensions. External magnetic fields are employed to successfully deliver power and control to the Mag-muBot, which is mobile and can operate in both gases and liquids, and on unstructured surfaces. Its motion is achieved by oscillating magnetic fields, which induces a stick-slip walking behavior; these dynamics are modeled into a simulation that compares favorably to experiments. The mechanisms for the manipulation of micro-objects are also explored, where the Mag-muBot can directly push micro-objects by contact-manipulation, or generate fluid boundary layers to manipulate micro-objects without direct contact. Examples of micro-object manipulation are also provided, where objects from 50 mum to 900 mum are shown to be manipulated. Additionally, control topics are explored such as addressing multiple Mag-muBots on a surface, which is accomplished by utilizing electrostatic forces generated by a specialized surface that selectively immobilizes individual Mag-muBots, allowing for decoupled serial locomotion of multiple Mag-muBots. Furthermore, autonomous control algorithms are developed such that the Mag-muBot can autonomously be positioned in the workspace, plan around obstacles, and efficiently manipulate micro-objects in the environment. Finally, a micro-scale reconfigurable modular robotic system is developed, based

  5. Adaptive Control for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots Considering Time Delay and Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armah, Stephen Kofi

    Autonomous control of mobile robots has attracted considerable attention of researchers in the areas of robotics and autonomous systems during the past decades. One of the goals in the field of mobile robotics is development of platforms that robustly operate in given, partially unknown, or unpredictable environments and offer desired services to humans. Autonomous mobile robots need to be equipped with effective, robust and/or adaptive, navigation control systems. In spite of enormous reported work on autonomous navigation control systems for mobile robots, achieving the goal above is still an open problem. Robustness and reliability of the controlled system can always be improved. The fundamental issues affecting the stability of the control systems include the undesired nonlinear effects introduced by actuator saturation, time delay in the controlled system, and uncertainty in the model. This research work develops robustly stabilizing control systems by investigating and addressing such nonlinear effects through analytical, simulations, and experiments. The control systems are designed to meet specified transient and steady-state specifications. The systems used for this research are ground (Dr Robot X80SV) and aerial (Parrot AR.Drone 2.0) mobile robots. Firstly, an effective autonomous navigation control system is developed for X80SV using logic control by combining 'go-to-goal', 'avoid-obstacle', and 'follow-wall' controllers. A MATLAB robot simulator is developed to implement this control algorithm and experiments are conducted in a typical office environment. The next stage of the research develops an autonomous position (x, y, and z) and attitude (roll, pitch, and yaw) controllers for a quadrotor, and PD-feedback control is used to achieve stabilization. The quadrotor's nonlinear dynamics and kinematics are implemented using MATLAB S-function to generate the state output. Secondly, the white-box and black-box approaches are used to obtain a linearized

  6. Real-time multiple human perception with color-depth cameras on a mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Reardon, Christopher; Parker, Lynne E

    2013-10-01

    The ability to perceive humans is an essential requirement for safe and efficient human-robot interaction. In real-world applications, the need for a robot to interact in real time with multiple humans in a dynamic, 3-D environment presents a significant challenge. The recent availability of commercial color-depth cameras allow for the creation of a system that makes use of the depth dimension, thus enabling a robot to observe its environment and perceive in the 3-D space. Here we present a system for 3-D multiple human perception in real time from a moving robot equipped with a color-depth camera and a consumer-grade computer. Our approach reduces computation time to achieve real-time performance through a unique combination of new ideas and established techniques. We remove the ground and ceiling planes from the 3-D point cloud input to separate candidate point clusters. We introduce the novel information concept, depth of interest, which we use to identify candidates for detection, and that avoids the computationally expensive scanning-window methods of other approaches. We utilize a cascade of detectors to distinguish humans from objects, in which we make intelligent reuse of intermediary features in successive detectors to improve computation. Because of the high computational cost of some methods, we represent our candidate tracking algorithm with a decision directed acyclic graph, which allows us to use the most computationally intense techniques only where necessary. We detail the successful implementation of our novel approach on a mobile robot and examine its performance in scenarios with real-world challenges, including occlusion, robot motion, nonupright humans, humans leaving and reentering the field of view (i.e., the reidentification challenge), human-object and human-human interaction. We conclude with the observation that the incorporation of the depth information, together with the use of modern techniques in new ways, we are able to create an

  7. Self-Adaptive Correction of Heading Direction in Stair Climbing for Tracked Mobile Robots Using Visual Servoing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Peng; Song, Aiguo; Song, Zimo; Liu, Yuqing; Jiang, Guohua; Zhao, Guopu

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we describe a heading direction correction algorithm for a tracked mobile robot. To save hardware resources as far as possible, the mobile robot’s wrist camera is used as the only sensor, which is rotated to face stairs. An ensemble heading deviation detector is proposed to help the mobile robot correct its heading direction. To improve the generalization ability, a multi-scale Gabor filter is used to process the input image previously. Final deviation result is acquired by applying the majority vote strategy on all the classifiers’ results. The experimental results show that our detector is able to enable the mobile robot to correct its heading direction adaptively while it is climbing the stairs.

  8. Applying High-Speed Vision Sensing to an Industrial Robot for High-Performance Position Regulation under Uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shouren; Bergström, Niklas; Yamakawa, Yuji; Senoo, Taku; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    It is traditionally difficult to implement fast and accurate position regulation on an industrial robot in the presence of uncertainties. The uncertain factors can be attributed either to the industrial robot itself (e.g., a mismatch of dynamics, mechanical defects such as backlash, etc.) or to the external environment (e.g., calibration errors, misalignment or perturbations of a workpiece, etc.). This paper proposes a systematic approach to implement high-performance position regulation under uncertainties on a general industrial robot (referred to as the main robot) with minimal or no manual teaching. The method is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy that involves configuring an add-on module for the main robot’s end effector. The add-on module consists of a 1000 Hz vision sensor and a high-speed actuator to compensate for accumulated uncertainties. The main robot only focuses on fast and coarse motion, with its trajectories automatically planned by image information from a static low-cost camera. Fast and accurate peg-and-hole alignment in one dimension was implemented as an application scenario by using a commercial parallel-link robot and an add-on compensation module with one degree of freedom (DoF). Experimental results yielded an almost 100% success rate for fast peg-in-hole manipulation (with regulation accuracy at about 0.1 mm) when the workpiece was randomly placed. PMID:27483274

  9. Mobile Agents: A Distributed Voice-Commanded Sensory and Robotic System for Surface EVA Assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Alena, Rick; Crawford, Sekou; Dowding, John; Graham, Jeff; Kaskiris, Charis; Tyree, Kim S.; vanHoof, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    A model-based, distributed architecture integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: spacesuit biosensors, cameras, GPS, and a robotic assistant. The system transmits data and assists communication between the extra-vehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, the crew in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team. Software processes ("agents"), implemented in a system called Brahms, run on multiple, mobile platforms, including the spacesuit backpacks, all-terrain vehicles, and robot. These "mobile agents" interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. Different types of agents relate platforms to each other ("proxy agents"), devices to software ("comm agents"), and people to the system ("personal agents"). A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface enables people to communicate with their personal agents, supporting a speech-driven navigation and scheduling tool, field observation record, and rover command system. An important aspect of the engineering methodology involves first simulating the entire hardware and software system in Brahms, and then configuring the agents into a runtime system. Design of mobile agent functionality has been based on ethnographic observation of scientists working in Mars analog settings in the High Canadian Arctic on Devon Island and the southeast Utah desert. The Mobile Agents system is developed iteratively in the context of use, with people doing authentic work. This paper provides a brief introduction to the architecture and emphasizes the method of empirical requirements analysis, through which observation, modeling, design, and testing are integrated in simulated EVA operations.

  10. A telepresence mobile robot controlled with a noninvasive brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Escolano, Carlos; Antelis, Javier Mauricio; Minguez, Javier

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports an electroencephalogram-based brain-actuated telepresence system to provide a user with presence in remote environments through a mobile robot, with access to the Internet. This system relies on a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) and a mobile robot with autonomous navigation and camera orientation capabilities. The shared-control strategy is built by the BCI decoding of task-related orders (selection of visible target destinations or exploration areas), which can be autonomously executed by the robot. The system was evaluated using five healthy participants in two consecutive steps: 1) screening and training of participants and 2) preestablished navigation and visual exploration telepresence tasks. On the basis of the results, the following evaluation studies are reported: 1) technical evaluation of the device and its main functionalities and 2) the users' behavior study. The overall result was that all participants were able to complete the designed tasks, reporting no failures, which shows the robustness of the system and its feasibility to solve tasks in real settings where joint navigation and visual exploration were needed. Furthermore, the participants showed great adaptation to the telepresence system.

  11. Collective Odor Source Estimation and Search in Time-Variant Airflow Environments Using Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yang, Wei-Xing; Wang, Yang; Zeng, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the collective odor source localization (OSL) problem in a time-varying airflow environment using mobile robots. A novel OSL methodology which combines odor-source probability estimation and multiple robots’ search is proposed. The estimation phase consists of two steps: firstly, the separate probability-distribution map of odor source is estimated via Bayesian rules and fuzzy inference based on a single robot’s detection events; secondly, the separate maps estimated by different robots at different times are fused into a combined map by way of distance based superposition. The multi-robot search behaviors are coordinated via a particle swarm optimization algorithm, where the estimated odor-source probability distribution is used to express the fitness functions. In the process of OSL, the estimation phase provides the prior knowledge for the searching while the searching verifies the estimation results, and both phases are implemented iteratively. The results of simulations for large-scale advection–diffusion plume environments and experiments using real robots in an indoor airflow environment validate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed OSL method. PMID:22346650

  12. Autonomous Navigation System for Mobile Robot Using Randomly Distributed Passive RFID Tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sunhong; Hashimoto, Shuji

    This paper presents an autonomous navigation system for a mobile robot using randomly distributed passive RFID tags. In the case of randomly distributed RFID tags, it is difficult to provide the precise location of the robot especially in the area of sparse RFID tag distribution. This, combined with the wide turning radius of the robot, can cause the robot to enter a zigzag exploration path and miss the goal. In RFID-based navigation, the key is to reduce both the number of RFID tags and the localization error for practical use in a large space. To cope with these, we utilized the Read time, which measures the reading time of each RFID tag. With this, we could estimate accurately the localization and orientation without using any external sensors or increasing the RFID tags. The average estimation errors of 7.8cm in localization and 11 degrees in orientation were achieved with 102 RFID tags in the area of 4.2m by 6.2m. Our proposed method is verified with the path trajectories produced during navigation compared with conventional approaches.

  13. Localization of non-linearly modeled autonomous mobile robots using out-of-sequence measurements.

    PubMed

    Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost.

  14. Localization of Non-Linearly Modeled Autonomous Mobile Robots Using Out-of-Sequence Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Besada-Portas, Eva; Lopez-Orozco, Jose A.; Lanillos, Pablo; de la Cruz, Jesus M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state of the art of the estimation algorithms dealing with Out-of-Sequence (OOS) measurements for non-linearly modeled systems. The state of the art includes a critical analysis of the algorithm properties that takes into account the applicability of these techniques to autonomous mobile robot navigation based on the fusion of the measurements provided, delayed and OOS, by multiple sensors. Besides, it shows a representative example of the use of one of the most computationally efficient approaches in the localization module of the control software of a real robot (which has non-linear dynamics, and linear and non-linear sensors) and compares its performance against other approaches. The simulated results obtained with the selected OOS algorithm shows the computational requirements that each sensor of the robot imposes to it. The real experiments show how the inclusion of the selected OOS algorithm in the control software lets the robot successfully navigate in spite of receiving many OOS measurements. Finally, the comparison highlights that not only is the selected OOS algorithm among the best performing ones of the comparison, but it also has the lowest computational and memory cost. PMID:22736962

  15. Collective responses of a large mackerel school depend on the size and speed of a robotic fish but not on tail motion.

    PubMed

    Kruusmaa, Maarja; Rieucau, Guillaume; Montoya, José Carlos Castillo; Markna, Riho; Handegard, Nils Olav

    2016-10-06

    So far, actuated fish models have been used to study animal interactions in small-scale controlled experiments. This study, conducted in a semi-controlled setting, investigates robot(5) interactions with a large wild-caught marine fish school (∼3000 individuals) in their natural social environment. Two towed fish robots were used to decouple size, tail motion and speed in a series of sea-cage experiments. Using high-resolution imaging sonar and sonar-video blind scoring, we monitored and classified the school's collective reaction towards the fish robots as attraction or avoidance. We found that two key releasers-the size and the speed of the robotic fish-were responsible for triggering either evasive reactions or following responses. At the same time, we found fish reactions to the tail motion to be insignificant. The fish evaded a fast-moving robot even if it was small. However, mackerels following propensity was greater towards a slow small robot. When moving slowly, the larger robot triggered significantly more avoidance responses than a small robot. Our results suggest that the collective responses of a large school exposed to a robotic fish could be manipulated by tuning two principal releasers-size and speed. These results can help to design experimental methods for in situ observations of wild fish schools or to develop underwater robots for guiding and interacting with free-ranging aggregated aquatic organisms.

  16. Bio-inspired group modeling and analysis for intruder detection in mobile sensor/robotic networks.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Xiao, Yang; Liang, Xiannuan; Philip Chen, C L

    2015-01-01

    Although previous bio-inspired models have concentrated on invertebrates (such as ants), mammals such as primates with higher cognitive function are valuable for modeling the increasingly complex problems in engineering. Understanding primates' social and communication systems, and applying what is learned from them to engineering domains is likely to inspire solutions to a number of problems. This paper presents a novel bio-inspired approach to determine group size by researching and simulating primate society. Group size does matter for both primate society and digital entities. It is difficult to determine how to group mobile sensors/robots that patrol in a large area when many factors are considered such as patrol efficiency, wireless interference, coverage, inter/intragroup communications, etc. This paper presents a simulation-based theoretical study on patrolling strategies for robot groups with the comparison of large and small groups through simulations and theoretical results.

  17. Sensor integation using concurrent computing on-board the ORNL mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.; Jones, J.P.; Beckerman, M.; Glover, C.W.; Farkas, L.; Einstein, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The mobile robot prototypes developed at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are equipped with sonar sensors, CCD cameras and a laser range camera that are used to support autonomous navigation and inspection tasks in an a priori unknown and unstructured dynamic environment. This paper summarizes work directed at extracting information from data collected with these sensors and integrating it, in order to produce reliable descriptions of the robot's environment. The approach consists in studying different world models and mappings among them, sensor models and parallel algorithms for sensor information processing, and appropriate integration strategies. Specifically, the paper describes the integration of two-dimensional vision and sonar range information, and the integration of laser range and luminance images. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Global Coverage Measurement Planning Strategies for Mobile Robots Equipped with a Remote Gas Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Muhammad Asif; Trincavelli, Marco; Cirillo, Marcello; Schaffernicht, Erik; Lilienthal, Achim J.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of gas detection is relevant to many real-world applications, such as leak detection in industrial settings and landfill monitoring. In this paper, we address the problem of gas detection in large areas with a mobile robotic platform equipped with a remote gas sensor. We propose an algorithm that leverages a novel method based on convex relaxation for quickly solving sensor placement problems, and for generating an efficient exploration plan for the robot. To demonstrate the applicability of our method to real-world environments, we performed a large number of experimental trials, both on randomly generated maps and on the map of a real environment. Our approach proves to be highly efficient in terms of computational requirements and to provide nearly-optimal solutions. PMID:25803707

  19. Reinforcement function design and bias for efficient learning in mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Touzet, C.; Santos, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    The main paradigm in sub-symbolic learning robot domain is the reinforcement learning method. Various techniques have been developed to deal with the memorization/generalization problem, demonstrating the superior ability of artificial neural network implementations. In this paper, the authors address the issue of designing the reinforcement so as to optimize the exploration part of the learning. They also present and summarize works relative to the use of bias intended to achieve the effective synthesis of the desired behavior. Demonstrative experiments involving a self-organizing map implementation of the Q-learning and real mobile robots (Nomad 200 and Khepera) in a task of obstacle avoidance behavior synthesis are described. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Study on general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukishima, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ken; Takano, Masaharu; Inoue, Kenji

    1992-03-01

    This paper proposes a general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs). Unlike robotic manipulators which are modeled as 3-dimensional serial link mechanism, WMRs will be modeled as planar linkage mechanism with multiple links branching out from the base and/or another link. Since this model resembles a tree with branches, it will be called 'tree-structured-link'. The end of each link corresponds to the wheel which is in contact with the floor. In dynamics of WMR, equation of motion of a WMR is derived from joint input torques incorporating wheel dynamics. The wheel dynamics determines forces and moments acting on wheels as a function of slip velocity. This slippage of wheels is essential in dynamics of WMR. It will also be shown that the dynamics of WMR reduces to kinematics when slippage of wheels is neglected. Furthermore, the equation of dynamics is rewritten in velocity input form, since most of industrial motors are velocity controlled.

  1. Global coverage measurement planning strategies for mobile robots equipped with a remote gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Arain, Muhammad Asif; Trincavelli, Marco; Cirillo, Marcello; Schaffernicht, Erik; Lilienthal, Achim J

    2015-03-20

    The problem of gas detection is relevant to many real-world applications, such as leak detection in industrial settings and landfill monitoring. In this paper, we address the problem of gas detection in large areas with a mobile robotic platform equipped with a remote gas sensor. We propose an algorithm that leverages a novel method based on convex relaxation for quickly solving sensor placement problems, and for generating an efficient exploration plan for the robot. To demonstrate the applicability of our method to real-world environments, we performed a large number of experimental trials, both on randomly generated maps and on the map of a real environment. Our approach proves to be highly efficient in terms of computational requirements and to provide nearly-optimal solutions.

  2. Multi-camera sensor system for 3D segmentation and localization of multiple mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Losada, Cristina; Mazo, Manuel; Palazuelos, Sira; Pizarro, Daniel; Marrón, Marta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for obtaining the motion segmentation and 3D localization of multiple mobile robots in an intelligent space using a multi-camera sensor system. The set of calibrated and synchronized cameras are placed in fixed positions within the environment (intelligent space). The proposed algorithm for motion segmentation and 3D localization is based on the minimization of an objective function. This function includes information from all the cameras, and it does not rely on previous knowledge or invasive landmarks on board the robots. The proposed objective function depends on three groups of variables: the segmentation boundaries, the motion parameters and the depth. For the objective function minimization, we use a greedy iterative algorithm with three steps that, after initialization of segmentation boundaries and depth, are repeated until convergence.

  3. Development and training of a learning expert system in an autonomous mobile robot via simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; Lyness, E.; DeSaussure, G. . Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research)

    1989-11-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) conducts basic research in the area of intelligent machines. Recently at CESAR a learning expert system was created to operate on board an autonomous robot working at a process control panel. The authors discuss two-computer simulation system used to create, evaluate and train this learning system. The simulation system has a graphics display of the current status of the process being simulated, and the same program which does the simulating also drives the actual control panel. Simulation results were validated on the actual robot. The speed and safety values of using a computerized simulator to train a learning computer, and future uses of the simulation system, are discussed.

  4. A brain-machine interface to navigate a mobile robot in a planar workspace: enabling humans to fly simulated aircraft with EEG.

    PubMed

    Akce, Abdullah; Johnson, Miles; Dantsker, Or; Bretl, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an interface for navigating a mobile robot that moves at a fixed speed in a planar workspace, with noisy binary inputs that are obtained asynchronously at low bit-rates from a human user through an electroencephalograph (EEG). The approach is to construct an ordered symbolic language for smooth planar curves and to use these curves as desired paths for a mobile robot. The underlying problem is then to design a communication protocol by which the user can, with vanishing error probability, specify a string in this language using a sequence of inputs. Such a protocol, provided by tools from information theory, relies on a human user's ability to compare smooth curves, just like they can compare strings of text. We demonstrate our interface by performing experiments in which twenty subjects fly a simulated aircraft at a fixed speed and altitude with input only from EEG. Experimental results show that the majority of subjects are able to specify desired paths despite a wide range of errors made in decoding EEG signals.

  5. Real-time terrain storage generation from multiple sensors towards mobile robot operation interface.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Cho, Seoungjae; Xi, Yulong; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun

    2014-01-01

    A mobile robot mounted with multiple sensors is used to rapidly collect 3D point clouds and video images so as to allow accurate terrain modeling. In this study, we develop a real-time terrain storage generation and representation system including a nonground point database (PDB), ground mesh database (MDB), and texture database (TDB). A voxel-based flag map is proposed for incrementally registering large-scale point clouds in a terrain model in real time. We quantize the 3D point clouds into 3D grids of the flag map as a comparative table in order to remove the redundant points. We integrate the large-scale 3D point clouds into a nonground PDB and a node-based terrain mesh using the CPU. Subsequently, we program a graphics processing unit (GPU) to generate the TDB by mapping the triangles in the terrain mesh onto the captured video images. Finally, we produce a nonground voxel map and a ground textured mesh as a terrain reconstruction result. Our proposed methods were tested in an outdoor environment. Our results show that the proposed system was able to rapidly generate terrain storage and provide high resolution terrain representation for mobile mapping services and a graphical user interface between remote operators and mobile robots.

  6. Mobile sailing robot for automatic estimation of fish density and monitoring water quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The paper presents the methodology and the algorithm developed to analyze sonar images focused on fish detection in small water bodies and measurement of their parameters: volume, depth and the GPS location. The final results are stored in a table and can be exported to any numerical environment for further analysis. Material and method The measurement method for estimating the number of fish using the automatic robot is based on a sequential calculation of the number of occurrences of fish on the set trajectory. The data analysis from the sonar concerned automatic recognition of fish using the methods of image analysis and processing. Results Image analysis algorithm, a mobile robot together with its control in the 2.4 GHz band and full cryptographic communication with the data archiving station was developed as part of this study. For the three model fish ponds where verification of fish catches was carried out (548, 171 and 226 individuals), the measurement error for the described method was not exceeded 8%. Summary Created robot together with the developed software has features for remote work also in the variety of harsh weather and environmental conditions, is fully automated and can be remotely controlled using Internet. Designed system enables fish spatial location (GPS coordinates and the depth). The purpose of the robot is a non-invasive measurement of the number of fish in water reservoirs and a measurement of the quality of drinking water consumed by humans, especially in situations where local sources of pollution could have a significant impact on the quality of water collected for water treatment for people and when getting to these places is difficult. The systematically used robot equipped with the appropriate sensors, can be part of early warning system against the pollution of water used by humans (drinking water, natural swimming pools) which can be dangerous for their health. PMID:23815984

  7. Remotely controlling of mobile robots using gesture captured by the Kinect and recognized by machine learning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Roy CHaoming; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Lin, Chih-Chuan; Lai, Chien-Hung; Liu, Cheng-Ting

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to use machine learning method and Kinect and its body sensation technology to design a simple, convenient, yet effective robot remote control system. In this study, a Kinect sensor is used to capture the human body skeleton with depth information, and a gesture training and identification method is designed using the back propagation neural network to remotely command a mobile robot for certain actions via the Bluetooth. The experimental results show that the designed mobile robots remote control system can achieve, on an average, more than 96% of accurate identification of 7 types of gestures and can effectively control a real e-puck robot for the designed commands.

  8. Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go?

    PubMed

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J; Neumann, Patrick P; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully "translated" into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms.

  9. Recognition of traversable areas for mobile robotic navigation in outdoor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Scott Alan; Davidson, James C.

    2003-06-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of automatically determining whether regions in an outdoor environment can be traversed by a mobile robot. We propose a two-level classifier that uses data from a single color image to make this determination. At the low level, we have implemented three classifiers based on color histograms, directional filters and local binary patterns. The outputs of these low level classifiers are combined using a voting scheme that weights the results of each classifier using an estimate of its error probability. We present results from a large number of trials using a database of representative images acquired in real outdoor environments.

  10. The smart IV stand design through human tracking mobile robot system by CDS cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Seong-Hyeon; Choe, Jong-Hun; Seo, Suk-Hyun; Kim, Won-Hoe; Lee, Hong-Kyu; Park, Se-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Vision-based recognition of the object as a general interface gives us high cost and complicated problem. This research suggests human tracking system by Arduino, and Laser-CdS cell system track wire that pass laser line. In this paper, we review existing literature on application systems of recognition which involves many interdisciplinary studies. We conclude that our method can only reduce cost, but is easy way to trace people's location with the use of wire. Furthermore, we apply several recognition systems including CdS-based mobile robot that is applied IV stand used at the hospital effectively.

  11. Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Scheide, A.W.

    1983-11-01

    This article reviews some of the technical areas and history associated with robotics, provides information relative to the formation of a Robotics Industry Committee within the Industry Applications Society (IAS), and describes how all activities relating to robotics will be coordinated within the IEEE. Industrial robots are being used for material handling, processes such as coating and arc welding, and some mechanical and electronics assembly. An industrial robot is defined as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for a variety of tasks. The initial focus of the Robotics Industry Committee will be on the application of robotics systems to the various industries that are represented within the IAS.

  12. A PIC microcontroller-based system for real-life interfacing of external peripherals with a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N. Nirmal; Chatterjee, Amitava; Rakshit, Anjan

    2010-02-01

    The present article describes the development of a peripheral interface controller (PIC) microcontroller-based system for interfacing external add-on peripherals with a real mobile robot, for real life applications. This system serves as an important building block of a complete integrated vision-based mobile robot system, integrated indigenously in our laboratory. The system is composed of the KOALA mobile robot in conjunction with a personal computer (PC) and a two-camera-based vision system where the PIC microcontroller is used to drive servo motors, in interrupt-driven mode, to control additional degrees of freedom of the vision system. The performance of the developed system is tested by checking it under the control of several user-specified commands, issued from the PC end.

  13. Coordinated Control of Slip Ratio for Wheeled Mobile Robots Climbing Loose Sloped Terrain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengcai; Wang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    A challenging problem faced by wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) such as planetary rovers traversing loose sloped terrain is the inevitable longitudinal slip suffered by the wheels, which often leads to their deviation from the predetermined trajectory, reduced drive efficiency, and possible failures. This study investigates this problem using terramechanics analysis of the wheel-soil interaction. First, a slope-based wheel-soil interaction terramechanics model is built, and an online slip coordinated algorithm is designed based on the goal of optimal drive efficiency. An equation of state is established using the coordinated slip as the desired input and the actual slip as a state variable. To improve the robustness and adaptability of the control system, an adaptive neural network is designed. Analytical results and those of a simulation using Vortex demonstrate the significantly improved mobile performance of the WMR using the proposed control system. PMID:25276849

  14. Design Of An Electrical Flywheel For Surge Power Applications In Mobile Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David D.

    1987-01-01

    An energy boost system based on a flywheel has been designed to supply the surge power needs of mobile robots for operating equipment like transmitters, drills, manipulator arms, mobility augmenters, and etc. This flywheel increases the average power available from a battery, fuel cell, generator, RPG or solar array by one or more orders of magnitude for short periods. Flywheels can be charged and discharged for thousands of battery lifetimes. Flywheels can deliver more than ten times the power per unit weight of batteries. The electromechanical details of a reliable, energy efficient and (relatively) low cost flywheel are described. This flywheel is the combination of a highly efficient brushless motor and a laminated steel rotor operating in an hermetically sealed container with only electrical input and output. This design approach overcomes the inefficiencies generally associated with mechanically geared devices. Electrical round trip efficiency is 94% under optimum operating conditions.

  15. Coordinated control of slip ratio for wheeled mobile robots climbing loose sloped terrain.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengcai; Wang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    A challenging problem faced by wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) such as planetary rovers traversing loose sloped terrain is the inevitable longitudinal slip suffered by the wheels, which often leads to their deviation from the predetermined trajectory, reduced drive efficiency, and possible failures. This study investigates this problem using terramechanics analysis of the wheel-soil interaction. First, a slope-based wheel-soil interaction terramechanics model is built, and an online slip coordinated algorithm is designed based on the goal of optimal drive efficiency. An equation of state is established using the coordinated slip as the desired input and the actual slip as a state variable. To improve the robustness and adaptability of the control system, an adaptive neural network is designed. Analytical results and those of a simulation using Vortex demonstrate the significantly improved mobile performance of the WMR using the proposed control system.

  16. Asymmetry of Spinal Segments Mobility in Canoeists and its Relationship with Racing Speed

    PubMed Central

    Rynkiewicz, Mateusz; Rynkiewicz, Tadeusz; Starosta, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of asymmetry of spinal segment mobility in canoeists. Moreover, the relationship between this parameter and racing speed was analyzed. The study included 18 canoeists with a mean age of 16.4 years. Mobility of cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, in sagittal, coronal and transverse planes, was measured with the aid of a tensometric electrogoniometer. The racing speed was based on results achieved during the qualifying competition for the Polish national team. Spinal mobility was measured within two days after the competition. Significant associations were observed between average racing speed and the asymmetry coefficients of the cervical (r=−0.52; p=0.03) and lumbar spinal flexure in the coronal plane (r=0.57; p=0.01). The extent of the asymmetry of the cervical spine flexure in the coronal plane should possibly be reduced, because such asymmetry exerts a negative effect on racing speed. In contrast, canoeist’s training should be oriented towards increasing the asymmetry of the lumbar spine flexure in the coronal plane. However, one should keep in mind that such an approach, although favorable in terms of race performance, could negatively affect the canoeist’s health. PMID:23717353

  17. Floor Covering and Surface Identification for Assistive Mobile Robotic Real-Time Room Localization Application

    PubMed Central

    Gillham, Michael; Howells, Gareth; Spurgeon, Sarah; McElroy, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Assistive robotic applications require systems capable of interaction in the human world, a workspace which is highly dynamic and not always predictable. Mobile assistive devices face the additional and complex problem of when and if intervention should occur; therefore before any trajectory assistance is given, the robotic device must know where it is in real-time, without unnecessary disruption or delay to the user requirements. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel robust method for determining room identification from floor features in a real-time computational frame for autonomous and assistive robotics in the human environment. We utilize two inexpensive sensors: an optical mouse sensor for straightforward and rapid, texture or pattern sampling, and a four color photodiode light sensor for fast color determination. We show how data relating floor texture and color obtained from typical dynamic human environments, using these two sensors, compares favorably with data obtained from a standard webcam. We show that suitable data can be extracted from these two sensors at a rate 16 times faster than a standard webcam, and that these data are in a form which can be rapidly processed using readily available classification techniques, suitable for real-time system application. We achieved a 95% correct classification accuracy identifying 133 rooms' flooring from 35 classes, suitable for fast coarse global room localization application, boundary crossing detection, and additionally some degree of surface type identification. PMID:24351647

  18. Neural-fuzzy controller for real-time mobile robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kim C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    1996-06-01

    A neural integrated fuzzy controller (NiF-T), which integrates the fuzzy logic representation of human knowledge with the learning capability of neural networks, is developed for nonlinear dynamic control problems. The NiF-T architecture comprises three distinct parts: (1) fuzzy logic membership functions (FMF), (2) rule neural network (RNN), and (3) output-refinement neural network (ORNN). FMF are utilized to fuzzify input parameters. RNN interpolates the fuzzy rule set; after defuzzification, the output is used to train ORNN. The weights of the ORNN can be adjusted on-line to fine-tune the controller. NiF-T can be applied for a wide range of sensor-driven robotics applications, which are characterized by high noise levels and nonlinear behavior, and where system models are unavailable or are unreliable. In this paper, real-time implementations of autonomous mobile robot navigation utilizing the NiF-T are realized. Only five rules were used to train the wall following behavior, while nine were used for the hall centering. With learning capability, the robot, SMAR-T, successfully and reliably hugs wall, and locks onto hall center. For all of the described behaviors, their RNNs are trained only for a few hundred iterations and so are their ORNNs trained only for less than one hundred iterations to learn their parent rule sets.

  19. Image processing for navigation on a mobile embedded platform: design of an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loose, Harald; Lemke, Christiane; Papazov, Chavdar

    2006-02-01

    This paper deals with intelligent mobile platforms connected to a camera controlled by a small hardware-platform called RCUBE. This platform is able to provide features of a typical actuator-sensor board with various inputs and outputs as well as computing power and image recognition capabilities. Several intelligent autonomous RCBUE devices can be equipped and programmed to participate in the BOSPORUS network. These components form an intelligent network for gathering sensor and image data, sensor data fusion, navigation and control of mobile platforms. The RCUBE platform provides a standalone solution for image processing, which will be explained and presented. It plays a major role for several components in a reference implementation of the BOSPORUS system. On the one hand, intelligent cameras will be positioned in the environment, analyzing the events from a fixed point of view and sharing their perceptions with other components in the system. On the other hand, image processing results will contribute to a reliable navigation of a mobile system, which is crucially important. Fixed landmarks and other objects appropriate for determining the position of a mobile system can be recognized. For navigation other methods are added, i.e. GPS calculations and odometers.

  20. Driving a Semiautonomous Mobile Robotic Car Controlled by an SSVEP-Based BCI

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces represent a range of acknowledged technologies that translate brain activity into computer commands. The aim of our research is to develop and evaluate a BCI control application for certain assistive technologies that can be used for remote telepresence or remote driving. The communication channel to the target device is based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials. In order to test the control application, a mobile robotic car (MRC) was introduced and a four-class BCI graphical user interface (with live video feedback and stimulation boxes on the same screen) for piloting the MRC was designed. For the purpose of evaluating a potential real-life scenario for such assistive technology, we present a study where 61 subjects steered the MRC through a predetermined route. All 61 subjects were able to control the MRC and finish the experiment (mean time 207.08 s, SD 50.25) with a mean (SD) accuracy and ITR of 93.03% (5.73) and 14.07 bits/min (4.44), respectively. The results show that our proposed SSVEP-based BCI control application is suitable for mobile robots with a shared-control approach. We also did not observe any negative influence of the simultaneous live video feedback and SSVEP stimulation on the performance of the BCI system. PMID:27528864

  1. Driving a Semiautonomous Mobile Robotic Car Controlled by an SSVEP-Based BCI.

    PubMed

    Stawicki, Piotr; Gembler, Felix; Volosyak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces represent a range of acknowledged technologies that translate brain activity into computer commands. The aim of our research is to develop and evaluate a BCI control application for certain assistive technologies that can be used for remote telepresence or remote driving. The communication channel to the target device is based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials. In order to test the control application, a mobile robotic car (MRC) was introduced and a four-class BCI graphical user interface (with live video feedback and stimulation boxes on the same screen) for piloting the MRC was designed. For the purpose of evaluating a potential real-life scenario for such assistive technology, we present a study where 61 subjects steered the MRC through a predetermined route. All 61 subjects were able to control the MRC and finish the experiment (mean time 207.08 s, SD 50.25) with a mean (SD) accuracy and ITR of 93.03% (5.73) and 14.07 bits/min (4.44), respectively. The results show that our proposed SSVEP-based BCI control application is suitable for mobile robots with a shared-control approach. We also did not observe any negative influence of the simultaneous live video feedback and SSVEP stimulation on the performance of the BCI system.

  2. Human-Centered Design and Evaluation of Haptic Cueing for Teleoperation of Multiple Mobile Robots.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyoung Il; Franchi, Antonio; Chuang, Lewis L; Kim, Junsuk; Bulthoff, Heinrich H; Giordano, Paolo Robuffo

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of haptic cueing on a human operator's performance in the field of bilateral teleoperation of multiple mobile robots, particularly multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Two aspects of human performance are deemed important in this area, namely, the maneuverability of mobile robots and the perceptual sensitivity of the remote environment. We introduce metrics that allow us to address these aspects in two psychophysical studies, which are reported here. Three fundamental haptic cue types were evaluated. The Force cue conveys information on the proximity of the commanded trajectory to obstacles in the remote environment. The Velocity cue represents the mismatch between the commanded and actual velocities of the UAVs and can implicitly provide a rich amount of information regarding the actual behavior of the UAVs. Finally, the Velocity+Force cue is a linear combination of the two. Our experimental results show that, while maneuverability is best supported by the Force cue feedback, perceptual sensitivity is best served by the Velocity cue feedback. In addition, we show that large gains in the haptic feedbacks do not always guarantee an enhancement in the teleoperator's performance.

  3. Using a LRF sensor in the Kalman-filtering-based localization of a mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Teslić, Luka; Skrjanc, Igor; Klancar, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of estimating the output-noise covariance matrix that is involved in the localization of a mobile robot. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to localize the mobile robot with a laser range finder (LRF) sensor in an environment described with line segments. The covariances of the observed environment lines, which compose the output-noise covariance matrix in the correction step of the EKF, are the result of the noise arising from a range-sensor's (e.g., a LRF) distance and angle measurements. A method for estimating the covariances of the line parameters based on classic least squares (LSQ) is proposed. This method is compared with the method resulting from the orthogonal LSQ in terms of computational complexity. The results of a comparison show that the use of classic LSQ instead of orthogonal LSQ reduce the number of computations in a localization algorithm which is a part of a SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) algorithm. Statistical accuracy of both methods is also compared by simulating the LRF's measurements and the comparison proves the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  4. Usability testing of a mobile robotic system for in-home telerehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Boissy, Patrick; Brière, Simon; Corriveau, Hélène; Grant, Andrew; Lauria, Michel; Michaud, François

    2011-01-01

    Mobile robots designed to enhance telepresence in the support of telehealth services are being considered for numerous applications. TELEROBOT is a teleoperated mobile robotic platform equipped with videoconferencingcapabilities and designed to be used in a home environment to. In this study, learnability of the system's teleoperation interface and controls was evaluated with ten rehabilitation professionals during four training sessions in a laboratory environment and in an unknown home environment while performing the execution of a standardized evaluation protocol typically used in home care. Results show that the novice teleoperators' performances on two of the four metrics used (number of command and total time) improved significantly across training sessions (ANOVAS, p<0.05) and that performance in these metrics in the last training session reflected teleoperation abilities seen in the unknown home environment during navigation tasks (r=0,77 and 0,60). With only 4 hours of training, rehabilitation professionals were able learn to teleoperate successfully TELEROBOT. However teleoperation performances remained significantly less efficient then those of an expert. Under the home task condition (navigating the home environment from one point to the other as fast as possible) this translated to completion time between 350 seconds (best performance) and 850 seconds (worse performance). Improvements in other usability aspects of the system will be needed to meet the requirements of in-home telerehabilitation.

  5. Recognition of 3D objects for autonomous mobile robot's navigation in automated shipbuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunki; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2007-10-01

    Nowadays many parts of shipbuilding process are automated, but the painting process is not, because of the difficulty of automated on-line painting quality measurement, harsh painting environment and the difficulty of robot navigation. However, the painting automation is necessary, because it can provide consistent performance of painting film thickness. Furthermore, autonomous mobile robots are strongly required for flexible painting work. However, the main problem of autonomous mobile robot's navigation is that there are many obstacles which are not expressed in the CAD data. To overcome this problem, obstacle detection and recognition are necessary to avoid obstacles and painting work effectively. Until now many object recognition algorithms have been studied, especially 2D object recognition methods using intensity image have been widely studied. However, in our case environmental illumination does not exist, so these methods cannot be used. To overcome this, to use 3D range data must be used, but the problem of using 3D range data is high computational cost and long estimation time of recognition due to huge data base. In this paper, we propose a 3D object recognition algorithm based on PCA (Principle Component Analysis) and NN (Neural Network). In the algorithm, the novelty is that the measured 3D range data is transformed into intensity information, and then adopts the PCA and NN algorithm for transformed intensity information to reduce the processing time and make the data easy to handle which are disadvantages of previous researches of 3D object recognition. A set of experimental results are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Hydrodynamics of a robotic fish tail: effects of the caudal peduncle, fin ray motions and the flow speed.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ziyu; Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Wen, Li

    2016-02-08

    Recent advances in understanding fish locomotion with robotic devices have included the use of biomimetic flapping based and fin undulatory locomotion based robots, treating two locomotions separately from each other. However, in most fish species, patterns of active movements of fins occur in concert with the body undulatory deformation during swimming. In this paper, we describe a biomimetic robotic caudal fin programmed with individually actuated fin rays to mimic the fin motion of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and coupled with heave and pitch oscillatory motions adding to the robot to mimic the peduncle motion which is derived from the undulatory fish body. Multiple-axis force and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments from both the vertical and horizontal planes behind the robotic model were conducted under different motion programs and flow speeds. We found that both mean thrust and lift could be altered by changing the phase difference (φ) from 0° to 360° between the robotic caudal peduncle and the fin ray motion (spanning from 3 mN to 124 mN). Notably, DPIV results demonstrated that the caudal fin generated multiple wake flow patterns in both the vertical and horizontal planes by varying φ. Vortex jet angle and thrust impulse also varied significantly both in these two planes. In addition, the vortex shedding position along the spanwise tail direction could be shifted around the mid-sagittal position between the upper and lower lobes by changing the phase difference. We hypothesize that the fish caudal fin may serve as a flexible vectoring propeller during swimming and may be critical for the high maneuverability of fish.

  7. A High Speed Mobile Courier Data Access System That Processes Database Queries in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsheni, Barnabas Ndlovu; Mabizela, Zwelakhe

    A secure high-speed query processing mobile courier data access (MCDA) system for a Courier Company has been developed. This system uses the wireless networks in combination with wired networks for updating a live database at the courier centre in real-time by an offsite worker (the Courier). The system is protected by VPN based on IPsec. There is no system that we know of to date that performs the task for the courier as proposed in this paper.

  8. Lightweight robotic mobility: template-based modeling for dynamics and controls using ADAMS/car and MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Peter G.; Gorsich, David J.; Hudas, Greg R.; Overholt, James

    2003-09-01

    The U.S. Army is seeking to develop autonomous off-road mobile robots to perform tasks in the field such as supply delivery and reconnaissance in dangerous territory. A key problem to be solved with these robots is off-road mobility, to ensure that the robots can accomplish their tasks without loss or damage. We have developed a computer model of one such concept robot, the small-scale "T-1" omnidirectional vehicle (ODV), to study the effects of different control strategies on the robot's mobility in off-road settings. We built the dynamic model in ADAMS/Car and the control system in Matlab/Simulink. This paper presents the template-based method used to construct the ADAMS model of the T-1 ODV. It discusses the strengths and weaknesses of ADAMS/Car software in such an application, and describes the benefits and challenges of the approach as a whole. The paper also addresses effective linking of ADAMS/Car and Matlab for complete control system development. Finally, this paper includes a section describing the extension of the T-1 templates to other similar ODV concepts for rapid development.

  9. Enhancements to a Guidance System for an Automated Warehouse Equipped with Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    for material transfer than conventional belt conveyors and stacker cranes. Because AGVs are dependent on wires, tapes, or signals for guidance, mobile...warehouse contained racks of palletized items that were grouped into modules separated by aisleways. A high-speed highway encircled the warehouse (Figure...layout based on the materials to be stored in pallet sizes. In each preprocessor, the system considers the space needed to operate forklifts around the

  10. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An overview of research being done into the use of robotic devices in space by MSFC is discussed. The video includes footage and explanations of robots being used to blast layers of thermal coating from the Space Shuttle's external tanks, the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator Arm, and animations of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle to retrieve and repair satellites.

  11. Proposal of Path Following and Arrival Judgement Methods Using Target Vector for Teleoperation of a Mobile Robot on Uneven Ground by Image Pointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Sho; Maeyama, Shoichi

    Rescue robots have been actively developed since Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake. Recently, the rescue robot to reduce the risk of the secondary disaster on NBC terror and critical accident is also developed. For such a background, the development project of mobile RT system in the collapsed is started. This research also participates in this project. It is useful to use the image pointing for the control interface of the rescue robot because it can control the robot by the simple operation. However, the conventional method cannot work on a rough terrain. In this research, we propose the system which controls the robot to arrive the target position on the rough terrain. It is constructed the methods which put the destination into the vector, and control the 3D localizated robot to follow the vector. Finally, the proposed system is evaluated through experiments by remote control of a mobile robot in slope and cofirmed the feasibility.

  12. Odour-tracking capability of a silkmoth driving a mobile robot with turning bias and time delay.

    PubMed

    Ando, N; Emoto, S; Kanzaki, R

    2013-03-01

    The reconstruction of mechanisms behind odour-tracking behaviours of animals is expected to enable the development of biomimetic robots capable of adaptive behaviour and effectively locating odour sources. However, because the behavioural mechanisms of animals have not been extensively studied, their behavioural capabilities cannot be verified. In this study, we have employed a mobile robot driven by a genuine insect (insect-controlled robot) to evaluate the behavioural capabilities of a biological system implemented in an artificial system. We used a male silkmoth as the 'driver' and investigated its behavioural capabilities to imposed perturbations during odour tracking. When we manipulated the robot to induce the turning bias, it located the odour source by compensatory turning of the on-board moth. Shifting of the orientation paths to the odour plume boundaries and decreased orientation ability caused by covering the visual field suggested that the moth steered with bilateral olfaction and vision to overcome the bias. An evaluation of the time delays of the moth and robot movements suggested an acceptable range for sensory-motor processing when the insect system was directly applied to artificial systems. Further evaluations of the insect-controlled robot will provide a 'blueprint' for biomimetic robots and strongly promote the field of biomimetics.

  13. Modelling and precision of the localization of the robotic mobile platforms for constructions with laser tracker and SmartTrack sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Francu, C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a way to expand the field of use of the laser tracker and SmartTrack sensor localization device used in lately for the localisation of the end effector of the industrial robots to the localization of the mobile construction robots. The research paper presents the equipment along with its characteristics, determines the relationships for the localization coordinates by comparison to the forward kinematics of the industrial robot's spherical arm (positioning mechanism in spherical coordinates) and the orientation mechanism with three revolute axes. In the end of the paper the accuracy of the mobile robot's localization is analysed.

  14. Reasoning and planning in dynamic domains: An experiment with a mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, M. P.; Lansky, A. L.; Schoppers, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Progress made toward having an autonomous mobile robot reason and plan complex tasks in real-world environments is described. To cope with the dynamic and uncertain nature of the world, researchers use a highly reactive system to which is attributed attitudes of belief, desire, and intention. Because these attitudes are explicitly represented, they can be manipulated and reasoned about, resulting in complex goal-directed and reflective behaviors. Unlike most planning systems, the plans or intentions formed by the system need only be partly elaborated before it decides to act. This allows the system to avoid overly strong expectations about the environment, overly constrained plans of action, and other forms of over-commitment common to previous planners. In addition, the system is continuously reactive and has the ability to change its goals and intentions as situations warrant. Thus, while the system architecture allows for reasoning about means and ends in much the same way as traditional planners, it also posseses the reactivity required for survival in complex real-world domains. The system was tested using SRI's autonomous robot (Flakey) in a scenario involving navigation and the performance of an emergency task in a space station scenario.

  15. Robust Dead Reckoning System for Mobile Robots Based on Particle Filter and Raw Range Scan

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhuohua; Cai, Zixing; Min, Huaqing

    2014-01-01

    Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs), where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method. PMID:25192318

  16. Moving object detection from a mobile robot using basis image matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Du-Ming; Chiu, Wei-Yao; Tseng, Tzu-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an image processing scheme for moving object detection from a mobile robot with a single camera. It especially aims at intruder detection for the security robot on either smooth or uneven ground surfaces. The proposed scheme uses the template matching with basis image reconstruction for the alignment between two consecutive images in the video sequence. The most representative template patches in one image are first automatically selected based on the gradient energies in the patches. The chosen templates then form a basis image matrix. A windowed subimage is constructed by the linear combination of the basis images, and the instances of the templates in the subsequent image are matched by evaluating their reconstruction error from the basis image matrix. For two well aligned images, a simple and fast temporal difference can thus be applied to identify moving objects from the background. The proposed template matching can tolerate +/-10° in rotation and +/-10% in scaling. By adding templates with larger rotational angles in the basis image matrixes, the proposed method can match images from severe camera vibrations. The proposed scheme achieves a fast processing rate of 32 frames per second for images of size 160×120 pixels.

  17. SAL: a language for developing an agent-based architecture for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Willie Y.; Verzulli, Joe

    1993-05-01

    SAL (the SmartyCat Agent Language) is a language being developed for programming SmartyCat, our mobile robot. SmartyCat's underlying software architecture is agent-based. At the lowest level, the robot sensors and actuators are controlled by agents (viz., the sensing and acting agents, respectively). SAL provides the constructs for organizing these agents into many structures. In particular, SAL supports the subsumption architecture approach. At higher levels of abstraction, SAL can be used for writing programs based on Minsky's Society of Mind paradigm. Structurally, a SAL program is a graph, where the nodes are software modules called agents, and the arcs represent abstract communication links between agents. In SAL, an agent is a CLOS object with input and output ports. Input ports are used for presenting data from the outside world (i.e., other agents) to the agent. Data are presented to the outside world by the agent through its output ports. The main body of the SAL code for the agent specifies the computation or the action performed by the agent. This paper describes how SAL is being used for implementing the agent-based SmartyCat software architecture on a Cybermotion K2A platform.

  18. Pseudolinear Model Based Solution to the SLAM Problem of Nonholonomic Mobile Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathiranage, Chandima Dedduwa; Watanabe, Keigo; Izumi, Kiyotaka

    This paper describes an improved solution to the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem based on pseudolinear models. Accurate estimation of vehicle and landmark states is one of the key issues for successful mobile robot navigation if the configuration of the environment and initial robot location are unknown. A state estimator which can be designed to use the nonlinearity as it is coming from the original model has always been invaluable in which high accuracy is expected. Thus to accomplish the above highlighted point, pseudolinear model based Kalman filter (PLKF) state estimator is introduced. A less error prone vehicle process model is proposed to improve the accuracy and the faster convergence of state estimation. Evolution of vehicle motion is modeled using vehicle frame translation derived from successive dead reckoned poses as a control input. A measurement model with two sensor frames is proposed to improve the data association. The PLKF-based SLAM algorithm is simulated using Matlab for vehicle-landmarks system and results show that the proposed approach performs much accurately compared to the well known extended Kalman filter (EKF).

  19. On learning navigation behaviors for small mobile robots with reservoir computing architectures.

    PubMed

    Antonelo, Eric Aislan; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a general reservoir computing (RC) learning framework that can be used to learn navigation behaviors for mobile robots in simple and complex unknown partially observable environments. RC provides an efficient way to train recurrent neural networks by letting the recurrent part of the network (called reservoir) be fixed while only a linear readout output layer is trained. The proposed RC framework builds upon the notion of navigation attractor or behavior that can be embedded in the high-dimensional space of the reservoir after learning. The learning of multiple behaviors is possible because the dynamic robot behavior, consisting of a sensory-motor sequence, can be linearly discriminated in the high-dimensional nonlinear space of the dynamic reservoir. Three learning approaches for navigation behaviors are shown in this paper. The first approach learns multiple behaviors based on the examples of navigation behaviors generated by a supervisor, while the second approach learns goal-directed navigation behaviors based only on rewards. The third approach learns complex goal-directed behaviors, in a supervised way, using a hierarchical architecture whose internal predictions of contextual switches guide the sequence of basic navigation behaviors toward the goal.

  20. Fault tolerant formation control of nonholonomic mobile robots using online approximators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumati, Balaje T.; Dierks, Travis A.; Jagannathan, S.

    2010-04-01

    For unmanned systems, it is desirable to have some sort of fault tolerant ability in order to accomplish the mission. Therefore, in this paper, the fault tolerant control of a formation of nonholonomic mobile robots in the presence unknown faults is undertaken. Initially, a kinematic/torque leader-follower formation control law is developed for the robots under the assumption of normal operation, and the stability of the formation is verified using Lyapunov theory. Subsequently, the control law for the formation is modified by incorporating an additional term, and this new control law compensates the effects of the faults. Moreover, the faults could be incipient or abrupt in nature. The additional term used in the modified control law is a function of the unknown fault dynamics which are recovered using the online learning capabilities of online approximators. Additionally, asymptotic convergence of the FDA scheme and the formation errors in the presence of faults is shown using Lyapunov theory. Finally, numerical results are provided to verify the theoretical conjectures.