Science.gov

Sample records for mobility chains analysis

  1. The effect of chain flexibility and chain mobility on radiation crosslinking of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia Zhen, Sun

    2001-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking of polymers mainly depends on the structure of polymer chain. The flexibility and mobility of chain directly influence the possibility of the reactive radicals recombination. Flexible chain is easier to crosslink than rigid-chain polymer. The latter must be crosslinked at high temperature, as most polymers can only crosslink above their melting point. Structural effect also influences the mechanism of radiation crosslinking of polymers. We find from the results in literature and in our laboratory that, the flexibility chain polymer mainly crosslinked with H type, but the rigid chain polymer mainly crosslinked with Y type.

  2. Chain end mobilities in polymer melts—A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diddens, Diddo; Heuer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Rouse model can be regarded as the standard model to describe the dynamics of a short polymer chain under melt conditions. In this contribution, we explicitly check one of the fundamental assumptions of this model, namely, that of a uniform friction coefficient for all monomers, on the basis of MD simulation data of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) melt. This question immediately arises from the fact that in a real polymer melt, the terminal monomers have on average more intermolecular neighbors than the central monomers, and one would expect that exactly these details affect the precise value of the friction coefficient. The mobilities are determined by our recently developed statistical method, which provides detailed insights into the local polymer dynamics. Moreover, it yields complementary information to that obtained from the mean square displacement (MSD) or the Rouse mode analysis. It turns out that the Rouse assumption of a uniform mobility is fulfilled to a good approximation for the PEO melt. However, a more detailed analysis reveals that the underlying microscopic dynamics are highly affected by different contributions from intra- and intermolecular excluded volume interactions, which cannot be taken into account by a modified friction coefficient. Minor deviations occur only for the terminal monomers on larger time scales, which can be attributed to the presence of two different escape mechanisms from their first coordination sphere. These effects remain elusive when studying the dynamics with the MSD only.

  3. Chain end mobilities in polymer melts--a computational study.

    PubMed

    Diddens, Diddo; Heuer, Andreas

    2015-01-07

    The Rouse model can be regarded as the standard model to describe the dynamics of a short polymer chain under melt conditions. In this contribution, we explicitly check one of the fundamental assumptions of this model, namely, that of a uniform friction coefficient for all monomers, on the basis of MD simulation data of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) melt. This question immediately arises from the fact that in a real polymer melt, the terminal monomers have on average more intermolecular neighbors than the central monomers, and one would expect that exactly these details affect the precise value of the friction coefficient. The mobilities are determined by our recently developed statistical method, which provides detailed insights into the local polymer dynamics. Moreover, it yields complementary information to that obtained from the mean square displacement (MSD) or the Rouse mode analysis. It turns out that the Rouse assumption of a uniform mobility is fulfilled to a good approximation for the PEO melt. However, a more detailed analysis reveals that the underlying microscopic dynamics are highly affected by different contributions from intra- and intermolecular excluded volume interactions, which cannot be taken into account by a modified friction coefficient. Minor deviations occur only for the terminal monomers on larger time scales, which can be attributed to the presence of two different escape mechanisms from their first coordination sphere. These effects remain elusive when studying the dynamics with the MSD only.

  4. Polymer Chain Dynamics in a Random Environment: Heterogeneous Mobilities

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzwiedz, K.; Wischnewski, A.; Monkenbusch, M.; Richter, D.; Strauch, M.; Straube, E.; Genix, A.-C.; Arbe, A.

    2007-04-20

    We present a neutron scattering investigation on a miscible blend of two polymers with greatly different glass-transition temperatures T{sub g}. Under such conditions, the nearly frozen high-T{sub g} component imposes a random environment on the mobile chain. The results demand the consideration of a distribution of heterogeneous mobilities in the material and demonstrate that the larger scale dynamics of the fast component is not determined by the average local environment alone. This distribution of mobilities can be mapped quantitatively on the spectrum of local relaxation rates measured at high momentum transfers.

  5. Interplay between electrophoretic mobility and intrinsic viscosity of polypeptide chains.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Julio A; Peirotti, Marta B; Piaggio, María V

    2012-03-01

    The present work is motivated specifically by the need to find a simple interplay between experimental values of electrophoretic mobility and intrinsic viscosity (IV) of polypeptides. The connection between these two properties, as they are evaluated experimentally in a formulated dilute solution, may provide relevant information concerning the physicochemical characterization and separation of electrically charged chains such as polypeptides. Based on this aspect, a study on the relation between the effective electrophoretic mobility and the IV of the following globular proteins is carried out: bovine carbonic anhydrase, staphylococcal nuclease, human carbonic anhydrase, lysozyme, human serum albumin. The basic interpretation of the IV through polypeptide chain conformations involves two unknowns: one is the Flory characteristic ratio involving short-range intramolecular interactions and the other is the Mark-Houwink exponent associated with large-range intramolecular interactions. Here, it will be shown via basic and well-established electrokinetic theories and scaling concepts that the IV and global chain flexibility of polypeptides in dilute solutions may be estimated from capillary zone electrophoresis, in addition to classical transport properties. The polypeptide local chain flexibility may change due to electrostatic interactions among closer chain ionizing groups and the hindrance effect of their associated structural water.

  6. Ghana social mobilization analysis.

    PubMed

    Tweneboa-Kodua, A; Obeng-Quaidoo, I; Abu, K

    1991-01-01

    In order to increase communication channels for child survival and development, the government and UNICEF Ghana undertook a "social mobilization analysis." This analysis included three studies that aimed to identify individuals and existing organizations with the potential to serve as health communicators and to determine the type of assistance that they needed to maximize their effectiveness in this role. The first study surveyed governmental institutions, trade unions, revolutionary organizations, traditional leaders, and others and found a largely untapped reservoir of capacities to promote child health, with varying levels of current involvement. The primary need identified was for information and training materials. The second study focused on the mass media and revealed a low coverage of maternal and child health topics and the need for better cooperation between journalists and health professionals. The third study assessed sources of health information for parents and found several sources, such as religious organizations, women's groups, and school teachers that could be mobilized to promote child health. Recommendations are made for the use of the findings.

  7. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  8. Markov Chain Ontology Analysis (MCOA)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biomedical ontologies have become an increasingly critical lens through which researchers analyze the genomic, clinical and bibliographic data that fuels scientific research. Of particular relevance are methods, such as enrichment analysis, that quantify the importance of ontology classes relative to a collection of domain data. Current analytical techniques, however, remain limited in their ability to handle many important types of structural complexity encountered in real biological systems including class overlaps, continuously valued data, inter-instance relationships, non-hierarchical relationships between classes, semantic distance and sparse data. Results In this paper, we describe a methodology called Markov Chain Ontology Analysis (MCOA) and illustrate its use through a MCOA-based enrichment analysis application based on a generative model of gene activation. MCOA models the classes in an ontology, the instances from an associated dataset and all directional inter-class, class-to-instance and inter-instance relationships as a single finite ergodic Markov chain. The adjusted transition probability matrix for this Markov chain enables the calculation of eigenvector values that quantify the importance of each ontology class relative to other classes and the associated data set members. On both controlled Gene Ontology (GO) data sets created with Escherichia coli, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens annotations and real gene expression data extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), the MCOA enrichment analysis approach provides the best performance of comparable state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion A methodology based on Markov chain models and network analytic metrics can help detect the relevant signal within large, highly interdependent and noisy data sets and, for applications such as enrichment analysis, has been shown to generate superior performance on both real and simulated data relative to existing state-of-the-art approaches

  9. Relation chain based clustering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-ning; Zhao, Ming-yang; Luo, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Clustering analysis is currently one of well-developed branches in data mining technology which is supposed to find the hidden structures in the multidimensional space called feature or pattern space. A datum in the space usually possesses a vector form and the elements in the vector represent several specifically selected features. These features are often of efficiency to the problem oriented. Generally, clustering analysis goes into two divisions: one is based on the agglomerative clustering method, and the other one is based on divisive clustering method. The former refers to a bottom-up process which regards each datum as a singleton cluster while the latter refers to a top-down process which regards entire data as a cluster. As the collected literatures, it is noted that the divisive clustering is currently overwhelming both in application and research. Although some famous divisive clustering methods are designed and well developed, clustering problems are still far from being solved. The k - means algorithm is the original divisive clustering method which initially assigns some important index values, such as the clustering number and the initial clustering prototype positions, and that could not be reasonable in some certain occasions. More than the initial problem, the k - means algorithm may also falls into local optimum, clusters in a rigid way and is not available for non-Gaussian distribution. One can see that seeking for a good or natural clustering result, in fact, originates from the one's understanding of the concept of clustering. Thus, the confusion or misunderstanding of the definition of clustering always derives some unsatisfied clustering results. One should consider the definition deeply and seriously. This paper demonstrates the nature of clustering, gives the way of understanding clustering, discusses the methodology of designing a clustering algorithm, and proposes a new clustering method based on relation chains among 2D patterns. In

  10. Local mobility of polymer chain grafted onto polyethylene monitored by fluorescence depolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuneda, Satoshi; Endo, Toshihiro; Saito, Kyoichi; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Horie, Kazuyuki; Yamashita, Takashi; Sugo, Takanobu

    1997-08-01

    The fluorescence depolarization method was used for investigating the local mobility of polymer chains grafted onto a porous polyethylene membrane. The real value of the rotational diffusion coefficient of a dansyl probe attached to the grafted polymer chain was obtained by using a correction method which eliminated the effect of multiple scattering on fluorescence anisotropy. The rotational mobility of the dansyl probe attached to the grafted polymer chain was sensitive to both degree of grafting and solvent polarity, which indicated that the conformation of the grafted polymer chain and the pore size of the base membrane strongly governed the dynamic parameters of the grafted polymer chain.

  11. Supply-Chain Risk Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    security score upon first submission – 3/1/2010 Measured Against CWE/SANS Top-25 Errors 24 SQL Database Query Output: All records with ID = 48983...exploitable design or coding errors • Very little data for software supply chains 8 Software Supply Chain Complexity-1 Composite inherits risk from any point... Relative Effort Operational Capabilities Knowledge of Supplier Capabilities Knowledge of Product Attributes 13 Supply-Chain Risk Categories Category

  12. Characterization of acyl chain position in unsaturated phosphatidylcholines using differential mobility-mass spectrometry[S

    PubMed Central

    Maccarone, Alan T.; Duldig, Jackson; Mitchell, Todd W.; Blanksby, Stephen J.; Duchoslav, Eva; Campbell, J. Larry

    2014-01-01

    Glycerophospholipids (GPs) that differ in the relative position of the two fatty acyl chains on the glycerol backbone (i.e., sn-positional isomers) can have distinct physicochemical properties. The unambiguous assignment of acyl chain position to an individual GP represents a significant analytical challenge. Here we describe a workflow where phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are subjected to ESI for characterization by a combination of differential mobility spectrometry and MS (DMS-MS). When infused as a mixture, ions formed from silver adduction of each phospholipid isomer {e.g., [PC (16:0/18:1) + Ag]+ and [PC (18:1/16:0) + Ag]+} are transmitted through the DMS device at discrete compensation voltages. Varying their relative amounts allows facile and unambiguous assignment of the sn-positions of the fatty acyl chains for each isomer. Integration of the well-resolved ion populations provides a rapid method (< 3 min) for relative quantification of these lipid isomers. The DMS-MS results show excellent agreement with established, but time-consuming, enzymatic approaches and also provide superior accuracy to methods that rely on MS alone. The advantages of this DMS-MS method in identification and quantification of GP isomer populations is demonstrated by direct analysis of complex biological extracts without any prior fractionation. PMID:24939921

  13. Alkyl chain length dependence of the field-effect mobility in novel anthracene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Back, Jang Yeol; An, Tae Kyu; Cheon, Ye Rim; Cha, Hyojung; Jang, Jaeyoung; Kim, Yebyeol; Baek, Yonghwa; Chung, Dae Sung; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Park, Chan Eon; Kim, Yun-Hi

    2015-01-14

    We report six asymmetric alkylated anthracene-based molecules with different alkyl side chain lengths for use in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Alkyl side chains can potentially improve the solubility and processability of anthracene derivatives. The crystallinity and charge mobility of the anthracene derivatives may be improved by optimizing the side chain length. The highest field-effect mobility of the devices prepared here was 0.55 cm(2)/(V s), for 2-(p-pentylphenylethynyl)anthracene (PPEA). The moderate side chain length appeared to be optimal for promoting self-organization among asymmetric anthracene derivatives in OFETs, and was certainly better than the short or long alkyl side chain lengths, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements.

  14. Ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2007-08-21

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  15. Separation and indirect detection of small-chain peptides using chromophoric mobile phase additives.

    PubMed

    Yuan, D X; Pietrzyk, D J

    1990-06-22

    Ruthenium(II) 1,10-phenanthroline, Ru(phen)3(2+), and ruthenium(II) 2,2'-bipyridyl, Ru(bipy)3(2+), salts were evaluated as mobile phase additives for the liquid chromatographic separation of small-chain peptides on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymeric (Hamilton PRP-1) stationary phase. In a basic mobile phase peptides are anions, and retention, resolution and detection occur because of the interactions between the stationary phase, the RuII complex and the peptide anion. Since the RuII complex concentration changes in the analyte band relative to the background eluent RuII complex concentration, the peptide can be detected by indirect photometric detection using the wavelength where the RuII complex absorbs. Peptide analyte peaks may be positive or negative depending on the counter-anion and its concentration. Small-chain peptides that do not contain chromophoric side-chains are detected without derivatization at about 0.1 nmol injected at a 3:1 signal-to-noise ratio. Factors that affect retention, resolution and indirect photometric detection are the RuII complex, its mobile phase concentration, mobile phase pH and solvent composition, and the type and concentration of the mobile phase counter-anion and/or buffer anion.

  16. Molecular mobility depending on chain length and thermally induced molecular motion of n-alkane/urea inclusion compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaoki, Takahiko; Nagano, Hiromasa; Yanagida, Toshinori

    2004-08-01

    Solid-state high resolution 13C NMR was used to analyze the end group conformation and molecular mobility of n-alkanes in a urea host as a function of the carbon number of the n-alkane. It was shown that the chemical shift of the inner methylenes could be interpreted by the γ- gauche effect. Of further interest is our finding that the chemical shift of 3-methylene is independent of both chain length and temperature, a result indicating that the torsional rotation of the bond ω 3 between the 4-methylene and 5-methylene carbons is so inhibited that there is little gauche conformation. The chemical shift of the inner methylenes indicated a different tendency between the even- and the odd-numbered n-alkanes. The fact that the signals of the even-numbered n-alkanes were observed at a comparatively more upfield location than those of the odd-numbered ones indicated that the even-numbered n-alkane had a higher molecular mobility and tended to adopt a more gauche conformation. The decomposition temperature obtained by thermal analysis also suggested a difference between the even- and odd-numbered n-alkanes. The decomposition temperature of the even-numbered n-alkane/urea inclusion compounds was a little lower than that of the odd-numbered ones, a disparity corresponding to the higher molecular mobility of the n-alkane in the urea host. The spin-lattice relaxation time ( T1C) increased with increasing chain length for chains with less than the 14 carbon atoms but reached a constant value for all longer chains. This result is completely different from that for the n-alkane crystal, which gave a longer T1C depending on the chain length, and can be explained by a reduced intermolecular interaction between the n-alkane and the urea host. Clearly, T1C measurements can be applied to confirm the formation of inclusion compounds. However, the different T1C values between the methyl, 2-, 3-, and inner methylene carbons indicates that the n-alkane molecule does not rotate so fast

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Corey Thuen

    2013-01-01

    The On-Device Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Applications (ODAMA) project was started in an effort to protect mobile devices used in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) from cyber attack. Because mobile devices hide as much of the “computer” as possible, the user’s ability to assess the software running on their system is limited. The research team chose Google’s Android platform for this initial research because it is open source and it would give us freedom in our approach, including the ability to modify the mobile device’s operating system itself. The research team concluded that a Privileged Application was the right approach, and the result was ODAMA. This project is an important piece of the work to secure the expanding use of mobile devices with our nation’s critical infrastructure.

  18. Controlled mobility of unmanned aircraft chains to optimize network capacity in realistic communication environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Cory

    This dissertation presents a decentralized gradient-based mobility control algorithm for the formation and maintenance of an optimal end-to-end communication chain using a team of unmanned aircraft acting as communication relays. With the use of unmanned aircraft (UA) as communication relays, a common mode of operation is to form a communication relay chain between a lead exploring node (which may be ground based or another UA) and a control station. In this type of operation the lead node is typically deployed to explore (sense) a remote region of interest that is beyond direct radio frequency (RF) communication range, or out of line-of-sight, to the control station. To provide non-line-of-sight service, and extend the communication range of the lead node, unmanned aircraft acting as communication relays are deployed in a convoy fashion behind the lead vehicle to form a cascaded relay chain. The focus of this work is the use of the mobility of a fixed number of relay aircraft to maximize the capacity of a directed communication chain from a source node to a destination node. Local objective functions are presented that use the signal-to-noise-and-interference ratio (SNIR) of neighbor communication links as inputs to maximize the end-to-end capacity of packet-based and repeater-type network chains. An adaptive gradient-based SNIR controller using the local objective function can show significant improvement in the capacity of the communication chain that is not possible with range-based controllers, or static deployment strategies, in RF environments containing unknown localized noise sources and terrain effects. Since the SNIR field is unknown, an online estimate of the SNIR field gradient is formed using methods of Stochastic Approximation from the orbital motion of the aircraft tracking a control point. Flight demonstrations using the Networked Unmanned Aircraft System Command, Control and Communications testbed were conducted to validate the controller

  19. Chi(1) rotamer populations and angles of mobile surface side chains are accurately predicted by a torsion angle database potential of mean force.

    PubMed

    Clore, G Marius; Kuszewski, John

    2002-03-27

    The equilibrium angles and distributions of chi(1) rotamers for mobile surface side chains of the small, 63-residue, B1 domain of protein L have been calculated from the static crystal structure by rigid body/torsion angle simulated annealing using a torsion angle database potential of mean force and compared to those deduced by Monte Carlo analysis of side chain residual dipolar couplings measured in solution. Good agreement between theory and experiment is observed, indicating that for side chains undergoing rotamer averaging that is fast on the chemical shift time scale, the equilibrium angles and distribution of chi(1) rotamers are largely determined by the backbone phi/psi torsion angles.

  20. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  1. Does postural chain mobility influence muscular control in sitting ramp pushes?

    PubMed

    Le Bozec, Serge; Bouisset, Simon

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted under the hypothesis that voluntary movement involves a perturbation of body balance and that a counter-perturbation has to be developed to limit the perturbation effects, which is a condition necessary to perform the movement efficiently. The stabilising action is produced in body segments that constitute the "postural" chain, and the voluntary movement by the segments said to constitute the "focal" chain. In order to deepen the understanding of how the postural chain contributes to the motor act, isometric transient efforts were considered. Seven adults in a sitting posture were instructed to exert bilateral horizontal pushes on a dynamometric bar, as rapidly as possible, up to their maximal force (Fx). Two sitting conditions were considered: full ischio-femoral contact (100 BP) and one-third ischio-femoral contact (30 BP), the latter being known to yield greater pelvis and spine mobility, that is greater postural mobility. Each session consisted of ten maximal pushes for each sitting condition. In order to explore the influence of postural mobility on muscular control and push force, surface EMGs of 14 postural and focal muscles were recorded. In addition, reaction forces (Rx) and displacement (Xp) of the centre of pressure (along the anteroposterior axis) were measured, as well as iliac crest acceleration (xh and zh, along the anteroposterior and vertical axes, respectively). The results showed that push force varied abruptly during the task ramp effort. When the ischio-femoral contact was limited, push force was enhanced, as well as the rate of push force rise (Fx/Deltat, Deltat being the force rise duration), suggesting a greater perturbation to balance. Also, there were significant increases in the Rx reaction forces, indicating body segment acceleration: "dynamic" phenomena occurred in the articulated body chain in response to increases in Fx. In addition, even though muscular contraction was isometric, postural EMGs, as well as

  2. Electrospray Ionization Mechanisms for Large Polyethylene Glycol Chains Studied Through Tandem Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larriba, Carlos; de la Mora, Juan Fernandez; Clemmer, David E.

    2014-08-01

    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) is used to investigate the abundance pattern, n z (m) of Poly-(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) electrosprayed from water/methanol as a function of mass and charge state. We examine n z (m) patterns from a diversity of solution cations, primarily dimethylammonium and triethylammonium. The ability of PEG chains to initially attach to various cations in the spraying chamber, and to retain them (or not) on entering the MS, provide valuable clues on the ionization mechanism. Single chains form in highly charged and extended shapes in most buffers. But the high initial charge they hold under atmospheric pressure is lost on transit to the vacuum system for large cations. In contrast, aggregates of two or more chains carry in all buffers at most the Rayleigh charge of a water drop of the same volume. This shows either that they form via Dole's charge residue mechanism, or that highly charged and extended aggregates are ripped apart by Coulombic repulsion. IMS-IMS experiments in He confirm these findings, and provide new mechanistic insights on the stability of aggregates. When collisionally activated, initially globular dimers are stable. However, slightly nonglobular dimers projecting out a linear appendix are segregated into two monomeric chains. The breakup of a charged dimer is therefore a multi-step process, similar to the Fenn-Consta polymer extrusion mechanism. The highest activation barrier is associated to the first step, where a short chain segment carrying a single charge escapes (ion-evaporates) from a charged drop, leading then to gradual field extrusion of the whole chain out of the drop.

  3. Mobile app-based quantitative scanometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica X H; Liu, Frank S F; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2014-12-16

    The feasibility of using smartphones and other mobile devices as the detection platform for quantitative scanometric assays is demonstrated. The different scanning modes (color, grayscale, black/white) and grayscale converting protocols (average, weighted average/luminosity, and software specific) have been compared in determining the optical darkness ratio (ODR) values, a conventional quantitation measure for scanometric assays. A mobile app was developed to image and analyze scanometric assays, as demonstrated by paper-printed tests and a biotin-streptavidin assay on a plastic substrate. Primarily for ODR analysis, the app has been shown to perform as well as a traditional desktop scanner, augmenting that smartphones (and other mobile devices) promise to be a practical platform for accurate, quantitative chemical analysis and medical diagnostics.

  4. Static Analysis of Mobile Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air...and then use static analysis to verify them. In the end we pursued this idea successfully for several differnet properties and developed novel...difficult to develop with enough precision. In [3], we establish a connection between compositional analyses and modular lattices, which require

  5. Ion mobility analysis of molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wyttenbach, Thomas; Pierson, Nicholas A; Clemmer, David E; Bowers, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    The combination of mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) employing a temperature-variable drift cell or a drift tube divided into sections to make IMS-IMS experiments possible allows information to be obtained about the molecular dynamics of polyatomic ions in the absence of a solvent. The experiments allow the investigation of structural changes of both activated and native ion populations on a timescale of 1-100 ms. Five different systems representing small and large, polar and nonpolar molecules, as well as noncovalent assemblies, are discussed in detail: a dinucleotide, a sodiated polyethylene glycol chain, the peptide bradykinin, the protein ubiquitin, and two types of peptide oligomers. Barriers to conformational interconversion can be obtained in favorable cases. In other cases, solution-like native structures can be observed, but care must be taken in the experimental protocols. The power of theoretical modeling is demonstrated.

  6. Enhancing mobility via cooperation: analysis and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Ashish D.; Luntz, Jonathan E.

    2003-09-01

    A team of small, low cost robots instead of one large, complex robot is useful in operations such as search and rescue, urban exploration etc. However, the performance of such a team is limited due to restricted mobility of the team members. We propose to overcome the mobility restrictions by physical cooperation among the team members. We carry out a feasibility analysis of a particular behavior of two robots cooperating to cross a gap and also consider the effect of the scaling of the robot dimensions. We simulate the dynamic equations describing the motion which leads to the relaxation the requirements derived from the static analysis. A decentralized control architecture is designed which avoids continuous communication between the robots thus rendering the cooperation to be simple and low cost.

  7. Modeling and analysis of mobility management in mobile communication networks.

    PubMed

    Baek, Woon Min; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Chesoong

    2014-01-01

    Many strategies have been proposed to reduce the mobility management cost in mobile communication networks. This paper studies the zone-based registration methods that have been adopted by most mobile communication networks. We focus on two special zone-based registration methods, called two-zone registration (2Z) and two-zone registration with implicit registration by outgoing calls (2Zi). We provide a new mathematical model to analyze the exact performance of 2Z and 2Zi. We also present various numerical results, to compare the performance of 2Zi with those of 2Z and one-zone registration (1Z), and show that 2Zi is superior to 2Z as well as 1Z in most cases.

  8. Ligh chain cardiomyopathy - structural analysis of the light chain tissue deposits.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, G.; Goni, F.; Boctor, F.; Vidal, R.; Kumar, A.; Stevens, F. J.; Frangione, B.; Ghiso, J.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; New York Univ. Medical Center

    1996-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy due to monoclonal light chain deposits is a complication of plasma cell disorders. The deposits may be either fibrillar as in light chain amyloid or nonfibrillar as in light chain deposition disease. The reasons for these structural differences are still unknown. We characterized the myocardial deposits by immunohistochemical examination of sections and extraction and biochemical analysis of the tissue deposits in a patient (MCM) who died of myeloma and systemic light chain deposition disease. Amino acid sequence analysis of the extracted nonfibrillar MCM {kappa}-light chain reveals that it belongs to the L12a germline subset of the {kappa}{sub I} protein and contains five distinctive amino acid substitutions (three in the framework region III and two in the complementarity-determining region III) that have not been reported previously in the same positions in other {kappa}I light chains. The theoretically determined isoelectric point (pI 8.21) of the MCM light chain is high compared with the low isoelectric point of other Bence Jones proteins from subjects without light chain deposition disease. The diffuse binding to basement membranes and the high isoelectric point of the MCM {kappa}-light chain suggest electrostatic interaction as a possible mechanism of tissue deposition. The spatial locations of the five distinctive residues and a sixth rare substitution of the MCM protein modeled on the backbone structure of REI, a {kappa}{sub I}-soluble Bence Jones light chain of known three-dimensional structure, may be responsible for protein destabilization, partial unfolding, and aggregation leading to tissue deposition.

  9. Analysis of Handoff Mechanisms in Mobile IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraj, Maria Nadine Simonel; Issac, Biju; Haldar, Manas Kumar

    2011-06-01

    One of the most important challenges in mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is to provide service for a mobile node to maintain its connectivity to network when it moves from one domain to another. IP is responsible for routing packets across network. The first major version of IP is the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). It is one of the dominant protocols relevant to wireless network. Later a newer version of IP called the IPv6 was proposed. Mobile IPv6 is mainly introduced for the purpose of mobility. Mobility management enables network to locate roaming nodes in order to deliver packets and maintain connections with them when moving into new domains. Handoff occurs when a mobile node moves from one network to another. It is a key factor of mobility because a mobile node can trigger several handoffs during a session. This paper briefly explains on mobile IP and its handoff issues, along with the drawbacks of mobile IP.

  10. Lateral Chain Length in Polyalkyl Acrylates Determines the Mobility of Fibronectin at the Cell/Material Interface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cells, by interacting with surfaces indirectly through a layer of extracellular matrix proteins, can respond to a variety of physical properties, such as topography or stiffness. Polymer surface mobility is another physical property that is less well understood but has been indicated to hold the potential to modulate cell behavior. Polymer mobility is related to the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the system, the point at which a polymer transitions from an amorphous solid to a more liquid-like state. This work shows that changes in polymer mobility translate to interfacial mobility of extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed on the material surface. This study has utilized a family of polyalkyl acrylates with similar chemistry but different degrees of mobility, obtained through increasing length of the side chain. These materials are used, in conjunction with fluorescent fibronectin, to determine the mobility of this interfacial layer of protein that constitutes the initial cell–material interface. Furthermore, the extent of fibronectin domain availability (III9, III10, - the integrin binding site), cell-mediated reorganization, and cell differentiation was also determined. A nonmonotonic dependence of fibronectin mobility on polymer surface mobility was observed, with a similar trend noted in cell-mediated reorganization of the protein layer by L929 fibroblasts. The availability of the integrin-binding site was higher on the more mobile surfaces, where a similar organization of the protein into networks at the material interface was observed. Finally, differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts was seen to be highly sensitive to surface mobility upon inhibition of cell contractility. Altogether, these findings show that polymer mobility is a subtle influence that translates to the cell/material interface through the protein layer to alter the biological activity of the surface. PMID:26715432

  11. Using Malware Analysis to Tailor SQUARE for Mobile Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Using Malware Analysis to Tailor SQUARE for Mobile Platforms Gregory Paul Alice Nancy R. Mead (Faculty Adviser) November 2014 TECHNICAL...Security Problem 1 1.2 Current Research into the Use of Malware Analysis for Requirements Engineering 2 1.2.1 Malware Analysis in Security...Adaptive Security 6 1.2.5 Malware Ontology 6 1.3 Applying Malware Analysis to SQUARE for a Mobile Application 7 2 Survey of Mobile Malware 8 2.1 Classes

  12. The influence of interchain coupling on intramolecular oscillation mobility in coupled macromolecular chains: The case of coplanar parallel chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čevizović, D.; Petković, S.; Galović, S.; Chizhov, A.; Reshetnyak, A.

    2015-10-01

    We enlarge our results from the study of the hopping mechanism of the oscillation excitation transport in 1D model of one biologica-likel macromolecular chain to the case of a system composed from two 1D parallel macromolecular chains with consideration of the properties of intramolecular oscillation excitations. We suppose, that due to the exciton interaction with thermal oscillation (generated by mechanical phonon subsystem) of structural elements (consisting of the peptide group) of the chains, the exciton becomes by self trapped and forms the polaron state. We suggest a model which generalizes the modified Holstein polaron model to the case of two macromolecular chains and find that because of the interchain coupling, the exciton energy band is splitted into two subbands. The hopping process of exciton migration along the macromolecular chains is studied in dependence of system parameters and temperature. We pay an special attention to the temperature range (near T = 300 K) in which living cells operate. It is found that for the certain values of the system parameters there exists the abrupt change of the exciton migration nature from practically free (light) exciton motion to an immobile (heavy, dressed by phonon cloud) quasiparticle We discuss an application of the obtained results to the exciton transport both within deoxyribonucleic acid molecule and in the 2D polymer films organized from such macromolecular chains.

  13. Analysis and Testing of Mobile Wireless Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Evenson, Darin; Rundquist, Victor; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Wireless networks are being used to connect mobile computing elements in more applications as the technology matures. There are now many products (such as 802.11 and 802.11b) which ran in the ISM frequency band and comply with wireless network standards. They are being used increasingly to link mobile Intranet into Wired networks. Standard methods of analyzing and testing their performance and compatibility are needed to determine the limits of the technology. This paper presents analytical and experimental methods of determining network throughput, range and coverage, and interference sources. Both radio frequency (BE) domain and network domain analysis have been applied to determine wireless network throughput and range in the outdoor environment- Comparison of field test data taken under optimal conditions, with performance predicted from RF analysis, yielded quantitative results applicable to future designs. Layering multiple wireless network- sooners can increase performance. Wireless network components can be set to different radio frequency-hopping sequences or spreading functions, allowing more than one sooner to coexist. Therefore, we ran multiple 802.11-compliant systems concurrently in the same geographical area to determine interference effects and scalability, The results can be used to design of more robust networks which have multiple layers of wireless data communication paths and provide increased throughput overall.

  14. Comparative performance analysis of mobile displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaee-Rad, Reza; Aleksic, Milivoje

    2012-01-01

    Cell-phone display performance (in terms of color quality and optical efficiency) has become a critical factor in creating a positive user experience. As a result, there is a significant amount of effort by cell-phone OEMs to provide a more competitive display solution. This effort is focused on using different display technologies (with significantly different color characteristics) and more sophisticated display processors. In this paper, the results of a mobile-display comparative performance analysis are presented. Three cell-phones from major OEMs are selected and their display performances are measured and quantified. Comparative performance analysis is done using display characteristics such as display color gamut size, RGB-channels crosstalk, RGB tone responses, gray tracking performance, color accuracy, and optical efficiency.

  15. ARSENIC: A Review on Exposure Pathways, Accumulation, Mobility and Transmission into the Human Food Chain.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Beste; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A; Akün, Ertan

    This review deals with exposure pathways of arsenic (As), as well as its transfer and uptake processes from its source to the human body. It is proven fact that uptake of inorganic As for a long period can lead to chronic As poisoning and a variety of adverse health effects such as skin, lung and bladder cancer, in addition to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and gastrointestinal symptoms. As exposure occurs primarily from consumption of potable water containing high amounts of inorganic As and also from consumption of crops cultivated in As contaminated agricultural fields-either naturally or anthropogenically through contaminated air or pesticides-or irrigated with As containing water. In this review, light is shed on the transfer mechanism of As through the food chain and the parameters that enhance mobility of As in the environment. Amounts of As accumulation in plants and the transfer mechanisms are also quite different. These differences in As accumulation, such as in leaves, stems, fruits and roots, are discussed in detail. Moreover, presence of As in some vegetables consumed is given by investigating recent research articles that deal with As concentrations, especially in edible parts. Some comparative data are also presented, concerning the level of concentration of As in rice during washing, cooking and processing stages.

  16. Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base James R. Dominy...contract DASW01-04-C-0003, AH-7-3315, “Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base,” for the Director, Industrial Policy. The...D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S IDA Document D-4308 Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base James R. Dominy, Project

  17. Restricted mobility of side chains on concave surfaces of solenoid proteins may impart heightened potential for intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Ramya, L; Gautham, N; Chaloin, Laurent; Kajava, Andrey V

    2015-09-01

    Significant progress has been made in the determination of the protein structures with their number today passing over a hundred thousand structures. The next challenge is the understanding and prediction of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. In this work we address this problem by analyzing curved solenoid proteins. Many of these proteins are considered as "hub molecules" for their high potential to interact with many different molecules and to be a scaffold for multisubunit protein machineries. Our analysis of these structures through molecular dynamics simulations reveals that the mobility of the side-chains on the concave surfaces of the solenoids is lower than on the convex ones. This result provides an explanation to the observed preferential binding of the ligands, including small and flexible ligands, to the concave surface of the curved solenoid proteins. The relationship between the landscapes and dynamic properties of the protein surfaces can be further generalized to the other types of protein structures and eventually used in the computer algorithms, allowing prediction of protein-ligand interactions by analysis of protein surfaces.

  18. Rigorous modal analysis of metallic nanowire chains.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2009-08-03

    Nanowire chains (NCs) are analyzed by use of a rigorous, full-wave, Source-Model Technique (SMT). The technique employs a proper periodic Green's function which converges regardless of whether the structure is lossless or lossy. By use of this Green's function, it is possible to determine the complex propagation constants of the NC modes directly and accurately, as solutions of a dispersion equation. To demonstrate the method, dispersion curves and mode profiles for a few NCs are calculated.

  19. Markov Chain Analysis of Musical Dice Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volchenkov, D.; Dawin, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  20. Fast analysis of radionuclide decay chain migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. S.; Liang, C. P.; Liu, C. W.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    A novel tool for rapidly predicting the long-term plume behavior of an arbitrary length radionuclide decay chain is presented in this study. This fast tool is achieved based on generalized analytical solutions in compact format derived for a set of two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions in groundwater system. The performance of the developed tool is evaluated by a numerical model using a Laplace transform finite difference scheme. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the developed model is robust and accurate. The developed model is then used to fast understand the transport behavior of a four-member radionuclide decay chain. Results show that the plume extents and concentration levels of any target radionuclide are very sensitive to longitudinal, transverse dispersion, decay rate constant and retardation factor. The developed model are useful tools for rapidly assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  1. Double path integral method for obtaining the mobility of the one-dimensional charge transport in molecular chain.

    PubMed

    Yoo-Kong, Sikarin; Liewrian, Watchara

    2015-12-01

    We report on a theoretical investigation concerning the polaronic effect on the transport properties of a charge carrier in a one-dimensional molecular chain. Our technique is based on the Feynman's path integral approach. Analytical expressions for the frequency-dependent mobility and effective mass of the carrier are obtained as functions of electron-phonon coupling. The result exhibits the crossover from a nearly free particle to a heavily trapped particle. We find that the mobility depends on temperature and decreases exponentially with increasing temperature at low temperature. It exhibits large polaronic-like behaviour in the case of weak electron-phonon coupling. These results agree with the phase transition (A.S. Mishchenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 146401 (2015)) of transport phenomena related to polaron motion in the molecular chain.

  2. Modeling methodology for supply chain synthesis and disruption analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Teresa; Blackhurst, Jennifer

    2004-11-01

    The concept of an integrated or synthesized supply chain is a strategy for managing today's globalized and customer driven supply chains in order to better meet customer demands. Synthesizing individual entities into an integrated supply chain can be a challenging task due to a variety of factors including conflicting objectives, mismatched incentives and constraints of the individual entities. Furthermore, understanding the effects of disruptions occurring at any point in the system is difficult when working toward synthesizing supply chain operations. Therefore, the goal of this research is to present a modeling methodology to manage the synthesis of a supply chain by linking hierarchical levels of the system and to model and analyze disruptions in the integrated supply chain. The contribution of this research is threefold: (1) supply chain systems can be modeled hierarchically (2) the performance of synthesized supply chain system can be evaluated quantitatively (3) reachability analysis is used to evaluate the system performance and verify whether a specific state is reachable, allowing the user to understand the extent of effects of a disruption.

  3. Markov chain Monte Carlo linkage analysis of complex quantitative phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, A; Reich, T

    2001-01-01

    We report a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of the five simulated quantitative traits in Genetic Analysis Workshop 12 using the Loki software. Our objectives were to determine the efficacy of the Markov chain Monte Carlo method and to test a new scoring technique. Our initial blind analysis, on replicate 42 (the "best replicate") successfully detected four out of the five disease loci and found no false positives. A power analysis shows that the software could usually detect 4 of the 10 trait/gene combinations at an empirical point-wise p-value of 1.5 x 10(-4).

  4. Experimental signal analysis in ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubran, R. A.; Lawrence, A. H.

    1991-03-01

    The mathematical differentiation of experimental signals is often used as a resolution enhancement technique, to facilitate the detection and location of partially overlapped gaussian peaks in a multi-component signal. In this paper the analysis of the peak shapes of real ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) signals indicated that a gaussian approximation leads to less than 0.035% of mean square error (using a window of ± 3[sigma] around the peak) while the analysis of the noise signal (performed both in the time and frequency domains) showed that it could be modelled as filtered white gaussian noise. The experimental signal data were provided through the IMS sampling of the chemicals diazepam, lorazepam and bromazepan. Given these findings, a model capable of simulating IMS peaks with any desired time separation, relative amplitude, or additive noise level was developed. It then became possible to quantitatively evaluate the performance and limitations of the second derivative peak detection algorithm. Peak resolution down to 0.27 ms and signal-to-noise ratios down to 18 d[circle dot operator]B were achieved. Some preliminary results obtained with higher order derivative algorithms are also presented.

  5. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  6. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  7. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit; Warren, Josh; West, Devin; Schexnayder, Susan M.

    2016-05-01

    This analysis identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas — wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels — that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  8. An analysis of general chain systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passerello, C. E.; Huston, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A general analysis of dynamic systems consisting of connected rigid bodies is presented. The number of bodies and their manner of connection is arbitrary so long as no closed loops are formed. The analysis represents a dynamic finite element method, which is computer-oriented and designed so that nonworking, interval constraint forces are automatically eliminated. The method is based upon Lagrange's form of d'Alembert's principle. Shifter matrix transformations are used with the geometrical aspects of the analysis. The method is illustrated with a space manipulator.

  9. [Analysis of complexity in Chinese meteria medica industrial chain].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Li, Qi; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2014-08-01

    Chinese meteria medica (CMM) chain is a long-span chain covering agriculture which mainly depends on the forces of nature as well as high-tech CMM industry, CMM expertise industry and fast developing CMM circulation industry. Imbalance among the development of these industries produces bottlenecks and hinders the operation of the entire production chain. After analyzing the structure of Chinese meteria medica industrial chain from the perspective of national economy industry, three industry classifications and differentiation of factor intensity, we conclude that the complex structure of CMM industry chain is attributable to these three aspects. And the complexity is mainly shown at complex industry, varied product types, different coordination of various industrial sections and different technical growth speed of varied industry. We propose that structural complexity is the natural property of the chain, which is the main reason of industry sector development imbalance and bottleneck. Results of this research could provide theoretical analysis for future research on the coordination of industrial chain and the efficiency of resource allocation.

  10. Mathematics analysis of polymerase chain reaction kinetic curves.

    PubMed

    Sochivko, D G; Fedorov, A A; Varlamov, D A; Kurochkin, V E; Petrov, R V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews different approaches to the mathematical analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kinetic curves. The basic principles of PCR mathematical analysis are presented. Approximation of PCR kinetic curves and PCR efficiency curves by various functions is described. Several PCR models based on chemical kinetics equations are suggested. Decision criteria for an optimal function to describe PCR efficiency are proposed.

  11. Globalization and International Student Mobility: A Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes changes to the network of international student mobility in higher education over a 10-year period (1999-2008). International student flows have increased rapidly, exceeding 3 million in 2009, and extensive data on mobility provide unique insight into global educational processes. The analysis is informed by three theoretical…

  12. Globalization and International Student Mobility: A Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes changes to the network of international student mobility in higher education over a 10-year period (1999-2008). International student flows have increased rapidly, exceeding 3 million in 2009, and extensive data on mobility provide unique insight into global educational processes. The analysis is informed by three theoretical…

  13. ' q-Titration' of long-chain and short-chain lipids differentiates between structured and mobile residues of membrane proteins studied in bicelles by solution NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Woo Sung; Park, Sang Ho; Nothnagel, Henry J.; Lu, George J.; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Hua; Cook, Gabriel A.; Howell, Stanley C.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2012-01-01

    ' q-Titration' refers to the systematic comparison of signal intensities in solution NMR spectra of uniformly 15N labeled membrane proteins solubilized in micelles and isotropic bicelles as a function of the molar ratios ( q) of the long-chain lipids (typically DMPC) to short-chain lipids (typically DHPC). In general, as q increases, the protein resonances broaden and correspondingly have reduced intensities due to the overall slowing of protein reorientation. Since the protein backbone signals do not broaden uniformly, the differences in line widths (and intensities) enable the narrower (more intense) signals associated with mobile residues to be differentiated from the broader (less intense) signals associated with "structured" residues. For membrane proteins with between one and seven trans-membrane helices in isotropic bicelles, we have been able to find a value of q between 0.1 and 1.0 where only signals from mobile residues are observed in the spectra. The signals from the structured residues are broadened so much that they cannot be observed under standard solution NMR conditions. This q value corresponds to the ratio of DMPC:DHPC where the signals from the structured residues are "titrated out" of the spectrum. This q value is unique for each protein. In magnetically aligned bilayers ( q > 2.5) no signals are observed in solution NMR spectra of membrane proteins because the polypeptides are "immobilized" by their interactions with the phospholipid bilayers on the relevant NMR timescale (˜10 5 Hz). No signals are observed from proteins in liposomes (only long-chain lipids) either. We show that it is feasible to obtain complementary solution NMR and solid-state NMR spectra of the same membrane protein, where signals from the mobile residues are present in the solution NMR spectra, and signals from the structured residues are present in the solid-state NMR spectra. With assigned backbone amide resonances, these data are sufficient to describe major features

  14. Oligomer-to-polymer transition in short ethylene glycol chains connected to mobile hydrophobic anchors.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motomu; Rehfeldt, Florian; Schneider, Matthias F; Gege, Christian; Schmidt, Richard R; Funari, Sérgio S

    2005-01-01

    We studied the structure of short ethylene glycol (EG) chains with N repeating units (EGN, N = 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15) connected to hydrophobic dihexadecyl chains by means of a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). These synthetic amphiphiles dispersed in water form planar lamellar stacks and hexagonal cylinders confining the EG chains to restricted geometries. Owing to the self-assembly of the anchoring points, the lateral density of EG chains in planar lamella can be quantitatively controlled. Furthermore, the chain-melting phase transition of the anchors enables us to "switch" the intermolecular distance reversibly. SAXS/WAXS results suggest that the shorter EG chains (N = 3, 6, and 9) assume a helical conformation in stacks of planar lamella. When the EG chains are further elongated (N = 12 and 15), the lamellar periodicities cannot be explained by a linear extrapolation of shorter oligomers, but can be interpreted well as polymer brushes following the scaling theorem. Such rich phase behaviors of EGN molecules can be used as a simple model of oligo/poly-saccharide chains on cell surfaces, which act not only as flexible repellers between neighboring cells but also as stable spacers for functional ligands.

  15. Conformational analysis of molecular chains using nano-kinematics.

    PubMed

    Manocha, D; Zhu, Y; Wright, W

    1995-02-01

    We present algorithms for 3-D manipulation and conformational analysis of molecular chains, when bond lengths, bond angles and related dihedral angles remain fixed. These algorithms are useful for local deformations of linear molecules, exact ring closure in cyclic molecules and molecular embedding for short chains. Other possible applications include structure prediction, protein folding, conformation energy analysis and 3D molecular matching and docking. The algorithms are applicable to all serial molecular chains and make no assumptions about their geometry. We make use of results on direct and inverse kinematics from robotics and mechanics literature and show the correspondence between kinematics and conformational analysis of molecules. In particular, we pose these problems algebraically and compute all the solutions making use of the structure of these equations and matrix computations. The algorithms have been implemented and perform well in practice. In particular, they take tens of milliseconds on current workstations for local deformations and chain closures on molecular chains consisting of six or fewer rotatable dihedral angles.

  16. Molecular packing of high-mobility diketo pyrrolo-pyrrole polymer semiconductors with branched alkyl side chains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinran; Richter, Lee J; DeLongchamp, Dean M; Kline, R Joseph; Hammond, Matthew R; McCulloch, Iain; Heeney, Martin; Ashraf, Raja S; Smith, Jeremy N; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Schroeder, Bob; Geerts, Yves H; Fischer, Daniel A; Toney, Michael F

    2011-09-28

    We describe a series of highly soluble diketo pyrrolo-pyrrole (DPP)-bithiophene copolymers exhibiting field effect hole mobilities up to 0.74 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), with a common synthetic motif of bulky 2-octyldodecyl side groups on the conjugated backbone. Spectroscopy, diffraction, and microscopy measurements reveal a transition in molecular packing behavior from a preferentially edge-on orientation of the conjugated plane to a preferentially face-on orientation as the attachment density of the side chains increases. Thermal annealing generally reduces both the face-on population and the misoriented edge-on domains. The highest hole mobilities of this series were obtained from edge-on molecular packing and in-plane liquid-crystalline texture, but films with a bimodal orientation distribution and no discernible in-plane texture exhibited surprisingly comparable mobilities. The high hole mobility may therefore arise from the molecular packing feature common to the entire polymer series: backbones that are strictly oriented parallel to the substrate plane and coplanar with other backbones in the same layer.

  17. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  18. Mobile Monitoring Data Processing and Analysis Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of portable, high-time resolution instruments for measuring the concentrations of a variety of air pollutants has made it possible to collect data while in motion. This strategy, known as mobile monitoring, involves mounting air sensors on variety of different pla...

  19. Mobile Monitoring Data Processing & Analysis Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of portable, high-time resolution instruments for measuring the concentrations of a variety of air pollutants has made it possible to collect data while in motion. This strategy, known as mobile monitoring, involves mounting air sensors on variety of different pla...

  20. An Econometric Analysis of Teacher Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bempah, E. Osei; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Uses Missouri beginning teacher survey to analyze teacher migration. Develops simultaneous equations model to identify teacher and school district characteristics predictive of teacher mobility and determine predictive relationships between teachers' annual earnings and selected demographic and geographic variables. Findings support conventional…

  1. Mobile Monitoring Data Processing & Analysis Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of portable, high-time resolution instruments for measuring the concentrations of a variety of air pollutants has made it possible to collect data while in motion. This strategy, known as mobile monitoring, involves mounting air sensors on variety of different pla...

  2. Mobile Monitoring Data Processing and Analysis Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of portable, high-time resolution instruments for measuring the concentrations of a variety of air pollutants has made it possible to collect data while in motion. This strategy, known as mobile monitoring, involves mounting air sensors on variety of different pla...

  3. Space system operations and support cost analysis using Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.; Moore, Arlene A.; Fairbairn, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of Markov chain process in probabilistic life cycle cost analysis and suggests further uses of the process as a design aid tool. A methodology is developed for estimating operations and support cost and expected life for reusable space transportation systems. Application of the methodology is demonstrated for the case of a hypothetical space transportation vehicle. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to explore the effects of uncertainty in key model inputs.

  4. Food chain analysis at a mining waste-contaminated wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, G.A.; Blanchet, R.J.; Linder, G.

    1994-12-31

    A food chain analysis was performed in support of a baseline ecological risk assessment oat the Milltown Reservoir Sediments Superfund site in Montana. The site consists of over 450 acres of primarily palustrine wetland contaminated with metals from mining-wastes transported from upstream sources. The food chain analysis focused on several species of terrestrial and aquatic animals indigenous to montane wetlands of the northern Rocky Mountains. Samples of small mammal tissues, grasses, forbs, invertebrates, soils, sediment, aquatic plants, and fish were collected and analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. A linear multimedia food-chain model was constructed to estimate daily intakes of the metals for each receptor, with assumed values for aquatic and terrestrial food items from the site, ingestion of local surface water, incidental ingestion of soils or sediments, and estimated bioavailability of soil metals. Evaluation of health risks was performed by the quotient method, where exposures expressed as daily intakes were compared to literature toxicity values. Results from the food chain analysis suggested that the health of primary consumers and higher trophic organisms (including mice, voles, muskrats, beaver, various waterfowl species, osprey, bald eagles, and deer) is not at risk due to the presence of elevated metals in sediments or upland soils at the site.

  5. Mobility adaptations of older adults: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Rush, Kathy L; Watts, Wilda E; Stanbury, Janice

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this secondary study was to describe the mobility adaptations of community-living older adults. The primary study, designed to understand weakness and aging from the perspective of older adults, revealed that older adults viewed weakness as a progression from inability to an end point of 'giving up,' which prompted the use of adaptation strategies to preserve mobility and to counter a self-identity of being weak. A qualitative descriptive design guided the primary study of 15 community-living older adults, who participated in in-depth interviews. A systematic secondary analysis using Baltes and Baltes' theory of Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC) showed that older adults used selection, optimization, and compensation adaptations across a range of mobility behaviors. The SOC model offered a framework for profiling older adults' agency and motivations in meeting mobility challenges as they age and provided the basis for targeted interventions to maximize mobility with aging.

  6. Intrinsic friction analysis--novel nanoscopic access to molecular mobility in constrained organic systems.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Daniel B; Gray, Tomoko O; Overney, René M

    2009-07-01

    Condensed organic materials designed for nanotechnological applications are impacted significantly by internal and external constraints. Internal constraints are inherent to the molecular architecture, and generally result from direct bonding, electrostatic interactions, or steric effects. Internal constraints can be incorporated a priori into molecular designs, as a prescription for desired material properties. Today's challenge lies in obtaining information about the molecular mobility, in particular, in thin organic structured or unstructured films. A method that has been recently introduced, and is well suited for free surface analysis of complex organic thin film materials is intrinsic friction analysis (IFA), a spectroscopic analysis method based on scanning force microscopy (SFM). Here, we present a critical assessment of the method with practical illustrations towards the study of intramolecular and molecular mobilities in amorphous organic non-linear optical (NLO) materials, specifically self-assembling molecular organic glasses and complex organic polymer side-chain systems.

  7. Scaling of temperature dependence of charge mobility in molecular Holstein chains.

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, D A; Fialko, N S; Sobolev, E V; Lakhno, V D

    2014-03-01

    The temperature dependence of a charge mobility in a model DNA based on a Holstein Hamiltonian is calculated for four types of homogeneous sequences It has turned out that upon rescaling all four types are quite similar. Two types of rescaling, i.e., those for low and intermediate temperatures, are found. The curves obtained are approximated on a logarithmic scale by cubic polynomials. We believe that for model homogeneous biopolymers with parameters close to the designed ones, one can assess the value of the charge mobility without carrying out resource-intensive direct simulation, just by using a suitable approximating function.

  8. Probing the segmental mobility and energy of the active zones of a protein chain (aspartic acid protease) by a coarse-grained bond-fluctuation Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ras; Farmer, Barry

    2008-03-01

    A protein chain such as aspartic acid protease is described by a specific sequence of 99 residues each with its own specific characteristics. In a coarse-grained description, the backbone of a protein chain is described by nodes tethered together by peptide bonds where each node (the amino acid group) is characterized by molecular weight and hydrophobicity. A well-developed and somewhat mature computational modeling tool for the polymer chain such as the bond-fluctuation model is used to study such a specific protein chain with its constitutive amino groups and their sequence. The relative magnitude of hydrophobicity is used to develop appropriate interaction potentials for these amino acid groups in explicit solvent. The Metropolis algorithm is used to move each node and solvent constituent. Local energy and mobility of each amino group are analyzed along with global energy, mobility, and conformation of the protein chain. Effect of the solvent interaction and its concentration on these quantities will be presented.

  9. Analysis of Maritime Mobile Satellite Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Mlast’er’s Thesis From To IDecember 1988 183 1 Suppecmentary Notation The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the...fading in the maritime communications environment. Anal% sis of throughput of an unslotted Aloha maritime mobile satellite communication channel is also...Almirante Padilla, 1985 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING from the NAVAL

  10. Biomolecule Analysis by Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bohrer, Brian C.; Merenbloom, Samuel I.; Koeniger, Stormy L.; Hilderbrand, Amy E.; Clemmer, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Although nonnative protein conformations, including intermediates along the folding pathway and kinetically trapped misfolded species that disfavor the native state, are rarely isolated in the solution phase, they are often stable in the gas phase, where macromolecular ions from electrospray ionization can exist in varying charge states. Differences in the structures of nonnative conformations in the gas phase are often large enough to allow different shapes and charge states to be separated because of differences in their mobilities through a gas. Moreover, gentle collisional activation can be used to induce structural transformations. These new structures often have different mobilities. Thus, there is the possibility of developing a multidimensional separation that takes advantage of structural differences of multiple stable states. This review discusses how nonnative states differ in the gas phase compared with solution and presents an overview of early attempts to utilize and manipulate structures in order to develop ion mobility spectrometry as a rapid and sensitive technique for separating complex mixtures of biomolecules prior to mass spectrometry. PMID:20636082

  11. Global chain properties of an all l-α-eicosapeptide with a secondary α-helix and its all retro d-inverso-α-eicosapeptide estimated through the modeling of their CZE-determined electrophoretic mobilities.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Julio A; Piaggio, Maria V; Peirotti, Marta B

    2014-03-01

    Several global chain properties of relatively long peptides composed of 20 amino acid residues are estimated through the modeling of their experimental effective electrophoretic mobilities determined by CZE for 2 < pH < 6. In this regard, an all l-α-eicosapeptide, including a secondary α-helix (Peptide 1) and its all retro d-inverso-α-eicosapeptide (Peptide 2), are considered. Despite Peptides 1 and 2 are isomeric chains, they do not present similar global conformations in the whole range of pH studied. These peptides may also differ in the quality of BGE components chain interactions depending on the pH value. Three Peptide 1 fragments (Peptides 3, 4, and 5) are also analyzed in this framework with the following purposes: (i) visualization of the effects of initial and final strands at each side of the α-helix on the global chain conformations of Peptide 1 at different pHs and (ii) analysis of global chain conformations of Peptides 1 and 2, and Peptide 1 fragments in relation to their pI values. Also, the peptide maximum and minimum hydrations predicted by the model, compatible with experimental effective electrophoretic mobilities at different pHs, are quantified and discussed, and needs for further research concerning chain hydration are proposed. It is shown that CZE is a useful analytical tool for peptidomimetic designs and purposes.

  12. Analysis of Aircraft Combat Sustainability Using a Markov Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Markov Chain,’ H-60 Blackhawk, V-22 Osprey - First Step Analysis; Air Combat...LIST OF TABLES Table 1. H-60 BLACKHAWK RESULTS ............................. 16 Table 2. V-221 OSPREY RESULTS...integral VSTOL (vertical, short takeoff and landing) capabil- ity, the tilt rotor, MV-22 Osprey . Numerous analyses have been performed to assist in the

  13. Analysis of Security Protocols for Mobile Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Wazid, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-11-01

    Mobile Healthcare (mHealth) continues to improve because of significant improvements and the decreasing costs of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). mHealth is a medical and public health practice, which is supported by mobile devices (for example, smartphones) and, patient monitoring devices (for example, various types of wearable sensors, etc.). An mHealth system enables healthcare experts and professionals to have ubiquitous access to a patient's health data along with providing any ongoing medical treatment at any time, any place, and from any device. It also helps the patient requiring continuous medical monitoring to stay in touch with the appropriate medical staff and healthcare experts remotely. Thus, mHealth has become a major driving force in improving the health of citizens today. First, we discuss the security requirements, issues and threats to the mHealth system. We then present a taxonomy of recently proposed security protocols for mHealth system based on features supported and possible attacks, computation cost and communication cost. Our detailed taxonomy demonstrates the strength and weaknesses of recently proposed security protocols for the mHealth system. Finally, we identify some of the challenges in the area of security protocols for mHealth systems that still need to be addressed in the future to enable cost-effective, secure and robust mHealth systems.

  14. Effects of enterprise technology on supply chain collaboration: analysis of China-linked supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling

    2012-02-01

    Supply chain collaboration has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners in recent years. However, our understanding of how enterprise information technology facilitates supply chain collaboration is still very limited, especially with regard to Chinese enterprise ownerships such as state-owned firms, joint-venture firms and local village-owned firms. This paper extends the theory established in enterprise information technology (IT) and supply chain collaboration literature and relates it with coordination in China-linked supply chain. Drawing upon an empirical study from 177 Chinese companies, we provide three major findings: (i) uncovered the importance of leveraging enterprise IT through supply chain collaboration; (ii) identified the relationship between enterprise ownership and enterprise technology use and supply chain collaboration in China-linked supply chain and (iii) illustrated effects of supply chain collaborative activities on operational and market performance.

  15. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-08-12

    Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms "cannabis" and "marijuana." Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated "17+" years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated "high maturity" (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational (facts, strain classification), or recreational (games), likely

  16. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. Methods The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms “cannabis” and “marijuana.” Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Results Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated “17+” years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated “high maturity” (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Conclusions Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational

  17. The Design of the Mobile SMS Data Analysis Interaction Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wang

    The paper aims to transform the existing Mobile SMS data analysis platform and improve the functions in different aspects such as the internal business data service, the survey service, the mail service, the warning reports of operation information, the business database analysis operation interface and some others

  18. Violin bridge mobility analysis under in-plane excitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Zhang, Guang-Ming; Ye, Bang-Yan; Liang, Li-Dong

    2013-11-08

    The vibration of a violin bridge is a dynamic contact vibration with two interfaces: strings-bridge, and bridge feet-top plate. In this paper, the mobility of an isolated bridge under in-plane excitation is explored using finite element modeling based on the contact vibration model. Numerical results show that the dynamic contact stiffness in the two contact interfaces has a great impact on the bridge mobility. A main resonance peak is observed in the frequency range of 2-3 kHz in the frequency response of the isolated bridge when the contact stiffness is smaller than a critical threshold. The main resonance peak frequency is affected by the contact stiffness as well. In order to verify the numerical findings, a novel experimental system is then designed on the basis of a piezoelectric dynamometer for bridge mobility analysis. Experimental results confirm the impact of the dynamic contact stiffness on the bridge mobility.

  19. Modeling Value Chain Analysis of Distance Education using UML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Anal; Mukherjee, Soumen

    2010-10-01

    Distance education continues to grow as a methodology for the delivery of course content in higher education in India as well as abroad. To manage this growing demand and to provide certain flexibility, there must be certain strategic planning about the use of ICT tools. Value chain analysis is a framework for breaking down the sequence of business functions into a set of activities through which utility could be added to service. Thus it can help to determine the competitive advantage that is enjoyed by an institute. To implement these business functions certain visual representation is required. UML allows for this representation by using a set of structural and behavioral diagrams. In this paper, the first section defines a framework for value chain analysis and highlights its advantages. The second section gives a brief overview of related work in this field. The third section gives a brief discussion on distance education. The fourth section very briefly introduces UML. The fifth section models value chain of distance education using UML. Finally we discuss the limitations and the problems posed in this domain.

  20. Modelling and analysis of workflow for lean supply chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinping; Wang, Kanliang; Xu, Lida

    2011-11-01

    Cross-organisational workflow systems are a component of enterprise information systems which support collaborative business process among organisations in supply chain. Currently, the majority of workflow systems is developed in perspectives of information modelling without considering actual requirements of supply chain management. In this article, we focus on the modelling and analysis of the cross-organisational workflow systems in the context of lean supply chain (LSC) using Petri nets. First, the article describes the assumed conditions of cross-organisation workflow net according to the idea of LSC and then discusses the standardisation of collaborating business process between organisations in the context of LSC. Second, the concept of labelled time Petri nets (LTPNs) is defined through combining labelled Petri nets with time Petri nets, and the concept of labelled time workflow nets (LTWNs) is also defined based on LTPNs. Cross-organisational labelled time workflow nets (CLTWNs) is then defined based on LTWNs. Third, the article proposes the notion of OR-silent CLTWNS and a verifying approach to the soundness of LTWNs and CLTWNs. Finally, this article illustrates how to use the proposed method by a simple example. The purpose of this research is to establish a formal method of modelling and analysis of workflow systems for LSC. This study initiates a new perspective of research on cross-organisational workflow management and promotes operation management of LSC in real world settings.

  1. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit; Warren, Josh; West, Devin; Schexnayder, Susan M.

    2016-05-01

    This study identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where the United States Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy resources and investments can help the United States achieve or maintain a competitive advantage. The report focuses on four application areas--wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels--that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers and are also particularly relevant to EERE's mission. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components, all contributing to a competitiveness assessment that addresses the United States' role in future industry growth. This report was prepared by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center.

  2. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Adom, Felix K.; Cai, Hao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Hartley, Damon; Searcy, Erin; Tan, Eric; Jones, Sue; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA) of renewable gasoline and diesel produced via fast pyrolysis of a blended woody feedstock. The metrics considered in this analysis include supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and water consumption.

  3. Stress analysis for wall structure in mobile hot cell design

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrin, Muhammad Hannan Rahman, Anwar Abdul Hamzah, Mohd Arif Mamat, Mohd Rizal; Azman, Azraf; Hasan, Hasni

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) in order to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) such as teletherapy heads and irradiators. At present, there are only two units of MHC in the world, in South Africa and China. Malaysian Mobile Hot cell is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design in order to fulfil the safety requirement in operation of MHC. This paper discusses the loading analysis effect from the sand to the MHC wall structure.

  4. Regio regularity effects on chain mobility and entanglement for poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Renxuan; Gomez, Enrique; Colby, Ralph

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) is a conjugated polymer that can serve as the active layer in a variety of electronic devices. However, its glass transition temperature (Tα) and entanglement molecular weight (Me) are still in dispute. These parameters are essential for estimating the density of tie chains, which are hypothesized to limit the bulk charge transport. A wide range of molecular weights of both regiorandom (RRa) and regioregular (RRe) P3HT were studied by oscillatory shear rheology. Coupled with the molecular weight distribution from GPC, Me was extracted by fitting the linear viscoelastic data of multiple MW samples using BoB software. Furthermore, two Tαs were identified for both RRe and RRa P3HT. Tαcorresponds to the segmental motion and follows Flory-Fox equation well for various MWs with 2 C chain packing. So, further investigation on their packing lengths via dilute solution light scattering will be crucial to understand entanglement in these semiflexible polymers. National Science Foundation.

  5. A new climate classification based on Markov chain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieruch, S.; Noël, S.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Freund, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Existing climate classifications comprise the genetic classification, which is based on climate genesis factors such as winds and oceanic and continental climate, and the empiric classification based on temperature, precipitation, vegetation and more. We present a novel method for climate classification that is based on dynamic climate descriptors, which are persistence, recurrence time and entropy and coin a dynamic classification of climate. These descriptors are derived from a coarse-grained categorical representation of multivariate time series and a subsequent Markov chain analysis. They are useful for a comparative analysis of different climate regions and, in the context of global climate change, for a regime shift analysis. We apply the method to the bivariate set of water vapor and temperature of two regional climates, the Iberian Peninsula and the islands of Hawaii in the central Pacific Ocean. Through the Markov chain analysis and via the derived descriptors we are able to quantify significant differences between the two climate regions. We discuss how these descriptors reflect properties such as climate stability, rate of changes and short term predictability.

  6. Demonstration of Mobile Auto-GPS for Large Scale Human Mobility Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanont, Teerayut; Witayangkurn, Apichon; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2013-04-01

    The greater affordability of digital devices and advancement of positioning and tracking capabilities have presided over today's age of geospatial Big Data. Besides, the emergences of massive mobile location data and rapidly increase in computational capabilities open up new opportunities for modeling of large-scale urban dynamics. In this research, we demonstrate the new type of mobile location data called "Auto-GPS" and its potential use cases for urban applications. More than one million Auto-GPS mobile phone users in Japan have been observed nationwide in a completely anonymous form for over an entire year from August 2010 to July 2011 for this analysis. A spate of natural disasters and other emergencies during the past few years has prompted new interest in how mobile location data can help enhance our security, especially in urban areas which are highly vulnerable to these impacts. New insights gleaned from mining the Auto-GPS data suggest a number of promising directions of modeling human movement during a large-scale crisis. We question how people react under critical situation and how their movement changes during severe disasters. Our results demonstrate a case of major earthquake and explain how people who live in Tokyo Metropolitan and vicinity area behave and return home after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011.

  7. Total hydrocarbon analysis by ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts must be alerted quickly to chemical leaks that compromise their health and the success of their missions. An ideal leak detector would be equally sensitive to all compounds that might constitute a hazard and insensitive to nontoxic compounds. No ideal sensor exists; thus, selection of a methodology is a series of compromises. The commonly used methods are either insensitive at the low exposure levels set by OSHA, NASA, and other organizations or are selectively insensitive to important classes of chemicals such as Freons. After extensive study and experience, the Toxicology Group at JSC has selected ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) for development into a broad range, sensitive detector. In addition to the sensing method, signal processing is important leak detection because a background signal can be expected at all times. The leak-detecting instrument must be programmed to discriminate between authentic leaks and background fluctuations caused by routine operations. The results of an evaluation of the prototype THA is presented in terms related to spacecraft operations. The evaluation included determination of instrumental parameters such as stability and response times. We also included responses to some common components of spacecraft atmospheres in pure form and in binary and ternary mixtures. The output of the four algorithms to the mixtures was found to be noticeably different. These responses are compared on the basis of their utility for signaling a chemical leak. As a means of evaluating its resistance to a falsely positive response, the THA was challenged with carbon dioxide and methane, compounds whose concentrations normally increase in spacecraft air during human habitation. The instrument showed virtually no response to these interferences. Although the prototype THA is designed for space flight, this detector is expected to be useful for field screening at chemical waste dumps and other environmentally sensitive locations.

  8. Analysis of Ultra-Pure Gases by Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimac, Robert M.; Wernlund, Roger F.; Cohen, Martin J.

    1995-01-01

    Work has continued with the evaluation of the Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) for the analysis of gases having low parts-per-billion (10(exp -9)) water concentration. A modified PCP, inc. MMS-160 Mobility Mass Spectrometer System was used for the analysis of ultra-pure argon and nitrogen. The MMS-160 system permits the mass-identification of unique reactant and product ions observed in the reduced-water host gases. When the water is removed to low ppb levels, higher energy reactant ions are observed. In nitrogen, distinct odd- and even-numbered nitrogen cluster ion mobility peaks are observed, as well as adduct ion peaks from the trace contaminants in the gas. Argon also produces a cluster ion mobility peak and adduct ion peaks from trace components in the gas. Levels of contaminants in these ultra-pure gases can be determined from the ion mobility spectra. A calibrated source was used to provide variable known quantities of water to the pure gas supply of the IMS.

  9. Analysis of Ultra-Pure Gases by Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimac, Robert M.; Wernlund, Roger F.; Cohen, Martin J.

    1995-01-01

    Work has continued with the evaluation of the Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) for the analysis of gases having low parts-per-billion (10(exp -9)) water concentration. A modified PCP, inc. MMS-160 Mobility Mass Spectrometer System was used for the analysis of ultra-pure argon and nitrogen. The MMS-160 system permits the mass-identification of unique reactant and product ions observed in the reduced-water host gases. When the water is removed to low ppb levels, higher energy reactant ions are observed. In nitrogen, distinct odd- and even-numbered nitrogen cluster ion mobility peaks are observed, as well as adduct ion peaks from the trace contaminants in the gas. Argon also produces a cluster ion mobility peak and adduct ion peaks from trace components in the gas. Levels of contaminants in these ultra-pure gases can be determined from the ion mobility spectra. A calibrated source was used to provide variable known quantities of water to the pure gas supply of the IMS.

  10. Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen

    2009-04-01

    Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

  11. Mobility of long-chain DNA in two-dimensional artificial gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Stephen W. P.; Han, Jongyoon; Craighead, Harold G.

    2000-03-01

    In this study, a two-dimensional array of nanofabricated obstacles is used as an artificial gel to study the electrophoretic mobility dependence of DNA as a function of pore size, molecule length and electric field. Limitations in feature size have prevented previous studies from testing the crossover from the separating to the non-separating regime predicted by the biased reptation model of Lumpkin, Dejardin and Zimm[1] and the modified model of Duke, Semenov and Viovy.[2] That limitation is overcome in this work with the use of electron beam lithography to define features as small as 30 nm. Attainment of these feature sizes was made possible by the use of a sacrificial-layer-based technique for fluidics fabrication.[3] A novel band-launching strategy is used to provide band separation data for the first time in this system. Molecule lengths between 5 and 150 kilobases are studied for electric field strengths from 0.1 to 20 Volts per meter. [1] O. Lumpkin, P. Dejardin and B. Zimm, Biopolymers, Vol. 24, 1573-1593 (1985) [2] T. Duke, A. Semenov and J. Viovy, Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 69, No. 22, 3260-3263 (1992) [3] S. Turner, A. Perez, A. Lopez, and H. Craighead, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6) 3835-3840 (1998)

  12. Comparative study of mobile Raman instrumentation for art analysis.

    PubMed

    Vandenabeele, P; Castro, K; Hargreaves, M; Moens, L; Madariaga, J M; Edwards, H G M

    2007-04-04

    In archaeometry, one of the main concerns is to extract information from an art object, without damaging it. Raman spectroscopy is being applied in this research field with recent developments in mobile instrumentation facilitating more routine analysis. This research paper evaluates the performances of five mobile Raman instruments (Renishaw RA100, Renishaw Portable Raman Analyser RX210, Ocean Optics RSL-1, Delta Nu Inspector Raman, Mobile Art Analyser--MArtA) in three different laboratories. A set of samples were collected, in order to obtain information on the spectral performances of the instruments including: spectral resolution, calibration, laser cut-off, the ability to record spectra of organic and inorganic pigments through varnish layers and on the possibilities to identify biomaterials. Spectra were recorded from predefined regions on a canvas painting to simulate the investigation of artworks and the capabilities to record spectra from hardly accessible areas was evaluated.

  13. Political attitudes, social participation and social mobility: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2008-09-01

    It is often suggested that the political attitudes and social participation which have underpinned the welfare-state democracies have depended on large amounts of upward social mobility. The demographic heterogeneity of the service class, according to this view, induced in them a willingness to lead a common political project seeking to establish a common social citizenship. As the amount of upward mobility stagnates or even begins to fall, it has then further been claimed that there might emerge a degree of ideological closure in the service class that might erode their commitment to civic values. The 1958 British birth cohort study is used to investigate this question. Longitudinal data are invaluable here because they allow us to distinguish between two hypotheses: that upward mobility as such has induced in the service class certain attitudes and propensities to participate, or that the more important influence is the early socialization through which upwardly mobile people went. The conclusion of the analysis is that, although the civic values of the service class have not depended on upward mobility, this is much more true of cognitively able people than of others, and so is dependent on the somewhat meritocratic basis of selection into the salariat.

  14. Strategic Mobility 21: Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    Womack & Jones of the Lean Enterprise Institute (LEI) 3 . In our initial use of this methodology with Dole Foods, there were over five organizations...energy. The Value Stream Analysis Future State then designed Kaizens 3 Value Stream Mapping...principles described in this report are excerpted from ―Learning To See‖ written by James Womack & Dan Jones of the Lean Enterprise Institute (LEI). 7

  15. Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Jason; Mullen, Sean P; McAuley, Edward

    2012-11-21

    Regular physical activity has established physical and mental health benefits; however, merely one quarter of the U.S. adult population meets national physical activity recommendations. In an effort to engage individuals who do not meet these guidelines, researchers have utilized popular emerging technologies, including mobile devices (ie, personal digital assistants [PDAs], mobile phones). This study is the first to synthesize current research focused on the use of mobile devices for increasing physical activity. To conduct a meta-analysis of research utilizing mobile devices to influence physical activity behavior. The aims of this review were to: (1) examine the efficacy of mobile devices in the physical activity setting, (2) explore and discuss implementation of device features across studies, and (3) make recommendations for future intervention development. We searched electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, SCOPUS) and identified publications through reference lists and requests to experts in the field of mobile health. Studies were included that provided original data and aimed to influence physical activity through dissemination or collection of intervention materials with a mobile device. Data were extracted to calculate effect sizes for individual studies, as were study descriptives. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software suite. Study quality was assessed using the quality of execution portion of the Guide to Community Preventative Services data extraction form. Four studies were of "good" quality and seven of "fair" quality. In total, 1351 individuals participated in 11 unique studies from which 18 effects were extracted and synthesized, yielding an overall weight mean effect size of g = 0.54 (95% CI = 0.17 to 0.91, P = .01). Research utilizing mobile devices is gaining in popularity, and this study suggests that this platform is an effective means for influencing physical activity behavior. Our focus

  16. Managing Distance Education Institutions through Value Chain Analysis: the Nigerian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderinto, J. A.; Akintayo, M. O.

    Value chain analysis can gauge, analyze, and predict organization effects to control cost in light of achieving strategic organization objectives of distance education. Value chain analysis enables organizations to accomplish their goal or mission through cost effectiveness or differentiation. The value chain activity structure in a distance…

  17. Mobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    istic and romantic emotionalism that typifies this genre. Longino, James C., et al. “A Study of World War Procurement and Industrial Mobilization...States. Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing Co., 1941. CARL 355.22 J72b. Written in rough prose , this World War II era document explains the

  18. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcilene Rezende; Sendin, Shimene Mascarenhas; Araujo, Isabela Couto de Oliveira; Pimentel, Fernanda Silva; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. β(S) allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI) were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. THE FOLLOWING ALPHA CHAIN VARIANTS WERE FOUND: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5) Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13) Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2) Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5) Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  19. Analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Pellizzato, Francesca; Ricci, Marina; Held, Andrea; Emons, Hendrik

    2007-09-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins are a class of organic compounds widely used in many industrial applications, extensively diffused into the environment, persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic towards aquatic organisms. However, their study and monitoring in the environment are still limited. Because of the enormous number of positional isomers that characterise their mixtures, the analysis of this class of pollutants is very difficult to perform. Beside this, the lack of certified reference materials poses a problem for the assessment of the quality assurance/quality control of any analytical procedure. At present, the scientific community does not agree on any analytical reference method, although the monitoring of short-chain chlorinated paraffins has already started in order to comply with the Water Framework Directive of the European Union on water quality. In this paper the regulatory framework, in which chlorinated paraffins are included, and the status concerning their determination are summarized. The main analytical difficulties still existing are discussed, and the definition of a method-defined parameter as well as the development of a standardised method are suggested as a way to obtain comparable monitoring data.

  20. Kullback-Leibler Divergence-Based Differential Evolution Markov Chain Filter for Global Localization of Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Fernando; Moreno, Luis; Garrido, Santiago; Blanco, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important skills desired for a mobile robot is the ability to obtain its own location even in challenging environments. The information provided by the sensing system is used here to solve the global localization problem. In our previous work, we designed different algorithms founded on evolutionary strategies in order to solve the aforementioned task. The latest developments are presented in this paper. The engine of the localization module is a combination of the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling technique and the Differential Evolution method, which results in a particle filter based on the minimization of a fitness function. The robot’s pose is estimated from a set of possible locations weighted by a cost value. The measurements of the perceptive sensors are used together with the predicted ones in a known map to define a cost function to optimize. Although most localization methods rely on quadratic fitness functions, the sensed information is processed asymmetrically in this filter. The Kullback-Leibler divergence is the basis of a cost function that makes it possible to deal with different types of occlusions. The algorithm performance has been checked in a real map. The results are excellent in environments with dynamic and unmodeled obstacles, a fact that causes occlusions in the sensing area. PMID:26389914

  1. Kullback-Leibler Divergence-Based Differential Evolution Markov Chain Filter for Global Localization of Mobile Robots.

    PubMed

    Martín, Fernando; Moreno, Luis; Garrido, Santiago; Blanco, Dolores

    2015-09-16

    One of the most important skills desired for a mobile robot is the ability to obtain its own location even in challenging environments. The information provided by the sensing system is used here to solve the global localization problem. In our previous work, we designed different algorithms founded on evolutionary strategies in order to solve the aforementioned task. The latest developments are presented in this paper. The engine of the localization module is a combination of the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling technique and the Differential Evolution method, which results in a particle filter based on the minimization of a fitness function. The robot's pose is estimated from a set of possible locations weighted by a cost value. The measurements of the perceptive sensors are used together with the predicted ones in a known map to define a cost function to optimize. Although most localization methods rely on quadratic fitness functions, the sensed information is processed asymmetrically in this filter. The Kullback-Leibler divergence is the basis of a cost function that makes it possible to deal with different types of occlusions. The algorithm performance has been checked in a real map. The results are excellent in environments with dynamic and unmodeled obstacles, a fact that causes occlusions in the sensing area.

  2. Energy efficiency analysis and optimization for mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metri, Grace Camille

    The introduction of mobile devices changed the landscape of computing. Gradually, these devices are replacing traditional personal computer (PCs) to become the devices of choice for entertainment, connectivity, and productivity. There are currently at least 45.5 million people in the United States who own a mobile device, and that number is expected to increase to 1.5 billion by 2015. Users of mobile devices expect and mandate that their mobile devices have maximized performance while consuming minimal possible power. However, due to the battery size constraints, the amount of energy stored in these devices is limited and is only growing by 5% annually. As a result, we focused in this dissertation on energy efficiency analysis and optimization for mobile platforms. We specifically developed SoftPowerMon, a tool that can power profile Android platforms in order to expose the power consumption behavior of the CPU. We also performed an extensive set of case studies in order to determine energy inefficiencies of mobile applications. Through our case studies, we were able to propose optimization techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency of mobile devices and proposed guidelines for energy-efficient application development. In addition, we developed BatteryExtender, an adaptive user-guided tool for power management of mobile devices. The tool enables users to extend battery life on demand for a specific duration until a particular task is completed. Moreover, we examined the power consumption of System-on-Chips (SoCs) and observed the impact on the energy efficiency in the event of offloading tasks from the CPU to the specialized custom engines. Based on our case studies, we were able to demonstrate that current software-based power profiling techniques for SoCs can have an error rate close to 12%, which needs to be addressed in order to be able to optimize the energy consumption of the SoC. Finally, we summarize our contributions and outline possible

  3. Stability analysis of three species food chain with competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadi, Savitri, D.

    2015-03-01

    We study a food chain system that consists of 1 prey and 2 predators populations. The prey population grows logistically while the predators apply different Holling functional responses. The first predator preys on the prey following Holling type II functional response and the second predator preys on both the prey and the first predator following Holling type II and III functional responses, respectively. The study starts with the stability analysis of critical points of the systems. Then, by using normal form and centre manifold method the information about other nontrivial solutions due to bifurcation including possible limit cycles appearance is obtained. The results are confirmed by numerical simulation using MatCont and biological interpretation of the results are also presented.

  4. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under Hartree-Fock mean field scheme. From our analysis we find that selective transmission can be obtained by tuning injecting electron energy, and thus, the present model can be utilized as a controlled switching device.

  5. Analysis of Human Mobility Based on Cellular Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifiansyah, F.; Saptawati, G. A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays not only adult but even teenager and children have then own mobile phones. This phenomena indicates that the mobile phone becomes an important part of everyday’s life. Based on these indication, the amount of cellular data also increased rapidly. Cellular data defined as the data that records communication among mobile phone users. Cellular data is easy to obtain because the telecommunications company had made a record of the data for the billing system of the company. Billing data keeps a log of the users cellular data usage each time. We can obtained information from the data about communication between users. Through data visualization process, an interesting pattern can be seen in the raw cellular data, so that users can obtain prior knowledge to perform data analysis. Cellular data processing can be done using data mining to find out human mobility patterns and on the existing data. In this paper, we use frequent pattern mining and finding association rules to observe the relation between attributes in cellular data and then visualize them. We used weka tools for finding the rules in stage of data mining. Generally, the utilization of cellular data can provide supporting information for the decision making process and become a data support to provide solutions and information needed by the decision makers.

  6. System safety analysis of an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Bartos, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of the safety of operating and maintaining the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) II in a hazardous environment at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was completed. The SWAMI II is a version of a commercial robot, the HelpMate{trademark} robot produced by the Transitions Research Corporation, which is being updated to incorporate the systems required for inspecting mixed toxic chemical and radioactive waste drums at the FEMP. It also has modified obstacle detection and collision avoidance subsystems. The robot will autonomously travel down the aisles in storage warehouses to record images of containers and collect other data which are transmitted to an inspector at a remote computer terminal. A previous study showed the SWAMI II has economic feasibility. The SWAMI II will more accurately locate radioactive contamination than human inspectors. This thesis includes a System Safety Hazard Analysis and a quantitative Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The objectives of the analyses are to prevent potentially serious events and to derive a comprehensive set of safety requirements from which the safety of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots can be evaluated. The Computer-Aided Fault Tree Analysis (CAFTA{copyright}) software is utilized for the FTA. The FTA shows that more than 99% of the safety risk occurs during maintenance, and that when the derived safety requirements are implemented the rate of serious events is reduced to below one event per million operating hours. Training and procedures in SWAMI II operation and maintenance provide an added safety margin. This study will promote the safe use of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots in the emerging technology of mobile robotic inspection.

  7. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis by deconvolution of internal standard.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yasuko; Medh, Rheem D; Metzenberg, Stan

    2010-04-29

    Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) is a collection of methods for estimating the number of copies of a specific DNA template in a sample, but one that is not universally accepted because it can lead to highly inaccurate (albeit precise) results. The fundamental problem is that qPCR methods use mathematical models that explicitly or implicitly apply an estimate of amplification efficiency, the error of which is compounded in the analysis to unacceptable levels. We present a new method of qPCR analysis that is efficiency-independent and yields accurate and precise results in controlled experiments. The method depends on a computer-assisted deconvolution that finds the point of concordant amplification behavior between the "unknown" template and an admixed amplicon standard. We apply the method to demonstrate dexamethasone-induced changes in gene expression in lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. This method of qPCR analysis does not use any explicit or implicit measure of efficiency, and may therefore be immune to problems inherent in other qPCR approaches. It yields an estimate of absolute initial copy number of template, and controlled tests show it generates accurate results.

  8. Mass analysis of mobility-selected ion populations using dual gate, ion mobility, quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Clowers, Brian H; Hill, Herbert H

    2005-09-15

    An electrospray ionization, dual gate, ion mobility, quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (ESI-DG-IM-QIT-MS) was constructed and evaluated for its ability to select mobility-filtered ions prior to mass analysis. While modification of the common signal-averaged ion mobility experiment was required, no modifications to the QIT were necessary. The dual gate scanning mode of operation was used to acquire mobility spectra, whereas the single mobility monitoring experiment selectively filtered ions for concentration and subsequent fragmentation within the QIT. Ion mobility separation of positively charged peptides and negatively charged carbohydrates, followed by MS fragmentation, was demonstrated. For a 1-min acquisition time, it was possible to obtain complete de novo sequence information for the examined peptides. Fragmentation of the negative carbohydrate chlorine adducts yielded ions characteristic of cross-ring and glycosidic bond cleavage. Previous unions of atmospheric pressure ion mobility and mass spectrometry have been limited in their ability to reproducibly obtain MSn data for mobility separation ions. The union of high-pressure ion mobility with quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry presents the unique opportunity to obtain more detailed information regarding the chemistries of gas-phase ions.

  9. Analysis of the gravitaxis signal transduction chain in Euglena gracilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Adeel

    Abstract Euglena gracilis is a photosynthetic, eukaryotic flagellate. It can adapt autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of growth and respond to different stimuli, this makes it an organism of choice for different research disciplines. It swims to reach a suitable niche by employing different stimuli such as oxygen, light, gravity and different chemicals. Among these stimuli light and gravity are the most important. Phototaxis (locomotion under light stimulus) and gravitaxis (locomotion under gravity stimulus) synergistically help cells to attain an optimal niche in the environment. However, in the complete absence of light or under scarcity of detectable light, cells can totally depend on gravity to find its swimming path. Therefore gravity has certain advantages over other stimuli.Unlike phototatic signal transduction chain of Euglena gracilis no clear primary gravity receptor has been identified in Euglena cells so far. However, there are some convincing evidence that TRP like channels act as a primary gravity receptor in Euglena gracilis.Use of different inhibitors gave rise to the involvement of protein kinase and calmodulin proteins in signal transduction chain of Euglena gracilis. Recently, specific calmodulin (Calmodulin 2) and protein kinase (PKA) have been identified as potential candidates of gravitactic signal transduction chain. Further characterization and investigation of these candidates was required. Therefore a combination of biochemical and genetic techniques was employed to localize proteins in cells and also to find interacting partners. For localization studies, specific antibodies were raised and characterized. Specificity of antibodies was validated by knockdown mutants, Invitro-translated proteins and heterologously expressed proteins. Cell fractionation studies, involving separation of the cell body and flagella for western blot analysis and confocal immunofluorescence studies were performed for subcellular localization. In order to find

  10. Identification of Mobile Phone and Analysis of Original Version of Videos through a Delay Time Analysis of Sound Signals from Mobile Phone Videos.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Min Gu; Har, Dong Hwan

    2017-02-15

    This study designs a method of identifying the camera model used to take videos that are distributed through mobile phones and determines the original version of the mobile phone video for use as legal evidence. For this analysis, an experiment was conducted to find the unique characteristics of each mobile phone. The videos recorded by mobile phones were analyzed to establish the delay time of sound signals, and the differences between the delay times of sound signals for different mobile phones were traced by classifying their characteristics. Furthermore, the sound input signals for mobile phone videos used as legal evidence were analyzed to ascertain whether they have the unique characteristics of the original version. The objective of this study was to find a method for validating the use of mobile phone videos as legal evidence using mobile phones through differences in the delay times of sound input signals. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Rouse Mode Analysis of Chain Relaxation in Homopolymer Melts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations of the Kremer–Grest (KG) bead–spring model of polymer chains of length between 10 and 500, and a closely related analogue that allows for chain crossing, to clearly delineate the effects of entanglements on the length-scale-dependent chain relaxation in polymer melts. We analyze the resulting trajectories using the Rouse modes of the chains and find that entanglements strongly affect these modes. The relaxation rates of the chains show two limiting effective monomeric frictions, with the local modes experiencing much lower effective friction than the longer modes. The monomeric relaxation rates of longer modes vary approximately inversely with chain length due to kinetic confinement effects. The time-dependent relaxation of Rouse modes has a stretched exponential character with a minimum of stretching exponent in the vicinity of the entanglement chain length. None of these trends are found in models that allow for chain crossing. These facts, in combination, argue for the confined motion of chains for time scales between the entanglement time and their ultimate free diffusion. PMID:25328247

  12. Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in homopolymer melts

    DOE PAGES

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T.; Kumar, Sanat K.; Rubinstein, Michael; ...

    2014-09-15

    We use molecular dynamics simulations of the Kremer–Grest (KG) bead–spring model of polymer chains of length between 10 and 500, and a closely related analogue that allows for chain crossing, to clearly delineate the effects of entanglements on the length-scale-dependent chain relaxation in polymer melts. We analyze the resulting trajectories using the Rouse modes of the chains and find that entanglements strongly affect these modes. The relaxation rates of the chains show two limiting effective monomeric frictions, with the local modes experiencing much lower effective friction than the longer modes. The monomeric relaxation rates of longer modes vary approximately inverselymore » with chain length due to kinetic confinement effects. The time-dependent relaxation of Rouse modes has a stretched exponential character with a minimum of stretching exponent in the vicinity of the entanglement chain length. None of these trends are found in models that allow for chain crossing. As a result, these facts, in combination, argue for the confined motion of chains for time scales between the entanglement time and their ultimate free diffusion.« less

  13. Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in homopolymer melts

    SciTech Connect

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T.; Kumar, Sanat K.; Rubinstein, Michael; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-09-15

    We use molecular dynamics simulations of the Kremer–Grest (KG) bead–spring model of polymer chains of length between 10 and 500, and a closely related analogue that allows for chain crossing, to clearly delineate the effects of entanglements on the length-scale-dependent chain relaxation in polymer melts. We analyze the resulting trajectories using the Rouse modes of the chains and find that entanglements strongly affect these modes. The relaxation rates of the chains show two limiting effective monomeric frictions, with the local modes experiencing much lower effective friction than the longer modes. The monomeric relaxation rates of longer modes vary approximately inversely with chain length due to kinetic confinement effects. The time-dependent relaxation of Rouse modes has a stretched exponential character with a minimum of stretching exponent in the vicinity of the entanglement chain length. None of these trends are found in models that allow for chain crossing. As a result, these facts, in combination, argue for the confined motion of chains for time scales between the entanglement time and their ultimate free diffusion.

  14. Lattice Independent Component Analysis for Mobile Robot Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaverde, Ivan; Fernandez-Gauna, Borja; Zulueta, Ekaitz

    This paper introduces an approach to appearance based mobile robot localization using Lattice Independent Component Analysis (LICA). The Endmember Induction Heuristic Algorithm (EIHA) is used to select a set of Strong Lattice Independent (SLI) vectors, which can be assumed to be Affine Independent, and therefore candidates to be the endmembers of the data. Selected endmembers are used to compute the linear unmixing of the robot's acquired images. The resulting mixing coefficients are used as feature vectors for view recognition through classification. We show on a sample path experiment that our approach can recognise the localization of the robot and we compare the results with the Independent Component Analysis (ICA).

  15. An economic systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite land-mobile radio service systems. The cellular, trunked and satellite land-mobile systems are described. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as functions of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/km squared) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  16. An economic systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite land-mobile radio service systems. The cellular, trunked and satellite land-mobile systems are described. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as functions of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/km squared) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  17. Analysis of phthalate esters by ion mobility spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Giam, C.S.; Reed, G.E.; Holliday, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Esters of phthalic acid can be detected by IMS (ion mobility spectrometry). The six phthalates in the EPA`s Priority Pollutant List can be detected in both modes--positive as well as negative mode. In the positive mode, a characteristic reduced mobility was obtained for each phthalate; thus the different esters can be distinguished, including the isomeric di-n-octyl- and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. Phthalates can be detected in the low nanogram range; detection sensitivity is comparable or better than those found by gas chromatography using different detectors, including by GC-ECD, GC-FID or GC-MS. Direct Monitoring of environmental phthalates by IMS possess several advantages, e.g., without the usual separation protocols for ubiquitous interferants, faster instrumental analysis time (minutes instead of hours), and lower cost. Thus, IMS of phthalates has a great potential as an environmental monitor.

  18. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  19. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating.

  20. Diagnostic challenges of tuberculous lymphadenitis using polymerase chain reaction analysis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Masahiko; Shimokawa, Kazuki; Kamiseki, Fumi; Ishizawa, Shin; Abo, Hitoshi; Furuse, Hideaki; Tsuda, Takeshi; Masaki, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a case of tuberculous lymphadenitis that was difficult to diagnose using polymerase chain reaction analysis. An 80-year-old Japanese female was hospitalized due to swollen cervical lymph nodes. Her lymph node tests revealed paradoxical polymerase chain reaction results. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of two biopsy tissues using the Cobas TaqMan revealed a positive result for Mycobacterium avium and a negative result for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, polymerase chain reaction analysis of a cultured colony of acid-fast bacteria from biopsy tissue using the Cobas TaqMan and an alternative polymerase chain reaction analysis of biopsy tissue yielded discordant results. The patient was diagnosed as having tuberculous lymphadenitis. She was treated with antitubercular drugs and subsequently had a reduction in cervical lymph node swelling. Polymerase chain reaction analysis is not 100% accurate; hence, its use as a diagnostic tool for mycobacterial infection requires increased attention.

  1. Common Mobile Learning Characteristics--An Analysis of Mobile Learning Models and Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imtinan, Umera; Chang, Vanessa; Issa, Tomayess

    2013-01-01

    Mobile learning offers learning opportunities to learners without the limitations of time and space. Mobile learning has introduced a number of flexible options to the learners across disciplines and at different educational levels. However, designing mobile learning content is an equally challenging task for the instructional designers.…

  2. Tracking Control of Mobile Robots Localized via Chained Fusion of Discrete and Continuous Epipolar Geometry, IMU and Odometry.

    PubMed

    Tick, David; Satici, Aykut C; Shen, Jinglin; Gans, Nicholas

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel navigation and control system for autonomous mobile robots that includes path planning, localization, and control. A unique vision-based pose and velocity estimation scheme utilizing both the continuous and discrete forms of the Euclidean homography matrix is fused with inertial and optical encoder measurements to estimate the pose, orientation, and velocity of the robot and ensure accurate localization and control signals. A depth estimation system is integrated in order to overcome the loss of scale inherent in vision-based estimation. A path following control system is introduced that is capable of guiding the robot along a designated curve. Stability analysis is provided for the control system and experimental results are presented that prove the combined localization and control system performs with high accuracy.

  3. Tools for Large-Scale Mobile Malware Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bierma, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing mobile applications for malicious behavior is an important area of re- search, and is made di cult, in part, by the increasingly large number of appli- cations available for the major operating systems. There are currently over 1.2 million apps available in both the Google Play and Apple App stores (the respec- tive o cial marketplaces for the Android and iOS operating systems)[1, 2]. Our research provides two large-scale analysis tools to aid in the detection and analysis of mobile malware. The rst tool we present, Andlantis, is a scalable dynamic analysis system capa- ble of processing over 3000 Android applications per hour. Traditionally, Android dynamic analysis techniques have been relatively limited in scale due to the compu- tational resources required to emulate the full Android system to achieve accurate execution. Andlantis is the most scalable Android dynamic analysis framework to date, and is able to collect valuable forensic data, which helps reverse-engineers and malware researchers identify and understand anomalous application behavior. We discuss the results of running 1261 malware samples through the system, and provide examples of malware analysis performed with the resulting data. While techniques exist to perform static analysis on a large number of appli- cations, large-scale analysis of iOS applications has been relatively small scale due to the closed nature of the iOS ecosystem, and the di culty of acquiring appli- cations for analysis. The second tool we present, iClone, addresses the challenges associated with iOS research in order to detect application clones within a dataset of over 20,000 iOS applications.

  4. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelli, Gary G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items (PCIs). To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware. The EMU is an independent anthropomorphic system that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications for the Shuttle crewmember to perform Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in Earth orbit. Two EMUs are included on each baseline Orbiter mission, and consumables are provided for three two-man EVAs. The EMU consists of the Life Support System (LSS), Caution and Warning System (CWS), and the Space Suit Assembly (SSA). Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. The majority of these PCIs are resultant from failures which cause loss of one or more primary functions: pressurization, oxygen delivery, environmental maintenance, and thermal maintenance. It should also be noted that the quantity of PCIs would significantly increase if the SOP were to be treated as an emergency system rather than as an unlike redundant element.

  5. Markov chain analysis of succession in a rocky subtidal community.

    PubMed

    Hill, M Forrest; Witman, Jon D; Caswell, Hal

    2004-08-01

    We present a Markov chain model of succession in a rocky subtidal community based on a long-term (1986-1994) study of subtidal invertebrates (14 species) at Ammen Rock Pinnacle in the Gulf of Maine. The model describes successional processes (disturbance, colonization, species persistence, and replacement), the equilibrium (stationary) community, and the rate of convergence. We described successional dynamics by species turnover rates, recurrence times, and the entropy of the transition matrix. We used perturbation analysis to quantify the response of diversity to successional rates and species removals. The equilibrium community was dominated by an encrusting sponge (Hymedesmia) and a bryozoan (Crisia eburnea). The equilibrium structure explained 98% of the variance in observed species frequencies. Dominant species have low probabilities of disturbance and high rates of colonization and persistence. On average, species turn over every 3.4 years. Recurrence times varied among species (7-268 years); rare species had the longest recurrence times. The community converged to equilibrium quickly (9.5 years), as measured by Dobrushin's coefficient of ergodicity. The largest changes in evenness would result from removal of the dominant sponge Hymedesmia. Subdominant species appear to increase evenness by slowing the dominance of Hymedesmia. Comparison of the subtidal community with intertidal and coral reef communities revealed that disturbance rates are an order of magnitude higher in coral reef than in rocky intertidal and subtidal communities. Colonization rates and turnover times, however, are lowest and longest in coral reefs, highest and shortest in intertidal communities, and intermediate in subtidal communities.

  6. Applications of the polymerase chain reaction to genome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the Human Genome Project are to create high-resolution genetic and physical maps, and ultimately to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the human genome. The result of this initiative will be to localize the estimated 50,000-100,000 human genes, and acquire information that will enable development of a better understanding of the relationship between genome structure and function. To achieve these goals, new methodologies that provide more rapid, efficient, and cost effective means of genomic analysis will be required. From both conceptual and practical perspectives, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) represents a fundamental technology for genome mapping and sequencing. The availability of PCR has allowed definition of a technically credible form that the final composite map of the human genome will take, as described in the sequence-tagged site proposal. Moreover, applications of PCR have provided efficient approaches for identifying, isolating, mapping, and sequencing DNA, many of which are amenable to automation. The versatility and power provided by PCR have encouraged its involvement in almost every aspect of human genome research, with new applications of PCR being developed on a continual basis.

  7. Causal chain analysis and root causes: the GIWA approach.

    PubMed

    Belausteguigoitia, Juan Carlos

    2004-02-01

    The Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) was created to help develop a priority setting mechanism for actions in international waters. Apart from assessing the severity of environmental problems in ecosystems, the GIWA's task is to analyze potential policy actions that could solve or mitigate these problems. Given the complex nature of the problems, understanding their root causes is essential to develop effective solutions. The GIWA provides a framework to analyze these causes, which is based on identifying the factors that shape human behavior in relation to the use (direct or indirect) of aquatic resources. Two sets of factors are analyzed. The first one consists of social coordination mechanisms (institutions). Faults in these mechanisms lead to wasteful use of resources. The second consists of factors that do not cause wasteful use of resources per se (poverty, trade, demographic growth, technology), but expose and magnify the faults of the first group of factors. The picture that comes out is that diagnosing simple generic causes, e.g. poverty or trade, without analyzing the case specific ways in which the root causes act and interact to degrade the environment, will likely ignore important links that may put the effectiveness of the recommended policies at risk. A summary of the causal chain analysis for the Colorado River Delta is provided as an example.

  8. An analysis of mobile whole blood collection labor efficiency.

    PubMed

    Rose, William N; Dayton, Paula J; Raife, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles. Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. To measure success, data on labor efficiency measured by units/hour/full-time equivalent (FTE) were collected. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.06 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0.92 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE (p = 0.016 vs. preimplementation). In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1.09 ±0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. Regression analysis correlating labor efficiency with total units collected per drive revealed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.48 for the aggregate data from all three periods), indicating that nearly half of labor efficiency was associated with drive size. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient, with diminishing returns above 40 units collected. Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base station - variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Bienkowski, Pawel; Zubrzak, Bartlomiej

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the character of electromagnetic field (EMF) in mobile phone base station (BS) surroundings and its variability in time with an emphasis on the measurement difficulties related to its pulse and multi-frequency nature. Work also presents long-term monitoring measurements performed recently in different locations in Poland - small city with dispersed building development and in major polish city - dense urban area. Authors tried to determine the trends in changing of EMF spectrum analyzing daily changes of measured EMF levels in those locations. Research was performed using selective electromagnetic meters and also EMF meter with spectrum analysis.

  10. Interference Analysis for an Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kercewski, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of aeronautical communications for airport surface applications has been identified through a NASA research program and an international collaborative future communications study. The result, endorsed by both the United States and European regulatory agencies is called AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System) and is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard. Coordinated efforts to develop appropriate aviation standards for the AeroMACS system are now underway within RTCA (United States) and Eurocae (Europe). AeroMACS will be implemented in a recently allocated frequency band, 5091- 5150 MHz. As this band is also occupied by fixed satellite service uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference to the fixed satellite service are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in this analysis, and the first results of modeling and simulation efforts directed at this analysis are the subject of this paper.12

  11. Interference Analysis for an Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of aeronautical communications for airport surface applications has been identified through a NASA research program and an international collaborative future communications study. The result, endorsed by both the United States and European regulatory agencies is called AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System) and is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard. Coordinated efforts to develop appropriate aviation standards for the AeroMACS system are now underway within RTCA (United States) and Eurocae (Europe). AeroMACS will be implemented in a recently allocated frequency band, 5091-5150 MHz. As this band is also occupied by fixed satellite service uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference to the fixed satellite service are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in this analysis, and the first results of modeling and simulation efforts directed at this analysis are the subject of this presentation.

  12. An Analysis Platform for Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Scenario Execution Log Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    ARL-TR-7574 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory An Analysis Platform for Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Scenario Execution Log...Analysis Platform for Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Scenario Execution Log Data by Jaime C Acosta and Yadira Jacquez Survivability/Lethality Analysis...August 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Analysis Platform for Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Scenario Execution Log Data 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  13. Chain of events analysis for a scuba diving fatality.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, John; Stevenson, Christopher; McD Taylor, David; Williams, Jo; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza

    2017-09-01

    A scuba diving fatality usually involves a series of related events culminating in death. Several studies have utilised a chain of events-type analysis (CEA) to isolate and better understand the accident sequence in order to facilitate the creation of relevant countermeasures. The aim of this research was to further develop and better define a process for performing a CEA to reduce potential subjectivity and increase consistency between analysts. To develop more comprehensive and better-defined criteria, existing criteria were modified and a template was created and tested using a CEA. Modifications comprised addition of a category for pre-disposing factors, expansion of criteria for the triggers and disabling agents present during the incident, and more specific inclusion criteria to better encompass a dataset of 56 fatalities. Four investigators (raters) used both the previous criteria and this template, in randomly assigned order, to examine a sample of 13 scuba diver deaths. Individual results were scored against the group consensus for the CEA. Raters' agreement consistency was compared using the Index of Concordance and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). The template is presented. The index of concordance between the raters increased from 62% (194⁄312) using the previous criteria to 82% (257⁄312) with use of this template indicating a substantially higher inter-rater agreement when allocating criteria. The agreement in scoring with and without template use was also quantified by ICC which were generally graded as low, illustrating a substantial change in consistency of scoring before and after template use. The template for a CEA for a scuba diving fatality improves consistency of interpretation between users and may improve comparability of diving fatality reports.

  14. The AMSC mobile satellite system: Design summary and comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1989-01-01

    Mobile satellite communications will be provided in the United States by the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). Telesat Mobile, Inc. (TMI) and AMSC are jointly developing MSAT, the first regional Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) system. MSAT will provide diverse mobile communications services - including voice, data and position location - to mobiles on land, water, and in the air throughout North America. Described here are the institutional relationships between AMSC, TMI and other organizations participating in MSAT, including the Canadian Department of Communications and NASA. The regulatory status of MSAT in the United States and international allocations to MSS are reviewed. The baseline design is described.

  15. Mobile health: a synopsis and comment on "Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis".

    PubMed

    Johnston, Winter; Hoffman, Sara; Thornton, Louise

    2014-03-01

    We offer a synopsis and commentary on J. Fanning and colleagues' article "Increasing Physical Activity with Mobile Devices: A Meta-Analysis" published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research. Although regular physical activity has a range of benefits, very few adults in the USA meet recommended guidelines for daily physical activity. The meta-analysis of Fanning et al. (2012) aimed to synthesize the results of research using mobile devices to increase physical activity. Their review identified 11 studies that used mobile technologies, including short message service (SMS), apps, or personal digital assistant (PDA) to improve physical activity behaviors among participants. Fanning et al. conclude that while literature in this area is limited to date, there is initial support for the efficacy of mobile-based interventions for improving physical activity. Included studies varied greatly, and the majority used only SMS to influence physical behaviors, meaning generalization of results to other forms of mobile technologies may be premature. This review does, however, provide a foundation for understanding how mobile-based interventions may be used efficaciously for the development of future interventions to improve health behaviors.

  16. Analysis of Magnetosome Chains in Magnetotactic Bacteria by Magnetic Measurements and Automated Image Analysis of Electron Micrographs

    PubMed Central

    Katzmann, E.; Eibauer, M.; Lin, W.; Pan, Y.; Plitzko, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) align along the Earth's magnetic field by the activity of intracellular magnetosomes, which are membrane-enveloped magnetite or greigite particles that are assembled into well-ordered chains. Formation of magnetosome chains was found to be controlled by a set of specific proteins in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and other MTB. However, the contribution of abiotic factors on magnetosome chain assembly has not been fully explored. Here, we first analyzed the effect of growth conditions on magnetosome chain formation in M. gryphiswaldense by electron microscopy. Whereas higher temperatures (30 to 35°C) and high oxygen concentrations caused increasingly disordered chains and smaller magnetite crystals, growth at 20°C and anoxic conditions resulted in long chains with mature cuboctahedron-shaped crystals. In order to analyze the magnetosome chain in electron microscopy data sets in a more quantitative and unbiased manner, we developed a computerized image analysis algorithm. The collected data comprised the cell dimensions and particle size and number as well as the intracellular position and extension of the magnetosome chain. The chain analysis program (CHAP) was used to evaluate the effects of the genetic and growth conditions on magnetosome chain formation. This was compared and correlated to data obtained from bulk magnetic measurements of wild-type (WT) and mutant cells displaying different chain configurations. These techniques were used to differentiate mutants due to magnetosome chain defects on a bulk scale. PMID:24096429

  17. Analysis of magnetosome chains in magnetotactic bacteria by magnetic measurements and automated image analysis of electron micrographs.

    PubMed

    Katzmann, E; Eibauer, M; Lin, W; Pan, Y; Plitzko, J M; Schüler, D

    2013-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) align along the Earth's magnetic field by the activity of intracellular magnetosomes, which are membrane-enveloped magnetite or greigite particles that are assembled into well-ordered chains. Formation of magnetosome chains was found to be controlled by a set of specific proteins in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and other MTB. However, the contribution of abiotic factors on magnetosome chain assembly has not been fully explored. Here, we first analyzed the effect of growth conditions on magnetosome chain formation in M. gryphiswaldense by electron microscopy. Whereas higher temperatures (30 to 35°C) and high oxygen concentrations caused increasingly disordered chains and smaller magnetite crystals, growth at 20°C and anoxic conditions resulted in long chains with mature cuboctahedron-shaped crystals. In order to analyze the magnetosome chain in electron microscopy data sets in a more quantitative and unbiased manner, we developed a computerized image analysis algorithm. The collected data comprised the cell dimensions and particle size and number as well as the intracellular position and extension of the magnetosome chain. The chain analysis program (CHAP) was used to evaluate the effects of the genetic and growth conditions on magnetosome chain formation. This was compared and correlated to data obtained from bulk magnetic measurements of wild-type (WT) and mutant cells displaying different chain configurations. These techniques were used to differentiate mutants due to magnetosome chain defects on a bulk scale.

  18. Mobility as "Becoming": A Bourdieuian Analysis of the Factors Shaping International Student Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Ly Thi

    2016-01-01

    This paper unpacks the meanings and implications of the mobility of international students in vocational education--an under-researched group in the field of international education. This four-year study found that transnational mobility is regarded as a resourceful vehicle to help international students "become" the kind of person they…

  19. Mobility as "Becoming": A Bourdieuian Analysis of the Factors Shaping International Student Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Ly Thi

    2016-01-01

    This paper unpacks the meanings and implications of the mobility of international students in vocational education--an under-researched group in the field of international education. This four-year study found that transnational mobility is regarded as a resourceful vehicle to help international students "become" the kind of person they…

  20. Chemical supply chain modeling for analysis of homeland security events

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlen, Mark A.; Sun, Amy C.; Pepple, Mark A.; Eidson, Eric D.; Jones, Brian S.

    2013-09-06

    The potential impacts of man-made and natural disasters on chemical plants, complexes, and supply chains are of great importance to homeland security. To be able to estimate these impacts, we developed an agent-based chemical supply chain model that includes: chemical plants with enterprise operations such as purchasing, production scheduling, and inventories; merchant chemical markets, and multi-modal chemical shipments. Large-scale simulations of chemical-plant activities and supply chain interactions, running on desktop computers, are used to estimate the scope and duration of disruptive-event impacts, and overall system resilience, based on the extent to which individual chemical plants can adjust their internal operations (e.g., production mixes and levels) versus their external interactions (market sales and purchases, and transportation routes and modes). As a result, to illustrate how the model estimates the impacts of a hurricane disruption, a simple example model centered on 1,4-butanediol is presented.

  1. Phase and orientational ordering of low molecular weight rod molecules in a quenched liquid crystalline polymer matrix with mobile side chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, Lorin; Cao, Jianshu; Swager, Tim M.

    2004-06-01

    We study the phase diagram and orientational ordering of guest liquid crystalline (LC) rods immersed in a quenched host made of a liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) matrix with mobile side chains. The LCP matrix lies below the glass transition of the polymer backbone. The side chains are mobile and can align to the guest rod molecules in a plane normal to the local LCP chain contour. A field theoretic formulation for this system is proposed and the effects of the LCP matrix on LC ordering are determined numerically. We obtain simple analytical equations for the nematic/isotropic phase diagram boundaries. Our calculation show a nematic-nematic (N/N) first order transition from a guest stabilized to a guest-host stabilized region and the possibility of a reentrant transition from a guest stabilized nematic region to a host only stabilized regime separated by an isotropic phase. A detailed study of thermodynamic variables and interactions on orientational ordering and phases is carried out and the relevance of our predictions to experiments and computer simulations is presented.

  2. A Statistical Analysis of the Career Intentions of Mobilized Selected Reservists (SELRES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Navy enlisted selected reservists (SELRES). A logistic regression model is estimated to explain the effects of mobilization on reservists’ intentions...that mobilization experiences (previously mobilized, command leadership at the gaining command, assigned to an interesting job, effect on civilian job...explain the effects of mobilization on reservists’ intentions to stay to retirement. The statistical analysis uses data from the 2002-2004 Naval

  3. Graphical analysis of power systems for mobile robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raade, Justin William

    The field of mobile robotics places stringent demands on the power system. Energetic autonomy, or the ability to function for a useful operation time independent of any tether, refueling, or recharging, is a driving force in a robot designed for a field application. The focus of this dissertation is the development of two graphical analysis tools, namely Ragone plots and optimal hybridization plots, for the design of human scale mobile robotic power systems. These tools contribute to the intuitive understanding of the performance of a power system and expand the toolbox of the design engineer. Ragone plots are useful for graphically comparing the merits of different power systems for a wide range of operation times. They plot the specific power versus the specific energy of a system on logarithmic scales. The driving equations in the creation of a Ragone plot are derived in terms of several important system parameters. Trends at extreme operation times (both very short and very long) are examined. Ragone plot analysis is applied to the design of several power systems for high-power human exoskeletons. Power systems examined include a monopropellant-powered free piston hydraulic pump, a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine with hydraulic actuators, and a fuel cell with electric actuators. Hybrid power systems consist of two or more distinct energy sources that are used together to meet a single load. They can often outperform non-hybrid power systems in low duty-cycle applications or those with widely varying load profiles and long operation times. Two types of energy sources are defined: engine-like and capacitive. The hybridization rules for different combinations of energy sources are derived using graphical plots of hybrid power system mass versus the primary system power. Optimal hybridization analysis is applied to several power systems for low-power human exoskeletons. Hybrid power systems examined include a fuel cell and a solar panel coupled with

  4. Global Carbon Fiber Composites. Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit; Warren, Joshua A.; West, Devin; Schexnayder, Susan M.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify key opportunities in the carbon fiber (CF) supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas—wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels—that top the list of industries using CF and carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) and are particularly relevant to the mission of U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE EERE). For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  5. Properties of polyelectrolyte chains from analysis of angular correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavacciuolo, Luigi; Pedersen, Jan Skov

    2002-11-01

    An empirical expression for the angular correlation function (ACF) of charged (Debye-Huckel) wormlike chains (WLC) with excluded volume (EV) is introduced. It reproduces the Monte Carlo (MC) data of a previous study very well. Using this expression analytical calculations for the persistence length (Lp), radius of gyration (Rg), and end-to-end distance (R) are given in the form of Taylor series. It is shown that the above quantities can be expressed as a weighted sum over the corresponding quantities (Lph, Rgh, Rh) of a set of ideal wormlike chains {Ch} h=0,1,ellipsis . Both the set {Ch} and the coefficients in the Taylor expansions are defined as functions of three parameters which are determined by fitting the ACF expression to the MC data. A comparison of the calculated Rg and R shows excellent agreement with the corresponding sampled values. The persistence length Lp is in good agreement with the values determined by fitting the sampled scattering functions by model expressions for neutral chains with excluded volume interactions, provided that a contribution due to EV is subtracted from Lp. Moreover, the method here proposed allows one to determine the persistence length of very short chains which is not possible by fitting the scattering function. The new expression for the angular correlation function, as well as the expressions derived for Rg and R are a natural generalization of well known results for ideal WLC, when EV and/or electrostatic interactions are present.

  6. Rouse Mode Analysis of Chain Relaxation in Polymer Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T.; Rubinstein, Michael; Grest, Gary S.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale Molecular Dynamics simulations are used to study the internal relaxations of chains in nanoparticle (NP)/polymer composites. We examine the Rouse modes of the chains, a quantity that is closest in spirit to the self-intermediate scattering function, typically determined in an (incoherent) inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Our simulations show that for weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymers, the effective monomeric relaxation rates are faster than in a neat melt when the NPs are smaller than the entanglement mesh size. In this case, the NPs serve to reduce both the monomeric friction and the entanglements in the polymer melt, as in the case of a polymer-solvent system. However, for NPs larger than half the entanglement mesh size, effective monomer relaxation is essentially unaffected for low NP concentrations. Even in this case, we observe a strong reduction in chain entanglements for larger NP loadings. Thus, the role of NPs is to always reduce the number of entanglements, with this effect only becoming pronounced for small NPs or for high concentrations of large NPs. Our studies of the relaxation of single chains resonate with recent neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments, which deduce a similar entanglement dilution effect. PMID:25939276

  7. Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in polymer nanocomposites

    DOE PAGES

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T.; Kumar, Sanat K.; Rubinstein, Michael; ...

    2015-04-20

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the internal relaxations of chains in nanoparticle (NP)/polymer composites. In this paper, we examine the Rouse modes of the chains, a quantity that is closest in spirit to the self-intermediate scattering function, typically determined in an (incoherent) inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Our simulations show that for weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymers, the effective monomeric relaxation rates are faster than in a neat melt when the NPs are smaller than the entanglement mesh size. In this case, the NPs serve to reduce both the monomeric friction and the entanglements in themore » polymer melt, as in the case of a polymer–solvent system. However, for NPs larger than half the entanglement mesh size, the effective monomer relaxation is essentially unaffected for low NP concentrations. Even in this case, we observe a strong reduction in chain entanglements for larger NP loadings. Furthermore, the role of NPs is to always reduce the number of entanglements, with this effect only becoming pronounced for small NPs or for high concentrations of large NPs. Finally, our studies of the relaxation of single chains resonate with recent neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments, which deduce a similar entanglement dilution effect.« less

  8. Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in polymer nanocomposites

    DOE PAGES

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T.; Kumar, Sanat K.; Rubinstein, Michael; ...

    2015-04-20

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the internal relaxations of chains in nanoparticle (NP)/polymer composites. We examine the Rouse modes of the chains, a quantity that is closest in spirit to the self-intermediate scattering function, typically determined in an (incoherent) inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Our simulations show that for weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymers, the effective monomeric relaxation rates are faster than in a neat melt when the NPs are smaller than the entanglement mesh size. In this case, the NPs serve to reduce both the monomeric friction and the entanglements in the polymer melt, asmore » in the case of a polymer–solvent system. However, for NPs larger than half the entanglement mesh size, the effective monomer relaxation is essentially unaffected for low NP concentrations. Even in this case, we observe a strong reduction in chain entanglements for larger NP loadings. Furthermore, the role of NPs is to always reduce the number of entanglements, with this effect only becoming pronounced for small NPs or for high concentrations of large NPs. Our studies of the relaxation of single chains resonate with recent neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments, which deduce a similar entanglement dilution effect.« less

  9. Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in polymer nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T.; Kumar, Sanat K.; Rubinstein, Michael; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-04-20

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the internal relaxations of chains in nanoparticle (NP)/polymer composites. We examine the Rouse modes of the chains, a quantity that is closest in spirit to the self-intermediate scattering function, typically determined in an (incoherent) inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Our simulations show that for weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymers, the effective monomeric relaxation rates are faster than in a neat melt when the NPs are smaller than the entanglement mesh size. In this case, the NPs serve to reduce both the monomeric friction and the entanglements in the polymer melt, as in the case of a polymer–solvent system. However, for NPs larger than half the entanglement mesh size, the effective monomer relaxation is essentially unaffected for low NP concentrations. Even in this case, we observe a strong reduction in chain entanglements for larger NP loadings. Furthermore, the role of NPs is to always reduce the number of entanglements, with this effect only becoming pronounced for small NPs or for high concentrations of large NPs. Our studies of the relaxation of single chains resonate with recent neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments, which deduce a similar entanglement dilution effect.

  10. Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in polymer nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T.; Kumar, Sanat K.; Rubinstein, Michael; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-04-20

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the internal relaxations of chains in nanoparticle (NP)/polymer composites. In this paper, we examine the Rouse modes of the chains, a quantity that is closest in spirit to the self-intermediate scattering function, typically determined in an (incoherent) inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Our simulations show that for weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymers, the effective monomeric relaxation rates are faster than in a neat melt when the NPs are smaller than the entanglement mesh size. In this case, the NPs serve to reduce both the monomeric friction and the entanglements in the polymer melt, as in the case of a polymer–solvent system. However, for NPs larger than half the entanglement mesh size, the effective monomer relaxation is essentially unaffected for low NP concentrations. Even in this case, we observe a strong reduction in chain entanglements for larger NP loadings. Furthermore, the role of NPs is to always reduce the number of entanglements, with this effect only becoming pronounced for small NPs or for high concentrations of large NPs. Finally, our studies of the relaxation of single chains resonate with recent neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments, which deduce a similar entanglement dilution effect.

  11. Design and analysis of a dynamic mobility management scheme for wireless mesh network.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Abhishek; Roy, Sudipta

    2013-01-01

    Seamless mobility management of the mesh clients (MCs) in wireless mesh network (WMN) has drawn a lot of attention from the research community. A number of mobility management schemes such as mesh network with mobility management (MEMO), mesh mobility management (M(3)), and wireless mesh mobility management (WMM) have been proposed. The common problem with these schemes is that they impose uniform criteria on all the MCs for sending route update message irrespective of their distinct characteristics. This paper proposes a session-to-mobility ratio (SMR) based dynamic mobility management scheme for handling both internet and intranet traffic. To reduce the total communication cost, this scheme considers each MC's session and mobility characteristics by dynamically determining optimal threshold SMR value for each MC. A numerical analysis of the proposed scheme has been carried out. Comparison with other schemes shows that the proposed scheme outperforms MEMO, M(3), and WMM with respect to total cost.

  12. Design and Analysis of a Dynamic Mobility Management Scheme for Wireless Mesh Network

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sudipta

    2013-01-01

    Seamless mobility management of the mesh clients (MCs) in wireless mesh network (WMN) has drawn a lot of attention from the research community. A number of mobility management schemes such as mesh network with mobility management (MEMO), mesh mobility management (M3), and wireless mesh mobility management (WMM) have been proposed. The common problem with these schemes is that they impose uniform criteria on all the MCs for sending route update message irrespective of their distinct characteristics. This paper proposes a session-to-mobility ratio (SMR) based dynamic mobility management scheme for handling both internet and intranet traffic. To reduce the total communication cost, this scheme considers each MC's session and mobility characteristics by dynamically determining optimal threshold SMR value for each MC. A numerical analysis of the proposed scheme has been carried out. Comparison with other schemes shows that the proposed scheme outperforms MEMO, M3, and WMM with respect to total cost. PMID:24311982

  13. Neural mobilization: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials with an analysis of therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Richard F; Hing, Wayne A

    2008-01-01

    Neural mobilization is a treatment modality used in relation to pathologies of the nervous system. It has been suggested that neural mobilization is an effective treatment modality, although support of this suggestion is primarily anecdotal. The purpose of this paper was to provide a systematic review of the literature pertaining to the therapeutic efficacy of neural mobilization. A search to identify randomized controlled trials investigating neural mobilization was conducted using the key words neural mobilisation/mobilization, nerve mobilisation/mobilization, neural manipulative physical therapy, physical therapy, neural/nerve glide, nerve glide exercises, nerve/neural treatment, nerve/neural stretching, neurodynamics, and nerve/neural physiotherapy. The titles and abstracts of the papers identified were reviewed to select papers specifically detailing neural mobilization as a treatment modality. The PEDro scale, a systematic tool used to critique RCTs and grade methodological quality, was used to assess these trials. Methodological assessment allowed an analysis of research investigating therapeutic efficacy of neural mobilization. Ten randomized clinical trials (discussed in 11 retrieved articles) were identified that discussed the therapeutic effect of neural mobilization. This review highlights the lack in quantity and quality of the available research. Qualitative analysis of these studies revealed that there is only limited evidence to support the use of neural mobilization. Future research needs to re-examine the application of neural mobilization with use of more homogeneous study designs and pathologies; in addition, it should standardize the neural mobilization interventions used in the study.

  14. Dynamic multiplexed analysis method using ion mobility spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, Mikhail E

    2010-05-18

    A method for multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer in which the effectiveness and efficiency of the multiplexed method is optimized by automatically adjusting rates of passage of analyte materials through an IMS drift tube during operation of the system. This automatic adjustment is performed by the IMS instrument itself after determining the appropriate levels of adjustment according to the method of the present invention. In one example, the adjustment of the rates of passage for these materials is determined by quantifying the total number of analyte molecules delivered to the ion trap in a preselected period of time, comparing this number to the charge capacity of the ion trap, selecting a gate opening sequence; and implementing the selected gate opening sequence to obtain a preselected rate of analytes within said IMS drift tube.

  15. PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, R.B.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat aqueous mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses evaporation to separate organics and water from radionuclides and solids, and catalytic oxidation to convert the hazardous into byproducts. This process hazards analysis evaluated a number of accident scenarios not directly related to the operation of the MTU, such as natural phenomena damage and mishandling of chemical containers. Worst case accident scenarios were further evaluated to determine the risk potential to the MTU and to workers, the public, and the environment. The overall risk to any group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  16. Analysis of the communities of an urban mobile phone network

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Federico; del Genio, Charo I.

    2017-01-01

    Being able to characterise the patterns of communications between individuals across different time scales is of great importance in understanding people’s social interactions. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the community structure of the network of mobile phone calls in the metropolitan area of Milan revealing temporal patterns of communications between people. We show that circadian and weekly patterns can be found in the evolution of communities, presenting evidence that these cycles arise not only at the individual level but also at that of social groups. Our findings suggest that these trends are present across a range of time scales, from hours to days and weeks, and can be used to detect socially relevant events. PMID:28334003

  17. Sociotechnical analysis of nurses' use of personal mobile phones at work.

    PubMed

    Bautista, John Robert; Lin, Trisha T C

    2016-11-01

    Nurses' use of personal mobiles phones at work is a growing trend in healthcare organizations. Although recent studies have explored the positive and negative implications of nurses using personal mobile phones at work, none has yet analyzed the interactions of sociotechnical components (users, technology and policy) on nurses' use of personal mobile phones at work. Identify sociotechnical interactions by analyzing each sociotechnical component (users, technology and policy) that affects nurses' use of personal mobile phones at work. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 nurses employed in 13 hospitals in the Philippines. The respondents include staff nurses (n=23), charge nurses (n=4), and nurse managers (n=3). Staff nurses were asked on their use of personal mobile phones at work, while charge and nurse managers were asked on their observations regarding staff nurses' use of personal mobile phones at work. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using sociotechnical analysis. Sociotechnical analysis indicated that staff nurses used their personal mobile phones at work in various ways because its use helped in their nursing work, but inevitably altered a few of their routines. Although most hospitals had policies that prohibit the use of mobile phones, staff nurses justified their use of personal mobile phones by using it for work purposes and for the benefit of their patients. Staff nurses highlighted the absence of hospital-provided mobile phones as a key reason for using personal mobile phones at work. Charge nurses and nurse managers also influenced staff nurses' use of personal mobile phones at work. Nurses could use their personal mobile phones at work for work purposes to enhance their clinical performance and improve patient care. Hospital administrators can leverage on nurses' use of personal mobile phones at work by formulating policies that consider both the benefits and potential drawbacks of mobile phone usage. Recommendations are made for the

  18. Chemical supply chain modeling for analysis of homeland security events

    DOE PAGES

    Ehlen, Mark A.; Sun, Amy C.; Pepple, Mark A.; ...

    2013-09-06

    The potential impacts of man-made and natural disasters on chemical plants, complexes, and supply chains are of great importance to homeland security. To be able to estimate these impacts, we developed an agent-based chemical supply chain model that includes: chemical plants with enterprise operations such as purchasing, production scheduling, and inventories; merchant chemical markets, and multi-modal chemical shipments. Large-scale simulations of chemical-plant activities and supply chain interactions, running on desktop computers, are used to estimate the scope and duration of disruptive-event impacts, and overall system resilience, based on the extent to which individual chemical plants can adjust their internal operationsmore » (e.g., production mixes and levels) versus their external interactions (market sales and purchases, and transportation routes and modes). As a result, to illustrate how the model estimates the impacts of a hurricane disruption, a simple example model centered on 1,4-butanediol is presented.« less

  19. Simulation and analysis chain for acoustic ultra-high energy neutrino detectors in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, M.; Anton, G.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Graf, K.; Hößl, J.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C.

    2013-05-01

    Acoustic neutrino detection is a promising approach for large-scale ultra-high energy neutrino detectors in water. In this article, a Monte Carlo simulation chain for acoustic neutrino detection devices in water will be presented. The simulation chain covers the generation of the acoustic pulse produced by a neutrino interaction and its propagation to the sensors within the detector. Currently, ambient and transient noise models for the Mediterranean Sea and simulations of the data acquisition hardware, equivalent to the one used in ANTARES/AMADEUS, are implemented. A pre-selection scheme for neutrino-like signals based on matched filtering is employed, as it is used for on-line filtering. To simulate the whole processing chain for experimental data, signal classification and acoustic source reconstruction algorithms are integrated in an analysis chain. An overview of design and capabilities of the simulation and analysis chain will be presented and preliminary studies will be discussed.

  20. OTU Deubiquitinases Reveal Mechanisms of Linkage Specificity and Enable Ubiquitin Chain Restriction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mevissen, Tycho E.T.; Hospenthal, Manuela K.; Geurink, Paul P.; Elliott, Paul R.; Akutsu, Masato; Arnaudo, Nadia; Ekkebus, Reggy; Kulathu, Yogesh; Wauer, Tobias; El Oualid, Farid; Freund, Stefan M.V.; Ovaa, Huib; Komander, David

    2013-01-01

    Summary Sixteen ovarian tumor (OTU) family deubiquitinases (DUBs) exist in humans, and most members regulate cell-signaling cascades. Several OTU DUBs were reported to be ubiquitin (Ub) chain linkage specific, but comprehensive analyses are missing, and the underlying mechanisms of linkage specificity are unclear. Using Ub chains of all eight linkage types, we reveal that most human OTU enzymes are linkage specific, preferring one, two, or a defined subset of linkage types, including unstudied atypical Ub chains. Biochemical analysis and five crystal structures of OTU DUBs with or without Ub substrates reveal four mechanisms of linkage specificity. Additional Ub-binding domains, the ubiquitinated sequence in the substrate, and defined S1’ and S2 Ub-binding sites on the OTU domain enable OTU DUBs to distinguish linkage types. We introduce Ub chain restriction analysis, in which OTU DUBs are used as restriction enzymes to reveal linkage type and the relative abundance of Ub chains on substrates. PMID:23827681

  1. Using Network Analysis to Understand Knowledge Mobilization in a Community-based Organization.

    PubMed

    Gainforth, Heather L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Moore, Spencer; Athanasopoulos, Peter; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge mobilization (KM) has been described as putting research in the hands of research users. Network analysis is an empirical approach that has potential for examining the complex process of knowledge mobilization within community-based organizations (CBOs). Yet, conducting a network analysis in a CBO presents challenges. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the value and feasibility of using network analysis as a method for understanding knowledge mobilization within a CBO by (1) presenting challenges and solutions to conducting a network analysis in a CBO, (2) examining the feasibility of our methodology, and (3) demonstrating the utility of this methodology through an example of a network analysis conducted in a CBO engaging in knowledge mobilization activities. The final method used by the partnership team to conduct our network analysis of a CBO is described. An example of network analysis results of a CBO engaging in knowledge mobilization is presented. In total, 81 participants completed the network survey. All of the feasibility benchmarks set by the CBO were met. Results of the network analysis are highlighted and discussed as a means of identifying (1) prominent and influential individuals in the knowledge mobilization process and (2) areas for improvement in future knowledge mobilization initiatives. Findings demonstrate that network analysis can be feasibly used to provide a rich description of a CBO engaging in knowledge mobilization activities.

  2. Nested polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing analysis of the light-chain and heavy-chain variable regions in the influenza A H1N1 virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody gene.

    PubMed

    Li, H J; Guo, C Y; Sun, J Y; Sun, L J; Zhao, P H; Hu, L; Li, Y; Hu, J

    2014-06-11

    The nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the amplification of the influenza A H1N1 virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody light-chain and heavy-chain genes. Sequence analysis of the obtained genes was then used to identify common cloning methods of the mouse immunoglobulin-kappa (Igκ) light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions. Twenty-two pairs of amplification primers for the mouse Igκ light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions were designed, and 6 mouse anti-human H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions were cloned and sequenced. Comparative analysis was conducted between our results and the mouse Ig sequences published in the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The nested PCR method effectively avoided cloning the pseudogenes of the monoclonal antibody, and the amino acid sequence obtained was consistent with the characteristics of the mouse Ig variable region. A general method of cloning the mouse Ig light-chain and heavy-chain variable gene regions was established, which provides a basis for further cloning of mouse monoclonal antibody variable gene regions. This study also provides data for further studies of H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin antibody binding sites.

  3. Kinematic performance analysis of a parallel-chain hexapod machine

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Song; Jong-I Mou; Calvin King

    1998-05-18

    Inverse and forward kinematic models were derived to analyze the performance of a parallel-chain hexapod machine. Analytical models were constructed for both ideal and real structures. Performance assessment and enhancement algorithms were developed to determine the strut lengths for both ideal and real structures. The strut lengths determined from both cases can be used to analyze the effect of structural imperfections on machine performance. In an open-architecture control environment, strut length errors can be fed back to the controller to compensate for the displacement errors and thus improve the machine's accuracy in production.

  4. Theory analysis of mass spectra of long-chain isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongliang; Hao, Ce; Zhang, Hua; Qiao, Weihong; Li, Zongshi; Yu, Guanghui; Yan, Kelu; Guo, Yuliang; Cheng, Lvbo

    2008-07-01

    Electron impact mass spectra of four long-chain isocyanates, lauryl isocyanate, tetradecyl isocyanate, hexadecyl isocyanate and octadecyl isocyanate, were obtained with a GCT high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The four isocyanates studied gave a common base peak of m/z 99, which suggested the formation of a stable six-membered ring structure to decentralize the positive charge. Quantum-mechanical energy calculation justified that the six-membered ring base peak had the lowest energy. The positive charge assigned during the fragmentation of the radical cation, and the relative intensity of the fragment ion peaks, were explained by quantum-mechanical calculations as well.

  5. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Direct Isotope Abundance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel J. Manard, Stephan Weeks, Kevin Kyle

    2010-05-27

    The nuclear forensics community is currently engaged in the analysis of illicit nuclear or radioactive material for the purposes of non-proliferations and attribution. One technique commonly employed for gathering nuclear forensics information is isotope analysis. At present, the state-of-the-art methodology for obtaining isotopic distributions is thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Although TIMS is highly accurate at determining isotope distributions, the technique requires an elementally pure sample to perform the measurement. The required radiochemical separations give rise to sample preparation times that can be in excess of one to two weeks. Clearly, the nuclear forensics community is in need of instrumentation and methods that can expedite their decision making process in the event of a radiological release or nuclear detonation. Accordingly, we are developing instrumentation that couples a high resolution IM drift cell to the front end of a MS. The IM cell provides a means of separating ions based upon their collision cross-section and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Two analytes with the same m/z, but with different collision cross-sections (shapes) would exit the cell at different times, essentially enabling the cell to function in a similar manner to a gas chromatography (GC) column. Thus, molecular and atomic isobaric interferences can be effectively removed from the ion beam. The mobility selected chemical species could then be introduced to a MS for high-resolution mass analysis to generate isotopic distributions of the target analytes. The outcome would be an IM/MS system capable of accurately measuring isotopic distributions while concurrently eliminating isobaric interferences and laboratory radiochemical sample preparation. The overall objective of this project is developing instrumentation and methods to produce near real-time isotope distributions with a modular mass spectrometric system that performs the required gas-phase chemistry and

  6. Mathematical supply-chain modelling: Product analysis of cost and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easters, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Establishing a mathematical supply-chain model is a proposition that has received attention due to its inherent benefits of evolving global supply-chain efficiencies. This paper discusses the prevailing relationships found within apparel supply-chain environments, and contemplates the complex issues indicated for constituting a mathematical model. Principal results identified within the data suggest, that the multifarious nature of global supply-chain activities require a degree of simplification in order to fully dilate the necessary factors which affect, each sub-section of the chain. Subsequently, the research findings allowed the division of supply-chain components into sub-sections, which amassed a coherent method of product development activity. Concurrently, the supply-chain model was found to allow systematic mathematical formulae analysis, of cost and time, within the multiple contexts of each subsection encountered. The paper indicates the supply-chain model structure, the mathematics, and considers how product analysis of cost and time can improve the comprehension of product lifecycle management.

  7. iFringe: a fringe analysis application for mobile smart devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Jacob; Teo, Josias Y. S.; Qian, Kemao

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces iFringe, a mobile application that attempts to incorporate the resource heavy fringe analysis algorithms into the smart mobile devices platform. This first step taken towards mobility in the optical processing field aims to become a catalyst for modernization of various aspects of the field as well as to diversify developments to other applications. Predominantly, the motivation of this work stems from the vastly indifferent human interactive method of mobile devices, which enable images displayed on its touch screen to be manipulated in ways that could enhance the fringe analysis experience. Furthermore, given its hardware compatibility to the conventional fringe projection system, these mobile devices could potentially serve as a much more compact replacement. However, one imperative weakness that mobile devices pose is its limited computing ability. Therefore, to examine the feasibility of incorporating the fringe analysis algorithms into a mobile platform, we have implemented two fundamental fringe analysis techniques, namely the Fourier transform fringe analysis method and the phase-shifting technique. Formulas and processing procedures such as discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and quality-guided phase unwrapping, were included in accordance to their original algorithms to test their performance and usability on a smart mobile device. Details of the implementation and the performance results will also be presented in this paper to demonstrate the practicality of these algorithms on the smart mobile device platform.

  8. Analysis of model Titan atmospheric components using ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, D. R.; Cohen, M. J.; Wernlund, R. F.; Stimac, R. M.; Humphry, D. E.; Takeuchi, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Gas Chromatograph-Ion Mobility Spectrometer (GC-IMS) was proposed as an analytical technique for the analysis of Titan's atmosphere during the Cassini Mission. The IMS is an atmospheric pressure, chemical detector that produces an identifying spectrum of each chemical species measured. When the IMS is combined with a GC as a GC-IMS, the GC is used to separate the sample into its individual components, or perhaps small groups of components. The IMS is then used to detect, quantify, and identify each sample component. Conventional IMS detection and identification of sample components depends upon a source of energetic radiation, such as beta radiation, which ionizes the atmospheric pressure host gas. This primary ionization initiates a sequence of ion-molecule reactions leading to the formation of sufficiently energetic positive or negative ions, which in turn ionize most constituents in the sample. In conventional IMS, this reaction sequence is dominated by the water cluster ion. However, many of the light hydrocarbons expected in Titan's atmosphere cannot be analyzed by IMS using this mechanism at the concentrations expected. Research at NASA Ames and PCP Inc., has demonstrated IMS analysis of expected Titan atmospheric components, including saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, using two alternate sample ionizations mechanisms. The sensitivity of the IMS to hydrocarbons such as propane and butane was increased by several orders of magnitude. Both ultra dry (waterless) IMS sample ionization and metastable ionization were successfully used to analyze a model Titan atmospheric gas mixture.

  9. Short-Chain Polysaccharide Analysis in Ethanol-Water Solutions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xun

    2017-03-01

    This study demonstrates that short-chain polysaccharides, or oligosaccharides, could be sufficiently separated with hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC) conditions and quantified by evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD). The multianalyte calibration approach improved the efficiency of calibrating the nonlinear detector response. The method allowed easy quantification of short-chain carbohydrates. Using the HILIC method, the oligosaccharide solubility and its profile in water/alcohol solutions at room temperature were able to be quantified. The results showed that the polysaccharide solubility in ethanol–water solutions decreased as ethanol content increased. The results also showed oligosaccharides to have minimal solubility in pure ethanol. In a saturated maltodextrin ethanol (80%) solution, oligosaccharide components with a degree of polymerization >12 were practically insoluble and contributed less than 0.2% to the total solute dry weight. The HILIC–ELSD method allows for the identification and quantification of low-MW carbohydrates individually and served as an alternative method to current gel permeation chromatography procedures.

  10. A BENCHMARKING ANALYSIS FOR FIVE RADIONUCLIDE VADOSE ZONE MODELS (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, AND CHAIN 2D) IN SOIL SCREENING LEVEL CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five radionuclide vadose zone models with different degrees of complexity (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, and CHAIN 2D) were selected for use in soil screening level (SSL) calculations. A benchmarking analysis between the models was conducted for a radionuclide (99Tc) rele...

  11. A BENCHMARKING ANALYSIS FOR FIVE RADIONUCLIDE VADOSE ZONE MODELS (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, AND CHAIN 2D) IN SOIL SCREENING LEVEL CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five radionuclide vadose zone models with different degrees of complexity (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, and CHAIN 2D) were selected for use in soil screening level (SSL) calculations. A benchmarking analysis between the models was conducted for a radionuclide (99Tc) rele...

  12. Socioeconomic Strata, Mobile Technology, and Education: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Paul; Hagashi, Teresita; Carillo, Laura; Gonzales, Irina; Makany, Tamas; Lee, Bommi; Garate, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Mobile devices are highly portable, easily distributable, substantially affordable, and have the potential to be pedagogically complementary resources in education. This study, incorporating mixed method analyses, discusses the implications of a mobile learning technology-based learning model in two public primary schools near the Mexico-USA…

  13. Spherical Coordinate Systems for Streamlining Suited Mobility Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Elizabeth; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu. Sudhakar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: When describing human motion, biomechanists generally report joint angles in terms of Euler angle rotation sequences. However, there are known limitations in using this method to describe complex motions such as the shoulder joint during a baseball pitch. Euler angle notation uses a series of three rotations about an axis where each rotation is dependent upon the preceding rotation. As such, the Euler angles need to be regarded as a set to get accurate angle information. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to visualize and understand these complex motion representations. It has been shown that using a spherical coordinate system allows Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) personnel to increase their ability to transmit important human mobility data to engineers, in a format that is readily understandable and directly translatable to their design efforts. Objectives: The goal of this project was to use innovative analysis and visualization techniques to aid in the examination and comprehension of complex motions. Methods: This project consisted of a series of small sub-projects, meant to validate and verify a new method before it was implemented in the ABF's data analysis practices. A mechanical test rig was built and tracked in 3D using an optical motion capture system. Its position and orientation were reported in both Euler and spherical reference systems. In the second phase of the project, the ABF estimated the error inherent in a spherical coordinate system, and evaluated how this error would vary within the reference frame. This stage also involved expanding a kinematic model of the shoulder to include the rest of the joints of the body. The third stage of the project involved creating visualization methods to assist in interpreting motion in a spherical frame. These visualization methods will be incorporated in a tool to evaluate a database of suited mobility data, which is currently in development. Results: Initial results

  14. Spherical Coordinate Systems for Streamlining Suited Mobility Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Elizabeth; Cowley, Matthew S.; Harvill. Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    When describing human motion, biomechanists generally report joint angles in terms of Euler angle rotation sequences. However, there are known limitations in using this method to describe complex motions such as the shoulder joint during a baseball pitch. Euler angle notation uses a series of three rotations about an axis where each rotation is dependent upon the preceding rotation. As such, the Euler angles need to be regarded as a set to get accurate angle information. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to visualize and understand these complex motion representations. One of our key functions is to help design engineers understand how a human will perform with new designs and all too often traditional use of Euler rotations becomes as much of a hindrance as a help. It is believed that using a spherical coordinate system will allow ABF personnel to more quickly and easily transmit important mobility data to engineers, in a format that is readily understandable and directly translatable to their design efforts. Objectives: The goal of this project is to establish new analysis and visualization techniques to aid in the examination and comprehension of complex motions. Methods: This project consisted of a series of small sub-projects, meant to validate and verify the method before it was implemented in the ABF's data analysis practices. The first stage was a proof of concept, where a mechanical test rig was built and instrumented with an inclinometer, so that its angle from horizontal was known. The test rig was tracked in 3D using an optical motion capture system, and its position and orientation were reported in both Euler and spherical reference systems. The rig was meant to simulate flexion/extension, transverse rotation and abduction/adduction of the human shoulder, but without the variability inherent in human motion. In the second phase of the project, the ABF estimated the error inherent in a spherical coordinate system, and evaluated how this error would

  15. Utah State University's T2 ODV mobility analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Morgan E.; Bahl, Vikas; Wood, Carl G.

    2000-07-01

    In response to ultra-high maneuverability vehicle requirements, Utah State University (USU) has developed an autonomous vehicle with unique mobility and maneuverability capabilities. This paper describes a study of the mobility of the USU T2 Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV). The T2 vehicle is a mid-scale (625 kg), second-generation ODV mobile robot with six independently driven and steered wheel assemblies. The six wheel, independent steering system is capable of unlimited steering rotation, presenting a unique solution to enhanced vehicle mobility requirements. This mobility study focuses on energy consumption in three basic experiments, comparing two modes of steering: Ackerman and ODV. The experiments are all performed on the same vehicle without any physical changes to the vehicle itself, providing a direct comparison these two steering methodologies. A computer simulation of the T2 mechanical and control system dynamics is described.

  16. Respiratory chain analysis of skin fibroblasts in mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jessie M; Levandovskiy, Valeriy; MacKay, Neviana; Robinson, Brian H

    2004-09-01

    NADH:ubiquinone dehydrogenase (complex I) deficiency can be diagnosed from cultured skin fibroblasts using a number of methods, the most commonly used is a linked assay of rotenone-sensitive complex I + III activity (NADH:cytochrome c reductase). Because of interference from diaphorases, this method requires either the isolation of mitochondria (or at least partial purification). For a suitable mitochondrial preparation from skin fibroblasts, this requires the culturing of 4-20 individual 100mm tissue culture plates, depending on the purity of preparation required. These assays are therefore time-consuming, and do not assist in a rapid diagnosis. There is also no clear demarkation between the normal range of activity and the deficient range since mild mutations can produce only partial decreases in complex I activity. Equally, assaying patient cells that do not have a specific deficiency may prove to be time-wasting in the process of providing a quick, definitive clinical diagnosis. The lactate/pyruvate ratio of fibroblasts has been used to indicate the extent of respiratory chain involvement, as cells with a metabolic defect usually produce more lactate with an increased ratio from 25:1 to much higher values [Methods Enzymol. 264 (1996) 454]. This measurement may not always be conclusive, as the values can fluctuate as a result of culture medium, cell passage number, cell number and viability. In this report, we evaluate the use of pyruvate oxidation measurements from whole cells prepared from a single plate of cultured fibroblasts as an alternative to lactate/pyruvate ratios, or other methods both direct and indirect as indicators of the extent of respiratory chain involvement and the possibility of a defect within complex I. Whole cell 2-14C pyruvate oxidation appears to indicate the presence of a complex I defect in patients compared to normal controls more reliably than L/P ratios, but this has some puzzling exceptions.

  17. Subnational mobility and consumption-based environmental accounting of US corn in animal protein and ethanol supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy M; Goodkind, Andrew L; Kim, Taegon; Pelton, Rylie E O; Suh, Kyo; Schmitt, Jennifer

    2017-09-19

    Corn production, and its associated inputs, is a relatively large source of greenhouse gas emissions and uses significant amounts of water and land, thus contributing to climate change, fossil fuel depletion, local air pollutants, and local water scarcity. As large consumers of this corn, corporations in the ethanol and animal protein industries are increasingly assessing and reporting sustainability impacts across their supply chains to identify, prioritize, and communicate sustainability risks and opportunities material to their operations. In doing so, many have discovered that the direct impacts of their owned operations are dwarfed by those upstream in the supply chain, requiring transparency and knowledge about environmental impacts along the supply chains. Life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been used to identify hotspots of environmental impacts at national levels, yet these provide little subnational information necessary for guiding firms' specific supply networks. In this paper, our Food System Supply-Chain Sustainability (FoodS(3)) model connects spatial, firm-specific demand of corn purchasers with upstream corn production in the United States through a cost minimization transport model. This provides a means to link county-level corn production in the United States to firm-specific demand locations associated with downstream processing facilities. Our model substantially improves current LCA assessment efforts that are confined to broad national or state level impacts. In drilling down to subnational levels of environmental impacts that occur over heterogeneous areas and aggregating these landscape impacts by specific supply networks, targeted opportunities for improvements to the sustainability performance of supply chains are identified.

  18. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-06-30

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. Our paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Lastly, gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  19. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains.

    PubMed

    Lautala, Pasi T; Hilliard, Michael R; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J; Roni, Mohammad S; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  20. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term `supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  1. Towards metals analysis using corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad T; Saraji, Mohammad; Sherafatmand, Hossein

    2016-02-25

    For the first time, the capability of corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) in the determination of metal complex was evaluated. The extreme simplicity of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to the high sensitivity of CD-IMS measurement could make this combination really useful for simple, rapid, and sensitive determination of metals in different samples. In this regard, mercury, as a model metal, was complexed with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), and then extracted into the carbon tetrachloride using DLLME. Some parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, including the type and volume of the extraction solvent, the type and volume of the disperser solvent, the concentration of the chelating agent, salt addition and, pH were exhaustively investigated. Under the optimized condition, the enrichment factor was obtained to be 142. The linear range of 0.035-10.0 μg mL(-1) with r(2) = 0.997 and the detection limit of 0.010 μg mL(-1) were obtained. The relative standard deviation values were calculated to be lower than 4% and 8% for intra-day and inter-day, respectively. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of mercury in various real samples. The satisfactory results revealed the capability of the proposed method in trace analysis without tedious derivatization or hydride generation.

  2. Modal Analysis with the Mobile Modal Testing Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has tested rocket engines with high pulse frequencies. This has resulted in the use of some of WSTF's existing thrust stands, which were designed for static loading, in tests with large dynamic forces. In order to ensure that the thrust stands can withstand the dynamic loading of high pulse frequency engines while still accurately reporting the test data, their vibrational modes must be characterized. If it is found that they have vibrational modes with frequencies near the pulsing frequency of the test, then they must be modified to withstand the dynamic forces from the pulsing rocket engines. To make this determination the Mobile Modal Testing Unit (MMTU), a system capable of determining the resonant frequencies and mode shapes of a structure, was used on the test stands at WSTF. Once the resonant frequency has been determined for a test stand, it can be compared to the pulse frequency of a test engine to determine whether or not that stand can avoid resonance and reliably test that engine. After analysis of test stand 406 at White Sands Test Facility, it was determined that natural frequencies for the structure are located around 75, 125, and 240 Hz, and thus should be avoided during testing.

  3. Quantitative produced water analysis using mobile 1H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Lisabeth; Kalli, Chris; Fridjonsson, Einar O.; May, Eric F.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Graham, Brendan F.; Carroll, Matthew R. J.; Johns, Michael L.

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of oil contamination of produced water is required in the oil and gas industry to the (ppm) level prior to discharge in order to meet typical environmental legislative requirements. Here we present the use of compact, mobile 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in combination with solid phase extraction (SPE), to meet this metrology need. The NMR hardware employed featured a sufficiently homogeneous magnetic field, such that chemical shift differences could be used to unambiguously differentiate, and hence quantitatively detect, the required oil and solvent NMR signals. A solvent system consisting of 1% v/v chloroform in tetrachloroethylene was deployed, this provided a comparable 1H NMR signal intensity for the oil and the solvent (chloroform) and hence an internal reference 1H signal from the chloroform resulting in the measurement being effectively self-calibrating. The measurement process was applied to water contaminated with hexane or crude oil over the range 1-30 ppm. The results were validated against known solubility limits as well as infrared analysis and gas chromatography.

  4. Free vibration analysis of linear particle chain impact damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharib, Mohamed; Ghani, Saud

    2013-11-01

    Impact dampers have gained much research interest over the past decades that resulted in several analytical and experimental studies being conducted in that area. The main emphasis of such research was on developing and enhancing these popular passive control devices with an objective of decreasing the three parameters of contact forces, accelerations, and noise levels. To that end, the authors of this paper have developed a novel impact damper, called the Linear Particle Chain (LPC) impact damper, which mainly consists of a linear chain of spherical balls of varying sizes. The LPC impact damper was designed utilizing the kinetic energy of the primary system through placing, in the chain arrangement, a small-sized ball between each two large-sized balls. The concept of the LPC impact damper revolves around causing the small-sized ball to collide multiple times with the larger ones upon exciting the primary system. This action is believed to lead to the dissipation of part of the kinetic energy at each collision with the large balls. This paper focuses on the outcome of studying the free vibration of a single degree freedom system that is equipped with the LPC impact damper. The proposed LPC impact damper is validated by means of comparing the responses of a single unit conventional impact damper with those resulting from the LPC impact damper. The results indicated that the latter is considerably more efficient than the former impact damper. In order to further investigate the LPC impact damper effective number of balls and efficient geometry when used in a specific available space in the primary system, a parametric study was conducted and its result is also explained herein. Single unit impact damper [14-16]. Multiunit impact damper [17,18]. Bean bag impact damper [19,20]. Particle/granular impact damper [21,23,22]. Resilient impact damper [24]. Buffered impact damper [25-27]. Multiunit impact damper consists of multiple masses instead of a single mass. This

  5. Analysis of a closed-kinematic chain robot manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are the research results from the research grant entitled: Active Control of Robot Manipulators, sponsored by the Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA) under grant number NAG-780. This report considers a class of robot manipulators based on the closed-kinematic chain mechanism (CKCM). This type of robot manipulators mainly consists of two platforms, one is stationary and the other moving, and they are coupled together through a number of in-parallel actuators. Using spatial geometry and homogeneous transformation, a closed-form solution is derived for the inverse kinematic problem of the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, built to study robotic assembly in space. Iterative Newton Raphson method is employed to solve the forward kinematic problem. Finally, the equations of motion of the above manipulators are obtained by employing the Lagrangian method. Study of the manipulator dynamics is performed using computer simulation whose results show that the robot actuating forces are strongly dependent on the mass and centroid locations of the robot links.

  6. Functional Analysis of a Mosquito Short Chain Dehydrogenase Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Mayoral, Jaime G.; Leonard, Kate T.; Defelipe, Lucas A.; Turjansksi, Adrian G.; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriegal, Fernando G.

    2013-01-01

    The short chain dehydrogenases (SDR) constitute one the oldest and largest families of enzymes with over 46,000 members in sequence databases. About 25% of all known dehydrogenases belong to the SDR family. SDR enzymes have critical roles in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, hormone and xenobiotic metabolism as well as in redox sensor mechanisms. This family is present in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryota, emphasizing their versatility and fundamental importance for metabolic processes. We identified a cluster of eight SDRs in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (AaSDRs). Members of the cluster differ in tissue specificity and developmental expression. Heterologous expression produced recombinant proteins that had diverse substrate specificities, but distinct from the conventional insect alcohol (ethanol) dehydrogenases. They are all NADP+-dependent and they have S-enantioselectivity and preference for secondary alcohols with 8–15 carbons. Homology modeling was used to build the structure of AaSDR1 and two additional cluster members. The computational study helped explain the selectivity towards the (10S)-isomers as well as the reduced activity of AaSDR4 and AaSDR9 for longer isoprenoid substrates. Similar clusters of SDRs are present in other species of insects, suggesting similar selection mechanisms causing duplication and diversification of this family of enzymes. PMID:23238893

  7. Perceptual analysis of vibrotactile flows on a mobile device.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jongman; Choi, Seungmoon

    2013-01-01

    "Vibrotactile flow" refers to a continuously moving sensation of vibrotactile stimulation applied by a few actuators directly onto the skin or through a rigid medium. Research demonstrated the effectiveness of vibrotactile flow for conveying intuitive directional information on a mobile device. In this paper, we extend previous research by investigating the perceptual characteristics of vibrotactile flows rendered on a mobile device and proposing a synthesis framework for vibrotactile flows with desired perceptual properties.

  8. Kinematic and dynamic modeling and approximate analysis of a roller chain drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuglede, Niels; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-03-01

    A simple roller chain drive consisting of two sprockets connected by tight chain spans is investigated. First, a kinematic model is presented which include both spans and sprockets. An approach for calculating the chain wrapping length is presented, which also allows for the exact calculation of sprocket center positions for a given chain length. The kinematic analysis demonstrates that the total length of the chain wrapped around the sprockets generally varies during one tooth period. Analytical predictions for the wrapping length are compared to multibody simulation results and show very good agreement. It is thereby demonstrated that chain drives with tight chain spans must include compliant components to function. Second, a dynamic model is presented which includes the two spans and the driven sprocket. Assuming the presence of a stationary operating state, the presented dynamic model allows for analytical studies of the coupled motion of the chain spans and driven sprocket. Parametric excitation of the spans come from sprocket angular displacements, and the driven sprocket acts as a boundary which can be compliant in the axial direction. External transverse excitation of the spans comes from polygonal action, and is treated through kinematic forcing at the moving string boundaries. Perturbation analysis of the model is carried out using the method of multiple scales. Results show a multitude of internal and external resonance conditions, and some examples are presented of both decoupled and coupled motion. Together, the kinematic and dynamic model are aimed toward providing a framework for conducting and understanding both numerical, and experimental investigations of roller chain drive dynamics.

  9. Normal mode analysis of macromolecular systems with the mobile block Hessian method

    SciTech Connect

    Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri; Waroquier, Michel; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2015-01-22

    Until recently, normal mode analysis (NMA) was limited to small proteins, not only because the required energy minimization is a computationally exhausting task, but also because NMA requires the expensive diagonalization of a 3N{sub a}×3N{sub a} matrix with N{sub a} the number of atoms. A series of simplified models has been proposed, in particular the Rotation-Translation Blocks (RTB) method by Tama et al. for the simulation of proteins. It makes use of the concept that a peptide chain or protein can be seen as a subsequent set of rigid components, i.e. the peptide units. A peptide chain is thus divided into rigid blocks with six degrees of freedom each. Recently we developed the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH) method, which in a sense has similar features as the RTB method. The main difference is that MBH was developed to deal with partially optimized systems. The position/orientation of each block is optimized while the internal geometry is kept fixed at a plausible - but not necessarily optimized - geometry. This reduces the computational cost of the energy minimization. Applying the standard NMA on a partially optimized structure however results in spurious imaginary frequencies and unwanted coordinate dependence. The MBH avoids these unphysical effects by taking into account energy gradient corrections. Moreover the number of variables is reduced, which facilitates the diagonalization of the Hessian. In the original implementation of MBH, atoms could only be part of one rigid block. The MBH is now extended to the case where atoms can be part of two or more blocks. Two basic linkages can be realized: (1) blocks connected by one link atom, or (2) by two link atoms, where the latter is referred to as the hinge type connection. In this work we present the MBH concept and illustrate its performance with the crambin protein as an example.

  10. Normal mode analysis of macromolecular systems with the mobile block Hessian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri; Brooks, Bernard R.; Waroquier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, normal mode analysis (NMA) was limited to small proteins, not only because the required energy minimization is a computationally exhausting task, but also because NMA requires the expensive diagonalization of a 3Na×3Na matrix with Na the number of atoms. A series of simplified models has been proposed, in particular the Rotation-Translation Blocks (RTB) method by Tama et al. for the simulation of proteins. It makes use of the concept that a peptide chain or protein can be seen as a subsequent set of rigid components, i.e. the peptide units. A peptide chain is thus divided into rigid blocks with six degrees of freedom each. Recently we developed the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH) method, which in a sense has similar features as the RTB method. The main difference is that MBH was developed to deal with partially optimized systems. The position/orientation of each block is optimized while the internal geometry is kept fixed at a plausible - but not necessarily optimized - geometry. This reduces the computational cost of the energy minimization. Applying the standard NMA on a partially optimized structure however results in spurious imaginary frequencies and unwanted coordinate dependence. The MBH avoids these unphysical effects by taking into account energy gradient corrections. Moreover the number of variables is reduced, which facilitates the diagonalization of the Hessian. In the original implementation of MBH, atoms could only be part of one rigid block. The MBH is now extended to the case where atoms can be part of two or more blocks. Two basic linkages can be realized: (1) blocks connected by one link atom, or (2) by two link atoms, where the latter is referred to as the hinge type connection. In this work we present the MBH concept and illustrate its performance with the crambin protein as an example.

  11. Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    While there has been substantial research studying the factors that influence teachers' career decisions, there is far less literature on the relationship between teacher effectiveness, mobility, and attrition. In the paper "Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis," Martin West and Matthew…

  12. Markov chains and semi-Markov models in time-to-event analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abner, Erin L.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Kryscio, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of statistical methods are available to investigators for analysis of time-to-event data, often referred to as survival analysis. Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox proportional hazards regression are commonly employed tools but are not appropriate for all studies, particularly in the presence of competing risks and when multiple or recurrent outcomes are of interest. Markov chain models can accommodate censored data, competing risks (informative censoring), multiple outcomes, recurrent outcomes, frailty, and non-constant survival probabilities. Markov chain models, though often overlooked by investigators in time-to-event analysis, have long been used in clinical studies and have widespread application in other fields. PMID:24818062

  13. Design, Construction, and Analysis of Fabric-Reinforced Embankment Test Section at Pinto Pass, Mobile, Alabama.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    AD-A 07 556 ARM ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG--ETC F/G 13/13 DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF FABRIC-REINFORCED EMBANKM--ETC(U...AND ANALYSIS OF ~FABRIC-REINFORCED EMBANKMENT TEST if SECTION AT PINTO PASS, MOBILE, ALABAMA Lr: by Jack Fowler Geoechnical Laboratory I U. S. Army...AND ANALYSIS OF FABRIC- REINFORCED EMBANKMENT TEST SECTION AT PINTO PASS, MOBILE, ALABAMA 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 1. CONTRACT

  14. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach to Confirmatory Item Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Item factor analysis has a rich tradition in both the structural equation modeling and item response theory frameworks. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a novel combination of various Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation routines to estimate parameters of a wide variety of confirmatory item factor analysis models. Further, I show…

  15. Detection and analysis of polymerase chain reaction products by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.B., Doktycz, M.J., Britt, P.F., Vass, A.A., Buchanan, M.V.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent and ongoing efforts to overcome some of the obstacles to more routine and robust application of MALDI-TOF to analysis of polymerase chain reaction products and other information- bearing nucleic acid molecules. Methods for purifying nucleic acid samples are described, as is the application of delayed extraction TOF mass spectrometry to analysis of short oligonucleotides.

  16. Electronic transport in a model tetraphenylbenzidine main-chain polymer: Direct comparison of time-of-flight hole drift mobility and electrochemical determinations of hole diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abkowitz, M. A.; Facci, J. S.; Limburg, W. W.; Yanus, J. F.

    1992-09-01

    Electronic transport behavior is analyzed in a model polytetraphenylbenzidine (PTPB) hole transport polymer in which electroactive tetraphenylbenzidine sites are covalently bonded within the polymer main chain. Time-of-flight (TOF) techniques are used to measure the hole drift mobility as a function of electric field and temperature. The TOF data are parametrized using the phenomenological model originally proposed by Gill. For comparative purposes, the disorder model developed by the Marburg group is also used to analyze the data. Transport of holes in PTPB is demonstrated to occur via hopping among the TPB functional units. A pattern of convoluted field and temperature-dependent features, now known to be shared by a broad class of disordered molecular materials, is revealed by the TOF data. Thin solid film electrochemical techniques are applied in parallel with the TOF technique to independently obtain hole diffusion coefficients (Dh) in thin films of PTPB. As a unique consequence of this comparison, it is established that mobilities, computed from solid-state hole diffusion data using the Einstein relation, converge with zero-field extrapolated TOF mobilities over a wide temperature range when the extrapolation is computed from log μ vs E1/2 plots. Therefore, the functional dependence of the logarithm of the drift mobility on the square root of field, a much discussed general feature of electronic transport in disordered molecular materials, is demonstrated to persist through the critical low-field limit. At the same time it is demonstrated that the contribution of thermally driven diffusive broadening, which can now be calculated directly from the independently determined electrochemical hole diffusion coefficients, makes an insignificant contribution to the experimentally observed width of the time-of-flight transit pulse. A comparison of the PTPB data with analogous TOF data on solid solutions of TPD (the functional unit in PTPB) dispersed in polycarbonate

  17. Functional analysis of the human neurofilament light chain gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanbakhsh, K; Fraser, P; Kioussis, D; Vidal, M; Grosveld, F; Lindenbaum, M

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out a structural and functional analysis on the human NF-L (H-NF-L) gene. It contains a methylation-free island, spanning the 5' flanking sequences and the first exon and a number of neuronal-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites have been identified in the upstream region as well as within the body of the gene. Analysis in cell lines and transgenic mice using a combination of these sites has revealed the presence of a conserved element(s) between -300bp and -190bp which is required for neuronal-specific expression. Images PMID:8441658

  18. Supply chain analysis of e-tailing versus retailing operation - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sameer; Tiffany, Maryellen; Vaidya, Salil

    2016-07-01

    The swift growth of e-commerce or e-tailing as a consumer retail channel has made it a serious competitor to traditional retail channels and is changing consumers' purchasing behaviour. The purpose of this case study, based on Target and Amazon.com, is to analyse the attributes of traditional retailing, e-tailing, and hybrid supply chain models to form conclusions about the feasibility of an idealised supply chain model for the future. An integrated and generalised modelling framework is used that incorporates Six Sigma - define, measure, analyse, improve, control methodology leveraging various tools, including process flow maps, cause and effect diagram, performance efficiency metrics, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), and Monte Carlo simulation. Based on this analysis and research, the conclusion is that the idealised supply chain of the future may evolve into a hybrid supply chain, which includes both e-tail and retail channels. The main recommendations from this study include assessing the risks of migrating to such a hybrid supply chain and to leverage the recommended actions provided in the hybrid FMEA. To facilitate more effective and mature processes, this study can guide researchers in exhaustive empirical evaluations of hybrid supply chains, gather experiences and lessons learned for practitioners.

  19. Vigorous thermal excitations in a double-tetrahedral chain of localized Ising spins and mobile electrons mimic a temperature-driven first-order phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálisová, Lucia; Strečka, Jozef

    2015-02-01

    A hybrid spin-electron system defined on a one-dimensional double-tetrahedral chain, in which the localized Ising spin regularly alternates with two mobile electrons delocalized over a triangular plaquette, is exactly solved with the help of generalized decoration-iteration transformation. It is shown that a macroscopic degeneracy of ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic ground states arising from chiral degrees of freedom of the mobile electrons cannot be lifted by a magnetic field in contrast to a macroscopic degeneracy of the frustrated ground state, which appears due to a kinetically driven frustration of the localized Ising spins. An anomalous behavior of all basic thermodynamic quantities can be observed on account of massive thermal excitations, which mimic a temperature-driven first-order phase transition from the nondegenerate frustrated state to the highly degenerate ferrimagnetic state at nonzero magnetic fields. A substantial difference in the respective degeneracies is responsible for an immense low-temperature peak of the specific heat and very abrupt (almost discontinuous) thermal variations of the entropy and sublattice magnetizations.

  20. A quantile-based scenario analysis approach to biomass supply chain optimization under uncertainty

    DOE PAGES

    Zamar, David S.; Gopaluni, Bhushan; Sokhansanj, Shahab; ...

    2016-11-21

    Supply chain optimization for biomass-based power plants is an important research area due to greater emphasis on renewable power energy sources. Biomass supply chain design and operational planning models are often formulated and studied using deterministic mathematical models. While these models are beneficial for making decisions, their applicability to real world problems may be limited because they do not capture all the complexities in the supply chain, including uncertainties in the parameters. This study develops a statistically robust quantile-based approach for stochastic optimization under uncertainty, which builds upon scenario analysis. We apply and evaluate the performance of our approach tomore » address the problem of analyzing competing biomass supply chains subject to stochastic demand and supply. Finally, the proposed approach was found to outperform alternative methods in terms of computational efficiency and ability to meet the stochastic problem requirements.« less

  1. An improved spanning tree approach for the reliability analysis of supply chain collaborative network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. Y.; Ip, W. H.

    2012-11-01

    A higher degree of reliability in the collaborative network can increase the competitiveness and performance of an entire supply chain. As supply chain networks grow more complex, the consequences of unreliable behaviour become increasingly severe in terms of cost, effort and time. Moreover, it is computationally difficult to calculate the network reliability of a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) all-terminal network using state enumeration, as this may require a huge number of iterations for topology optimisation. Therefore, this paper proposes an alternative approach of an improved spanning tree for reliability analysis to help effectively evaluate and analyse the reliability of collaborative networks in supply chains and reduce the comparative computational complexity of algorithms. Set theory is employed to evaluate and model the all-terminal reliability of the improved spanning tree algorithm and present a case study of a supply chain used in lamp production to illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  2. A quantile-based scenario analysis approach to biomass supply chain optimization under uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Zamar, David S.; Gopaluni, Bhushan; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Newlands, Nathaniel K.

    2016-11-21

    Supply chain optimization for biomass-based power plants is an important research area due to greater emphasis on renewable power energy sources. Biomass supply chain design and operational planning models are often formulated and studied using deterministic mathematical models. While these models are beneficial for making decisions, their applicability to real world problems may be limited because they do not capture all the complexities in the supply chain, including uncertainties in the parameters. This study develops a statistically robust quantile-based approach for stochastic optimization under uncertainty, which builds upon scenario analysis. We apply and evaluate the performance of our approach to address the problem of analyzing competing biomass supply chains subject to stochastic demand and supply. Finally, the proposed approach was found to outperform alternative methods in terms of computational efficiency and ability to meet the stochastic problem requirements.

  3. Price competition and equilibrium analysis in multiple hybrid channel supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Guihua; Wang, Aihu; Sha, Jin

    2017-06-01

    The amazing boom of Internet and logistics industry prompts more and more enterprises to sell commodity through multiple channels. Such market conditions make the participants of multiple hybrid channel supply chain compete each other in traditional and direct channel at the same time. This paper builds a two-echelon supply chain model with a single manufacturer and a single retailer who both can choose different channel or channel combination for their own sales, then, discusses the price competition and calculates the equilibrium price under different sales channel selection combinations. Our analysis shows that no matter the manufacturer and retailer choose same or different channel price to compete, the equilibrium price does not necessarily exist the equilibrium price in the multiple hybrid channel supply chain and wholesale price change is not always able to coordinate supply chain completely. We also present the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of equilibrium price and coordination wholesale price.

  4. Analysis of the sensitivity of a model of terrestrial food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Ganushik, V.; Mitro, A.; Musatova, O.; Sabova, T.

    1985-10-01

    This paper estimates, by means of a sensitivity analysis, the importance of the individual parameters of the model for terrestrial food chains. This method creates the basis for the calculation of the numerical values of the buildup factors of radionuclides in the chain deposited from the atmosphere-the content in food products. The ORB-11 model describes the transportation of radioactive substances through food chains. Several principal food products are considered: wheat, fruits, cucumbers, cabbage, potato, milk, and meat. The coefficient of sensitivity (CS) was computed for each input parameter, radionuclide, contamination route, and given change of input parameter by formula. The data obtained can be used for a stochastic approach to the mnDeling of the transportation of radioactive substances through the food chains, and to the planning of radioecological investigations.

  5. Multi-scale spatio-temporal analysis of human mobility.

    PubMed

    Alessandretti, Laura; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Lehmann, Sune; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The recent availability of digital traces generated by phone calls and online logins has significantly increased the scientific understanding of human mobility. Until now, however, limited data resolution and coverage have hindered a coherent description of human displacements across different spatial and temporal scales. Here, we characterise mobility behaviour across several orders of magnitude by analysing ∼850 individuals' digital traces sampled every ∼16 seconds for 25 months with ∼10 meters spatial resolution. We show that the distributions of distances and waiting times between consecutive locations are best described by log-normal and gamma distributions, respectively, and that natural time-scales emerge from the regularity of human mobility. We point out that log-normal distributions also characterise the patterns of discovery of new places, implying that they are not a simple consequence of the routine of modern life.

  6. Multi-scale spatio-temporal analysis of human mobility

    PubMed Central

    Alessandretti, Laura; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Lehmann, Sune; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The recent availability of digital traces generated by phone calls and online logins has significantly increased the scientific understanding of human mobility. Until now, however, limited data resolution and coverage have hindered a coherent description of human displacements across different spatial and temporal scales. Here, we characterise mobility behaviour across several orders of magnitude by analysing ∼850 individuals’ digital traces sampled every ∼16 seconds for 25 months with ∼10 meters spatial resolution. We show that the distributions of distances and waiting times between consecutive locations are best described by log-normal and gamma distributions, respectively, and that natural time-scales emerge from the regularity of human mobility. We point out that log-normal distributions also characterise the patterns of discovery of new places, implying that they are not a simple consequence of the routine of modern life. PMID:28199347

  7. Method of multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2009-06-02

    A method for analyzing analytes from a sample introduced into a Spectrometer by generating a pseudo random sequence of a modulation bins, organizing each modulation bin as a series of submodulation bins, thereby forming an extended pseudo random sequence of submodulation bins, releasing the analytes in a series of analyte packets into a Spectrometer, thereby generating an unknown original ion signal vector, detecting the analytes at a detector, and characterizing the sample using the plurality of analyte signal subvectors. The method is advantageously applied to an Ion Mobility Spectrometer, and an Ion Mobility Spectrometer interfaced with a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer.

  8. Business process analysis of a foodborne outbreak investigation mobile system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, T.; Waszkowski, R.; Saniuk, A.

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological investigation during an outbreak of food-borne disease requires taking a number of activities carried out in the field. This results in a restriction of access to current data about the epidemic and reducing the possibility of transferring information from the field to headquarters. This problem can be solved by using an appropriate system of mobile devices. The purpose of this paper is to present the IT solution based on the central repository for epidemiological investigations and mobile devices designed for use in the field. Based on such a solution business processes can be properly rebuild in a way to achieve better results in the activities of health inspectors.

  9. Decision analysis for mobilizing and retrieving sludge from double-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, A.J.; Williams, N.C.; Dukelow, J.S.; Hansen, R.I.

    1997-09-01

    This decision analysis evaluates alternative technologies for the initial mobilization and retrieval of sludges in double-shell tanks (DSTs). The analysis is from the perspective of the need to move sludges from one DST to another for interim retrieval. It supports the more general decision of which technologies to use to retreive various types of DST waste. The initial analysis is from the perspective of a typical DST with 2 ft of sludge to mobilize. During the course of the analysis, it became clear that it was important to also consider sludge mobilization in support of the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification demonstration plant, and in particular the risks associated with failing to meeting the minimum order requirements for the vendor, as well as the cost of mobilization and retrieval from the HLW vitrification source tanks.

  10. Analysis of liver connexin expression using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Michaël; Willebrords, Joost; Crespo Yanguas, Sara; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Although connexin production is mainly regulated at the protein level, altered connexin gene expression has been identified as the underlying mechanism of several pathologies. When studying the latter, appropriate methods to quantify connexin mRNA levels are required. The present chapter describes a well-established reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction procedure optimized for analysis of hepatic connexins. The method includes RNA extraction and subsequent quantification, generation of complementary DNA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and data analysis. PMID:27207283

  11. Plutonium Mobility Studies: 216-Z-9 Trench Sample Analysis Results

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2008-09-05

    A variety of analyses were conducted on selected sediment samples collected from two wells (299 W15-46 and 299-W15-48) drilled near the 216-Z-9 Trench to elucidate the form and potential for Pu and Am to be mobilized under present conditions and those that could be expected in future remediation scenarios. Analyses included moisture content, determination of the less than sand size fraction (silt plus clay), carbon analysis, SEM/EDS analysis, microwave-assisted acid digestions for total element analysis, and extraction tests using Hanford groundwater as the leachate. Results of the extraction tests were used as input to conduct equilibrium geochemical modeling of the solutions with Geochemist’s Workbench®. Geochemical modeling results for Pu were evaluated in terms of recent conclusions regarding the solubility and redox reactions of Pu by Neck et al. (2007a, 2007b). It was found that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am were associated with sediments of low silt/clay content and occur above silt/clay rich layers within the sediment profile. It was also found that the Pu and Am were relatively enriched in the silt/clay portion of these samples. The fact that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am occurred in sediments with low silt/clay contents suggests that waste solutions had perched on top of the low permeability silt/clay rich layers and interactions with the high silt/clay layers was minimal. SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the Pu and Am in these sediments does not occur as discrete micron size particles, and therefore must occur as mononuclear or polynuclear/ nanoclusters size particles adsorbed throughout the sediment samples. Leaching of these samples with Hanford groundwater indicates that release of Pu and Am from the sediments is correlated most significantly with the acidity of the water and not the initial concentrations of Pu and Am in the sediments. Only extracts that were acidic after contact with the sediments (pH 4.3 to 5.4) contained

  12. Migration, social mobility and common mental disorders: critical review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Das-Munshi, J; Leavey, G; Stansfeld, S A; Prince, M J

    2012-01-01

    Changes in socio-economic position in people who migrate may have adverse associations with mental health. The main objective of this review was to assess the association of social mobility with common mental disorders in migrant and second-generation groups, to inform future research. Systematic review and meta-analysis of English-language studies assessing the association of social mobility in migrant or second-generation groups with common mental disorders. Approaches to operationalise 'social mobility' were reviewed. Twelve studies (n=18,548) met criteria for retrieval. Very few included second-generation groups, and most studies were cross-sectional in design. Approaches to operationalise 'social mobility' varied between studies. Downward intragenerational social mobility was associated with migration in the majority of studies. Random effects meta-analysis (n=5179) suggested that migrants to higher income countries who experienced downward mobility or underemployment were more likely to screen positive for common mental disorders, relative to migrants who were upwardly mobile or experienced no changes to socio-economic position. Conclusions on second-generation groups were limited by the lack of research highlighted for these groups. Downward intragenerational mobility associated with migration may be associated with vulnerability to common mental disorders in some migrant groups. Given the increasing scale of global migration, further research is needed to clarify how changes to socio-economic position associated with international migration may impact on the mental health of migrants, and in their children.

  13. Reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode load using Markov Chain Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nikabdullah, N.; Singh, S. S. K.; Alebrahim, R.; Azizi, M. A.; K, Elwaleed A.; Noorani, M. S. M.

    2014-06-19

    The aim of this paper is to present the reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode loading by using a simple two state Markov Chain Model for an automotive crankshaft. The reliability analysis and prediction for any automotive component or structure is important for analyzing and measuring the failure to increase the design life, eliminate or reduce the likelihood of failures and safety risk. The mechanical failures of the crankshaft are due of high bending and torsion stress concentration from high cycle and low rotating bending and torsional stress. The Markov Chain was used to model the two states based on the probability of failure due to bending and torsion stress. In most investigations it revealed that bending stress is much serve than torsional stress, therefore the probability criteria for the bending state would be higher compared to the torsion state. A statistical comparison between the developed Markov Chain Model and field data was done to observe the percentage of error. The reliability analysis and prediction was derived and illustrated from the Markov Chain Model were shown in the Weibull probability and cumulative distribution function, hazard rate and reliability curve and the bathtub curve. It can be concluded that Markov Chain Model has the ability to generate near similar data with minimal percentage of error and for a practical application; the proposed model provides a good accuracy in determining the reliability for the crankshaft under mixed mode loading.

  14. Reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode load using Markov Chain Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikabdullah, N.; Singh, S. S. K.; Alebrahim, R.; Azizi, M. A.; K, Elwaleed A.; Noorani, M. S. M.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode loading by using a simple two state Markov Chain Model for an automotive crankshaft. The reliability analysis and prediction for any automotive component or structure is important for analyzing and measuring the failure to increase the design life, eliminate or reduce the likelihood of failures and safety risk. The mechanical failures of the crankshaft are due of high bending and torsion stress concentration from high cycle and low rotating bending and torsional stress. The Markov Chain was used to model the two states based on the probability of failure due to bending and torsion stress. In most investigations it revealed that bending stress is much serve than torsional stress, therefore the probability criteria for the bending state would be higher compared to the torsion state. A statistical comparison between the developed Markov Chain Model and field data was done to observe the percentage of error. The reliability analysis and prediction was derived and illustrated from the Markov Chain Model were shown in the Weibull probability and cumulative distribution function, hazard rate and reliability curve and the bathtub curve. It can be concluded that Markov Chain Model has the ability to generate near similar data with minimal percentage of error and for a practical application; the proposed model provides a good accuracy in determining the reliability for the crankshaft under mixed mode loading.

  15. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Mobility of Women: A Comparative Analysis of Mobility of Informal Workers in Fisheries in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Nikhila

    2016-01-01

    Mobility or freedom and ability to move is gendered in many cultural contexts. In this paper I analyse mobility associated with work from the capability approach perspective of Sen. This is an empirical paper which uses the Rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM) to construct the measure of mobility of women for the first time in the development studies discourse. I construct a measure of mobility (latent trait) of women workers engaged in two types of informal work, namely, peeling work and fish vending, in fisheries in the cultural context of India. The scale measure enables first, to test the unidimensionality of my construct of mobility of women and second, to analyse the domains of mobility of women workers. The comparative analysis of the scale of permissibility of mobility constructed using the RSM for the informal women workers shows that women face constraints on mobility in social and personal spaces in the socially advanced state of Kerala in India. Work mobility does not expand the real freedoms, hence work mobility can be termed as bounded capability which is a capability limited or bounded by either the social, cultural and gender norms or a combination of all of these. Therefore at the macro level, growth in informal employment in sectors like fisheries which improve mobility of women through work mobility does not necessarily expand the capability sets by contributing to greater freedoms and transformational mobility. This paper has a significant methodological contribution in that it uses an innovative method for the measurement of mobility of women in the development studies discipline.

  16. Mobile Konami Codes: Analysis of Android Malware Services Utilizing Sensor and Resource-Based State Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    CODES: ANALYSIS OF ANDROID MALWARE SERVICES UTILIZING SENSOR AND RESOURCE-BASED STATE CHANGES by Jacob L. Boomgaarden Joshua D. Corney March...of mobile mal ware to steadily increase since 2004. Challenges in static analysis of mobile malware have stimulated the need for emulated, dynamic...same applications successfully perfonn a pseudo- malware action and send device identifying infonnation to Olll’ server for logging. 14. SUBJ ECT

  17. Mobile, Multi-modal, Label-Free Imaging Probe Analysis of Choroidal Oximetry and Retinal Hypoxia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    eyes and image choroidal vessels/capillaries using CARS intravital microscopy Subtask 3: Measure oxy-hemoglobin levels in PBI test and control eyes...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0537 TITLE: Mobile, Multi-modal, Label-Free Imaging Probe Analysis of Choroidal Oximetry and Retinal Hypoxia...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mobile, Multimodal, Label-Free Imaging Probe Analysis of Choroidal Oximetry and Retinal Hypoxia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH

  18. EPA RREL'S MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT -- APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume reduction unit (VRU) is a pilot-scale, mobile soil washing system designed to remove organic contaminants from the soil through particle size separation and solubilization. The VRU removes contaminants by suspending them in a wash solution and by reducing the volume of...

  19. EPA RREL'S MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT -- APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume reduction unit (VRU) is a pilot-scale, mobile soil washing system designed to remove organic contaminants from the soil through particle size separation and solubilization. The VRU removes contaminants by suspending them in a wash solution and by reducing the volume of...

  20. Job Mobility and Drug Use: An Event History Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of a study of 1,325 young adults aged 24 to 25, to investigate the relationship between patterns of drug use and job separations. The relationships observed between job mobility and drug use support the general hypothesis that drug use predicts job turnover and decreased tenure on the job. (JDH)

  1. Job Mobility and Drug Use: An Event History Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of a study of 1,325 young adults aged 24 to 25, to investigate the relationship between patterns of drug use and job separations. The relationships observed between job mobility and drug use support the general hypothesis that drug use predicts job turnover and decreased tenure on the job. (JDH)

  2. Mobility out of Low-Paid Occupations: A Segmentation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomer, Marshall I.

    This study analyzes the mobility of workers initially employed in low-paid occupations who moved to moderately paid occupations, based on 18,347 observations of 1970 Census data, compared to 1965 data. The study relies on the concept of labor segment, which provides an antidote to the individualistic perspective. Two broad segments, a low-paid and…

  3. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Routing Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    process of establishing the DAG is similar to the query and reply process as proposed in a light-weight mobile routing (LMR) [ Corson 1995]. Upon link...2004. [RIP RFC] RIP Version 2 RFC Website. http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2453.html accessed on 1 October 2004. [Royer 1999] Elizabeth M. Royer & C

  4. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    DOE PAGES

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; ...

    2015-06-30

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmostmore » importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. Our paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Lastly, gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.« less

  5. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Kara Cafferty; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Johnson; Zhichao Wang; Michael Wang; Mary Biddy; Abhijit Dutta; Daniel Inman; Eric Tan; Sue Jones; Lesley Snowden-Swan

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) collaborates with industrial, agricultural, and non-profit partners to develop and deploy biofuels and other biologically-derived products. As part of this effort, BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels as part state of technology (SOT) analyses. An SOT assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available. Overall assessments of biofuel pathways begin with feedstock production and the logistics of transporting the feedstock from the farm or plantation to the conversion facility or biorefinery. The conversion process itself is modeled in detail as part of the SOT analysis. The teams then develop an estimate of the biofuel minimum selling price (MSP) and assess the cost competitiveness of the biofuel with conventional fuels such as gasoline.

  6. Extraction, purification, methylation and GC-MS analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids for metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Jewett, Erin M; Hegeman, Adrian D; Cohen, Jerry D

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic metabolic flux analysis requires efficient and effective methods for extraction, purification and analysis of a plethora of naturally-occurring compounds. One area of metabolism that would be highly informative to study using metabolic flux analysis is the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which consists of short-chain carboxylic acids. Here, we describe a newly-developed method for extraction, purification, derivatization and analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids involved in the TCA cycle. The method consists of snap-freezing the plant material, followed by maceration and a 12-15h extraction at -80 °C. The extracts are then subject to reduction (to stabilize β-keto acids), purified by strong anion exchange solid phase extraction and methylated with methanolic HCl. This method could also be readily adapted to quantify many other short-chain carboxylic acids.

  7. Mobile technology boosts the effectiveness of psychotherapy and behavioral interventions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Rosen, Dana; Silk, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of mobile technology on treatment outcome for psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions. Our search of the literature resulted in 26 empirical articles describing 25 clinical trials testing the benefits of smartphone applications, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or text messaging systems either to supplement treatment or substitute for direct contact with a clinician. Overall, mobile technology use was associated with superior treatment outcome across all study designs and control conditions, effect size (ES) = .34, p < .0001. For the subset of 10 studies that looked specifically at the added benefit of mobile technology using a rigorous "Treatment" versus "Treatment + Mobile" design, effect sizes were only slightly more modest (ES = .27) and still significant (p < .05). Overall, the results support the role of mobile technology for the delivery of psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions.

  8. Comparison of approaches for mobile document image analysis using server supported smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozarslan, Suleyman; Eren, P. Erhan

    2014-03-01

    With the recent advances in mobile technologies, new capabilities are emerging, such as mobile document image analysis. However, mobile phones are still less powerful than servers, and they have some resource limitations. One approach to overcome these limitations is performing resource-intensive processes of the application on remote servers. In mobile document image analysis, the most resource consuming process is the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) process, which is used to extract text in mobile phone captured images. In this study, our goal is to compare the in-phone and the remote server processing approaches for mobile document image analysis in order to explore their trade-offs. For the inphone approach, all processes required for mobile document image analysis run on the mobile phone. On the other hand, in the remote-server approach, core OCR process runs on the remote server and other processes run on the mobile phone. Results of the experiments show that the remote server approach is considerably faster than the in-phone approach in terms of OCR time, but adds extra delays such as network delay. Since compression and downscaling of images significantly reduce file sizes and extra delays, the remote server approach overall outperforms the in-phone approach in terms of selected speed and correct recognition metrics, if the gain in OCR time compensates for the extra delays. According to the results of the experiments, using the most preferable settings, the remote server approach performs better than the in-phone approach in terms of speed and acceptable correct recognition metrics.

  9. Global analysis of SUMO chain function reveals multiple roles in chromatin regulation

    PubMed Central

    Srikumar, Tharan; Lewicki, Megan C.; Costanzo, Michael; Tkach, Johnny M.; van Bakel, Harm; Tsui, Kyle; Johnson, Erica S.; Brown, Grant W.; Andrews, Brenda J.; Boone, Charles; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2013-01-01

    Like ubiquitin, the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins can form oligomeric “chains,” but the biological functions of these superstructures are not well understood. Here, we created mutant yeast strains unable to synthesize SUMO chains (smt3allR) and subjected them to high-content microscopic screening, synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis, and high-density transcript profiling to perform the first global analysis of SUMO chain function. This comprehensive assessment identified 144 proteins with altered localization or intensity in smt3allR cells, 149 synthetic genetic interactions, and 225 mRNA transcripts (primarily consisting of stress- and nutrient-response genes) that displayed a >1.5-fold increase in expression levels. This information-rich resource strongly implicates SUMO chains in the regulation of chromatin. Indeed, using several different approaches, we demonstrate that SUMO chains are required for the maintenance of normal higher-order chromatin structure and transcriptional repression of environmental stress response genes in budding yeast. PMID:23547032

  10. Global analysis of SUMO chain function reveals multiple roles in chromatin regulation.

    PubMed

    Srikumar, Tharan; Lewicki, Megan C; Costanzo, Michael; Tkach, Johnny M; van Bakel, Harm; Tsui, Kyle; Johnson, Erica S; Brown, Grant W; Andrews, Brenda J; Boone, Charles; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Raught, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Like ubiquitin, the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins can form oligomeric "chains," but the biological functions of these superstructures are not well understood. Here, we created mutant yeast strains unable to synthesize SUMO chains (smt3(allR)) and subjected them to high-content microscopic screening, synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis, and high-density transcript profiling to perform the first global analysis of SUMO chain function. This comprehensive assessment identified 144 proteins with altered localization or intensity in smt3(allR) cells, 149 synthetic genetic interactions, and 225 mRNA transcripts (primarily consisting of stress- and nutrient-response genes) that displayed a >1.5-fold increase in expression levels. This information-rich resource strongly implicates SUMO chains in the regulation of chromatin. Indeed, using several different approaches, we demonstrate that SUMO chains are required for the maintenance of normal higher-order chromatin structure and transcriptional repression of environmental stress response genes in budding yeast.

  11. A communication theoretical analysis of FRET-based mobile ad hoc molecular nanonetworks.

    PubMed

    Kuscu, Murat; Akan, Ozgur B

    2014-09-01

    Nanonetworks refer to a group of nanosized machines with very basic operational capabilities communicating to each other in order to accomplish more complex tasks such as in-body drug delivery, or chemical defense. Realizing reliable and high-rate communication between these nanomachines is a fundamental problem for the practicality of these nanonetworks. Recently, we have proposed a molecular communication method based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) which is a nonradiative excited state energy transfer phenomenon observed among fluorescent molecules, i.e., fluorophores. We have modeled the FRET-based communication channel considering the fluorophores as single-molecular immobile nanomachines, and shown its reliability at high rates, and practicality at the current stage of nanotechnology. In this study, for the first time in the literature, we investigate the network of mobile nanomachines communicating through FRET. We introduce two novel mobile molecular nanonetworks: FRET-based mobile molecular sensor/actor nanonetwork (FRET-MSAN) which is a distributed system of mobile fluorophores acting as sensor or actor node; and FRET-based mobile ad hoc molecular nanonetwork (FRET-MAMNET) which consists of fluorophore-based nanotransmitter, nanoreceivers and nanorelays. We model the single message propagation based on birth-death processes with continuous time Markov chains. We evaluate the performance of FRET-MSAN and FRET-MAMNET in terms of successful transmission probability and mean extinction time of the messages, system throughput, channel capacity and achievable communication rates.

  12. Analysis of mobile phone use among young patients with brain tumors in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuto; Kojimahara, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Naohito

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify ownership and usage of mobile phones among young patients with brain tumors in Japan. The subjects of this study were patients with brain tumors diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 who were between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The target population for the analysis was 82 patients. Patients were divided into two groups: 16 patients who were mobile phone owners 1 year before diagnosis, and 66 patients who did not own mobile phones (non-owners). Using data on the mobile phone ownership rate obtained from three general-population surveys, we calculated the expected number of mobile phone owners. The three age-adjusted standardized ownership ratios were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-1.22), 0.51 (95% CI: 0.24-1.04), and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.42-1.32). The mobile phone ownership prevalence among the young Japanese patients with brain tumors in the current study does not differ from available estimates for the general population of corresponding age. However, since the use of mobile phones among children is increasing annually, investigations into the health effects of mobile phone use among children should continue. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:349-355, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Analysis of sniper localization for mobile asynchronous sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipps, Gene T.; Kaplan, Lance M.; Damarla, Raju

    2009-05-01

    In this work we analyze the performance of several approaches to sniper localization in a network of mobile sensors. Mobility increases the complexity of calibration (i.e., self localization, orientation, and time synchronization) in a network of sensors. The sniper localization approaches studied here rely on time-difference of arrival (TDOA) measurements of the muzzle blast and shock wave from multiple, distributed single-sensor nodes. Although these approaches eliminate the need for self-orienting, node position calibration and time synchronization are still persistent problems. We analyze the influence of geometry and the sensitivity to time synchronization and node location uncertainties. We provide a Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for location and bullet trajectory estimator errors for each respective approach. When the TDOA is taken as the difference between the muzzle blast and shock wave arrival times, the resulting localization performance is independent of time synchronization and is less affected by geometry compared to other approaches.

  14. Chain of custody; recommendations for acceptance and analysis of evidentiary geochemical samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Christine M.; Briggs, Paul H.; Adrian, Betty M.; Wilson, Steve A.; Hageman, Phil L.; Theodorakos, Pete M.

    1997-01-01

    Personnel from the Analytical Chemistry Services Group (ACSG), Mineral Resource Survey Program, formed a team to determine the policies for acceptance and analysis of geochemical samples. This team contacted law enforcement agencies that handle litigious samples, laboratories that work with samples of special nature, and the Solicitor General, Department of the Interior. Using the knowledge from these agencies as well as the expertise of ACSG personnel, sample control routine procedures, sample control evidentiary procedures, personnel policy governing chain-of-custody samples, and the general polices governing physical security of chain-of custody samples have been enacted.

  15. Rapid quantitative analysis of monoclonal antibody heavy and light chain charge heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Vanam, Ram P; Schneider, Michael A; Marlow, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    An alternative method to traditional 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and its application in characterizing the inherent charge heterogeneity of chromatographically isolated monoclonal antibody heavy and light chains is described. This method, referred to as ChromiCE, utilizes analytical size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), performed under reducing and denaturing conditions, followed by imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (icIEF) of the chromatographically separated heavy and light chains. Under conditions suitable for the subsequent icIEF analysis, the absolute and relative SEC elution volumes of the heavy and light chains were found to be highly pH dependent, a phenomenon that can be exploited in optimizing chromatographic separation. Compared to 2D-PAGE, the ChromiCE method substantially decreases the time and labor needed to complete the analysis, improves reproducibility, and provides fully quantitative assessment of charge heterogeneity. The ChromiCE methodology was applied to a set of diverse monoclonal antibodies to demonstrate suitability for quantitative charge variant analysis of heavy and light chains. A typical application of ChromiCE in extended characterization and stability studies of a purified antibody is shown. PMID:26305772

  16. Marathon: An Open Source Software Library for the Analysis of Markov-Chain Monte Carlo Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Rechner, Steffen; Berger, Annabell

    2016-01-01

    We present the software library marathon, which is designed to support the analysis of sampling algorithms that are based on the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo principle. The main application of this library is the computation of properties of so-called state graphs, which represent the structure of Markov chains. We demonstrate applications and the usefulness of marathon by investigating the quality of several bounding methods on four well-known Markov chains for sampling perfect matchings and bipartite graphs. In a set of experiments, we compute the total mixing time and several of its bounds for a large number of input instances. We find that the upper bound gained by the famous canonical path method is often several magnitudes larger than the total mixing time and deteriorates with growing input size. In contrast, the spectral bound is found to be a precise approximation of the total mixing time.

  17. Improving food safety within the dairy chain: an application of conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Valeeva, N I; Meuwissen, M P M; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Huirne, R B M

    2005-04-01

    This study determined the relative importance of attributes of food safety improvement in the production chain of fluid pasteurized milk. The chain was divided into 4 blocks: "feed" (compound feed production and its transport), "farm" (dairy farm), "dairy processing" (transport and processing of raw milk, delivery of pasteurized milk), and "consumer" (retailer/catering establishment and pasteurized milk consumption). The concept of food safety improvement focused on 2 main groups of hazards: chemical (antibiotics and dioxin) and microbiological (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, and Staphylococcus aureus). Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to investigate food safety experts' perceptions of the attributes' importance. Preference data from individual experts (n = 24) on 101 attributes along the chain were collected in a computer-interactive mode. Experts perceived the attributes from the "feed" and "farm" blocks as being more vital for controlling the chemical hazards; whereas the attributes from the "farm" and "dairy processing" were considered more vital for controlling the microbiological hazards. For the chemical hazards, "identification of treated cows" and "quality assurance system of compound feed manufacturers" were considered the most important attributes. For the microbiological hazards, these were "manure supply source" and "action in salmonellosis and M. paratuberculosis cases". The rather high importance of attributes relating to quality assurance and traceability systems of the chain participants indicates that participants look for food safety assurance from the preceding participants. This information has substantial decision-making implications for private businesses along the chain and for the government regarding the food safety improvement of fluid pasteurized milk.

  18. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Behavior Based Analysis and Detection of Mobile Malware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Behavior Based Analysis and Detection of Mobile Malware Software Engineering...Detection of Mobile Malware 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jose A. Morales 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Impact for the DoD: identify potential malware early enough to avoid potential damage to the device. Provide fast accurate suspicion assessment of an

  19. The people factor: An analysis of the human resources landscape for immunization supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Kasonde, Musonda; Steele, Pamela

    2017-04-19

    Human resources is the backbone of any system and the key enabler for all other functions to effectively perform. This is no different with the Immunization Supply Chain, more so in todays' complex operating environment with the increasing strain caused by new vaccines and expanding immunization programmes (Source: WHO, UNICEF). In order to drive the change that is required for sustainability and continuous improvement, every immunization supply chain needs an effective leader. A dedicated and competent immunization supply chain leader with adequate numbers of skilled, accountable, motivated and empowered personnel at all levels of the health system to overcome existing and emerging immunization supply chain (ISC) challenges. Without an effective supply chain leader supported by capable and motivated staff, none of the interventions designed to strengthen the supply chain can be effective or sustainable (Source: Gavi Alliance SC Strategy 2014). This landscape analysis was preceded by an HR Evidence Review (March 2014) and has served to inform global partner strategies and country activities, as well as highlight where most support is required. The study also aimed to define the status quo in order to create some form of baseline against which to measure the impact of interventions related to HR going forward. The analysis was comprised of a comprehensive desk review, a survey of 40 respondents from 32 countries and consultations with ISC practitioners in several forums. The findings highlight key areas that should inform the pillars of a HR capacity development plan. At the same time, it revealed that there are some positive examples of where countries are actively addressing some of the issues identified and putting in place mechanisms and structures to optimize the SC function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Modeling and Analysis of Trust Management with Trust Chain Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    outside attackers ) nodes when participating nodes are assumed to have no prior interactions. Trust availability is measured by the probability that a...metric, and describes the attack model. Section 5 develops the SPN performance model and describes how the SPN model can be used to evaluate system...over time. This may prevent a newcomer attack attempting to flush out its notorious past trust or reputation.4. System model 4.1. Protocol design and

  1. The Creative Use of Chain Analysis Techniques in Counseling Clients Who Engage in Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinch, Stephanie; Kress, Victoria E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present creative ways that chain analysis techniques, an intervention used in dialectical behavior therapy, can be used to address clients' nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviors. A description and rationale for using chain analysis techniques with clients who self-injure is provided. An illustrative case example is…

  2. A Historical Materialist Analysis of the Debate in Swedish Print Media on Mobile Phones in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    The use of mobile phones for teaching and learning in schools has been a controversial matter. In this paper the debate in two Swedish newspapers on the use of mobile phones in schools is analysed using a historical materialist framework. The results are discussed in relation to contemporary research on mobile learning. The analysis reveals that…

  3. A Historical Materialist Analysis of the Debate in Swedish Print Media on Mobile Phones in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    The use of mobile phones for teaching and learning in schools has been a controversial matter. In this paper the debate in two Swedish newspapers on the use of mobile phones in schools is analysed using a historical materialist framework. The results are discussed in relation to contemporary research on mobile learning. The analysis reveals that…

  4. [Mobile Health Units: An Analysis of Concepts and Implementation Requirements in Rural Regions.

    PubMed

    Hämel, K; Kutzner, J; Vorderwülbecke, J

    2015-12-22

    Background: Access to health services in rural regions represents a challenge. The development of care models that respond to health service shortages and pay particular attention to the increasing health care needs of the elderly is an important concern. A model that has been implemented in other countries is that of mobile health units. But until now, there is no overview of their possible objectives, functions and implementation requirements. Method: This paper is based on a literature analysis and an internet research on mobile health units in rural regions. Results: Mobile health units aim to avoid regional undersupply and address particularly vulnerable population groups. In the literature, mobile health units are described with a focus on specific illnesses, as well as those that provide comprehensive, partly multi-professional primary care that is close to patients' homes. The implementation of mobile health units is demanding; the key challenges are (a) alignment to the needs of the regional population, (b) user-oriented access and promotion of awareness and acceptance of mobile health units by the local population, and (c) network building within existing care structures to ensure continuity of care for patients. To fulfill these requirements, a community-oriented program development and implementation is important. Conclusions: Mobile health units could represent an interesting model for the provision of health care in rural regions in Germany. International experiences are an important starting point and should be taken into account for the further development of models in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Calf circumference predicts mobility disability: A secondary analysis of the Mexican health and ageing study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calf circumference is a surrogate measurement of muscle mass. However, there is scarce evidence on its validity in predicting adverse outcomes such as mobility disability. The aim of this report is to determine if calf circumference could predict incident mobility disability in Mexican 60-year or older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study and in particular of its two first waves. Sixty-year or older adults without mobility disability in the first assessment were included and followed-up for two years. Calf circumference quartile groups were compared to test the difference of incident mobility disability. Logistic regression models were fitted to test the independent association when including confounding variables. Results A total of 745 older adults were assessed, from which 24.4% of the older adults developed mobility disability at follow-up. A calf circumference > 38 cm was associated with a higher risk of developing mobility disability, even after adjustment in the multivariate model, with an odds ratio 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.31–0.99, P = 0.049). Conclusions High calf circumference in Mexican older adults is independently associated with incident mobility disability. This could reflect the impact of adverse health conditions such as obesity (with high fat tissue) or edema. Further research should aim at testing these results in different populations. PMID:27656259

  6. Electron transport chain dysfunction by H(2)O (2) is linked to increased reactive oxygen species production and iron mobilization by lipoperoxidation: studies using Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Estrada-Villagómez, Mirella; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Clemente-Guerrero, Mónica; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Boldogh, Istvan; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) contains thiol groups (-SH) which are reversibly oxidized to modulate ETC function during H(2)O(2) overproduction. Since deleterious effects of H(2)O(2) are not limited to -SH oxidation, due to the formation of other H(2)O(2)-derived species, some processes like lipoperoxidation could enhance the effects of H(2)O(2) over ETC enzymes, disrupt their modulation by -SH oxidation and increase superoxide production. To verify this hypothesis, we tested the effects of H(2)O(2) on ETC activities, superoxide production and iron mobilization in mitochondria from lipoperoxidation-resistant native yeast and lipoperoxidation-sensitized yeast. Only complex III activity from lipoperoxidation-sensitive mitochondria exhibited a higher susceptibility to H(2)O(2) and increased superoxide production. The recovery of ETC activity by the thiol reductanct β-mercaptoethanol (BME) was also altered at complex III, and a role was attributed to lipoperoxidation, the latter being also responsible for iron release. A hypothetical model linking lipoperoxidation, increased complex III damage, superoxide production and iron release is given.

  7. Video analysis of sliding chains: A dynamic model based on variable-mass systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, R.; Page, A.; Riera, J.; Hueso, J. L.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the dynamics of a chain sliding off of a table, using video analysis to test a theoretical model. The model consists of two variable-mass subsystems, with friction between the chain and the table and assumes that all links move at the same speed. In order to check the model, the chain position x(t) is obtained using video analysis. The smoothed function x(t) and its derivatives v(t) and a(t) are numerically computed using a local regression algorithm. In this way, the differential equation governing the motion can be directly tested, instead of comparing the position with the solution of the differential equation. Our procedure is very sensitive to deviations between the model and reality, so we can detect the point at which the chain ceases to be in tension and the model is no longer valid. This experiment shows students the limitations of simplified models and offers an opportunity to assess a model's range of validity.

  8. Mobile phones affect multiple sperm quality traits: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-01-01

    As mobile phone usage is growing rapidly, there is a need for a comprehensive analysis of the literature to inform scientific debates about the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality traits. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the eligible published research studies on human males of reproductive age. Eleven studies were eligible for this analysis. Based on the meta-analysis, mobile phone use was significantly associated with deterioration in semen quality (Hedges’s g = -0.547; 95% CI: -0.713, -0.382; p < 0.001). The traits particularly affected adversely were sperm concentration, sperm morphology, sperm motility, proportion of non-progressive motile sperm (%), proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (%), and sperm viability. Direct exposure of spermatozoa to mobile phone radiation with in vitro study designs also significantly deteriorated the sperm quality (Hedges’s g = -2.233; 95% CI: -2.758, -1.708; p < 0.001), by reducing straight line velocity, fast progressive motility, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test score, major axis (µm), minor axis (µm), total sperm motility, perimeter (µm), area (µm 2), average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, motile spermatozoa, and  acrosome reacted spermatozoa (%). The strength of evidence for the different outcomes varied from very low to very high. The analysis shows that mobile phone use is possibly associated with a number of deleterious effects on the spermatozoa. PMID:24327874

  9. Critical role of alkyl chain branching of organic semiconductors in enabling solution-processed N-channel organic thin-film transistors with mobility of up to 3.50 cm² V(-1) s(-1).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Hu, Yunbin; Schuettfort, Torben; Di, Chong-an; Gao, Xike; McNeill, Christopher R; Thomsen, Lars; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Yuan, Wei; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhu, Daoben

    2013-02-13

    Substituted side chains are fundamental units in solution processable organic semiconductors in order to achieve a balance of close intermolecular stacking, high crystallinity, and good compatibility with different wet techniques. Based on four air-stable solution-processed naphthalene diimides fused with 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)malononitrile groups (NDI-DTYM2) that bear branched alkyl chains with varied side-chain length and different branching position, we have carried out systematic studies on the relationship between film microstructure and charge transport in their organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). In particular synchrotron measurements (grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure) are combined with device optimization studies to probe the interplay between molecular structure, molecular packing, and OTFT mobility. It is found that the side-chain length has a moderate influence on thin-film microstructure but leads to only limited changes in OTFT performance. In contrast, the position of branching point results in subtle, yet critical changes in molecular packing and leads to dramatic differences in electron mobility ranging from ~0.001 to >3.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Incorporating a NDI-DTYM2 core with three-branched N-alkyl substituents of C(11,6) results in a dense in-plane molecular packing with an unit cell area of 127 Å(2), larger domain sizes of up to 1000 × 3000 nm(2), and an electron mobility of up to 3.50 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is an unprecedented value for ambient stable n-channel solution-processed OTFTs reported to date. These results demonstrate that variation of the alkyl chain branching point is a powerful strategy for tuning of molecular packing to enable high charge transport mobilities.

  10. Clinical experience with the Diametrics IRMA (Immediate Response Mobile Analysis) blood analysis system.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, K D; Oen, S; LaFauce, L; Sanford, D M

    1997-03-01

    The Immediate Response Mobile Analysis (IRMA) blood analysis system (Diametrics Medical Incorporated, St Paul, MN, USA) is a new point-of-care testing device that uses technology similar to the Gem Premier (Mallinckrodt Sensor Systems Incorporated, Ann-Arbor, MI, USA), which are ion-specific electrodes. We compared these two analysers using both patient blood samples (n = 50) and aqueous quality control solutions (n = 45). Linear regression (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient) was performed to quantify the strength of the association between results. In addition, bias and precision were determined in accordance with the method described by Bland and Altman. The results demonstrated excellent correlation between the IRMA and the Gem Premier, and bias and precision were acceptable for both patient and quality control samples. Reproducibility of results was also assessed using one level of aqueous quality control solution (n = 50). The IRMA demonstrated very little variance in parameter readings over a five-day study period.

  11. Impact of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) on EFL: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taj, Imtiaz Hassan; Sulan, Norrihan Binti; Sipra, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmad, Waqar

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) has emerged as a potential tool in the instruction of English as a foreign language (EFL). Meta-analysis of 13 studies published between year 2008 and 2015 was conducted. Four point criteria for the selection of studies for analysis is based on the year of publication, quasi-experimental design, pretest and…

  12. Review of Trends from Mobile Learning Studies: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Wu, Yen-Chun Jim; Chen, Chun-Yu; Kao, Hao-Yun; Lin, Che-Hung; Huang, Sih-Han

    2012-01-01

    Two previous literature review-based studies have provided important insights into mobile learning, but the issue still needs to be examined from other directions such as the distribution of research purposes. This study takes a meta-analysis approach to systematically reviewing the literature, thus providing a more comprehensive analysis and…

  13. Review of Trends from Mobile Learning Studies: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Wu, Yen-Chun Jim; Chen, Chun-Yu; Kao, Hao-Yun; Lin, Che-Hung; Huang, Sih-Han

    2012-01-01

    Two previous literature review-based studies have provided important insights into mobile learning, but the issue still needs to be examined from other directions such as the distribution of research purposes. This study takes a meta-analysis approach to systematically reviewing the literature, thus providing a more comprehensive analysis and…

  14. Cost analysis of a randomized stem cell mobilization study in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Varmavuo, Ville; Silvennoinen, Raija; Anttila, Pekka; Säily, Marjaana; Sankelo, Marja; Putkonen, Mervi; Ahonen, Jouni; Mahlamäki, Eija; Mäntymaa, Pentti; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Remes, Kari; Jantunen, Esa

    2016-10-01

    Upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard therapy for younger multiple myeloma (MM) patients. MM patients usually undergo stem cell mobilization with cyclophosphamide (CY) followed by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), or with G-CSF alone. A limited number of randomized studies are available comparing costs of different mobilization strategies. Eighty transplant-eligible patients aged up to 70 years with untreated MM were included in this prospective study. The patients were treated with RVD induction for three 21-day cycles and randomized 1:1 at inclusion into one of the two mobilization arms CY 2 g/m(2) + G-CSF [arm A] vs. G-CSF alone [arm B]. Plerixafor was given according to a specific algorithm if needed. Sixty-nine patients who received mobilization followed by blood graft collection were included in the cost analysis. The median total costs of the mobilization phase were significantly higher in arm A than in arm B (3855 € vs. 772 €, p ≤ 0.001). The cumulative median cost of the mobilization and collection phases was significantly lower in arm B than in arm A (8524 € vs. 11,622 €, p = 0.012). There was no significant difference between the arms in the total median costs of ASCT (n = 59) (34,997 € in arm A vs. 31,981 € in arm B, p = 0.118). Mobilization with G-CSF alone seems to be a preferable mobilization method for MM patients in terms of mobilization and apheresis costs. In addition, it requires less hospital resource utilization.

  15. Mobile phone use and glioma risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Guo, WenWen; Yang, ChunSheng; Tang, JianQin; Huang, Qian; Feng, ShouXin; Jiang, AiJun; Xu, XiFeng; Jiang, Guan

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have previously investigated the potential association between mobile phone use and the risk of glioma. However, results from these individual studies are inconclusive and controversial. The objective of our study was to investigate the potential association between mobile phone use and subsequent glioma risk using meta-analysis. We performed a systematic search of the Science Citation Index Embase and PubMed databases for studies reporting relevant data on mobile phone use and glioma in 1980-2016. The data were extracted and measured in terms of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the random effects model. Subgroup analyses were also carried out. This meta-analysis eventually included 11 studies comprising a total 6028 cases and 11488 controls. There was a significant positive association between long-term mobile phone use (minimum, 10 years) and glioma (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.08-1.91). And there was a significant positive association between long-term ipsilateral mobile phone use and the risk of glioma (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.12-1.92). Long-term mobile phone use was associated with 2.22 times greater odds of low-grade glioma occurrence (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69-2.92). Mobile phone use of any duration was not associated with the odds of high-grade glioma (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72-0.92). Contralateral mobile phone use was not associated with glioma regardless of the duration of use. Similarly, this association was not observed when the analysis was limited to high-grade glioma. Our results suggest that long-term mobile phone use may be associated with an increased risk of glioma. There was also an association between mobile phone use and low-grade glioma in the regular use or long-term use subgroups. However, current evidence is of poor quality and limited quantity. It is therefore necessary to conduct large sample, high quality research or better characterization of any potential association between long-term ipsilateral mobile

  16. Mobile phone use and glioma risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, JianQin; Huang, Qian; Feng, ShouXin; Jiang, AiJun; Xu, XiFeng; Jiang, Guan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Many studies have previously investigated the potential association between mobile phone use and the risk of glioma. However, results from these individual studies are inconclusive and controversial. The objective of our study was to investigate the potential association between mobile phone use and subsequent glioma risk using meta-analysis. Methods We performed a systematic search of the Science Citation Index Embase and PubMed databases for studies reporting relevant data on mobile phone use and glioma in 1980–2016. The data were extracted and measured in terms of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the random effects model. Subgroup analyses were also carried out. This meta-analysis eventually included 11 studies comprising a total 6028 cases and 11488 controls. Results There was a significant positive association between long-term mobile phone use (minimum, 10 years) and glioma (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.08–1.91). And there was a significant positive association between long-term ipsilateral mobile phone use and the risk of glioma (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92). Long-term mobile phone use was associated with 2.22 times greater odds of low-grade glioma occurrence (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69–2.92). Mobile phone use of any duration was not associated with the odds of high-grade glioma (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72–0.92). Contralateral mobile phone use was not associated with glioma regardless of the duration of use. Similarly, this association was not observed when the analysis was limited to high-grade glioma. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-term mobile phone use may be associated with an increased risk of glioma. There was also an association between mobile phone use and low-grade glioma in the regular use or long-term use subgroups. However, current evidence is of poor quality and limited quantity. It is therefore necessary to conduct large sample, high quality research or better characterization of any potential

  17. SMARTbot: A Behavioral Analysis Framework Augmented with Machine Learning to Identify Mobile Botnet Applications.

    PubMed

    Karim, Ahmad; Salleh, Rosli; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-01-01

    Botnet phenomenon in smartphones is evolving with the proliferation in mobile phone technologies after leaving imperative impact on personal computers. It refers to the network of computers, laptops, mobile devices or tablets which is remotely controlled by the cybercriminals to initiate various distributed coordinated attacks including spam emails, ad-click fraud, Bitcoin mining, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS), disseminating other malwares and much more. Likewise traditional PC based botnet, Mobile botnets have the same operational impact except the target audience is particular to smartphone users. Therefore, it is import to uncover this security issue prior to its widespread adaptation. We propose SMARTbot, a novel dynamic analysis framework augmented with machine learning techniques to automatically detect botnet binaries from malicious corpus. SMARTbot is a component based off-device behavioral analysis framework which can generate mobile botnet learning model by inducing Artificial Neural Networks' back-propagation method. Moreover, this framework can detect mobile botnet binaries with remarkable accuracy even in case of obfuscated program code. The results conclude that, a classifier model based on simple logistic regression outperform other machine learning classifier for botnet apps' detection, i.e 99.49% accuracy is achieved. Further, from manual inspection of botnet dataset we have extracted interesting trends in those applications. As an outcome of this research, a mobile botnet dataset is devised which will become the benchmark for future studies.

  18. SMARTbot: A Behavioral Analysis Framework Augmented with Machine Learning to Identify Mobile Botnet Applications

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Ahmad; Salleh, Rosli; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-01-01

    Botnet phenomenon in smartphones is evolving with the proliferation in mobile phone technologies after leaving imperative impact on personal computers. It refers to the network of computers, laptops, mobile devices or tablets which is remotely controlled by the cybercriminals to initiate various distributed coordinated attacks including spam emails, ad-click fraud, Bitcoin mining, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS), disseminating other malwares and much more. Likewise traditional PC based botnet, Mobile botnets have the same operational impact except the target audience is particular to smartphone users. Therefore, it is import to uncover this security issue prior to its widespread adaptation. We propose SMARTbot, a novel dynamic analysis framework augmented with machine learning techniques to automatically detect botnet binaries from malicious corpus. SMARTbot is a component based off-device behavioral analysis framework which can generate mobile botnet learning model by inducing Artificial Neural Networks’ back-propagation method. Moreover, this framework can detect mobile botnet binaries with remarkable accuracy even in case of obfuscated program code. The results conclude that, a classifier model based on simple logistic regression outperform other machine learning classifier for botnet apps’ detection, i.e 99.49% accuracy is achieved. Further, from manual inspection of botnet dataset we have extracted interesting trends in those applications. As an outcome of this research, a mobile botnet dataset is devised which will become the benchmark for future studies. PMID:26978523

  19. Mobility analysis tool based on the fundamental principle of conservation of energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Nho, Hyuchul C.; Salton, Jonathan Robert

    2007-08-01

    In the past decade, a great deal of effort has been focused in research and development of versatile robotic ground vehicles without understanding their performance in a particular operating environment. As the usage of robotic ground vehicles for intelligence applications increases, understanding mobility of the vehicles becomes critical to increase the probability of their successful operations. This paper describes a framework based on conservation of energy to predict the maximum mobility of robotic ground vehicles over general terrain. The basis of the prediction is the difference between traction capability and energy loss at the vehicle-terrain interface. The mission success of a robotic ground vehicle is primarily a function of mobility. Mobility of a vehicle is defined as the overall capability of a vehicle to move from place to place while retaining its ability to perform its primary mission. A mobility analysis tool based on the fundamental principle of conservation of energy is described in this document. The tool is a graphical user interface application. The mobility analysis tool has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The tool is at an initial stage of development. In the future, the tool will be expanded to include all vehicles and terrain types.

  20. Mobile Technology Boosts the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy and Behavioral Interventions: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B.; Rosen, Dana; Silk, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of mobile technology on treatment outcome for psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions. Our search of the literature resulted in 26 empirical articles describing 25 clinical trials testing the benefits of smartphone applications, PDAs, or text messaging systems either to supplement treatment or substitute for direct contact with a clinician. Overall, mobile technology use was associated with superior treatment outcome across all study designs and control conditions, ES = .34, p < .0001. For the subset of 10 studies that looked specifically at the added benefit of mobile technology using a rigorous “Treatment” versus “Treatment + Mobile” design, effect sizes were only slightly more modest (ES = .27) and still significant (p < .05). Overall, the results support the role of mobile technology for the delivery of psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions. PMID:26187164

  1. Mobile phone use and location of glioma: a case-case analysis.

    PubMed

    Hartikka, Hanna; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Mäntylä, Riitta; Kähärä, Veikko; Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi

    2009-04-01

    We assessed a new approach for evaluating the glioma risk among users of mobile phones to focus on the part of the brain most heavily exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phones. The tumor midpoint was defined from radiological imaging. A case-case analysis with 99 gliomas was performed using logistic regression. The exposed cases were those with the tumor mid-point within 4.6 cm from the line between the mouth and the external meatus of the ear, representing the most likely location of the mobile phone (the source of exposure). Alternative analyses based on various indicators of mobile phone use as the outcome were also carried out. The majority of cases were regular mobile phone users. A slightly higher proportion of gliomas among mobile phone users than non-users occurred within 4.6 cm from the presumed location of the mobile phone (28% vs. 14%). Modestly elevated odds ratios were observed for several indicators of mobile phone use, but without an exposure gradient. The highest odds ratios were found for contralateral and short-term use. Our results, though limited by the small sample size, demonstrate that detailed information on tumor location allows evaluation of the risk related to the most heavily exposed part of the brain, representing direct evaluation of the possible local carcinogenic effects of the radiofrequency fields. However, field strength varies between users and over time also within a given anatomic site, due to the output power of the phone. Collaborative analysis of a larger sample is planned.

  2. Analysis of a dynamic speaker in mobile phones by considering mechanical, electrical, and magnetic coupling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, G. Y.; Kim, K. T.; Chung, S. U.; Hwang, S. M.; Kang, B. S.; Hwang, I. C.

    2002-05-01

    With the advent of 3G mobile phones, a combined laptop personal computer and mobile phone can be realized that enables multimedia data communication such as TV streaming, web searching, music play, etc. A dynamic speaker is an essential part to generate high quality sound in the next generation mobile phones. Noting that characteristics of a dynamic speaker are a coupled phenomenon of mechanical, electrical, and magnetic system, a systematic analysis must be implemented to fully consider the coupling effects for an improved design. This paper presents a complete analysis of a dynamic speaker by considering mechanical, electrical and magnetic coupling effects. Results of the analysis are confirmed by the experiments. An improved design of a dynamic speaker is also proposed with enhanced performance.

  3. Markov Chain analysis of turbiditic facies and flow dynamics (Magura Zone, Outer Western Carpathians, NW Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staňová, Sidónia; Soták, Ján; Hudec, Norbert

    2009-08-01

    Methods based on the Markov Chains can be easily applied in the evaluation of order in sedimentary sequences. In this contribution Markov Chain analysis was applied to analysis of turbiditic formation of the Outer Western Carpathians in NW Slovakia, although it also has broader utilization in the interpretation of sedimentary sequences from other depositional environments. Non-random facies transitions were determined in the investigated strata and compared to the standard deep-water facies models to provide statistical evidence for the sedimentological interpretation of depositional processes. As a result, six genetic facies types, interpreted in terms of depositional processes, were identified. They comprise deposits of density flows, turbidity flows, suspension fallout as well as units which resulted from syn- or post-depositional deformation.

  4. Is anoxic depolarisation associated with an ADC threshold? A Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis.

    PubMed

    King, Martin D; Crowder, Martin J; Hand, David J; Harris, Neil G; Williams, Stephen R; Obrenovitch, Tihomir P; Gadian, David G

    2005-12-01

    A Bayesian nonlinear hierarchical random coefficients model was used in a reanalysis of a previously published longitudinal study of the extracellular direct current (DC)-potential and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) responses to focal ischaemia. The main purpose was to examine the data for evidence of an ADC threshold for anoxic depolarisation. A Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation approach was adopted. The Metropolis algorithm was used to generate three parallel Markov chains and thus obtain a sampled posterior probability distribution for each of the DC-potential and ADC model parameters, together with a number of derived parameters. The latter were used in a subsequent threshold analysis. The analysis provided no evidence indicating a consistent and reproducible ADC threshold for anoxic depolarisation.

  5. Thermal Analysis of Brazing Seal and Sterilizing Technique to Break Contamination Chain for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2015-01-01

    The potential to return Martian samples to Earth for extensive analysis is in great interest of the planetary science community. It is important to make sure the mission would securely contain any microbes that may possibly exist on Mars so that they would not be able to cause any adverse effects on Earth's environment. A brazing sealing and sterilizing technique has been proposed to break the Mars-to-Earth contamination chain. Thermal analysis of the brazing process was conducted for several conceptual designs that apply the technique. Control of the increase of the temperature of the Martian samples is a challenge. The temperature profiles of the Martian samples being sealed in the container were predicted by finite element thermal models. The results show that the sealing and sterilization process can be controlled such that the samples' temperature is maintained below the potentially required level, and that the brazing technique is a feasible approach to break the contamination chain.

  6. Collagen alpha5 and alpha2(IV) chain coexpression: analysis of skin biopsies of Alport patients.

    PubMed

    Patey-Mariaud de Serre, N; Garfa, M; Bessiéres, B; Noël, L H; Knebelmann, B

    2007-08-01

    Alport syndrome is a collagen type IV disease caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene with the X-linked form being most prevalent. The resultant alpha5(IV) collagen chain is a component of the glomerular and skin basement membranes (SBMs). Immunofluorescent determination of the alpha5(IV) chain in skin biopsies is the procedure of choice to identify patients. In 30% of patients, however, the mutant protein is still found in the SBM resulting in a normal staining pattern. In order to minimize or eliminate false results, we compared the distribution of the alpha2(IV) chain (another SBM component) and the alpha5(IV) chain by standard double label immunofluorescence (IF) and by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The study was performed on 55 skin biopsies of patients suspected of Alports and five normal control specimens. In normal skin, IF showed the classical linear pattern for both collagens along the basement membrane. Additionally, decreased alpha5(IV) was found in the bottom of the dermal papillary basement membrane. Confocal analysis confirmed the results and show alpha5(IV) focal interruptions. In suspected patients, both techniques showed the same rate of abnormal alpha5(IV) expression: segmental in women and absent in men. Our results show a physiological variation of alpha5(IV) location with focal interruptions and decreased expression in the bottom of the dermal basement membrane. Comparison of alpha5(IV) with alpha2(IV) expression is simple and eliminates technical artifacts.

  7. Reply to ``Comment on `Mobility spectrum computational analysis using a maximum entropy approach' ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, O. A.; Myronov, M.; Kiatgamolchai, S.; Kantser, V. G.

    2004-03-01

    In their Comment [J. Antoszewski, D. D. Redfern, L. Faraone, J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, and J. Lindemuth, Phys. Rev. E 69, 038701 (2004)] on our paper [S. Kiatgamolchai, M. Myronov, O. A. Mironov, V. G. Kantser, E. H. C. Parker, and T. E. Whall, Phys. Rev. E 66, 036705 (2002)] the authors present computational results obtained with the improved quantitative mobility spectrum analysis technique implemented in the commercial software of Lake Shore Cryotronics. We suggest that this is just information additional to the mobility spectrum analysis (MSA) in general without any direct relation to our maximum entropy MSA (ME-MSA) algorithm.

  8. Experimental and numerical analysis of turbulence/mobile-bed interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil-Baudard, Thibaud; Chauchat, Julien; Hurther, David; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Cheng, Zhen

    2017-04-01

    Highly resoluted and co-located velocity and concentration measurements have been obtained by using an Acoustic Concentration and Velocity Profiler (ACVP) in an intense sediment transport laboratory experiment. This dataset is used to investigate the complex coupling between the turbulent fluid motion and the sediment bed. It has been shown that the bed interface position is highly intermittent because of the impact of the large-scale coherent structures. The important contribution of the streamwise turbulent fluxes observed close to the sediment bed might be related to the bed-intermittency. In return, the mobile bed affects the turbulent fluid flow. It is shown that the turbulent kinetic energy is enhanced by the bed-mobility compared with a similar clear-water flow. However the streamwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations are observed to be less correlated in the suspension region, resulting in a reduced efficiency of turbulence for momentum mixing. In the suspension region, the turbulent particle diffusivity is shown to be twice greater than the momentum diffusivity. Two possible mechanisms might provide an explanation for this feature. First, the increased contribution of the so-called interaction turbulent events tend to increase the velocity gradients, consistently with a drop of momentum mixing. These interactions events are also efficient to increase particle dispersion and hence to increase concentration mixing. Second, the turbulent particle diffusivity is directly proportional to the particle settling velocity which is classically taken as the one measured or computed in still-water conditions. However, different mechanisms highlighted in the literatures imply a turbulence-induced modification of the settling velocity. This modification could partly explain why the turbulent concentration mixing appears to be more efficient than the momentum one in sediment-laden flows. These experimental results are utilized to improve the sub-grid dissipation and

  9. Automatic identification of mobile and rigid substructures in molecular dynamics simulations and fractional structural fluctuation analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of structural mobility in molecular dynamics plays a key role in data interpretation, particularly in the simulation of biomolecules. The most common mobility measures computed from simulations are the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) and Root Mean Square Fluctuations (RMSF) of the structures. These are computed after the alignment of atomic coordinates in each trajectory step to a reference structure. This rigid-body alignment is not robust, in the sense that if a small portion of the structure is highly mobile, the RMSD and RMSF increase for all atoms, resulting possibly in poor quantification of the structural fluctuations and, often, to overlooking important fluctuations associated to biological function. The motivation of this work is to provide a robust measure of structural mobility that is practical, and easy to interpret. We propose a Low-Order-Value-Optimization (LOVO) strategy for the robust alignment of the least mobile substructures in a simulation. These substructures are automatically identified by the method. The algorithm consists of the iterative superposition of the fraction of structure displaying the smallest displacements. Therefore, the least mobile substructures are identified, providing a clearer picture of the overall structural fluctuations. Examples are given to illustrate the interpretative advantages of this strategy. The software for performing the alignments was named MDLovoFit and it is available as free-software at: http://leandro.iqm.unicamp.br/mdlovofit.

  10. Mobile mammography in underserved populations: analysis of outcomes of 3,923 women.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Sandra E; Hembree, Tina M; Shelton, Brent J; Beache, Sydney C; Aschbacher, Greta; Schervish, Philip H; Dignan, Mark B

    2013-10-01

    Mobile health units are increasingly utilized to address barriers to mammography screening. Despite the existence of mobile mammography outreach throughout the US, there is a paucity of data describing the populations served by mobile units and the ability of these programs to reach underserved populations, address disparities, and report on outcomes of screening performance. To evaluate the association of variables associated with outcomes for women undergoing breast cancer screening and clinical evaluation on a mobile unit. Retrospective analysis of women undergoing mammography screening during the period 2008-2010. Logistic regression was fitted using generalized estimating equations to account for potential repeat annual visits to the mobile unit. In total, 4,543 mammograms and/or clinical breast exams were conducted on 3,923 women with a mean age of 54.6, 29 % of whom had either never been screened or had not had a screening in 5 years. Age < 50 years, lack of insurance, Hispanic ethnicity, current smoking, or having a family relative (<50 years of age) with a diagnosis of cancer were associated with increased odds of a suspicious mammogram finding (BIRADS 4,5,6). Thirty-one breast cancers were detected. The mobile outreach initiative successfully engaged many women who had not had a recent mammogram. Lack of insurance and current smoking were modifiable variables associated with abnormal screens requiring follow up.

  11. Shaping Air Mobility Forces for Future Relevance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    scholarly Air Uni- versity studies provide independent analysis and constructive discussion on issues important to Air Force commanders, staffs, and...in peace and war. For anyone concerned with the future of air mobility, these command rela- tionships are important because they lay out the geography...coordination with the combatant chain if considering operational and strategic issues. Also important to shaping air mobility policy is that all of

  12. Food chain analysis of exposures and risks to wildlife at a metals-contaminated wetland.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, G A; Blanchet, R J; Linder, G

    1996-03-01

    A food chain analysis of risks to wetland receptors was performed in support of a baseline ecological risk assessment at the Milltown Reservoir Sediments Superfund site in Montana. The study area consisted of over 450 acres of primarily palustrine wetland contaminated with metals from mining wastes transported from upstream sources (average of 465 mg/kg for Cu in sediments, and 585 mg/kg in soils). The food chain analysis focused on several species of terrestrial and semiaquatic animals indigenous to montane wetlands of the northern Rocky Mountains. Receptors consisted of mice, voles, muskrats, beaver, various waterfowl species, osprey, bald eagles, and deer. Samples of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, small mammal tissues, fish tissue, aquatic and terrestrial vegetation, soils, sediment, and surface water were collected and analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, and Zn. A linear multimedia food-chain model was constructed to estimate daily intakes of the metals for each receptor, with assumed values for ingestion of aquatic and terrestrial food items, ingestion of local surface water, and incidental ingestion of soils and/or sediments. Evaluation of health risks to the receptors was performed by comparison of exposures expressed as daily intakes to a suite of toxicity values. The range of values consisted of the lower end of chronic toxicity data found in toxicology databases or the literature for the same or similar species, modified to account for extrapolation uncertainties. Daily intakes of chemicals of concern were below or within the range of toxicity values for all receptors. The weight of evidence from the food chain analysis and earlier bioassessment and ecological studies suggest that the health of the wetland receptors is at minimal risk due to the presence of elevated metals in sediments, upland soils, water, or food items at the site.

  13. Wear analysis of unicondylar mobile bearing and fixed bearing knee systems: a knee simulator study.

    PubMed

    Kretzer, J Philippe; Jakubowitz, Eike; Reinders, Jörn; Lietz, Eva; Moradi, Babak; Hofmann, Kerstin; Sonntag, Robert

    2011-02-01

    Unicondylar knee arthroplasty is an attractive alternative to total knee arthroplasty for selected patients with osteoarthritis. Mobile bearing knee designs have been developed to improve knee kinematics, lower contact stresses and reduced wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene compared with fixed bearing designs. This study compared in vitro wear behavior of fixed and mobile unicondylar bearing designs. Analysis was performed using a force-controlled AMTI knee simulator according to ISO 14243-1:2002(E). The wear volume of the implants was determined gravimetrically. Optical surface characterization and an estimation of wear particle size and morphology were performed. Implant kinematic data for both designs were determined. The wear rates averaged 10.7 ± 0.59 mg per 10(6) cycles for the medial and 5.38 ± 0.63 mg per 10(6) cycles for the lateral components of the mobile bearings, compared with 7.51 ± 0.29 mg per 10(6) cycles and 3.04 ± 0.35 mg per 10(6) cycles for the fixed bearings. The mobile bearings therefore exhibited higher wear rates (P<0.01) compared with the fixed bearings. The tibial polyethylene inserts of the mobile bearings showed pronounced backside wear at the inferior surface. The kinematics of both designs was similar. However, anterior-posterior translation was lower in the mobile bearings. The wear particles were mainly elongated and small in size for both designs (P=0.462). This study shows that wear may play an important role in unicondylar mobile bearing knee designs. Advantages of unicondylar mobile designs compared with fixed bearing designs, which have been proposed in terms of wear behavior and improved kinematics, could not be confirmed.

  14. A Review of Strategic Mobility Models and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Logistics Directorate of the Joint Staff, (JS-J-4) specifically by the Studies , Concepts, and Analysis Division (SCAD), which conducts long-range...their analysis objec- tives. This study was designed to assist the Logistics Directorate of the Joint Staff (JS/J-4) to understand and improve the...This study concentrated on resource planning, which is the type of planning performed by the Logistics Directorate’s Studies , Concepts, and Analysis

  15. Weight and structural analysis of four structural concepts for a land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J.; Wright, R. L.; Farmer, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The present study is concerned with a Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) which can provide mobile communications for commercial and government applications in nonmetropolitan areas of the continental U.S. and Canada as an augmentation to existing and planned terrestrial systems. The satellite system would provide 'narrow band' telecommunications services, thin-route fixed telephone and data services in the 806-890 MHz band, and continuous emergency beacon monitoring in the 406-406.1 MHz band. It is pointed out that a satellite system operating in concert with terrestrial cellular systems could provide truly ubiquitous mobile communications services in the U.S. and Canada. A single shuttle shuttle launch could place the LMSS spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit over the continental U.S. in 1995 with a 10-year lifetime. Attention is given to the structural concepts, a weight analysis, and a structural analysis.

  16. Mobile phone base stations and well-being--A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klaps, Armin; Ponocny, Ivo; Winker, Robert; Kundi, Michael; Auersperg, Felicitas; Barth, Alfred

    2016-02-15

    It is unclear whether electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone base stations affect well-being in adults. The existing studies on this topic are highly inconsistent. In the current paper we attempt to clarify this question by carrying out a meta-analysis which is based on the results of 17 studies. Double-blind studies found no effects on human well-being. By contrast, field or unblinded studies clearly showed that there were indeed effects. This provides evidence that at least some effects are based on a nocebo effect. Whether there is an influence of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone base stations thus depends on a person's knowledge about the presence of the presumed cause. Taken together, the results of the meta-analysis show that the effects of mobile phone base stations seem to be rather unlikely. However, nocebo effects occur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Extrahepatic stem cells mobilized from the bone marrow by the supplementation of branched-chain amino acids ameliorate liver regeneration in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, Takehiro; Shima, Yasuo; Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Kozuki, Akihito; Iiyama, Tatsuo; Tokumaru, Teppei; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Sugimoto, Takeki; Takezaki, Yuka; Maeda, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Michiya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cell repopulation of injured organs has been increasingly observed; however, the extent to which it occurs and its clinical relevance remain unclear. Here, we investigated on the potential of extrahepatic stem cells to become hepatocytes using the treatment of the oral supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). In the first, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered BCAA to promote liver regeneration; in the second, syngenic liver transplantations using wild-type SD rats that do not express green fluorescent protein (GFP) as syngenic donors and GFP-transgenic SD rats as recipients to confirm that an extrahepatic source of cells (GFP(+)) could repopulate the transplanted (GFP(-)) liver were performed. Treatment of the oral supplementation of BCAA for 2-3 weeks before transplantation to promote liver regeneration resulted in greater than 7 days graft volume, with extensive spotty conversion of a small wild-type graft to the recipient GFP(+) genotype. The treatment by oral supplementation of BCAA resulted in higher levels of CD34+SDF+c-kit+ stem cells in the blood and liver after liver transplantation. Liver repopulation could be achieved with hepatocytes that bone marrow-derived from stem cells proliferated. We have identified extrahepatic stem cell migration from the BM to the injured liver as a mechanism underlying liver regeneration that supports hepatocyte proliferation in diseased liver. Our results suggested that BCAA is able to mobilize a population of BM-derived cells that contribute to hepatic regeneration. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Diffraction analysis of decorated Fibonacci chains in the average unit-cell approach.

    PubMed

    Wolny, J; Pytlik, L

    2000-01-01

    A novel approach to diffraction analysis of decorated quasicrystals is discussed. An average unit cell has been constructed for a decorated Fibonacci chain and used for analysis of its diffraction pattern. After some transformation of the scattering vectors, all the diffraction peaks are described by a single envelope function which is characteristic of a given decoration. It has been shown that by knowing several diffraction intensities, in a limited range of the scattering vector, it is possible to reconstruct the envelope function successfully and distinguish between different decorated structures.

  19. Structured exercise improves mobility after hip fracture: a meta-analysis with meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Diong, Joanna; Allen, Natalie; Sherrington, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    To determine the effect of structured exercise on overall mobility in people after hip fracture. To explore associations between trial-level characteristics and overall mobility. Systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database to May 2014. Randomised controlled trials of structured exercise, which aimed to improve mobility compared with a control intervention in adult participants after surgery for hip fracture were included. Data were extracted by one investigator and checked by an independent investigator. Standardised mean differences (SMD) of overall mobility were meta-analysed using random effects models. Random effects meta-regression was used to explore associations between trial-level characteristics and overall mobility. 13 trials included in the meta-analysis involved 1903 participants. The pooled Hedges' g SMD for overall mobility was 0.35 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.58, p=0.002) in favour of the intervention. Meta-regression showed greater treatment effects in trials that included progressive resistance exercise (change in SMD=0.58, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.98, p=0.008, adjusted R2=60%) and delivered interventions in settings other than hospital alone (change in SMD=0.50, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.93, p=0.024, adjusted R2=49%). Structured exercise produced small improvements on overall mobility after hip fracture. Interventions that included progressive resistance training and were delivered in other settings were more effective, although the latter may have been confounded by duration of interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Understanding Divergent Thermal Conductivity in Single Polythiophene Chains Using Green-Kubo Modal Analysis and Sonification.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Winters, R Michael; DeAngelis, Freddy; Weinberg, Gil; Henry, Asegun

    2017-08-03

    We used molecular dynamics simulations and the Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method as well as sonification to study the modal contributions to thermal conductivity in individual polythiophene chains. The simulations suggest that it is possible to achieve divergent thermal conductivity in individual polythiophene chains of certain lengths, with periodic boundary conditions. Application of the GKMA method further allowed for exact pinpointing of the modes responsible for the anomalous behavior. The analysis showed that transverse vibrations in the plane of the aromatic rings at low frequencies ∼0.05 THz are primarily responsible for the divergence. Within the integration time, one mode in particular exhibits a thermal conductivity contribution greater than 100 W m(-1) K(-1). Further investigation showed that the divergence arises from persistent correlation between the three lowest frequency modes on chains that have exact multiples of 30 unit cells in length. Sonification of the mode heat fluxes revealed regions where the heat flux amplitude yields a somewhat sinusoidal envelope with a long period similar to the relaxation time. This characteristic in the divergent mode heat fluxes gives rise to the overall thermal conductivity divergence, which strongly supports earlier hypotheses that attribute the divergence to correlated phonon-phonon scattering/interactions as opposed to a lack of scattering/interaction among modes (e.g., infinite relaxation time/ballistic transport).

  1. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  2. Evaluation of Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry for Comparative Analysis of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carly N; Gucinski-Ruth, Ashley C

    2016-05-01

    Analytical techniques capable of detecting changes in structure are necessary to monitor the quality of monoclonal antibody drug products. Ion mobility mass spectrometry offers an advanced mode of characterization of protein higher order structure. In this work, we evaluated the reproducibility of ion mobility mass spectrometry measurements and mobiligrams, as well as the suitability of this approach to differentiate between and/or characterize different monoclonal antibody drug products. Four mobiligram-derived metrics were identified to be reproducible across a multi-day window of analysis. These metrics were further applied to comparative studies of monoclonal antibody drug products representing different IgG subclasses, manufacturers, and lots. These comparisons resulted in some differences, based on the four metrics derived from ion mobility mass spectrometry mobiligrams. The use of collision-induced unfolding resulted in more observed differences. Use of summed charge state datasets and the analysis of metrics beyond drift time allowed for a more comprehensive comparative study between different monoclonal antibody drug products. Ion mobility mass spectrometry enabled detection of differences between monoclonal antibodies with the same target protein but different production techniques, as well as products with different targets. These differences were not always detectable by traditional collision cross section studies. Ion mobility mass spectrometry, and the added separation capability of collision-induced unfolding, was highly reproducible and remains a promising technique for advanced analytical characterization of protein therapeutics. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. Mobile dental units: leasing or buying? A dollar-cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Arevalo, Oscar; Saman, Daniel M; Bonaime, Alice; Skelton, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The decision to acquire a mobile dental unit is based on a standard capital budgeting analysis. The next step is to determine whether to obtain the use of the mobile dental unit by borrowing and purchasing or by leasing. As a financing mechanism, leases are simply another way of borrowing money to pay for the asset. To compare lease vs. debt as financial vehicles to acquiring a mobile dental unit. An estimate for a new mobile unit was obtained. Lease and loan proposals from financial lenders were collected. A cost of capital rate was chosen for comparison. Cash flows associated with borrowing and leasing vs. buying were determined fortwo different scenarios: for profit (FP) vs. not-for-profit (NFP), at 5 years. A dollar-cost analysis was utilized to determine the option with the lowest capitalized value. There was a net advantage to buying vs. leasing for both for FP and NFP organizations. Due to tax advantages, owning and leasing were substantially less expensive for FP than for NFP. Slight decreases in the monthly lease payments would make leasing competitive to the buying approach. Exploring alternative financing vehicles may allow dental programs to expand their services through the acquisition of a mobile unit. Though programs generally own assets, it is the use of the asset which is important rather than the ownership. Dental programs can find leasing an attractive alternative by offering access to capital with cash-flow advantages.

  4. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jessica A; Galloway, Tamara S; Mondal, Debapriya; Esteves, Sandro C; Mathews, Fiona

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are owned by most of the adult population worldwide. Radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from these devices could potentially affect sperm development and function. Around 14% of couples in high- and middle-income countries have difficulty conceiving, and there are unexplained declines in semen quality reported in several countries. Given the ubiquity of mobile phone use, the potential role of this environmental exposure needs to be clarified. A systematic review was therefore conducted, followed by meta-analysis using random effects models, to determine whether exposure to RF-EMR emitted from mobile phones affects human sperm quality. Participants were from fertility clinic and research centres. The sperm quality outcome measures were motility, viability and concentration, which are the parameters most frequently used in clinical settings to assess fertility. We used ten studies in the meta-analysis, including 1492 samples. Exposure to mobile phones was associated with reduced sperm motility (mean difference -8.1% (95% CI -13.1, -3.2)) and viability (mean difference -9.1% (95% CI -18.4, 0.2)), but the effects on concentration were more equivocal. The results were consistent across experimental in vitro and observational in vivo studies. We conclude that pooled results from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that mobile phone exposure negatively affects sperm quality. Further study is required to determine the full clinical implications for both sub-fertile men and the general population.

  5. Evaluation of Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry for Comparative Analysis of Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Carly N.; Gucinski-Ruth, Ashley C.

    2016-05-01

    Analytical techniques capable of detecting changes in structure are necessary to monitor the quality of monoclonal antibody drug products. Ion mobility mass spectrometry offers an advanced mode of characterization of protein higher order structure. In this work, we evaluated the reproducibility of ion mobility mass spectrometry measurements and mobiligrams, as well as the suitability of this approach to differentiate between and/or characterize different monoclonal antibody drug products. Four mobiligram-derived metrics were identified to be reproducible across a multi-day window of analysis. These metrics were further applied to comparative studies of monoclonal antibody drug products representing different IgG subclasses, manufacturers, and lots. These comparisons resulted in some differences, based on the four metrics derived from ion mobility mass spectrometry mobiligrams. The use of collision-induced unfolding resulted in more observed differences. Use of summed charge state datasets and the analysis of metrics beyond drift time allowed for a more comprehensive comparative study between different monoclonal antibody drug products. Ion mobility mass spectrometry enabled detection of differences between monoclonal antibodies with the same target protein but different production techniques, as well as products with different targets. These differences were not always detectable by traditional collision cross section studies. Ion mobility mass spectrometry, and the added separation capability of collision-induced unfolding, was highly reproducible and remains a promising technique for advanced analytical characterization of protein therapeutics.

  6. Multibody Graph Transformations and Analysis Part II: Closed-chain constraint embedding

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhinandan

    2011-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper that develops graph theoretic techniques for the topological transformation and analysis of multibody system dynamics. The first part focused on tree systems, and developed systematic and rigorous techniques for the partitioning, aggregation and sub-structuring of multibody dynamics models. This second part, uses the aggregation techniques as the foundation to develop the constraint-embedding technique that enables the transformation of the non-tree system graphs into tree graphs. This enables the application of a large family of analytical and computational techniques for trees to closed-chain systems. This is illustrated through an extension of the low-order articulated-body forward dynamics algorithm for tree systems to closed-chain systems. PMID:22267894

  7. Exploring extraction/dissolution procedures for analysis of starch chain-length distributions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Alex Chi; Li, EnPeng; Gilbert, Robert G

    2014-12-19

    The analysis of starch chain-length distributions (CLDs) is important for understanding starch biosythesis-structure-property relations. It is obtained by analyzing the number distribution of the linear glucan chains released by enzymatic debranching of starch α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds for subsequent characterization by techniques such as fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) or size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Current literature pretreatments for debranching prior to CLD determination involve varying protocols, which might yield artifactual results. This paper examines the two widely used starch dissolution treatments with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 0.5% (w/w) lithium bromide (DMSO-LiBr) at 80°C and with aqueous alkaline (i.e. NaOH) solvents at 100 ˚C. Analyses by FACE with a very high range of degree of polymerization, and by SEC, of the CLD of barley starches with different structures show the following. (1) The NaOH treatment, even at a dilute concentration, causes significant degradation at higher degrees of polymerization, leading to quantitatively incorrect CLD results in longer amylopectin and in amylose chains. (2) Certain features in both amylopectin and amylose fractions of the CLD reduced to bumps or are missing with NaOH treatment. (3) Overestimation of amylose chains in starch CLD due to incomplete amylopectin dissolution with dilute NaOH concentration. These results indicate starch dissolution with DMSO-LiBr is the method of choice for minimizing artifacts. An improved pretreatment protocol is presented for starch CLD analysis by FACE and SEC.

  8. Effective Ion Mobility Peak Width as a New Isomeric Descriptor for the Untargeted Analysis of Complex Mixtures Using Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farenc, Mathilde; Paupy, Benoit; Marceau, Sabrina; Riches, Eleanor; Afonso, Carlos; Giusti, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Ion mobility coupled with mass spectrometry was proven to be an efficient way to characterize complex mixtures such as petroleum samples. However, the identification of isomeric species is difficult owing to the molecular complexity of petroleum and no availability of standard molecules. This paper proposes a new simple indicator to estimate the isomeric content of highly complex mixtures. This indicator is based on the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the extracted ion mobility peak measured in millisecond or square angstrom that is corrected for instrumental factors such as ion diffusion. This value can be easily obtained without precisely identifying the number of isomeric species under the ion mobility peaks. Considering the Boduszynski model, the ion mobility profile for a particular elemental composition is expected to be a continuum of various isomeric species. The drift time-dependent fragmentation profile was studied and confirmed this hypothesis, a continuous evolution of the fragmentation profile showing that the larger alkyl chain species were detected at higher drift time values. This new indicator was proven to be a fast and efficient method to compare vacuum gas oils for which no difference was found using other analytical techniques.

  9. A Mobile Motion Analysis System Using Intertial Sensors for Analysis of Lower Limb Prosthetics

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, John Kyle P; Ericson, Milton Nance; Farquhar, Ethan; Lind, Randall F; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen

    2011-01-01

    Soldiers returning from the global war on terror requiring lower leg prosthetics generally have different concerns and requirements than the typical lower leg amputee. These subjects are usually young, wish to remain active and often desire to return to active military duty. As such, they demand higher performance from their prosthetics, but are at risk for chronic injury and joint conditions in their unaffected limb. Motion analysis is a valuable tool in assessing the performance of new and existing prosthetic technologies as well as the methods in fitting these devices to both maximize performance and minimize risk of injury for the individual soldier. We are developing a mobile, low-cost motion analysis system using inertial measurement units (IMUs) and two custom force sensors that detect ground reaction forces and moments on both the unaffected limb and prosthesis. IMUs were tested on a robot programmed to simulate human gait motion. An algorithm which uses a kinematic model of the robot and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) was used to convert the rates and accelerations from the gyro and accelerometer into joint angles. Compared to encoder data from the robot, which was considered the ground truth in this experiment, the inertial measurement system had a RMSE of <1.0 degree. Collecting kinematic and kinetic data without the restrictions and expense of a motion analysis lab could help researchers, designers and prosthetists advance prosthesis technology and customize devices for individuals. Ultimately, these improvements will result in better prosthetic performance for the military population.

  10. Learning Competences in Open Mobile Environments: A Comparative Analysis between Formal and Non-Formal Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figaredo, Daniel Domínguez; Miravalles, Paz Trillo

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the increasing use of mobile devices in education, new approaches to define the learning competences in the field of digitally mediated learning have emerged. This paper examines these approaches, using data obtained from empirical research with a group of Spanish university students. The analysis is focused on the experiences of…

  11. Orientation and Mobility in Australia and New Zealand: Situational Analysis and Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deverell, Lil; Scott, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    The orientation and mobility (O&M) profession is well established in Australia and New Zealand. This paper gives a situational analysis of O&M in these countries, including a brief history, an overview of professional training and current activity, and data gained from two censuses of the profession undertaken in 2002 and 2011. Social…

  12. Orientation and Mobility in Australia and New Zealand: Situational Analysis and Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deverell, Lil; Scott, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    The orientation and mobility (O&M) profession is well established in Australia and New Zealand. This paper gives a situational analysis of O&M in these countries, including a brief history, an overview of professional training and current activity, and data gained from two censuses of the profession undertaken in 2002 and 2011. Social…

  13. Fractal Inequality: A Social Network Analysis of Global and Regional International Student Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrander, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Literature on global international student mobility (ISM) highlights the uneven nature of student flows--from the developing to the developed world--however, studies have yet to address whether this pattern is replicated within expanding regional networks. Utilizing social network analysis, UNESCO ISM data, and World Bank income classifications,…

  14. Photomat: A Mobile Tool for Aiding in Student Construction of Research Questions and Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Tia Renee; Dasgupta, Chandan; Silva, Alexandra; Lyons, Leilah; Moher, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new mobile software tool, PhotoMAT (Photo Management and Analysis Tool), and students' experiences with this tool within a scaffolded curricular unit--Neighborhood Safari. PhotoMAT was designed to support learners' investigations of backyard animal behavior and works with image sets obtained using fixed-position field cameras…

  15. Photomat: A Mobile Tool for Aiding in Student Construction of Research Questions and Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Tia Renee; Dasgupta, Chandan; Silva, Alexandra; Lyons, Leilah; Moher, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new mobile software tool, PhotoMAT (Photo Management and Analysis Tool), and students' experiences with this tool within a scaffolded curricular unit--Neighborhood Safari. PhotoMAT was designed to support learners' investigations of backyard animal behavior and works with image sets obtained using fixed-position field cameras…

  16. Hot background” of the mobile inelastic neutron scattering system for soil carbon analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The problem of gamma spectrum peaks identification arises when conducting soil carbon (and other elements) analysis using the mobile inelastic neutron scattering (MINS) system. Some gamma spectrum peaks could be associated with radioisotopes appearing due to neutron activation of both the MINS syste...

  17. Functional Technology for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: Meta-Analysis of Mobile Device-Based Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jemma; Kimm, Christina H.

    2017-01-01

    This study employs a meta-analysis of single-subject design research to investigate the efficacy of mobile device-based interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to further examine possible variables that may moderate the intervention outcomes. A total of 23 studies, 78 participants, and 140 observed cases that met the…

  18. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mobile Devices and Weight Loss with an Intervention Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions. Methods: A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen’s d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed. Results: A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252–0.609) (p-value ≤ 0.01), favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common theories being

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of mobile devices and weight loss with an intervention content analysis.

    PubMed

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie

    2014-06-30

    Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions. A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen's d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed. A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252-0.609) (p-value ≤ 0.01), favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common theories being Social Cognitive Theory, Elaboration

  20. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods for Bayesian Data Analysis in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sanjib

    2017-08-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian data analysis has now become the method of choice for analyzing and interpreting data in almost all disciplines of science. In astronomy, over the last decade, we have also seen a steady increase in the number of papers that employ Monte Carlo based Bayesian analysis. New, efficient Monte Carlo based methods are continuously being developed and explored. In this review, we first explain the basics of Bayesian theory and discuss how to set up data analysis problems within this framework. Next, we provide an overview of various Monte Carlo based methods for performing Bayesian data analysis. Finally, we discuss advanced ideas that enable us to tackle complex problems and thus hold great promise for the future. We also distribute downloadable computer software (available at https://github.com/sanjibs/bmcmc/ ) that implements some of the algorithms and examples discussed here.

  1. A communication analysis of community mobilization on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation.

    PubMed

    McLean, S

    1997-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the community mobilization process used at the Warm Springs Indian Reservation as part of a health education campaign. Using the community education model proposed by Freire (1970), it examines the techniques employed to involve community members in radio, print, and public speaking fora, as well as the interpersonal interviews and listening techniques employed by the educators to gain entree to the community. Credibility emerged as a major issue to be addressed in the mobilization process. Other findings include the value of involving community leaders, persistence, and frankness. Caution is urged in implementing the Freirian model without regard to unique community traditions and relationships.

  2. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intervention for Pediatric Obesity Using Mobile Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jisan; Piao, Meihua; Byun, Ahjung; Kim, Jeongeun

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the effect sizes of pediatric obesity intervention studies using mobile technology. Ten databases (Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, KoreaMED, KMBASE, KISS, NDSL, KSITI, and RISS) were reviewed, and four studies were included in a qualitative synthesis. To obtain significant change in obesity-related outcomes among elementary school students, including parents and utilizing text messages in interventions are recommended. Furthermore, devices such as accelerometers may aid obesity management. A meta-analysis of four studies indicated that the mobile intervention positively influenced dropout rates but was ineffective for outcomes of weight control, exercise, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels in Arabidopsis Seeds[W

    PubMed Central

    Angelovici, Ruthie; Lipka, Alexander E.; Deason, Nicholas; Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Lin, Haining; Cepela, Jason; Buell, Robin; Gore, Michael A.; DellaPenna, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are three of the nine essential amino acids in human and animal diets and are important for numerous processes in development and growth. However, seed BCAA levels in major crops are insufficient to meet dietary requirements, making genetic improvement for increased and balanced seed BCAAs an important nutritional target. Addressing this issue requires a better understanding of the genetics underlying seed BCAA content and composition. Here, a genome-wide association study and haplotype analysis for seed BCAA traits in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed a strong association with a chromosomal interval containing two BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACID TRANSFERASES, BCAT1 and BCAT2. Linkage analysis, reverse genetic approaches, and molecular complementation analysis demonstrated that allelic variation at BCAT2 is responsible for the natural variation of seed BCAAs in this interval. Complementation analysis of a bcat2 null mutant with two significantly different alleles from accessions Bayreuth-0 and Shahdara is consistent with BCAT2 contributing to natural variation in BCAA levels, glutamate recycling, and free amino acid homeostasis in seeds in an allele-dependent manner. The seed-specific phenotype of bcat2 null alleles, its strong transcription induction during late seed development, and its subcellular localization to the mitochondria are consistent with a unique, catabolic role for BCAT2 in BCAA metabolism in seeds. PMID:24368787

  4. Social Network Analysis of the Farabi Exchange Program: Student Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugurlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Exchange programs offer communication channels created through student and instructor exchanges; a flow of information takes place through these channels. The Farabi Exchange Program (FEP) is a student and instructor exchange program between institutions of higher education. Through the use of social network analysis and…

  5. The Occupational Mobility Process: An Analysis of Occupational Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Aage B.

    To further understanding of the process through which occupational careers are formed, this study analyzed life histories to determine job-shifts undertaken by a cohort of men 30-39 years of age. It was proposed that individuals will decide to leave a job when they perceive that a gain in achievement is possible. The analysis of the outcome of job…

  6. Applying Different Independent Component Analysis Algorithms and Support Vector Regression for IT Chain Store Sales Forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting is one of the most important issues in managing information technology (IT) chain store sales since an IT chain store has many branches. Integrating feature extraction method and prediction tool, such as support vector regression (SVR), is a useful method for constructing an effective sales forecasting scheme. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a novel feature extraction technique and has been widely applied to deal with various forecasting problems. But, up to now, only the basic ICA method (i.e., temporal ICA model) was applied to sale forecasting problem. In this paper, we utilize three different ICA methods including spatial ICA (sICA), temporal ICA (tICA), and spatiotemporal ICA (stICA) to extract features from the sales data and compare their performance in sales forecasting of IT chain store. Experimental results from a real sales data show that the sales forecasting scheme by integrating stICA and SVR outperforms the comparison models in terms of forecasting error. The stICA is a promising tool for extracting effective features from branch sales data and the extracted features can improve the prediction performance of SVR for sales forecasting. PMID:25165740

  7. Applying different independent component analysis algorithms and support vector regression for IT chain store sales forecasting.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wensheng; Wu, Jui-Yu; Lu, Chi-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting is one of the most important issues in managing information technology (IT) chain store sales since an IT chain store has many branches. Integrating feature extraction method and prediction tool, such as support vector regression (SVR), is a useful method for constructing an effective sales forecasting scheme. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a novel feature extraction technique and has been widely applied to deal with various forecasting problems. But, up to now, only the basic ICA method (i.e., temporal ICA model) was applied to sale forecasting problem. In this paper, we utilize three different ICA methods including spatial ICA (sICA), temporal ICA (tICA), and spatiotemporal ICA (stICA) to extract features from the sales data and compare their performance in sales forecasting of IT chain store. Experimental results from a real sales data show that the sales forecasting scheme by integrating stICA and SVR outperforms the comparison models in terms of forecasting error. The stICA is a promising tool for extracting effective features from branch sales data and the extracted features can improve the prediction performance of SVR for sales forecasting.

  8. Characterization and mobility analysis of MoO3-gated diamond MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-feng; Ren, Ze-yang; Zhang, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Chun-fu; Chen, Da-zheng; Xu, Sheng-rui; Li, Yao; Hao, Yue

    2017-10-01

    A MoO3-gated diamond metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) with a gate length of 40 µm was characterized. Analysis of the flat band voltage shift from the capacitance–voltage hysteresis shows quite high density of the fixed charge presents in the MoO3 layer (1.67 × 1012 cm‑2), but the density of the traps brought by MoO3 layer is fairly low (1.35 × 1011 cm‑2). The gate voltage dependence of the effective hole mobility was extracted and fitted by the empirical relation widely used in the silicon MOS channel. The resulting low-field mobility without vertical field degradation and the mobility degradation factor are 699 cm2/(V·s) and 1.13, respectively.

  9. Analysis of blocking rate and bandwidth usage of mobile IPTV services in wireless cellular networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingfu

    2014-01-01

    Mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks become more and more popular, owing to the significant growth in access bandwidth of wireless cellular networks such as 3G/4G and WiMAX. However, the spectrum resources of wireless cellular networks is rare. How to enhance the spectral efficiency of mobile networks becomes an important issue. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are the most important transport schemes for offering mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks. Therefore, bandwidth usages and blocking rates of unicast, broadcast, and multicast IPTV services were analyzed and compared in this paper. Simulations were also conducted to validate the analytical results. Numerical results demonstrate that the presented analysis is correct, and multicast scheme achieves the best bandwidth usage and blocking rate performance, relative to the other two schemes.

  10. Analysis of Blocking Rate and Bandwidth Usage of Mobile IPTV Services in Wireless Cellular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingfu

    2014-01-01

    Mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks become more and more popular, owing to the significant growth in access bandwidth of wireless cellular networks such as 3G/4G and WiMAX. However, the spectrum resources of wireless cellular networks is rare. How to enhance the spectral efficiency of mobile networks becomes an important issue. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are the most important transport schemes for offering mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks. Therefore, bandwidth usages and blocking rates of unicast, broadcast, and multicast IPTV services were analyzed and compared in this paper. Simulations were also conducted to validate the analytical results. Numerical results demonstrate that the presented analysis is correct, and multicast scheme achieves the best bandwidth usage and blocking rate performance, relative to the other two schemes. PMID:25379521

  11. Trends and advances in food analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Salihah, Nur Thaqifah; Hossain, Mohammad Mosharraf; Lubis, Hamadah; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2016-05-01

    Analyses to ensure food safety and quality are more relevant now because of rapid changes in the quantity, diversity and mobility of food. Food-contamination must be determined to maintain health and up-hold laws, as well as for ethical and cultural concerns. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a rapid and inexpensive quantitative method to detect the presence of targeted DNA-segments in samples, helps in determining both accidental and intentional adulterations of foods by biological contaminants. This review presents recent developments in theory, techniques, and applications of RT-PCR in food analyses, RT-PCR addresses the limitations of traditional food analyses in terms of sensitivity, range of analytes, multiplexing ability, cost, time, and point-of-care applications. A range of targets, including species of plants or animals which are used as food ingredients, food-borne bacteria or viruses, genetically modified organisms, and allergens, even in highly processed foods can be identified by RT-PCR, even at very low concentrations. Microfluidic RT-PCR eliminates the separate sample-processing step to create opportunities for point-of-care analyses. We also cover the challenges related to using RT-PCR for food analyses, such as the need to further improve sample handling.

  12. Mobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint in hallux valgus patients: a radiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Faber, F W; Kleinrensink, G J; Mulder, P G; Verhaar, J A

    2001-12-01

    Hypermobility of the first tarsometatarsal (TMT 1) joint in the sagittal plane plays a role in the etiology and treatment of the hallux valgus complex. However, objective quantification of this mobility is still a problem. We performed a radiographic analysis of TMT 1 mobility in the sagittal plane in 94 hallux valgus patients aged 15 to 65 years. We examined 94 feet with symptomatic hallux valgus deformity requiring operative correction. Excluded were patients with osteoarthritis, inflammatory diseases or previous operations on the foot. The TMT 1 mobility was tested with a clinical test and by radiographic measurement using the modified Coleman block test. The mean mobility of the TMT 1 joint in the sagittal plane in the patient group was 12.9 degrees (SD 4.80). In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between two subgroups: patients with and without clinical TMT 1 hypermobility. No correlation of TMT 1 (hyper)mobility and radiographic second ray hypertrophy was found. This simple method can produce additional information to the clinical TMT 1 hypermobility test in the sagittal plane.

  13. Silicon microfabricated column with microfabricated differential mobility spectrometer for GC analysis of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lambertus, Gordon R; Fix, Cory S; Reidy, Shaelah M; Miller, Ranaan A; Wheeler, David; Nazarov, Erkinjon; Sacks, Richard

    2005-12-01

    A 3.0-m-long, 150-microm-wide, 240-microm-deep channel etched in a 3.2-cm-square silicon chip, covered with a Pyrex wafer, and coated with a dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase is used for the GC separation of volatile organic compounds. The column, which generates approximately 5500 theoretical plates, is temperature-programmed in a conventional convection oven. The column is connected through a heated transfer line to a microfabricated differential mobility spectrometer. The spectrometer incorporates a 63Ni source for atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization of the analytes. Nitrogen or air transport gas (flow 300 cm(3)/min) drives the analyte ions through the cell. The spectrometer operates with an asymmetric radio frequency (RF) electric field between a pair of electrodes in the detector cell. During each radio frequency cycle, the ion mobility alternates between a high-field and a low-field value (differential mobility). Ions oscillate between the electrodes, and only ions with an appropriate differential mobility reach a pair of biased collectors at the downstream end of the cell. A compensation voltage applied to one of the RF electrodes is scanned to allow ions with different differential mobilities to pass through the cell without being annihilated at the RF electrodes. A unique feature of the device is that both positive and negative ions are detected from a single experiment. The combined microfabricated column and detector is evaluated for the analysis of volatile organic compounds with a variety of functionalities.

  14. Mobile personal health records for pregnancy monitoring functionalities: Analysis and potential.

    PubMed

    Bachiri, Mariam; Idri, Ali; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-10-01

    Personal Health Records (PHRs) are a rapidly growing area of health information technology. PHR users are able to manage their own health data and communicate with doctors in order to improve healthcare quality and efficiency. Mobile PHR (mPHR) applications for mobile devices have obtained an interesting market quota since the appearance of more powerful mobile devices. These devices allow users to gain access to applications that used to be available only for personal computers. This paper analyzes the functionalities of mobile PHRs that are specific to pregnancy monitoring. A well-known Systematic Literature Review (SLR) protocol was used in the analysis process. A questionnaire was developed for this task, based on the rigorous study of scientific literature concerning pregnancy and applications available on the market, with 9 data items and 35 quality assessments. The data items contain calendars, pregnancy information, health habits, counters, diaries, mobile features, security, backup, configuration and architectural design. A total of 33 mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring, available for iOS and Android, were selected from Apple App store and Google Play store, respectively. The results show that none of the mPHRs selected met 100% of the functionalities analyzed in this paper. The highest score achieved was 77%, while the lowest was 17%. In this paper, these features are discussed and possible paths for future development of similar applications are proposed, which may lead to a more efficient use of smartphone capabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of polar peptides using a silica hydride column and high aqueous content mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Kulsing, Chadin; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-09-01

    The retention behavior of a set of polar peptides separated on a silica hydride stationary phase was examined with a capillary HPLC system coupled to ESI-MS detection. The mobile phases consisted of formic acid or acetic acid/acetonitrile/water mixtures with the acetonitrile content ranging from 5 to 80% v/v. The effects on peptide retention of these two acidic buffer additives and their concentrations in the mobile phase were systematically investigated. Strong retention of the peptides on the silica hydride phase was observed with relatively high-organic low-aqueous mobile phases (i.e. under aqueous normal-phase conditions). However, when low concentrations of acetic acid were employed as the buffer additive, strong retention of the peptides was also observed even when high aqueous content mobile phases were employed. This unique feature of the stationary phase therefore provides an opportunity for chromatographic analysis of polar peptides with water-rich eluents, a feature usually not feasible with traditional RP sorbents, and thus under conditions more compatible with analytical green chemistry criteria. In addition, both isocratic and gradient elution procedures can be employed to optimize peptide separations with excellent reproducibility and resolution under these high aqueous mobile phase conditions with this silica hydride stationary phase.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of chain-melting transition temperatures for monounsaturated phospholipid membranes: dependence on cis-monoenoic double bond position.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, D

    1999-01-01

    Unsaturated phospholipid is the membrane component that is essential to the dynamic environment needed for biomembrane function. The dependence of the chain-melting transition temperature, T(t), of phospholipid bilayer membranes on the position, n(u), of the cis double bond in the glycerophospholipid sn-2 chain can be described by an expression of the form T(t) = T(t)(c)(1 + h'(c)|n(u) - n(c)|)/(1 + s'(c)|n(u) - n(c)|), where n(c) is the chain position of the double bond corresponding to the minimum transition temperature, T(t)(c), for constant diacyl lipid chain lengths. This implies that the incremental transition enthalpy (and entropy) contributed by the sn-2 chain is greater for whichever of the chain segments, above or below the double-bond position, is the longer. The critical position, n(c), of the double bond is offset from the center of the sn-2 chain by an approximately constant amount, deltan(c) approximately 1. 5 C-atom units. The dependence of the parameters T(t)(c), h'(c), and s'(c) on sn-1 and sn-2 chain lengths can be interpreted consistently when allowance is made for the chain packing mismatch between the sn-1 and sn-2 chains. The length of the sn-2 chain is reduced by approximately 0.8 C-atom units by the cis double bond, in addition to a shortening by approximately 1.3 C-atom units by the bent configuration at the C-2 position. Based on this analysis, a general thermodynamic expression is proposed for the dependence of the chain-melting transition temperature on the position of the cis double bond and on the sn-1 and sn-2 chain lengths. The above treatment is restricted mostly to double-bond positions close to the center of the sn-2 chain. For double bonds positioned closer to the carboxyl or terminal methyl ends of the sn-2 chain, the effects on transition enthalpy can be considerably larger. They may be interpreted by the same formalism, but with different characteristic parameters, h'(c) and s'(c), such that the shorter of the chain segments

  17. Costing analysis and anthropological assessment of the vaccine supply chain system redesign in the Comé District (Benin).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao Xian; Guillermet, Elise; Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard; Alfa, Daleb Abdoulaye; Gbodja, Romule; Sossou, Adanmavokin Justin; Jaillard, Phillippe

    2017-04-19

    At the end of 2013, a pilot experiment was carried out in Comé health zone (HZ) in an attempt to optimize the vaccine supply chain. Four commune vaccine storage facilities were replaced by one central HZ facility. This study evaluated the incremental financial needs for the establishment of the new system; compared the economic cost of the supply chain in the Comé HZ before and after the system redesign; and analyzed the changes induced by the pilot project in immunization logistics management. The purposive sampling method was used to draw a sample from 37 health facilities in the zone for costing evaluation. Data on inputs and prices were collected retrospectively for 2013 and 2014. The analysis used an ingredient-based approach. In addition, 44 semi-structured interviews with health workers for anthropological analysis were completed in 2014. The incremental financial costs amounted to US$55,148, including US$50,605 for upfront capital investment and US$4543 for ongoing recurrent costs. Annual economic cost per dose administered (including all vaccines distributed through the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)) in the Comé HZ increased from US$0.09 before system redesign to US$0.15 after implementation, mainly due to a high initial investment and the operational cost of HZ mobile warehouse. Interviews with health workers suggested that the redesigned system was associated with improvements in motivation and professional awareness due to training, supportive supervision, and improved work conditions. The system redesign involved a considerable investment at HZ level. Benefits were found in the reduction of transportation costs to health posts (HP) and commune health center (CHC) levels, and the strengthening of health workers professional skills at all levels in Comé. The redesigned system contributed to a decrease in funding needs at HP and CHC levels. The benefits of the investment need to be examined after the introduction of new vaccines and after a

  18. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency: diagnosis by acylcarnitine analysis in blood.

    PubMed Central

    Van Hove, J L; Zhang, W; Kahler, S G; Roe, C R; Chen, Y T; Terada, N; Chace, D H; Iafolla, A K; Ding, J H; Millington, D S

    1993-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a disorder of fatty acid catabolism, with autosomal recessive inheritance. The disease is characterized by episodic illness associated with potentially fatal hypoglycemia and has a relatively high frequency. A rapid and reliable method for the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency is highly desirable. Analysis of specific acylcarnitines was performed by isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry on plasma or whole blood samples from 62 patients with MCAD deficiency. Acylcarnitines were also analyzed in 42 unaffected relatives of patients with MCAD deficiency and in other groups of patients having elevated plasma C8 acylcarnitine, consisting of 32 receiving valproic acid, 9 receiving medium-chain triglyceride supplement, 4 having multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and 8 others with various etiologies. Criteria for the unequivocal diagnosis of MCAD deficiency by acylcarnitine analysis are an elevated C8-acylcarnitine concentration (> 0.3 microM), a ratio of C8/C10 acylcarnitines of > 5, and lack of elevated species of chain length > C10. These criteria were not influenced by clinical state, carnitine treatment, or underlying genetic mutation, and no false-positive or false-negative results were obtained. The same criteria were also successfully applied to profiles from neonatal blood spots retrieved from the original Guthrie cards of eight patients. Diagnosis of MCAD deficiency can therefore be made reliably through the analysis of acylcarnitines in blood, including presymptomatic neonatal recognition. Tandem mass spectrometry is a convenient method for fast and accurate determination of all relevant acylcarnitine species. PMID:8488845

  19. Flow cytometric analysis of expression of interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, S.; Oshimi, K.; Tsudo, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Teramura, M.; Masuda, M.; Motoji, T.; Mizoguchi, H. )

    1990-08-15

    We analyzed the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells from 44 patients by flow cytometric analysis using the IL-2R beta chain-specific monoclonal antibody, designated Mik-beta 1. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of the IL-2R beta chain on granular lymphocytes (GLs) from all eight patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPDs), on adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells from all three patients with ATL, and on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells from one of three patients with T-ALL. Although GLs from all the GLPD patients expressed the IL-2R beta chain alone and not the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac-antigen: p55), ATL and T-ALL cells expressing the beta chain coexpressed the alpha chain. In two of seven patients with common ALL (cALL) and in both patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the leukemic cells expressed the alpha chain alone. Neither the alpha chain nor the beta chain was expressed on leukemic cells from the remaining 28 patients, including all 18 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, five of seven patients with cALL, all three patients with multiple myeloma, and two of three patients with T-ALL. These results indicate that three different forms of IL-2R chain expression exist on leukemic cells: the alpha chain alone; the beta chain alone; and both the alpha and beta chains. To examine whether the results obtained by flow cytometric analysis actually reflect functional aspects of the expressed IL-2Rs, we studied the specific binding of 125I-labeled IL-2 (125I-IL-2) to leukemic cells in 18 of the 44 patients. In addition, we performed 125I-IL-2 crosslinking studies in seven patients. The results of IL-2R expression of both 125I-IL-2 binding assay and crosslinking studies were in agreement with those obtained by flow cytometric analysis.

  20. Chain Sampling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-08-01

    35609 Advanced Techniques Branch Plans and Programs Analysis Division Directorate for Product Assurance U. S. Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal...Ray Heathcock Advanced Techniques Branch Plans and Programs Analysis Division Directorate for Product Assurance U. S. Army Missile Command...for Product Assurance has established a rather unique computer program for handling a variety of chain sampling schemes and is available for

  1. Markov chain Monte Carlo linkage analysis of a complex qualitative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, A; Lin, J H; Reich, T; Bierut, L; Suarez, B K

    1999-01-01

    We tested a new computer program, LOKI, that implements a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique for segregation and linkage analysis. Our objective was to determine whether this software, designed for use with continuously distributed phenotypes, has any efficacy when applied to the discrete disease states of the simulated data from the Mordor data from GAW Problem 1. Although we were able to identify the genomic location for two of the three quantitative trait loci by repeated application of the software, the MCMC sampler experienced significant mixing problems indicating that the method, as currently formulated in LOKI, was not suitable for the discrete phenotypes in this data set.

  2. Diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction analysis of skin biopsies in purpura fulminans.

    PubMed

    Beau, Caroline; Vlassova, Natalia; Sarlangue, Jean; Brissaud, Olivier; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Boralevi, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Even though prompt diagnosis and treatment of purpura fulminans (PF) is essential to reduce mortality, early administration of antibiotics may preclude identification of the causative agent by standard bacterial cultures and thus render definitive diagnosis impossible. Here we present a case of an infant with PF and negative bacterial cultures for whom polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a cutaneous biopsy specimen obtained 4 days after initiation of antibiotics identified the genomic sequence of Neisseria meningitidis genogroup C. When bacterial cultures fail to provide useful information, PCR of skin biopsy specimens can be a valuable diagnostic tool in PF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Conformation Analysis of Peptides Derived from Laminin Alpha 1-2 Chain Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hironao; Fukuda, Masaki; Miyakawa, Takeshi; Morikawa, Ryota; Takasu, Masako

    Laminin is one of the components of the basement membrane and has diverse biological activities. Several functional peptides (EF1-EF5) are identified from LG4 modules of laminin alpha 1-5 chains. Thus, we perform conformation analysis of EF1 and EF2 using molecular dynamics simulations. In this study, we perform structure sampling with NPT ensemble (300 K, 1 bar). Our results show that EF1 peptide has β-sheet structure in water, and EF2 peptide does not have. Likewise, the EF2 peptide has unstable structure compared with the EF1 peptide in water.

  4. Optimizing national immunization program supply chain management in Thailand: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, A; Sooksriwong, C; Chaiyakunapruk, N; Tharmaphornpilas, P; Techathawat, S; Rookkapan, K; Rasdjarmrearnsook, A; Suraratdecha, C

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to conduct an economic analysis of the transition of the conventional vaccine supply and logistics systems to the vendor managed inventory (VMI) system in Thailand. Cost analysis of health care program. An ingredients based approach was used to design the survey and collect data for an economic analysis of the immunization supply and logistics systems covering procurement, storage and distribution of vaccines from the central level to the lowest level of vaccine administration facility. Costs were presented in 2010 US dollar. The total cost of the vaccination program including cost of vaccine procured and logistics under the conventional system was US$0.60 per packed volume procured (cm(3)) and US$1.35 per dose procured compared to US$0.66 per packed volume procured (cm(3)) and US$1.43 per dose procured under the VMI system. However, the findings revealed that the transition to the VMI system and outsourcing of the supply chain system reduced the cost of immunization program at US$6.6 million per year because of reduction of un-opened vaccine wastage. The findings demonstrated that the new supply chain system would result in efficiency improvement and potential savings to the immunization program compared to the conventional system. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid identification of mycobacteria to the species level by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Telenti, A; Marchesi, F; Balz, M; Bally, F; Böttger, E C; Bodmer, T

    1993-01-01

    A method for the rapid identification of mycobacteria to the species level was developed on the basis of evaluation by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the gene encoding for the 65-kDa protein. The method involves restriction enzyme analysis of PCR products obtained with primers common to all mycobacteria. Using two restriction enzymes, BstEII and HaeIII, medically relevant and other frequent laboratory isolates were differentiated to the species or subspecies level by PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis. PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis was performed on isolates (n = 330) from solid and fluid culture media, including BACTEC, or from frozen and lyophilized stocks. The procedure does not involve hybridization steps or the use of radioactivity and can be completed within 1 working day. Images PMID:8381805

  6. DNAApp: a mobile application for sequencing data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phi-Vu; Verma, Chandra Shekhar; Gan, Samuel Ken-En

    2014-01-01

    Summary: There have been numerous applications developed for decoding and visualization of ab1 DNA sequencing files for Windows and MAC platforms, yet none exists for the increasingly popular smartphone operating systems. The ability to decode sequencing files cannot easily be carried out using browser accessed Web tools. To overcome this hurdle, we have developed a new native app called DNAApp that can decode and display ab1 sequencing file on Android and iOS. In addition to in-built analysis tools such as reverse complementation, protein translation and searching for specific sequences, we have incorporated convenient functions that would facilitate the harnessing of online Web tools for a full range of analysis. Given the high usage of Android/iOS tablets and smartphones, such bioinformatics apps would raise productivity and facilitate the high demand for analyzing sequencing data in biomedical research. Availability and implementation: The Android version of DNAApp is available in Google Play Store as ‘DNAApp’, and the iOS version is available in the App Store. More details on the app can be found at www.facebook.com/APDLab; www.bii.a-star.edu.sg/research/trd/apd.php The DNAApp user guide is available at http://tinyurl.com/DNAAppuser, and a video tutorial is available on Google Play Store and App Store, as well as on the Facebook page. Contact: samuelg@bii.a-star.edu.sg PMID:25095882

  7. DNAApp: a mobile application for sequencing data analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phi-Vu; Verma, Chandra Shekhar; Gan, Samuel Ken-En

    2014-11-15

    There have been numerous applications developed for decoding and visualization of ab1 DNA sequencing files for Windows and MAC platforms, yet none exists for the increasingly popular smartphone operating systems. The ability to decode sequencing files cannot easily be carried out using browser accessed Web tools. To overcome this hurdle, we have developed a new native app called DNAApp that can decode and display ab1 sequencing file on Android and iOS. In addition to in-built analysis tools such as reverse complementation, protein translation and searching for specific sequences, we have incorporated convenient functions that would facilitate the harnessing of online Web tools for a full range of analysis. Given the high usage of Android/iOS tablets and smartphones, such bioinformatics apps would raise productivity and facilitate the high demand for analyzing sequencing data in biomedical research. The Android version of DNAApp is available in Google Play Store as 'DNAApp', and the iOS version is available in the App Store. More details on the app can be found at www.facebook.com/APDLab; www.bii.a-star.edu.sg/research/trd/apd.php The DNAApp user guide is available at http://tinyurl.com/DNAAppuser, and a video tutorial is available on Google Play Store and App Store, as well as on the Facebook page. samuelg@bii.a-star.edu.sg. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. An economics systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite systems is considered. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as a function of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/sq km) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price/demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  9. Popular Mobile Phone Apps for Diet and Weight Loss: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roehrer, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Background A review of the literature has revealed that the rates of overweight and obesity have been increasing in Australia over the last two decades and that wellness mobile phone apps play a significant role in monitoring and managing individuals’ weight. Although mobile phone app markets (iTunes and Google Play) list thousands of mobile phone health apps, it is not always clear whether those apps are supported by credible sources. Likewise, despite the prevailing use of mobile phone apps to aid with weight management, the usability features of these apps are not well characterized. Objective The research explored how usability taxonomy could inform the popularity of downloaded, socially focused wellness mobile phone apps, in particular weight loss and diet apps. The aim of the study was to investigate the Australian mobile phone app stores (iTunes and Google Play) in order to examine the usability features of the most popular (ie, most downloaded) wellness apps. Methods The design of this study comprises 3 main stages: stage 1, identifying apps; stage 2, development of weight loss and diet evaluation framework; and stage 3, application of the evaluation framework. Each stage includes specific data collection, analysis tools, and techniques. Results The study has resulted in the development of a justified evaluation framework for weight loss and diet mobile phone apps. Applying the evaluation framework to the identified apps has shown that the most downloaded iTunes and Google Play apps are not necessarily the most usable or effective. In addition, the research found that search algorithms for iTunes and Google Play are biased toward apps’ titles and keywords that do not accurately define the real functionality of the app. Moreover, the study has also analyzed the apps’ user reviews, which served as justification for the developed evaluation framework. Conclusions The analysis has shown that ease of use, reminder, bar code scanning, motivation, usable for

  10. Popular Mobile Phone Apps for Diet and Weight Loss: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Sarah; Roehrer, Erin

    2016-07-11

    A review of the literature has revealed that the rates of overweight and obesity have been increasing in Australia over the last two decades and that wellness mobile phone apps play a significant role in monitoring and managing individuals' weight. Although mobile phone app markets (iTunes and Google Play) list thousands of mobile phone health apps, it is not always clear whether those apps are supported by credible sources. Likewise, despite the prevailing use of mobile phone apps to aid with weight management, the usability features of these apps are not well characterized. The research explored how usability taxonomy could inform the popularity of downloaded, socially focused wellness mobile phone apps, in particular weight loss and diet apps. The aim of the study was to investigate the Australian mobile phone app stores (iTunes and Google Play) in order to examine the usability features of the most popular (ie, most downloaded) wellness apps. The design of this study comprises 3 main stages: stage 1, identifying apps; stage 2, development of weight loss and diet evaluation framework; and stage 3, application of the evaluation framework. Each stage includes specific data collection, analysis tools, and techniques. The study has resulted in the development of a justified evaluation framework for weight loss and diet mobile phone apps. Applying the evaluation framework to the identified apps has shown that the most downloaded iTunes and Google Play apps are not necessarily the most usable or effective. In addition, the research found that search algorithms for iTunes and Google Play are biased toward apps' titles and keywords that do not accurately define the real functionality of the app. Moreover, the study has also analyzed the apps' user reviews, which served as justification for the developed evaluation framework. The analysis has shown that ease of use, reminder, bar code scanning, motivation, usable for all, and synchronization are significant attributes

  11. Rapid analysis of lubricants by atmospheric solid analysis probe-ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barrère, Caroline; Hubert-Roux, Marie; Afonso, Carlos; Racaud, Amandine

    2014-08-01

    Formulated lubricants are complex mixtures composed of base oil(s) and additives with various functions (detergents, corrosion inhibiter, antioxidant, viscosity modifiers, etc.). Because of the aliphatic nature of base oil and the chemical diversity of additives, the characterization of lubricant is currently a long and complex process. The comprehensive analysis of lubricant samples involves several techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The coupling of atmospheric solid analysis probe (ASAP) with ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) has been shown to be an efficient tool for the characterization of complex mixture containing vaporizable polar to non-polar compounds. This approach affords the coupling of a direct ionization technique that does not require sample preparation, with a bi-dimensional separation method with high peak capacity. In this work, we show that ASAP-IM-MS is a suitable method for rapid and direct characterization of lubricant samples. Indeed, base oil and additives yielded, by ASAP, ions series which could be separated by IM-MS. Molecular additives such as Zn-dithiocarbamate, phosphite, thiophosphate and Alkyl diphenylamine were ionized as molecular ions [M](+•) or protonated molecules [M + H](+), depending of their polarity. In some cases, fragment ions were observed, confirming the additive identification. In addition, high molecular weight polymeric additives such as poly(alkyl methacrylate) (PAM) were pyrolized in the ASAP source leading to characteristic fragment ions. ASAP-IM-MS is shown to be a powerful tool for studying complex mixtures, allowing the first comprehensive analysis of lubricants in just a few minutes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. PBSC mobilization in lymphoma patients: analysis of risk factors for collection failure and development of a predictive score based on the kinetics of circulating CD34+ cells and WBC after chemotherapy and G-CSF mobilization.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giuseppe; Skert, Cristina; Morello, Enrico; Almici, Camillo; Arcaini, Luca; Basilico, Claudia; Cavalli, Lara; Botto, Barbara; Castelli, Andrea; Pica, Gianmatteo; Ripamonti, Francesco; Salvi, Flavia; Carella, Angelo M; Gaidano, Gianluca; Levis, Alessandro; Nosari, Annamaria; Russo, Domenico; Vitolo, Umberto

    2015-09-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a potentially curative treatment of lymphoma, but peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization fails in some patients. PBSC mobilizing agents have recently been proved to improve the PBSC yield after a prior mobilization failure. Predictive parameters of mobilization failure allowing for a preemptive, more cost-effective use of such agents during the first mobilization attempt are still poorly defined, particularly during mobilization with chemotherapy + granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We performed a retrospective analysis of a series of lymphoma patients who were candidates for ASCT, to identify factors influencing PBSC mobilization outcome. Premobilization parameters-age, histology, disease status, mobilizing protocol, and previous treatments-as well as white blood cell (WBC) and PBSC kinetics, markers potentially able to predict failure during the ongoing mobilization attempt, were analyzed in 415 consecutive mobilization procedures in 388 patients. We used chemotherapy + G-CSF in 411 (99%) of mobilization attempts and PBSC collection failed (<2 × 10(6) CD34+ PBSC/kg) in 13%. Multivariable analysis showed that only a low CD34+ PBSC count and CD34+ PBSC/WBC ratio, together with the use of nonplatinum-containing chemotherapy, independently predicted mobilization failure. Using these three parameters, we established a scoring system to predict risk of failure during mobilization ranging from 2 to 90%, thus allowing a selective use of a preemptive mobilization policy.

  13. Ensemble visual analysis architecture with high mobility for large-scale critical infrastructure simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaglin, Todd; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ribarsky, William; Tolone, William

    2015-01-01

    Nowhere is the need to understand large heterogeneous datasets more important than in disaster monitoring and emergency response, where critical decisions have to be made in a timely fashion and the discovery of important events requires an understanding of a collection of complex simulations. To gain enough insights for actionable knowledge, the development of models and analysis of modeling results usually requires that models be run many times so that all possibilities can be covered. Central to the goal of our research is, therefore, the use of ensemble visualization of a large scale simulation space to appropriately aid decision makers in reasoning about infrastructure behaviors and vulnerabilities in support of critical infrastructure analysis. This requires the bringing together of computing-driven simulation results with the human decision-making process via interactive visual analysis. We have developed a general critical infrastructure simulation and analysis system for situationally aware emergency response during natural disasters. Our system demonstrates a scalable visual analytics infrastructure with mobile interface for analysis, visualization and interaction with large-scale simulation results in order to better understand their inherent structure and predictive capabilities. To generalize the mobile aspect, we introduce mobility as a design consideration for the system. The utility and efficacy of this research has been evaluated by domain practitioners and disaster response managers.

  14. Association between mobile phone use and semen quality: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Li, Y; Zhang, G; Liu, J; Cao, J; Ao, L; Zhang, S

    2014-07-01

    Possible hazardous health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations emitted from mobile phone on the reproductive system have raised public concern in recent years. This systemic review and meta-analysis was prepared following standard procedures of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and checklist. Relevant studies published up to May 2013 were identified from five major international and Chinese literature databases: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, the VIP database and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane Library. Eighteen studies with 3947 men and 186 rats were included in the systemic review, of which 12 studies (four human studies, four in vitro studies and four animal studies) with 1533 men and 97 rats were used in the meta-analyses. Systemic review showed that results of most of the human studies and in vitro laboratory studies indicated mobile phone use or radiofrequency exposure had negative effects on the various semen parameters studied. However, meta-analysis indicated that mobile phone use had no adverse effects on semen parameters in human studies. In the in vitro studies, meta-analysis indicated that radiofrequency radiation had detrimental effect on sperm motility and viability in vitro [pooled mean difference (MDs) (95% CI): -4.11 (-8.08, -0.13), -3.82 (-7.00, -0.65) for sperm motility and viability respectively]. As for animal studies, radiofrequency exposure had harmful effects on sperm concentration and motility [pooled MDs (95% CI): -8.75 (-17.37, -0.12), -17.72 (-32.79, -2.65) for sperm concentration and motility respectively]. Evidence from current studies suggests potential harmful effects of mobile phone use on semen parameters. A further multicentred and standardized study is needed to assess the risk of mobile phone use on the reproductive system. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fullenkamp, Patrick H; Holody, Diane S

    2014-06-15

    The goal of the project was to develop a greater understanding of the key factors determining wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and to reduce installed systems cost. Multiple stakeholders including DOE, turbine OEMs, and large component manufactures will all benefit by better understanding the factors determining domestic competitiveness in the emerging offshore and next generation land-based wind industries. Major objectives of this project were to: 1. Carry out global cost and process comparisons for 5MW jacket foundations, blades, towers, and permanent magnet generators; 2. Assess U.S. manufacturers’ competitiveness and potential for cost reduction; 3. Facilitate informed decision-making on investments in U.S. manufacturing; 4. Develop an industry scorecard representing the readiness of the U.S. manufacturers’ to produce components for the next generations of wind turbines, nominally 3MW land-based and 5MW offshore; 5. Disseminate results through the GLWN Wind Supply Chain GIS Map, a free website that is the most comprehensive public database of U.S. wind energy suppliers; 6. Identify areas and develop recommendations to DOE on potential R&D areas to target for increasing domestic manufacturing competitiveness, per DOE’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI). Lists of Deliverables 1. Cost Breakdown Competitive Analyses of four product categories: tower, jacket foundation, blade, and permanent magnet (PM) generator. The cost breakdown for each component includes a complete Bill of Materials with net weights; general process steps for labor; and burden adjusted by each manufacturer for their process categories of SGA (sales general and administrative), engineering, logistics cost to a common U.S. port, and profit. 2. Value Stream Map Competitiveness Analysis: A tool that illustrates both information and material flow from the point of getting a

  16. Network analysis of pig movements: Loyalty patterns and contact chains of different holding types in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Boklund, Anette; Halasa, Tariq H. B.; Toft, Nils; Lentz, Hartmut H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding animal movements is an important factor for the development of meaningful surveillance and control programs, but also for the development of disease spread models. We analysed the Danish pig movement network using static and temporal network analysis tools to provide deeper insight in the connection between holdings dealing with pigs, such as breeding and multiplier herds, production herds, slaughterhouses or traders. Pig movements, which occurred between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2015 in Denmark, were summarized to investigate temporal trends such as the number of active holdings, the number of registered movements and the number of pigs moved. To identify holdings and holding types with potentially higher risk for introduction or spread of diseases via pig movements, we determined loyalty patterns, annual network components and contact chains for the 24 registered holding types. The total number of active holdings as well as the number of pig movements decreased during the study period while the holding sizes increased. Around 60–90% of connections between two pig holdings were present in two consecutive years and around one third of the connections persisted within the considered time period. Weaner herds showed the highest level of in-loyalty, whereas we observed an intermediate level of in-loyalty for all breeding sites and for production herds. Boar stations, production herds and trade herds showed a high level of out-loyalty. Production herds constituted the highest proportion of holdings in the largest strongly connected component. All production sites showed low levels of in-going contact chains and we observed a high level of out-going contact chain for breeding and multiplier herds. Except for livestock auctions, all transit sites also showed low levels of out-going contact chains. Our results reflect the pyramidal structure of the underlying network. Based on the considered disease, the time frame for the calculation of network

  17. Network analysis of pig movements: Loyalty patterns and contact chains of different holding types in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Jana; Boklund, Anette; Halasa, Tariq H B; Toft, Nils; Lentz, Hartmut H K

    2017-01-01

    Understanding animal movements is an important factor for the development of meaningful surveillance and control programs, but also for the development of disease spread models. We analysed the Danish pig movement network using static and temporal network analysis tools to provide deeper insight in the connection between holdings dealing with pigs, such as breeding and multiplier herds, production herds, slaughterhouses or traders. Pig movements, which occurred between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2015 in Denmark, were summarized to investigate temporal trends such as the number of active holdings, the number of registered movements and the number of pigs moved. To identify holdings and holding types with potentially higher risk for introduction or spread of diseases via pig movements, we determined loyalty patterns, annual network components and contact chains for the 24 registered holding types. The total number of active holdings as well as the number of pig movements decreased during the study period while the holding sizes increased. Around 60-90% of connections between two pig holdings were present in two consecutive years and around one third of the connections persisted within the considered time period. Weaner herds showed the highest level of in-loyalty, whereas we observed an intermediate level of in-loyalty for all breeding sites and for production herds. Boar stations, production herds and trade herds showed a high level of out-loyalty. Production herds constituted the highest proportion of holdings in the largest strongly connected component. All production sites showed low levels of in-going contact chains and we observed a high level of out-going contact chain for breeding and multiplier herds. Except for livestock auctions, all transit sites also showed low levels of out-going contact chains. Our results reflect the pyramidal structure of the underlying network. Based on the considered disease, the time frame for the calculation of network

  18. NMR data visualization, processing, and analysis on mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Cobas, Carlos; Iglesias, Isaac; Seoane, Felipe

    2015-08-01

    Touch-screen computers are emerging as a popular platform for many applications, including those in chemistry and analytical sciences. In this work, we present our implementation of a new NMR 'app' designed for hand-held and portable touch-controlled devices, such as smartphones and tablets. It features a flexible architecture formed by a powerful NMR processing and analysis kernel and an intuitive user interface that makes full use of the smart devices haptic capabilities. Routine 1D and 2D NMR spectra acquired in most NMR instruments can be processed in a fully unattended way. More advanced experiments such as non-uniform sampled NMR spectra are also supported through a very efficient parallelized Modified Iterative Soft Thresholding algorithm. Specific technical development features as well as the overall feasibility of using NMR software apps will also be discussed. All aspects considered the functionalities of the app allowing it to work as a stand-alone tool or as a 'companion' to more advanced desktop applications such as Mnova NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Quality Analysis and Correction of Mobile Backpack Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönnholm, P.; Liang, X.; Kukko, A.; Jaakkola, A.; Hyyppä, J.

    2016-06-01

    Backpack laser scanning systems have emerged recently enabling fast data collection and flexibility to make measurements also in areas that cannot be reached with, for example, vehicle-based laser scanners. Backpack laser scanning systems have been developed both for indoor and outdoor use. We have developed a quality analysis process in which the quality of backpack laser scanning data is evaluated in the forest environment. The reference data was collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) laser scanning system. The workflow included noise filtering, division of data into smaller patches, ground point extraction, ground data decimation, and ICP registration. As a result, we managed to observe the misalignments of backpack laser scanning data for 97 patches each including data from circa 10 seconds period of time. This evaluation revealed initial average misalignments of 0.227 m, 0.073 and -0.083 in the easting, northing and elevation directions, respectively. Furthermore, backpack data was corrected according to the ICP registration results. Our correction algorithm utilized the time-based linear transformation of backpack laser scanning point clouds. After the correction of data, the ICP registration was run again. This revealed remaining misalignments between the corrected backpack laser scanning data and the original UAV data. We found average misalignments of 0.084, 0.020 and -0.005 meters in the easting, northing and elevation directions, respectively.

  20. Performance Analysis of Sleep Mode Operation in IEEE 802.16m Mobile WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sangkyu; Son, Jung Je; Choi, Bong Dae

    We mathematically analyze the sleep mode operation of IEEE 802.16m. The sleep mode operation for downlink traffic is modeled as a 3-dimensional discrete time Markov chain. We obtain the average power consumption of a mobile station and the average delay of a message. Numerical results match simulations very well. Numerical results show that there is a tradeoff between power consumption and message delay. We find the optimal lengths of sleep cycle and close-down time that minimize the power consumption while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) constraint on message delay. The power consumption of the sleep mode in IEEE 802.16m is better than that of sleep modes in legacy IEEE 802.16e standard under the same delay bound.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of an early-initiated, continuous chain of rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Andelic, Nada; Ye, Jiajia; Tornas, Sveinung; Roe, Cecilie; Lu, Juan; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Moger, Tron; Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Aas, Eline

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study is to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of two different rehabilitation trajectories after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). A decision tree model compared hospitalization costs, health effects, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of a continuous chain versus a broken chain of rehabilitation. The expected costs were estimated by the reimbursement system using diagnosis-related group and based on point estimates of the Disability Rating Scale (DRS); the health effects were measured by means of area under the curve (AUC). The incremental health benefit was estimated as the difference in the AUCs between the chains. Lower values on the DRS scale indicate better health; thus, smaller AUCs were preferred. The modeled population was a cohort of 59 patients with sTBI (30 in continuous chain; 29 in broken chain) with 6-weeks, 1-year, and 5-year post-injury follow-ups. Regarding the DRS estimates, 5-year AUCs were 19.40 (continuous chain) and 23.46 (broken chain). Across 5 years, the continuous chain of rehabilitation had lower costs and better health effects. By replacing the broken chain with the continuous chain, NOK 37.000 could be saved and 4.06 DRS points gained. By means of probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the majority of ICER estimates (67% of the Monte Carlo simulations) indicated that a continuous chain of rehabilitation was less costly and more effective. These findings indicate that the trajectory of continuous rehabilitation represents a dominant strategy in that it reduces costs and improves outcomes after sTBI under reasonable assumptions.

  2. An analysis of disruptions in aerospace/defense organizations that affect the supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Toscha L.

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether or not functions of procurement organizations structures' and aerospace suppliers were perceived as disruptions and to identify their effects on lead time and costs within a supply chain. An analysis of employees' perception of centralized and decentralized procurement functions, aerospace and defense suppliers, lead times of goods and services, price increases, and schedule delays was conducted. Prior studies are limited in regards to understanding how specific procurement functions affects an organization procurement structure. This non-experimental quantitative study allowed for a survey to be administered to aerospace and defense companies throughout the United States to obtain information from sourcing and procurement professionals with 5 or more years of experience. The current study utilized a 10 question survey based on the 5- point Likert -type scale to determine the findings. Through descriptive and inferential statistics, using regression analysis, standard deviation, and P-value; findings indicated that the majority of the participants surveyed perceived both centralized and decentralized procurement functions affected lead time and cost of goods and services resulted in a positive effect and were considered as supply chain disruptions.

  3. [Ontogenetic and phylogenetic analysis of myosin light chain proteins from skeletal muscles of loach Misgurnus fossilis].

    PubMed

    Miuge, N S; Tikhonov, A V; Ozerniuk, N D

    2005-01-01

    mRNAs of all three types of myosin light chain proteins are expressed in skeletal muscles of both larval and adult stages of loach Misgurnus fossilis (Cobitidae) and these proteins are encoded by different genes (mlc1, mlc2, and mlc3). No difference was revealed between transcripts from larval stage and adult fish for all three mlc proteins. Our approach (RT-PCR with fish-specific mlc1, mlc2, and mlc3 primers) failed to reveal the larval form of myosin light chain protein found previously by protein electrophoresis of loach fry muscle extract. Comparative analysis of the protein structure shows high homology of MLC1 and MLC3 proteins sharing a large EF-hand calcium-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of MLC1 from skeletal muscles of fish and other vertebrate species is concordant with the traditional phylogeny of the group. Within the Teleostei, loach MLC1 had the highest homology with other Cyprinidae, and least with Salmonidae fishes.

  4. A Markov Chain Analysis of Fish Movements to Determine Entrainment Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hedgepeth, J; Skalski, John R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

    2004-10-01

    Fish can become entrained at water withdrawal locations such as fish bypasses or cooling water intakes. Accordingly, the size of a fish entrainment zone (FEZ) is often of interest to fisheries managers and facility operators. This study developed a new technique to map the FEZ, defined here as the region immediately upstream of a portal where the probability of fish movement toward the portal is greater than 90%. To map the FEZ, we applied a Markov chain analysis to fish movement data collected with an active tracking sonar. This device locks onto and follows a target, recording positions through a set of volumetric cells comprising the sampled volume. The probability of a fish moving from one cell to another was calculated from fish position data, which was used to populate a Markov transition matrix. We developed and applied the technique using data on salmon smolts migrating near the ice/trash sluiceway at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. The FEZ of the sluiceway entrance in 2000 as determined with this procedure was approximately 5 m across and extended 6-8 m out from the face of the dam in the surface layer 2-3 m deep. In conclusion, using a Markov chain analysis of fish track data we were able to describe and quantify the FEZ of the sluiceway at The Dalles Dam. This technique for FEZ mapping is applicable to other bioengineering efforts aimed at protecting fish populations affected by water withdrawals.

  5. Integrating market chain assessments with zoonoses risk analysis in two cross-border pig value chains in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna; Tiemann, Tassilo Tamino; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Phengvilaysouk, Ammaly; Keonouchanh, Soukanh; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Blaszak, Kate; Blacksell, Stuart; Okello, Walter; Allen, John

    2017-03-25

    Lao PDR's recent accession to the World Trade Organization necessitates a greater understanding of the patterns and risk of livestock production in order to better align national policy with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. This eco-health study describes the integration of market chain and zoonoses risk analyses at two strategic cross border points between Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Information gained from smallholder farmer/trader interviews was integrated with serological surveys for pig-associated zoonoses - including hepatitis E virus, Taenia solium and Trichinella - to identify potential linkages between disease risk and pig production and slaughter in low input systems common across the country. Trichinella and HEV exposure was high in both humans and pigs in both study areas, significantly associated with pig slaughter and the subsequent consumption and handling of raw pork products. T. solium demonstrated a strong geographical and ethnic association with the northern study area bordering Vietnam. With the right knowledge and accessible, affordable inputs, the majority of smallholder farmers indicated a willingness to invest more in pig production, which could simultaneously improve livelihoods and decrease exposure to HEV, Trichinella and T. solium through increased access to formal markets and an improved slaughter processes. Assessing disease risk in the context of potential economic and cultural drivers of transmission highlights the importance of a systems-based approach to the detection and control of zoonotic disease, improving the understanding of the Lao PDR livestock sector in accordance with the country's recent accession to the World Trade Organization.

  6. Application of Mobility Spectrum Analysis to Modern Multi-layered IR Device Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexander Earl

    Modern detector materials used for infrared (IR) imaging purposes contain complex multi-layered architectures, making more robust characterization techniques necessary. In order to determine mutli-carrier transport properties in the presence of mixed conduction, variable-field Hall characterization can be performed and then analyzed using mobility spectrum analysis to extract parameters of interest. Transport parameters are expected to aid in modeling and simulation of materials and can be used in optimization of particular problem areas. The performances of infrared devices ultimately depend on transport mechanisms, so an accurate determination becomes paramount. This work focuses on the characterization of two materials at the forefront of IR detectors; incumbent, tried and true, HgCdTe technologies and emergent III-V based superlattice structures holding much promise for future detector purposes. Ex-situ doped long-wave planar devices and in-situ doped mid-wave dual-layer heterojunctions (P+/n architecture) HgCdTe structures are explored with regards to substrate choice, namely lattice-matched CdZnTe and lattice-mismatched Si or GaAs. A detailed study of scattering mechanisms reveal that growth on lattice-mismatched substrates leads to dislocation scattering limited mobility at low temperature, correlating with extrinsically limited minority carrier lifetime and excesses diode tunneling current, resulting in overall lower performance. Mobility spectrum analysis proves to be an effective diagnostic on performance as well as providing insight in surface, substrate-interface, and minority carrier transport. Two main issues limiting performance of III-V based superlattices are addressed; high residual doping backgrounds and surface passivation. Mobility spectrum analysis proves to be a reliable method of determining background doping levels. Modest improvements are obtained via post-growth thermal annealing, but results suggest future efforts should be placed upon

  7. Comparative Analysis of Immune Repertoires between Bactrian Camel's Conventional and Heavy-Chain Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Changjiang; Fu, Longfei; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Changxi; Wu, Jinghua; Lu, Ruxue; Ye, Yanrui; He, Mengying; Nie, Chao; Yang, Naibo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Liu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Compared to classical antibodies, camel heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) are smaller in size due to lack of the light chain and the first constant domain of the heavy chain (CH1 region). The variable regions of HCAbs (VHHs) are more soluble and stable than that of conventional antibodies (VHs). Even with such simple structure, they are still functional in antigen binding. Although HCAbs have been extensively investigated over the past two decades, most efforts have been based upon low throughput sequence analysis, and there are only limited reports trying to analyze and describe the complete immune repertoire (IR) of camel HCAbs. Here we leveraged the high-throughput data generated by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of the variable domains of the antibody heavy chains from three Bactrian camels to conduct in-depth comparative analyses of the immunoglobulin repertoire. These include analyses of the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) length and distribution, mutation rate, antibody characteristic amino acids, the distribution of the cysteine (Cys) codons, and the non-classical VHHs. We found that there is higher diversity in the CDR2 than in the other sub-regions, and there is a higher mutation rate in the VHHs than in the VHs (P < 0.05). In addition to substitutions at amino acid (AA) residue positions NO.49/50/52 between VH and VHH clones, we also observed other substitutions at the positions NO.40/54/57/96/101 that could lead to additional structural alterations. We also found that VH-derived VHH clones, referred to as non-classical VHH clones in this study, accounted for about 8% of all clones. Further, only 5%-10% clones had the Trp > Arg AA substitution at the first position of framework 4 for all types of clones. We present, for the first time, a relatively complete picture of the Bactrian camel antibody immune repertoire, including conventional antibody (Ab) and HCAbs, using PCR and in silico analysis based on high-throughput NGS data. PMID:27588755

  8. Mobile phone use and risk for intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors - A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szymczak, Wiesław

    2017-02-21

    Results of epidemiological studies on the association between use of mobile phone and brain cancer are ambiguous, as well as the results of 5 meta-analysis studies published to date. Since the last meta-analysis (2009), new case-control studies have been published, which theoretically could affect the conclusions on this relationship. Therefore, we decided to perform a new meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review of multiple electronic data bases for relevant publications. The inclusion criteria were: original papers, case-control studies, published till the end of March 2014, measures of association (point estimates as odds ratio and confidence interval of the effect measured), data on individual exposure. Twenty four studies (26 846 cases, 50 013 controls) were included into the meta-analysis. A significantly higher risk of an intracranial tumor (all types) was noted for the period of mobile phone use over 10 years (odds ratio (OR) = 1.324, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.028-1.704), and for the ipsilateral location (OR = 1.249, 95% CI: 1.022-1.526). The results support the hypothesis that long-term use of mobile phone increases risk of intracranial tumors, especially in the case of ipsilateral exposure. Further studies are needed to confirm this relationship. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1)27-43.

  9. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  10. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the analysis of plant gene expression.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Timothy L; McQualter, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is used to simultaneously amplify and quantify a targeted DNA molecule. It can be used to determine exact copy number of a molecule within a sample and/or to compare the quantity of a molecule between samples. When combined with reverse transcription, it is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene expression, and it is widely used for this purpose in plant species. Here we provide an introduction to fundamental concepts relevant for the analysis of gene expression in plants using this technique and a protocol for quantification of the relative expression of a sucrose phosphate synthase gene along the maturation gradient of a sugarcane leaf.

  11. Analysis of myosin heavy chain mRNA expression by RT-PCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C.; Haddad, F.; Qin, A. X.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1997-01-01

    An assay was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA expression in rodent skeletal muscle. Only 2 microg of total RNA were necessary for the simultaneous analysis of relative mRNA expression of six different MHC genes. We designed synthetic DNA fragments as internal standards, which contained the relevant primer sequences for the adult MHC mRNAs type I, IIa, IIx, IIb as well as the embryonic and neonatal MHC mRNAs. A known amount of the synthetic fragment was added to each polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and yielded a product of different size than the amplified MHC mRNA fragment. The ratio of amplified MHC fragment to synthetic fragment allowed us to calculate percentages of the gene expression of the different MHC genes in a given muscle sample. Comparison with the traditional Northern blot analysis demonstrated that our reverse transcriptase-PCR-based assay was reliable, fast, and quantitative over a wide range of relative MHC mRNA expression in a spectrum of adult and neonatal rat skeletal muscles. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of the assay made it very useful when only small quantities of tissue were available. Statistical analysis of the signals for each MHC isoform across the analyzed samples showed a highly significant correlation between the PCR and the Northern signals as Pearson correlation coefficients ranged between 0.77 and 0.96 (P < 0.005). This assay has potential use in analyzing small muscle samples such as biopsies and samples from pre- and/or neonatal stages of development.

  12. Diagnostic value of immunoglobulin κ light chain gene rearrangement analysis in B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Kokovic, Ira; Jezersek Novakovic, Barbara; Novakovic, Srdjan

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of the immunoglobulin κ light chain (IGK) gene is an alternative method for B-cell clonality assessment in the diagnosis of mature B-cell proliferations in which the detection of clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements fails. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the added value of standardized BIOMED-2 assay for the detection of clonal IGK gene rearrangements in the diagnostic setting of suspected B-cell lymphomas. With this purpose, 92 specimens from 80 patients with the final diagnosis of mature B-cell lymphoma (37 specimens), mature T-cell lymphoma (26 specimens) and reactive lymphoid proliferation (29 specimens) were analyzed for B-cell clonality. B-cell clonality analysis was performed using the BIOMED-2 IGH and IGK gene clonality assays. The determined sensitivity of the IGK assay was 67.6%, while the determined sensitivity of the IGH assay was 75.7%. The sensitivity of combined IGH+IGK assay was 81.1%. The determined specificity of the IGK assay was 96.2% in the group of T-cell lymphomas and 96.6% in the group of reactive lesions. The determined specificity of the IGH assay was 84.6% in the group of lymphomas and 86.2% in the group of reactive lesions. The comparison of GeneScan (GS) and heteroduplex pretreatment-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (HD-PAGE) methods for the analysis of IGK gene rearrangements showed a higher efficacy of GS analysis in a series of 27 B-cell lymphomas analyzed by both methods. In the present study, we demonstrated that by applying the combined IGH+IGK clonality assay the overall detection rate of B-cell clonality was increased by 5.4%. Thus, we confirmed the added value of the standardized BIOMED-2 IGK assay for assessment of B-cell clonality in suspected B-cell lymphomas with inconclusive clinical and cyto/histological diagnosis.

  13. Analysis of myosin heavy chain mRNA expression by RT-PCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C.; Haddad, F.; Qin, A. X.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1997-01-01

    An assay was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA expression in rodent skeletal muscle. Only 2 microg of total RNA were necessary for the simultaneous analysis of relative mRNA expression of six different MHC genes. We designed synthetic DNA fragments as internal standards, which contained the relevant primer sequences for the adult MHC mRNAs type I, IIa, IIx, IIb as well as the embryonic and neonatal MHC mRNAs. A known amount of the synthetic fragment was added to each polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and yielded a product of different size than the amplified MHC mRNA fragment. The ratio of amplified MHC fragment to synthetic fragment allowed us to calculate percentages of the gene expression of the different MHC genes in a given muscle sample. Comparison with the traditional Northern blot analysis demonstrated that our reverse transcriptase-PCR-based assay was reliable, fast, and quantitative over a wide range of relative MHC mRNA expression in a spectrum of adult and neonatal rat skeletal muscles. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of the assay made it very useful when only small quantities of tissue were available. Statistical analysis of the signals for each MHC isoform across the analyzed samples showed a highly significant correlation between the PCR and the Northern signals as Pearson correlation coefficients ranged between 0.77 and 0.96 (P < 0.005). This assay has potential use in analyzing small muscle samples such as biopsies and samples from pre- and/or neonatal stages of development.

  14. A comparative signaling cost analysis of Macro Mobility scheme in NEMO (MM-NEMO) with mobility management protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Shayla; Abdalla, Aisha H.; Habaebi, Mohamed H.; Latif, Suhaimi A.; Hassan, Wan H.; Hasan, Mohammad K.; Ramli, H. A. M.; Khalifa, Othman O.

    2013-12-01

    NEMO BSP is an upgraded addition to Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6). As MIPv6 and its enhancements (i.e. HMIPv6) possess some limitations like higher handoff latency, packet loss, NEMO BSP also faces all these shortcomings by inheritance. Network Mobility (NEMO) is involved to handle the movement of Mobile Router (MR) and it's Mobile Network Nodes (MNNs) during handoff. Hence it is essential to upgrade the performance of mobility management protocol to obtain continuous session connectivity with lower delay and packet loss in NEMO environment. The completion of handoff process in NEMO BSP usually takes longer period since MR needs to register its single primary care of address (CoA) with home network that may cause performance degradation of the applications running on Mobile Network Nodes. Moreover, when a change in point of attachment of the mobile network is accompanied by a sudden burst of signaling messages, "Signaling Storm" occurs which eventually results in temporary congestion, packet delays or even packet loss. This effect is particularly significant for wireless environment where a wireless link is not as steady as a wired link since bandwidth is relatively limited in wireless link. Hence, providing continuous Internet connection without any interruption through applying multihoming technique and route optimization mechanism in NEMO are becoming the center of attention to the current researchers. In this paper, we propose a handoff cost model to compare the signaling cost of MM-NEMO with NEMO Basic Support Protocol (NEMO BSP) and HMIPv6.The numerical results shows that the signaling cost for the MM-NEMO scheme is about 69.6 % less than the NEMO-BSP and HMIPv6.

  15. Mobile 3D quality of experience evaluation: a hybrid data collection and analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utriainen, Timo; Häyrynen, Jyrki; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Boev, Atanas; Gotchev, Atanas; Hannuksela, Miska M.

    2011-02-01

    The paper presents a hybrid approach to study the user's experienced quality of 3D visual content on mobile autostereoscopic displays. It combines extensive subjective tests with collection and objective analysis of eye-tracked data. 3D cues which are significant for mobiles are simulated in the generated 3D test content. The methodology for conducting subjective quality evaluation includes hybrid data-collection of quantitative quality preferences, qualitative impressions, and binocular eye-tracking. We present early results of the subjective tests along with eye movement reaction times, areas of interest and heatmaps obtained from raw eye-tracked data after statistical analysis. The study contributes to the question what is important to be visualized on portable auto-stereoscopic displays and how to maintain and visually enhance the quality of 3D content for such displays.

  16. Off-the-shelf mobile handset environments for deploying accelerometer based gait and activity analysis algorithms.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Martin; Wang, Han; Kilmartin, Liam

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been substantial research interest in the application of accelerometry data for many forms of automated gait and activity analysis algorithms. This paper introduces a summary of new "of-the-shelf" mobile phone handset platforms containing embedded accelerometers which support the development of custom software to implement real time analysis of the accelerometer data. An overview of the main software programming environments which support the development of such software, including Java ME based JSR 256 API, C++ based Motion Sensor API and the Python based "aXYZ" module, is provided. Finally, a sample application is introduced and its performance evaluated in order to illustrate how a standard mobile phone can be used to detect gait activity using such a non-intrusive and easily accepted sensing platform.

  17. A comparative analysis of the statistical properties of large mobile phone calling networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Miccichè, Salvatore; Tumminello, Michele; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2014-05-30

    Mobile phone calling is one of the most widely used communication methods in modern society. The records of calls among mobile phone users provide us a valuable proxy for the understanding of human communication patterns embedded in social networks. Mobile phone users call each other forming a directed calling network. If only reciprocal calls are considered, we obtain an undirected mutual calling network. The preferential communication behavior between two connected users can be statistically tested and it results in two Bonferroni networks with statistically validated edges. We perform a comparative analysis of the statistical properties of these four networks, which are constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that these networks share many common structural properties and also exhibit idiosyncratic features when compared with previously studied large mobile calling networks. The empirical findings provide us an intriguing picture of a representative large social network that might shed new lights on the modelling of large social networks.

  18. A comparative analysis of the statistical properties of large mobile phone calling networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Miccichè, Salvatore; Tumminello, Michele; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phone calling is one of the most widely used communication methods in modern society. The records of calls among mobile phone users provide us a valuable proxy for the understanding of human communication patterns embedded in social networks. Mobile phone users call each other forming a directed calling network. If only reciprocal calls are considered, we obtain an undirected mutual calling network. The preferential communication behavior between two connected users can be statistically tested and it results in two Bonferroni networks with statistically validated edges. We perform a comparative analysis of the statistical properties of these four networks, which are constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that these networks share many common structural properties and also exhibit idiosyncratic features when compared with previously studied large mobile calling networks. The empirical findings provide us an intriguing picture of a representative large social network that might shed new lights on the modelling of large social networks. PMID:24875444

  19. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN THE ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL PREFERENCES, RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY, AND NEIGHBORHOOD CHANGE1

    PubMed Central

    Bruch, Elizabeth E.; Mare, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for analyzing both individual preferences and choices about where to live, and the implications of these choices for residential patterns. Although these methods are discussed in the context of residential choice, they can be applied more broadly to individual choices in a range of social contexts where behavior is interdependent. We review a variety of types of data on residential preferences and mobility and discuss appropriate statistical models for these data. We discuss the analysis of ranked and other types of clustered data; functional form issues; problems of unobserved heterogeneity in individuals and in neighborhoods; and strengths and weaknesses of stated preference data versus observations of actual mobility behavior. We also discuss specific problems with residential mobility data, including the treatment of one’s current location as a potential choice, how to specify the choice set of potential movers, the aggregation of units (such as dwelling units into neighborhoods) and the need to take account of variations in neighborhood size, the problem of very large choice sets and possible sampling solutions; and the link between residential mobility and patterns of neighborhood change. PMID:23476098

  20. Effect of mobile phone radiation on brain using EEG analysis by Higuichi's fractal dimension method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, C. K.; Narayanan, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    venient window on the mind, revealing synaptic action that is moderately to strongly co-relate with brain state. Fractal dimension, measure of signal complexity can be used to characterize the physiological conditions of the brain. As the EEG signal is non linear, non stationary and noisy, non linear methods will be suitable for the analysis. In this paper Higuichi's fractal method is applied to find the fractal dimension. EEGs of 5 volunteers were recorded at rest and on exposure to radiofrequency (RF) emissions from mobile phones having different SAR values. Mobiles were positioned near the ears and then near the cz position. Fractal dimensions for all conditions are calculated using Higuich's FD estimation algorithm. The result shows that there are some changes in the FD while using mobile phone. The change in FD of the signal varies from person to person. The changes in FD show the variations in EEG signal while using mobile phone, which demonstrate transformation in the activities of brain due to radiation.

  1. Tracking Mobile Sinks via Analysis of Movement Angle Changes in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guisong; Xu, Huifen; He, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Chunxue

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for tracking mobile sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) often incur considerable energy consumption and overhead. To address this issue, we propose a Detour-Aware Mobile Sink Tracking (DAMST) method via analysis of movement angle changes of mobile sinks, for collecting data in a low-overhead and energy efficient way. In the proposed method, while a mobile sink passes through a region, it appoints a specific node as a region agent to collect information of the whole region, and records nodes near or on its trajectory as footprints. If it needs information from the region agent in a future time it will construct an energy efficient path from the region agent to itself by calculating its own movement angles according to the footprints, as well as getting rid of detours by analyzing these movement angles. Finally, the performance of the tracking method is evaluated systematically under different trajectory patterns and footprint appointment intervals. The simulation results consolidate that DAMST has advantages in reducing energy consumption and data overhead. PMID:27043562

  2. Tracking Mobile Sinks via Analysis of Movement Angle Changes in WSNs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guisong; Xu, Huifen; He, Xingyu; Wang, Gang; Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Chunxue

    2016-03-29

    Existing methods for tracking mobile sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) often incur considerable energy consumption and overhead. To address this issue, we propose a Detour-Aware Mobile Sink Tracking (DAMST) method via analysis of movement angle changes of mobile sinks, for collecting data in a low-overhead and energy efficient way. In the proposed method, while a mobile sink passes through a region, it appoints a specific node as a region agent to collect information of the whole region, and records nodes near or on its trajectory as footprints. If it needs information from the region agent in a future time it will construct an energy efficient path from the region agent to itself by calculating its own movement angles according to the footprints, as well as getting rid of detours by analyzing these movement angles. Finally, the performance of the tracking method is evaluated systematically under different trajectory patterns and footprint appointment intervals. The simulation results consolidate that DAMST has advantages in reducing energy consumption and data overhead.

  3. The Effects of Mobile-Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Meta-Analysis and Critical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Yang, Je-Ming; Lee, Han-Yueh

    2017-01-01

    One of the trends in collaborative learning is using mobile devices for supporting the process and products of collaboration, which has been forming the field of mobile-computer-supported collaborative learning (mCSCL). Although mobile devices have become valuable collaborative learning tools, evaluative evidence for their substantial contributions to collaborative learning is still scarce. The present meta-analysis, which included 48 peer-reviewed journal articles and doctoral dissertations written over a 16-year period (2000–2015) involving 5,294 participants, revealed that mCSCL has produced meaningful improvements for collaborative learning, with an overall mean effect size of 0.516. Moderator variables, such as domain subject, group size, teaching method, intervention duration, and reward method were related to different effect sizes. The results provided implications for future research and practice, such as suggestions on how to appropriately use the functionalities of mobile devices, how to best leverage mCSCL through effective group learning mechanisms, and what outcome variables should be included in future studies to fully elucidate the process and products of mCSCL. PMID:28989193

  4. Helium mobility in SON68 borosilicate nuclear glass: A nuclear reaction analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bès, R.; Sauvage, T.; Peuget, S.; Haussy, J.; Chamssedine, F.; Oliviero, E.; Fares, T.; Vincent, L.

    2013-11-01

    The 3He behavior in the non active R7T7 type borosilicate glass called SON68 has been investigated using the implantation method to introduce helium in the material. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was performed to follow the helium concentration depth profile evolution as a function of annealing time and temperature. In addition, in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been implemented to study the formation of helium bubbles during both implantation and annealing processes. Numerical modeling with two different approaches is proposed and discussed to investigate the helium mobility mechanisms. Our study reveals for helium incorporation by implantation at low temperature the presence of several helium populations with disparate diffusivities. The most mobile helium fraction would be attributed to atomic diffusion. The corresponding activation energy value (0.61 eV) extracted from Arrhenius graphs is in good agreement with literature data. The results also highlight that the damages associated to helium sursaturation are the source of small helium clusters formation, with a reduced mobility instead of the atomic mobility measured by the infusion technique. Small cavities that support this assumption have been observed by TEM at low temperature.

  5. A comparative analysis of the statistical properties of large mobile phone calling networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Miccichè, Salvatore; Tumminello, Michele; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2014-05-01

    Mobile phone calling is one of the most widely used communication methods in modern society. The records of calls among mobile phone users provide us a valuable proxy for the understanding of human communication patterns embedded in social networks. Mobile phone users call each other forming a directed calling network. If only reciprocal calls are considered, we obtain an undirected mutual calling network. The preferential communication behavior between two connected users can be statistically tested and it results in two Bonferroni networks with statistically validated edges. We perform a comparative analysis of the statistical properties of these four networks, which are constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that these networks share many common structural properties and also exhibit idiosyncratic features when compared with previously studied large mobile calling networks. The empirical findings provide us an intriguing picture of a representative large social network that might shed new lights on the modelling of large social networks.

  6. Analysis of Phenolic Antioxidants in Navy Mobility Fuels by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-19

    degradation involves chemical changes that lead to oxidation of fuel molecules to form a variety of oxygenated species, often resulting in the accumulation...D5304, 2006, “Standard Test Method for Assessing Middle Distillate Fuel Storage Stability by Oxygen Overpressure,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--13-9471 Analysis of Phenolic Antioxidants in Navy Mobility Fuels by Gas

  7. Rapid screening for sickle cell disease by polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Yue, Liang; Lin, Min; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Zhong, De-Shang; Monte-Nguba, Santiago-M; Liu, Pei-Fen; Pan, Xue-Fen; Huang, Jiang-Hua; Wang, Xi; Ehapo, Juan Carlos Salas; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Yang, Hui-Tian; Yang, Li-Ye

    2014-06-01

    Each year, ~300,000 individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD), a hemoglobinopathy caused by β-globin gene mutation, are born, and >75% of those are in Africa. The present study examined 511 individuals on the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) and attempted to establish a method for rapid sickle cell disease screening. Following DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was used to assess the specificity of fluorescence signals of the PCR products and to differentiate various genotypes of these products. The analytical results of HRM were validated using DNA sequencing. By HRM analysis, 80 out of 511 samples were classified as hemoglobin S (Hb S) heterozygotes, while 431 out of 511 samples were classified as wild-type. No mutant homozygote was identified. DNA sequencing indicated that within the 431 wild-type samples as indicated by HRM analysis, one case was actually a Hb S heterozygote and another case was a rare hemoglobin S-C genotype (sickle-hemoglobin C disease). One out of 80 suspected Hb S heterozygotes as indicated by HRM was confirmed as wild-type by DNA sequencing and the results of residual 508 cases were consistent for HRM analysis and sequencing. In conclusion, HRM analysis is a simple, high-efficiency approach for Hb S screening and is useful for early diagnosis of SCD and particularly suitable for application in the African area.

  8. Traceability and Risk Analysis Strategies for Addressing Counterfeit Electronics in Supply Chains for Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    DiMase, Daniel; Collier, Zachary A; Carlson, Jinae; Gray, Robin B; Linkov, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Within the microelectronics industry, there is a growing concern regarding the introduction of counterfeit electronic parts into the supply chain. Even though this problem is widespread, there have been limited attempts to implement risk-based approaches for testing and supply chain management. Supply chain risk management tends to focus on the highly visible disruptions of the supply chain instead of the covert entrance of counterfeits; thus counterfeit risk is difficult to mitigate. This article provides an overview of the complexities of the electronics supply chain, and highlights some gaps in risk assessment practices. In particular, this article calls for enhanced traceability capabilities to track and trace parts at risk through various stages of the supply chain. Placing the focus on risk-informed decision making through the following strategies is needed, including prioritization of high-risk parts, moving beyond certificates of conformance, incentivizing best supply chain management practices, adoption of industry standards, and design and management for supply chain resilience.

  9. A Benchmarking Analysis for Five Radionuclide Vadose Zone Models (Chain, Multimed{_}DP, Fectuz, Hydrus, and Chain 2D) in Soil Screening Level Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J-S.; Drake, R.; Lin, Z.; Jewett, D. G.

    2002-02-26

    Five vadose zone models with different degrees of complexity (CHAIN, MULTIMED{_}DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, and CHAIN 2D) were selected for use in radionuclide soil screening level (SSL) calculations. A benchmarking analysis between the models was conducted for a radionuclide ({sup 99}Tc) release scenario at the Las Cruces Trench Site in New Mexico. Sensitivity of three model outputs to the input parameters were evaluated and compared among the models. The three outputs were peak contaminant concentrations, time to peak concentrations at the water table, and time to exceed the contaminants maximum critical level at a representative receptor well. Model parameters investigated include soil properties such as bulk density, water content, soil water retention parameters and hydraulic conductivity. Chemical properties examined include distribution coefficient, radionuclide half-life, dispersion coefficient, and molecular diffusion. Other soil characteristics, such as recharge rate, also were examined. Model sensitivity was quantified in the form of sensitivity and relative sensitivity coefficients. Relative sensitivities were used to compare the sensitivities of different parameters. The analysis indicates that soil water content, recharge rate, saturated soil water content, and soil retention parameter, {beta}, have a great influence on model outputs. In general, the results of sensitivities and relative sensitivities using five models are similar for a specific scenario. Slight differences were observed in predicted peak contaminant concentrations due to different mathematical treatment among models. The results of benchmarking and sensitivity analysis would facilitate the model selection and application of the model in SSL calculations.

  10. Understanding influential factors on implementing green supply chain management practices: An interpretive structural modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Agi, Maher A N; Nishant, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we establish a set of 19 influential factors on the implementation of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) practices and analyse the interaction between these factors and their effect on the implementation of GSCM practices using the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) method and the "Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée à un Classement" (MICMAC) analysis on data compiled from interviews with supply chain (SC) executives based in the Gulf countries (Middle East region). The study reveals a strong influence and driving power of the nature of the relationships between SC partners on the implementation of GSCM practices. We especially found that dependence, trust, and durability of the relationship with SC partners have a very high influence. In addition, the size of the company, the top management commitment, the implementation of quality management and the employees training and education exert a critical influence on the implementation of GSCM practices. Contextual elements such as the industry sector and region and their effect on the prominence of specific factors are also highlighted through our study. Finally, implications for research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of sense and naturally occurring antisense transcripts of myosin heavy chain in the human myocardium.

    PubMed

    Luther, H P; Podlowski, S; Hetzer, R; Baumann, G

    2001-01-01

    Naturally occurring antisense RNA has the potential to form a duplex with its complementary sense mRNA, thereby regulating protein expression. Previously, we demonstrated considerable amounts of endogenous antisense RNA for both alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain (MHC) in rat heart suggesting a role in posttranscriptional MHC-regulation (Luther et al. [1997] J Mol Cell Cardiol 29(1):27-35). To evaluate whether antisense RNA is also involved in MHC regulation in human heart we analyzed ventricular myocardium transcripts in nonfailing hearts (n=3) and hearts from patients undergoing heart transplantation (n=5). Investigation of RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected an antisense RNA transcript for beta-MHC but none for alpha-MHC. Northern blot analysis of normal and failing hearts detected sense mRNA for beta-MHC, but not alpha-MHC suggesting no functionally relevant levels of alpha-MHC mRNA exist in the human ventricle. The results describe-for the first time-the existence of endogenous polyadenylated MHC antisense transcripts in the human heart. The potential effect of attenuating translation was shown in an in vitro translation assay using a synthetic antisense-oligonucleotide derived from the sequence of the naturally occurring antisense RNA. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Ricin A-chain structural determinant for binding substrate analogues: a molecular dynamics simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Olson, M A

    1997-01-01

    Ricin A-chain is a cytotoxic protein that attacks ribosomes by hydrolyzing a specific adenine base from a highly conserved, single-stranded rRNA hairpin containing the tetraloop sequence GAGA. Molecular-dynamics simulation methods are used to analyze the structural determinant for three substrate analogues bound to the ricin A-chain molecule. Simulations were applied to the binding of the dinucleotide adenyl-3',5'-guanosine employing the x-ray crystal structure of the ricin complex and a modeled CGAGAG hexanucleotide loop taken from the NMR solution structure of a 29-mer oligonucleotide hairpin. A third simulation model is also presented describing a conformational search of the docked 29-mer structure by using a simulated-annealing method. Analysis of the structural interaction energies for each model shows the overall binding dominated by nonspecific interactions, which are mediated by specific arginine contracts from the highly basic region on the protein surface. The tetraloop conformation of the 29-mer was found to make specific interactions with conserved protein residues, in a manner that favored the GAGA sequence. A comparison of the two docked loop conformations with the NMR structure revealed significant positional deviations, suggesting that ricin may use an induced fit mechanism to recognize and bind the rRNA substrate. The conserved Tyr-80 may play an important conformational entropic role in the binding and release of the target adenine in the active site.

  13. Evaluation of Supply Chain Efficiency Based on a Novel Network of Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Li Fang; Meng, Jun; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Performance evaluation of supply chain (SC) is a vital topic in SC management and inherently complex problems with multilayered internal linkages and activities of multiple entities. Recently, various Network Data Envelopment Analysis (NDEA) models, which opened the “black box” of conventional DEA, were developed and applied to evaluate the complex SC with a multilayer network structure. However, most of them are input or output oriented models which cannot take into consideration the nonproportional changes of inputs and outputs simultaneously. This paper extends the Slack-based measure (SBM) model to a nonradial, nonoriented network model named as U-NSBM with the presence of undesirable outputs in the SC. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the model in quantifying the efficiency and ranking the supply chain performance. By comparing with the CCR and U-SBM models, it is shown that the proposed model has higher distinguishing ability and gives feasible solution in the presence of undesirable outputs. Meanwhile, it provides more insights for decision makers about the source of inefficiency as well as the guidance to improve the SC performance.

  14. [Analysis and modelling of safety culture in a Mexican hospital by Markov chains].

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Martínez, J D; Cruz-Suárez, H; Santos-Reyes, J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse and model the safety culture with Markov chains, as well as predicting and/or prioritizing over time the evolutionary behaviour of the safety culture of the health's staff in one Mexican hospital. The Markov chain theory has been employed in the analysis, and the input data has been obtained from a previous study based on the Safety Attitude Questionnaire (CAS-MX-II), by considering the following 6 dimensions: safety climate, teamwork, job satisfaction, recognition of stress, perception of management, and work environment. The results highlighted the predictions and/or prioritisation of the approximate time for the possible integration into the evolutionary behaviour of the safety culture as regards the "slightly agree" (Likert scale) for: safety climate (in 12 years; 24.13%); teamwork (8 years; 34.61%); job satisfaction (11 years; 52.41%); recognition of the level of stress (8 years; 19.35%); and perception of the direction (22 years; 27.87%). The work environment dimension was unable to determine the behaviour of staff information, i.e. no information cultural roots were obtained. In general, it has been shown that there are weaknesses in the safety culture of the hospital, which is an opportunity to suggest changes to the mandatory policies in order to strengthen it. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving Bayesian analysis for LISA Pathfinder using an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraioli, Luigi; Porter, Edward K.; Armano, Michele; Audley, Heather; Congedo, Giuseppe; Diepholz, Ingo; Gibert, Ferran; Hewitson, Martin; Hueller, Mauro; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Korsakova, Natalia; Nofrarias, Miquel; Plagnol, Eric; Vitale, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    We present a parameter estimation procedure based on a Bayesian framework by applying a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to the calibration of the dynamical parameters of the LISA Pathfinder satellite. The method is based on the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and a two-stage annealing treatment in order to ensure an effective exploration of the parameter space at the beginning of the chain. We compare two versions of the algorithm with an application to a LISA Pathfinder data analysis problem. The two algorithms share the same heating strategy but with one moving in coordinate directions using proposals from a multivariate Gaussian distribution, while the other uses the natural logarithm of some parameters and proposes jumps in the eigen-space of the Fisher Information matrix. The algorithm proposing jumps in the eigen-space of the Fisher Information matrix demonstrates a higher acceptance rate and a slightly better convergence towards the equilibrium parameter distributions in the application to LISA Pathfinder data. For this experiment, we return parameter values that are all within ˜1 σ of the injected values. When we analyse the accuracy of our parameter estimation in terms of the effect they have on the force-per-unit of mass noise, we find that the induced errors are three orders of magnitude less than the expected experimental uncertainty in the power spectral density.

  17. Respiratory Chain Analysis of Zymomonas mobilis Mutants Producing High Levels of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2012-01-01

    We previously isolated respiratory-deficient mutant (RDM) strains of Zymomonas mobilis, which exhibited greater growth and enhanced ethanol production under aerobic conditions. These RDM strains also acquired thermotolerance. Morphologically, the cells of all RDM strains were shorter compared to the wild-type strain. We investigated the respiratory chains of these RDM strains and found that some RDM strains lost NADH dehydrogenase activity, whereas others exhibited reduced cytochrome bd-type ubiquinol oxidase or ubiquinol peroxidase activities. Complementation experiments restored the wild-type phenotype. Some RDM strains seem to have certain mutations other than the corresponding respiratory chain components. RDM strains with deficient NADH dehydrogenase activity displayed the greatest amount of aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that all NADH dehydrogenase-deficient strains were mutated within the ndh gene, which includes insertion, deletion, or frameshift. These results suggested that the loss of NADH dehydrogenase activity permits the acquisition of higher aerobic growth, enhanced ethanol production, and thermotolerance in this industrially important strain. PMID:22660712

  18. Locations of Racism in Education: A Speech Act Analysis of a Policy Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneback, Emma; Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how racism is located in an educational policy chain and identifies how its interpretation changes throughout the chain. A basic assumption is that the policy formation process can be seen as a chain in which international, national and local policies are "links"--separate entities yet joined. With Sweden as the…

  19. Locations of Racism in Education: A Speech Act Analysis of a Policy Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneback, Emma; Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how racism is located in an educational policy chain and identifies how its interpretation changes throughout the chain. A basic assumption is that the policy formation process can be seen as a chain in which international, national and local policies are "links"--separate entities yet joined. With Sweden as the…

  20. Graph theory analysis of functional brain networks and mobility disability in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Burdette, Jonathan H; Morgan, Ashley R; Williamson, Jeff D; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Laurienti, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    The brain's structural integrity is associated with mobility function in older adults. Changes in function may be evident earlier than changes in structure and may be more directly related to mobility. Therefore, we assessed whether functional brain networks varied with mobility function in older adults. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging were collected on 24 young (mean age = 26.4±5.1) and 48 older (mean age = 72.04±5.1) participants. Older participants were divided into three groups by SPPB score: Low SPPB (score = 7-9), Mid SPPB (score = 10), High SPPB (score = 11-12).Graph theory-based methods were used to characterize and compare brain network organization. Connectivity in the somatomotor cortex distinguished between groups based on SPPB score. The community structure of the somatomotor cortex was significantly less consistent in the Low SPPB group (mean = 0.097±0.05) compared with Young (mean = 0.163±0.09, p = .03) SPPB group. Striking differences were evident in second-order connections between somatomotor cortex and superior temporal gyrus and insula that reached statistical significance. The Low SPPB group (mean = 140.87±109.30) had a significantly higher number of connections than Young (mean = 45.05±33.79, p = .0003) or High (mean = 49.61±35.31, p = .002) SPPB group. Older adults with poorer mobility function exhibited reduced consistency of somatomotor community structure and a greater number of secondary connections with vestibular and multisensory regions of the brain. Further study is needed to fully interpret these effects, but analysis of functional brain networks adds new insights to the contribution of the brain to mobility. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Empirical Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian analysis of fMRI data.

    PubMed

    de Pasquale, F; Del Gratta, C; Romani, G L

    2008-08-01

    In this work an Empirical Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian approach to analyse fMRI data is proposed. The Bayesian framework is appealing since complex models can be adopted in the analysis both for the image and noise model. Here, the noise autocorrelation is taken into account by adopting an AutoRegressive model of order one and a versatile non-linear model is assumed for the task-related activation. Model parameters include the noise variance and autocorrelation, activation amplitudes and the hemodynamic response function parameters. These are estimated at each voxel from samples of the Posterior Distribution. Prior information is included by means of a 4D spatio-temporal model for the interaction between neighbouring voxels in space and time. The results show that this model can provide smooth estimates from low SNR data while important spatial structures in the data can be preserved. A simulation study is presented in which the accuracy and bias of the estimates are addressed. Furthermore, some results on convergence diagnostic of the adopted algorithm are presented. To validate the proposed approach a comparison of the results with those from a standard GLM analysis, spatial filtering techniques and a Variational Bayes approach is provided. This comparison shows that our approach outperforms the classical analysis and is consistent with other Bayesian techniques. This is investigated further by means of the Bayes Factors and the analysis of the residuals. The proposed approach applied to Blocked Design and Event Related datasets produced reliable maps of activation.

  2. Purification, Characterization, and Analysis of the Allergenic Properties of Myosin Light Chain in Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Xia; Chen, Heng-Li; Maleki, Soheila J; Cao, Min-Jie; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Su, Wen-Jin; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2015-07-15

    Myosin light chain (MLC) plays a vital role in cell and muscle functions and has been identified as an allergen in shrimp. In this study, MLC with a molecular mass of 18 kDa was purified from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle. Its physicochemical characterization showed that the purified MLC is a glycoprotein with 4.3% carbohydrate, highly stable to heat, acid-alkali, and digestion, and weakly retains IgE-binding activity when its secondary structure was altered. Serological assays suggested that conformational epitopes predominate over linear epitopes in the purified MLC. Two isoforms of the MLC gene (MLC1 and MLC2) were cloned, and the purified MLC was identified as MLC1. Analysis of the secondary and tertiary structures of the MLCs indicated that MLC1 has four conformational epitopes and three linear epitopes, whereas MLC2 had a major conformational epitope and three linear epitopes. These results are significant for understanding hypersensitization of humans to crayfish.

  3. Gene analysis of multiple oral bacteria by the polymerase chain reaction coupled with capillary polymer electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenchen; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Sekine, Shinichi; Ni, Yi; Li, Zhenqing; Zhu, Xifang; Dou, Xiaoming

    2016-03-01

    Capillary polymer electrophoresis is identified as a promising technology for the analysis of DNA from bacteria, virus and cell samples. In this paper, we propose an innovative capillary polymer electrophoresis protocol for the quantification of polymerase chain reaction products. The internal standard method was modified and applied to capillary polymer electrophoresis. The precision of our modified internal standard protocol was evaluated by measuring the relative standard deviation of intermediate capillary polymer electrophoresis experiments. Results showed that the relative standard deviation was reduced from 12.4-15.1 to 0.6-2.3%. Linear regression tests were also implemented to validate our protocol. The modified internal standard method showed good linearity and robust properties. Finally, the ease of our method was illustrated by analyzing a real clinical oral sample using a one-run capillary polymer electrophoresis experiment.

  4. Analysis of raw meats and fats of pigs using polymerase chain reaction for Halal authentication.

    PubMed

    Aida, A A; Che Man, Y B; Wong, C M V L; Raha, A R; Son, R

    2005-01-01

    A method for species identification from pork and lard samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a conserved region in the mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome b (cyt b) gene has been developed. Genomic DNA of pork and lard were extracted using Qiagen DNeasy(®) Tissue Kits and subjected to PCR amplification targeting the mt cyt b gene. The genomic DNA from lard was found to be of good quality and produced clear PCR products on the amplification of the mt cyt b gene of approximately 360 base pairs. To distinguish between species, the amplified PCR products were cut with restriction enzyme BsaJI resulting in porcine-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The cyt b PCR-RFLP species identification assay yielded excellent results for identification of pig species. It is a potentially reliable technique for detection of pig meat and fat from other animals for Halal authentication.

  5. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and ion mobility analysis of the 20S proteasome complex.

    PubMed

    Loo, Joseph A; Berhane, Beniam; Kaddis, Catherine S; Wooding, Kerry M; Xie, Yongming; Kaufman, Stanley L; Chernushevich, Igor V

    2005-07-01

    Mass spectrometry and gas phase ion mobility [gas phase electrophoretic macromolecule analyzer (GEMMA)] with electrospray ionization were used to characterize the structure of the noncovalent 28-subunit 20S proteasome from Methanosarcina thermophila and rabbit. ESI-MS measurements with a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer of the 192 kDa alpha7-ring and the intact 690 kDa alpha7beta7beta7alpha7 are consistent with their expected stoichiometries. Collisionally activated dissociation of the 20S gas phase complex yields loss of individual alpha-subunits only, and it is generally consistent with the known alpha7beta7beta7alpha7 architecture. The analysis of the binding of a reversible inhibitor to the 20S proteasome shows the expected stoichiometry of one inhibitor for each beta-subunit. Ion mobility measurements of the alpha7-ring and the alpha7beta7beta7alpha7 complex yield electrophoretic diameters of 10.9 and 15.1 nm, respectively; these dimensions are similar to those measured by crystallographic methods. Sequestration of multiple apo-myoglobin substrates by a lactacystin-inhibited 20S proteasome is demonstrated by GEMMA experiments. This study suggests that many elements of the gas phase structure of large protein complexes are preserved upon desolvation, and that methods such as mass spectrometry and ion mobility analysis can reveal structural details of the solution protein complex.

  6. Ion mobility spectrometry for the rapid analysis of over-the-counter drugs and beverages

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Maestre, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, there are increasing requirements for analytical methods in quality assessment for the production of drugs. In this investigation, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used for the rapid qualitative separation and identification of active ingredients in generic over-the-counter drugs and food additives in beverages. The active ingredients determined in drugs were acetaminophen, aspartame, bisacodyl, caffeine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, famotidine, glucosamine, guaifenesin, loratadine, niacin, phenylephrine, pyridoxine, thiamin, and tetrahydrozoline. Aspartame and caffeine were determined in beverages. Fourteen over-the-counter drugs and beverages were analyzed. Analysis times below 10 s were obtained for IMS, and reduced mobilities were reported for the first time for 12 compounds. A quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a mobility spectrometer was used to assure a correct peak assignation. The combination of fast analysis, low cost, and inexpensive maintenance of IMS instruments makes IMS an attractive technique for the qualitative determination of the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs and food additives in manufacture quality control and cleaning verification for the drug and food industries. PMID:20835390

  7. Ion mobility spectrometry for the rapid analysis of over-the-counter drugs and beverages.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Maestre, Roberto; Hill, Herbert H

    2009-08-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, there are increasing requirements for analytical methods in quality assessment for the production of drugs. In this investigation, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used for the rapid qualitative separation and identification of active ingredients in generic over-the-counter drugs and food additives in beverages. The active ingredients determined in drugs were acetaminophen, aspartame, bisacodyl, caffeine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, famotidine, glucosamine, guaifenesin, loratadine, niacin, phenylephrine, pyridoxine, thiamin, and tetrahydrozoline. Aspartame and caffeine were determined in beverages. Fourteen over-the-counter drugs and beverages were analyzed. Analysis times below 10 s were obtained for IMS, and reduced mobilities were reported for the first time for 12 compounds. A quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a mobility spectrometer was used to assure a correct peak assignation. The combination of fast analysis, low cost, and inexpensive maintenance of IMS instruments makes IMS an attractive technique for the qualitative determination of the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs and food additives in manufacture quality control and cleaning verification for the drug and food industries.

  8. The Role of Fluorinated Alcohols as Mobile Phase Modifiers for LC-MS Analysis of Oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiri, Babak; van Hattum, Hilde; van Dongen, William D.; Murph, Mandi M.; Bartlett, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) has been widely used as an acidic modifier for mobile phases for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of oligonucleotides ever since the first report of its use for this purpose. This is not surprising, considering the exceptional performance of HFIP compared with carboxylic acids, which cause significant MS signal suppression in electrospray ionization. However, we have found that other fluorinated alcohols can also be utilized for mobile phase preparation and the choice of optimal fluorinated alcohol is determined by the ion-pairing (IP) agent. Although HFIP is a very good choice to be used alongside less hydrophobic IP agents, other fluorinated alcohols such as 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-methyl-2-propanol (HFMIP) can significantly outperform HFIP when used with more hydrophobic IP agents. We also found that more acidic fluorinated alcohols assist with the transfer of oligonucleotides with secondary structure (e.g., folded strands and hairpins) into the gas phase.

  9. Immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis of immunoglobulin light-chain immunoreactive amyloid in psammoma bodies of the human choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Ivan; Ugrenović, Sladjana; Vasović, Ljiljana; Stojanović, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to establish the presence of amyloid and to quantify immunohistochemical reactions of kappa and lambda light chains of psammoma bodies of the choroid plexus. Choroid plexus tissue obtained from 14 right lateral ventricles postmortem was processed histologically and stained with Congo red, thioflavin T, and monoclonal antibodies for kappa and lambda light chains. Morphological analysis was performed with a light microscope at lens magnifications of 4×, 10×, 20×, 25×, and 40×. The morphometric characteristics of psammoma bodies that were kappa and lambda positive and negative were analyzed with ImageJ. Histological analysis showed that the psammoma bodies, stromal blood vessel walls, and some epithelial cells reacted positively with Congo red and thioflavin T. Psammoma bodies were predominantly positive for lambda light chains. Lambda positivity was detected inside some stromal blood vessels, which pointed to a probable systemic origin for these light chains. Morphometric analysis showed that the mean optical densities of lambda- and kappa-positive psammoma bodies were significantly higher than those that gave a negative reaction. The percentage of lambda-positive psammoma bodies was significantly higher than the percentage of lambda-negative psammoma bodies in 80% of the cases, while the reaction with kappa light chains was negative in the majority of the cases. Linear regression analysis showed a significant increase in the percentage of lambda-positive psammoma bodies and their mean optical density with age. Finally, it can be concluded that the positive reaction of psammoma bodies in the choroid plexus with respect to amyloid and lambda light chains may point to the presence of light-chain amyloid in their structures.

  10. Analysis of decay chains of superheavy nuclei produced in the 249Bk+48Ca and 243Am+48Ca reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlokazov, V. B.; Utyonkov, V. K.

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of decay chains starting at superheavy nuclei 293Ts and 289Mc is presented. The spectroscopic properties of nuclei identified during the experiments using the 249Bk+48Ca and 243Am+48Ca reactions studied at the gas-filled separators DGFRS, TASCA and BGS are considered. We present the analysis of decay data using widely adopted statistical methods and applying them to the short decay chains of parent odd-Z nuclei. We find out that the recently suggested method of analyzing decay chains by Forsberg et al may lead to questionable conclusions when applied for the analysis of radioactive decays. Our discussion demonstrates reasonable congruence of α-particle energies and decay times of nuclei assigned to isotopes 289Mc, 285Nh and 281Rg observed in both reactions.

  11. Preliminary identification of hemoglobin q-iran in an Iranian family from central province of Iran by globin chain analysis on HPLC.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Shohreh; Najmabadi, Hossein; Rouhi, Soghra; Mirzazadeh, Roghieh; Bayat, Parastoo; Sadeghi, Sedigheh

    2013-12-01

    Many abnormal α-chain hemoglobins (Hbs) are caused by single nucleotide mutations in α1- or α2-goblin genes. One of these Hbs is Hb Q-Iran which is resulted from a point mutation at codon 75 of the α1-globin gene (Asp→His). The identification of Hb Q-Iran was observed in two members of a family from the Central Province of Iran. In this study, Globin chain analysis on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DNA sequencing were applied. An unusual Hb variant, like HbS on alkaline pH electrophoresis was identified from samples of a father and his son from Arak city in the Central Province of Iran. The variant was further characterized by globin chain analysis and DNA sequencing methods. Globin chain analysis revealed an unknown globin chain peak after α-globin chain peak with a different retention time from βs-globin chain, as the control in both samples. Genetic analysis led to the identification of an unknown Hb variant, Hb Q-Iran. Globin chain analysis showed the presence of an unknown globin chain, and likewise DNA sequencing revealed HbQ-Iran. In other words, Globin chain analysis procedure could preliminarily detect an unknown globin chain.

  12. Chain Confinement in Electrospun Nanocomposites: using Thermal Analysis to Investigate Polymer-Filler Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Q Ma; B Mao; P Cebe

    2011-12-31

    We investigate the interaction of the polymer matrix and filler in electrospun nanofibers using advanced thermal analysis methods. In particular, we study the ability of silicon dioxide nanoparticles to affect the phase structure of poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (either unmodified or modified with silane) ranging from 0 to 2.0 wt% in PET were electrospun from hexafluoro-2-propanol solutions. The morphologies of both the electrospun (ES) nanofibers and the SiO{sub 2} powders were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, while the amorphous or crystalline nature of the fibers was determined by real-time wide-angle X-ray scattering. The fractions of the crystal, mobile amorphous, and rigid amorphous phases of the non-woven, nanofibrous composite mats were quantified by using heat capacity measurements. The amount of the immobilized polymer layer, the rigid amorphous fraction, was obtained from the specific reversing heat capacity for both as-spun amorphous fibers and isothermally crystallized fibers. Existence of the rigid amorphous phase in the absence of crystallinity was verified in nanocomposite fibers, and two origins for confinement of the rigid amorphous fraction are proposed. Thermal analysis of electrospun fibers, including quasi-isothermal methods, provides new insights to quantitatively characterize the polymer matrix phase structure and thermal transitions, such as devitrification of the rigid amorphous fraction.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of psychomotor effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Elia; Ferrara, Michele; Presaghi, Fabio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Gennaro, Luigi De; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    Over the past 10 years there has been increasing concern about the possible behavioural effects of mobile phone use. This systematic review and meta-analysis focuses on studies published since 1999 on the human cognitive and performance effects of mobile phone-related electromagnetic fields (EMF). PubMed, Biomed, Medline, Biological Sciences, PsychInfo, PsycARTICLES, Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management, Neurosciences Abstracts and Web of Science professional databases were searched and 24 studies selected for meta-analysis. Each study had to have at least one psychomotor measurement result as a main outcome. Data were analysed using standardised mean difference (SMD) as the effect size measure. Results Only three tasks (2-back, 3-back and simple reaction time (SRT)) displayed significant heterogeneity, but after studies with extreme SMD were excluded using sensitivity analysis, the statistical significance disappeared (χ(2)(7)=1.63, p=0.20; χ(2)(6)=1.00, p=0.32; χ(2)(10)=14.04, p=0.17, respectively). Following sensitivity analysis, the effect of sponsorship and publication bias were assessed. Meta-regression indicated a significant effect (b1/40.12, p<0.05) only for the 2-back task with mixed funding (industry and public/charity). Funnel plot inspection revealed a significant publication bias only for two cognitive tasks: SRT (Begg's rank correlation r=0.443; Egger's test b=-0.652) and the subtraction task (Egger's test b=-0.687). Mobile phone-like EMF do not seem to induce cognitive and psychomotor effects. Nonetheless, the existence of sponsorship and publication biases should encourage WHO intervention to develop official research standards and guidelines. In addition, future research should address critical and neglected issues such as investigation of repeated, intensive and chronic exposures, especially in highly sensitive populations such as children.

  14. Republished review: systematic review and meta-analysis of psychomotor effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Elia; Ferrara, Michele; Presaghi, Fabio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVES Over the past 10 years there has been increasing concern about the possible behavioural effects of mobile phone use. This systematic review and meta-analysis focuses on studies published since 1999 on the human cognitive and performance effects of mobile phone-related electromagnetic fields (EMF). METHODS PubMed, Biomed, Medline, Biological Sciences, PsychInfo, PsycARTICLES, Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management, Neurosciences Abstracts and Web of Science professional databases were searched and 24 studies selected for meta-analysis. Each study had to have at least one psychomotor measurement result as a main outcome. Data were analysed using standardised mean difference (SMD) as the effect size measure. RESULTS Only three tasks (2-back, 3-back and simple reaction time (SRT)) displayed significant heterogeneity, but after studies with extreme SMD were excluded using sensitivity analysis, the statistical significance disappeared (χ(2)(7)=1.63, p=0.20; χ(2)(6)=1.00, p=0.32; χ(2)(10)=14.04, p=0.17, respectively). Following sensitivity analysis, the effect of sponsorship and publication bias were assessed. Meta-regression indicated a significant effect (b1/40.12, p<0.05) only for the 2-back task with mixed funding (industry and public/charity). Funnel plot inspection revealed a significant publication bias only for two cognitive tasks: SRT (Begg's rank correlation r=0.443; Egger's test b=-0.652) and the subtraction task (Egger's test b=-0.687). CONCLUSIONS Mobile phone-like EMF do not seem to induce cognitive and psychomotor effects. Nonetheless, the existence of sponsorship and publication biases should encourage WHO intervention to develop official research standards and guidelines. In addition, future research should address critical and neglected issues such as investigation of repeated, intensive and chronic exposures, especially in highly sensitive populations such as children.

  15. Effects of tour boats on dolphin activity examined with sensitivity analysis of Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Dans, Silvana Laura; Degrati, Mariana; Pedraza, Susana Noemí; Crespo, Enrique Alberto

    2012-08-01

    In Patagonia, Argentina, watching dolphins, especially dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), is a new tourist activity. Feeding time decreases and time to return to feeding after feeding is abandoned and time it takes a group of dolphins to feed increase in the presence of boats. Such effects on feeding behavior may exert energetic costs on dolphins and thus reduce an individual's survival and reproductive capacity or maybe associated with shifts in distribution. We sought to predict which behavioral changes modify the activity pattern of dolphins the most. We modeled behavioral sequences of dusky dolphins with Markov chains. We calculated transition probabilities from one activity to another and arranged them in a stochastic matrix model. The proportion of time dolphins dedicated to a given activity (activity budget) and the time it took a dolphin to resume that activity after it had been abandoned (recurrence time) were calculated. We used a sensitivity analysis of Markov chains to calculate the sensitivity of the time budget and the activity-resumption time to changes in behavioral transition probabilities. Feeding-time budget was most sensitive to changes in the probability of dolphins switching from traveling to feeding behavior and of maintaining feeding behavior. Thus, an increase in these probabilities would be associated with the largest reduction in the time dedicated to feeding. A reduction in the probability of changing from traveling to feeding would also be associated with the largest increases in the time it takes dolphins to resume feeding. To approach dolphins when they are traveling would not affect behavior less because presence of the boat may keep dolphins from returning to feeding. Our results may help operators of dolphin-watching vessels minimize negative effects on dolphins. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Smart City Mobility Application—Gradient Boosting Trees for Mobility Prediction and Analysis Based on Crowdsourced Data

    PubMed Central

    Semanjski, Ivana; Gautama, Sidharta

    2015-01-01

    Mobility management represents one of the most important parts of the smart city concept. The way we travel, at what time of the day, for what purposes and with what transportation modes, have a pertinent impact on the overall quality of life in cities. To manage this process, detailed and comprehensive information on individuals’ behaviour is needed as well as effective feedback/communication channels. In this article, we explore the applicability of crowdsourced data for this purpose. We apply a gradient boosting trees algorithm to model individuals’ mobility decision making processes (particularly concerning what transportation mode they are likely to use). To accomplish this we rely on data collected from three sources: a dedicated smartphone application, a geographic information systems-based web interface and weather forecast data collected over a period of six months. The applicability of the developed model is seen as a potential platform for personalized mobility management in smart cities and a communication tool between the city (to steer the users towards more sustainable behaviour by additionally weighting preferred suggestions) and users (who can give feedback on the acceptability of the provided suggestions, by accepting or rejecting them, providing an additional input to the learning process). PMID:26151209

  17. Smart City Mobility Application--Gradient Boosting Trees for Mobility Prediction and Analysis Based on Crowdsourced Data.

    PubMed

    Semanjski, Ivana; Gautama, Sidharta

    2015-07-03

    Mobility management represents one of the most important parts of the smart city concept. The way we travel, at what time of the day, for what purposes and with what transportation modes, have a pertinent impact on the overall quality of life in cities. To manage this process, detailed and comprehensive information on individuals' behaviour is needed as well as effective feedback/communication channels. In this article, we explore the applicability of crowdsourced data for this purpose. We apply a gradient boosting trees algorithm to model individuals' mobility decision making processes (particularly concerning what transportation mode they are likely to use). To accomplish this we rely on data collected from three sources: a dedicated smartphone application, a geographic information systems-based web interface and weather forecast data collected over a period of six months. The applicability of the developed model is seen as a potential platform for personalized mobility management in smart cities and a communication tool between the city (to steer the users towards more sustainable behaviour by additionally weighting preferred suggestions) and users (who can give feedback on the acceptability of the provided suggestions, by accepting or rejecting them, providing an additional input to the learning process).

  18. Content Analysis of Diet-Related Mobile Apps: A Self-Regulation Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zahry, Nagwan R; Cheng, Ying; Peng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Diet-related mobile apps hold promise in helping individuals self-regulate their eating behaviors. Nevertheless, little is known about the extent to which diet-related mobile apps incorporate the established behavior change theories and evidence-based practices that promote dietary self-regulation. Guided by the self-regulation aspect of Bandura's social cognitive theory and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, this study conducts a content analysis of diet-related mobile apps for iPhone (N = 400). In terms of the adherence to the self-regulation aspect of the social cognitive theory, results show that although 72.5% of the apps incorporate at least one theoretical construct, few apps tap all three processes of self-regulation (i.e., self-observation/monitoring, judgment process, and self-reaction). Additionally, outcome expectation is manifested in a majority of the diet-related apps. In terms of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, while the diet-related apps equally emphasize setting goals for calorie intake or nutrient consumption, more apps feature nutrient tracking than calorie tracking. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  19. Analysis of the mobilization of solid loads and heavy metals in runoff waters from granite quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña González, Enrique; Suárez López, Joaquín; Delgado Martín, Jordi; Jácome Burgos, Alfredo; Puertas Agudo, Jerónimo

    2006-08-01

    The cutting operations of dimension stone at quarries produce a large amount of fines that, in turn, cause a negative environmental impact over local surface waters. This article presents a detailed analysis of the mobilized contamination associated with runoff waters in a large granite quarry (˜200 ha) which is located in Porriño (Galicia, NW Spain), the most important production centre of dimension stone in Spain. There, an intensive monitoring survey was developed in order to characterize the hydrology of the system as well as the release and transport of pollutants. This was accomplished by means of different control sections for the flow and by the collection of 52 random water samples. Automatic samplers were also used to collect 192 water samples associated with runoff generated by significant rain events. For each of the samples collected, a wide battery of analytic determinations was performed, including solid loads, turbidity, organic pollution, nutrient and selected metals. Upon careful examination it has been possible to obtain different parameters related to the contamination control, like the “event mean concentration” (EMC), maximum concentrations and specific sediment loads. Moreover, a comprehensive statistical study including parameter correlation and cumulative probability analyses helped to understand the pollutant mobilization behaviour within the quarry system. It can be concluded that mobilized contamination shows the anomalous presence of some metals, whose concentrations are in excess when compared to the natural rock. This excess metal amount must be attributed to an anthropogenic source associated to mining and cutting operations.

  20. Career pathways for temporary workers: exploring heterogeneous mobility dynamics with sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sylvia; Stecy-Hildebrandt, Natasha

    2015-03-01

    Because temporary jobs are time-delimited, their implications for workers' economic security depend not only on their current characteristics, but also their place in longer-term patterns of mobility. Past research has typically asked whether temporary jobs are a bridge to better employment or trap workers in ongoing insecurity, investigating this question by analyzing single transitions. We demonstrate that this approach is ill-suited to assessing the often more complex and turbulent employment patterns characteristic of temporary workers. Our analysis instead employs sequence methods to compare a representative sample of temporary workers' month-by-month mobility patterns through 8 potential (non)employment states over five years. We derive a typology of trajectories and describe their relative precariousness in relation to employment stability and wage and earnings levels and growth. While some of the pathways correspond quite closely to frameworks used by past research, others reveal new and important distinctions. Multinomial logit models reveal job, employer, and worker characteristics associated with different pathways. Age, gender, and type of temporary work stand out as important factors shaping subsequent mobility patterns.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of flexible joint nonholonomic wheeled mobile manipulator in singular configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korayem, A. H.; Azimirad, V.; Binabaji, H.; Korayem, M. H.

    2012-03-01

    This paper proposes a method for decreasing jerk and increasing Maximum Allowable Load (MAL) of nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Manipulator (WMM) considering flexibility of joints in singular conditions. The full dynamic model of nonholonomic WMM contains simultaneous operation of mobile base and manipulator with joint flexibility (in wheels and manipulator) which is presented here. The problem is formulated in terms of the optimal control which leads to a two point boundary value problem. Then Sobol's sensitivity analysis method is applied to determine the optimal values of flexible joint constants subject to the jerk minimization. To illustrate the proposed method, two categories of conditions are considered: conditions containing non-singular configuration and the singular conditions. An example is explained for non-singular condition of nonholonomic WMM in presence of obstacle in which a complex path is generated but there is no singularity in robot configuration. Some examples of occurring singular configuration in final point and moving boundary condition is also presented. The results show that flexibility of the joints near to singular configuration normalizes the sudden movement and jerk implied to actuators. That is why using a rotational spring with a low stiffness coefficient could be helpful to decrease the high jerk and increase the maximum allowable load in mobile robots.

  2. Effect of specimen type on free immunoglobulin light chains analysis on the Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Louis S; Steussy, Bryan; Morris, Cory S; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of free immunoglobulin light chains is typically performed on serum; however, the use of alternative specimen types has potential benefits. Using the Freelite™ kappa and lambda free light chains assay on a Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 c502 analyzer, we compared three specimen types (serum, EDTA-plasma and lithium heparin plasma separator gel-plasma) on 100 patients. Using Deming regression and eliminating outliers (limiting data to light chain concentrations below 400 mg/L), the three specimen types showed comparable results for kappa light chain concentration, lambda light chain concentration, and kappa/lambda ratio with slopes close to 1.0 and y-intercepts close to zero. EDTA-plasma showed slightly more positive bias relative to serum than lithium heparin. Analysis using EDTA-plasma and lithium heparin plasma showed comparable linearity, precision, and temperature stability. A single sample showing hook effect (not in the comparison set) gave comparable results using either plasma specimen type. For the Freelite™ kappa and lambda free light chains assay, both EDTA-plasma or lithium heparin-plasma can serve as acceptable substitutes for serum, at least for the Roche cobas 8000 analyzer.

  3. Mobile phone use and risk of intracranial tumors: a consistency analysis.

    PubMed

    Lagorio, Susanna; Röösli, Martin

    2014-02-01

    A meta-analysis of studies on intracranial tumors and mobile phone use published by the end of 2012 was performed to evaluate the overall consistency of findings, assess the sensitivity of results to changes in the dataset, and try to detect the sources of between-study heterogeneity. Twenty-nine papers met our inclusion criteria. These papers reported on 47 eligible studies (17 on glioma, 15 on meningioma, 15 on acoustic neuroma), consisting of either primary investigations or pooled analyses. Five combinations of non-overlapping studies per outcome were identified. The combined relative risks (cRRs) in long-term mobile phone users (≥10 years) ranged between 0.98 (0.75-1.28) and 1.11 (0.86-1.44) for meningioma, with little heterogeneity across studies. High heterogeneity was detected across estimates of glioma and acoustic neuroma risk in long term users, with cRRs ranging between 1.19 (95% CI 0.86-1.64) and 1.40 (0.96-2.04), and from 1.14 (0.65-1.99) to 1.33 (0.65-2.73), respectively. A meta-regression of primary studies showed that the methodological differences embedded in the variable "study-group" explained most of the overall heterogeneity in results. Summary risk estimates based on heterogeneous findings should not be over-interpreted. Overall, the results of our study detract from the hypothesis that mobile phone use affects the occurrence of intracranial tumors. However, reproducibility (or lack of) is just one clue in the critical appraisal of epidemiological evidence. Based on other considerations, such as the limited knowledge currently available on risk beyond 15 years from first exposure, or following mobile phone use started in childhood, the pursuance of epidemiological surveillance is warranted.

  4. Optimizing the acquisition and analysis of confocal images for quantitative single-mobile-particle detection.

    PubMed

    Friaa, Ouided; Furukawa, Melissa; Shamas-Din, Aisha; Leber, Brian; Andrews, David W; Fradin, Cécile

    2013-08-05

    Quantification of the fluorescence properties of diffusing particles in solution is an invaluable source of information for characterizing the interactions, stoichiometry, or conformation of molecules directly in their native environment. In the case of heterogeneous populations, single-particle detection should be the method of choice and it can, in principle, be achieved by using confocal imaging. However, the detection of single mobile particles in confocal images presents specific challenges. In particular, it requires an adapted set of imaging parameters for capturing the confocal images and an adapted event-detection scheme for analyzing the image. Herein, we report a theoretical framework that allows a prediction of the properties of a homogenous particle population. This model assumes that the particles have linear trajectories with reference to the confocal volume, which holds true for particles with moderate mobility. We compare the predictions of our model to the results as obtained by analyzing the confocal images of solutions of fluorescently labeled liposomes. Based on this comparison, we propose improvements to the simple line-by-line thresholding event-detection scheme, which is commonly used for single-mobile-particle detection. We show that an optimal combination of imaging and analysis parameters allows the reliable detection of fluorescent liposomes for concentrations between 1 and 100 pM. This result confirms the importance of confocal single-particle detection as a complementary technique to ensemble fluorescence-correlation techniques for the studies of mobile particle. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Analysis of ligase chain reaction products amplified in a silicon-glass chip using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J; Shoffner, M A; Mitchelson, K R; Kricka, L J; Wilding, P

    1996-04-26

    Ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a useful molecular technique for detecting known point mutations. We report the first example of the use of a disposable silicon-glass micro-chip for LCR and the first application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) to analyze samples amplified by LCR in a chip. Silicon-glass chips were manufactured using conventional photolithography and anodic bonding. The chips provide three distinct advantages for LCR: excellent thermal conductivity, a micro reaction volume ( < 10 microliters), and reproducible, low-cost manufacturing. Investigation and quantitation of amplification efficiency of LCR in a chip or in a tube requires an analytical technique that is faster and more convenient than the conventional slab gel methods. Slab gel electrophoresis uses relatively large amounts of sample and is labor-intensive and time-consuming, and thus is unsuitable for the separation and detection of LCR products. In contrast CE requires sample volume (original LCR products) of less than 1 microliter and is therefore well-suited to analysis of the micro-volume reaction mixture from chips. We combined CE with a sensitive laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection system for the rapid separation and quantitative detection of LCR products amplified from the lacI gene in a silicon-glass chip. Comparative studies were made with LCR between tubes and silicon-glass chips. CE-LIF analysis is ideally suited to examination of micro-LCR amplification with high throughput. The technologies may find medical uses in disease diagnosis and research.

  6. A new method for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data analysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Xiayu; Lai, Dejian; Huang, Xuelin

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a sensitive gene quantification method that has been extensively used in biological and biomedical fields. The currently used methods for PCR data analysis, including the threshold cycle method and linear and nonlinear model-fitting methods, all require subtracting background fluorescence. However, the removal of background fluorescence can hardly be accurate and therefore can distort results. We propose a new method, the taking-difference linear regression method, to overcome this limitation. Briefly, for each two consecutive PCR cycles, we subtract the fluorescence in the former cycle from that in the latter cycle, transforming the n cycle raw data into n-1 cycle data. Then, linear regression is applied to the natural logarithm of the transformed data. Finally, PCR amplification efficiencies and the initial DNA molecular numbers are calculated for each reaction. This taking-difference method avoids the error in subtracting an unknown background, and thus it is more accurate and reliable. This method is easy to perform, and this strategy can be extended to all current methods for PCR data analysis.

  7. Laser-Assisted Microdissection of Membrane-Mounted Paraffin Sections for Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Lielpetere, Ilze; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Bendix, Knud; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Laser microbeam microdissection (LMM) is an increasingly important method for obtaining pure cell samples for genetic and proteomic analysis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) are useful techniques for targeting specific cell populations for microdissection but are difficult to apply with the tissue support membranes often used during LMM. Using detection of cytokeratins and Epstein-Barr virus gene products in head and neck carcinoma as a model, we describe optimized protocols for membrane and section preparation and for low temperature antigen retrieval that allow IHC and ISH to be used reliably on membrane mounted paraffin tissue sections. Visualization of cellular targets was markedly improved by staining and this could be further improved using a variety of optical media before microdissection. Tissue fragments thus stained were suitable for subsequent polymerase chain reaction analysis of extracted DNA using standard techniques. These IHC and ISH procedures are generally applicable and will be useful for detecting a wide range of antigens and nucleic acids in paraffin sections in conjunction with LMM. PMID:11486049

  8. Model Reduction Using Principal Component Analysis and Markov Chain Monte Carlo for Hydrogeological Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Rathore, S.; Chen, J.; Hoversten, G. M.; Luo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Inverse problems in hydrogeological applications often require estimation of a large number of unknown parameters ranging from hundreds to millions. Such problems are computationally prohibitive. To efficiently deal with such high-dimensional problems, model reduction techniques are usually introduced to improve computational performance of traditional inversion method. In this study, we explored the feasibility and effectiveness of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for model reduction using error-involved synthetic data. A 1-D groundwater pumping test is implemented on randomly generated hydraulic conductivity field, then computed head distribution adding random errors is treated as available data for inversing the original hydraulic conductivity field. We run full-dimensional inverse method a few times to generate training set for constructing experienced covariance matrix. Principal Component Analysis is implemented on the experienced covariance matrix to reduce dimensionality of the inverse problem. MCMC is implemented to draw samples from the reduced variable space for providing best estimate and quantifying uncertainty. The synthetic data study demonstrates that PCA-MCMC method can successfully provide reasonable estimate of hydraulic conductivity using biased data and effectively reduce computational time and storage usage. It is also noticed that a tradeoff exists between model simplicity and uncertainty quantification - a highly-reduced model causes narrower confidential intervals, sometimes implying insufficient uncertainty quantification. Thus the extent of model reduction should be wisely manipulated in light of specific problem requirements.

  9. Accuracy of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; Mazin, Suleimy Cristina; dos Santos, Elisa Raphael; Cesetti, Mariana Vicente; Bächtold, Guilherme Albergaria Brízida; Cordeiro, João Henrique de Freitas; Theodoro, Fabrício Claudino Estrela Terra; Damasco, Fabiana dos Santos; Carranza, Sebastián Andrés Vernal; Santos, Adriana de Oliveira; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is hampered by the absence of a gold standard. An accurate diagnosis is essential because of the high toxicity of the medications for the disease. This study aimed to assess the ability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MCL and to compare these results with clinical research recently published by the authors. A systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement was performed using comprehensive search criteria and communication with the authors. A meta-analysis considering the estimates of the univariate and bivariate models was performed. Specificity near 100% was common among the papers. The primary reason for accuracy differences was sensitivity. The meta-analysis, which was only possible for PCR samples of lesion fragments, revealed a sensitivity of 71% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59; 0.81] and a specificity of 93% (95% CI = 0.83; 0.98) in the bivariate model. The search for measures that could increase the sensitivity of PCR should be encouraged. The quality of the collected material and the optimisation of the amplification of genetic material should be prioritised. PMID:25946238

  10. An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2011-12-01

    In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break

  11. Hand on the wheel, mind on the mobile: an analysis of social factors contributing to texting while driving.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Steven J

    2015-02-01

    In an era defined by social technology, mobile phones provide constant connection to others. However, they also present a very dangerous situation when people choose to use their mobile phones while driving. In particular, exchanging text messages while driving has resulted in numerous accidents and fatalities. The purpose of this study is to examine social factors that lead people to text while driving. Specifically, using a multivariate logistic regression analysis of data from a 2010 survey by the Pew Research Center, variables for general mobile talk, driving while talking on a mobile, using the Internet on a mobile, sexting, and various motivations for texting were examined to determine factors that increase the likelihood of texting while driving. The findings suggest that people engage in mobile multiplexing (i.e., communication using two or more media on the mobile) while driving. Additionally, exchanging text messages in public, and consequently texting while driving, has become normalized. Furthermore, people are socialized into such behaviors through observing others texting while driving and using a mobile recklessly while driving. Finally, a number of motivations for texting were found to increase the likelihood of texting while driving significantly. Ultimately, the author contends that texting while driving has become a cultural artifact in the United States, which conflicts with driver safety as well as laws prohibiting texting while driving. The findings of this study could inform future awareness campaigns and technology developers to help establish a safer driving environment within the multitasking culture.

  12. Performance analysis of medical video streaming over mobile WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Ali; Philip, N; Istepanian, R H

    2010-01-01

    Wireless medical ultrasound streaming is considered one of the emerging application within the broadband mobile healthcare domain. These applications are considered as bandwidth demanding services that required high data rates with acceptable diagnostic quality of the transmitted medical images. In this paper, we present the performance analysis of a medical ultrasound video streaming acquired via special robotic ultrasonography system over emulated WiMAX wireless network. The experimental set-up of this application is described together with the performance of the relevant medical quality of service (m-QoS) metrics.

  13. Analysis of multiple access techniques in multi-satellite and multi-spot mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corazza, Giovanni E.; Ferrarelli, Carlo; Vatalaro, Francesco

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the analysis of mobile satellite systems adopting constellations of multi-spot satellites over non-geostationary orbits is addressed. A link design procedure is outlined, taking into account system spectrum efficiency, probability of bit error and outage probability. A semi-analytic approach to the evaluation of outage probability in the presence of fading and imperfect power control is described, and applied to single channel per carrier (SCPC) and code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques. Some results are shown for the Globalstar, Iridium and Odyssey orbital configurations.

  14. Mobility analysis of super-resolved proteins on optically stretched DNA: comparing imaging techniques and parameters.

    PubMed

    Heller, Iddo; Sitters, Gerrit; Broekmans, Onno D; Biebricher, Andreas S; Wuite, Gijs J L; Peterman, Erwin J G

    2014-03-17

    Fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with optical tweezers is well suited to the study of protein mobility on DNA. Here, we evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of super-resolution and conventional imaging techniques for the analysis of one-dimensional (1D) protein diffusion as commonly observed for DNA-binding proteins. In particular, we demonstrate the visualization of DNA-bound proteins using wide-field, confocal, and stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. We review the suitability of these techniques to conditions of high protein density, and quantify their performance in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Tracking proteins on DNA forces one to make a choice between localization precision on the one hand, and the number and rate of localizations on the other, by altering imaging modality, excitation intensity, and acquisition rate. Using simulated diffusion data, we quantify the effect of these imaging conditions on the accuracy of 1D diffusion analysis. In addition, we consider the case of diffusion confined between local roadblocks, a case particularly relevant for proteins bound to DNA. Together these results provide guidelines that can assist in judiciously optimizing the experimental conditions required for the analysis of protein mobility on DNA and other 1D systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Mobile Visualization and Analysis Tools for Spatial Time-Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, J.; Hüttich, C.; Schmullius, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C) provides access and analysis services for spatial time-series data build on products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and climate data from meteorological stations. Until now a webportal for data access, visualization and analysis with standard-compliant web services was developed for SIB-ESS-C. As a further enhancement a mobile app was developed to provide an easy access to these time-series data for field campaigns. The app sends the current position from the GPS receiver and a specific dataset (like land surface temperature or vegetation indices) - selected by the user - to our SIB-ESS-C web service and gets the requested time-series data for the identified pixel back in real-time. The data is then being plotted directly in the app. Furthermore the user has possibilities to analyze the time-series data for breaking points and other phenological values. These processings are executed on demand of the user on our SIB-ESS-C web server and results are transfered to the app. Any processing can also be done at the SIB-ESS-C webportal. The aim of this work is to make spatial time-series data and analysis functions available for end users without the need of data processing. In this presentation the author gives an overview on this new mobile app, the functionalities, the technical infrastructure as well as technological issues (how the app was developed, our made experiences).

  16. Multistationary and Oscillatory Modes of Free Radicals Generation by the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Revealed by a Bifurcation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Selivanov, Vitaly A.; Cascante, Marta; Friedman, Mark; Schumaker, Mark F.; Trucco, Massimo; Votyakova, Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain transforms energy satisfying cellular demand and generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that act as metabolic signals or destructive factors. Therefore, knowledge of the possible modes and bifurcations of electron transport that affect ROS signaling provides insight into the interrelationship of mitochondrial respiration with cellular metabolism. Here, a bifurcation analysis of a sequence of the electron transport chain models of increasing complexity was used to analyze the contribution of individual components to the modes of respiratory chain behavior. Our algorithm constructed models as large systems of ordinary differential equations describing the time evolution of the distribution of redox states of the respiratory complexes. The most complete model of the respiratory chain and linked metabolic reactions predicted that condensed mitochondria produce more ROS at low succinate concentration and less ROS at high succinate levels than swelled mitochondria. This prediction was validated by measuring ROS production under various swelling conditions. A numerical bifurcation analysis revealed qualitatively different types of multistationary behavior and sustained oscillations in the parameter space near a region that was previously found to describe the behavior of isolated mitochondria. The oscillations in transmembrane potential and ROS generation, observed in living cells were reproduced in the model that includes interaction of respiratory complexes with the reactions of TCA cycle. Whereas multistationarity is an internal characteristic of the respiratory chain, the functional link of respiration with central metabolism creates oscillations, which can be understood as a means of auto-regulation of cell metabolism. PMID:23028295

  17. Falling Chains as Variable-Mass Systems: Theoretical Model and Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Celia A.; Gordo, Paulo M.; Costa, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit, theoretically and experimentally, the fall of a folded U-chain and of a pile-chain. The model calculation implies the division of the whole system into two subsystems of variable mass, allowing us to explore the role of tensional contact forces at the boundary of the subsystems. This justifies, for instance, that the…

  18. Analysis of production-inventory decisions in a decentralized supply chain with price-dependent demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdhi, N. A.; Irsanianto, S. T.; Sutanto

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a production-inventory supply chain system with single-manufacturer and single-retailer. There are many types of contract that guarantee the supply chain. However, the administrative costs of the contract are usually neglected in real situation. The additional gain from integration may not cover the extra administrative costs may not addressed to supply chain. Therefore, a Stackelberg game and RFM policy are examined in order to investigate its performance on supply chain. The RFM policy is applied because its administrative costs are lower than othe policies. Although RFM policy is not capable of coordinating the channel, it leads to considerable improvements over the channel. The purpose of this research is to present a model of integrated policy, in which the goal is to maximize the whole system profit, and to evaluate decentralized-Stackelberg and RFM policies, in which individual firms in the supply chain have their own objectives and decisions to optimize.

  19. Mobile Telephone Text Messaging for Medication Adherence in Chronic Disease: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Jay; Kurup, Rahul; Laba, Tracey-Lea; Santo, Karla; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Rodgers, Anthony; Woodward, Mark; Redfern, Julie; Chow, Clara K

    2016-03-01

    Adherence to long-term therapies in chronic disease is poor. Traditional interventions to improve adherence are complex and not widely effective. Mobile telephone text messaging may be a scalable means to support medication adherence. To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials to assess the effect of mobile telephone text messaging on medication adherence in chronic disease. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (from database inception to January 15, 2015), as well as reference lists of the articles identified. The data were analyzed in March 2015. Randomized clinical trials evaluating a mobile telephone text message intervention to promote medication adherence in adults with chronic disease. Two authors independently extracted information on study characteristics, text message characteristics, and outcome measures as per the predefined protocol. Odds ratios and pooled data were calculated using random-effects models. Risk of bias and study quality were assessed as per Cochrane guidelines. Disagreement was resolved by consensus. Sixteen randomized clinical trials were included, with 5 of 16 using personalization, 8 of 16 using 2-way communication, and 8 of 16 using a daily text message frequency. The median intervention duration was 12 weeks, and self-report was the most commonly used method to assess medication adherence. In the pooled analysis of 2742 patients (median age, 39 years and 50.3% [1380 of 2742] female), text messaging significantly improved medication adherence (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.52-2.93; P < .001). The effect was not sensitive to study characteristics (intervention duration or type of disease) or text message characteristics (personalization, 2-way communication, or daily text message frequency). In a sensitivity analysis, our findings remained robust to change in inclusion criteria based on study quality (odds ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.21-2.29; P = .002). There was moderate

  20. [Analysis of economic viability of a mobile eye clinic of a referral Ophthalmology Service].

    PubMed

    Lima, Luiz Henrique Soares Gonçalves de; Sousa, Luciene Barbosa de

    2005-01-01

    To analyse the economic viability of a mobile eye clinic of a tertiary referral Ophthalmology Service. The amount of money spent with the purchase and construction of the unit in 2000, and the expenses with its maintenance and operation in 2001 were considered, comparing these expenses with the income obtained from appointments, supplementary tests and eye surgeries through the "Sistema Unico de Saúde" (a health care service provided by the government), in 2001. In order to make an economic analysis, an interest rate of 10% per year and a period of depreciation of 10 years were stipulated. The total amount spent to buy and set up a mobile unit of "Hospital Oftamológico de Sorocaba" was R$ 184,140,00. The amount spent with its maintenance and operation during 2001 was R$ 28,000.00. The unit was used on average during 2 days each week in 2001 and 6492 appointments were made in this period, generating an income of R$ 32,460.00. The appointments generated complementary tests and eye surgeries making up R$ 51,540.00. Therefore, the total amount received directly with the appointments, complementary tests and eye surgeries during 2001 was R$ 84,000.00 paid by the "Sistema Unico de Saúde", according to values established beforehand. Using these values it is possible to make an economic analysis of this enterprise and this was done with and without money savings for depreciation, taking into account the income and the expenses. Besides attending poor communities that are located in distant neighborhoods, a mobile eye clinic can be a source of income for ophthalmologic services.

  1. Molecular-dynamics analysis of mobile helium cluster reactions near surfaces of plasma-exposed tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lin; Hammond, Karl D.; Wirth, Brian D.; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of a systematic atomic-scale analysis of the reactions of small mobile helium clusters (Hen, 4 ≤ n ≤ 7) near low-Miller-index tungsten (W) surfaces, aiming at a fundamental understanding of the near-surface dynamics of helium-carrying species in plasma-exposed tungsten. These small mobile helium clusters are attracted to the surface and migrate to the surface by Fickian diffusion and drift due to the thermodynamic driving force for surface segregation. As the clusters migrate toward the surface, trap mutation (TM) and cluster dissociation reactions are activated at rates higher than in the bulk. TM produces W adatoms and immobile complexes of helium clusters surrounding W vacancies located within the lattice planes at a short distance from the surface. These reactions are identified and characterized in detail based on the analysis of a large number of molecular-dynamics trajectories for each such mobile cluster near W(100), W(110), and W(111) surfaces. TM is found to be the dominant cluster reaction for all cluster and surface combinations, except for the He4 and He5 clusters near W(100) where cluster partial dissociation following TM dominates. We find that there exists a critical cluster size, n = 4 near W(100) and W(111) and n = 5 near W(110), beyond which the formation of multiple W adatoms and vacancies in the TM reactions is observed. The identified cluster reactions are responsible for important structural, morphological, and compositional features in the plasma-exposed tungsten, including surface adatom populations, near-surface immobile helium-vacancy complexes, and retained helium content, which are expected to influence the amount of hydrogen re-cycling and tritium retention in fusion tokamaks.

  2. Molecular-dynamics analysis of mobile helium cluster reactions near surfaces of plasma-exposed tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Lin; Maroudas, Dimitrios; Hammond, Karl D.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2015-10-28

    We report the results of a systematic atomic-scale analysis of the reactions of small mobile helium clusters (He{sub n}, 4 ≤ n ≤ 7) near low-Miller-index tungsten (W) surfaces, aiming at a fundamental understanding of the near-surface dynamics of helium-carrying species in plasma-exposed tungsten. These small mobile helium clusters are attracted to the surface and migrate to the surface by Fickian diffusion and drift due to the thermodynamic driving force for surface segregation. As the clusters migrate toward the surface, trap mutation (TM) and cluster dissociation reactions are activated at rates higher than in the bulk. TM produces W adatoms and immobile complexes of helium clusters surrounding W vacancies located within the lattice planes at a short distance from the surface. These reactions are identified and characterized in detail based on the analysis of a large number of molecular-dynamics trajectories for each such mobile cluster near W(100), W(110), and W(111) surfaces. TM is found to be the dominant cluster reaction for all cluster and surface combinations, except for the He{sub 4} and He{sub 5} clusters near W(100) where cluster partial dissociation following TM dominates. We find that there exists a critical cluster size, n = 4 near W(100) and W(111) and n = 5 near W(110), beyond which the formation of multiple W adatoms and vacancies in the TM reactions is observed. The identified cluster reactions are responsible for important structural, morphological, and compositional features in the plasma-exposed tungsten, including surface adatom populations, near-surface immobile helium-vacancy complexes, and retained helium content, which are expected to influence the amount of hydrogen re-cycling and tritium retention in fusion tokamaks.

  3. Analysis of three-dimensional SAR distributions emitted by mobile phones in an epidemiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Deltour, Isabelle; Wiart, Joe; Taki, Masao; Wake, Kanako; Varsier, Nadège; Mann, Simon; Schüz, Joachim; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2011-12-01

    The three-dimensional distribution of the specific absorption rate of energy (SAR) in phantom models was analysed to detect clusters of mobile phones producing similar spatial deposition of energy in the head. The clusters' characteristics were described from the phones external features, frequency band and communication protocol. Compliance measurements with phones in cheek and tilt positions, and on the left and right side of a physical phantom were used. Phones used the Personal Digital Cellular (PDC), Code division multiple access One (CdmaOne), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) communication systems, in the 800, 900, 1500 and 1800 MHz bands. Each phone's measurements were summarised by the half-ellipsoid in which the SAR values were above half the maximum value. Cluster analysis used the Partitioning Around Medoids algorithm. The dissimilarity measure was based on the overlap of the ellipsoids, and the Manhattan distance was used for robustness analysis. Within the 800 MHz frequency band, and in part within the 900 MHz and the 1800 MHz frequency bands, weak clustering was obtained for the handset shape (bar phone, flip with top and flip with central antennas), but only in specific positions (tilt or cheek). On measurements of 120 phones, the three-dimensional distribution of SAR in phantom models did not appear to be related to particular external phone characteristics or measurement characteristics, which could be used for refining the assessment of exposure to radiofrequency energy within the brain in epidemiological studies such as the Interphone.

  4. Analysis of the Robustness Dynamics of Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks via Time Varying Dual Basis Representation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-08

    between nodes to analyze the robustness of a wireless mobile ad hoc network ( MANET ) with a time-varying wireless channel. This spectral analysis and...performance of a network. Using a simulation of wireless devices in a MANET with a time- varying channel, we show that robustness is a function of...a single eigenvalue is evaluated. 1. Introduction Mobile ad hoc networks ( MANETs ) are complex systems that can be foreseen supporting

  5. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of aqueous humour samples in necrotising retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Tran, T H C; Rozenberg, F; Cassoux, N; Rao, N A; LeHoang, P; Bodaghi, B

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on aqueous humour for the detection of viral DNA in patients with necrotising herpetic retinitis. Methods: The clinical features and laboratory results of 22 patients (29 eyes) presenting with necrotising herpetic retinitis between March 1999 and June 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. Aqueous humour was obtained after anterior chamber paracentesis and PCR was performed in all cases. Results: Viral DNA was detected in the aqueous humour of 19 patients (86.4%). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seroconversion was evidenced in one additional patient. In the acute retinal necrosis (ARN) group (n = 19), varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA was identified in six patients, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) DNA in two patients, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) DNA in four patients, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome in four patients. In the progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) group (n = 3), VZV DNA was detected in all patients. No sample was positive for more than one virus. Conclusions: PCR analysis of aqueous humour in patients with clinical features of necrotising viral retinitis can provide specific aetiological orientation and the method appears to be safe and highly sensitive. PMID:12488268

  6. Combined survival analysis of cardiac patients by a Cox PH model and a Markov chain.

    PubMed

    Shauly, Michal; Rabinowitz, Gad; Gilutz, Harel; Parmet, Yisrael

    2011-10-01

    The control and treatment of dyslipidemia is a major public health challenge, particularly for patients with coronary heart diseases. In this paper we propose a framework for survival analysis of patients who had a major cardiac event, focusing on assessment of the effect of changing LDL-cholesterol level and statins consumption on survival. This framework includes a Cox PH model and a Markov chain, and combines their results into reinforced conclusions regarding the factors that affect survival time. We prospectively studied 2,277 cardiac patients, and the results show high congruence between the Markov model and the PH model; both evidence that diabetes, history of stroke, peripheral vascular disease and smoking significantly increase hazard rate and reduce survival time. On the other hand, statin consumption is correlated with a lower hazard rate and longer survival time in both models. The role of such a framework in understanding the therapeutic behavior of patients and implementing effective secondary and primary prevention of heart diseases is discussed here.

  7. Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis to constrain dark matter properties with directional detection

    SciTech Connect

    Billard, J.; Mayet, F.; Santos, D.

    2011-04-01

    Directional detection is a promising dark matter search strategy. Indeed, weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-induced recoils would present a direction dependence toward the Cygnus constellation, while background-induced recoils exhibit an isotropic distribution in the Galactic rest frame. Taking advantage of these characteristic features, and even in the presence of a sizeable background, it has recently been shown that data from forthcoming directional detectors could lead either to a competitive exclusion or to a conclusive discovery, depending on the value of the WIMP-nucleon cross section. However, it is possible to further exploit these upcoming data by using the strong dependence of the WIMP signal with: the WIMP mass and the local WIMP velocity distribution. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of recoil events, we show for the first time the possibility to constrain the unknown WIMP parameters, both from particle physics (mass and cross section) and Galactic halo (velocity dispersion along the three axis), leading to an identification of non-baryonic dark matter.

  8. Complex Network Analysis for Characterizing Global Value Chains in Equipment Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hao; Sun, Tianyang; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    The rise of global value chains (GVCs) characterized by the so-called "outsourcing", "fragmentation production", and "trade in tasks" has been considered one of the most important phenomena for the 21st century trade. GVCs also can play a decisive role in trade policy making. However, due to the increasing complexity and sophistication of international production networks, especially in the equipment manufacturing industry, conventional trade statistics and the corresponding trade indicators may give us a distorted picture of trade. This paper applies various network analysis tools to the new GVC accounting system proposed by Koopman et al. (2014) and Wang et al. (2013) in which gross exports can be decomposed into value-added terms through various routes along GVCs. This helps to divide the equipment manufacturing-related GVCs into some sub-networks with clear visualization. The empirical results of this paper significantly improve our understanding of the topology of equipment manufacturing-related GVCs as well as the interdependency of countries in these GVCs that is generally invisible from the traditional trade statistics.

  9. Analysis of somatic hypermutation in mouse Peyer's patches using immunoglobulin kappa light-chain transgenes.

    PubMed Central

    González-Fernández, A; Milstein, C

    1993-01-01

    We have exploited mice transgenic for an immunoglobulin kappa light chain in order to show that immunoglobulin genes in the B cells of Peyer's patches in unimmunized mice carry a high level of somatic mutations. Most of the mutations are found in the subpopulation of B cells which, based on peanut agglutinin binding, derive from the germinal centers. The number of mutations per clone and their distribution along the variable gene segment (indicative of untemplated point mutations) are very similar to those found in antigen-specific splenic B cells of normal mice after secondary immunization. The mutations accumulate mainly in complementarity-determining region 1, in particular in some specific codons (Ser-26, Ser-31, and Ser-77) which have been previously recognized as intrinsic hypermutational hotspots. These results suggest that, as in the spleen, somatic mutation occurs in B cells which have migrated to the germinal centers, probably as a consequence of stimulation by antigens present in the gut environment. Transgenic animals are increasingly being used to define the signals involved in hypermutation. However, their subsequent study is very time-consuming because it is based on immunization and analysis of hybridomas or antigen-selected cells. We propose that the use of Peyer's patches of unimmunized adult mice offers a reliable and simple approach to analyze hypermutation of transgenes. PMID:8234326

  10. Comprehensive analysis and characterization of the TCR alpha chain sequences in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshiki; Matsutani, Takaji; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Satsuki; Itoh, Tsunetoshi; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Ryuji; Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is useful as a nonhuman primate model of human diseases. Although the marmoset model has great potential for studying autoimmune diseases and immune responses against pathogens, little information is available regarding the genes involved in adaptive immunity. Here, we identified one TCR alpha constant (TRAC), 46 TRAJ (joining), and 35 TRAV (variable) segments from marmoset cDNA. Marmoset TRAC, TRAJ, and TRAV shared 80%, 68-100%, and 79-98% identity with their human counterparts at the amino acid level, respectively. The amino acid sequences were less conserved in TRAC than in TCRbeta chain constant (TRBC). Comparative analysis of TRAV between marmosets and humans showed that the rates of synonymous substitutions per site (d(S)) were not significantly different between the framework regions (FRs) and complementarity determining regions (CDRs), whereas the rates of nonsynonymous substitutions per site (d(N)) were significantly lower in the FRs than in CDRs. Interestingly, the d(N) values of the CDRs were greater for TRBV than TRAV. These results suggested that after the divergence of Catarrhini from Platyrrhini, amino acid substitutions were decreased in the FRs by purifying selection and occurred more frequently in CDRbeta than in CDRalpha by positive selection, probably depending on structural and functional constraints. This study provides not only useful information facilitating the investigation of adaptive immunity using the marmoset model but also new insight into the molecular evolution of the TCR heterodimer in primate species.

  11. Automated Microfluidic Platform for Serial Polymerase Chain Reaction and High-Resolution Melting Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weidong; Bean, Brian; Corey, Scott; Coursey, Johnathan S; Hasson, Kenton C; Inoue, Hiroshi; Isano, Taisuke; Kanderian, Sami; Lane, Ben; Liang, Hongye; Murphy, Brian; Owen, Greg; Shinoda, Nobuhiko; Zeng, Shulin; Knight, Ivor T

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an automated genetic analyzer for human sample testing based on microfluidic rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The integrated DNA microfluidic cartridge was used on a platform designed with a robotic pipettor system that works by sequentially picking up different test solutions from a 384-well plate, mixing them in the tips, and delivering mixed fluids to the DNA cartridge. A novel image feedback flow control system based on a Canon 5D Mark II digital camera was developed for controlling fluid movement through a complex microfluidic branching network without the use of valves. The same camera was used for measuring the high-resolution melt curve of DNA amplicons that were generated in the microfluidic chip. Owing to fast heating and cooling as well as sensitive temperature measurement in the microfluidic channels, the time frame for PCR and HRMA was dramatically reduced from hours to minutes. Preliminary testing results demonstrated that rapid serial PCR and HRMA are possible while still achieving high data quality that is suitable for human sample testing. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of aqueous humour samples in necrotising retinitis.

    PubMed

    Tran, T H C; Rozenberg, F; Cassoux, N; Rao, N A; LeHoang, P; Bodaghi, B

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on aqueous humour for the detection of viral DNA in patients with necrotising herpetic retinitis. The clinical features and laboratory results of 22 patients (29 eyes) presenting with necrotising herpetic retinitis between March 1999 and June 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. Aqueous humour was obtained after anterior chamber paracentesis and PCR was performed in all cases. Viral DNA was detected in the aqueous humour of 19 patients (86.4%). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seroconversion was evidenced in one additional patient. In the acute retinal necrosis (ARN) group (n = 19), varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA was identified in six patients, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) DNA in two patients, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) DNA in four patients, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome in four patients. In the progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) group (n = 3), VZV DNA was detected in all patients. No sample was positive for more than one virus. PCR analysis of aqueous humour in patients with clinical features of necrotising viral retinitis can provide specific aetiological orientation and the method appears to be safe and highly sensitive.

  13. Markov chain Monte Carlo linkage analysis: effect of bin width on the probability of linkage.

    PubMed

    Slager, S L; Juo, S H; Durner, M; Hodge, S E

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed part of the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 12 simulated data using Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) methods that are implemented in the computer program Loki. The MCMC method reports the "probability of linkage" (PL) across the chromosomal regions of interest. The point of maximum PL can then be taken as a "location estimate" for the location of the quantitative trait locus (QTL). However, Loki does not provide a formal statistical test of linkage. In this paper, we explore how the bin width used in the calculations affects the max PL and the location estimate. We analyzed age at onset (AO) and quantitative trait number 5, Q5, from 26 replicates of the general simulated data in one region where we knew a major gene, MG5, is located. For each trait, we found the max PL and the corresponding location estimate, using four different bin widths. We found that bin width, as expected, does affect the max PL and the location estimate, and we recommend that users of Loki explore how their results vary with different bin widths.

  14. Stir bar sorptive extraction for the analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in water.

    PubMed

    Llorca-Porcel, Julio; Martínez-Soriano, Esther; Valor, Ignacio

    2009-05-01

    An optimised method using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and a thermal desorption-GC-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) for the determination of short-chain chlorinated paraffins from water samples was developed. Recoveries near to 100% were obtained by using 20 mm x 0.5 mm (length x film thickness) PDMS commercial stir bars from 200 mL spiked water samples and 20% methanol addition with an extraction period of 24 h. Method sensitivity, linearity and precision were evaluated for surface water and wastewater spiked samples. A LOD of 0.03 and 0.04 microg/L was calculated for surface and wastewater, respectively. The precision of the method given as an RSD was below 20% for both matrices. The developed method was applied for the analysis of two real samples from a contaminated river and a wastewater treatment plant. Results were in accordance with those obtained using a previously developed method based on solid phase microextraction (SPME).

  15. Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in water samples.

    PubMed

    Castells, P; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2003-01-10

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was developed as an alternative to liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction for the analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in water samples. The extraction efficiency of five different commercially available fibres was evaluated and the 100-microm polydimethylsiloxane coating was the most suitable for the absorption of the SCCPs. Optimisation of several SPME parameters, such as extraction time and temperature, ionic strength and desorption time, was performed. Quality parameters were established using Milli-Q, tap water and river water. Linearity ranged between 0.06 and 6 microg l(-1) for spiked Milli-Q water and between 0.6 and 6 microg l(-1) for natural waters. The precision of the SPME-GC-ECD method for the three aqueous matrices was similar and gave relative standard deviations (RSD) between 12 and 14%. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.02 microg l(-1) for Milli-Q water and 0.3 microg l(-1) for both tap water and river water. The optimised SPME-GC-ECD method was successfully applied to the determination of SCCPs in river water samples.

  16. A Markov chain analysis of fish movements to determine entrainment zones

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hedgepeth, J.; Skalski, John R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

    2004-06-01

    The extent of the biological zone of influence (BZI) of a water withdrawal port, such as a cooling water intake or a smolt bypass, directly reflects its local effect on fish. This study produced a new technique to determine the BZI, defined as the region immediately upstream of a portal where the probability of fish movement toward the portal is greater than 90%. We developed and applied the technique at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River, where the ice/trash sluiceway functions as a surface flow smolt bypass. To map the BZI, we applied a Markov-Chain analysis to smolt movement data collected with an active fish tracking sonar system. Probabilities of fish movement from cell to cell in the sample volume, calculated from tracked fish data, formed a Markov transition matrix. Multiplying this matrix by itself many times with absorption at the boundaries produced estimates of probability of passage out each side of the sample volume from the cells within. The BZI of a sluiceway entrance at The Dalles Dam was approximately 5 m across and extended 6-8 m out from the face of the dam in the surface layer 2-3 m deep. BZI mapping is applicable to many bioengineering efforts to protect fish populations.

  17. Sensitive and species-specific detection of Erwinia amylovora by polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bereswill, S; Pahl, A; Bellemann, P; Zeller, W; Geider, K

    1992-01-01

    Detection and identification of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, can be accurately done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in less than 6 h. Two oligomers derived from a 29-kb plasmid which is common to all strains of E. amylovora were used to amplify a 0.9-kb fragment of the plasmid. By separation of the PCR products on agarose gel, this fragment wa specifically detected when E. amylovora DNA was present in the amplification assay. It was not found when DNA from other plant-pathogenic bacteria was used for the assay. A visible band specific to the 0.9-kb fragment was produced with DNA from fewer than 100 E. amylovora cells. A signal of similar strength was also obtained from E. amylovora cell lysates in the presence of the mild detergent Tween 20. Signals were weaker when bacteria were added to the PCR mixture without the detergent. As with results obtained from hybridization experiments using pEA29 DNA< the PCR signal was obtained with E. amylovora isolates from various geographic regions. This technique could also be used for detection of the fire blight pathogen in extracts of tissue obtained from infected plant material. Images PMID:1482178

  18. Complex Network Analysis for Characterizing Global Value Chains in Equipment Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    The rise of global value chains (GVCs) characterized by the so-called “outsourcing”, “fragmentation production”, and “trade in tasks” has been considered one of the most important phenomena for the 21st century trade. GVCs also can play a decisive role in trade policy making. However, due to the increasing complexity and sophistication of international production networks, especially in the equipment manufacturing industry, conventional trade statistics and the corresponding trade indicators may give us a distorted picture of trade. This paper applies various network analysis tools to the new GVC accounting system proposed by Koopman et al. (2014) and Wang et al. (2013) in which gross exports can be decomposed into value-added terms through various routes along GVCs. This helps to divide the equipment manufacturing-related GVCs into some sub-networks with clear visualization. The empirical results of this paper significantly improve our understanding of the topology of equipment manufacturing-related GVCs as well as the interdependency of countries in these GVCs that is generally invisible from the traditional trade statistics. PMID:28081201

  19. Polymerase chain reaction method for leptospirosis, analysis on samples from an autochthon swine population in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Maria; Vitale, Fabrizio; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Curró, Vittoria; Vesco, Gesualdo; Caracappa, Santo

    2005-01-01

    We set a method targeting 16 rRNA gene consisting in a single polymerase chain reaction of 40 cycles which is specific for pathogenic leptospira. Negative polymerase chain reaction results were observed with nonpathogenic Leptospira (serovar patoc) and other bacteria species. By this method a survey on a population of autochthon swine herds had been conducted in Sicily particularly on kidney samples of slaughtered animals and on urine samples from live animals. The analysis showed that a prevalence of leptospira up to 40 % can be observed on these animals. Results on other bovine and ovine herds from the same province in Sicily showed a lower prevalence.

  20. Molecular diagnosis of A gamma hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin using polymerase chain reaction and oligonucleotide analysis.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, E; Alfarano, A; Serra, A; Sciarratta, G; Bertero, M T; Saglio, G; Camaschella, C

    1990-01-01

    By combining the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the gamma globin gene promoters with synthetic oligonucleotide analysis we have diagnosed the -196 C----T and the -117 G----A substitutions in heterozygous carriers of non deletional A gamma HPFH from two unrelated Italian families. The identification of the beta-thalassemic defect in a compound heterozygote for -196 A gamma HPFH/beta thalassemia allows us to discuss the effect of this gamma promoter mutation on the globin chain synthetic pattern, and to make a comparison with the mutation at the -117 position.

  1. Mobile phone SMS messages can enhance healthy behaviour: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Orr, Jayne A; King, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviour, such as smoking cessation and adherence to prescribed medications, mitigates illness risk factors but health behaviour change can be challenging. Mobile phone short-message service (SMS) messages are increasingly used to deliver interventions designed to enhance healthy behaviour. This meta-analysis used a random-effects model to synthesise 38 randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of SMS messages to enhance healthy behaviour. Participants (N = 19,641) lived in developed and developing countries and were diverse with respect to age, ethnicity, socioeconomic background and health behaviours targeted for change. SMS messages had a small, positive, significant effect (g = 0.291) on a broad range of healthy behaviour. This effect was maximised when multiple SMS messages per day were used (g = 0.395) compared to using lower frequencies (daily, multiple per week and once-off) (g = 0.244). The low heterogeneity in this meta-analysis (I (2) = 38.619) supports reporting a summary effect size and implies that the effect of SMS messaging is robust, regardless of population characteristics or healthy behaviour targeted. SMS messaging is a simple, cost-effective intervention that can be automated and can reach any mobile phone owner. While the effect size is small, potential health benefits are well worth achieving.

  2. Preparation, Separation, and Conformational Analysis of Differentially Sulfated Heparin Octasaccharide Isomers using Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Youjin; Andaya, Armann; Leary, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Heparin is a linear sulfated polysaccharide widely used in medicine because of its anticoagulant properties. The various sulfation and/or acetylation patterns on heparin impart different degrees of conformational change around the glycosidic bonds and subsequently alter its function as an anticoagulant, anticancer, or antiviral drug. Characterization of these structures is important for eventual elucidation of its function but presents itself as an analytical challenge due to the inherent heterogeneity of the carbohydrates. Heparin octasaccharide structural isomers of various sulfation patterns were investigated using ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMMS). In addition to distinguishing the isomers, we report the preparation and tandem mass spectrometry analysis for multiple sulfated or acetylated oligosaccharides. Herein, our data indicate that heparin octasaccharide isomers were separated based on their structural conformations in the ion mobility cell. Subsequent to this separation, isomers were further distinguished using product ions resulting from tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, IMMS analysis was used to successfully characterize and separate individual isomers and subsequently measure their conformations. PMID:22283665

  3. Ascertainment correction for Markov chain Monte Carlo segregation and linkage analysis of a quantitative trait.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianzhong; Amos, Christopher I; Warwick Daw, E

    2007-09-01

    Although extended pedigrees are often sampled through probands with extreme levels of a quantitative trait, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for segregation and linkage analysis have not been able to perform ascertainment corrections. Further, the extent to which ascertainment of pedigrees leads to biases in the estimation of segregation and linkage parameters has not been previously studied for MCMC procedures. In this paper, we studied these issues with a Bayesian MCMC approach for joint segregation and linkage analysis, as implemented in the package Loki. We first simulated pedigrees ascertained through individuals with extreme values of a quantitative trait in spirit of the sequential sampling theory of Cannings and Thompson [Cannings and Thompson [1977] Clin. Genet. 12:208-212]. Using our simulated data, we detected no bias in estimates of the trait locus location. However, in addition to allele frequencies, when the ascertainment threshold was higher than or close to the true value of the highest genotypic mean, bias was also found in the estimation of this parameter. When there were multiple trait loci, this bias destroyed the additivity of the effects of the trait loci, and caused biases in the estimation all genotypic means when a purely additive model was used for analyzing the data. To account for pedigree ascertainment with sequential sampling, we developed a Bayesian ascertainment approach and implemented Metropolis-Hastings updates in the MCMC samplers used in Loki. Ascertainment correction greatly reduced biases in parameter estimates. Our method is designed for multiple, but a fixed number of trait loci. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Mobile health applications for the most prevalent conditions by the World Health Organization: review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2013-06-14

    New possibilities for mHealth have arisen by means of the latest advances in mobile communications and technologies. With more than 1 billion smartphones and 100 million tablets around the world, these devices can be a valuable tool in health care management. Every aid for health care is welcome and necessary as shown by the more than 50 million estimated deaths caused by illnesses or health conditions in 2008. Some of these conditions have additional importance depending on their prevalence. To study the existing applications for mobile devices exclusively dedicated to the eight most prevalent health conditions by the latest update (2004) of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) of the World Health Organization (WHO): iron-deficiency anemia, hearing loss, migraine, low vision, asthma, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis (OA), and unipolar depressive disorders. Two reviews have been carried out. The first one is a review of mobile applications in published articles retrieved from the following systems: IEEE Xplore, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, and PubMed. The second review is carried out by searching the most important commercial app stores: Google play, iTunes, BlackBerry World, Windows Phone Apps+Games, and Nokia's Ovi store. Finally, two applications for each condition, one for each review, were selected for an in-depth analysis. Search queries up to April 2013 located 247 papers and more than 3673 apps related to the most prevalent conditions. The conditions in descending order by the number of applications found in literature are diabetes, asthma, depression, hearing loss, low vision, OA, anemia, and migraine. However when ordered by the number of commercial apps found, the list is diabetes, depression, migraine, asthma, low vision, hearing loss, OA, and anemia. Excluding OA from the former list, the four most prevalent conditions have fewer apps and research than the final four. Several results are extracted from the in-depth analysis: most of the apps

  5. Mobile Health Applications for the Most Prevalent Conditions by the World Health Organization: Review and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New possibilities for mHealth have arisen by means of the latest advances in mobile communications and technologies. With more than 1 billion smartphones and 100 million tablets around the world, these devices can be a valuable tool in health care management. Every aid for health care is welcome and necessary as shown by the more than 50 million estimated deaths caused by illnesses or health conditions in 2008. Some of these conditions have additional importance depending on their prevalence. Objective To study the existing applications for mobile devices exclusively dedicated to the eight most prevalent health conditions by the latest update (2004) of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) of the World Health Organization (WHO): iron-deficiency anemia, hearing loss, migraine, low vision, asthma, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis (OA), and unipolar depressive disorders. Methods Two reviews have been carried out. The first one is a review of mobile applications in published articles retrieved from the following systems: IEEE Xplore, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, and PubMed. The second review is carried out by searching the most important commercial app stores: Google play, iTunes, BlackBerry World, Windows Phone Apps+Games, and Nokia's Ovi store. Finally, two applications for each condition, one for each review, were selected for an in-depth analysis. Results Search queries up to April 2013 located 247 papers and more than 3673 apps related to the most prevalent conditions. The conditions in descending order by the number of applications found in literature are diabetes, asthma, depression, hearing loss, low vision, OA, anemia, and migraine. However when ordered by the number of commercial apps found, the list is diabetes, depression, migraine, asthma, low vision, hearing loss, OA, and anemia. Excluding OA from the former list, the four most prevalent conditions have fewer apps and research than the final four. Several results are extracted from

  6. Control of the reactant ion chemistry for the analysis of explosives by ion mobility spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodacy, P.J.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-07-01

    Changes in the reactant ion composition in the ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) can result in a change in the ionization processes occurring in the ionization region, ultimately leading to an altered instrumental response for the analyte, and exacerbating the problem of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Some species are very susceptible to changes in reactant ions, while other species are relatively unaffected. These types of behavior are observed for two common explosives, namely, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitrol,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT), respectively. To control the reactant ion composition, and hence the gas phase chemistry, it is necessary to control the composition of gases present in the ionization region of the IMS. A series of modifications are described for the PCP Phemto-Chem 100 IMS that afford the requisite control. The effectiveness of these modifications for analysis of RDX and TNT are described and contrasted with that observed for the unmodified system.

  7. Method of assessing a lipid-related health risk based on ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2010-12-14

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  8. The promises of big data and small data for travel behavior (aka human mobility) analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cynthia; Ma, Jingtao; Susilo, Yusak; Liu, Yu; Wang, Menglin

    2016-07-01

    The last decade has witnessed very active development in two broad, but separate fields, both involving understanding and modeling of how individuals move in time and space (hereafter called "travel behavior analysis" or "human mobility analysis"). One field comprises transportation researchers who have been working in the field for decades and the other involves new comers from a wide range of disciplines, but primarily computer scientists and physicists. Researchers in these two fields work with different datasets, apply different methodologies, and answer different but overlapping questions. It is our view that there is much, hidden synergy between the two fields that needs to be brought out. It is thus the purpose of this paper to introduce datasets, concepts, knowledge and methods used in these two fields, and most importantly raise cross-discipline ideas for conversations and collaborations between the two. It is our hope that this paper will stimulate many future cross-cutting studies that involve researchers from both fields.

  9. [Fast food--an analysis of the consumer profile of 2 typical representatives of these chains].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, G; Schär, M

    1986-01-01

    By a questionnaire survey the customers of two fast food chains have been analysed. Personal characteristics, motivation and frequency of fast food consumption and knowledge in correct nutrition varied significantly between the two customer groups.

  10. The Analysis of Rush Orders Risk in Supply Chain: A Simulation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahfouz, Amr; Arisha, Amr

    2011-01-01

    Satisfying customers by delivering demands at agreed time, with competitive prices, and in satisfactory quality level are crucial requirements for supply chain survival. Incidence of risks in supply chain often causes sudden disruptions in the processes and consequently leads to customers losing their trust in a company's competence. Rush orders are considered to be one of the main types of supply chain risks due to their negative impact on the overall performance, Using integrated definition modeling approaches (i.e. IDEF0 & IDEF3) and simulation modeling technique, a comprehensive integrated model has been developed to assess rush order risks and examine two risk mitigation strategies. Detailed functions sequence and objects flow were conceptually modeled to reflect on macro and micro levels of the studied supply chain. Discrete event simulation models were then developed to assess and investigate the mitigation strategies of rush order risks, the objective of this is to minimize order cycle time and cost.

  11. RFID Application Strategy in Agri-Food Supply Chain Based on Safety and Benefit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Peichong

    Agri-food supply chain management (SCM), a management method to optimize internal costs and productivities, has evolved as an application of e-business technologies. These days, RFID has been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of agri-food supply chain. Then the disadvantages of RFID are discussed. After that, we study the application strategies of RFID based on benefit and safety degree.

  12. The Use of Cohort Analysis for the Study of the Mobility of College and University Students in Their Schooling Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donets, E. V.

    2010-01-01

    This article is devoted to the study of the possibilities of using methods of demographic analysis in order to do research on the educational mobility of college students, on the basis of administrative statistics. The standards that are demanded of present-day scientific analysis determine the necessity of bringing data of a new type into play,…

  13. The Use of Cohort Analysis for the Study of the Mobility of College and University Students in Their Schooling Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donets, E. V.

    2010-01-01

    This article is devoted to the study of the possibilities of using methods of demographic analysis in order to do research on the educational mobility of college students, on the basis of administrative statistics. The standards that are demanded of present-day scientific analysis determine the necessity of bringing data of a new type into play,…

  14. High-resolution mobility spectrum analysis of magnetoresistance in fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umana-Membreno, G. A.; Chang, S.-J.; Bawedin, M.; Antoszewski, J.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Faraone, L.

    2015-11-01

    Multi-carrier transport in planar fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) MOSFETs has been investigated employing magnetic-field dependent geometrical magnetoresistance measurements and high-resolution mobility spectrum analysis. The results indicate that electronic transport in the 10 nm thick Si channel layer is due to two distinct and well-defined electron species. Although self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson numerical calculations indicate significant localization of the total electron population near the back and front interfaces, the results of mobility spectrum analysis suggest that the mobility distributions associated with these spatially localized populations are strongly coupled through carrier scattering processes, and do not have independent and distinguishable mobility distributions. The two detected electron mobility distributions are thus evidence of sub-band modulated transport in 10-nm thick Si planar FD-SOI MOSFETs. The mobility maximum of the dominant carrier was found to occur under gate bias conditions that result in a minimum perpendicular effective electric field.

  15. Model Reduction via Principe Component Analysis and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, R.; Chen, J.; Hoversten, M. G.; Luo, J.

    2011-12-01

    Geophysical and hydrogeological inverse problems often include a large number of unknown parameters, ranging from hundreds to millions, depending on parameterization and problems undertaking. This makes inverse estimation and uncertainty quantification very challenging, especially for those problems in two- or three-dimensional spatial domains. Model reduction technique has the potential of mitigating the curse of dimensionality by reducing total numbers of unknowns while describing the complex subsurface systems adequately. In this study, we explore the use of principal component analysis (PCA) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods for model reduction through the use of synthetic datasets. We compare the performances of three different but closely related model reduction approaches: (1) PCA methods with geometric sampling (referred to as 'Method 1'), (2) PCA methods with MCMC sampling (referred to as 'Method 2'), and (3) PCA methods with MCMC sampling and inclusion of random effects (referred to as 'Method 3'). We consider a simple convolution model with five unknown parameters as our goal is to understand and visualize the advantages and disadvantages of each method by comparing their inversion results with the corresponding analytical solutions. We generated synthetic data with noise added and invert them under two different situations: (1) the noised data and the covariance matrix for PCA analysis are consistent (referred to as the unbiased case), and (2) the noise data and the covariance matrix are inconsistent (referred to as biased case). In the unbiased case, comparison between the analytical solutions and the inversion results show that all three methods provide good estimates of the true values and Method 1 is computationally more efficient. In terms of uncertainty quantification, Method 1 performs poorly because of relatively small number of samples obtained, Method 2 performs best, and Method 3 overestimates uncertainty due to inclusion

  16. Early detection of Brucella canis via quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, L K; Bjork, J K; Gallup, J M; Boggiatto, P M; Bellaire, B H; Petersen, C A

    2014-02-01

    Canine brucellosis is a reportable zoonotic disease that can lead to canine reproductive losses and human infection through contact with infected urine or other genitourinary secretions. Although many locations require testing and euthanasia of positive dogs, current diagnosis is limited by the time required for seroconversion, for example, presence of B. canis-specific antibodies. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic ability of Brucella canis-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect B. canis in field samples prior to serological positivity for faster diagnosis and prevention of transmission within kennels or in households. Two kennels, one of which was located in the owner's home, were sampled following observation of suggestive clinical signs and positive serology of at least one dog. Specimens obtained were comparatively analysed via serology and qPCR analysis. 107 dogs were analysed for B. canis infection via qPCR: 105 via whole-blood samples, 65 via vaginal swab, six via urine and seven via genitourinary tract tissue taken at necropsy. Forty-five dogs were found to be infected with canine brucellosis via qPCR, of which 22 (48.89%) were seropositive. A statistically significant number (P = 0.0228) of qPCR-positive dogs, 5/25 (20.00%), seroconverted within a 30-day interval after initial serologic testing. As compared to serology, qPCR analysis of DNA from vaginal swabs had a sensitivity of 92.31% and specificity of 51.92%, and qPCR analysis of DNA from whole-blood samples had a sensitivity of 16.67% and specificity of 100%. B. canis outer membrane protein 25 DNA qPCR from non-invasive vaginal swab and urine samples provided early detection of B. canis infection in dogs prior to detection of antibodies. This assay provides a critical tool to decrease zoonotic spread of canine brucellosis, its associated clinical presentation(s), and emotional and economic repercussions.

  17. Characterization and ontogenetic expression analysis of the myosin light chains from the fast white muscle of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi.

    PubMed

    Chu, W Y; Chen, J; Zhou, R X; Zhao, F L; Meng, T; Chen, D X; Nong, X X; Liu, Z; Lu, S Q; Zhang, J S

    2011-04-01

    Three full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clones were isolated encoding the skeletal myosin light chain 1 (MLC1; 1237 bp), myosin light chain 2 (MLC2; 1206 bp) and myosin light chain 3 (MLC3; 1079 bp) from the fast white muscle cDNA library of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi. The sequence analysis indicated that MLC1 and MLC3 were not produced from differentially spliced messenger RNAs (mRNA) as reported in birds and rodents but were encoded by different genes. The MLC2 encodes 170 amino acids, which include four EF-hand (helix-loop-helix) structures. The primary structures of the Ca(2+)-binding domain were well conserved among the MLC2s of seven other fish species. The ontogenetic expression analysis by real-time PCR showed that the three light-chain mRNAs were first detected in the gastrula stage, and their expression increased from the tail bud stage to the larval stage. All three MLC mRNAs showed longitudinal expression variation in the fast white muscle of S. chuatsi, especially MLC1 which was highly expressed at the posterior area. Taken together, the study provides a better understanding about the MLC gene structure and their expression pattern in muscle development of S. chuatsi.

  18. T-wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry: basic experimental procedures for protein complex analysis.

    PubMed

    Michaelevski, Izhak; Kirshenbaum, Noam; Sharon, Michal

    2010-07-31

    -MS analysis of protein complexes using the Synapt (Quadrupole-Ion Mobility-Time-of-Flight) HDMS instrument (Waters Ltd; the only commercial IM-MS instrument currently available)(10). We describe the basic optimization steps, the calibration of collision cross-sections, and methods for data processing and interpretation. The final step of the protocol discusses methods for calculating theoretical Omega values. Overall, the protocol does not attempt to cover every aspect of IM-MS characterization of protein assemblies; rather, its goal is to introduce the practical aspects of the method to new researchers in the field.

  19. Demonstration of UAV deployment and control of mobile wireless sensing networks for modal analysis of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Hirose, Mitsuhito; Greenwood, William; Xiao, Yong; Lynch, Jerome; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Kamat, Vineet

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can serve as a powerful mobile sensing platform for assessing the health of civil infrastructure systems. To date, the majority of their uses have been dedicated to vision and laser-based spatial imaging using on-board cameras and LiDAR units, respectively. Comparatively less work has focused on integration of other sensing modalities relevant to structural monitoring applications. The overarching goal of this study is to explore the ability for UAVs to deploy a network of wireless sensors on structures for controlled vibration testing. The study develops a UAV platform with an integrated robotic gripper that can be used to install wireless sensors in structures, drop a heavy weight for the introduction of impact loads, and to uninstall wireless sensors for reinstallation elsewhere. A pose estimation algorithm is embedded in the UAV to estimate the location of the UAV during sensor placement and impact load introduction. The Martlet wireless sensor network architecture is integrated with the UAV to provide the UAV a mobile sensing capability. The UAV is programmed to command field deployed Martlets, aggregate and temporarily store data from the wireless sensor network, and to communicate data to a fixed base station on site. This study demonstrates the integrated UAV system using a simply supported beam in the lab with Martlet wireless sensors placed by the UAV and impact load testing performed. The study verifies the feasibility of the integrated UAV-wireless monitoring system architecture with accurate modal characteristics of the beam estimated by modal analysis.

  20. The First New Zealanders: Patterns of Diet and Mobility Revealed through Isotope Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kinaston, Rebecca L.; Walter, Richard K.; Jacomb, Chris; Brooks, Emma; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E.; Stirling, Claudine; Reid, Malcolm; Gray, Andrew R.; Spinks, Jean; Shaw, Ben; Fyfe, Roger; Buckley, Hallie R.

    2013-01-01

    Direct evidence of the environmental impact of human colonization and subsequent human adaptational responses to new environments is extremely rare anywhere in the world. New Zealand was the last Polynesian island group to be settled by humans, who arrived around the end of the 13th century AD. Little is known about the nature of human adaptation and mobility during the initial phase of colonization. We report the results of the isotopic analysis (carbon, nitrogen and strontium) of the oldest prehistoric skeletons discovered in New Zealand to assess diet and migration patterns. The isotope data show that the culturally distinctive burials, Group 1, had similar diets and childhood origins, supporting the assertion that this group was distinct from Group 2/3 and may have been part of the initial colonizing population at the site. The Group 2/3 individuals displayed highly variable diets and likely lived in different regions of the country before their burial at Wairau Bar, supporting the archaeological evidence that people were highly mobile in New Zealand since the initial phase of human settlement. PMID:23691250

  1. Mobile prehospital emergency care: an analysis of implementation in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Gisele; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Alves, Renan Paes; Salvador, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2016-06-01

    Mobile prehospital care is a key component of emergency care. The aim of this study was to analyze the implementation of the State of Rio de Janeiro's Mobile Emergency Medical Service (SAMU, acronym in Portuguese). The methodology employed included document analysis, visits to six SAMU emergency call centers, and semistructured interviews conducted with 12 local and state emergency care coordinators. The study's conceptual framework was based on Giddens' theory of structuration. Intergovernmental conflicts were observed between the state and municipal governments, and between municipal governments. Despite the shortage of hospital beds, the SAMUs in periphery regions were better integrated with the emergency care network than the metropolitan SAMUs. The steering committees were not very active and weaknesses were observed relating to the limited role played by the state government in funding, management, and monitoring. It was concluded that the SAMU implementation process in the state was marked by political tensions and management and coordination weaknesses. As a result, serious drawbacks remain in the coordination of the SAMU with the other health services and the regionalization of emergency care in the state.

  2. The first New Zealanders: patterns of diet and mobility revealed through isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Kinaston, Rebecca L; Walter, Richard K; Jacomb, Chris; Brooks, Emma; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E; Stirling, Claudine; Reid, Malcolm; Gray, Andrew R; Spinks, Jean; Shaw, Ben; Fyfe, Roger; Buckley, Hallie R

    2013-01-01

    Direct evidence of the environmental impact of human colonization and subsequent human adaptational responses to new environments is extremely rare anywhere in the world. New Zealand was the last Polynesian island group to be settled by humans, who arrived around the end of the 13th century AD. Little is known about the nature of human adaptation and mobility during the initial phase of colonization. We report the results of the isotopic analysis (carbon, nitrogen and strontium) of the oldest prehistoric skeletons discovered in New Zealand to assess diet and migration patterns. The isotope data show that the culturally distinctive burials, Group 1, had similar diets and childhood origins, supporting the assertion that this group was distinct from Group 2/3 and may have been part of the initial colonizing population at the site. The Group 2/3 individuals displayed highly variable diets and likely lived in different regions of the country before their burial at Wairau Bar, supporting the archaeological evidence that people were highly mobile in New Zealand since the initial phase of human settlement.

  3. In-depth Analysis of Proton Mobilities in Sulfonated Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon Jeong; Lee, Sun Ju; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2012-02-01

    Polymer electrolytes are an important component of a wide variety of electrochemical devices such as battery, fuel cell, and chemical sensor owing to their ability to provide a pathway for ion transport between electrodes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to a subject of ion transport mechanisms in polymer electrolytes since the ion mobility in the polymer electrolytes plays a central role in determining the efficiency of the devices. In present study, we carried out an in-depth analysis of proton mobilities in model ionic block copolymers. The system of interests is a series of sulfonated poly(styrene-b-methylbutylene) (PSS-b-PMB) copolymers. Dilute solutions of PSS-b-PMB copolymers in methanol, which indicate highly uniform spherical ionic micelles, were examined yields. In particular, on virtue of the self-assembly nature of block copolymers, the system revealed well-defined ionic PSS domains with different thickness ranging from 3.0 to 7.8 nm. The proton transport in PSS-PMB copolymers was found to be facilitated by the decrease in the ionic domain sizes, which was rationalized by the different proximity of acid groups at the surfaces of ionic domains.

  4. Quantitation of transgenic plant DNA in leachate water: real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Gulden, Robert H; Lerat, Sylvain; Hart, Miranda M; Powell, Jeff R; Trevors, Jack T; Pauls, K Peter; Klironomos, John N; Swanton, Clarence J

    2005-07-27

    Roundup Ready (RR) genetically modified (GM) corn and soybean comprise a large portion of the annual planted acreage of GM crops. Plant growth and subsequent plant decomposition introduce the recombinant DNA (rDNA) into the soil environment, where its fate has not been completely researched. Little is known of the temporal and spatial distribution of plant-derived rDNA in the soil environment and in situ transport of plant DNA by leachate water has not been studied before. The objectives of this study were to determine whether sufficient quantities of plant rDNA were released by roots during growth and early decomposition to be detected in water collected after percolating through a soil profile and to determine the influence of temperature on DNA persistence in the leachate water. Individual plants of RR corn and RR soybean were grown in modified cylinders in a growth room, and the cylinders were flushed with rain water weekly. Immediately after collection, the leachate was subjected to DNA purification followed by rDNA quantification using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis. To test the effects of temperature on plant DNA persistence in leachate water, water samples were spiked with known quantities of RR soybean or RR corn genomic DNA and DNA persistence was examined at 5, 15, and 25 degrees C. Differences in the amounts and temporal distributions of root-derived rDNA were observed between corn and soybean plants. The results suggest that rainfall events may distribute plant DNA throughout the soil and into leachate water. Half-lives of plant DNA in leachate water ranged from 1.2 to 26.7 h, and persistence was greater at colder temperatures (5 and 15 degrees C).

  5. In silico analysis of the regulation of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in C3 plants.

    PubMed

    Morales, Alejandro; Yin, Xinyou; Harbinson, Jeremy; Driever, Steven Michiel; Molenaar, Jaap; Kramer, David M; Struik, Paul

    2017-09-18

    We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and non-cyclic alternative electron transport), and regulation of Rubisco activity, leads to emergent behaviors that may affect the operation and regulation of photosynthesis under different dynamic environmental conditions. The model was parameterized with experimental results in the literature, with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana. A dataset was constructed from multiple sources, including measurements of steady-state and dynamic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy under different light intensities and CO2. This dataset was used to test predictions of the model under different experimental conditions. Simulations suggested that there are strong interactions between cyclic and non-cyclic alternative electron transport and that an excess capacity for alternative electron transport is required to ensure adequate redox state and lumen pH. Furthermore, the model predicted that, under specific conditions, reduction of ferredoxin by plastoquinol was possible, especially after a rapid increase in light intensity. Further analysis also revealed that the relationship between ATP synthesis and proton motive force was highly regulated by the concentrations of ATP and ADP, and this facilitated an increase in non-photochemical quenching under conditions where metabolism was limiting, such as low CO2 or high light intensity. The model may be used as an in silico platform for future research on the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  7. Paleoseismological analysis of an intraplate extensional structure: the Concud fault (Iberian Chain, eastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, P.; Arlegui, L. E.; Liesa, C. L.; Simón, J. L.

    2011-10-01

    The Concud fault is a 13.5 km long, NW-SE striking normal fault at the eastern Iberian Chain. Its recent (Late Pleistocene) slip history is characterized from mapping and trench analysis and discussed in the context of the accretion/incision history of the Alfambra River. The fault has been active since Late Pliocene times, with slip rates ranging from 0.07 to 0.33 mm/year that are consistent with its present-day geomorphologic expression. The most likely empirical correlation suggests that the associated paleoseisms have potential magnitudes close to 6.8, coseismic displacements of 2.0 m, and recurrence intervals from 6.1 to 28.9 ka. At least six paleoseismic events have been identified between 113 and 32 ka. The first three events (U to W) involved displacement along the major fault plane. The last three events (X to Z) encompassed downthrow and hanging-wall synthetic bending prompting fissure opening. This change is accompanied by a decrease in slip rate (from 0.63 to 0.08-0.17 mm/year) and has been attributed to activation of a synthetic blind fault at the hanging wall. The average coseismic displacement (1.9-2.0 m) and recurrence period (6.7-7.9 ka) inferred from this paleoseismic succession are within the ranges predicted from empirical correlation. Such paleoseismic activity contrasts with the moderate present-day seismicity of the area (maximum instrumental Mb = 4.4), which can be explained by the long recurrence interval that characterizes intraplate regions.

  8. Community Decline as a Generator of "Elite" Mobility: A Gender Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasick, Frank A.; Dexter, Carolyn R.

    Economic decline in a community offering opportunities for higher education was studied as a contributing factor to extensive upward mobility among persons beginning their occupational careers. One process through which mobility into professional occupations by individuals whose fathers were manual workers ("elite" mobility) was documented--the…

  9. An Overview and Analysis of Mobile Internet Protocols in Cellular Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Han-Chieh

    2001-01-01

    Notes that cellular is the inevitable future architecture for the personal communication service system. Discusses the current cellular support based on Mobile Internet Protocol version 6 (Ipv6) and points out the shortfalls of using Mobile IP. Highlights protocols especially for mobile management schemes which can optimize a high-speed mobile…

  10. An Overview and Analysis of Mobile Internet Protocols in Cellular Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Han-Chieh

    2001-01-01

    Notes that cellular is the inevitable future architecture for the personal communication service system. Discusses the current cellular support based on Mobile Internet Protocol version 6 (Ipv6) and points out the shortfalls of using Mobile IP. Highlights protocols especially for mobile management schemes which can optimize a high-speed mobile…

  11. Meta-analysis of long-term mobile phone use and the association with brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Söderqvist, Fredrik; Hansson Mild, Kjell

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated long-term use of mobile phones and the risk for brain tumours in case-control studies published so far on this issue. We identified ten studies on glioma and meta-analysis yielded OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.8-1.1. Latency period of > or =10-years gave OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.9 based on six studies, for ipsilateral use (same side as tumour) OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.4 (four studies), but contralateral use did not increase the risk significantly, OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.6-2.0. Meta-analysis of nine studies on acoustic neuroma gave OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.1 increasing to OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.6-2.8 using > or =10-years latency period (four studies). Ipsilateral use gave OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.3 and contra-lateral OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.7-2.2 in the > or =10-years latency period group (three studies). Seven studies gave results for meningioma yielding overall OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.7-0.99. Using > or =10-years latency period OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.9-1.8 was calculated (four studies) increasing to OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.99-3.1 for ipsilateral use and OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.3-3.1 for contralateral use (two studies). We conclude that this meta-analysis gave a consistent pattern of an association between mobile phone use and ipsilateral glioma and acoustic neuroma using > or =10-years latency period.

  12. Health Characteristics, Neuromuscular Attributes, and Mobility Among Primary Care Patients With Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Secondary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Catherine T; Ward, Rachel E; Suri, Pradeep; Kurlinski, Laura; Anderson, Dennis E; Kiely, Dan K; Bean, Jonathan F

    Mobility problems are common among older adults. Symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (SLSS) is a major contributor to mobility limitations among older primary care patients. In comparison with older primary care patients with mobility problems but without SLSS, it is unclear how mobility problems differ in older primary care patients with SLSS. The purpose of this study was to compare health characteristics, neuromuscular attributes, and mobility status in a sample of older primary care patients with and without SLSS who were at risk for mobility decline. We hypothesized that patients with SLSS will manifest poorer health and greater severity of neuromuscular impairments and mobility limitations. This is a secondary analysis of the Boston Rehabilitative Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Fifty community-dwelling primary care patients aged 65 years or older at risk for mobility decline met inclusion criteria. SLSS was determined on the basis of computerized tomography (CT) scan and self-reported symptoms characteristic of neurogenic claudication. Outcome measures included health characteristics, neuromuscular attributes (trunk endurance, limb strength, limb speed, limb strength asymmetry, ankle range of motion [ROM], knee ROM, kyphosis, sensory loss), and mobility (Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument: basic and advanced lower extremity function subscales, 400-meter walk test, habitual gait speed, and Short Physical Performance Battery score). Health characteristics were collected at a baseline assessment. Neuromuscular attributes and mobility status were measured at the annual visit closest to conducting the CT scan. Five participants met criteria for having SLSS. Differences are reported in medians and interquartile ranges. Participants with SLSS reported more global pain, a greater number of comorbid conditions [SLSS: 7.0 (2.0) vs no-SLSS: 4.0 (2.0), P < .001], and experienced greater limitation in knee ROM [SLSS: 115.0° (8.0°) vs no-SLSS: 126.0° (10

  13. Interchain coupled chain dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide) in blends with poly(methyl methacrylate): Coupling model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, K. L.; Wang, Li-Min

    2011-11-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation data from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends found that for short times the self-dynamics of PEO chain follows the Rouse model, but at longer times past tc = 1-2 ns it becomes slower and departs from the Rouse model in dependences on time, momentum transfer, and temperature. To explain the anomalies, others had proposed the random Rouse model (RRM) in which each monomer has different mobility taken from a broad log-normal distribution. Despite the success of the RRM, Diddens et al. [Eur. Phys. Lett. 95, 56003 (2011)] extracted the distribution of friction coefficients from the MD simulations of a PEO/PMMA blend and found that the distribution is much narrower than expected from the RRM. We propose a simpler alternative explanation of the data by utilizing alone the observed crossover of PEO chain dynamics at tc. The present problem is just a special case of a general property of relaxation in interacting systems, which is the crossover from independent relaxation to coupled many-body relaxation at some tc determined by the interaction potential and intermolecular coupling/constraints. The generality is brought out vividly by pointing out that the crossover also had been observed by neutron scattering from entangled chains relaxation in monodisperse homopolymers, and from the segmental α-relaxation of PEO in blends with PMMA. The properties of all the relaxation processes in connection with the crossover are similar, despite the length scales of the relaxation in these systems are widely different.

  14. Interchain coupled chain dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide) in blends with poly(methyl methacrylate): coupling model analysis.

    PubMed

    Ngai, K L; Wang, Li-Min

    2011-11-21

    Quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation data from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends found that for short times the self-dynamics of PEO chain follows the Rouse model, but at longer times past t(c) = 1-2 ns it becomes slower and departs from the Rouse model in dependences on time, momentum transfer, and temperature. To explain the anomalies, others had proposed the random Rouse model (RRM) in which each monomer has different mobility taken from a broad log-normal distribution. Despite the success of the RRM, Diddens et al. [Eur. Phys. Lett. 95, 56003 (2011)] extracted the distribution of friction coefficients from the MD simulations of a PEO/PMMA blend and found that the distribution is much narrower than expected from the RRM. We propose a simpler alternative explanation of the data by utilizing alone the observed crossover of PEO chain dynamics at t(c). The present problem is just a special case of a general property of relaxation in interacting systems, which is the crossover from independent relaxation to coupled many-body relaxation at some t(c) determined by the interaction potential and intermolecular coupling/constraints. The generality is brought out vividly by pointing out that the crossover also had been observed by neutron scattering from entangled chains relaxation in monodisperse homopolymers, and from the segmental α-relaxation of PEO in blends with PMMA. The properties of all the relaxation processes in connection with the crossover are similar, despite the length scales of the relaxation in these systems are widely different.

  15. Effectiveness of mobile electronic devices in weight loss among overweight and obese populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Bushra; Jones, Jessica; Ronksley, Paul E; Armstrong, Marni J; Caird, Jeff; Rabi, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Mobile electronic devices, such as mobile phones and PDAs, have emerged as potentially useful tools in the facilitation and maintenance of weight loss. While RCTs have demonstrated a positive impact of mobile interventions, the extent to which mobile electronic devices are more effective than usual care methods is still being debated. Electronic databases were systematically searched for RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of mobile electronic device interventions among overweight and obese adults. Weighted mean difference for change in body weight was the primary outcome. The search strategy yielded 559 citations and of the 108 potentially relevant studies, six met the criteria. A total of 632 participants were included in the six studies reporting a mean change in body weight. Using a random-effects model, the WMD for the effect of using mobile electronic devices on reduction in body weight was -1.09 kg (95% CI -2.12, -0.05). When stratified by the type of mobile electronic device used, it suggests that interventions using mobile phones were effective at achieving weight loss, WMD = -1.78 kg (95% CI -2.92, -0.63). This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that mobile electronic devices have the potential to facilitate weight loss in overweight and obese populations, but further work is needed to understand if these interventions have sustained benefit and how we can make these mHealth tools most effective on a large scale. As the field of healthcare increasingly utilizes novel mobile technologies, the focus must not be on any one specific device but on the best possible use of these tools to measure and understand behavior. As mobile electronic devices continue to increase in popularity and the associated technology continues to advance, the potential for the use of mobile devices in global healthcare is enormous. More RCTs with larger sample sizes need to be conducted to look at the cost-effectiveness, technical and financial feasibility of adapting such m

  16. Virulence determinants, drug resistance and mobile genetic elements of Laribacter hongkongensis: a genome-wide analysis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna Kp; Wong, Gilman Km; Tsang, Alan Kl; Teng, Jade Ll; Fan, Rachel Yy; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick Cy

    2011-04-19

    Laribacter hongkongensis is associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. In this study, we performed an in-depth annotation of the genes in its genome related to the various steps in the infective process, drug resistance and mobile genetic elements. For acid and bile resistance, L. hongkongensis possessed a urease gene cassette, two arc gene clusters and bile salt efflux systems. For intestinal colonization, it possessed a putative adhesin of the autotransporter family homologous to those of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterotoxigenic E. coli. To evade from host defense, it possessed superoxide dismutase and catalases. For lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, it possessed the same set of genes that encode enzymes for synthesizing lipid A, two Kdo units and heptose units as E. coli, but different genes for its symmetrical acylation pattern, and nine genes for polysaccharide side chains biosynthesis. It contained a number of CDSs that encode putative cell surface acting (RTX toxin and hemolysins) and intracellular cytotoxins (patatin-like proteins) and enzymes for invasion (outer membrane phospholipase A). It contained a broad variety of antibiotic resistance-related genes, including genes related to β-lactam (n = 10) and multidrug efflux (n = 54). It also contained eight prophages, 17 other phage-related CDSs and 26 CDSs for transposases. The L. hongkongensis genome possessed genes for acid and bile resistance, intestinal mucosa colonization, evasion of host defense and cytotoxicity and invasion. A broad variety of antibiotic resistance or multidrug resistance genes, a high number of prophages, other phage-related CDSs and CDSs for transposases, were also identified.

  17. Time-based analysis of the apheresis platelet supply chain in England.

    PubMed

    Wilding, R; Cotton, S; Dobbin, J; Chapman, J; Yates, N

    2011-10-01

    During 2009/2010 loss of platelets within NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) due to time expiry was 9.3%. Hospitals remain reluctant to hold stocks of platelets due to the poor shelf life at issue. The purpose of this study was to identify areas for time compression in the apheresis platelet supply chain to extend the shelf life available for hospitals and reduce wastage in NHSBT. This was done within the context of NHSBT reconfiguring their supply chain and moving towards a consolidated and centralised approach. Time based process mapping was applied to identify value and non-value adding time in two manufacturing models. A large amount of the non-value adding time in the apheresis platelet supply chain is due to transportation and waiting for the next process in the manufacturing process to take place. Time based process mapping provides an effective 'lens' for supply chain professionals to identify opportunities for improvement in the platelet supply chain. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains

    SciTech Connect

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

  19. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of the Mouse Cyp2j Subfamily: Tissue Distribution and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Graves, Joan P; Gruzdev, Artiom; Bradbury, J Alyce; DeGraff, Laura M; Li, Huiling; House, John S; Hoopes, Samantha L; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2015-08-01

    Members of the cytochrome P450 CYP2J subfamily are expressed in multiple tissues in mice and humans. These enzymes are active in the metabolism of fatty acids to generate bioactive compounds. Herein we report new methods and results for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis for the seven genes (Cyp2j5, Cyp2j6, Cyp2j8, Cyp2j9, Cyp2j11, Cyp2j12, and Cyp2j13) of the mouse Cyp2j subfamily. SYBR Green primer sets were developed and compared with commercially available TaqMan primer/probe assays for specificity toward mouse Cyp2j cDNA, and analysis of tissue distribution and regulation of Cyp2j genes. Each TaqMan primer/probe set and SYBR Green primer set were shown to be specific for their intended mouse Cyp2j cDNA. Tissue distribution of the mouse Cyp2j isoforms confirmed similar patterns of expression between the two qPCR methods. Cyp2j5 and Cyp2j13 were highly expressed in male kidneys, and Cyp2j11 was highly expressed in both male and female kidneys. Cyp2j6 was expressed in multiple tissues, with the highest expression in the small intestine and duodenum. Cyp2j8 was detected in various tissues, with highest expression found in the skin. Cyp2j9 was highly expressed in the brain, liver, and lung. Cyp2j12 was predominately expressed in the brain. We also determined the Cyp2j isoform expression in Cyp2j5 knockout mice to determine whether there was compensatory regulation of other Cyp2j isoforms, and we assessed Cyp2j isoform regulation during various inflammatory models, including influenza A, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, house dust mite allergen, and corn pollen. Both qPCR methods detected similar suppression of Cyp2j6 and Cyp2j9 during inflammation in the lung.

  20. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of the Mouse Cyp2j Subfamily: Tissue Distribution and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Joan P.; Gruzdev, Artiom; Bradbury, J. Alyce; DeGraff, Laura M.; Li, Huiling; House, John S.; Hoopes, Samantha L.; Edin, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the cytochrome P450 CYP2J subfamily are expressed in multiple tissues in mice and humans. These enzymes are active in the metabolism of fatty acids to generate bioactive compounds. Herein we report new methods and results for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis for the seven genes (Cyp2j5, Cyp2j6, Cyp2j8, Cyp2j9, Cyp2j11, Cyp2j12, and Cyp2j13) of the mouse Cyp2j subfamily. SYBR Green primer sets were developed and compared with commercially available TaqMan primer/probe assays for specificity toward mouse Cyp2j cDNA, and analysis of tissue distribution and regulation of Cyp2j genes. Each TaqMan primer/probe set and SYBR Green primer set were shown to be specific for their intended mouse Cyp2j cDNA. Tissue distribution of the mouse Cyp2j isoforms confirmed similar patterns of expression between the two qPCR methods. Cyp2j5 and Cyp2j13 were highly expressed in male kidneys, and Cyp2j11 was highly expressed in both male and female kidneys. Cyp2j6 was expressed in multiple tissues, with the highest expression in the small intestine and duodenum. Cyp2j8 was detected in various tissues, with highest expression found in the skin. Cyp2j9 was highly expressed in the brain, liver, and lung. Cyp2j12 was predominately expressed in the brain. We also determined the Cyp2j isoform expression in Cyp2j5 knockout mice to determine whether there was compensatory regulation of other Cyp2j isoforms, and we assessed Cyp2j isoform regulation during various inflammatory models, including influenza A, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, house dust mite allergen, and corn pollen. Both qPCR methods detected similar suppression of Cyp2j6 and Cyp2j9 during inflammation in the lung. PMID:25994032

  1. Behavioral Analysis of Visitors to a Medical Institution's Website Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Teppei; Tani, Yuji; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2016-07-25

    Consistent with the "attention, interest, desire, memory, action" (AIDMA) model of consumer behavior, patients collect information about available medical institutions using the Internet to select information for their particular needs. Studies of consumer behavior may be found in areas other than medical institution websites. Such research uses Web access logs for visitor search behavior. At this time, research applying the patient searching behavior model to medical institution website visitors is lacking. We have developed a hospital website search behavior model using a Bayesian approach to clarify the behavior of medical institution website visitors and determine the probability of their visits, classified by search keyword. We used the website data access log of a clinic of internal medicine and gastroenterology in the Sapporo suburbs, collecting data from January 1 through June 31, 2011. The contents of the 6 website pages included the following: home, news, content introduction for medical examinations, mammography screening, holiday person-on-duty information, and other. The search keywords we identified as best expressing website visitor needs were listed as the top 4 headings from the access log: clinic name, clinic name + regional name, clinic name + medical examination, and mammography screening. Using the search keywords as the explaining variable, we built a binomial probit model that allows inspection of the contents of each purpose variable. Using this model, we determined a beta value and generated a posterior distribution. We performed the simulation using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods with a noninformation prior distribution for this model and determined the visit probability classified by keyword for each category. In the case of the keyword "clinic name," the visit probability to the website, repeated visit to the website, and contents page for medical examination was positive. In the case of the keyword "clinic name and regional name," the

  2. The altitudinal mobility of wild sheep at the Epigravettian site of Kalavan 1 (Lesser Caucasus, Armenia): Evidence from a sequential isotopic analysis in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Tornero, Carlos; Balasse, Marie; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Chataigner, Christine; Gasparyan, Boris; Montoya, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Kalavan 1 is an Epigravettian hunting campsite in the Aregunyats mountain chain in northeastern Armenia (Lesser Caucasus). The site lies at an elevation of 1640 m in a bottleneck that controls the descent into the Barepat Valley from the alpine meadows above. The lithic and faunal assemblages show evidence of the production of hunting weapons, the hunting and targeting of wild sheep (Ovis orientalis), and the constitution of animal product reserves. A seasonal occupation of the site was proposed within a model of occupation by Epigravettian hunter-gatherers that involved a search for obsidian resources in high altitude sources from the spring to the summer and settling at Kalavan 1 at the end of summer or during autumn to coincide with the migration of wild herds from the alpine meadows to the valley. A key parameter of this model is wild sheep ethology, with a specifically seasonal vertical mobility, based on observations from contemporary mouflon populations from the surrounding areas. In this study, the vertical mobility of Paleolithic wild sheep was directly investigated through sequential isotope analysis (δ(18)O, δ(13)C) in teeth. A marked seasonality of birth is suggested that reflects a physiological adaptation to the strong environmental constraints of this mountainous region. Most importantly, a recurrent altitudinal mobility was demonstrated on a seasonal basis, which confirms that wild sheep migrated from lowland areas that they occupied in the winter and then moved to higher altitude meadows during the summer. Last, low inter-individual variability in the stable isotope sequences favors a hypothesis of accumulation for these faunal remains over a short time period. Overall, this new dataset strengthens the previous interpretations for Kalavan 1 and contributes to an understanding of the pattern of occupation of mountain territories by Epigravettian communities.

  3. The mobility problem in Britain: new findings from the analysis of birth cohort data.

    PubMed

    Bukodi, Erzsébet; Goldthorpe, John H; Waller, Lorraine; Kuha, Jouni

    2015-03-01

    Social mobility is now a matter of greater political concern in Britain than at any time previously. However, the data available for the determination of mobility trends are less adequate today than two or three decades ago. It is widely believed in political and in media circles that social mobility is in decline. But the evidence so far available from sociological research, focused on intergenerational class mobility, is not supportive of this view. We present results based on a newly-constructed dataset covering four birth cohorts that provides improved data for the study of trends in class mobility and that also allows analyses to move from the twentieth into the twenty-first century. These results confirm that there has been no decline in mobility, whether considered in absolute or relative terms. In the case of women, there is in fact evidence of mobility increasing. However, the better quality and extended range of our data enable us to identify other 'mobility problems' than the supposed decline. Among the members of successive cohorts, the experience of absolute upward mobility is becoming less common and that of absolute downward mobility more common; and class-linked inequalities in relative chances of mobility and immobility appear wider than previously thought. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  4. Big five personality and residential mobility: a state-level analysis of the USA.

    PubMed

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2015-01-01

    Relations of the state-aggregated Big Five personality scores of 619,397 residents to four 2005 state-level residential mobility criteria were examined with the 50 states as cases. Multiple regression controlling for five state demographic variables showed (a) higher state neuroticism was strongly associated with lower mobility, lower same-county mobility, and lower between-county mobility; (b) higher state extraversion was associated with lower mobility and lower same-county mobility, but only with neuroticism and/or conscientiousness controlled; and (c) conscientiousness was related to same-residence, same-county, and different-county mobility, but only without demographic variables controlled. Discussion is grounded in the dangers of cross-level speculation and the potential of a basic assumption of geographical psychology that an area's aggregate position on a dispositional variable is associated there with behavioral and psychological tendencies related to that variable.

  5. Third type of secondary structure: noncooperative mobile conformation. Protein Data Bank analysis.

    PubMed

    Adzhubei, A A; Eisenmenger, F; Tumanyan, V G; Zinke, M; Brodzinski, S; Esipova, N G

    1987-08-14

    Analysis of 68 proteins from Protein Data Bank disclosed a new widely spread type of the secondary structure that is designated as mobile (M-) conformation. Helical parameters of M-conformation are close to the poly-L-proline II type helix. Its occurrence in globular proteins approximates that of the beta-sheet. The angles corresponding to the position of the M-conformation maximum in distribution of amino acid residues on a conformational map are phi: -65 degrees, psi: 140 degrees. Unique features and high occurrence in proteins make it possible to distinguish the M-conformation as an independent third type of the secondary structure in globular proteins, that should be included in the present classification.

  6. Rapid Analysis of Isobaric Exogenous Metabolites by Differential Mobility Spectrometry Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Parson, Whitney B; Schneider, Bradley B; Kertesz, Vilmos; Corr, Jay; Covey, Thomas R.; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    The direct separation of isobaric glucuronide metabolites from propranolol dosed tissue extracts by differential mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) with the use of a polar gas-phase chemical modifier was demonstrated. The DMS gas-phase separation was able to resolve the isobaric metabolites with separation times on the order of ms instead of mins to hrs typically required when using pre-ionization chromatographic separation methods. Direct separation of isobaric metabolites from the complex tissue extract was validated using standards as well as implementing an HPLC separation prior to the DMS-MS analysis to pre-separate the species of interest. The ability to separate isobaric exogenous metabolites directly from a complex tissue extract is expected to facilitate the drug development process by increasing analytical throughput without the requirement for pre-ionization cleanup or separation strategies.

  7. Quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds using ion mobility spectra and cascade correlation neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Peter DEB.; Zheng, Peng

    1995-01-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique for trace organic analysis in the gas phase. Quantitative measurements are difficult, because IMS has a limited linear range. Factors that may affect the instrument response are pressure, temperature, and humidity. Nonlinear calibration methods, such as neural networks, may be ideally suited for IMS. Neural networks have the capability of modeling complex systems. Many neural networks suffer from long training times and overfitting. Cascade correlation neural networks train at very fast rates. They also build their own topology, that is a number of layers and number of units in each layer. By controlling the decay parameter in training neural networks, reproducible and general models may be obtained.

  8. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of long-chain oxidation products of cardiolipin induced by the hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Elisabete; Domingues, Pedro; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2011-01-30

    The anionic phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) is found almost exclusively in the inner membrane of mitochondria, playing an important role in energy metabolism. Oxidation of CL has been associated with apoptotic events and various pathologies. In this study, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography (LC/ESI-MS) was used to identify tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin (TLCL) modifications induced by the OH(·) radical generated under Fenton reaction conditions (H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+)). The identified oxidation products of TLCL contained 2, 4, 6 and 8 additional oxygen atoms. These long-chain oxidation products were characterized by LC/ESI-MS/MS as doubly [M-2H](2-) and singly charged [M-H](-) ions. A detailed analysis of the fragmentation pathways of these precursor ions allowed the identification of hydroperoxy derivatives of CL. MS/MS analysis indicated that CL oxidation products with 4, 6 and 8 oxygen atoms have one fatty acyl chain bearing 4 oxygen atoms ([RCOO+4O](-)). Even when the TLCL molecule was oxidized by the addition of eight oxygen atoms, one of the acyl chains remained non-modified and one fatty acyl chain contained three or four oxygen atoms. This led us to conclude that under oxidative conditions by the OH(·) radical, the distribution of oxygens/peroxy groups in the CL molecule is not random, even when CL has the same fatty acyl chains in all the positions. Using mass spectrometry, the oxidation products have been unequivocally assigned, which may be useful for their detection in biological samples. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Selecting representative affective dimensions using Procrustes analysis: an application to mobile phone design.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Chieh; Chang, Hua-Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Collecting affective responses (ARs) from consumers is crucial to designers aspiring to produce an appealing product. Adjectives are frequently used by researchers as an affective means by which consumers can describe their subjective feelings regarding a specific product design. This study proposes a Kansei engineering (KE) approach for selecting representative affective dimensions using factor analysis (FA) and Procrustes analysis (PA). A semantic differential (SD) experiment is used to examine consumers' ARs toward a set of representative product samples. FA is employed to extract the underlying latent factors using an initial set of affective dimensions. A backward elimination process based on PA is used to determine the relative significance of adjectives in each step according to the calculated residual sum of squared differences (RSSDs) to finally obtain the ranking of the initial set of adjectives. Additionally, the results of the proposed approach are compared to the method that combines FA and two-stage cluster analysis (CA). A case study of mobile phone design is provided to demonstrate the analysis results.

  10. Metabolic flux distribution analysis by 13C-tracer experiments using the Markov chain-Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Wongsa, S; Kadirkamanathan, V; Billings, S A; Wright, P C

    2005-12-01

    Metabolic flux analysis using 13C-tracer experiments is an important tool in metabolic engineering since intracellular fluxes are non-measurable quantities in vivo. Current metabolic flux analysis approaches are fully based on stoichiometric constraints and carbon atom balances, where the over-determined system is iteratively solved by a parameter estimation approach. However, the unavoidable measurement noises involved in the fractional enrichment data obtained by 13C-enrichment experiment and the possible existence of unknown pathways prevent a simple parameter estimation method for intracellular flux quantification. The MCMC (Markov chain-Monte Carlo) method, which obtains intracellular flux distributions through delicately constructed Markov chains, is shown to be an effective approach for deep understanding of the intracellular metabolic network. Its application is illustrated through the simulation of an example metabolic network.

  11. Design and analysis of linear cascade DNA hybridization chain reactions using DNA hairpins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Hieu; Garg, Sudhanshu; Miao, Vincent; Song, Tianqi; Mokhtar, Reem; Reif, John

    2017-01-01

    DNA self-assembly has been employed non-conventionally to construct nanoscale structures and dynamic nanoscale machines. The technique of hybridization chain reactions by triggered self-assembly has been shown to form various interesting nanoscale structures ranging from simple linear DNA oligomers to dendritic DNA structures. Inspired by earlier triggered self-assembly works, we present a system for controlled self-assembly of linear cascade DNA hybridization chain reactions using nine distinct DNA hairpins. NUPACK is employed to assist in designing DNA sequences and Matlab has been used to simulate DNA hairpin interactions. Gel electrophoresis and ensemble fluorescence reaction kinetics data indicate strong evidence of linear cascade DNA hybridization chain reactions. The half-time completion of the proposed linear cascade reactions indicates a linear dependency on the number of hairpins.

  12. Understanding gas phase modifier interactions in rapid analysis by Differential Mobility-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kafle, Amol; Coy, Stephen L.; Wong, Bryan M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Glick, James J.; Vouros, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study involving the use and optimization of gas phase modifiers in quantitative differential mobility- mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) analysis is presented using mucleoside-adduct biomarkers of DNA damage as an important reference point for analysis in complex matrices. Commonly used polar protic and polar aprotic modifiers have been screened for use against two deoxyguanosine adducts of DNA: N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-y1)-2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Particular attention was paid to compensation voltage (CoV) shifts, peak shapes and product ion signal intensities while optimizing the DMS-MS conditions. The optimized parameters were then applied to rapid quantitation of the DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA. After a protein precipitation step, adduct levels corresponding to less than one modification in 106 normal DNA bases were detected using the DMS-MS platform. Based on DMS fundamentals and ab-initio thermochemical results we interpret the complexity of DMS modifier responses in terms of thermal activation and the development of solvent shells. At very high bulk gas temperature, modifier dipole moment may be the most important factor in cluster formation and cluster geometry in mobility differences, but at lower temperatures multi-neutral clusters are important and less predictable. This work provides a useful protocol for targeted DNA adduct quantitation and a basis for future work on DMS modifier effects. PMID:24452298

  13. Dexterity analysis for omni-directional wheeled mobile manipulator based on double quaternion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Bin; Zhao, Jing; Song, Chunyu

    2013-05-01

    The unified analysis of omni-directional wheeled mobile manipulator(OWMM) through the dimensionally nonhomogeneous Jacobian matrix may lead to unreliable results. The existing researches focus on the integrated performance evaluation of OWMM, without taking the influence of velocity difference into consideration. This paper presents a new approach to formulate the dimensionally homogeneous Jacobian matrix and a new index for OWMM. First, the universal transformational matrix of the link coordinate frame is derived based on double quaternion. The degree of locomotion of a mobile platform and the degrees of manipulation of a manipulator are treated equally as the joints of a redundant composite robot. Then the integrated modeling of OWMM is established, and the non-dimensional Jacobian matrix is obtained from the above matrix. Next, by examining the concept of directional manipulability, a new index is proposed to evaluate the directional manipulability of OWMM along the specified task direction. Furthermore, for the same task and the time of simulation, the kinematic performance of the fixed base operation of the manipulator and the operation of OWMM are analyzed by numerical simulation. The results suggest that the proposed approach is equivalent to the method of traditional kinematic modeling, with the error of numerical solution being 10-7, and the varying frequency of DMTR is higher than that of the condition number. This indicates that DMTR is more effective to reflect the variation of the task direction. The proposed method can be used to analyze the manipulating capability of OWMM, and has a simple structure and generality in the unified analysis of OWMM.

  14. The Effectiveness of Neural Mobilization for Neuromusculoskeletal Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Basson, Annalie; Olivier, Benita; Ellis, Richard; Coppieters, Michel; Stewart, Aimee; Mudzi, Witness

    2017-09-01

    Study Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Objectives To determine the efficacy of neural mobilization (NM) for musculoskeletal conditions with a neuropathic component. Background Neural mobilization, or neurodynamics, is a movement-based intervention aimed at restoring the homeostasis in and around the nervous system. The current level of evidence for NM is largely unknown. Methods A database search for randomized trials investigating the effect of NM on neuromusculoskeletal conditions was conducted, using standard methods for article identification, selection, and quality appraisal. Where possible, studies were pooled for meta-analysis, with pain, disability, and function as the primary outcomes. Results Forty studies were included in this review, of which 17 had a low risk of bias. Meta-analyses could only be performed on self-reported outcomes. For chronic low back pain, disability (Oswestry Disability Questionnaire [0-50]: mean difference, -9.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -14.50, -4.01; P<.001) and pain (intensity [0-10]: mean difference, -1.78; 95% CI: -2.55, -1.01; P<.001) improved following NM. For chronic neck-arm pain, pain improved (intensity: mean difference, -1.89; 95% CI: -3.14, -0.64; P<.001) following NM. For most of the clinical outcomes in individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome, NM was not effective (P>.11) but showed some positive neurophysiological effects (eg, reduced intraneural edema). Due to a scarcity of studies or conflicting results, the effect of NM remains uncertain for various conditions, such as postoperative low back pain, cubital tunnel syndrome, and lateral epicondylalgia. Conclusion This review reveals benefits of NM for back and neck pain, but the effect of NM on other conditions remains unclear. Due to the limited evidence and varying methodological quality, conclusions may change over time. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1a. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(9):593-615. Epub 13 Jul 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7117.

  15. Analysis of Mobile Laser Scanning Data and Multi-View Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briese, C.; Zach, G.; Verhoeven, G.; Ressl, C.; Ullrich, A.; Studnicka, N.; Doneus, M.

    2012-07-01

    The combination of laser scanning (LS, active, direct 3D measurement of the object surface) and photogrammetry (high geometric and radiometric resolution) is widely applied for object reconstruction (e.g. architecture, topography, monitoring, archaeology). Usually the results are a coloured point cloud or a textured mesh. The geometry is typically generated from the laser scanning point cloud and the radiometric information is the result of image acquisition. In the last years, next to significant developments in static (terrestrial LS) and kinematic LS (airborne and mobile LS) hardware and software, research in computer vision and photogrammetry lead to advanced automated procedures in image orientation and image matching. These methods allow a highly automated generation of 3D geometry just based on image data. Founded on advanced feature detector techniques (like SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform)) very robust techniques for image orientation were established (cf. Bundler). In a subsequent step, dense multi-view stereo reconstruction algorithms allow the generation of very dense 3D point clouds that represent the scene geometry (cf. Patch-based Multi-View Stereo (PMVS2)). Within this paper the usage of mobile laser scanning (MLS) and simultaneously acquired image data for an advanced integrated scene reconstruction is studied. For the analysis the geometry of a scene is generated by both techniques independently. Then, the paper focuses on the quality assessment of both techniques. This includes a quality analysis of the individual surface models and a comparison of the direct georeferencing of the images using positional and orientation data of the on board GNSS-INS system and the indirect georeferencing of the imagery by automatic image orientation. For the practical evaluation a dataset from an archaeological monument is utilised. Based on the gained knowledge a discussion of the results is provided and a future strategy for the integration of both

  16. The Analysis of Orders of Perishable Goods in Relation to the Bullwhip Effect in the Logistic Supply Chain of the Food Industry: a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chocholáč, Jan; Průša, Petr

    2016-12-01

    The bullwhip effect generally refers to the phenomenon where order variability increases as the orders move upstream in the supply chain. It is serious problem for every member of the supply chain. This effect begins at customers and passes through the chain to producers, which are at the end of the logistic chain. Especially food supply chains are affected by this issue. These chains are unique for problems of expiration of goods (particularly perishable goods), variable demand, orders with quantity discounts and effort to maximize the customer satisfaction. This paper will present the problem of the bullwhip effect in the real supply chain in the food industry. This supply chain consists of approximately 350 stores, four central warehouses and more than 1000 suppliers, but the case study will examine 87 stores, one central warehouse and one supplier in 2015. The aim of this paper is the analysis of the order variability between the various links in this chain and confirmation of the bullwhip effect in this chain. The subject of the analysis will be perishable goods.

  17. Comparison of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction, ribotyping, and monoclonal antibody analysis for subtyping Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Lus, P; Fields, B S; Benson, R F; Martin, W T; O'Connor, S P; Black, C M

    1993-01-01

    Arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) was used to characterize Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Cells from a single colony could be subtyped by AP-PCR within a few hours. The discrimination between strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 by AP-PCR was equivalent to that by monoclonal antibody analysis and ribotyping. Four strains representing the monoclonal antibody pattern most frequently associated with outbreaks all yielded unique amplicon patterns by AP-PCR. Images PMID:8394380

  18. Serum-free light-chain analysis in diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma and related conditions.

    PubMed

    Milani, Paolo; Palladini, Giovanni; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the serum-free light-chain (S-FLC) assay has been a breakthrough in the diagnosis and management of plasma cell dyscrasias, particularly monoclonal light-chain diseases. The first method, proposed in 2001, quantifies serum-free light-chains using polyclonal antibodies. More recently, assays based on monoclonal antibodies have entered into clinical practice. S-FLC measurement plays a central role in the screening for multiple myeloma and related conditions, in association with electrophoretic techniques. Analysis of S-FLC is essential in assessing the risk of progression of precursor diseases to overt plasma cell dyscrasias. It is also useful for risk stratification in solitary plasmacytoma and AL amyloidosis. The S-FLC measurement is part of the new diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma, and provides a marker to follow changes in clonal substructure over time. Finally, the evaluation of S-FLC is fundamental for assessing the response to treatment in monoclonal light chain diseases.

  19. Magnetic force imaging of a chain of biogenic magnetite and Monte Carlo analysis of tip-particle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körnig, André; Hartmann, Markus A.; Teichert, Christian; Fratzl, Peter; Faivre, Damien

    2014-06-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria form chains of magnetite nanoparticles that serve the organism as navigation tools. The magnetic anisotropy of the superstructure makes the chain an ideal model to study the magnetic properties of such an organization. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is currently the technique of choice for the visualization of magnetic nanostructures, however it does not enable the quantitative measurement of magnetic properties, since the interactions between the MFM probe