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Sample records for mode iii effects

  1. Effects of friction and high torque on fatigue crack propagation in Mode III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; McClintock, F. A.; Ritchie, R. O.

    1982-12-01

    Turbo-generator and automotive shafts are often subjected to complex histories of high torques. To provide a basis for fatigue life estimation in such components, a study of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) for a mill-annealed AISI 4140 steel (RB88, 590 MN/m2 tensile strength) has been undertaken, using torsionally-loaded, circumferentially-notched cylindrical specimens. As demonstrated previously for higher strength AISI 4340 steel, Mode III cyclic crack growth rates (dc/dN) IIIcan be related to the alternating stress intensity factor ΔKIII for conditions of small-scale yielding. However, to describe crack propagation behavior over an extended range of crack growth rates (˜10-6 to 10-2 mm per cycle), where crack growth proceeds under elastic-plastic and full plastic conditions, no correlation between (dc/dN) III and ΔKIII is possible. Accordingly, a new parameter for torsional crack growth, termed the plastic strain intensity Γ III, is introduced and is shown to provide a unique description of Mode III crack growth behavior for a wide range of testing conditions, provided a mean load reduces friction, abrasion, and interlocking between mating fracture surfaces. The latter effect is found to be dependent upon the mode of applied loading (i.e., the presence of superimposed axial loads) and the crack length and torque level. Mechanistically, high-torque surfaces were transverse, macroscopically flat, and smeared. Lower torques showed additional axial cracks (longitudinal shear cracking) perpendicular to the main transverse surface. A micro-mechanical model for the main radi l Mode III growth, based on the premise that crack advance results from Mode II coalescence of microcracks initiated at inclusions ahead of the main crack front, is extended to high nominal stress levels, and predicts that Mode III fatigue crack propagation rates should be proportional to the range of plastic strain intensity (ΔΓIII if local Mode II growth rates are

  2. Effective representation of amide III, II, I, and A modes on local vibrational modes: Analysis of ab initio quantum calculation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Seungsoo

    2016-10-01

    The Hamiltonian matrix for the first excited vibrational states of a protein can be effectively represented by local vibrational modes constituting amide III, II, I, and A modes to simulate various vibrational spectra. Methods for obtaining the Hamiltonian matrix from ab initio quantum calculation results are discussed, where the methods consist of three steps: selection of local vibrational mode coordinates, calculation of a reduced Hessian matrix, and extraction of the Hamiltonian matrix from the Hessian matrix. We introduce several methods for each step. The methods were assessed based on the density functional theory calculation results of 24 oligopeptides with four different peptide lengths and six different secondary structures. The completeness of a Hamiltonian matrix represented in the reduced local mode space is improved by adopting a specific atom group for each amide mode and reducing the effect of ignored local modes. The calculation results are also compared to previous models using C=O stretching vibration and transition dipole couplings. We found that local electric transition dipole moments of the amide modes are mainly bound on the local peptide planes. Their direction and magnitude are well conserved except amide A modes, which show large variation. Contrary to amide I modes, the vibrational coupling constants of amide III, II, and A modes obtained by analysis of a dipeptide are not transferable to oligopeptides with the same secondary conformation because coupling constants are affected by the surrounding atomic environment.

  3. Effective representation of amide III, II, I, and A modes on local vibrational modes: Analysis of ab initio quantum calculation results.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Seungsoo

    2016-10-28

    The Hamiltonian matrix for the first excited vibrational states of a protein can be effectively represented by local vibrational modes constituting amide III, II, I, and A modes to simulate various vibrational spectra. Methods for obtaining the Hamiltonian matrix from ab initio quantum calculation results are discussed, where the methods consist of three steps: selection of local vibrational mode coordinates, calculation of a reduced Hessian matrix, and extraction of the Hamiltonian matrix from the Hessian matrix. We introduce several methods for each step. The methods were assessed based on the density functional theory calculation results of 24 oligopeptides with four different peptide lengths and six different secondary structures. The completeness of a Hamiltonian matrix represented in the reduced local mode space is improved by adopting a specific atom group for each amide mode and reducing the effect of ignored local modes. The calculation results are also compared to previous models using C=O stretching vibration and transition dipole couplings. We found that local electric transition dipole moments of the amide modes are mainly bound on the local peptide planes. Their direction and magnitude are well conserved except amide A modes, which show large variation. Contrary to amide I modes, the vibrational coupling constants of amide III, II, and A modes obtained by analysis of a dipeptide are not transferable to oligopeptides with the same secondary conformation because coupling constants are affected by the surrounding atomic environment.

  4. Effects of friction and high torque on fatigue crack propagation in mode III. [AISI 4140 and 4340

    SciTech Connect

    Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; McClintock, F.A.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1982-12-01

    Turbo-generator and automotive shafts are often subjected to complex histories of high torques. To provide a basis for fatigue life estimation in such components, a study of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) for a mill-annealed AISI 4140 steel (R /SUB B/ 88, 590 MN/m/sup 2/ tensile strength) has been undertaken, using torsionally-loaded, circumferentially-notched cylindrical specimens. As demonstrated previously for higher strength AISI 4340 steel, Mode III cyclic crack growth rates (dc/dN) /SUB III/ can be related to the alternating stress intensity factor ..delta..K /SUB III/ for conditions of small-scale yielding. However, to describe crack propagation behavior over an extended range of crack growth rates (about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -2/ mm per cycle), where crack growth proceeds under elastic-plastic and full plastic conditions, no correlation between (dc/dN) /SUB III/ and ..delta..K /SUB III/ is possible. Accordingly, a new parameter for torsional crack growth, termed the plastic strain intensity GAMMA /SUB III/, is introduced and is shown to provide a unique description of Mode III crack growth behavior for a wide range of testing conditions, provided a mean load reduces friction, abrasion, and interlocking between mating fracture surfaces A micro-mechanical model for the main radial Mode III growth is extended to high nominal stress levels, and predicts that Mode III fatigue crack propagation rates should be proportional to the range of plastic strain intensity (..delta..GAMMA /SUB III/) if local Mode II growth rates are proportional to the displacements. Such predictions are shown to be in agreement with measured growth rates in AISI 4140 steel from 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -2/ mm per cycle.

  5. Mode III cleavage of a coin-shaped titanium implant in bone: effect of friction and crack propagation.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Vincent; Vayron, Romain; Barthel, Etienne; Dalmas, Davy; Soffer, Emmanuel; Anagnostou, Fani; Haiat, Guillaume

    2012-04-01

    Endosseous cementless implants are widely used in orthopaedic, maxillofacial and oral surgery. However, failures are still observed and remain difficult to anticipate as remodelling phenomena at the bone-implant interface are poorly understood. The assessment of the biomechanical strength of the bone-implant interface may improve the understanding of the osseointegration process. An experimental approach based on a mode III cleavage mechanical device aims at understanding the behaviour of a planar bone-implant interface submitted to torsional loading. To do so, coin-shaped titanium implants were inserted on the tibiae of a New Zealand white rabbit for seven weeks. After the sacrifice, mode III cleavage experiments were performed on bone samples. An analytical model was developed to understand the debonding process of the bone-implant interface. The model allowed to assess the values of different parameters related to bone tissue at the vicinity of the implant with the additional assumption that bone adhesion occurs over around 70% of the implant surface, which is confirmed by microscopy images. The approach allows to estimate different quantities related to the bone-implant interface such as: torsional stiffness (around 20.5 N m rad(-1)), shear modulus (around 240 MPa), maximal torsional loading (around 0.056 N.m), mode III fracture energy (around 77.5 N m(-1)) and stress intensity factor (0.27 MPa m(1/2)). This study paves the way for the use of mode III cleavage testing for the investigation of torsional loading strength of the bone-implant interface, which might help for the development and optimization of implant biomaterial, surface treatment and medical treatment investigations.

  6. Combined mode I-mode III fracture toughness of a particulate reinforced metal-matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the fracture behavior of a particulate reinfored aluminum alloy composite under combined mode I-mode III loading conditions. A modified three-point bend specimen was used to carry out these tests. It was found that the mode I loading condition was energetically most favorable. Addition of mode III components to the system seems to increase the amount of redundant work during fracture without affecting the critical fracture criterion.

  7. Combined mode I-mode III fracture toughness of a particulate reinforced metal-matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the fracture behavior of a particulate reinfored aluminum alloy composite under combined mode I-mode III loading conditions. A modified three-point bend specimen was used to carry out these tests. It was found that the mode I loading condition was energetically most favorable. Addition of mode III components to the system seems to increase the amount of redundant work during fracture without affecting the critical fracture criterion.

  8. Fractographic study of epoxy fractured under mode I loading and mixed mode I/III loading

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Wang, Jy-An John; Bertelsen, Williams D.

    2011-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymeric composite materials are widely used in structural components such as wind turbine blades, which are typically subject to complicated loading conditions. Thus, material response under mixed mode loading is of great significance to the reliability of these structures. Epoxy is a thermosetting polymer that is currently used in manufacturing wind turbine blades. The fracture behavior of epoxy is relevant to the mechanical integrity of the wind turbine composite materials. In this study, a novel fracture testing methodology, the spiral notch torsion test (SNTT), was applied to study the fracture behavior of an epoxy material. SNTT samples were tested using either monotonic loading or cyclic loading, while both mode I and mixed mode I/III loading conditions were used. Fractographic examination indicated the epoxy samples included in this study were prone to mode I failure even when the samples were subject to mixed mode loading. Different fatigue precracks were observed on mode I and mixed mode samples, i.e. precracks appeared as a uniform band under mode I loading, and a semi-ellipse under mixed mode loading. Fracture toughness was also estimated using quantitative fractography.

  9. Complexation of Curium(III) with DTPA at 10–70 °C: Comparison with Eu(III)–DTPA in Thermodynamics, Luminescence, and Coordination Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Guoxin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Martin, Leigh R.; Rao, Linfeng

    2015-02-16

    Separation of trivalent actinides (An(III)) from trivalent lanthanides (Ln(III)) is a challenging task because of their nearly identical chemical properties. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), a key reagent used in the TALSPEAK process that effectively separates An(III) from Ln(III), is believed to play a critical role in the An(III)/Ln(III) separation. However, the underlying principles for the separation based on the difference in the complexation of DTPA with An(III) and Ln(III) remain unclear. In this work, the complexation of DTPA with Cm(III) at 10-70 ºC was investigated by spectrophotometry, luminescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry, in conjunction with computational methods. The binding strength, the enthalpy of complexation, the coordination modes, and the luminescence properties are compared between the Cm(III)-DTPA and Eu(III)-DTPA systems. The experimental and computational data have demonstrated that the difference between Cm(III) and Eu(III) in the binding strength with DTPA can be attributed to the stronger covalence bonding between Cm(III) and the nitrogen donors of DTPA.

  10. Mixed-mode I/III fracture toughness of a ferritic/martensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huaxin; Jones, R.H.; Gelles, D.S.; Hirth, J.P.

    1993-10-01

    The critical J-integrals of mode I (J{sub IC}), mixed-mode I/III (J{sub MC}), and mode III (J{sub IIIC}) were examined for a ferritic stainless steel (F-82H) at ambient temperature. A determination of J{sub MC} was made using modified compact-tension specimens. Different ratios of tension/shear stress were achieved by varying the principal axis of the crack plane between 0 and 55 degrees from the load line. Results showed that J{sub MC} and tearing modulus (T{sub M}) values varied with the crack angles and were lower than their mode I and mode III counterparts. Both the minimum J{sub MC} and T{sub M} values occurred at a crack angle between 40 and 50 degrees, where the load ratio of {sigma}{sub i}/{sigma}{sub iii} was 1.2 to 0.84. The J{sub min} was 240 Kj/M{sup 2}, and ratios of J{sub IC}/J{sub min} and J{sub IIIC}/J{sub min} were 2.1 and 1.9, respectively. The morphology of fracture surfaces was consistent with the change of J{sub MC} and T{sub M} values. While the upper shelf-fracture toughness of F-82H depends on loading mode, the J{sub min} remains very high. Other important considerations include the effect of mixed-mode loading on the DBT temperature, and effects of hydrogen and irradiation on J{sub min}.

  11. Is the Pharmacological Mode of Action of Chromium(III) as a Second Messenger?

    PubMed

    Vincent, John B

    2015-07-01

    Although recent studies have shown that chromium (as the trivalent ion) is not an essential trace element, it has been demonstrated to generate beneficial effects at pharmacologically relevant doses on insulin sensitivity and cholesterol levels of rodent models of insulin insensitivity, including models of type 2 diabetes. The mode of action of Cr(III) at a molecular level is still an area of active debate; however, the movement of Cr(III) in the body, particularly in response to changes in insulin concentration, suggests that Cr(III) could act as a second messenger, amplifying insulin signaling. The evidence for the pharmacological mechanism of Cr(III)'s ability to increase insulin sensitivity by acting as a second messenger is reviewed, and proposals for testing this hypothesis are described.

  12. III-nitride tunable cup-cavities supporting quasi whispering gallery modes from ultraviolet to infrared

    PubMed Central

    Shubina, T. V.; Pozina, G.; Jmerik, V. N.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Hemmingsson, C.; Andrianov, A. V.; Kazanov, D. R.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly developing nanophotonics needs microresonators for different spectral ranges, formed by chip-compatible technologies. In addition, the tunable ones are much in demand. Here, we present site-controlled III-nitride monocrystal cup-cavities grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The cup-cavities can operate from ultraviolet to near-infrared, supporting quasi whispering gallery modes up to room temperature. Besides, their energies are identical in large ’ripened’ crystals. In these cavities, the refractive index variation near an absorption edge causes the remarkable effect of mode switching, which is accompanied by the spatial redistribution of electric field intensity with concentration of light into a subwavelength volume. Our results shed light on the mode behavior in semiconductor cavities and open the way for single-growth-run manufacturing the devices comprising an active region and a cavity with tunable mode frequencies. PMID:26656267

  13. III-nitride tunable cup-cavities supporting quasi whispering gallery modes from ultraviolet to infrared.

    PubMed

    Shubina, T V; Pozina, G; Jmerik, V N; Davydov, V Yu; Hemmingsson, C; Andrianov, A V; Kazanov, D R; Ivanov, S V

    2015-12-11

    Rapidly developing nanophotonics needs microresonators for different spectral ranges, formed by chip-compatible technologies. In addition, the tunable ones are much in demand. Here, we present site-controlled III-nitride monocrystal cup-cavities grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The cup-cavities can operate from ultraviolet to near-infrared, supporting quasi whispering gallery modes up to room temperature. Besides, their energies are identical in large 'ripened' crystals. In these cavities, the refractive index variation near an absorption edge causes the remarkable effect of mode switching, which is accompanied by the spatial redistribution of electric field intensity with concentration of light into a subwavelength volume. Our results shed light on the mode behavior in semiconductor cavities and open the way for single-growth-run manufacturing the devices comprising an active region and a cavity with tunable mode frequencies.

  14. III-nitride tunable cup-cavities supporting quasi whispering gallery modes from ultraviolet to infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, T. V.; Pozina, G.; Jmerik, V. N.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Hemmingsson, C.; Andrianov, A. V.; Kazanov, D. R.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    Rapidly developing nanophotonics needs microresonators for different spectral ranges, formed by chip-compatible technologies. In addition, the tunable ones are much in demand. Here, we present site-controlled III-nitride monocrystal cup-cavities grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The cup-cavities can operate from ultraviolet to near-infrared, supporting quasi whispering gallery modes up to room temperature. Besides, their energies are identical in large ’ripened’ crystals. In these cavities, the refractive index variation near an absorption edge causes the remarkable effect of mode switching, which is accompanied by the spatial redistribution of electric field intensity with concentration of light into a subwavelength volume. Our results shed light on the mode behavior in semiconductor cavities and open the way for single-growth-run manufacturing the devices comprising an active region and a cavity with tunable mode frequencies.

  15. Whispering gallery mode lasing in optically isolated III-nitride nanorings.

    PubMed

    Li, K H; Cheung, Y F; Choi, H W

    2015-06-01

    III-nitride nanorings fabricated from a combination of hybrid-nanosphere-lithography and laser lift-off processes is demonstrated. Being formed on an interfacial metallic layer optically coupling between the optical ring and its substrate is eliminated, maximizing optical confinement of whispering gallery resonant mode within the ring cavity. The tapered cross-sectional profile also promotes coupling of emitted light into resonant modes. Optically pumped lasing with a dominant peak at 421.5 nm is observed at room temperature, with threshold energy density of ∼6.5  mJ/cm2. Etch-induced sidewall roughness causes scattering of light at the interface to diminish confinement, and is also responsible for the mode-splitting effect according to finite-difference time-domain simulations.

  16. Versatile bonding and coordination modes of ditriazolylidene ligands in rhodium(iii) and iridium(iii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Kevin; Müller-Bunz, Helge; Albrecht, Martin

    2016-10-12

    Metalation of novel ditriazolium salts containing a trimethylene (-CH2CH2CH2-) or dimethylether linker (-CH2OCH2-) was probed with different rhodium(iii) and iridium(iii) precursors. When using [MCp*Cl2]2, a transmetalation protocol via a triazolylidene silver intermediate was effective, while base-assisted metalation with MCl3via sequential deprotonation of the triazolium salt with KOtBu and addition of the metal precursor afforded homoleptic complexes. The N-substituent on the triazole heterocycle directed the metalation process and led to Ctrz,Ctrz,CPh-tridentate chelating ditriazolylidene complexes for N-phenyl substituents. With ethyl substituents, only Ctrz,Ctrz-bidentate complexes were formed, while metalation with mesityl substituents was unsuccessful, presumably due to steric constraints. Through modification of the reaction conditions for the metalation step, an intermediate species was isolated that contains a Ctrz,CPh-bidentate chelate en route to the formation of the tridentate ligand system. Accordingly, Cphenyl-H bond activation occurs prior to formation of the second metal-triazolylidene bond. Stability studies with a Ctrz,Ctrz,CPh-tridentate chelating ditriazolylidene iridium complex towards DCl showed deuterium incorporation at both N-phenyl groups and indicate that Cphenyl-H bond activation is reversible while the Ctrz-Ir bond is robust. The flexible linker between the two triazolylidene donor sites provides access to both facial and meridional coordination modes.

  17. Rock Fracture Toughness Study Under Mixed Mode I/III Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliha, M. R. M.; Bahmani, A.

    2017-07-01

    Fracture growth in underground rock structures occurs under complex stress states, which typically include the in- and out-of-plane sliding deformation of jointed rock masses before catastrophic failure. However, the lack of a comprehensive theoretical and experimental fracture toughness study for rocks under contributions of out-of plane deformations (i.e. mode III) is one of the shortcomings of this field. Therefore, in this research the mixed mode I/III fracture toughness of a typical rock material is investigated experimentally by means of a novel cracked disc specimen subjected to bend loading. It was shown that the specimen can provide full combinations of modes I and III and consequently a complete set of mixed mode I/III fracture toughness data were determined for the tested marble rock. By moving from pure mode I towards pure mode III, fracture load was increased; however, the corresponding fracture toughness value became smaller. The obtained experimental fracture toughness results were finally predicted using theoretical and empirical fracture models.

  18. Mode I and Mode III fractures in intermediate zone of full-thickness porcine temporomandibular joint discs.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Mark W; Hohl, Rebecca H; Nickel, Jeffrey C; Iwasaki, Laura R; Pidaparti, Ramana M

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the critical energy required to induce flaw propagation in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc when tensile and shear stresses were applied. J-integrals were measured for Mode I and III fractures because excessive tensile and shear stresses promote disc failure. Single edge notch (Mode I) and trouser tear (Mode III) specimens were constructed with flaws oriented parallel to the predominant anteroposteriorly oriented collagen fibers of the TMJ disc. Disks with and without an impulsive pre-load of 3 N s were studied to compare impact-damaged and healthy tissues. Results demonstrated that impulsive loading stiffened the tissues and significantly increased the Mode I fracture energy (J (IC)) but not Mode III (J (IIIC)) (p < or = 0.05). J (IC) and J (IIIC) values were similar for undamaged tissues, but J (IC) values were 2.3 times higher for impulsively loaded tissues (p < or = 0.05). This suggests that when flaws are introduced through impact, the TMJ disc responds by requiring more energy for tensile flaw extension. This research is a first step towards characterizing the mechanical microenvironment that initiates joint disease. This characterization is essential for successful integration of engineered replacement tissues for damaged TMJs.

  19. Subcritical crack growth under mode I, II, and III loading for Coconino sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Tae Young

    In systems subjected to long-term loading, subcritical crack growth is the principal mechanism causing the time-dependent deformation and failure of rocks. Subcritical crack growth is environmentally-assisted crack growth, which can allow cracks to grow over a long period of time at stresses far smaller than their failure strength and at tectonic strain rates. The characteristics of subcritical crack growth can be described by a relationship between the stress intensity factor and the crack velocity. This study presents the results of studies conducted to validate the constant stress-rate test for determining subcritical crack growth parameters in Coconino sandstone, compared with the conventional testing method, the double torsion test. The results of the constant stress-rate test are in good agreement with the results of double torsion test. More importantly, the stress-rate tests can determine the parameter A with a much smaller standard deviation than the double torsion test. Thus the constant stress-rate test seems to be both a valid and preferred test method for determining the subcritical crack growth parameters in rocks. We investigated statistical aspects of the constant stress-rate test. The effects of the number of tests conducted on the subcritical crack growth parameters were examined and minimum specimen numbers were determined. The mean and standard deviation of the subcritical crack growth parameters were obtained by randomly selecting subsets from the original strength data. In addition, the distribution form of the subcritical crack growth parameters and the relation between the parameter n and A were determined. We extended the constant stress-rate test technique to modes II and III subcritical crack growth in rocks. The experimental results of the modes I, II and III tests show that the values of the subcritical crack growth parameters are similar to each other. The subcritical crack growth parameter n value for Coconino sandstone has the range

  20. Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. III. Angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Helicons are electromagnetic waves with helical phase fronts propagating in the whistler mode in magnetized plasmas and solids. They have similar properties to electromagnetic waves with angular momentum in free space. Helicons are circularly polarized waves carrying spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum due to their propagation around the ambient magnetic field B0. These properties have not been considered in the community of researchers working on helicon plasma sources, but are the topic of the present work. The present work focuses on the field topology of helicons in unbounded plasmas, not on helicon source physics. Helicons are excited in a large uniform laboratory plasma with a magnetic loop antenna whose dipole axis is aligned along or across B0. The wave fields are measured in orthogonal planes and extended to three dimensions (3D) by interpolation. Since density and B0 are uniform, small amplitude waves from loops at different locations can be superimposed to generate complex antenna patterns. With a circular array of phase shifted loops, whistler modes with angular and axial wave propagation, i.e., helicons, are generated. Without boundaries radial propagation also arises. The azimuthal mode number m can be positive or negative while the field polarization remains right-hand circular. The conservation of energy and momentum implies that these field quantities are transferred to matter which causes damping or reflection. Wave-particle interactions with fast electrons are possible by Doppler shifted resonances. The transverse Doppler shift is demonstrated. Wave-wave interactions are also shown by showing collisions between different helicons. Whistler turbulence does not always have to be created by nonlinear wave-interactions but can also be a linear superposition of waves from random sources. In helicon collisions, the linear and/or orbital angular momenta can be canceled, which results in a great variety of field topologies. The work will

  1. Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. III. Angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2015-09-15

    Helicons are electromagnetic waves with helical phase fronts propagating in the whistler mode in magnetized plasmas and solids. They have similar properties to electromagnetic waves with angular momentum in free space. Helicons are circularly polarized waves carrying spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum due to their propagation around the ambient magnetic field B{sub 0}. These properties have not been considered in the community of researchers working on helicon plasma sources, but are the topic of the present work. The present work focuses on the field topology of helicons in unbounded plasmas, not on helicon source physics. Helicons are excited in a large uniform laboratory plasma with a magnetic loop antenna whose dipole axis is aligned along or across B{sub 0}. The wave fields are measured in orthogonal planes and extended to three dimensions (3D) by interpolation. Since density and B{sub 0} are uniform, small amplitude waves from loops at different locations can be superimposed to generate complex antenna patterns. With a circular array of phase shifted loops, whistler modes with angular and axial wave propagation, i.e., helicons, are generated. Without boundaries radial propagation also arises. The azimuthal mode number m can be positive or negative while the field polarization remains right-hand circular. The conservation of energy and momentum implies that these field quantities are transferred to matter which causes damping or reflection. Wave-particle interactions with fast electrons are possible by Doppler shifted resonances. The transverse Doppler shift is demonstrated. Wave-wave interactions are also shown by showing collisions between different helicons. Whistler turbulence does not always have to be created by nonlinear wave-interactions but can also be a linear superposition of waves from random sources. In helicon collisions, the linear and/or orbital angular momenta can be canceled, which results in a great variety of field

  2. Comparison of Mode II and III Monotonic and Fatigue Delamination Onset Behavior for Carbon/Toughened Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian; OBrien, T. Kevin; Lee, Shaw Ming

    1997-01-01

    Monotonic and fatigue tests were performed to compare the Mode II and III interlaminar fracture toughness and fatigue delamination onset for Tenax-HTA/R6376 carbon/toughened epoxy composites. The Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and fatigue delamination onset were characterized using the end-notched flexure (ENF) test while the Mode III interlaminar fracture toughness and fatigue delamination onset were characterized by using the edge crack torsion (ECT) test. Monotonic tests show that the Mode III fracture toughness is higher than the Mode II fracture toughness. Both Mode II and III cyclic loading greatly increases the tendency for a delamination to grow relative to a single monotonically increasing load. Under fatigue loading, the Mode III specimen also has a longer life than the Mode II specimen.

  3. Out-of-plane deviation of a mode I+III crack encountering a tougher obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Ponson, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    One possible explanation of out-of-plane deviations of cracks loaded in mode I+III was suggested by Gao and Rice in 1986. These authors noted that small in-plane undulations of the crack front, arising from fluctuations of the fracture toughness, should generate a small local mode-II component, causing the crack to depart from planarity. Their analysis is completed here by explicitly calculating the evolution in time of the out-of-plane deviation of a mode-I+III crack encountering a tougher obstacle. The calculation is based on (i) first-order formulae for the stress intensity factors of a crack slightly perturbed within and out of its plane; and (ii) a ;double; propagation criterion combining a Griffith condition on the local energy-release rate and a Goldstein-Salganik condition on the local stress intensity factor of mode II. It is predicted that the crack must evolve toward a stationary state, wherein the orthogonal distance from the average fracture plane to the perturbed crack front is constant outside the obstacle and varies linearly across it. We hope that this theoretical prediction will encourage comparison with experiments, and propose a fracture test involving propagation of a mode-I+III crack through a 3D-printed specimen containing some designed obstacle. xml:lang="fr"

  4. Heterogeneously integrated III-V/silicon dual-mode distributed feedback laser array for terahertz generation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Haifeng; Keyvaninia, Shahram; Vanwolleghem, Mathias; Ducournau, Guillaume; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Morthier, Geert; Lampin, Jean-Francois; Roelkens, Gunther

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate an integrated distributed feedback (DFB) laser array as a dual-wavelength source for narrowband terahertz (THz) generation. The laser array is composed of four heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon DFB lasers with different lengths enabling dual-mode lasing tolerant to process variations, bias fluctuations, and ambient temperature variations. By optical heterodyning the two modes emitted by the dual-wavelength DFB laser in the laser array using a THz photomixer composed of an uni-traveling carrier photodiode (UTC-PD), a narrow and stable carrier signal with a frequency of 0.357 THz is generated. The central operating frequency and the emitted terahertz wave linewidth are analyzed, along with their dependency on the bias current applied to the laser diode and ambient temperature.

  5. Mixed mode stress field effect in adhesive fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. P.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Numerical or analytical analyses were performed on seven different test specimens including blister test, 90-degree peel test, torsion test, and various cone tests. These specimens are in general subjected to complex stress fields having various amounts of Mode I, Mode II, and Mode III loads. The specimens were then constructed using polymethyl methacrylate for the adherends and a transparent polyurethane elastomer (Solithane 113) for the adhesive. This combination permitted direct observation of the bondline as load was applied. Although initial debonds as well as bond end termination singularities were present in all specimens, in some cases the debond did not initiate at the singularity points as would normally have been expected. An explanation for this behavior is presented, as well as a comparison of loading mode effect on those specimens for which the debond did propagate from a bond terminus singular point.

  6. Mixed mode stress field effect in adhesive fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. P.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Numerical or analytical analyses were performed on seven different test specimens including blister test, 90-degree peel test, torsion test, and various cone tests. These specimens are in general subjected to complex stress fields having various amounts of Mode I, Mode II, and Mode III loads. The specimens were then constructed using polymethyl methacrylate for the adherends and a transparent polyurethane elastomer (Solithane 113) for the adhesive. This combination permitted direct observation of the bondline as load was applied. Although initial debonds as well as bond end termination singularities were present in all specimens, in some cases the debond did not initiate at the singularity points as would normally have been expected. An explanation for this behavior is presented, as well as a comparison of loading mode effect on those specimens for which the debond did propagate from a bond terminus singular point.

  7. Multiple nucleic acid cleavage modes in divergent type III CRISPR systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Graham, Shirley; Tello, Agnes; Liu, Huanting; White, Malcolm F.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas is an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from invading nucleic acids. Type III systems (Cmr, Csm) have been shown to cleave RNA targets in vitro and some are capable of transcription-dependent DNA targeting. The crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has two divergent subtypes of the type III system (Sso-IIID and a Cmr7-containing variant of Sso-IIIB). Here, we report that both the Sso-IIID and Sso-IIIB complexes cleave cognate RNA targets with a ruler mechanism and 6 or 12 nt spacing that relates to the organization of the Cas7 backbone. This backbone-mediated cleavage activity thus appears universal for the type III systems. The Sso-IIIB complex is also known to possess a distinct ‘UA’ cleavage mode. The predominant activity observed in vitro depends on the relative molar concentration of protein and target RNA. The Sso-IIID complex can cleave plasmid DNA targets in vitro, generating linear DNA products with an activity that is dependent on both the cyclase and HD nuclease domains of the Cas10 subunit, suggesting a role for both nuclease active sites in the degradation of double-stranded DNA targets. PMID:26801642

  8. Dependence of mode I and mixed mode I/III fracture toughness on temperature for a ferritic/martensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Jones, R.H.; Gelles, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    The objective is to investigate the dependence of mode I and mixed mode I/III fracture toughness on temperature in the range of {minus}95{degrees}C to 25{degrees}C for a low activation ferritic/martensitic stainless steel (F82-H). Mode I and mixed Mode I/III fracture toughnesses were investigated in the range of {minus}95 to 25{degree}C for a F82-H steel heat-treated in the following way; 1000{degree}C/20 h/air-cooled (AC), 1100{degree}C/7 min/AC, and 700{degree}C/2 h/AC. The results indicate that crack tip plasticity was increased by mixed mode loading, and suggest that at low temperature, mode I fracture toughness is the critical design parameter, but at temperatures above room temperature, expecially concerning fatigure and creep-fatigue crack growth rate, a mixed mode loading may be more harmful than a mode I loading for this steel because a mixed mode loading results in lower fracture toughness and higher crack tip plasticity (or dislocation activity).

  9. Characterization of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode III Fracture Toughness Measurement of Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is designed to initiate mode III delamination growth in composite laminates. An ECT specimen is a rectangular laminate, containing an edge delamination at the laminate mid-plane. Torsion load is applied to the specimens, resulting in relative transverse shear sliding of the delaminated faces. The test data reduction schemes are intended to yield initiation values of critical mode III strain energy release rate, G(sub IIIc), that are constant with delamination length. The test has undergone several design changes during its development. The objective of this paper was to determine the suitability of the current ECT test design as a mode III fracture test. To this end, ECT tests were conducted on specimens manufactured from IM7/8552 and specimens made from S2/8552 tape laminates. Several specimens, each with different delamination lengths are tested. Detailed, three-dimensional finite element analyses of the specimens were performed. The analysis results were used to calculate the distribution of mode I, mode II, and mode III strain energy release rate along the delamination front. The results indicated that mode III-dominated delamination growth would be initiated from the specimen center. However, in specimens of both material types, the measured values of G(sub IIIc) exhibited significant dependence on delamination length. Furthermore, there was a large amount of scatter in the data. Load-displacement response of the specimens exhibited significant deviation from linearity before specimen failure. X-radiographs of a sample of specimens revealed that damage was initiated in the specimens prior to failure. Further inspection of the failure surfaces is required to identify the damage and determine that mode III delamination is initiated in the specimens.

  10. Characterization of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode III Fracture Toughness Measurement of Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is designed to initiate mode III delamination growth in composite laminates. The test has undergone several design changes during its development. The objective of this paper was to determine the suitability of the current ECT test design a mode III fracture test. To this end, ECT tests were conducted on specimens manufactured from IM7/8552 and S2/8552 tape laminates. Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed. The analysis results were used to calculate the distribution of mode I, mode II, and mode III strain energy release rate along the delamination front. The results indicated that mode IIIdominated delamination growth would be initiated from the specimen center. However, in specimens of both material types, the measured values of GIIIc exhibited significant dependence on delamination length. Load-displacement response of the specimens exhibited significant deviation from linearity before specimen failure. X-radiographs of a sample of specimens revealed that damage was initiated in the specimens prior to failure. Further inspection of the failure surfaces is required to identify the damage and determine that mode III delamination is initiated in the specimens.

  11. A comparison of pure mode I and mixed mode I-III cracking of an adhesive containing an open knit cloth carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripling, E. J.; Crosley, P. B.; Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Static and fatigue tests were carried out on two commercial modified epoxy film adhesives with a wide open knit polyester carrier in order to compare crack resistance in mode I and mixed mode I-III loading. The carrier cloth is found to have a significant influence on the cracking behavior of the adhesives. The open air net carrier used in this study separates from the adhesive in mode I cracking but shreds during mixed-mode crack extension. This decreases the opening mode toughness but increases the mixed-mode toughness as compared with results obtained earlier using a heavier knit carrier. The results suggest that the type of carrier may have a far larger influence on crack resistance than is generally recognized.

  12. Effets de l'humidite sur la propagation du delaminage dans un composite carbone/epoxy sollicite en mode mixte I/II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, Luc R.

    In industries such as aerospace, motorsports, and even sporting equipment, composite materials are used more than ever, primarily due to their high stiffness and strength to weight ratios. Studies have shown that moisture exposure on carbon/epoxy composite materials can affect their delamination toughness, initiation and growth rate. Of these studies, only a few demonstrated the effects of moisture on delamination toughness and initiation with mixed mode I/II loadings, while none have investigated the effects of moisture exposure of composites on delamination growth rate with mixed mode I/II loadings. The first part of this thesis studies the effects of moisture exposure on delamination growth in a carbon/epoxy composite using mixed mode I/II loadings. Coupons were cut from plates of unidirectional carbon/epoxy (040-800/5276-1) and were submerged in a 70°C distilled water bath until they reached saturation. Quasi -static experimental tests were performed using a range of mode mixities (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 1 00%) on dry and conditioned coupons to determine the effects of humidity on delamination toughness. Fatigue tests with the same mode mixities were performed to determine the effects of moisture on delamination initiation and growth rate. Results from tests with quasi-static loadings demonstrated that delamination toughness decreased for all loading modes studied except for mode I after composites are exposed to moisture. When a conditioned composite is subject to mode I loadings, its delamination toughness increases compared to non-conditioned composites. Composites exposed to moisture showed accelerated delamination initiation and growth rates for all mixed mode I/II fatigue loadings. Experimental data was used to determine which fracture criterion and growth rate model for mixed mode I/II delamination better represented the studied composite. A regression curve and regression surface was used to fit the experimental data to the delamination fracture

  13. A path-dependent fatigue crack propagation model under non-proportional modes I and III loading conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Mei, J.; Dong, P.; Kalnaus, S.; ...

    2017-07-21

    It has been well established that fatigue damage process is load-path dependent under non-proportional multi-axial loading conditions. Most of studies to date have been focusing on interpretation of S-N based test data by constructing a path-dependent fatigue damage model. Our paper presents a two-parameter mixed-mode fatigue crack growth model which takes into account of crack growth dependency on both load path traversed and a maximum effective stress intensity attained in a stress intensity factor plane (e.g.,KI-KIII plane). Furthermore, by taking advantage of a path-dependent maximum range (PDMR) cycle definition (Dong et al., 2010; Wei and Dong, 2010), the two parametersmore » are formulated by introducing a moment of load path (MLP) based equivalent stress intensity factor range (ΔKNP) and a maximum effective stress intensity parameter KMax incorporating an interaction term KI·KIII. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed model, two sets of crack growth rate test data are considered. The first set is obtained as a part of this study using 304 stainless steel disk specimens subjected to three combined non-proportional modes I and III loading conditions (i.e., with a phase angle of 0°, 90°, and 180°). The second set was obtained by Feng et al. (2007) using 1070 steel disk specimens subjected to similar types of non-proportional mixed-mode conditions. Once the proposed two-parameter non-proportional mixed-mode crack growth model is used, it is shown that a good correlation can be achieved for both sets of the crack growth rate test data.« less

  14. Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators. III. The ion-temperature-gradient mode

    SciTech Connect

    Plunk, G. G. Helander, P.; Xanthopoulos, P.

    2014-03-15

    We investigate the linear theory of the ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) mode, with the goal of developing a general understanding that may be applied to stellarators. We highlight the Wendelstein 7X (W7-X) device. Simple fluid and kinetic models that follow closely from existing literature are reviewed and two new first-principle models are presented and compared with results from direct numerical simulation. One model investigates the effect of regions of strong localized shear, which are generic to stellarator equilibria. These “shear spikes” are found to have a potentially significant stabilizing affect on the mode; however, the effect is strongest at short wavelengths perpendicular to the magnetic field, and it is found to be significant only for the fastest growing modes in W7-X. A second model investigates the long-wavelength limit for the case of negligible global magnetic shear. The analytic calculation reveals that the effect of the curvature drive enters at second order in the drift frequency, confirming conventional wisdom that the ITG mode is slab-like at long wavelengths. Using flux tube simulations of a zero-shear W7-X configuration, we observe a close relationship to an axisymmetric configuration at a similar parameter point. It is concluded that scale lengths of the equilibrium gradients constitute a good parameter space to characterize the ITG mode. Thus, to optimize the magnetic geometry for ITG mode stability, it may be fruitful to focus on local parameters, such as the magnitude of bad curvature, connection length, and local shear at locations of bad curvature (where the ITG mode amplitude peaks)

  15. Mixed-mode I+II fracture characterization of human cortical bone using the Single Leg Bending test.

    PubMed

    Silva, F G A; de Moura, M F S F; Dourado, N; Xavier, J; Pereira, F A M; Morais, J J L; Dias, M I R

    2016-02-01

    Mixed-mode I+II fracture characterization of human cortical bone was analyzed in this work. A miniaturized version of the Single Leg Bending test (SLB) was used owing to its simplicity. A power law criterion was verified to accurately describe the material fracture envelop under mixed-mode I+II loading. The crack tip opening displacements measured by digital image correlation were used in a direct method to determine the cohesive law mimicking fracture behavior of cortical bone. Cohesive zone modeling was used for the sake of validation. Several fracture quantities were compared with the experimental results and the good agreement observed proves the appropriateness of the proposed procedure for fracture characterization of human bone under mixed-mode I+II loading.

  16. Studies on mode of action of hexaammine Co(III) chloride against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Naura, Amarjit S; Sharma, Rajeshwar

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported the anticarcinogenic potential of hexaammine cobalt(III) chloride, a synthetic complex of cobalt, on diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced carcinogenesis. The present study was conducted to ascertain the possible mode of action of this compound on DENA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male BALB/c mice. Time course evaluation of liver injury markers showed that the low dose of the compound is more effective in ameliorating DENA-induced changes when administered for longer duration of time. Long-term exposure of the compound significantly reversed the levels of diacylgylcerol (DAG) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) induced by DENA, thus suggesting that the compound may hinder the process of chemical carcinogenesis potentially by downregulating the signal transduction mechanism involving DAG and NOS. Furthermore, short-term intraperitoneal injection of the compound to mice 26 weeks after DENA initiation reduced the cell viability count in preneoplstic liver lesions in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results showed that anticarcinogenic effects of hexaammine cobalt(III) chloride result from its influence on signal transduction events mediated through DAG together with its direct cytotoxic action against preneoplastic hepatic lesions induced by DENA in mice.

  17. Effects of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) administration on rat intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Minamida, Kimiko; Shiga, Kazuki; Sujaya, I Nengah; Sone, Teruo; Yokota, Atsushi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2005-03-01

    The effects of difructose anhydride III (di-D-fructofuranose-1,2':2,3'-dianhydride; DFA III) administration (3% DFA III for 4 weeks) on rat intestinal microbiota were examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). According to DGGE profiles, the number of bacteria related to Bacteroides acidofaciens and uncultured bacteria within the Clostridium lituseburense group decreased, while that of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides uniformis and Ruminococcus productus increased in DFA III-fed rat cecum. In the cecal contents of DFA III-fed rats, a lowering of pH and an increase in short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetic acid, were observed. The DFA III-assimilating bacterium, Ruminococcus sp. M-1, was isolated from the cecal contents of DFA III-fed rats. The strain had 98% similarity with R. productus ATCC 27340T (L76595), and mainly produced acetic acid. These results confirmed that the bacteria harmful to host health were not increased by DFA III administration. Moreover, DFA III stimulated the growth of Ruminococcus sp. M-1 producing acetic acid, which may alter the intestinal microbiota towards a healthier composition. It is expected that DFA III would be a new candidate as a prebiotic.

  18. Mode Transitions in Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Mode transitions have been commonly observed in Hall Effect Thruster (HET) operation where a small change in a thruster operating parameter such as discharge voltage, magnetic field or mass flow rate causes the thruster discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude to increase significantly. Mode transitions in a 6-kW-class HET called the H6 are induced by varying the magnetic field intensity while holding all other operating parameters constant and measurements are acquired with ion saturation probes and ultra-fast imaging. Global and local oscillation modes are identified. In the global mode, the entire discharge channel oscillates in unison and azimuthal perturbations (spokes) are either absent or negligible. Downstream azimuthally spaced probes show no signal delay between each other and are very well correlated to the discharge current signal. In the local mode, signals from the azimuthally spaced probes exhibit a clear delay indicating the passage of "spokes" and are not well correlated to the discharge current. These spokes are localized oscillations propagating in the ExB direction that are typically 10-20% of the mean value. In contrast, the oscillations in the global mode can be 100% of the mean value. The transition between global and local modes occurs at higher relative magnetic field strengths for higher mass flow rates or higher discharge voltages. The thrust is constant through mode transition but the thrust-to-power decreased by 25% due to increasing discharge current. The plume shows significant differences between modes with the global mode significantly brighter in the channel and the near-field plasma plume as well as exhibiting a luminous spike on thruster centerline. Mode transitions provide valuable insight to thruster operation and suggest improved methods for thruster performance characterization.

  19. The Language Element in the Somerset Mode III Integrated European Studies Syllabus and Its Relevance to the Less Able Pupil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Barrie

    1974-01-01

    The Somerset CSE Mode III integrated European Studies syllabus, which contains a French language course, is aimed at the lower and below CSE candidate. The second language element of the course is described and reasons for constructing such a course for less able students are discussed. (RM)

  20. A Mixed-Mode (I-II) Fracture Criterion for AS4/8552 Carbon/Epoxy Composite Laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnati, Sidharth Reddy

    A majority of aerospace structures are subjected to bending and stretching loads that introduce peel and shear stresses between the plies of a composite laminate. These two stress components cause a combination of mode I and II fracture modes in the matrix layer of the composite laminate. The most common failure mode in laminated composites is delamination that affects the structural integrity of composite structures. Damage tolerant designs of structures require two types of materials data: mixed-mode (I-II) delamination fracture toughness that predicts failure and delamination growth rate that predicts the life of the structural component. This research focuses determining mixed-mode (I-II) fracture toughness under a combination of mode I and mode II stress states and then a fracture criterion for AS4/8552 composite laminate, which is widely used in general aviation. The AS4/8552 prepreg was supplied by Hexcel Corporation and autoclave fabricated into a 20-ply unidirectional laminate with an artificial delamination by a Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) film at the mid-plane. Standard split beam specimens were prepared and tested in double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notched flexure modes to determine mode I (GIC) and II (GIIC) fracture toughnesses, respectively. The DCB specimens were also tested in a modified mixed-mode bending apparatus at GIIm /GT ratios of 0.18, 0.37, 0.57 and 0.78, where GT is total and GIIm is the mode II component of energy release rates. The measured fracture toughness, GC, was found to follow the locus a power law equation. The equation was validated for the present and literature experimental data.

  1. Comparative serum albumin interactions and antitumor effects of Au(III) and Ga(III) ions.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, Omer Faruk; Ozdemir, Ayse; Karaboduk, Kuddusi; Tekinay, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, interactions of Au(III) and Ga(III) ions on human serum albumin (HSA) were studied comparatively via spectroscopic and thermal analysis methods: UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The potential antitumor effects of these ions were studied on MCF-7 cells via Alamar blue assay. It was found that both Au(III) and Ga(III) ions can interact with HSA, however; Au(III) ions interact with HSA more favorably and with a higher affinity. FT-IR second derivative analysis results demonstrated that, high concentrations of both metal ions led to a considerable decrease in the α-helix content of HSA; while Au(III) led to around 5% of decrease in the α-helix content at 200μM, it was around 1% for Ga(III) at the same concentration. Calorimetric analysis gave the binding kinetics of metal-HSA interactions; while the binding affinity (Ka) of Au(III)-HSA binding was around 3.87×10(5)M(-1), it was around 9.68×10(3)M(-1) for Ga(III)-HSA binding. Spectroscopy studies overall suggest that both metal ions have significant effects on the chemical structure of HSA, including the secondary structure alterations. Antitumor activity studies on MCF7 tumor cell line with both metal ions revealed that, Au(III) ions have a higher antiproliferative activity compared to Ga(III) ions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The equilibrium concentration of hydrogen atoms ahead of a mixed mode I-mode III crack tip in single crystal iron

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.Y.; Hack, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Calculations of the equilibrium hydrogen concentration profiles about a mixed ode I-mode III crack in single crystal iron were performed. Both material anisotropy and the tetragonal nature of the distortion induced in the iron crystal structure by interstitial hydrogen were incorporated. Results show that, unlike the case of a spherical distortion, a strong coupling exists between the strain field of the interstitial hydrogen and the stress field of the crack for orientations of the crack plane that are not coincident with the cube axes of the lattice. As a result, the predicated enhancement of hydrogen in the crack tip region increases with increasing levels of mode III loading for those orientations. The results may help reconcile conflicting observations concerning the potential role of shear stresses in hydrogen embrittlement and preferential cracking of grains ahead of loaded crack tips in sustained load cracking experiments.

  3. Energetic particle effects on global magnetohydrodynamic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z. )

    1990-06-01

    The effects of energetic particles on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) type modes are studied using analytical theories and the nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code (NOVA-K) ({ital Workshop} {ital on} {ital Theory} {ital of} {ital Fusion} {ital Plasmas}, (Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, 1987), p. 185). In particular, the problems of (1) the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes and the excitation of resonant fishbone'' internal modes and (2) the alpha particle destabilization of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) via transit resonances are addressed. Analytical theories are presented to help explain the NOVAresults. For energetic trapped particles generated by neutral beam injection or ion cyclotron resonant heating, a stability window for the {ital n}=1 internal kink mode in the hot particle beta space exists even in the absence of core ion finite Larmor radius effect. On the other hand, the trapped alpha particles are found to resonantly excite instability of the {ital n}=1 internal mode and can lower the critical beta threshold. The circulating alpha particles can strongly destabilize TAE modes via inverse Landau damping associated with the spatial gradient of the alpha-particle pressure.

  4. Lanthanide(III) and Yttrium(III) Complexes of Benzimidazole-2-Acetic Acid: Synthesis, Characterisation and Effect of La(III) Complex on Germination of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gudasi, Kalagouda B.; Shenoy, Rashmi V.; Vadavi, Ramesh S.; Patil, Manjula S.; Patil, Siddappa A.; Hanchinal, Rayappa R.; Desai, Srinivas A.; Lohithaswa, H.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of lanthanide(III) and yttrium(III) nitrate complexes of benzimidazole-2-acetic acid (HBIA) are reported. The complexes have been characterised by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic studies, IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible, EPR, and TG/DTA studies. They have the stoichiometry [Ln3(BIA)2(NO3)7(H2O)4] · 3H2O where Ln=La(III), Pr(III), Nd(II), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Y(III). The effect of La(III) complex on germination, coleoptile, and root length of two local varieties of wheat DWR-195 and GW-349 for different treatment periods has been investigated. The complex was found to exhibit enhanced activity, compared to HBIA or metal salt alone at lower treatment periods. PMID:17497017

  5. Effect of temperature on the mixed-mode impact behavior of a normalized 1050 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Manoharan, M.; Seow, H.P.

    1997-10-01

    A considerable amount of work on mixed mode I/III fracture toughness of materials is available using proportional loading methods and all the work using such a loading method has recently been summarized. The superposition of mode III loading results in drastic reduction in fracture toughness in some materials whereas in other materials it has little effect or even results in an increase in the fracture toughness. Fracture mechanism maps delineating regions of susceptibility to tensile and shear loads have been proposed to explain such differences. In the mixed mode fracture toughness tests outlined above, the use of a modified compact tension specimen has enabled the testing of materials under a variety of combinations of mode I and mode III loadings. By using appropriately defined mixed-mode versions of the stress intensity factor K and the J integral, the susceptibility of these materials to mixed-mode fracture can be quantified. In addition to compact tension specimens, three point bend specimens with an inclined crack can also be used to determine the mixed-mode fracture behavior of materials. The aim of the present study was to study the feasibility of extending the mixed mode fracture concept to impact testing using a charpy type test specimen.

  6. Effects of axions on Population III stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choplin, Arthur; Coc, Alain; Meynet, Georges; Olive, Keith A.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    Aims: Following the renewed interest in axions as a dark matter component, we revisit the effects of energy loss by axion emission on the evolution of the first generation of stars. These stars with zero metallicity are assumed to be massive, more compact, and hotter than subsequent generations. It is hence important to extend previous studies, which were restricted to solar metallicity stars. Methods: Our analysis first compares the evolution of solar metallicity 8, 10, and 12 M⊙ stars to previous work. We then calculate the evolution of 8 zero-metallicity stars with and without axion losses and with masses ranging from 20 to 150 M⊙. Results: For the solar metallicity models, we confirm the disappearance of the blue-loop phase for a value of the axion-photon coupling of gaγ = 10-10 GeV-1. We show that for gaγ = 10-10 GeV-1, the evolution of Population III stars is not much affected by axion losses, except within the range of masses 80-130 M⊙. Such stars show significant differences in both their tracks within the Tc-ρc diagram and their central composition (in particular 20Ne and 24Mg). We discuss the origin of these modifications from the stellar physics point of view, and also their potential observational signatures.

  7. Electromagnetic effects on geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, M. F.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Elfimov, A. G.; Melnikov, A. V.; Murtaza, G.

    2014-08-15

    By using the full electromagnetic drift kinetic equations for electrons and ions, the general dispersion relation for geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) is derived incorporating the electromagnetic effects. It is shown that m = 1 harmonic of the GAM mode has a finite electromagnetic component. The electromagnetic corrections appear for finite values of the radial wave numbers and modify the GAM frequency. The effects of plasma pressure β{sub e}, the safety factor q, and the temperature ratio τ on GAM dispersion are analyzed.

  8. An assessment of BWR (boiling water reactor) Mark III containment challenges, failure modes, and potential improvements in performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.A.; Pafford, D.J.; Kelly, D.L.; Jones, K.R.; Dallman, F.J. )

    1991-01-01

    This report describes risk-significant challenges posed to Mark III containment systems by severe accidents as identified for Grand Gulf. Design similarities and differences between the Mark III plants that are important to containment performance are summarized. The accident sequences responsible for the challenges and the postulated containment failure modes associated with each challenge are identified and described. Improvements are discussed that have the potential either to prevent or delay containment failure, or to mitigate the offsite consequences of a fission product release. For each of these potential improvements, a qualitative analysis is provided. A limited quantitative risk analysis is provided for selected potential improvements. 21 refs., 5 figs., 46 tabs.

  9. Mode I and mixed I/III crack initiation and propagation behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy at 25{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H.

    1997-04-01

    The mode I and mixed-mode I/III fracture behavior of the production-scale heat (No. 832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti has been investigated at 25{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens for a mode I crack and modified CT specimens for a mixed-mode I/III crack. The mode III to mode I load ratio was 0.47. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h after final machining. Both mode I and mixed-mode I/III specimens were fatigue cracked prior to J-integral testing. It was noticed that the mixed-mode I/III crack angle decreased from an initial 25 degrees to approximately 23 degrees due to crack plane rotation during fatigue cracking. No crack plane rotation occurred in the mode I specimen. The crack initiation and propagation behavior was evaluated by generating J-R curves. Due to the high ductility of this alloy and the limited specimen thickness (6.35 mm), plane strain requirements were not met so valid critical J-integral values were not obtained. However, it was found that the crack initiation and propagation behavior was significantly different between the mode I and the mixed-mode I/III specimens. In the mode I specimen crack initiation did not occur, only extensive crack tip blunting due to plastic deformation. During J-integral testing the mixed-mode crack rotated to an increased crack angle (in contrast to fatigue precracking) by crack blunting. When the crack initiated, the crack angle was about 30 degrees. After crack initiation the crack plane remained at 30 degrees until the test was completed. Mixed-mode crack initiation was difficult, but propagation was easy. The fracture surface of the mixed-mode specimen was characterized by microvoid coalescence.

  10. Fracture toughness of the F-82H steel-effect of loading modes, hydrogen, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.-X.; Jones, R. H.; Hirth, J. P.; Gelles, D. S.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of loading mode, hydrogen, and temperature on fracture toughness and tearing modulus were examined for a ferritic/martensitic steel (F-82H). The introduction of a shear load component, mode III, significantly decreased the initiation and propagation resistance of cracks compared to the opening load, mode I, behavior. Mode I crack initiation and propagation exhibited the highest resistance. A minimum resistance occurred when the mode I and mode III loads were nearly equal. The presence of 4 wppm hydrogen decreased the cracking resistance compared to behavior without H regardless of the loading mode. The minimum mixed-mode fracture toughness with the presence of hydrogen was about 30% of the hydrogen-free mode I fracture toughness. The mixed-mode toughness exhibited a lesser sensitivity to temperature than the mode I toughness. The JIC value was 284 kJ/m 2 at room temperature, but only 60 kJ/m 2 at -55°C and 30 kJ/m 2 at -90°C. The ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was apparently higher than -55°C.

  11. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Eric C. Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. Methods: FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Results: Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes hadRPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Conclusions: Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  12. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric C; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg

    2014-06-01

    Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes had RPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  13. Period-Luminosity relations derived from the OGLE-III first-overtone mode Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anupam; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Singh, Harinder P.

    2016-06-01

    We present multiband Period-Luminosity (PL) relations for first-overtone mode Cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We derive optical band PL relations and the Wesenheit function using VI mean magnitudes from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) survey. We cross-match OGLE-III first-overtone mode Cepheids to the 2MASS and SAGE-SMC catalogues to derive PL relations at near-infrared (JHKs) and mid-infrared (3.6 and 4.5 μm) wavelengths. We test for possible non-linearities in these PL relations using robust statistical tests and find a significant break only in the optical band PL relations at 2.5 d for first-overtone mode Cepheids. We do not find statistical evidence for a non-linearity in these PL relations at 1 d. The multiband PL relations for fundamental-mode Cepheids in the SMC also exhibit a break at 2.5 d. We suggest that the period break around 2.5 d is related to sharp changes in the light-curve parameters for SMC Cepheids. We also derive new optical and mid-infrared band PL relations for first-overtone mode Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We compare multiband PL relations for first-overtone mode Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds and find a significant difference in the slope of the V-band PL relations but not for I-band PL relations. The slope of PL relations are found to be consistent in most of the infrared bands. A relative distance modulus of Δμ = 0.49 ± 0.02 mag between the two clouds is estimated using multiband PL relations for the first-overtone mode Cepheids in the SMC and LMC.

  14. A binuclear Fe(III)Dy(III) single molecule magnet. Quantum effects and models.

    PubMed

    Ferbinteanu, Marilena; Kajiwara, Takashi; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Akio; Kojima, Norimichi; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Fujimura, Yuichi; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2006-07-19

    The binuclear [FeIII(bpca)(mu-bpca)Dy(NO3)4], having Single Molecule Magnet (SMM) properties, belonging to a series of isostructural FeIIILnIII complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and closely related FeIILnIII chain structures, was characterized in concise experimental and theoretical respects. The low temperature magnetization data showed hysteresis and tunneling. The anomalous temperature dependence of Mössbauer spectra is related to the onset of magnetic order, consistent with the magnetization relaxation time scale resulting from AC susceptibility measurements. The advanced ab initio calculations (CASSCF and spin-orbit) revealed the interplay of ligand field, spin-orbit, and exchange effects and probed the effective Ising nature of the lowest states, involved in the SMM and tunneling effects.

  15. Gravitational wave quasinormal mode from Population III massive black hole binaries in various models of population synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugawa, Tomoya; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Focusing on the remnant black holes after merging binary black holes, we show that ringdown gravitational waves of Population III binary black hole mergers can be detected at the rate of 5.9-500 events yr(SFR/(10M yr Mpc))ṡ([f/(1+f)]/0.33) for various parameters and functions. This rate is estimated for events with SNR>8 for second-generation gravitational wave detectors such as KAGRA. Here, SFR and f are the peak value of the Population III star formation rate and the fraction of binaries, respectively. When we consider only events with SNR>35, the event rate becomes 0.046-4.21 events yr(SFR/(10M yr Mpc))ṡ([f/(1+f)]/0.33). This suggest that for a remnant black hole spin of q>0.95 we have an event rate of quasinormal modes with SNR>35 of less than 0.037 events yr(SFR/(10M yr Mpc))ṡ([f/(1+f)]/0.33), while it is 3-30 events yr(SFR/(10M yr Mpc))ṡ([f/(1+f)]/0.33) for third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope. If we detect many Population III binary black hole mergers, it may be possible to constrain the Population III binary evolution paths not only by the mass distribution but also by the spin distribution.

  16. A Mixed-Mode I/II Fracture Criterion and Its Application in Crack Growth Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Michael A.; Deng, Xiaomin; Ma, Fashang; Newman, James S., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A crack tip opening displacement (CTOD)-based, mixed mode fracture criterion is developed for predicting the onset and direction of crack growth. The criterion postulates that crack growth occurs in either the Mode I or Mode II direction, depending on whether the maximum in either the opening or the shear component of CTOD, measured at a specified distance behind the crack tip, attains a critical value. For crack growth direction prediction, the proposed CTOD criterion is shown to be equivalent to seven commonly used crack growth criteria under linearly elastic and asymptotic conditions. Under elastic-plastic conditions the CTOD criterion's prediction of the dependence of the crack growth direction on the crack-up mode mixity is in excellent agreement with the Arcan test results. Furthermore, the CTOD criterion correctly predicts the existence of a crack growth transition from mode I to mode II as the mode mixity approaches the mode II loading condition. The proposed CTOD criterion has been implemented in finite element crack growth simulation codes Z1P2DL and FRANC2DL to predict the crack growth paths in (a) a modified Arcan test specimen and fixture made of AL 2024-T34 and (b) a double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen made of AL 7050. A series of crack growth simulations have been carried out for the crack growth tests in the Arcan and DCB specimens and the results further demonstrate the applicability of the mixed mode CTOD fracture criterion crack growth predictions and residual strength analyses for airframe materials.

  17. Experiments on fracture toughness of thick-wall cylinder for modes I, II, III

    SciTech Connect

    Saegusa, T.; Urabe, N.; Ito, C.; Shirai, K.; Kosaki, A.

    1999-07-01

    There have been few data on fracture toughness for Mode 2 and 3 as compared with those for Mode 1. Experimental data on fracture toughness of plates made of ductile cast iron (ASTM A874-89) and forged steel (ASME SA350 LF5 C1.1) were obtained at a temperature range from 77K to 293K for Mode 1, 2 and 3. The results showed: J{sub IC} < J{sub IIC} < J{sub IIIC}, and K{sub IC} < K{sub IIC} K{sub IIIC}. Integrity of a thick-wall cylinder with artificial flaw was demonstrated against brittle fracture at 233K for Mode 1, 2 and 3, which is one of the design requirements of containers shipping radioactive materials.

  18. Optical modes within III-nitride multiple quantum well microdisk cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, R. A.; Zeng, K. C.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Zhang, B.; Dai, L.; Botchkarev, A.; Kim, W.; Morkoç, H.; Khan, M. A.

    1998-03-01

    Optical resonance modes have been observed in optically pumped microdisk cavities fabricated from 50 Å/50 Å GaN/AlxGa1-xN(x˜0.07) and 45 Å/45 Å InxGa1-xN/GaN(x˜0.15) multiple quantum well structures. Microdisks, approximately 9 μm in diameter and regularly spaced every 50 μm, were formed by an ion beam etch process. Individual disks were pumped at 300 and 10 K with 290 nm laser pulses focused to a spot size much smaller than the disk diameter. Optical modes corresponding to (i) the radial mode type with a spacing of 49-51 meV (both TE and TM) and (ii) the Whispering Gallery mode with a spacing of 15-16 meV were observed in the GaN microdisk cavities. The spacings of these modes are consistent with those expected for modes within a resonant cavity of cylindrical symmetry, refractive index, and dimensions of the microdisks under investigation. The GaN-based microdisk cavity is compared with its GaAs counterpart and implications regarding future GaN-based microdisk lasers are discussed.

  19. Failure modes and effects analysis automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhieh, Cynthia H.; Cutts, Dannie E.; Purves, R. Byron

    1988-01-01

    A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) assistant was implemented as a knowledge based system and will be used during design of the Space Station to aid engineers in performing the complex task of tracking failures throughout the entire design effort. The three major directions in which automation was pursued were the clerical components of the FMEA process, the knowledge acquisition aspects of FMEA, and the failure propagation/analysis portions of the FMEA task. The system is accessible to design, safety, and reliability engineers at single user workstations and, although not designed to replace conventional FMEA, it is expected to decrease by many man years the time required to perform the analysis.

  20. Failure modes and effects analysis automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhieh, Cynthia H.; Cutts, Dannie E.; Purves, R. Byron

    1988-01-01

    A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) assistant was implemented as a knowledge based system and will be used during design of the Space Station to aid engineers in performing the complex task of tracking failures throughout the entire design effort. The three major directions in which automation was pursued were the clerical components of the FMEA process, the knowledge acquisition aspects of FMEA, and the failure propagation/analysis portions of the FMEA task. The system is accessible to design, safety, and reliability engineers at single user workstations and, although not designed to replace conventional FMEA, it is expected to decrease by many man years the time required to perform the analysis.

  1. The poloidal distribution of type-III edge localized modes in the Mega-Ampere spherical tokamak (MAST)

    SciTech Connect

    Antar, G.Y.

    2006-05-15

    This article describes the poloidal plasma particle distribution of type-III edge localized modes (ELMs) in the Mega-Ampere spherical tokamak [R.-J. Akers et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 3919 (2002)]. A fast imaging camera with 10 {mu}s exposure time is used to record the D{sub {alpha}} light coming from the entire poloidal cross section. Furthermore, three sets of probes, triggered at the same time, acquired at 1 MHz, and located at different poloidal, radial, and toroidal locations in the tokamak are used. ELMs are observed to affect the D{sub {alpha}} emission throughout the low-field scrape-off layer; on the high-field side, however, this effect is found to be small. The results obtained by imaging agree with the pointwise measurements using Langmuir probes. The radial propagation is shown to occur at a speed of 250 m/s, whereas the toroidal convection from the top to the bottom of the plasma is shown to be consistent with a transport at the local sound speed. Strong correlation amplitudes are reported among the probes that are poloidally and toroidally separated by several meters. The study of the cross-correlation coefficients as a function of the frequency indicates that this correlation is caused by the low-frequency component of the signal and that the high-frequency part is not correlated. Consequently, the filamentary structures are interpreted as caused by the onset of turbulence during an ELM and do not constitute the ELM itself.

  2. Waveguide modes in sparse III-V nanowire arrays for ultra-broadband tunable perfect absorbers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountaine, Katherine T.; Cheng, Wen-Hui; Bukowsky, Colton R.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-09-01

    Design of perfect absorbers and emitters has been a primary focus of the metamaterials community owing to their potential to enhance device efficiency and sensitivity in energy harvesting and sensing applications, specifically photovoltaics, thermal emission control, bolometers and photodetectors, to name a few. While reports of perfect absorbers/emitters for a specific frequency, wavevector, and polarization are ubiquitous, a broadband and polarization- and angle-insensitive perfect absorber remains a particular challenge. In this work, we report on directed optical design and fabrication of sparse III-V nanowire arrays as broadband, polarization- and angle-insensitive perfect absorbers and emitters. Specifically, we target response in the UV-Vis-NIR and NIR-SWIR-MWIR via two material systems, InP (Eg=1.34 eV) and InSb (Eg=0.17 eV), respectively. Herein, we present results on InP and InSb nanowire array broadband absorbers, supported by experiment, simulation and analytic theory. Electromagnetic simulations indicate that, with directed optical design, tapered nanowire arrays and multi-radii nanowire arrays with 5% fill fraction can achieve greater than 95% broadband absorption (λInP=400-900nm, λInSb=1.5-5.5µm), due to efficient excitation and interband transition-mediated attenuation of the HE11 waveguide mode. Experimentally-fabricated InP nanowire arrays embedded in PDMS achieved broadband, polarization- and angle-insensitive 90-95% absorption, limited primarily by reflection off the PDMS interface. Addition of a thin, planar VO2 layer above a sparse InSb nanowire array enables active thermal tunability in the infrared, effecting a 50% modulation, from 87% (insulating VO2) to 43% (metallic VO2) average absorption. These concepts and results along with photovoltaic and other optical and optoelectronic device applications will be discussed.

  3. Period spacings in red giants. III. Coupling factors of mixed modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, B.; Pinçon, C.; Belkacem, K.; Takata, M.; Vrard, M.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The power of asteroseismology relies on the capability of global oscillations to infer the stellar structure. For evolved stars, we benefit from unique information directly carried out by mixed modes that probe their radiative cores. This third article of the series devoted to mixed modes in red giants focuses on their coupling factors, which have remained largely unexploited up to now. Aims: With the measurement of coupling factors, we intend to give physical constraints on the regions surrounding the radiative core and the hydrogen-burning shell of subgiants and red giants. Methods: A new method for measuring the coupling factor of mixed modes was implemented, which was derived from the method recently implemented for measuring period spacings. This new method was automated so that it could be applied to a large sample of stars. Results: Coupling factors of mixed modes were measured for thousands of red giants. They show specific variation with mass and evolutionary stage. Weak coupling is observed for the most evolved stars on the red giant branch only; large coupling factors are measured at the transition between subgiants and red giants as well as in the red clump. Conclusions: The measurement of coupling factors in dipole mixed modes provides a new insight into the inner interior structure of evolved stars. While the large frequency separation and the asymptotic period spacings probe the envelope and core, respectively, the coupling factor is directly sensitive to the intermediate region in between and helps determine its extent. Observationally, the determination of the coupling factor is a prior to precise fits of the mixed-mode pattern and can now be used to address further properties of the mixed-mode pattern, such as the signature of buoyancy glitches and core rotation.

  4. Failure-Modes-And-Effects Analysis Of Software Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Danny; Hartline, Thomas; Minor, Terry; Statum, David; Vice, David

    1996-01-01

    Rigorous analysis applied early in design effort. Method of identifying potential inadequacies and modes and effects of failures caused by inadequacies (failure-modes-and-effects analysis or "FMEA" for short) devised for application to software logic.

  5. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. III. Group and phase velocities of wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2015-07-01

    The properties of whistler modes excited by single and multiple magnetic loop antennas have been investigated in a large laboratory plasma. A single loop excites a wavepacket, but an array of loops across the ambient magnetic field B0 excites approximate plane whistler modes. The single loop data are measured. The array patterns are obtained by linear superposition of experimental data shifted in space and time, which is valid in a uniform plasma and magnetic field for small amplitude waves. Phasing the array changes the angle of wave propagation. The antennas are excited by an rf tone burst whose propagating envelope and oscillations yield group and phase velocities. A single loop antenna with dipole moment across B0 excites wave packets whose topology resembles m = 1 helicon modes, but without radial boundaries. The phase surfaces are conical with propagation characteristics of Gendrin modes. The cones form near the antenna with comparable parallel and perpendicular phase velocities. A physical model for the wave excitation is given. When a wave burst is applied to a phased antenna array, the wave front propagates both along the array and into the plasma forming a "whistler wing" at the front. These laboratory observations may be relevant for excitation and detection of whistler modes in space plasmas.

  6. Plant adaptogens. III. Earlier and more recent aspects and concepts on their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Panossian, A; Wikman, G; Wagner, H

    1999-10-01

    Stimulus-response coupling systems responsible for defence and adaptation of organism to stressors are multi-target and very complicated pharmacological systems, including the neuroendocrine (stress) and immune system. The mode of action of adaptogens is basically associated with the stress-system (neuroendocrine-immune complex) and can be directed on the various targets of the system involved in regulation (activation and inhibition) of stimulus-response coupling. However, clinical studies performed according to the most modern standards are quite limited. On the other hand there is an extensive amount of clinical experience and also established use in self care etc. These aspects are planned to be dealt within a subsequent article which will be devoted to the application in three areas: self care, adjuvants in medicine and curative action in some diseases. At this stage, nevertheless, it seems possible to define some most important "stress-markers" for evaluation of efficiency of adaptogens in experimental and clinical pharmacological studies. They can be both activating (catecholamines, LT-s, cytokines, NO, etc.--"switch on" system--which activates energetic and other resources of the organism), and deactivating (corticosteroids and PGE2-endogenous mediators of cellular communications, which protect cells and whole organism from overreacting to the activating messengers--"switch off" system) stress-messengers. The balance between the activities of the "switch on" and "switch off" systems reflects the well being of the organism. It could be established on different levels of the homeostasis (heterostasis) with different levels of the sensitivity to stressors (Figure 8). The response of stress system--"reactivity" is different at the various levels of heterostasis and depends on adaptation--capacity of the organism (or a cell) to protect itself. In the process of adaptation to stressor's effects the basal levels mediators of switch on (e.g. NO) and switch of (e

  7. A Modified Edge Crack Torsion Test for Measurement of Mode III Fracture Toughness of Laminated Tape Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czabaj, Michael W.; Davidson, Barry D.; Ratcliffe, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Modifications to the edge crack torsion (ECT) test are studied to improve the reliability of this test for measuring the mode-III fracture toughness, G (sub IIIc), of laminated tape fiber-reinforced polymeric (FRP) composites. First, the data reduction methods currently used in the ECT test are evaluated and deficiencies in their accuracy are discussed. An alternative data reduction technique, which uses a polynomial form to represent ECT specimen compliance solution, is evaluated and compared to FEA (finite element analysis) results. Second, seven batches of ECT specimens are tested, each batch containing specimens with a preimplanted midplane edge delamination and midplane plies with orientations of plus theta divided by minus theta, with theta ranging from 0 degrees to 90 degrees in 15-degree increments. Tests on these specimens show that intralaminar cracking occurs in specimens from all batches except for which theta = 15 degrees and 30 degrees. Tests on specimens of these two batches are shown to result in mode-III delamination growth at the intended ply interface. The findings from this study are encouraging steps towards the use of the ECT test as a standardized method for measuring G (sub IIIc), although further modification to the data reduction method is required to make it suitable for use as part of a standardized test method.

  8. Effects of toroidicity on resistive tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Izzo, R.; Monticello, D.A.; Manickam, J.; Strauss, H.R.; Grimm, R.; McGuire, K.

    1983-03-01

    A reduced set of resistive MHD equations is solved numerically in three dimensions to study the stability of tokamak plasmas. Toroidal effects are included self-consistently to leading and next order in inverse aspect ratio, epsilon. The equations satisfy an energy integral. In addition, the momentum equation yields the Grad-Shafranov equation correct to all orders in epsilon. Low beta plasma are studied using several different q-profiles. In all cases, the linear growth rates are reduced by finite toroidicity. Excellent agreement with resistive PEST is obtianed. In some cases, toroidal effects lead to complete stabilization of the mode. Nonlinear results show smaller saturated island widths for finite aspect ratio compared to the cylindrical limit. If the current channel is wide enough so as to produce steep gradients towards the outside of the plasma, both the finite aspect ratio cases and cylindrical cases disrupt.

  9. Narrow-linewidth short-pulse III-V-on-silicon mode-locked lasers based on a linear and ring cavity geometry.

    PubMed

    Keyvaninia, S; Uvin, S; Tassaert, M; Fu, X; Latkowski, S; Mariën, J; Thomassen, L; Lelarge, F; Duan, G; Verheyen, P; Lepage, G; Van Campenhout, J; Bente, E; Roelkens, G

    2015-02-09

    Picosecond-pulse III-V-on-silicon mode-locked lasers based on linear and ring extended cavity geometries are presented. In passive mode-locked operation a 12 kHz -3dB linewidth of the fundamental RF tone at 4.7 GHz is obtained for the linear cavity geometry and 16 kHz for the ring cavity geometry. Stabilization of the repetition rate of these devices using hybrid mode-locking is also demonstrated.

  10. Electron cyclotron maser emission mode coupling to the z-mode on a longitudinal density gradient in the context of solar type III bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Pechhacker, R.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2012-11-15

    A beam of super-thermal, hot electrons was injected into maxwellian plasma with a density gradient along a magnetic field line. 1.5D particle-in-cell simulations were carried out which established that the EM emission is produced by the perpendicular component of the beam injection momentum. The beam has a positive slope in the distribution function in perpendicular momentum phase space, which is the characteristic feature of a cyclotron maser. The cyclotron maser in the overdense plasma generates emission at the electron cyclotron frequency. The frequencies of generated waves were too low to propagate away from the injection region, hence the wavelet transform shows a pulsating wave generation and decay process. The intensity pulsation frequency is twice the relativistic cyclotron frequency. Eventually, a stable wave packet formed and could mode couple on the density gradient to reach frequencies of the order of the plasma frequency that allowed for propagation. The emitted wave is likely to be a z-mode wave. The total electromagnetic energy generated is of the order of 0.1% of the initial beam kinetic energy. The proposed mechanism is of relevance to solar type III radio bursts, as well as other situations, when the injected electron beam has a non-zero perpendicular momentum, e.g., magnetron.

  11. (-)-Carvone: antispasmodic effect and mode of action.

    PubMed

    Souza, Fábia Valéria M; da Rocha, Marcelly Barbosa; de Souza, Damião P; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti

    2013-03-01

    (-)-Carvone is a monoterpene ketone found in spearmint (Mentha spicata var. crispa) essential oil that is widely used as an odor and flavor additive. An intestinal antispasmodic effect was recently reported for (-)-carvone, and it has been shown to be more potent than its (+)-antipode. The mechanism of (-)-carvone action in the intestines has not been investigated. To gain a better understanding of the (-)-carvone antispasmodic effect, we investigated its pharmacological effects in the guinea pig ileum. Terminal portions of the ileum were mounted for isotonic contraction recordings. The effect of (-)-carvone was compared with that of the classical calcium channel blocker (CCB) verapamil. In isolated ileal smooth muscle, (-)-carvone did not produce direct contractile or relaxation responses and did not modify electrically elicited contractions or low K(+)-evoked contractions. The submaximal contractions induced by histamine (p<0.001), BaCl2 (p<0.05), and carbachol (p<0.01) were significantly reduced by (-)-carvone. The contractile response elicited by high concentrations of carbachol was reduced but not abolished by (-)-carvone. No additive action was detected with co-incubation of (-)-carvone and verapamil on carbachol-induced contraction. (-)-Carvone reduced the contraction induced by high K(+) and was almost 100 times more potent than verapamil. Thus, (-)-carvone showed a typical and potent CCB-like action. Many effects described for both (-)-carvone and spearmint oil can be explained as a CCB-like mode of action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effects of Mode and Language in Total Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The study of effects of mode (manual only, manual plus oral, and manual plus oral plus aural) and language (Signed English or American Sign Language) on the comprehension of deaf students (mean age 16 years) found no significant treatment effect for mode of presentation; there was an interaction between languages and mode. (Author/DB)

  13. Learning effects on muscle modes and multi-mode postural synergies.

    PubMed

    Asaka, Tadayoshi; Wang, Yun; Fukushima, Junko; Latash, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the effects of practice on the composition of muscle groups (M-modes) and multi-M-mode synergies stabilizing the location of the center of pressure (COP). In particular, we tested a hypothesis that practice could lead to a transition from co-contraction muscle activation patterns to reciprocal patterns. We also tested a hypothesis that new sets of M-modes would form stronger synergies stabilizing COP location. Subjects practiced load release tasks for five days while standing on a board with a narrow support surface (unstable board). Their M-modes and indices of multi-M-mode synergies were computed during standing without instability and during standing on an unstable board before practice, in the middle of practice, and at the end of practice. During standing without instability, subjects showed two consistent M-modes uniting dorsal and ventral muscles of the body respectively (reciprocal modes). While standing on an unstable board, prior to practice, subjects commonly showed M-modes uniting muscle pairs with opposing actions at major leg joints-co-contraction modes. Such sets of M-modes failed to stabilize the COP location in the anterior-posterior direction. Practice led to better task performance reflected in fewer incidences of lost balance. This was accompanied by a drop in the occurrence of co-contraction M-modes and the emergence of multi-mode synergies stabilizing the COP location. We conclude that the central nervous system uses flexible sets of elemental variables (modes) to ensure stable trajectories of important performance variables (such as COP location). Practice can lead to adjustments in both the composition of M-modes and M-mode co-variation patterns resulting in stronger synergies stabilizing COP location.

  14. Drift effects on electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Sgalla, R. J. F.

    2015-02-15

    A two fluid model with parallel viscosity is employed to derive the dispersion relation for electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in the presence of drift (diamagnetic) effects. Concerning the influence of the electron dynamics on the high frequency GAM, it is shown that the frequency of the electromagnetic GAM is independent of the equilibrium parallel current but, in contrast with purely electrostatic GAMs, significantly depends on the electron temperature gradient. The electromagnetic GAM may explain the discrepancy between the f ∼ 40 kHz oscillation observed in tokamak TCABR [Yu. K. Kuznetsov et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 063044 (2012)] and the former prediction for the electrostatic GAM frequency. The radial wave length associated with this oscillation, estimated presently from this analytical model, is λ{sub r} ∼ 25 cm, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than the usual value for zonal flows (ZFs)

  15. Is failure mode and effect analysis reliable?

    PubMed

    Shebl, Nada Atef; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Barber, Nick

    2009-06-01

    To test the reliability of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) within a hospital setting in the United Kingdom. Two multidisciplinary groups were recruited, within 2 hospitals from the same National Health Services (NHS) Trust, to conduct separate FMEAs in parallel on the same topic. Each group conducted an FMEA for the use of vancomycin and gentamicin. The groups followed the basic FMEA steps, which included mapping the process of care; identifying potential failures within the process; determining the severity, probability, and detectability scores for these failures; and finally making recommendations to decrease these failures. Both groups described the process with 5 major steps: starting vancomycin or gentamicin, prescribing the antibiotics, administering the antibiotics, monitoring the antibiotics, and finally stopping or continuing the treatment. Although each group identified 50 failures, only 17 (17%) of them were common to both. Furthermore, the severity, detectability, and risk priority number scores for both groups differed markedly resulting in their failures being prioritized differently. Failure mode and effect analysis is a useful tool to aid multidisciplinary groups in understanding a process of care and identifying errors that may occur. However, the results of this study call into question the reliability of the FMEA process that was tested. The 2 groups identified similar steps in the process of care but different potential failures with very different risk priority numbers. Such discrepancies make it impossible to identify reliably those failures that should be prioritized and thus where money, time, and effort should be allocated to avoid these failures. Health care organizations should not solely depend on FMEA findings to improve patient safety.

  16. Mode Contributions to the Casimir Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intravaia, F.; Henkel, C.

    2010-04-01

    Applying a sum-over-modes approach to the Casimir interaction between two plates with finite conductivity, we isolate and study the contributions of surface plasmons and Foucault (eddy current) modes. We show in particular that for the TE-polarization eddy currents provide a repulsive force that cancels, at high temperatures, the Casimir free energy calculated with the plasma model.

  17. III-Vs at Scale: A PV Manufacturing Cost Analysis of the Thin Film Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Maxwell; Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael; Battaglia, Corsin; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The authors present a manufacturing cost analysis for producing thin-film indium phosphide modules by combining a novel thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) growth process with a standard monolithic module platform. The example cell structure is ITO/n-TiO2/p-InP/Mo. For a benchmark scenario of 12% efficient modules, the module cost is estimated to be $0.66/W(DC) and the module cost is calculated to be around $0.36/W(DC) at a long-term potential efficiency of 24%. The manufacturing cost for the TF-VLS growth portion is estimated to be ~$23/m2, a significant reduction compared with traditional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The analysis here suggests the TF-VLS growth mode could enable lower-cost, high-efficiency III-V photovoltaics compared with manufacturing methods used today and open up possibilities for other optoelectronic applications as well.

  18. Cooling effect on the electron states of Si(III)Pd and Si(III)Pt interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbati, I.; Braicovich, L.; Michelis, B. De; Pennino, U. Del; Valeri, S.

    1980-09-01

    Photoemission and Auger results are given for Si(III)Pd and Si(III)Pt interfaces prepared by depositing 10 ml metal onto cleaved Si(III). Thermal cycling between room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature originates a reversible effect in the spectra due to metal concentration increase in {Si}/{Pt} and decrease in {Si}/{Pd}. The results are discussed in connection with open problems on Si d-metal interfaces.

  19. The mode III crack problem in bonded materials with a nonhomogeneous interfacial zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Joseph, P. F.; Kaya, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The mode 3 crack problem for two bonded homogeneous half planes was considered. The interfacial zone was modelled by a nonhomogeneous strip in such a way that the shear modulus is a continuous function throughout the composite medium and has discontinuous derivatives along the boundaries of the interfacial zone. The problem was formulated for cracks perpendicular to the nominal interface and was solved for various crack locations in and around the interfacial region. The asymptotic stress field near the tip of a crack terminating at an interface was examined and it was shown that, unlike the corresponding stress field in piecewise homogeneous materials, in this case the stresses have the standard square root singularity and their angular variation was identical to that of a crack in a homogeneous medium. With application to the subcritical crack growth process in mind, the results given include mostly the stress intensity factors for some typical crack geometries and various material combinations.

  20. Effects of Jigsaw III Technique on Achievement in Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the Jigsaw III technique (of cooperative learning) with the instructional teacher-centered teaching method in six graders in terms of the effect of written expression on their academic success. The universe of the study consists of 71 sixth-grade students studying during 2009-2010 academic term in a…

  1. Effects of Jigsaw III Technique on Achievement in Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the Jigsaw III technique (of cooperative learning) with the instructional teacher-centered teaching method in six graders in terms of the effect of written expression on their academic success. The universe of the study consists of 71 sixth-grade students studying during 2009-2010 academic term in a…

  2. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  3. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  4. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  5. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  6. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  7. Alpha particle effects on the internal kink modes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yanlin; Cheng, C.Z.

    1994-08-01

    The {alpha}-particle effects on the internal kink mode stability are studied. Finite Grad-Shafranov Shift, plasma {beta}, and plasma shape can significantly enhance the trapped particle drift reversal domain in pitch angle space and reduce average magnetic drift frequency. The drift reversal effect on the ideal kink mode is small, but the {beta}{sub {alpha}} threshold for the fishbone mode can be much lower than previously predicted. In addition, the ion diamagnetic drift has a stronger destabilizing effect.

  8. Mode Transitions in Hall Effect Thrusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    thrust was constant through mode transition but the thrust to power decreases by 25% due in increasing discharge current. The plume showed significant...magnetic field strengths for higher mass flow rate or higher discharge voltage. The thrust was constant through mode transition but the thrust to power...differently in the space environment then test facilities on Earth. During the transition from “high-current” to “low-current” the thrust remained

  9. The Distribution of Scaled Scores and Possible Floor Effects on the WISC-III and WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Simon; Wood, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that, as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) give a scaled score of one even if a client scores a raw score of zero, these assessments may have a hidden floor effect at low IQ levels. The study looked for…

  10. Geometrical effects in X-mode scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bretz, N.

    1986-10-01

    One technique to extend microwave scattering as a probe of long wavelength density fluctuations in magnetically confined plasmas is to consider the launching and scattering of extraordinary (X-mode) waves nearly perpendicular to the field. When the incident frequency is less than the electron cyclotron frequency, this mode can penetrate beyond the ordinary mode cutoff at the plasma frequency and avoid significant distortions from density gradients typical of tokamak plasmas. In the more familiar case, where the incident and scattered waves are ordinary, the scattering is isotropic perpendicular to the field. However, because the X-mode polarization depends on the frequency ratios and the ray angle to the magnetic field, the coupling between the incident and scattered waves is complicated. This geometrical form factor must be unfolded from the observed scattering in order to interpret the scattering due to density fluctuations alone. The geometrical factor is calculated here for the special case of scattering perpendicular to the magnetic field. For frequencies above the ordinary mode cutoff the scattering is relatively isotropic, while below cutoff there are minima in the forward and backward directions which go to zero at approximately half the ordinary mode cutoff density.

  11. Fracture Behavior Investigation of a Typical Sandstone Under Mixed-Mode I/II Loading Using the Notched Deep Beam Bending Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Ren, L.; Xie, L. Z.; Ai, T.; He, B.

    2017-08-01

    The brittle fracture behavior of rocks under mixed-mode loading is important in rock engineering. First, a new configuration called the notched deep beam (NDB) specimen was introduced for the fracture testing of rock materials under mixed-mode I/II loading, and a series of finite element analyses were performed to calibrate the dimensionless fracture parameters (i.e., Y I, Y II and T^{*}). The results showed that an NDB specimen subjected to three-point bending is able to generate pure mode I loading, pure mode II loading, and any mixed-mode loading in between. Then, several NDB specimens made of sandstone were used to investigate the brittle fracture behavior of rock under mixed-mode I/II loading. The fracture surfaces were theoretically described using a statistical method, and the results indicated that all the fracture surfaces generated under different mixed-mode loading were statistically identical; to some extent, these results experimentally showed that only tensile fracture occurs under mixed-mode I/II loading. The obtained fracture strengths were then analyzed using several brittle fracture criteria. The empirical criterion, maximum energy release rate criterion, generalized maximum tangential stress (GMTS) criterion, and improved R-criterion accurately predicted the fracture strength envelope of the sandstone. Finally, based on the concepts of point stress and mean stress, the micro-crack zones (MCZs) under different mixed-mode loading were theoretically estimated based on the MTS and GMTS criteria. The critical radius of MCZ in the crack propagation direction was not a constant for all mixed-mode loading conditions regardless of whether the T-stress was considered. This result suggests that the size of the core region used to predict the crack initiation direction and fracture strength based on the GMTS criterion should be chosen more carefully.

  12. Effect of thrombin and endotoxin on the in vivo metabolism of antithrombin III (AT III) in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Kobayashi, N.; Maekawa, T.

    1985-11-01

    Effect of thrombin and endotoxin on the metabolism of I-125-labelled canine AT III was studied in mongrel dogs. Under control condition, mean total amount of intravascular AT III with standard deviation was 23.4 +/- 2.4 mg/kg, plasma half life of i.v. injected I-125-AT III was 1.7 +/- 0.2 days, and the fractional catabolic flux (j3x) was 16.3 +/- 1.6 mg/kg/day. The total amount of intra- and extra-vascular AT III was 36.0 +/- 0.34 mg/kg. Neither a 3 hour infusion of a small dose (30 units/kg/hr) of thrombin nor i.v. injection of a large amount of thrombin (5,000-15,000 units/day) with heparin significantly affected AT III metabolism except for a transient decrease in AT III concentration in the latter case, although decrease in plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count was observed in both cases. Two injections with 200 micrograms/kg of endotoxin resulted in an evident acceleration of AT III metabolism with significant decrease in the plasma AT III, fibrinogen concentrations and platelet count. More marked changes in AT III metabolism were induced by a single infusion with 1 mg/kg of endotoxin. Changes in hemostatic system coincided with those observed in DIC.

  13. Failure mode and effects analysis: an empirical comparison of failure mode scoring procedures.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Laura; Armitage, Gerry

    2010-12-01

    To empirically compare 2 different commonly used failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) scoring procedures with respect to their resultant failure mode scores and prioritization: a mathematical procedure, where scores are assigned independently by FMEA team members and averaged, and a consensus procedure, where scores are agreed on by the FMEA team via discussion. A multidisciplinary team undertook a Healthcare FMEA of chemotherapy administration. This included mapping the chemotherapy process, identifying and scoring failure modes (potential errors) for each process step, and generating remedial strategies to counteract them. Failure modes were scored using both an independent mathematical procedure and a team consensus procedure. Almost three-fifths of the 30 failure modes generated were scored differently by the 2 procedures, and for just more than one-third of cases, the score discrepancy was substantial. Using the Healthcare FMEA prioritization cutoff score, almost twice as many failure modes were prioritized by the consensus procedure than by the mathematical procedure. This is the first study to empirically demonstrate that different FMEA scoring procedures can score and prioritize failure modes differently. It found considerable variability in individual team members' opinions on scores, which highlights the subjective and qualitative nature of failure mode scoring. A consensus scoring procedure may be most appropriate for FMEA as it allows variability in individuals' scores and rationales to become apparent and to be discussed and resolved by the team. It may also yield team learning and communication benefits unlikely to result from a mathematical procedure.

  14. Clinical risk analysis with failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) model in a dialysis unit.

    PubMed

    Bonfant, Giovanna; Belfanti, Pietro; Paternoster, Giuseppe; Gabrielli, Danila; Gaiter, Alberto M; Manes, Massimo; Molino, Andrea; Pellu, Valentina; Ponzetti, Clemente; Farina, Massimo; Nebiolo, Pier E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of clinical risk management is to improve the quality of care provided by health care organizations and to assure patients' safety. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a tool employed for clinical risk reduction. We applied FMEA to chronic hemodialysis outpatients. FMEA steps: (i) process study: we recorded phases and activities. (ii) Hazard analysis: we listed activity-related failure modes and their effects; described control measures; assigned severity, occurrence and detection scores for each failure mode and calculated the risk priority numbers (RPNs) by multiplying the 3 scores. Total RPN is calculated by adding single failure mode RPN. (iii) Planning: we performed a RPNs prioritization on a priority matrix taking into account the 3 scores, and we analyzed failure modes causes, made recommendations and planned new control measures. (iv) Monitoring: after failure mode elimination or reduction, we compared the resulting RPN with the previous one. Our failure modes with the highest RPN came from communication and organization problems. Two tools have been created to ameliorate information flow: "dialysis agenda" software and nursing datasheets. We scheduled nephrological examinations, and we changed both medical and nursing organization. Total RPN value decreased from 892 to 815 (8.6%) after reorganization. Employing FMEA, we worked on a few critical activities, and we reduced patients' clinical risk. A priority matrix also takes into account the weight of the control measures: we believe this evaluation is quick, because of simple priority selection, and that it decreases action times.

  15. Analysis of the Effects of Three Modes of Head Start Delivery. Head Start Delivery Modes Project: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; And Others

    This study analyzed the critical features of three delivery modes for Head Start services in order to: (1) compare the effects of different delivery modes on the immediate outcomes for children and parents; and (2) explore the pattern of effects both within and across modes to ascertain how the process works. The first mode represented the most…

  16. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, Vladislav; Roy, Debangsu; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior

    2016-02-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  17. Technology-Enhanced Courses and a Mode III Organization of Instructional Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Although information technology is increasingly used to deliver distance and conventional courses, there have been few studies of the effect of technology-enhanced education on the organization and purposes of academics' instructional work. I explore this issue in undergraduate and masters level education through the vehicle of case analyses of…

  18. Technology-Enhanced Courses and a Mode III Organization of Instructional Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Although information technology is increasingly used to deliver distance and conventional courses, there have been few studies of the effect of technology-enhanced education on the organization and purposes of academics' instructional work. I explore this issue in undergraduate and masters level education through the vehicle of case analyses of…

  19. H-mode plasma transport simulation in ITER with effect of neoclassical tearing mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Yamazaki, K.; Arimoto, H.; Shoji, T.

    2008-07-01

    For the prediction of the ITER plasmas, the effect of the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) on the plasma confinement has been calculated using the 1.5-dimensional equilibrium and transport simulation code TOTAL. The time evolution of the NTM magnetic island has been analyzed using the modified Rutherford equation for ITER normal shear plasmas. The anomalous transport model used here is GLF23. The saturated magnetic island widths are w/a ~ 0.048 at 3/2 mode and w/a~0.21 at 2/1 mode, and the reduction in fusion power output by NTM is 27% at the 3/2 mode, and 82% at the 2/1 mode. The stabilization effect of the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) with EC is also clarified. The threshold of ECCD power for the full stabilization at high beta NTM island formation is ~10 MW against the 3/2 mode, and ~23 MW against the 2/1 mode.

  20. Plasmon modes of metallic nanowires including quantum nonlocal effects

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-03-15

    The properties of electrostatic surface and bulk plasmon modes of cylindrical metallic nanowires are investigated, using the quantum hydrodynamic theory of plasmon excitation which allows an analytical study of quantum tunneling effects through the Bohm potential term. New dispersion relations are obtained for each type of mode and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard hydrodynamic model are analyzed in detail. Numerical results show by considering the quantum effects, as the value of wave number increases, the surface modes are slightly red-shifted first and then blue-shifted while the bulk modes are blue-shifted.

  1. Alpha particle effects on the internal kink and fishbone modes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Cheng, C.Z.; White, R.B.

    1994-06-01

    The effects of alpha particles on the internal kink and fishbone modes are studied analytically. The nonadiabatic contribution from untrapped alpha particles is negligible. Finite inverse aspect ratio, plasma {beta} and plasma shaping effects can significantly enhance the trapped particle drift reversal domain in the pitch angle space and reduce the bounce-averaged magnetic drift frequency. The drift reversal effect on the ideal kink mode is small, but the {beta}{sub {alpha}} threshold for the fishbone mode can be much lower than previously predicted. Moreover, the fishbone mode could be excited by alpha particles even when the plasma is stable in the ideal MHD limit. In addition, the ion diamagnetic drift frequency (finite ion Larmor radius effect) has a strong destabilizing effect on the fishbone mode when it is comparable with the trapped alpha averaged precessional drift frequency, even though it stabilizes the plasma in the ideal MHD limit.

  2. Mode locking based on the temporal Talbot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udem, Thomas; Ozawa, Akira

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new laser mode locking state in which the pulse disperses quickly and then revives after a certain time. This mechanism is based on the temporal Talbot effect and requires a large amount of intra-cavity group velocity dispersion. Similar to the usual mode locking it should be possible to employ the Kerr effect to force the laser into this mode, even when the cold cavity dispersion is not exactly matched. We show that the mode spectrum of such a laser is not equidistant but increases linearly with very high precision. This Talbot frequency comb can be self referenced. The beating with the adjacent modes uniquely defines the optical mode frequency, which means that the optical spectrum is directly mapped into the radio frequency domain. This is similar to the dual frequency comb technique, albeit without the limiting relative jitter between two combs.

  3. Effects of Multiple Resistive Walls and Mode Coupling on Mode Locking in RFPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. C.; Chu, M. S.

    2001-10-01

    Locked dynamo modes give rise to a serious deterioration of confinement at the plasma edge during the high current phase of reversed field pinches (RFP) operations. This is caused by the large braking torque exerted by the eddy currents on the resistive vacuum vessel on the dynamo modes1. The torque is strong enough to reduce the rotation frequency to an extremely small value. These tearing modes are then readily stopped (wall-locked) by a small external fixed error field. Several RFP devices are equipped with one or two thin (or thick) shells outside the vessel. This can, in principle, alleviate the locked mode problem. The present work presents a systematic calculation of the braking torques of multiple resistive walls (including both thin and thick shells) on a rotating tearing mode. The evolution of the frequency and the amplitude of a single representative tearing mode under the effect of multiple resistive walls is investigated. Numerical examples are provided for the modified RFX and other relevant devices. Generalization to the case of multiple(three) coupled modes and in the presence of externally applied helical rotating magnetic field2 will also be presented. 1. R. Fitzpatrick, S.C. Guo, D. J. Den Hartog and C. C. Hegna; Phys. of Plasmas, 6(10) 3878 (1999). 2. S. C. Guo and M. S. Chu; Phys. of Plasmas, 8(7) 3342 (2001).

  4. Mod 1 wind turbine generator failure modes and effects analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was directed primarily at identifying those critical failure modes that would be hazardous to life or would result in major damage to the system. Each subsystem was approached from the top down, and broken down to successive lower levels where it appeared that the criticality of the failure mode warranted more detail analysis. The results were reviewed by specialists from outside the Mod 1 program, and corrective action taken wherever recommended.

  5. Effect of high-frequency modes on singlet fission dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Ishizaki, Akihito; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed energy conversion process whereby a singlet excitation splits into two spin-correlated triplet excitations residing on adjacent molecules and has a potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. Recent time-resolved nonlinear spectra of pentacene derivatives have shown the importance of high frequency vibrational modes in efficient fission. In this work, we explore impacts of vibration-induced fluctuations on fission dynamics through quantum dynamics calculations with parameters from fitting measured linear and nonlinear spectra. We demonstrate that fission dynamics strongly depends on the frequency of the intramolecular vibrational mode. Furthermore, we examine the effect of two vibrational modes on fission dynamics. Inclusion of a second vibrational mode creates an additional fission channel even when its Huang-Rhys factor is relatively small. Addition of more vibrational modes may not enhance the fission per se, but can dramatically affect the interplay between fission dynamics and the dominant vibrational mode.

  6. Effect of high-frequency modes on singlet fission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Ishizaki, Akihito; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Yang

    2017-01-28

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed energy conversion process whereby a singlet excitation splits into two spin-correlated triplet excitations residing on adjacent molecules and has a potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. Recent time-resolved nonlinear spectra of pentacene derivatives have shown the importance of high frequency vibrational modes in efficient fission. In this work, we explore impacts of vibration-induced fluctuations on fission dynamics through quantum dynamics calculations with parameters from fitting measured linear and nonlinear spectra. We demonstrate that fission dynamics strongly depends on the frequency of the intramolecular vibrational mode. Furthermore, we examine the effect of two vibrational modes on fission dynamics. Inclusion of a second vibrational mode creates an additional fission channel even when its Huang-Rhys factor is relatively small. Addition of more vibrational modes may not enhance the fission per se, but can dramatically affect the interplay between fission dynamics and the dominant vibrational mode.

  7. Effective mode-field diameter measurement for few-mode fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Takashi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Nakajima, Kazuhide

    2017-04-01

    We experimentally investigate the applicability of the conventional near-field patter (NFP), far-field pattern (FFP) and variable aperture (VA) methods for measuring the effective mode-field diameter (MFD) of the higher-order mode which can be used for evaluating the splice loss accurately. We confirmed that the variation in measured MFD values obtained with FFP and VA methods can be converged by considering the minimum scanning angle and minimum numerical aperture (NA) respectively for both fundamental and higher-order modes. We reveal that the FFP and VA methods provide adequate effective MFD values in the FMF, which can be used for evaluating the splice loss based on the traditional Gaussian fitting model. We also found that the minimum NA in the VA method can be determined empirically as a function of the effective MFD.

  8. Letter report seismic shutdown system failure mode and effect analysis

    SciTech Connect

    KECK, R.D.

    1999-09-01

    The Supply Ventilation System Seismic Shutdown ensures that the 234-52 building supply fans, the dry air process fans and vertical development calciner are shutdown following a seismic event. This evaluates the failure modes and determines the effects of the failure modes.

  9. Robust single-mode all-solid multi-trench fiber with large effective mode area.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepak; Jung, Yongmin; Kim, Jaesun; Sahu, Jayanta K

    2014-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate all-solid 30 and 90 μm core diameter multi-trench fibers. Measurements ensure an effective single-mode operation over a wide range of bend radius in the case of 30 μm core fiber, making it suitable for applications like beam delivery and compact fiber lasers. On the other hand, a 90 μm core fiber ensures an effective single-mode operation and shows good potential for rod-type fiber laser applications. Both fibers were fabricated by the conventional modified chemical vapor deposition process in conjunction with the rod-in-tube technique, hence making them suitable for mass production.

  10. Alpha particle effects on the internal kink and fishbone modes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Cheng, C.Z.; White, R.B. )

    1994-10-01

    The effects of alpha particles on the internal kink and fishbone modes are studied analytically. The nonadiabatic contribution from untrapped alpha particles is negligible. Finite inverse aspect ratio, plasma [beta], and plasma shaping effects can significantly enhance the trapped particle drift reversal domain in the pitch angle space and reduce the bounce-averaged magnetic drift frequency. The decrease of the drift magnitude and drift reversal effects on the ideal kink mode is small, but the [beta][sub [alpha

  11. Effective As(III) Removal by A Multi-Charged Hydroacid Complex Draw Solute Facilitated Forward Osmosis-Membrane Distillation (FO-MD) Processes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Han, Gang; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-03-01

    Effective removal of As(III) from water by an oxalic acid complex with the formula of Na3[Cr(C2O4)3] (Na-Cr-OA) is demonstrated via an forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system in this study. Na-Cr-OA first proved its superiority as a draw solute with high water fluxes and negligible reverse fluxes in FO, then a systematic investigation of the Na-Cr-OA promoted FO process was conducted to ascertain the factors in As(III) removal. Relatively high water fluxes of 28 LMH under the FO mode and 74 LMH under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode were achieved when using a 1000 ppm As(III) solution as the feed and 1.0 M Na-Cr-OA as the draw solution at 60 °C. As(III) removal with a water recovery up to 21.6% (FO mode) and 48.3% (PRO mode) were also achieved in 2 h. An outstanding As(III) rejection with 30-3000 μg/L As(III) in the permeate was accomplished when As(III) feed solutions varied from 5 × 10(4) to 1 × 10(6) μg/L, superior to the best FO performance reported for As(III) removal. Incorporating MD into FO not only makes As(III) removal sustainable by reconcentrating the Na-Cr-OA solution simultaneously, but also reduces the As(III) concentration below 10 μg/L in the product water, meeting the WHO standard.

  12. Localized tearing modes in the magnetotail driven by curvature effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaram, A. K.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    The stability of collisionless tearing modes is examined in the presence of curvature drift resonances and the trapped particle effects. A kinetic description for both electrons and ions is employed to investigate the stability of a two-dimensional equilibrium model. The main features of the study are to treat the ion dynamics properly by incorporating effects associated with particle trajectories in the tail fields and to include the linear coupling of trapped particle modes. Generalized dispersion relations are derived in several parameter regimes by considering two important sublayers of the reconnecting region. For a typical choice of parameters appropriate to the current sheet region, we demonstrate that localized tearing modes driven by ion curvature drift resonance effects are excited in the current sheet region with growth time of the order of a few seconds. Also, we examine nonlocal characteristics of tearing modes driven by curvature effects and show that modes growing in a fraction of a second arise when mode widths are larger than the current sheet width. Further, we show that trapped particle effects, in an interesting frequency regime, significantly enhance the growth rate of the tearing mode. The relevance of this theory for substorm onset phase and other features of the substorms is briefly discussed.

  13. Radiation Effects in III-V Nanowire Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    radionuclides] 3.7 × 10 10 per second (s –1 ) [becquerel (Bq)] roentgen (R) [air exposure] 2.579 760 × 10 –4 coulomb per kilogram ( C kg –1 ) rad [absorbed...8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-94 Radiation Effects in III-V...PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c . THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Re . 8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18

  14. Geometric Effects on the Amplification of First Mode Instability Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Lindsay C.; Candler, Graham V.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of geometric changes on the amplification of first mode instability waves in an external supersonic boundary layer were investigated using numerical techniques. Boundary layer stability was analyzed at Mach 6 conditions similar to freestream conditions obtained in quiet ground test facilities so that results obtained in this study may be applied to future test article design to measure first mode instability waves. The DAKOTA optimization software package was used to optimize an axisymmetric geometry to maximize the amplification of the waves at first mode frequencies as computed by the 2D STABL hypersonic boundary layer stability analysis tool. First, geometric parameters such as nose radius, cone half angle, vehicle length, and surface curvature were examined separately to determine the individual effects on the first mode amplification. Finally, all geometric parameters were allowed to vary to produce a shape optimized to maximize the amplification of first mode instability waves while minimizing the amplification of second mode instability waves. Since first mode waves are known to be most unstable in the form of oblique wave, the geometries were optimized using a broad range of wave frequencies as well as a wide range of oblique wave angles to determine the geometry that most amplifies the first mode waves. Since first mode waves are seen most often in flows with low Mach numbers at the edge of the boundary layer, the edge Mach number for each geometry was recorded to determine any relationship between edge Mach number and the stability of first mode waves. Results indicate that an axisymmetric cone with a sharp nose and a slight flare at the aft end under the Mach 6 freestream conditions used here will lower the Mach number at the edge of the boundary layer to less than 4, and the corresponding stability analysis showed maximum first mode N factors of 3.

  15. Energetic Ion Effects on Tearing Mode Stability in Tokamak Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfmoon, Michael; Brennan, Dylan

    2014-10-01

    The 2/1 tearing mode is found to be damped or stabilized by energetic ions in a slowing down distribution, where the interaction between the ions and the mode is similar to their interaction in ideal MHD, which has been extensively studied. This damping effect is mainly due to trapped particle precession resonance and causes the tearing mode to have a finite real frequency. This study focuses on the pressure-driven, slow growing tearing modes; which are the first modes to be driven unstable as pressure increases. The layer physics modifies the mode interaction, and affects the frequency of the mode. In these simulations, a series of equilibria with fixed safety factor and varying pressure are analyzed using a δf hybrid-kinetic MHD code in NIMROD. Our equilibrium consists of a D-shaped poloidal cross section, a peaked pressure profile, and safety factor with finite shear to the magnetic axis. Also, a high aspect ratio toroidal model based on Hu & Betti's work is investigated analytically to gain insight to the physics of mode-particle interactions. We combine our computational and analytic tools in an effort to explain this damping and stabilizing effect.

  16. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Assistant Tool Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Melissa D.; Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land D.

    2013-09-01

    An effort to determine the feasibility of a software tool to assist in Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) has been completed. This new and unique approach to FMEA uses model based systems engineering concepts to recommend failure modes, causes, and effects to the user after they have made several selections from pick lists about a component's functions and inputs/outputs. Recommendations are made based on a library using common failure modes identified over the course of several major human spaceflight programs. However, the tool could be adapted for use in a wide range of applications from NASA to the energy industry.

  17. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Assistant Tool Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Melissa; Malin, Jane T.

    2013-01-01

    An effort to determine the feasibility of a software tool to assist in Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) has been completed. This new and unique approach to FMEA uses model based systems engineering concepts to recommend failure modes, causes, and effects to the user after they have made several selections from pick lists about a component s functions and inputs/outputs. Recommendations are made based on a library using common failure modes identified over the course of several major human spaceflight programs. However, the tool could be adapted for use in a wide range of applications from NASA to the energy industry.

  18. Development of fracture facets from a crack loaded in mode I+III: Solution and application of a model 2D problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Frelat, Joël

    2014-03-01

    It is experimentally well-known that a crack loaded in mode I+III propagates through formation of discrete fracture facets inclined at a certain tilt angle on the original crack plane, depending on the ratio of the mode III to mode I initial stress intensity factors. Pollard et al. (1982) have proposed to calculate this angle by considering the tractions on all possible future infinitesimal facets and assuming shear tractions to be zero on that which will actually develop. In this paper we consider the opposite case of well-developed facets; the stress field near the lateral fronts of such facets becomes independent of the initial crack and essentially 2D in a plane perpendicular to the main direction of crack propagation. To determine this stress field, we solve the model 2D problem of an infinite plate containing an infinite periodic array of cracks inclined at some angle on a straight line, and loaded through uniform stresses at infinity. This is done first analytically, for small values of this angle, by combining Muskhelishvili's (1953) formalism and a first-order perturbation procedure. The formulae found for the 2D stress intensity factors are then extended in an approximate way to larger angles by using another reference solution, and finally assessed through comparison with some finite element results. To finally illustrate the possible future application of these formulae to the prediction of the stationary tilt angle, we introduce the tentative assumption that the 2D mode II stress intensity factor is zero on the lateral fronts of the facets. An approximate formula providing the tilt angle as a function of the ratio of the mode III to mode I stress intensity factors of the initial crack is deduced from there. This formula, which slightly depends on the type of loading imposed, predicts somewhat smaller angles than that of Pollard et al. (1982).

  19. Effect of loading mode on the fracture toughness of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Hirth, J.P.; Jones, R.H.; Gelles, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The critical J integrals of mode I (J{sub IC}), mixed-mode I/III (J{sub MC}), and mode III (J{sub IIIC}) were examined for a ferritic stainless steel (F-82H) at ambient temperature. A determination of J{sub MC} was made using modified compact-tension specimens. Different ratios of tension/shear stress were achieved by varying the principal axis of the crack plane between 0 and 55 degrees from the load line. The results showed that J{sub MC}s and tearing moduli (T{sub M}) varied with the crack angles and were lower than their mode I and mode III counterparts. Both the minimum J{sub MC} and T{sub M} occurred at a crack angle between 40 and 50 degrees, where {sigma}{sub i}/{sigma}{sub iii} was 1.2 to 0.84. The J{sub min} was 240 kJ/m{sup 2}, and ratios of J{sub IC}/J{sub min} and J{sub IIIC}/J{sub min} were about 2.1 and 1.9, respectively. Morphology of fracture surfaces was consistent with the change of J{sub MC} and T{sub M} values. While the upper shelf-fracture toughness of F-82H depends on loading mode, the J{sub min} remains very high. Other important considerations include the effect of mixed-mode loading on the DBT temperature, and effects of hydrogen and irradiation on J{sub min}.

  20. Spin-Seebeck Effect in III-V Based Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Christopher M.; Myers, Roberto C.; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2012-02-01

    The spin-Seebeck effect has now been observed in metals^1 (NiFe), semiconductors^2 (GaMnAs), and insulators^3 (YIG). It consists of a thermally generated spin distribution that is phonon driven. Here we extend our measurements of the spin-Seebeck effect to other group III-V based magnetic semiconductors and present measurements of conventional thermomagnetic and galvanomagnetic properties as well as the spin-Seebeck effect. Work supported by the National Science Foundation, NSF-CBET-1133589 1. K. Uchida, et al., Nature 455 778 (2008) 2. C.M. Jaworski et al., Nature Materials 8 898 (2010), Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 186601 (2011) 3. K. Uchida, et al., Nature Materials 8 893 (2010)

  1. Arc fusion splicing effects in large-mode-area single-mode ytterbium-doped fibers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ting; Jenkins, Micah H; Yan, Fengping; Gaylord, Thomas K

    2013-11-10

    For the first time the effects of arc fusion splicing on the residual stress and refractive index of large-mode-area single-mode ytterbium-doped fibers (YDFs) are investigated using a state-of-the-art three-dimensional concurrent stress-index measurement method. The results, based on a commercially available fiber, describe a host of perturbations that decrease the core/cladding refractive index difference by as much as 1.74 × 10(-3) over an axial length of many hundreds of wavelengths. Simulations indicate that these perturbations result in an expansion of the mode-field-diameter by 39.6% and, based on the measured sample, result in an extra splice loss of 20.8%. The results of this investigation will be useful in the design and optimization of high-power all-fiber YDF lasers and amplifiers.

  2. Complexation of Nd(III) with tetraborate ion and its effect on actinide (III) solubility in WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Richmann, Michael K; Reed, Donald T; Yongliang, Xiong

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of tetraborate complexation on lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) solubility is recognized in the literature but a systematic study of f-element complexation has not been performed. In neodymium solubility studies in WIPP brines, the carbonate complexation effect is not observed since tetraborate ions form a moderately strong complex with neodymium(III). The existence of these tetraborate complexes was established for low and high ionic strength solutions. Changes in neodymium(III) concentrations in undersaturation experiments were used to determine the neodymium with tetraborate stability constants as a function of NaCl ionic strength. As very low Nd(III) concentrations have to be measured, it was necessary to use an extraction pre-concentration step combined with ICP-MS analysis to extend the detection limit by a factor of 50. The determined Nd(III) with borate stability constants at infinite dilution and 25 C are equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.55 {+-} 0.06 using the SIT approach, equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.99 {+-} 0.30 using the Pitzer approach, with an apparent log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.06 {+-} 0.15 (in molal units) at I = 5.6 m NaCl. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for neodymium with tetraborate and SIT interaction coefficients were also determined and reported.

  3. Photoluminescence profiles and fast/slow annealing effects of Eu(III)/Tb(III)-codoped silica phosphor materials.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee Jung; Choi, Young In; Kang, Jun-Gill; Sohn, Youngku

    2016-05-01

    A silica (SiO2) nanoparticle matrix was codoped with luminescent Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions using a modified Stöber method. The effects of fast and slow thermal annealing on photoluminescence profile imaging were examined. Slow annealing treatment suppressed more quenching sites than fast thermal annealing to further increase the photoluminescence signals. The photoluminescence signals observed between 450 and 720 nm were assigned to the (5)D(0)  → (7)F(J) (J = 0,1,2,3,4) of Eu(III) and the (5)D(4)  → (7)F(J) (J = 6,5,4,3) transitions of Tb(III). Photoluminescence was largely sensitized by indirect excitation and was much stronger than that generated by direct excitation. The Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions were doped at lower symmetry sites in the silica matrix. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Experimental and simulation predicted crack paths for al-2024-t351 under mixed-mode i/ii fatigue loading using an arcan fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eileen

    Mixed mode I/II fatigue experiments and simulations are performed for an Arcan fixture and a 6.35mm thick Al-2024-T351 specimen. Experiments were performed for Arcan loading angles that gave rise to a range of Mode I/II crack tip conditions from 0 ¡U ¦¤KII/¦¤KI ¡U ¡TH. Measurements include the crack paths, loading cycles and maximum and minimum loads for each loading angle. Simulations were performed using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA) with 10-noded tetrahedral elements via CRACK3D. While modeling the entire fixture-specimen geometry, a modified version of VCCT with automatic crack tip re-meshing and a maximum normal stress criterion were used to predict the direction of crack growth. Results indicate excellent agreement between experiments and simulations for the measured crack paths during the first several millimeters of crack extension.

  5. Co-norming the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Is there a test-order effect on IQ and memory scores?

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Tulsky, D S

    2000-11-01

    Test-order effect on the WAIS-III and WMS-III scores was evaluated using the WMS-III standardization sample. Participants completed the standardization editions of the WAIS-III and WMS-III in one session, with the tests administered in roughly counterbalanced order. Repeated measure MANOVA analyses were conducted to determine if there was an overall test-order effect for subtest, index, or IQ scores. No significant test-order effects were found for either the WAIS-III index or IQ scores or for the WMS-III index scores. At the subtest level, the majority of the WAIS-III and WMS-III subtests did not show a significant test-order effect. The exceptions were Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding on the WAIS-III and Faces II and Logical Memory II on the WMS-III. Although statistically significant test-order effects were found on these subtests, the effect sizes were small. This study indicates that the test-order effect is not a potential threat to the internal validity of the WAIS-III and WMS-III normative data. The practical implications of the current study are discussed.

  6. Improving the accuracy of derivation of the Williams’ series parameters under mixed (I+II) mode loading by compensation of measurement bias in the stress field components data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychak, Oleh V.; Holyns'kiy, Ivan S.

    2016-12-01

    A new method for compensation of bias in the stress field components measurement data used for Williams’ series parameters derivation was presented. Essential increase of accuracy of derivation of SIF-related leading terms in series under mixed (I+II) mode loading was demonstrated. It was shown that a relatively low value of bias in the stress field components data error could result in the essential deviation of the values of derived Williams’ coefficients and the crack tip coordinates.

  7. Cumulative effects in inflation with ultra-light entropy modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achúcarro, Ana; Atal, Vicente; Germani, Cristiano; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2017-02-01

    In multi-field inflation one or more non-adiabatic modes may become light, potentially inducing large levels of isocurvature perturbations in the cosmic microwave background. If in addition these light modes are coupled to the adiabatic mode, they influence its evolution on super horizon scales. Here we consider the case in which a non-adiabatic mode becomes approximately massless (``ultralight") while still coupled to the adiabatic mode, a typical situation that arises with pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons or moduli. This ultralight mode freezes on super-horizon scales and acts as a constant source for the curvature perturbation, making it grow linearly in time and effectively suppressing the isocurvature component. We identify a Stückelberg-like emergent shift symmetry that underlies this behavior. As inflation lasts for many e-folds, the integrated effect of this source enhances the power spectrum of the adiabatic mode, while keeping the non-adiabatic spectrum approximately untouched. In this case, towards the end of inflation all the fluctuations, adiabatic and non-adiabatic, are dominated by a single degree of freedom.

  8. Effets de l'humidite sur la propagation du delaminage dans un composite carbone/epoxy sollicite en mode mixte I/II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, Luc R.

    Les materiaux composites sont de plus en plus utilises dans des domaines tels que l'aerospatiale, les voitures a hautes performances et les equipements sportifs, pour en nommer quelques-uns. Des etudes ont demontre qu'une exposition a l'humidite nuit a la resistance des composites en favorisant l'initiation et la propagation du delaminage. De ces etudes, tres peu traitent de l'effet de l'humidite sur l'initiation du delaminage en mode mixte I/II et aucune ne traite des effets de l'humidite sur le taux de propagation du delaminage en mode mixte I/II dans un composite. La premiere partie de cette these consiste a determiner les effets de l'humidite sur la propagation du delaminage lors d'une sollicitation en mode mixte I/II. Des eprouvettes d'un composite unidirectionnel de carbone/epoxy (G40-800/5276-1) ont ete immergees dans un bain d'eau distillee a 70°C jusqu'a leur saturation. Des essais experimentaux quasi-statiques avec des chargements d'une gamme de mixites des modes I/II (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% et 100%) ont ete executes pour determiner les effets de l'humidite sur la resistance au delaminage du composite. Des essais de fatigue ont ete realises, avec la meme gamme de mixite des modes I/II, pour determiner 1'effet de 1'humidite sur l'initiation et sur le taux de propagation du delaminage. Les resultats des essais en chargement quasi-statique ont demontre que l'humidite reduit la resistance au delaminage d'un composite carbone/epoxy pour toute la gamme des mixites des modes I/II, sauf pour le mode I ou la resistance au delaminage augmente apres une exposition a l'humidite. Pour les chargements en fatigue, l'humidite a pour effet d'accelerer l'initiation du delaminage et d'augmenter le taux de propagation pour toutes les mixites des modes I/II. Les donnees experimentales recueillies ont ete utilisees pour determiner lesquels des criteres de delaminage en statique et des modeles de taux de propagation du delaminage en fatigue en mode mixte I/II proposes dans la

  9. Central and peripheral cardiovascular effects of angiotensin III in trout.

    PubMed

    Mimassi, N; Lancien, F; Le Mével, J C

    2009-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the central and peripheral actions of trout angiotensin III (ANG III) on heart rate (HR) and mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (P(DA)) in the unanaesthetized rainbow trout. Intracerebroventricular injection of ANG III (5-100 pmol) produced a significant and dose-dependent increase in HR without significant change in P(DA). In contrast, when injected peripherally ANG III (5-50 pmol) evoked a significant and dose-dependent increase in P(DA). The hypertensive responses were accompanied by a bradycardia that reached significance only for the highest dose of ANG III tested. In conclusion, our results have shown that ANG III has potent and contrasting cardiovascular actions depending on whether its site of action is the brain or the peripheral circulation. Endogenous ANG III may have important physiological functions in teleost fishes.

  10. Neoclassical viscosity effects on resistive magnetohydrodynamic modes in toroidal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.G.; Oh, Y.H.; Choi, D.I. ); Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. )

    1992-03-01

    The flux-surface-averaged linearized resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary-layer equations including the compressibility, diamagnetic drift, and neoclassical viscosity terms are derived in toroidal geometry. These equations describe the resistive layer dynamics of resistive MHD modes over the collisionality regime between the banana plateau and the Pfirsch--Schlueter. From the resulting equations, the effects of neoclassical viscosity on the stability of the tearing and resistive ballooning modes are investigated numerically. Also, a study is given for the problem of how the neoclassical resistive MHD mode is generated as the collisionality is reduced. It is shown that the neoclassical viscosity terms give a significant destabilizing effect for the tearing and resistive ballooning modes. This destabilization comes mainly from the reduction of the stabilizing effect of the parallel ion sound compression by the ion neoclassical viscosity. In the banana-plateau collisionality limit, where the compressibility is negligible, the dispersion relations of the tearing and resistive ballooning modes reduce to the same form, with the threshold value of the driving force given by {Delta}{sub {ital c}}=0. On the other hand, with the finite neoclassical effect it is found that the neoclassical resistive MHD instability is generated in agreement with previous results. Furthermore, it is shown that this later instability can be generated in a wide range of the collisionality including near the Pfirsch--Schlueter regime as well as the banana-plateau regime, suggesting that this mode is a probable cause of anomalous transport.

  11. Survey mode effects on valuation of environmental goods.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jason; Huber, Joel; Viscusi, W Kip

    2011-04-01

    This article evaluates the effect of the choice of survey recruitment mode on the value of water quality in lakes, rivers, and streams. Four different modes are compared: bringing respondents to one central location after phone recruitment, mall intercepts in two states, national phone-mail survey, and an Internet survey with a national, probability-based panel. The modes differ in terms of the representativeness of the samples, non-response rates, sample selection effects, and consistency of responses. The article also shows that the estimated value of water quality can differ substantially depending on the survey mode. The national Internet panel has the most desirable properties with respect to performance on the four important survey dimensions of interest.

  12. Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    necessary to effect repair. Indenture Levels: The levels which identify or describe the relative complexity of an assembly or function. Local Effect...FMECA 9 3.0 FMEA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES The FMEA can be implemented using a hardware or functional approach. Often, due to system complexity , the FMEA...will be performed as a combination of the two types. The complexity of each design, its state of development and the data available, will dictate the

  13. Bending effect on fiber acousto-optic mode coupling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhui; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yan; Luo, Ye

    2005-08-20

    The acousto-optic effect in a bent fiber is studied experimentally and numerically by using the scalar finite-element method. The resulting transmission spectra show that new mode-coupling peaks appear due to the breaking of the mode spatial symmetry. The strength of new peaks increases as the fiber-bending curvature increases with a redshift or blueshift in wavelength, strongly depending on the orientation of fiber bending with respect to the acoustic-wave vibration direction.

  14. [Failure mode effect analysis applied to preparation of intravenous cytostatics].

    PubMed

    Santos-Rubio, M D; Marín-Gil, R; Muñoz-de la Corte, R; Velázquez-López, M D; Gil-Navarro, M V; Bautista-Paloma, F J

    2016-01-01

    To proactively identify risks in the preparation of intravenous cytostatic drugs, and to prioritise and establish measures to improve safety procedures. Failure Mode Effect Analysis methodology was used. A multidisciplinary team identified potential failure modes of the procedure through a brainstorming session. The impact associated with each failure mode was assessed with the Risk Priority Number (RPN), which involves three variables: occurrence, severity, and detectability. Improvement measures were established for all identified failure modes, with those with RPN>100 considered critical. The final RPN (theoretical) that would result from the proposed measures was also calculated and the process was redesigned. A total of 34 failure modes were identified. The initial accumulated RPN was 3022 (range: 3-252), and after recommended actions the final RPN was 1292 (range: 3-189). RPN scores >100 were obtained in 13 failure modes; only the dispensing sub-process was free of critical points (RPN>100). A final reduction of RPN>50% was achieved in 9 failure modes. This prospective risk analysis methodology allows the weaknesses of the procedure to be prioritised, optimize use of resources, and a substantial improvement in the safety of the preparation of cytostatic drugs through the introduction of double checking and intermediate product labelling. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of type III secretion system in effective biocontrol pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Almario, Juliana; Gobbin, Davide; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Functional type III secretion system (T3SS) genes are needed for effective biocontrol of Pythium damping-off of cucumber by Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, but whether biocontrol Pseudomonas strains with T3SS genes display overall a higher plant-protecting activity is unknown. The assessment of 198 biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads originating from 60 soils worldwide indicated that 32% harbour the ATPase-encoding T3SS gene hrcN, which was most often found in tomato isolates. The hrcN(+) biocontrol strains (and especially those also producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and displaying 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity) displayed higher plant-protecting ability in comparison with hrcN(-) biocontrol strains, both in the Pythium/cucumber and Fusarium/cucumber pathosystems. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Ca2+ on refolding of the recombinant hemolytic lectin CEL-III.

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, Keigo; Unno, Hideaki; Goda, Shuichiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2009-05-01

    CEL-III is a hemolytic lectin isolated from Cucumaria echinata. Although recombinant CEL-III (rCEL-III) expressed in Escherichia coli showed very weak hemolytic activity compared with native protein, it was considerably enhanced by refolding in the presence of Ca(2+). This suggests that Ca(2+) supported correct folding of the carbohydrate-binding domains of rCEL-III, leading to effective binding to the cell surface and subsequent self-oligomerization.

  17. Failure Mode and Effects RHIC Cryogenic Liquid Storage Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, Michael

    1999-02-16

    The object of a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is to identify all the postulated modes of failure within a system or sub system design so that hazards from the resultant effects can be eliminated or control to an acceptable level of risk at the earliest possible time. The analysis shall be used to assess existing high risk items and the systems or sub-systems, in the design state. The analysis will then provide us with the information needed to minimize hazardous effects due to component failure.

  18. Verification of gyrokinetic particle simulation of current-driven instability in fusion plasmas. III. Collisionless tearing mode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Dongjian; Bao, Jian; Han, Tao; Wang, Jiaqi; Lin, Zhihong

    2016-02-15

    A finite-mass electron fluid model for low frequency electromagnetic fluctuations, particularly the collisionless tearing mode, has been implemented in the gyrokinetic toroidal code. Using this fluid model, linear properties of the collisionless tearing mode have been verified. Simulations verify that the linear growth rate of the single collisionless tearing mode is proportional to D{sub e}{sup 2}, where D{sub e} is the electron skin depth. On the other hand, the growth rate of a double tearing mode is proportional to D{sub e} in the parameter regime of fusion plasmas.

  19. The low density type III ELMy H-mode regime on JET-ILW: a low density H-mode compatible with a tungsten divertor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delabie, E.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Mailloux, J.; Maggi, C. F.; Rimini, F.; Solano, E. R.; JET contributors Team

    2016-10-01

    The threshold power to access H-mode on JET-ILW has a minimum as function of density. Power ramps in the low and high density branch show qualitatively very different behavior above threshold. In the high density branch, edge density and temperature abruptly increase after the L-H transition, and the plasma evolves into a type I ELMy H-mode. Transitions in the low density branch are gradual and lead to the formation of a temperature pedestal, without increase in edge density. These characteristics are reminiscent of the I-mode regime, but with high frequency ELM activity. The small ELMs allow stable H-mode operation with tolerable tungsten contamination, as long as both density and power stay below the type I ELM boundary. The density range in which the low density branch can be accessed scales favourably with toroidal field but unfavourably with isotope mass. At BT=3.4T, a stable H-mode has been obtained at = 2.9 1019 m-3 with up to 15 MW of heating power at H98y 0.9. Better knowledge of the operational boundaries of this high frequency ELM regime could provide insight in how to sustain it at higher heating power for high temperature scenarios. Work supported, in part, by the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  20. An Effective Distance Mode of Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, V. B.

    2006-08-01

    In January this year, Indira Gandhi National Open University, threw open a course in astronomy for the students pursuing B. Sc. Physics Programme. The course was designed by eminent academicians and chapters to it were contributed by several astronomers across India. I was asked to edit and give the course the final shape. The course contains material thought necessary for a graduate level introductory course and includes a few simple activities. To reach the students all over the country, the university decided to hold some twenty teleconferences with the students. Each conference was to feature a few concepts handled by an expert. The occasion was to used to exhort students to carry out some simple activities. The students are supposed to carry out these activities and report them as a folder to be examined by experts. A few conferences have been held so far. It is felt that this method may in fact be superior to the traditional classroom method, because here one can use all kinds of aids such as animations, movies and footages from other sources. For example, to teach some aspects of positional astronomy, the recordings from inside a planetarium were used. It is hoped that this method will turn out to be highly cost-effective and other institutions could follow it with profit.

  1. EFFECTS OF BICARBONATE ON GROWTH OF PASTEURELLA PESTIS III.

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, C. L.; Andrews, A. W.; Surgalla, M. J.

    1964-01-01

    Baugh, C. L. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), A. W. Andrews, and M. J. Surgalla. Effects of bicarbonate on growth of Pasteurella pestis. III. Replacement of bicarbonate by pyrimidines. J. Bacteriol. 88:1394–1398. 1964.—The effect of carbon dioxide on the growth of virulent Pasteurella pestis cultures at 37 C with aeration was studied by substituting known products of carbon dioxide fixation for bicarbonate in the test system. The growth of the virulent cells in the inoculum is stimulated and the culture remains virulent, if bicarbonate is replaced by orotic acid. The addition of cytosine, uracil, or citrulline also results in the retention of virulence, but the effect on the growth of the virulent cells is not as pronounced as with bicarbonate or orotic acid. It is proposed that an impaired pyrimidine synthesis due to a deficiency in carbomyl phosphate is responsible for the loss of virulence by P. pestis in aerated broth cultures at 37 C. The carbamyl phosphate deficiency may be enhanced by the loss of metabolically produced carbon dioxide at 37 C. PMID:14234798

  2. Oxidation modes and thermodynamics of Fe II-III oxyhydroxycarbonate green rust: Dissolution-precipitation versus in situ deprotonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Christian; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Naille, Sébastien; Renard, Aurélien; Khare, Varsha; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Morin, Guillaume; Génin, Jean-Marie R.

    2010-02-01

    Fe II-III hydroxycarbonate green rust GR(CO 32-), Fe II4 Fe III2 (OH) 12 CO 3·3H 2O, is oxidized in aqueous solutions with varying reaction kinetics. Rapid oxidation with either H 2O 2 or dissolved oxygen under neutral and alkaline conditions leads to the formation of ferric oxyhydroxycarbonate GR(CO 32-)∗, Fe III6 O 12 H 8 CO 3·3H 2O, via a solid-state reaction. By decreasing the flow of oxygen bubbled in the solution, goethite α-FeOOH forms by dissolution-precipitation mechanism whereas a mixture of non-stoichiometric magnetite Fe (3-x)O 4 and goethite is observed for lower oxidation rates. The intermediate Fe II-III oxyhydroxycarbonate of formula Fe II6(1-x) Fe III6x O 12 H 2(7-3x) CO 3·3H 2O, i.e. GR( x)∗ for which x ɛ [1/3, 1], is the synthetic compound that is homologous to the fougerite mineral present in hydromorphic gleysol; in situ oxidation accounts for the variation of ferric molar fraction x = [Fe III]/{[Fe II]+[Fe III]} observed in the field as a function of depth and season but limited to the range [1/3, 2/3]. The domain of stability for partially oxidized green rust is observed in the Eh-pH Pourbaix diagrams if thermodynamic properties of GR( x)∗ is compared with those of lepidocrocite, γ-FeOOH, and goethite, α-FeOOH. Electrochemical equilibrium between GR( x)∗ and Fe II in solution corresponds to Eh-pH conditions close to those measured in the field. Therefore, the reductive dissolution of GR( x)∗ can explain the relatively large concentration of Fe II measured in aqueous medium of hydromorphic soils containing fougerite.

  3. Polarization Effects in Group III-Nitride Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qiyuan

    Group III-nitride semiconductors have wide application in optoelectronic devices. Spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects have been found to be critical for electric and optical properties of group III-nitrides. In this dissertation, firstly, the crystal orientation dependence of the polarization is calculated and in-plane polarization is revealed. The in-plane polarization is sensitive to the lateral characteristic dimension determined by the microstructure. Specific semi-polar plane growth is suggested for reducing quantum-confined Stark effect. The macroscopic electrostatic field from the polarization discontinuity in the heterostructures is discussed, b ased on that, the band diagram of InGaN/GaN quantum well/barrier and AlGaN/GaN heterojunction is obtained from the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations. New device design such as triangular quantum well with the quenched polarization field is proposed. Electron holography in the transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the electrostatic potential under polarization effects. The measured potential energy profiles of heterostructure are compared with the band simulation, and evidences of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in a wurtzite AlGaN/ AlN/ GaN superlattice, as well as quasi two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a zinc-blende AlGaN/GaN are found. The large polarization discontinuity of AlN/GaN is the main source of the 2DHG of wurtzite nitrides, while the impurity introduced during the growth of AlGaN layer provides the donor states that to a great extent balance the free electrons in zinc-blende nitrides. It is also found that the quasi-2DEG concentration in zinc-blende AlGaN/GaN is about one order of magnitude lower than the wurtzite AlGaN/GaN, due to the absence of polarization. Finally, the InAlN/GaN lattice-matched epitaxy, which ideally has a zero piezoelectric polarization and strong spontaneous polarization, is experimentally studied. The breakdown in

  4. Effects of induced vibration modes on droplet sliding phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, Jose Eduardo; Alvarado, Jorge; Yao, Chun-Wei; Dropwise Condensation Collaboration; Engineered Surfaces Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been undertaken to understand the effects of induced vibration modes on droplet sliding phenomena. A mathematical model has been postulated which is capable of estimating accurately droplet sliding angles when using hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The model, which takes into account equilibrium contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, and droplet volume, has been validated using experimental data. The model has been modified to be able to estimate droplet sliding angle when different modes of vibrations are imposed on the surfaces. Experimental results to date reveal that when resonance modes of vibrations are imposed, the droplet sliding angles decrease considerably. The results also indicate that the modified model can be used effectively to relate imposed resonance frequencies to the critical sliding angle of droplets. LSAMP sponsored NSF Fellowship.

  5. Are two hands (from different people) better than one? Mode effects and differential transfer between manual coordination modes.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jamie C; Crites, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    We report an experiment in which we investigated differential transfer between unimanual (one-handed), bimanual (two-handed), and intermanual (different peoples' hands) coordination modes. People perform some manual tasks faster than others ("mode effects"). However, little is known about transfer between coordination modes. To investigate differential transfer, we draw hypotheses from two perspectives--information based and constraint based--of bimanual and interpersonal coordination and skill acquisition. Participants drove a teleoperated rover around a circular path in sets of two 2-min trials using two of the different coordination modes. Speed and variability of the rover's path were measured. Order of coordination modes was manipulated to examine differential transfer and mode effects. Differential transfer analyses revealed patterns of positive transfer from simpler (localized spatiotemporal constraints) to more complex (distributed spatiotemporal constraints) coordination modes paired with negative transfer in the opposite direction. Mode effects indicated that intermanual performance was significantly faster than unimanual performance, and bimanual performance was intermediate. Importantly, all of these effects disappeared with practice. The observed patterns of differential transfer between coordination modes may be better accounted for by a constraint-based explanation of differential transfer than by an information-based one. Mode effects may be attributable to anticipatory movements based on dyads' access to mutual visual information. Although people may be faster using more-complex coordination modes, when operators transition between modes, they may be more effective transitioning from simpler (e.g., bimanual) to more complex (e.g., intermanual) modes than vice versa. However, this difference may be critical only for novel or rarely practiced tasks.

  6. The effect of search mode on dimension weighting.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Takatsune

    2014-01-01

    In a visual feature search task, reaction times to a singleton target are known to be shorter when participants have advance knowledge of the defining-features of targets. The present study examined whether the prior-knowledge effect is influenced by search modes (feature vs. singleton). In addition, using a variant of the flanker task, the present study assessed whether prior-knowledge affected efficiency of attentional focusing to a target. When participants performed a target discrimination task (i.e., compound search task), using a singleton detection mode, no prior-knowledge effect was found (Experiments 1 and 3). However, when the same task was performed using a feature search mode, prior-knowledge facilitated performance (Experiment 2). This suggests that the dimension weighting of a target-defining feature is modulated by the search mode. Also flanker response congruency was affected by prior-knowledge suggesting that the dimension weighting correlated with attentional focusing to targets. On the other hand, inter-trial dimensional priming was not affected by the search mode. Implications for mechanisms of feature-based top-down control of attention in visual feature search are discussed.

  7. Nonlinear simulations of particle source effects on edge localized mode

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.; Tang, C. J.; Chen, S. Y.; Wang, Z. H.

    2015-12-15

    The effects of particle source (PS) with different intensities and located positions on Edge Localized Mode (ELM) are systematically studied with BOUT++ code. The results show the ELM size strongly decreases with increasing the PS intensity once the PS is located in the middle or bottom of the pedestal. The effects of PS on ELM depend on the located position of PS. When it is located at the top of the pedestal, peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes can extract more free energy from the pressure gradient and grow up to be a large filament at the initial crash phase and the broadening of mode spectrum can be suppressed by PS, which leads to more energy loss. When it is located in the middle or bottom of the pedestal, the extraction of free energy by P-B modes can be suppressed, and a small filament is generated. During the turbulence transport phase, the broader mode spectrum suppresses the turbulence transport when PS is located in the middle, while the zonal flow plays an important role in damping the turbulence transport when PS is located at the bottom.

  8. Langmuir mixing effects on global climate: WAVEWATCH III in CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Webb, Adrean; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Craig, Anthony; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Vertenstein, Mariana

    2016-07-01

    Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) have shown the effects of ocean surface gravity waves in enhancing the ocean boundary layer mixing through Langmuir turbulence. Neglecting this Langmuir mixing process may contribute to the common shallow bias in mixed layer depth in regions of the Southern Ocean and the Northern Atlantic in most state-of-the-art climate models. In this study, a third generation wave model, WAVEWATCH III, has been incorporated as a component of the Community Earth System Model, version 1.2 (CESM1.2). In particular, the wave model is now coupled with the ocean model through a modified version of the K-Profile Parameterization (KPP) to approximate the influence of Langmuir mixing. Unlike past studies, the wind-wave misalignment and the effects of Stokes drift penetration depth are considered through empirical scalings based on the rate of mixing in LES. Wave-Ocean only experiments show substantial improvements in the shallow biases of mixed layer depth in the Southern Ocean. Ventilation is enhanced and low concentration biases of pCFC-11 are reduced in the Southern Hemisphere. A majority of the improvements persist in the presence of other climate feedbacks in the fully coupled experiments. In addition, warming of the subsurface water over the majority of global ocean is observed in the fully coupled experiments with waves, and the cold subsurface ocean temperature biases are reduced.

  9. Effect of plasma motion on tearing modes in cylindrical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J. Q.; Peng, X. D.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of equilibrium plasma motion on the resistive m/n = 2/1 tearing mode (TM) in low β plasmas is investigated in cylindrical geometry (with m and n being poloidal and toroidal mode numbers). Without equilibrium plasma motion but with viscosity, the TM stability is mainly determined by the Reynolds number S and reaches maximum near S = 104, which is consistent with previous findings. The poloidal plasma rotation has stabilizing effect on TM; however, the rotation shear has destabilization effect in the low viscosity regime. The axial plasma motion has strong stabilizing effect on TM in the low viscosity regime for Prandtl number Pr < 1, while its shear has slight stabilizing effect with the decrease of growth rate less than 15%. When the axial velocity becomes large enough, the mode frequency tends to be independent of the Prandtl number. In the presence of parallel plasma motion, the growth rate is determined by the axial component at low parallel velocity, while determined by poloidal component at large parallel velocity. The parallel plasma motion drives the TM rotating in the opposite direction. It is shown that the equilibrium motion reduces the growth rate of TM by changing the phase difference and coupling coefficient between potential perturbation and magnetic flux perturbation (deviating from π/2 ), which results in a lower mode frequency. Compared to the role of velocity shear, the magnitude of plasma velocity itself at the m/n = 2/1 rational surface is dominant in determining the TM characteristics.

  10. Diversity of reactivity modes upon interplay between Au(iii)-bound isocyanides and cyclic nitrones: a theoretical consideration.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu

    2017-01-17

    Metal-bound isocyanides demonstrate a very rich chemistry towards 1,3-dipoles of the allyl anion type such as nitrones. Depending on the metal centre, dipole nature and substituent in isocyanides, cycloadducts, imine + isocyanates or metallacycles may be formed. In this work, the reasons for such diversity, intimate details of the reaction mechanism and main factors determining the chemoselectivity in the reaction between Au(iii)-bound isocyanides ([AuCl3(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]NR)]) and cyclic nitrones (-)O-N[combining low line](+)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)XXX[combining low line] (XXX = CH2CH2CMe2, CH2CH2CH2, OCH2CMe2, CH2OCMe2 and CH2CH2O) are analysed in detail by theoretical (DFT) methods. The formation of cycloadducts is controlled by the LUMOπ*(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]N) of isocyanides and it occurs in a stepwise manner via the initial nucleophilic addition of nitrone at the C atom of C[triple bond, length as m-dash]NR (except for nitronate (-)O-N[combining low line](+)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)CH2CH2O[combining low line]). The imine + isocyanate products are formed upon oxygen transfer from nitrones to isocyanides, and N-O bond cleavage is the main factor determining this process. A metallacycle is formed upon decomposition of the cycloadduct, and this process includes deprotonation of the oxadiazoline CH group/N-O bond cleavage and Cl(-) elimination/cyclization. The main factor controlling the metallacycle formation is the acidity of the endocyclic CH group in the cycloadduct. Effects of the substituent R in C[triple bond, length as m-dash]NR and the nitrone nature on the reactivity are analysed.

  11. Microturbulence in DIII-D tokamak pedestal. III. Effects of collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, X.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Xiao, Y.; Li, B.; Snyder, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Gyrokinetic simulations of the H-mode pedestal in DIII-D discharge 145701 find that the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) is the most unstable mode for low toroidal numbers (n ≤ 25) and that the trapped electron mode (TEM) dominates over the KBM at higher toroidal mode numbers for realistic pressure gradients in the pedestal. Collisions reduce the TEM growth rate but have little effects on the KBM. KBM has the conventional ballooning mode structure peaking at the outer mid-plane, while TEM has an unconventional mode structure peaking at the top and bottom of the poloidal plane.

  12. Effects of Presentation Mode and Visual Characteristics on Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David M.; Bedient, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    Describes two experiments conducted with undergraduate students to determine effects of field dependence/independence on visual characteristics and presentation modes. The first studied content information recall from still projected visuals of different sizes and types of illustrations; the second studied visual-location task performance and…

  13. Enhancing Effective Chemistry Learning through Hypermedia Instructional Mode of Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abanikannda, Mutahir Oluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a framework for the production of Hypermedia Instructional package. It also assessed the effectiveness of hypermedia instructional mode of delivery on students? performance in Chemistry. This is with a view of improving the learning of Chemistry which may eventually help to improve students? performance. The developmental study…

  14. Propofol sedation Quality and safety. Failure mode and effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Huergo Fernández, Adrián; Amor Martín, Pedro; Fernández Cadenas, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    Sedation is a key component of digestive endoscopy. While ensuring procedural safety and quality represents a primary goal, a detailed assessment of patient-focused risks and improvements is lacking on most occasions. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a useful tool in this context as a means of raising barriers and defense mechanisms to prevent adverse events from developing.

  15. Procedure for Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the accomplishment of Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) on the Apollo program. It is a procedure for analysis of hardware items to determine those items contributing most to system unreliability and crew safety problems.

  16. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA): A Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a bottom-up analytical process that identifies process hazards, which helps managers understand vulnerabilities of systems, as well as assess and mitigate risk. It is one of several engineering tools and techniques available to program and project managers aimed at increasing the likelihood of safe and successful NASA programs and missions. This bibliography references 465 documents in the NASA STI Database that contain the major concepts, failure modes or failure analysis, in either the basic index of the major subject terms.

  17. Effect of Population III Multiplicity on Dark Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Athena; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    We numerically study the mutual interaction between dark matter (DM) and Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in order to explore the possibility of Pop III dark stars within this physical scenario. We perform a cosmological simulation, initialized at z approx. 100, which follows the evolution of gas and DM. We analyze the formation of the first mini halo at z approx. 20 and the subsequent collapse of the gas to densities of 10(exp 12)/cu cm. We then use this simulation to initialize a set of smaller-scale 'cut-out' simulations in which we further refine the DM to have spatial resolution similar to that of the gas. We test multiple DM density profiles, and we employ the sink particle method to represent the accreting star-forming region. We find that, for a range of DM configurations, the motion of the Pop III star-disk system serves to separate the positions of the protostars with respect to the DM density peak, such that there is insufficient DM to influence the formation and evolution of the protostars for more than approx. 5000 years. In addition, the star-disk system causes gravitational scattering of the central DM to lower densities, further decreasing the influence of DM over time. Any DM-powered phase of Pop III stars will thus be very short-lived for the typical multiple system, and DM will not serve to significantly prolong the life of Pop III stars.

  18. The effect of mixed mode precracking on the mode 1 fracture toughness of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, Prashanth; Bascom, Williard D.; Nairn, John A.

    1993-01-01

    We subjected double cantilever beam specimens from four different composite materials to mixed-mode precracking. Three different precracking mode 1 to mode 2 ratios were used--1 to 4, 1 to 1, and 4 to 1. Following precracking the specimens were tested for mode I fracture toughness. The mixed-mode precracking often influenced the mode 1 toughness and its influence persisted for as much as 60 mm of mode 1 crack growth. We tested composites with untoughened matrices, composites with rubber-toughened matrices, and composites with interlayer toughening. Depending on material type and precracking mode ratio, the precracking could cause either a significant increase or a significant decrease in the mode 1 fracture toughness.

  19. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes in relativistic laser fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belghit, Slimen; Sid, Abdelaziz

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the Weibel instability (WI) due to inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) absorption in a laser fusion plasma has been investigated. The stabilization effect due to the coupling of the self-generated magnetic field by WI with the laser wave field is explicitly shown. In this study, the relativistic effects are taken into account. Here, the basic equation is the relativistic Fokker-Planck (F-P) equation. The main obtained result is that the coupling of self-generated magnetic field with the laser wave causes a stabilizing effect of excited Weibel modes. We found a decrease in the spectral range of Weibel unstable modes. This decreasing is accompanied by a reduction of two orders in the growth rate of instable Weibel modes or even stabilization of these modes. It has been shown that the previous analysis of the Weibel instability due to IB has overestimated the values of the generated magnetic fields. Therefore, the generation of magnetic fields by the WI due to IB should not affect the experiences of an inertial confinement fusion.

  20. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes in relativistic laser fusion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Belghit, Slimen Sid, Abdelaziz

    2016-06-15

    In this work, the Weibel instability (WI) due to inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) absorption in a laser fusion plasma has been investigated. The stabilization effect due to the coupling of the self-generated magnetic field by WI with the laser wave field is explicitly shown. In this study, the relativistic effects are taken into account. Here, the basic equation is the relativistic Fokker-Planck (F-P) equation. The main obtained result is that the coupling of self-generated magnetic field with the laser wave causes a stabilizing effect of excited Weibel modes. We found a decrease in the spectral range of Weibel unstable modes. This decreasing is accompanied by a reduction of two orders in the growth rate of instable Weibel modes or even stabilization of these modes. It has been shown that the previous analysis of the Weibel instability due to IB has overestimated the values of the generated magnetic fields. Therefore, the generation of magnetic fields by the WI due to IB should not affect the experiences of an inertial confinement fusion.

  1. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Huang, Kai-Yu

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  2. A simulation study on the mode conversion process from slow Z-mode to LO mode by the tunneling effect and variations of beaming angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaee, Mohammad Javad; Katoh, Yuto

    2014-12-01

    For a particular angle of incidence wave, it is possible for a slow Z-mode wave incident on an inhomogeneous plasma slab to be converted into an LO mode wave. But for another wave normal angle of the incident wave, it has been considered impossible, since an evanescence region exists between two mode branches. In this case we expect that the mode conversion takes place through the tunneling effect. We investigate the effect of the spatial scale of the density gradient on the mode conversion efficiency in an inhomogeneous plasma where the mode conversion can occur only by the tunneling effect. We use the computer simulation solving Maxwell's equations and the motion of a cold electron fluid. By considering the steepness of the density gradient, the simulation results show the efficient mode conversion could be expected even in the case that the mismatch of the refractive indexes prevents the close coupling of plasma waves. Also, we show for these cases the beaming angle does not correspond to Jones' formula. This effect leads to the angles larger and smaller than the angle estimated by the formula. This type of mode conversion process becomes important in a case where the different plasmas form a discontinuity at their contact boundary.

  3. Reorganization of intramolecular high frequency vibrational modes and dynamic solvent effect in electron transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Yudanov, Vladislav V; Mikhailova, Valentina A; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2012-04-26

    The possibility of the multichannel stochastic model to adequately describe all principal regularities observed in thermal electron transfer kinetics has been demonstrated. The most important are as follows: (i) the model predicts the solvent controlled regime in the Marcus normal region and its almost full suppression in the Marcus inverted region as well as a continuous transition between them in the vicinity of the activationless region; (ii) the suppression of dynamic solvent effect (DSE) is principally caused by the reorganization of high frequency vibrational modes; (iii) an additional factor of the DSE suppression stems from fast solvent relaxation component; (iv) in the inverted region, the multichannel stochastic model predicts the apparent activation energy to be much less than that calculated with Marcus equation. The exploration of the multichannel stochastic model has allowed one to conclude that the reorganization of high frequency vibrational modes can (i) raise the maximum rate constant above the solvent controlled limit by 2 and more orders of magnitude, (ii) shift the rate constant maximum to larger values of the free energy gap, and (iii) approach the electron transfer kinetics to the nonadiabatic regime.

  4. Failure mode and effect analysis-based quality assurance for dynamic MLC tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sawant, Amit; Dieterich, Sonja; Svatos, Michelle; Keall, Paul

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: To develop and implement a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)-based commissioning and quality assurance framework for dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tumor tracking systems. Methods: A systematic failure mode and effect analysis was performed for a prototype real-time tumor tracking system that uses implanted electromagnetic transponders for tumor position monitoring and a DMLC for real-time beam adaptation. A detailed process tree of DMLC tracking delivery was created and potential tracking-specific failure modes were identified. For each failure mode, a risk probability number (RPN) was calculated from the product of the probability of occurrence, the severity of effect, and the detectibility of the failure. Based on the insights obtained from the FMEA, commissioning and QA procedures were developed to check (i) the accuracy of coordinate system transformation, (ii) system latency, (iii) spatial and dosimetric delivery accuracy, (iv) delivery efficiency, and (v) accuracy and consistency of system response to error conditions. The frequency of testing for each failure mode was determined from the RPN value. Results: Failures modes with RPN{>=}125 were recommended to be tested monthly. Failure modes with RPN<125 were assigned to be tested during comprehensive evaluations, e.g., during commissioning, annual quality assurance, and after major software/hardware upgrades. System latency was determined to be {approx}193 ms. The system showed consistent and accurate response to erroneous conditions. Tracking accuracy was within 3%-3 mm gamma (100% pass rate) for sinusoidal as well as a wide variety of patient-derived respiratory motions. The total time taken for monthly QA was {approx}35 min, while that taken for comprehensive testing was {approx}3.5 h. Conclusions: FMEA proved to be a powerful and flexible tool to develop and implement a quality management (QM) framework for DMLC tracking. The authors conclude that the use of FMEA-based QM ensures

  5. Failure mode and effect analysis-based quality assurance for dynamic MLC tracking systems

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Amit; Dieterich, Sonja; Svatos, Michelle; Keall, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and implement a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)-based commissioning and quality assurance framework for dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tumor tracking systems. Methods: A systematic failure mode and effect analysis was performed for a prototype real-time tumor tracking system that uses implanted electromagnetic transponders for tumor position monitoring and a DMLC for real-time beam adaptation. A detailed process tree of DMLC tracking delivery was created and potential tracking-specific failure modes were identified. For each failure mode, a risk probability number (RPN) was calculated from the product of the probability of occurrence, the severity of effect, and the detectibility of the failure. Based on the insights obtained from the FMEA, commissioning and QA procedures were developed to check (i) the accuracy of coordinate system transformation, (ii) system latency, (iii) spatial and dosimetric delivery accuracy, (iv) delivery efficiency, and (v) accuracy and consistency of system response to error conditions. The frequency of testing for each failure mode was determined from the RPN value. Results: Failures modes with RPN≥125 were recommended to be tested monthly. Failure modes with RPN<125 were assigned to be tested during comprehensive evaluations, e.g., during commissioning, annual quality assurance, and after major software∕hardware upgrades. System latency was determined to be ∼193 ms. The system showed consistent and accurate response to erroneous conditions. Tracking accuracy was within 3%–3 mm gamma (100% pass rate) for sinusoidal as well as a wide variety of patient-derived respiratory motions. The total time taken for monthly QA was ∼35 min, while that taken for comprehensive testing was ∼3.5 h. Conclusions: FMEA proved to be a powerful and flexible tool to develop and implement a quality management (QM) framework for DMLC tracking. The authors conclude that the use of FMEA-based QM ensures efficient

  6. Fiber based mode locked fiber laser using Kerr effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long

    This dissertation reports on the research to design and build a pulsed fiber laser with the Er doped fiber based on a new mode locking technique. The numerical simulations begin by launching an optical wave in a fiber which will be amplified during propagation. The device to mode-lock the waves is outside the fiber, but connecting to fibers at both ends; it is a nonlinear optical material that can reshape the beam as it propagates using a nonlinear change of the refractive index, which is called a Kerr effect. The device is made with a nonlinear material sandwiched between two fiber ends; it takes an optical field from one end of the fiber and propagates it to the other fiber end. In between the two ends, a nonlinear medium will be used to balance the diffraction through Kerr effect (which can lead to Self-focusing of the optical beam). With the second fiber end working as a soft aperture, the combination of the self-focusing effect through the nonlinear medium and the aperture will act as an intensity dependent coupling loss; this effect is referred to as a fast saturable absorber which means that higher intensity corresponds to higher coupling efficiency and thus the cavity modes will be gradually phase locked together to form pulses. The saturable absorber action is calculated using different nonlinear mediums (CS2, As2S2 and As 40Se60) and the fibers used are assumed to be of the same size. Whole cavity simulation is then conducted using the proposed SA design and the pulse energy produced from the laser cavity is generally below 1 nJ. In those simulations the pulse peak power is weak and the saturable absorber action is not strong. Experiments are designed to test the mode locking idea with the chalcogenide glass plate (As40Se60). Firstly, a mode locked laser is constructed from a ring fiber laser cavity with an Er doped fiber as the gain fiber. Three modes from this cavity are routinely generated. Two modes have pulse durations of 220 fs and 160 fs with

  7. One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III).

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaofen; Cao, Rui; Lu, Aihua; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Li, Chaojun; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-05-01

    One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III) was investigated using some biophysical and biochemical methods. Firstly, it was found that a large amount of Tb(III) can be distributed on the cell wall, that some Tb(III) can enter into the horseradish cell, indicating that peroxidase was mainly distributed on cell wall, and thus that Tb(III) would interact with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the plant. In addition, peroxidase bioactivity was decreased in the presence of Tb(III). Secondly, a new peroxidase-containing Tb(III) complex (Tb-HRP) was obtained from horseradish after treatment with Tb(III); the molecular mass of Tb-HRP is near 44 kDa and the pI is about 8.80. Thirdly, the electrocatalytic activity of Tb-HRP is much lower than that of HRP obtained from horseradish without treatment with Tb(III). The decrease in the activity of Tb-HRP is due to the destruction (unfolding) of the conformation in Tb-HRP. The planarity of the heme active center in the Tb-HRP molecule was increased and the extent of exposure of Fe(III) in heme was decreased, leading to inhibition of the electron transfer. The microstructure change in Tb-HRP might be the result of the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish.

  8. Mode splitting effect in FEMs with oversized Bragg resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Peskov, N. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S.; Kaminsky, A. K.; Perelstein, E. A.; Sedykh, S. N.; Kuzikov, S. V.

    2016-07-15

    Splitting of the fundamental mode in an oversized Bragg resonator with a step of the corrugation phase, which operates over the feedback loop involving the waveguide waves of different transverse structures, was found to be the result of mutual influence of the neighboring zones of the Bragg scattering. Theoretical description of this effect was developed within the framework of the advanced (four-wave) coupled-wave approach. It is shown that mode splitting reduces the selective properties, restricts the output power, and decreases the stability of the narrow-band operating regime in the free-electron maser (FEM) oscillators based on such resonators. The results of the theoretical analysis were confirmed by 3D simulations and “cold” microwave tests. Experimental data on Bragg resonators with different parameters in a 30-GHz FEM are presented. The possibility of reducing the mode splitting by profiling the corrugation parameters is shown. The use of the mode splitting effect for the output power enhancement by passive compression of the double-frequency pulse generated in the FEM with such a resonator is discussed.

  9. Linear canonical transformations of coherent and squeezed states in the Wigner phase space. III - Two-mode states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the basic symmetry of two-mode squeezed states is governed by the group SP(4) in the Wigner phase space which is locally isomorphic to the (3 + 2)-dimensional Lorentz group. This symmetry, in the Schroedinger picture, appears as Dirac's two-oscillator representation of O(3,2). It is shown that the SU(2) and SU(1,1) interferometers exhibit the symmetry of this higher-dimensional Lorentz group. The mathematics of two-mode squeezed states is shown to be applicable to other branches of physics including thermally excited states in statistical mechanics and relativistic extended hadrons in the quark model.

  10. Linear canonical transformations of coherent and squeezed states in the Wigner phase space. III - Two-mode states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the basic symmetry of two-mode squeezed states is governed by the group SP(4) in the Wigner phase space which is locally isomorphic to the (3 + 2)-dimensional Lorentz group. This symmetry, in the Schroedinger picture, appears as Dirac's two-oscillator representation of O(3,2). It is shown that the SU(2) and SU(1,1) interferometers exhibit the symmetry of this higher-dimensional Lorentz group. The mathematics of two-mode squeezed states is shown to be applicable to other branches of physics including thermally excited states in statistical mechanics and relativistic extended hadrons in the quark model.

  11. Highly Specific and Effective Targeting of EGFRvIII-Positive Tumors with TandAb Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ellwanger, Kristina; Reusch, Uwe; Fucek, Ivica; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weichel, Michael; Gantke, Thorsten; Molkenthin, Vera; Zhukovsky, Eugene A.; Tesar, Michael; Treder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To harness the cytotoxic capacity of immune cells for the treatment of solid tumors, we developed tetravalent, bispecific tandem diabody (TandAb) antibodies that recognize EGFRvIII, the deletion variant III of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and CD3 on T-cells, thereby directing immune cells to eliminate EGFRvIII-positive tumor cells. Using phage display, we identified scFv antibodies selectively binding to EGFRvIII. These highly EGFRvIII-specific, fully human scFv were substantially improved by affinity maturation, achieving KDs in the picomolar range, and were used to construct a set of bispecific EGFRvIII-targeting TandAbs with a broad range of binding and cytotoxic properties. These antibodies exhibited an exquisite specificity for a distinguished epitope in the N-terminal portion of EGFRvIII, as shown on recombinant antigen in Western Blot, SPR, and ELISA, as well as on antigen-expressing cells in FACS assays, and did not bind to the wild-type EGFR. High-affinity EGFRvIII/CD3 TandAbs were most potent in killing assays, displaying cytotoxicity toward EGFRvIII-expressing CHO, F98 glioma, or human DK-MG cells with EC50 values in the range of 1–10 pM in vitro. They also demonstrated dose-dependent growth control in vivo in an EGFRvIII-positive subcutaneous xenograft tumor model. Together with the tumor-exclusive expression of EGFRvIII, the EGFRvIII/CD3 TandAbs’ high specificity and strictly target-dependent activation with no off-target activity provide an opportunity to target tumor cells and spare normal tissues, thereby reducing the side effects associated with other anti-EGFR therapies. In summary, EGFRvIII/CD3 TandAbs are highly attractive therapeutic antibody candidates for selective immunotherapy of EGFRvIII-positive tumors. PMID:28596941

  12. The effect of K2SO4 solution on type III gypsum surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillary, N.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The working model of type III gypsum is commonly used as working model for removable dentures. K2SO4 is well known as an effective accelerator to accelerate the gypsum setting time. This study aimed to identify the effect of K2SO4 1.5% solution on type III gypsum surface roughness. Surface roughness tests were performed using a Surface Roughness Tester at 1 hour, 24 hours, and 7 days after manipulation the gypsum. The results showed that type III gypsum surface roughness varied until the 7-day test. Moreover, the surface roughness of type III gypsum and K2SO4 1.5% solution is lower than type III gypsum surface roughness and equal to type IV gypsum surface roughness. It is concluded that the addition of K2SO4 1.5% solution decreased type III gypsum surface roughness.

  13. Effects of Similarity in Action-Effect Configuration on Mode Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, Yukio; Fukuju, Ryuichi; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    Automated systems are often structured into modes for providing enhanced capabilities to perform complex tasks, but they also increase the need for and difficulty of maintaining mode awareness, which may induce mode errors and eventually lead to automation surprises. Salient feedback on the mode status is necessary for the user to maintain mode awareness, and it should be carefully designed not to interfere in the user's primary task to be achieved in collaboration with the systems. For the purpose of developing a practical theory for effective and robust supports for maintaining mode awareness, this study focuses on action-effect relations as an intuitive human-machine communication channel. An action-effect relation is defined as an association of a user action with some observable effects on the system behavior, and it is expected to provide additional valuable information on the internal state of the system with no focal visual attention required. From this perspective, one hypothesis is made that different modes with a same or similar configuration of action-effect relations should be easily mixed up with one another. This paper tests this hypothesis through a driving simulator experiment where subject drivers were examined on their awareness of the operating mode status of ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) during driving with the mode-rich automated system. Another experiment examines the contribution of differentiated configuration of action-effect relations to enhancing mode awareness.

  14. Application of failure mode and effects analysis to treatment planning in scanned proton beam radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A multidisciplinary and multi-institutional working group applied the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) approach to the actively scanned proton beam radiotherapy process implemented at CNAO (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica), aiming at preventing accidental exposures to the patient. Methods FMEA was applied to the treatment planning stage and consisted of three steps: i) identification of the involved sub-processes; ii) identification and ranking of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk probability number (RPN) scoring system, iii) identification of additional safety measures to be proposed for process quality and safety improvement. RPN upper threshold for little concern of risk was set at 125. Results Thirty-four sub-processes were identified, twenty-two of them were judged to be potentially prone to one or more failure modes. A total of forty-four failure modes were recognized, 52% of them characterized by an RPN score equal to 80 or higher. The threshold of 125 for RPN was exceeded in five cases only. The most critical sub-process appeared related to the delineation and correction of artefacts in planning CT data. Failures associated to that sub-process were inaccurate delineation of the artefacts and incorrect proton stopping power assignment to body regions. Other significant failure modes consisted of an outdated representation of the patient anatomy, an improper selection of beam direction and of the physical beam model or dose calculation grid. The main effects of these failures were represented by wrong dose distribution (i.e. deviating from the planned one) delivered to the patient. Additional strategies for risk mitigation, easily and immediately applicable, consisted of a systematic information collection about any known implanted prosthesis directly from each patient and enforcing a short interval time between CT scan and treatment start. Moreover, (i) the investigation of

  15. Effect of Class III bone anchor treatment on airway.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tung; De Clerck, Hugo; Wilson, Michael; Golden, Brent

    2015-07-01

    To compare airway volumes and minimum cross-section area changes of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) versus untreated Class III controls. Twenty-eight consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 10 and 14 years (mean age, 11.9 years) were treated using Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (two in the infra-zygomatic crests of the maxilla and two in the anterior mandible). The subjects had cone beam computed tomographs (CBCTs) taken before initial loading (T1) and 1 year out (T2). Twenty-eight untreated Class III patients (mean age, 12.4 years) had CBCTs taken and cephalograms generated. The airway volumes and minimum cross-sectional area measurements were performed using Dolphin Imaging 11.7 3D software. The superior border of the airway was defined by a plane that passes through the posterior nasal spine and basion, while the inferior border included the base of the epiglottis to the lower border of C3. From T1 to T2, airway volume from BAMP-treated subjects showed a statistically significant increase (1499.64 mm(3)). The area in the most constricted section of the airway (choke point) increased slightly (15.44 mm(2)). The airway volume of BAMP patients at T2 was 14136.61 mm(3), compared with 14432.98 mm(3) in untreated Class III subjects. Intraexaminer correlation coefficients values and 95% confidence interval values were all greater than .90, showing a high degree of reliability of the measurements. BAMP treatment did not hinder the development of the oropharynx.

  16. Development and Application of Benchmark Examples for Mixed-Mode I/II Quasi-Static Delamination Propagation Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The development of benchmark examples for quasi-static delamination propagation prediction is presented and demonstrated for a commercial code. The examples are based on finite element models of the Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimen. The examples are independent of the analysis software used and allow the assessment of the automated delamination propagation prediction capability in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, quasi-static benchmark examples were created for the specimen. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Good agreement between the results obtained from the automated propagation analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting input parameters that had previously been determined during analyses of mode I Double Cantilever Beam and mode II End Notched Flexure specimens. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination fatigue onset and growth is required.

  17. Effect of praseodymium(III) on zinc(II) species in human interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Wang, Jinping; Lu, Xin; Yang, Kuiyue; Niu, Chunji

    2005-11-01

    A multiphase model of metal ion species in human interstitial fluid was constructed under physiological conditions. The effect of Pr(III) on Zn(II) species was studied. At the normal conditions, Zn(II) species mainly distribute in [Zn(HSA)], [Zn(IgG)], and [Zn(Cys)(2)H](+). With the Pr(III) level increased, the apparent competition of Pr(III) for ligands lead to the redistribution of Zn(II) species.

  18. Microstructural effects on fracture toughness of polycrystalline ceramics in combined mode I and mode II loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, D.; Shetty, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Fracture toughness of polycrystalline alumina and ceria partially-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (CeO2-TZP) ceramics were assessed in combined mode I and mode II loading using precracked disk specimens in diametral compression. Stress states ranging from pure mode I, combined mode I and mode II, and pure mode II were obtained by aligning the center crack at specific angles relative to the loading diameter. The resulting mixed-mode fracture toughness envelope showed significant deviation to higher fracture toughness in mode II relative to the predictions of the linear elastic fracture mechanics theory. Critical comparison with corresponding results on soda-lime glass and fracture surface observations showed that crack surface resistance arising from grain interlocking and abrasion was the main source of the increased fracture toughness in mode II loading of the polycrystalline ceramics. The normalized fracture toughness for pure mode II loading, (KII/KIc), increased with increasing grain size for the CeO2-TZP ceramics. Quantitative fractography confirmed an increased percentage of transgranular fracture of the grains in mode II loading.

  19. Microstructural effects on fracture toughness of polycrystalline ceramics in combined mode I and mode II loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, D.; Shetty, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Fracture toughness of polycrystalline alumina and ceria partially-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (CeO2-TZP) ceramics were assessed in combined mode I and mode II loading using precracked disk specimens in diametral compression. Stress states ranging from pure mode I, combined mode I and mode II, and pure mode II were obtained by aligning the center crack at specific angles relative to the loading diameter. The resulting mixed-mode fracture toughness envelope showed significant deviation to higher fracture toughness in mode II relative to the predictions of the linear elastic fracture mechanics theory. Critical comparison with corresponding results on soda-lime glass and fracture surface observations showed that crack surface resistance arising from grain interlocking and abrasion was the main source of the increased fracture toughness in mode II loading of the polycrystalline ceramics. The normalized fracture toughness for pure mode II loading, (KII/KIc), increased with increasing grain size for the CeO2-TZP ceramics. Quantitative fractography confirmed an increased percentage of transgranular fracture of the grains in mode II loading.

  20. EFFECTS OF ASYMMETRIC FLOWS IN SOLAR CONVECTION ON OSCILLATION MODES

    SciTech Connect

    Baldner, Charles S.; Schou, Jesper

    2012-11-20

    Many helioseismic measurements suffer from substantial systematic errors. A particularly frustrating one is that time-distance measurements suffer from a large center to limb effect which looks very similar to the finite light travel time, except that the magnitude depends on the observable used and can have the opposite sign. This has frustrated attempts to determine the deep meridional flow in the solar convection zone, with Zhao et al. applying an ad hoc correction with little physical basis to correct the data. In this Letter, we propose that part of this effect can be explained by the highly asymmetrical nature of the solar granulation which results in what appears to the oscillation modes as a net radial flow, thereby imparting a phase shift on the modes as a function of observing height and thus heliocentric angle.

  1. Failure Mode Effects Analysis for an Accelerator Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) has been used in industry for design, manufacturing and assembly process quality control. It describes a formal approach for categorizing how a process may fail and for prioritizing failures based on their severity, frequency and likelihood of detection. Experience conducting a partial FMEA of an accelerator subsystem and its related control system will be reviewed. The applicability of the FMEA process to an operational accelerator control system will be discussed.

  2. Failure mode and effects analysis based risk profile assessment for stereotactic radiosurgery programs at three cancer centers in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Flavia C.

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and quality management program for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment processes at three radiotherapy centers in Brazil by using three industrial engineering tools (1) process mapping, (2) failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and (3) fault tree analysis. Methods: The recommendations of Task Group 100 of American Association of Physicists in Medicine were followed to apply the three tools described above to create a process tree for SRS procedure for each radiotherapy center and then FMEA was performed. Failure modes were identified for all process steps and values of risk priority number (RPN) were calculated from O, S, and D (RPN = O × S × D) values assigned by a professional team responsible for patient care. Results: The subprocess treatment planning was presented with the highest number of failure modes for all centers. The total number of failure modes were 135, 104, and 131 for centers I, II, and III, respectively. The highest RPN value for each center is as follows: center I (204), center II (372), and center III (370). Failure modes with RPN ≥ 100: center I (22), center II (115), and center III (110). Failure modes characterized by S ≥ 7, represented 68% of the failure modes for center III, 62% for center II, and 45% for center I. Failure modes with RPNs values ≥100 and S ≥ 7, D ≥ 5, and O ≥ 5 were considered as high priority in this study. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that the safety risk profiles for the same stereotactic radiotherapy process are different at three radiotherapy centers in Brazil. Although this is the same treatment process, this present study showed that the risk priority is different and it will lead to implementation of different safety interventions among the centers. Therefore, the current practice of applying universal device-centric QA is not adequate to address all possible failures in clinical processes at different

  3. Creep Effects on Design below the Temperature Limits of ASME Section III Subsection NB

    SciTech Connect

    Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I; Eno, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Some recent studies of material response have identified an issue that crosses over and blurs the boundary between ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III Subsection NB and Subsection NH. For very long design lives, the effects of creep show up at lower and lower temperature as the design life increases. Although true for the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by creep properties, the effect is more apparent, e.g. creep effects show up sooner, at local structural discontinuities and peak thermal stress locations. This is because creep is a function of time, temperature and stress and the higher the localized stress, the lower in temperature creep begins to cause damage. If the threshold is below the Subsection NB to NH temperature boundary, 700 F for ferritic steels and 800 F for austenitic materials, then this potential failure mode will not be considered. Unfortunately, there is no experience base with very long lives at temperatures close to but under the Subsection NB to NH boundary to draw upon. This issue is of particular interest in the application of Subsection NB rules of construction to some High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) concepts. The purpose of this paper is, thus, twofold; one part is about statistical treatment and extrapolation of sparse data for a specific material of interest, A533B; the other part is about how these results could impact current design procedures in Subsection NB.

  4. Creep Effects on Design below the Temperature Limits of ASME Section III Subsection NB

    SciTech Connect

    Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I; Eno, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Some recent studies of material response have identified an issue that crosses over and blurs the boundary between ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III Subsection NB and Subsection NH. For very long design lives, the effects of creep show up at lower and lower temperature as the design life increases. Although true for the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by creep properties, the effect is more apparent, e.g. creep effects show up sooner, at local structural discontinuities and peak thermal stress locations. This is because creep is a function of time, temperature and stress and the higher the localized stress, the lower in temperature creep begins to cause damage. If the threshold is below the Subsection NB to NH temperature boundary, 700 F for ferritic steels and 800 F for austenitic materials, then this potential failure mode will not be considered. Unfortunately, there is no experience base with very long lives at temperatures close to but under the Subsection NB to NH boundary to draw upon. This issue is of particular interest in the application of Subsection NB rules of construction to some High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) concepts. The purpose of this paper is, thus, twofold; one part is about statistical treatment and extrapolation of sparse data for a specific material of interest, A533B; the other part is about how these results could impact current design procedures in Subsection NB.

  5. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat. PMID:28241045

  6. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  7. Enhancement of optical Faraday effect of nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Koji; Fujita, Koji; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ito, Hajime; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2014-07-21

    The effective magneto-optical properties of novel nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes with Tb-O lattice (specifically, [Tb9(sal-R)16(μ-OH)10](+)NO3(-), where sal-R = alkyl salicylate (R = -CH3 (Me), -C2H5 (Et), -C3H7 (Pr), or -C4H9 (Bu)) are reported. The geometrical structures of these nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes were characterized using X-ray single-crystal analysis and shape-measure calculation. Optical Faraday rotation was observed in nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes in the visible region. The Verdet constant per Tb(III) ion of the Tb9(sal-Me) complex is 150 times larger than that of general Tb(III) oxide glass. To understand their large Faraday rotation, electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of Gd(III) complexes were carried out. In this Report, the magneto-optical relation to the coordination geometry of Tb ions is discussed.

  8. Hydrodynamic effects of the tip movement on surface nanobubbles: a combined tapping mode, lift mode and force volume mode AFM study.

    PubMed

    Walczyk, Wiktoria; Hain, Nicole; Schönherr, Holger

    2014-08-28

    We report on an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) study of AFM tip-nanobubble interactions in experiments conducted on argon surface nanobubbles on HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) in water in tapping mode, lift mode and Force Volume (FV) mode AFM. By subsequent data acquisition on the same nanobubbles in these three different AFM modes, we could directly compare the effect of different tip-sample interactions. The tip-bubble interaction strength was found to depend on the vertical and horizontal position of the tip on the bubble with respect to the bubble center. The interaction forces measured experimentally were in good agreement with the forces calculated using the dynamic interaction model. The strength of the hydrodynamic effect was also found to depend on the direction of the tip movement. It was more pronounced in the FV mode, in which the tip approaches the bubble from the top, than in the lift mode, in which the tip approaches the bubble from the side. This result suggests that the direction of tip movement influences the bubble deformation. The effect should be taken into account when nanobubbles are analysed by AFM in various scanning modes.

  9. Development and Application of Benchmark Examples for Mixed-Mode I/II Quasi-Static Delamination Propagation Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The development of benchmark examples for quasi-static delamination propagation prediction is presented. The example is based on a finite element model of the Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimen for 50% mode II. The benchmarking is demonstrated for Abaqus/Standard, however, the example is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the automated delamination propagation prediction capability in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, a quasi-static benchmark example was created for the specimen. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading. Third, the load-displacement as well as delamination length versus applied load/displacement relationships from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall, the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination fatigue onset and growth is required.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on the mixed-mode impact behavior of a 6061 aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Manoharan, M.

    1996-10-15

    In the mixed mode fracture toughness tests, the use of a modified compact tension specimen has enabled the testing of materials under a variety of combinations of mode I and mode III loadings. By using appropriately defined mixed-mode versions of the stress intensity factor K and the J integral, the susceptibility of these materials to mixed-mode fracture can be quantified. In addition to compact tension specimens, three point bend specimens with a inclined crack can also be used to determine the mixed-mode fracture behavior of materials. The aim of the present study was to study the feasibility of extending the mixed mode fracture concept to impact testing using a charpy type test specimen.

  11. The Effects of Non-Normality on Type III Error for Comparing Independent Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effects of non-normality on Type III error rates for ANOVA F its three commonly recommended parametric counterparts namely Welch, Brown-Forsythe, and Alexander-Govern test. Therefore these tests were compared in terms of Type III error rates across the variety of population distributions,…

  12. 'Junction-Level' Heterogeneous Integration of III-V Materials with Si CMOS for Novel Asymmetric Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon Jung

    Driven by Moore's law, semiconductor chips have become faster, denser and cheaper through aggressive dimension scaling. The continued scaling not only led to dramatic performance improvements in digital logic applications but also in mixed-mode and/or communication applications. Moreover, size/weight/power (SWAP) restrictions on all high-performance system components have resulted in multi-functional integration of multiple integrated circuits (ICs)/dies in 3D packages/ICs by various system-level approaches. However, these approaches still possess shortcomings and in order to truly benefit from the most advanced digital technologies, the future high-speed/high power devices for communication applications need to be fully integrated into a single CMOS chip. Due to limitations in Si device performance in high-frequency/power applications as well as expensive III-V compound semiconductor devices with low integration density, heterogeneous integration of compound semiconductor materials/devices with Si CMOS platform has emerged as a viable solution to low-cost high-performance ICs. In this study, we first discuss on channel and drain engineering approaches in the state-of-the-art multiple-gate field-effect transistor to integrate III-V compound semiconductor materials with Si CMOS for improved device performance in mixed-mode and/or communication applications. Then, growth, characterization and electrical analysis on small-area (diameter < 100nm) complete selective-area epitaxy of GaAs/GaN will be demonstrated for achieving 'dislocation-free' III-V compound semiconductor film on a Si(001) substrate. Based on a success in dislocation-free heterogeneous III-V film growth, we propose a novel ultra-scaled 'junction-level' heterogeneous integration onto mainstream Si CMOS platform. Device architecture and its key features to overcome aforementioned challenges will be given to demonstrate the potential to improve the overall system performance with diverse functionality.

  13. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observation at high altitudes.

  14. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of a magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observations at high latitudes.

  15. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under either...

  16. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  17. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  18. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  19. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  20. Could test length or order affect scores on letter number sequencing of the WAIS-III and WMS-III? Ruling out effects of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, D S; Zhu, J

    2000-11-01

    The Letter Number Sequencing subtest of the WAIS-III and WMS-III was administered at the end of the standardization edition of the WMS-III. It was not administered as part of the WAIS-III standardization battery. Nevertheless, the subtest was included in the published version of the WAIS-III. This study examines differences between examinees administered the Letter Number Sequencing subtest at three different times during a psychological battery: (1) as part of the published battery, (2) as part of the WMS-III when the WMS-III was administered as the first test in a sequence, and (3) as part of the WMS-III standardization when the WAIS-III was administered immediately preceding the WMS-III. The participants were 372 examinees ( n = 124 in each condition) who were matched on key demographic variables. A repeated measures MANOVA yielded no difference in subtest scores when administered in any of these conditions. The results show no evidence of fatigue or ordering effects on the Letter Number Sequencing subtest.

  1. Classroom Interaction in Effective and Ineffective Schools: Preliminary Results from Phase III of the Louisiana School Effectiveness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfield, Samuel; Teddlie, Charles; Suarez, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    A major focus in Phase III of the Louisiana School Effectiveness Study is on the relationship between classroom interaction patterns and school effectiveness. This paper presents observations on similarities and differences between prior teacher and school effectiveness studies, the LSES-III methodology, and preliminary results from one of the…

  2. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sandoval, C.E.; Connors, M.P.; Sheridan, T.J.; Sexton, F.W.; Slayton, E.M.; Heise, J.A.; Foster, C.

    1994-09-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10{sup 10} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-{mu}m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2} [equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad(GaAs)].

  3. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R. )

    1994-12-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10[sup 10] to 2 [times] 10[sup 14] protons/cm[sup 2]. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10[sup [minus]5] errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-[mu]m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10[sup 14] protons/cm[sup 2] [equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad (GaAs)].

  4. Effects of extended components of [O iii] on the correlation between the [O iii] luminosity and the power-law continuum luminosity for active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-Guang; Feng, Long-Long

    2017-06-01

    In this manuscript, we check the well-known correlation between [O iii] luminosity and continuum luminosity (L_{[O III]}-L_{5100Å} ) for active galactic nuclei (AGN) by a large sample of 1982 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Stellar Objects (QSOs) with z < 0.8 and with high-quality spectra. The strong correlation of L_{[O III]}-L_{5100Å} can be found, similar as previous results for AGN. Moreover, among the 1982 QSOs, there are 708 QSOs with the [O iii] λ5007 Å described by two components: one core component plus one extended component. Based on the luminosity from the core components (L_{[O III], narrow}) and from the extended components (L_{[O III], ext}), we confirm that the correlation of L_{[O III], ext}-L_{5100Å} is stronger and tighter than the correlations on the total [O iii] luminosity and on the luminosity of the core components of the [O iii] lines. Therefore, the luminosity of the extended components should be better applied to trace AGN intrinsic luminosity. Meanwhile, we have found strong line-width correlation and line luminosity correlation between the core components and the extended components, indicating that the extended components of the [O iii] lines should be not due to commonly considered radial flows in the common [O iii] line clouds. And virial effects due to gravity of central black holes naturally lead to the wider extended components from regions more nearer to central black holes. Finally, we can say that the reported correlation of L_{[O III], narrow}-L_{5100Å} on the core components of the [O iii] lines should be more better to estimate AGN intrinsic luminosity in type-2 narrow-line AGN, because of totally/partly obscured extended components.

  5. The Escherichia coli modE gene: effect of modE mutations on molybdate dependent modA expression.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, P M; Chiang, R C; Gunsalus, R P

    1996-11-15

    The Escherichia coli modABCD operon, which encodes a high-affinity molybdate uptake system, is transcriptionally regulated in response to molybdate availability by ModE. Here we describe a highly effective enrichment protocol, applicable to any gene with a repressor role, and establish its application in the isolation of transposon mutations in modE. In addition we show that disruption of the ModE C-terminus abolishes derepression in the absence of molybdate, implying this region of ModE controls the repressor activity. Finally, a mutational analysis of a proposed molybdate binding motif indicates that this motif does not function in regulating the repressor activity of ModE.

  6. Effects of Low Chromium(III) Concentration in Electrodeposition of Low Contraction Chromium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    AD TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-90014 EFFECTS OF LOW CHROMIUM(III) CONCENTRA TION IN ELECTRODEPOSITION oo OF LOW CONTRACTION CHROMIUMcv) N M. D. MILLER...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EFFECTS OF LOW CHROMIUM(III) CONCENTRATION IN Final ELECTRODEPOSITION OF LOW CONTRACTION CHROMIUM 6. PERFORMING ORG...effects of low chromium (Cr)(IIT) concentrations on the electrodeposition of low contraction (LC) chromium were studied. A systematic experiment was

  7. Fatigue resistance and failure mode of CAD/CAM composite resin implant abutments restored with type III composite resin and porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Magne, Pascal; Oderich, Elisa; Boff, Luís Leonildo; Cardoso, Antônio Carlos; Belser, Urs Christoph

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the fatigue resistance and failure mode of type III porcelain and composite resin veneers bonded to custom composite resin implant abutments. Using the CEREC 3 machine, 28 composite resin implant abutments (Paradigm MZ100) were fabricated along with non-retentive type III veneers, milled either in ceramic Paradigm C (n=14) or in composite resin Paradigm MZ100 (n=14). The intaglio surfaces of the veneers were hydrofluoric acid etched and silanated (Paradigm C) or airborne-particle abraded and silanated (MZ100). The fitting surface of the abutments was airborne-particle abraded, cleaned, silanated and inserted into a bone level implant (10 mm, BLI RC). All veneers were luted with adhesive resin (Optibond FL) and a preheated light curing composite resin (Filtek Z100). Cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz, 30° angle) was simulated, starting with a load of 40 N, followed by stages of 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and 280 N (20,000 cycles each). Samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 140,000 cycles. Groups were compared using the life table survival analysis (Log rank test at P=0.05). Previously published data using same-design zirconia abutments were included for comparison. Paradigm C and MZ100 specimens fractured at an average load of 243 and 206 N (survival rate of 21% and 0%), respectively, with a significant difference in survival probability (P=0.02). Fractured specimens presented mixed failure modes and solely adhesive failures were not observed. The survival of composite resin abutments was similar to that of identical zirconia abutments from a previous study (P=0.76). Non-retentive porcelain veneers bonded to custom composite resin implant abutments presented a higher survival rate when compared with composite resin veneers. Survival of composite resin abutment did not differ from zirconia ones. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Failure modes and effects analysis in clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Willis, G

    1992-01-01

    Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a proactive quality assurance procedure that has been commonly used to address potential design flaws and product misuses during the design stage of a product's life. FMEA is becoming commonplace among manufacturing companies but is relatively unknown outside of manufacturing circles. One potential new application of FMEA is by medical device end-users who could address design or functional concerns specific to their situation. The continued increase in the amount and complexity of medical instrumentation necessitates an aggressive stance towards safety in each hospital, such as is recommended in this paper.

  9. Effects of damping on mode shapes, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Displacement, velocity, and acceleration admittances were calculated for a realistic NASTRAN structural model of space shuttle for three conditions: liftoff, maximum dynamic pressure and end of solid rocket booster burn. The realistic model of the orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket motors included the representation of structural joint transmissibilities by finite stiffness and damping elements. Methods developed to incorporate structural joints and their damping characteristics into a finite element model of the space shuttle, to determine the point damping parameters required to produce realistic damping in the primary modes, and to calculate the effect of distributed damping on structural resonances through the calculation of admittances.

  10. Effects of dispersion on mode locking in optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, S.

    1995-08-01

    We discuss the role that group-velocity dispersion and cavity detuning play in the onset of mode locking in synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators. Because of the phase-sensitive character of the parametric gain, it is shown for the degenerate case that dispersion effects associated with off-resonance operation can lead to subpulse structures and spectral splitting of the parametric pulses. This behavior is interpreted on the basis of a dispersion-induced interference phenomenon between the two nearly degenerate parametric photons produced by the conversion of one pump photon in the nonlinear medium.

  11. Effect of subunit III removal on control of cytochrome c oxidase activity by pH.

    PubMed

    Gregory, L C; Ferguson-Miller, S

    1988-08-23

    Studies were undertaken to assess the postulated involvement of subunit III in the proton-linked functions of cytochrome c oxidase. The effect of pH on the steady-state kinetic [corrected] parameters of subunit III containing and subunit III depleted cytochrome oxidase was determined by using beef heart and rat liver enzymes reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. The TNmax and Km values for the III-containing enzyme increase with decreasing pH in a manner quantitatively similar to that reported by Thornstrom et al. [(1984) Chem. Scr. 24, 230-235], giving three apparent pKa values of less than 5.0, 6.2, and 7.8. The maximal activities of the subunit III depleted enzymes (beef heart and rat liver) show a similar dependence on pH, but the Km values are consistently higher than those of the III-containing enzyme, an effect that is accentuated at low pH. The pH dependence of TNmax/Km for both forms of the enzyme (+/- subunit III) indicates that protonation of a group with an apparent pKa of 5.7 lowers the affinity for substrate (cytochrome c) independently of a continued increase in maximal velocity. N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) decreases the pH responsiveness of the electron-transfer activity to the same extent in both III-containing and III-depleted enzymes, indicating that this effect is mediated by a peptide other than subunit III. Control of intramolecular electron transfer by a transmembrane pH gradient (or alkaline intravesicular pH) is shown to occur in cytochrome oxidase vesicles with cytochrome c as the electron donor, in agreement with results of Moroney et al. [(1984) Biochemistry 23, 4991-4997] using hexaammineruthenium(II) as the reductant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Fatigue resistance and failure mode of novel-design anterior single-tooth implant restorations: influence of material selection for type III veneers bonded to zirconia abutments.

    PubMed

    Magne, Pascal; Paranhos, Maria Paula Gandolfi; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Magne, Michel; Belser, Urs Christoph

    2011-02-01

    This study assessed the fatigue resistance and failure mode of type III porcelain and composite resin veneers bonded to custom zirconia implant abutments. Twenty-four standardized zirconia implant abutments were fabricated. Using the CEREC 3 machine, type III veneers of standardized shape were milled in ceramic Vita Mark II or in composite resin Paradigm MZ100. The intaglio surfaces of the restorations were hydrofluoric acid etched and silanated (Mark II) or airborne-particle abraded and silanated (MZ100). The fitting surface of the abutments was airborne-particle abraded, cleaned, and inserted into a bone level implant (BLI RC SLActive 10 mm). All veneers (n=24) were adhesively luted with a zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus), adhesive resin (Optibond FL) and a pre-heated light-curing composite resin (Filtek Z100). Cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz) was simulated, starting with a load of 40 N, followed by stages of 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, and 280 N (20,000 cycles each). Samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 140,000 cycles. Groups were compared using the life table survival analysis (Logrank test at P=.05). Mark II and MZ100 specimens fractured at an average load of 216 N and 229 N (survival rate of 17% and 8%), respectively, with no difference in survival probability (P=.18). Among the fractured samples, 40% of the failures were at the abutment level for Mark II and 27% were at the abutment level for MZ100. No exclusive adhesive failures were observed. Type III Mark II and Paradigm MZ100 veneers showed similar fatigue resistance when bonded to custom non-retentive zirconia implant abutments. The bond was strong enough to induce abutment fractures. MZ100 presented a higher percentage of "friendly" failures, i.e. maintaining the restoration-abutment adhesive interface and the abutment itself intact. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Reflective liquid crystal light valve with hybrid field effect mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boswell, Donald D. (Inventor); Grinberg, Jan (Inventor); Jacobson, Alexander D. (Inventor); Myer, Gary D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    There is disclosed a high performance reflective mode liquid crystal light valve suitable for general image processing and projection and particularly suited for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. A preferred example of the device uses a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The non-coherent light image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the AC voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state (voltage off the liquid crystal) and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal thus modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out or projection light responsively to the non-coherent image. An analyzer is used to create an intensity modulated output beam.

  14. Effects of ionic strength and fulvic acid on adsorption of Tb(III) and Eu(III) onto clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poetsch, Maria; Lippold, Holger

    2016-09-01

    High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect. We investigated complexation of Tb(III) and Eu(III) (as analogues for trivalent actinides) with fulvic acid and their adsorption onto a natural clay in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 up to very high ionic strengths. 160Tb, 152Eu and 14C-labelled fulvic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing investigations at very low concentrations according to probable conditions in far-field scenarios of nuclear waste repositories. A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. In this analysis, it could be shown that high ionic strength does not further enhance the mobilizing potential of humic matter. A quantitative reproduction of the influence of fulvic acid failed for most systems under study. Assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed.

  15. Enhancement effect of tris(8-quinolinolato)cobalt(III) on the extraction of lanthanide(III) with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone

    SciTech Connect

    Imura, Hisanori; Kameta, Naohiro; Osada, Minori; Ohashi, Kousaburo; Kimura, Takaumi; Yoshida, Zenko

    1999-05-01

    Remarkable phenomenon that the extraction of lanthanide(III) (Ln) with thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) in benzene is highly enhanced by the addition of inert mer-tris(8-quinolinolato)cobalt(III) (Co(q){sub 3}) has been found out. The effect of Co(q){sub 3} was ascribed to the formation of a 1:1 complex of Ln(tta), with Co(q){sub 3}, i.e., a binuclear complex, in the organic phase on the basis of the extraction-equilibrium analysis. The formation constants determined for La(tta){sub 3}, Eu(tta){sub 3}, and Lu(tta){sub 3}, with Co(q){sub 3} were as high as 10{sup 4.96}, 10{sup 4.56}, and 10{sup 3.97} respectively. Furthermore, in the spectrophotometric study, not only the hypsochromic shift of the ligand absorption band of Co(q){sub 3} but an isosbestic point were observed by increasing the concentration of Ln(tta){sub 3} in benzene. The formation constants of the binuclear complexes were also determined spectrophotometrically and confirmed to be comparable with those obtained by the extraction method.

  16. Effects of Humidity on Non-Hermetically Packaged III-V Structures and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R.; Martin, S.; Lee, T.; Okuno, J.; Ruiz, R.; Gauldin, R.; Gaidis, M.; Smith, R.

    1999-01-01

    High humidity and temperature test (known as 85/85 tests) were performed on various III-V devices and structures to determine environmental effects in non-hermetically packaged GaAs membrane mixer diodes.

  17. An effective diffusivity model based on Koopman mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbabi, Hassan; Mezic, Igor

    2016-11-01

    In the previous work, we had shown that the Koopman mode decomposition (KMD) can be used to analyze mixing of passive tracers in time-dependent flows. In this talk, we discuss the extension of this type of analysis to the case of advection-diffusion transport for passive scalar fields. Application of KMD to flows with complex time-dependence yields a decomposition of the flow into mean, periodic and chaotic components. We briefly discuss the computation of these components using a combination of harmonic averaging and Discrete Fourier Transform. We propose a new effective diffusivity model in which the advection is dominated by mean and periodic components whereas the effect of chaotic motion is absorbed into an effective diffusivity tensor. The performance of this model is investigated in the case of lid-driven cavity flow.

  18. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Biologically Active Lanthanide (III) Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostova, I.; Trendafilova, N.; Georgieva, I.; Rastogi, V. K.; Kiefer, W.

    2008-11-01

    The complexation ability and the binding mode of the ligand coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) to La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) lanthanide ions (Ln(III)) are elucidated at experimental and theoretical level. The complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, DTA and TGA data as well as 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic techniques as well as DFT quantum chemical calculations were used for characterization of the binding mode and the structures of lanthanide(III) complexes of HCCA. The metal—ligand binding mode is predicted through molecular modeling and energy estimation of different Ln—CCA structures using B3LYP/6-31G(d) method combined with a large quasi-relativistic effective core potential for lanthanide ion. The energies obtained predict bidentate coordination of CCA- to Ln(III) ions through the carbonylic oxygen and the carboxylic oxygen. Detailed vibrational analysis of HCCA, CCA- and Ln(III) complexes based on both calculated and experimental frequencies confirms the suggested metal—ligand binding mode. The natural bonding analysis predicts strongly ionic character of the Ln(III)-CCA bonding in the- complexes studied. With the relatively resistant tumor cell line K-562 we obtained very interesting in-vitro results which are in accordance with our previously published data concerning the activity of lanthanide(III) complexes with other coumarin derivatives.

  19. Antianxiety and antidepressant effects of riparin III from Aniba riparia (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Sousa, F C F; Melo, C T V; Monteiro, A P; Lima, V T M; Gutierrez, S J C; Pereira, B A; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Vasconcelos, S M M; Fonteles, M F; Viana, G S B

    2004-05-01

    This work presents behavioral effects of methyl ethers of N-(2,6-dihydroxybenzoyl) tyramine (riparin III) isolated from the unripe fruit of Aniba riparia on the open field, elevated plus maze (EPM), rotarod, hole board, barbiturate-induced sleeping time, tail suspension and forced swimming tests in mice. Riparin III was administered intraperitoneally to male mice at single doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. The results showed that riparin III with both doses had no effects on spontaneous motor activity in mice or in the rotarod test, but decreased the number of grooming and rearing. At the dose of 50 mg/kg, riparin III increased the number of entries in the open arms of the EPM test as compared with control. Similarly, in the hole-board test, both doses increased the number of head dips. There was a reduction on the sleeping latency with both doses and a prolongation of the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time with the dose of 25 mg/kg. In the tail suspension test, similar to imipramine (30 mg/kg), riparin III at the dose of 50 mg/kg presented a reduction in the immobility time. In the forced swimming test, both doses of riparin III decreased the immobility time. These results showed that riparin III potentiated the barbiturate-induced sleeping time and presented antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects.

  20. Gravitational Effects on Collective Modes of Superfluid Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padavić, Karmela; Sun, Kuei; Lannert, Courtney; Vishveshwara, Smitha

    We study the effects of gravity on collective excitations of shell-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Superfluid shells are of general interest as examples of hollow geometries that can be produced in ultracold atoms in bubble-trap potentials or optical lattices. Our approach to analyzing superfluid shells is based on a Gross-Pitaevskii mean field theory and hydrodynamic equations derived from it. Considering a spherically symmetric BEC in general, there are distinct collective excitation spectra for the cases of a fully filled sphere and a very thin shell. Furthermore, an adiabatic change in the potential producing a slow transition from one geometry to the other shows a characteristic evolution. Given that in most realistic experimental conditions gravity cannot be neglected we investigate its effects on the equilibrium profile and the collective modes in the very thin shell limit. We analytically obtain the full excitation spectrum for the thin shell geometry and account for gravity perturbatively at length and energy scales that describe a stable matter-wave bubble. We find that gravity breaks spherical symmetry of the equilibrium density profile and affects the collective excitations by coupling adjacent modes in the angular direction.

  1. Doppler effect in opposite propagating modes of cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enaki, Nicolae; Bazgan, Sergiu

    2016-12-01

    It is proposed a new approach in the estimation of quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field and Doppler effect using a model formed from two quantum modes of the cavity which propagate in opposite direction. The Doppler effect plays a significant role in the model in which an atom flies through the nodes and anti-nodes of the standing wave. It is shown that if the vacuum Rabi frequency achieves the value of Doppler shift kv, where k is the wave vector and v represents the atomic velocity, then the collective interactive and non-interactive modes of the resonator become connected. The interaction process looks like in the case of two coupled cavities in one of which is placed an atom. The comparison between the proposed approach and existing time dependent coupling model is given. In our model, it is obtained the non-zero value of quantum fluctuations in the nodes of the standing wave during the time in which atom flies through the cavity.

  2. Stereoselectivity and affinity in molecular pharmacology. III. Structural aspects in the mode of action of natural and synthetic auxins.

    PubMed

    Lehmann F, P A

    1978-02-01

    Analysis of available potency estimates for 35 pairs of enantiomeric arylcarboxylic acids with auxin activity (flax-root-growth inhibition test) revealed extensive correlations between the activity of the more potent and less potent isomers, as well as between the log of the ratio of potencies and the log potency of the more active isomer when structurally similar analogs are compared. 5 structural subgroups were discernible (n, eudismic-affinity quotient (EAQ), r2); (1) arylpropionic acids (6, -0.36, 0.66); (2) 2-naphthoxy-carboxylic acids (6, +1.07, 0.99); (3) 1-naphthoxycarboxylic acids (3, +1.56, 0.96); (4) ortho-substituted phenoxycarboxylic acids (10, +0.97, 0.96) and (5) ortho-unsubstituted phenoxycarboxylic acids (10, +0.56, 0.70). For achiral lower homologs such as auxin itself 3-indolyl-acetic acid (IAA), phenoxyacetic acid and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid, extrapolated potencies were found to agree well with experimental values. On the basis of these observations an auxin receptor is postulated and binding arrangements are described which explain most of the experimental data available. A 3-point attachment when allowed is the only binding mode compatible with the reported data.

  3. Mode Transitions in Magnetically Shielded Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Hofer, Richard R.; Jorns, Benjamin A.; Polk, James E.

    2014-01-01

    A mode transition study is conducted in magnetically shielded thrusters where the magnetic field magnitude is varied to induce mode transitions. Three different oscillatory modes are identified with the 20-kW NASA-300MS-2 and the 6-kW H6MS: Mode 1) global mode similar to unshielded thrusters at low magnetic fields, Mode 2) cathode oscillations at nominal magnetic fields, and Mode 3) combined spoke, cathode and breathing mode oscillations at high magnetic fields. Mode 1 exhibits large amplitude, low frequency (1-10 kHz), breathing mode type oscillations where discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude peak. The mean discharge current is minimized while thrust-to-power and anode efficiency are maximized in Mode 2, where higher frequency (50-90 kHz), low amplitude, cathode oscillations dominate. Thrust is maximized in Mode 3 and decreases by 5-6% with decreasing magnetic field strength. The presence or absence of spokes and strong cathode oscillations do not affect each other or discharge current. Similar to unshielded thrusters, mode transitions and plasma oscillations affect magnetically shielded thruster performance and should be characterized during system development.

  4. [Failure mode and effect analysis: application in chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Sheu-Wen

    2009-08-01

    Medical institutions are increasingly concerned about ensuring the safety of patients under their care. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a qualitative approach based on a proactive process. Strongly promoted by the Joint Commission Accredited of Health Organization (JCAHO) since 2002, FMEA has since been adopted and widely practiced in healthcare organizations to assess and analyze clinical error events. FMEA has proven to be an effective method of minimizing errors in both manufacturing and healthcare industries. It predicts failure points in systems and allows an organization to address proactively the causes of problems and prioritize improvement strategies. The application of FMEA in chemotherapy at our department identified three main failure points: (1) inappropriate chemotherapy standard operating procedures (SOPs), (2) communication barriers, and (3) insufficient training of nurses. The application of FMEA in chemotherapy is expected to enhance the sensitivity and proactive abilities of healthcare practitioners during potentially risky situations as well as to improve levels of patient care safety.

  5. Effective method for calculating modes of multilayer waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. K.; Dimitrov, P. D.

    2017-01-01

    A fast and efficient numerical method for finding the modes of a multilayered waveguide is proposed. Using the complex vector of the Riemann-Silberstein has resulted in a reduction of the order of the differential equations describing the passage of light through the different layers, as well as a double reduction of the searched variables. The approximation of the differential equations is made by the method of Galyorkin by a suitable choice of the base functions. The calculation of the effective indices and their corresponding wave configurations is realized by the inverse-shifting power method with Rayleigh’s quantity. The method was successfully applied waveguide systems, generating values close in the effective indices.

  6. Failure modes and effects analysis (RADL Item 2-23)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    The Pilot Plant is a central receiver design concept. It is comprised of five major subsystems as shown schematically, plus a set of equipment (Plant Support Subsystem) used to support total plant operation. The failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a bottom-up analysis used to identify the failure characteristics of the system (total equipment used to produce electrical power), that is, the failure of a single component is assumed and the effect of that failure upon the system is determined. The FMEA is concerned with the plant from an operational standpoint (i.e., the production of electrical power). This analysis was performed to the component level. This was interpreted as a valve, computer, measurement sensor and its associated signal conditioning, an electronic black box, etc.

  7. Application of failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to pretreatment phases in tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Broggi, Sara; Cantone, Marie Claire; Chiara, Anna; Di Muzio, Nadia; Longobardi, Barbara; Mangili, Paola; Veronese, Ivan

    2013-09-06

    The aim of this paper was the application of the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) approach to assess the risks for patients undergoing radiotherapy treatments performed by means of a helical tomotherapy unit. FMEA was applied to the preplanning imaging, volume determination, and treatment planning stages of the tomotherapy process and consisted of three steps: 1) identification of the involved subprocesses; 2) identification and ranking of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk probability number (RPN) scoring system; and 3) identification of additional safety measures to be proposed for process quality and safety improvement. RPN upper threshold for little concern of risk was set at 125. A total of 74 failure modes were identified: 38 in the stage of preplanning imaging and volume determination, and 36 in the stage of planning. The threshold of 125 for RPN was exceeded in four cases: one case only in the phase of preplanning imaging and volume determination, and three cases in the stage of planning. The most critical failures appeared related to (i) the wrong or missing definition and contouring of the overlapping regions, (ii) the wrong assignment of the overlap priority to each anatomical structure, (iii) the wrong choice of the computed tomography calibration curve for dose calculation, and (iv) the wrong (or not performed) choice of the number of fractions in the planning station. On the basis of these findings, in addition to the safety strategies already adopted in the clinical practice, novel solutions have been proposed for mitigating the risk of these failures and to increase patient safety.

  8. Effect of RNase III on efficiency of translation of bacteriophage T7 lysozyme mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, F S; Young, E T

    1978-01-01

    RNase III had no positive effect on the translation of bacteriophage T7 lysozyme mRNA in vivo or in vitro. The time of appearance and quanity of lysozyme in T7-infected E. coli BL107, an RNase III- strain, and T7-infected E. coli BL15, a nearly isogenic RNase III+ strain, were indistinguishable. Nearly identical patterns of lysozyme mRNA activity were obtained when RNA extracted at different times after infection of RNase III+ and RNase III- hosts was translated in cell-free extracts of E. coli containing or lacking RNase III. Exposure of RNA extracted from T7-infected E. coli BL107 (RNase III-) to purified RNase III did not increase the lysozyme mRNA activity of this RNA. The only result that implied that RNase III has a differential effect on the translatability of the lysozyme mRNA was the translation of fractionaed RNA from T7-infected E. coli BL107. Translation of the smallest and largest lysozyme messages, 0.33 x 10(6) and 4 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(6) daltons, was the most inefficient in RNase III- cell-free extracts as compared to RNase III+ cell-free translation. The translation of the most abundant, medium-sized lysozyme mRNA between 0.9 x 10(6) and 1.5 x 10(6) daltons was the least affected by the absence of RNase III. The existence of a lag between the appearance of lysozyme mRNA and the appearance of lysozyme in T7 infection was confirmed. In these studies a very rapid method of RNA extraction was used, eliminating the possibility of continued RNA transcription during cell collection and RNA extraction. With this method of analysis, the length of the lag period was established at about 3 min. The possibility that RNase III is the controlling element of the lag period was eliminated by these investigations. Images PMID:353304

  9. Effect of Trapped Energetic Particles on the Resistive Wall Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, G. Z.; Wang, A. K.; Qiu, X. M.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2011-07-01

    A stability analysis for the resistive wall mode is studied in the presence of trapped energetic particles (EPs). When the EPs' beta exceeds a critical value, a fishbonelike bursting mode (FLM) with an external kink eigenstructure can exist. This offers the first analytic interpretation of the experimental observations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 045001 (2009)]. The mode-particle resonances for the FLM and the q=1 fishbone occur in different regimes of the precession frequency of EPs. In certain ranges of the plasma rotation speed and the EPs' beta, a mode conversion can occur between the resistive wall mode and FLM.

  10. Membrane permeability transition and dysfunction of rice mitochondria effected by Er(III).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jia-ling; Wu, Man; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Ye-zhong; Jiang, Feng-lei; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Herein, the biological effects of heavy rare earth ion Er(III) on rice mitochondria were comprehensively investigated mainly by spectroscopic methods. The experimental results demonstrated that Er(III) could lead to the swelling of rice mitochondria, collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, decrease of membrane fluidity, promotion of H(+) permeability and suppression of K(+) permeability. These further indicated that Er(III) could induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and the dysfunction of rice mitochondria. The ultra-structure change of mitochondria observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also proved that Er(III) induced MPT. Moreover, the testing results of the protective effect of four different agents on mitochondrial swelling implied that the thiol chelation on the mitochondrial inner membrane was the main reason that caused the MPT.

  11. Retrieval Mode Distinguishes the Testing Effect from the Generation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Zaromb, Franklin M.

    2010-01-01

    A series of four experiments examined the effects of generation vs. retrieval practice on subsequent retention. Subjects were first exposed to a list of target words. Then the subjects were shown the targets again intact for Read trials or they were shown fragments of the targets. Subjects in Generate conditions were told to complete the fragments…

  12. TU-AB-BRD-02: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huq, M.

    2015-06-15

    Current quality assurance and quality management guidelines provided by various professional organizations are prescriptive in nature, focusing principally on performance characteristics of planning and delivery devices. However, published analyses of events in radiation therapy show that most events are often caused by flaws in clinical processes rather than by device failures. This suggests the need for the development of a quality management program that is based on integrated approaches to process and equipment quality assurance. Industrial engineers have developed various risk assessment tools that are used to identify and eliminate potential failures from a system or a process before a failure impacts a customer. These tools include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis, fault tree analysis. Task Group 100 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine has developed these tools and used them to formulate an example risk-based quality management program for intensity-modulated radiotherapy. This is a prospective risk assessment approach that analyzes potential error pathways inherent in a clinical process and then ranks them according to relative risk, typically before implementation, followed by the design of a new process or modification of the existing process. Appropriate controls are then put in place to ensure that failures are less likely to occur and, if they do, they will more likely be detected before they propagate through the process, compromising treatment outcome and causing harm to the patient. Such a prospective approach forms the basis of the work of Task Group 100 that has recently been approved by the AAPM. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and practical examples of how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based quality management program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process Learn how to

  13. The effect of line-tying on tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Finn, John M.

    2008-03-15

    Cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) constant-{psi} or nonconstant-{psi} tearing modes that are linearly unstable with periodic axial boundary conditions are studied in a line-tied cylinder. Examples of these two respective classes of modes, with m=1 and m=2 (m being the azimuthal mode number), are studied. With a suitable MHD equilibrium, the former modes are marginally stable in ideal MHD for periodic axial boundary conditions, and occur as fast tearing modes (resistive kinks) in the presence of resistivity {eta}. The latter modes are stable in ideal MHD for periodic axial boundary conditions, and with resistivity occur as constant-{psi} tearing modes, unstable in a range of parameters. In both cases, the results for the line-tied modes show the expected tearing scaling with {eta} for very long plasmas, but the scaling becomes {gamma}{proportional_to}{eta} for smaller cylinder lengths L. These results are consistent with the following interpretation: For L{yields}{infinity}, the modes have a tearing width characteristic of tearing, leading to characteristic tearing mode growth. As L decreases, the modes develop a geometric width, which increases as L decreases; the {gamma}{proportional_to}{eta} scaling occurs when L is small enough that the geometric width exceeds the tearing width.

  14. Diamagnetic drift effects on the low-n magnetohydrodynamic modes at the high mode pedestal with plasma rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M. T.; Valanju, P.

    2014-06-15

    The diamagnetic drift effects on the low-n magnetohydrodynamic instabilities at the high-mode (H-mode) pedestal are investigated in this paper with the inclusion of bootstrap current for equilibrium and rotation effects for stability, where n is the toroidal mode number. The AEGIS (Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solutions) code [L. J. Zheng and M. T. Kotschenreuther, J. Comp. Phys. 211 (2006)] is extended to include the diamagnetic drift effects. This can be viewed as the lowest order approximation of the finite Larmor radius effects in consideration of the pressure gradient steepness at the pedestal. The H-mode discharges at Jointed European Torus is reconstructed numerically using the VMEC code [P. Hirshman and J. C. Whitson, Phys. Fluids 26, 3553 (1983)], with bootstrap current taken into account. Generally speaking, the diamagnetic drift effects are stabilizing. Our results show that the effectiveness of diamagnetic stabilization depends sensitively on the safe factor value (q{sub s}) at the safety-factor reversal or plateau region. The diamagnetic stabilization are weaker, when q{sub s} is larger than an integer; while stronger, when q{sub s} is smaller or less larger than an integer. We also find that the diamagnetic drift effects also depend sensitively on the rotation direction. The diamagnetic stabilization in the co-rotation case is stronger than in the counter rotation case with respect to the ion diamagnetic drift direction.

  15. Diamagnetic drift effects on the low-n magnetohydrodynamic modes at the high mode pedestal with plasma rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M. T.; Valanju, P.

    2014-06-01

    The diamagnetic drift effects on the low-n magnetohydrodynamic instabilities at the high-mode (H-mode) pedestal are investigated in this paper with the inclusion of bootstrap current for equilibrium and rotation effects for stability, where n is the toroidal mode number. The AEGIS (Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solutions) code [L. J. Zheng and M. T. Kotschenreuther, J. Comp. Phys. 211 (2006)] is extended to include the diamagnetic drift effects. This can be viewed as the lowest order approximation of the finite Larmor radius effects in consideration of the pressure gradient steepness at the pedestal. The H-mode discharges at Jointed European Torus is reconstructed numerically using the VMEC code [P. Hirshman and J. C. Whitson, Phys. Fluids 26, 3553 (1983)], with bootstrap current taken into account. Generally speaking, the diamagnetic drift effects are stabilizing. Our results show that the effectiveness of diamagnetic stabilization depends sensitively on the safe factor value (qs) at the safety-factor reversal or plateau region. The diamagnetic stabilization are weaker, when qs is larger than an integer; while stronger, when qs is smaller or less larger than an integer. We also find that the diamagnetic drift effects also depend sensitively on the rotation direction. The diamagnetic stabilization in the co-rotation case is stronger than in the counter rotation case with respect to the ion diamagnetic drift direction.

  16. What Factors Underlie the Aging Effects on WAIS-R and WAIS-III Subtests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques

    2001-01-01

    Studied the factors underlying the aging effects seen on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised (WAIS-R) and the scale's third edition (WAIS-III) using the French standardization samples of 1,104 for the WAIS-III and 1,000 for the WAIS-R. Results show that the observed decline in scores for both tests cannot be fully explained with a…

  17. Iron (III) Matrix Effects on Mineralization and Immobilization of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia-May S. Gong; Tyler A. Sullens; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - A number of models for the Yucca Mountain Project nuclear waste repository use studies of actinide sorption onto well-defined iron hydroxide materials. In the case of a waste containment leak, however, a complex interaction between dissolved waste forms and failed containment vessel components can lead to immediate precipitation of migratory iron and uranyl in the silicate rich near-field environment. Use of the Fe(III) and UO22+ complexing agent acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a colorimetric agent for visible spectrophotometry is well-known. Using the second derivative of these spectra a distinct shift in iron complexation in the presence of silicate is seen that is not seen with uranyl or alone. Silica also decreases the ability of uranyl and ferric solutions to absorb hydroxide, hastening precipitation. These ferric silicate precipitates are highly amorphous and soluble. Precipitates formed in the presence of uranyl below ~1 mol% exhibit lower solubility than precipitates from up to 50 mol % and of uranyl silicates alone.

  18. Lasing mode regulation and single-mode realization in ZnO whispering gallery microcavities by the Vernier effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Xu, C X; Jiang, M M; Li, J T; Dai, J; Lu, J F; Li, P L

    2016-10-07

    The wide direct bandgap and strong exciton binding energy of ZnO have inspired examinations of ultraviolet lasing over the previous decades. However, regulation of the lasing mode, especially the realization of single mode lasing, is still a challenge. In this study, a ZnO comb-like structure with an array of microrods was selected to design coupled whispering-gallery-mode cavities, wherein the naturally varied air-gap between the adjacent microrods created a flexible condition for optical field coupling without any complicated micromanipulation. Spectral behaviour of lasing and coupling interaction between coupled ZnO microrods were systematically investigated. By regulating the nano-scale inter-space of dual coupled microrods, stable single-mode lasing with a higher Q factor and lower threshold was obtained successfully based on the Vernier effect. The formation conditions and the mechanism of single-mode lasing derived from the coupled ZnO microrods were discussed in detail. It also demonstrated an approach to construct high quality single-mode lasing by tuning the diameters of the coupled ZnO microrods.

  19. Investigation of ELM [edge localized mode] Dynamics with the Resonant Magnetic Perturbation Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pankin, Alexei Y.; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2011-07-19

    Topics covered are: anomalous transport and E x B flow shear effects in the H-mode pedestal; RMP (resonant magnetic perturbation) effects in NSTX discharges; development of a scaling of H-mode pedestal in tokamak plasmas with type I ELMs (edge localized modes); and divertor heat load studies.

  20. An effective model for microscopic intrinsic localized modes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalosakas, G.; Bishop, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    We present a system of coupled degrees of freedom that can effectively describe the localization of intra-molecular excitations in the charge transfer solid PtCl. These excitations correspond to the Raman active motion of chlorines (symmetric Pt - Cl stretching). By fitting two parameters of the model we obtain an accurate description of the strong red-shifts that appear in the overtone Raman spectra of the isotopically pure material. The resulting intrinsic localized modes extend on length scales of the order of nanometers. With the same set of parameters the model can reproduce the specific structure of the Raman spectra of naturally abundant PtCl, which contains a random distribution of chloride isotopes.

  1. Failure mode and weakening effect of water on sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baud, Patrick; Zhu, Wenlu; Wong, Teng-Fong

    2000-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that brittle strength of a rock is generally reduced in the presence of water. However, for siliciclastic rocks, there is a paucity of data on the waterweakening behavior in the cataclastic flow regime. To compare the weakening effect of water in the brittle faulting and cataclastic flow regime, triaxial compression experiments were conducted on the Berea, Boise, Darley Dale, and Gosford sandstones (with nominal porosities ranging from 11% to 35%) under nominally dry and saturated conditions at room temperature. Inelastic behavior and failure mode of the nominal dry samples were qualitatively similar to those of water-saturated samples. At elevated pressures, shear localization was inhibited, and all the samples failed by strain hardening. The compactive yield strengths (associated with the onset of shear-enhanced compaction) in the saturated samples were lower than those in the dry samples deformed under comparable pressure conditions by 20% to 70%. The reductions of brittle strength in the presence of water ranged from 5% to 17%. The water-weakening effects were most and least significant in the Gosford and Berea sandstones, respectively. The relation between water weakening and failure mode is consistently explained by micromechanical models formulated on the basis that the specific surface energy in the presence of water is lowered than that in vacuum by the ratio λ. In accordance with the Hertzian fracture model the initial yield stress in the compactive cataclastic flow regime scales with the grain-crushing pressure, which is proportional to λ3/2. In the brittle faulting regime, damage mechanics models predict that the uniaxial compressive strength scales with λ1/2. In the presence of water the confined brittle strength is lower due to reductions of both the specific surface energy and friction coefficient.

  2. Can dispersal mode predict corridor effects on plant parasites?

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Lauren, L.; Johnson, Brenda, L.; Brudvig, Lars, A.; Haddad, Nick, M.

    2011-08-01

    Habitat corridors, a common management strategy for increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes, have experimentally validated positive influences on species movement and diversity. However, long-standing concerns that corridors could negatively impact native species by spreading antagonists, such as disease, remain largely untested. Using a large-scale, replicated experiment, we evaluated whether corridors increase the incidence of plant parasites. We found that corridor impacts varied with parasite dispersal mode. Connectivity provided by corridors increased incidence of biotically dispersed parasites (galls on Solidago odora) but not of abiotically dispersed parasites (foliar fungi on S. odora and three Lespedeza spp.). Both biotically and abiotically dispersed parasites responded to edge effects, but the direction of responses varied across species. Although our results require additional tests for generality to other species and landscapes, they suggest that, when establishing conservation corridors, managers should focus on mitigating two potential negative effects: the indirect effects of narrow corridors in creating edges and direct effects of corridors in enhancing connectivity of biotically dispersed parasites.

  3. The Games Children Play III: More Comments on Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Charlotte A.; Ashy, Madge

    2013-01-01

    In the years since the authors published two articles with tips for effective teaching, they have acquired and developed more advice and impressions on teaching. This article presents ideas that can help physical educators become increasingly effective in their teaching.

  4. The Games Children Play III: More Comments on Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Charlotte A.; Ashy, Madge

    2013-01-01

    In the years since the authors published two articles with tips for effective teaching, they have acquired and developed more advice and impressions on teaching. This article presents ideas that can help physical educators become increasingly effective in their teaching.

  5. Effective Photo- and Triboluminescent Europium(III) Coordination Polymers with Rigid Triangular Spacer Ligands.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Tateno, Shiori; Yamamoto, Masanori; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Seki, Tomohiro; Ito, Hajime; Fushimi, Koji

    2017-02-21

    Luminescent Eu(III) coordination polymers with rigid triangular spacer ligands are reported. The Eu(III) coordination polymer, [Eu3 (hfa)9 (tppb)2 ]n (hfa: hexafluoroacetylacetonate, tppb: tris(4-diphenylphosphorylphenyl)benzene), shows high thermo-stability (decomposition temperature=354 °C) and photoluminescence quantum yield (Φ4f-4f =82 %, photosensitized energy transfer efficiency=78 %). The triboluminescence efficiency of Eu(III) coordination polymer with triangular spacers under laser pulse irradiation (Nd:YAG, λ=1064 nm, pulse width=5 ns, pulse energy=0.1 mJ) is calculated to be 49 %. Characteristic triangular structure, high emission quantum yield, effective photosensitized energy transfer, and remarkable triboluminescence properties of Eu(III) coordination polymers are demonstrated for the first time.

  6. Resonant magnetic perturbation effect on tearing mode dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.

    2010-03-01

    The effect of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the tearing mode (TM) dynamics is experimentally studied in the EXTRAP T2R device. EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a set of sensor coils and active coils connected by a digital controller allowing a feedback control of the magnetic instabilities. The recently upgraded feedback algorithm allows the suppression of all the error field harmonics but keeping a selected harmonic to the desired amplitude, therefore opening the possibility of a clear study of the RMP effect on the corresponding TM. The paper shows that the RMP produces two typical effects: (1) a weak oscillation in the TM amplitude and a modulation in the TM velocity or (2) a strong modulation in the TM amplitude and phase jumps. Moreover, the locking mechanism of a TM to a RMP is studied in detail. It is shown that before the locking, the TM dynamics is characterized by velocity modulation followed by phase jumps. Experimental results are reasonably explained by simulations obtained with a model.

  7. Failure mode and effects analysis: A community practice perspective.

    PubMed

    Schuller, Bradley W; Burns, Angi; Ceilley, Elizabeth A; King, Alan; LeTourneau, Joan; Markovic, Alexander; Sterkel, Lynda; Taplin, Brigid; Wanner, Jennifer; Albert, Jeffrey M

    2017-09-25

    To report our early experiences with failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) in a community practice setting. The FMEA facilitator received extensive training at the AAPM Summer School. Early efforts focused on department education and emphasized the need for process evaluation in the context of high profile radiation therapy accidents. A multidisciplinary team was assembled with representation from each of the major department disciplines. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was identified as the most appropriate treatment technique for the first FMEA evaluation, as it is largely self-contained and has the potential to produce high impact failure modes. Process mapping was completed using breakout sessions, and then compiled into a simple electronic format. Weekly sessions were used to complete the FMEA evaluation. Risk priority number (RPN) values > 100 or severity scores of 9 or 10 were considered high risk. The overall time commitment was also tracked. The final SRS process map contained 15 major process steps and 183 subprocess steps. Splitting the process map into individual assignments was a successful strategy for our group. The process map was designed to contain enough detail such that another radiation oncology team would be able to perform our procedures. Continuous facilitator involvement helped maintain consistent scoring during FMEA. Practice changes were made responding to the highest RPN scores, and new resulting RPN scores were below our high-risk threshold. The estimated person-hour equivalent for project completion was 258 hr. This report provides important details on the initial steps we took to complete our first FMEA, providing guidance for community practices seeking to incorporate this process into their quality assurance (QA) program. Determining the feasibility of implementing complex QA processes into different practice settings will take on increasing significance as the field of radiation oncology transitions into the new TG-100 QA

  8. Failure modes and effects analysis for ocular brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongsook C; Kim, Yongbok; Huynh, Jason Wei-Yeong; Hamilton, Russell J

    2017-08-18

    The aim of the study was to identify potential failure modes (FMs) having a high risk and to improve our current quality management (QM) program in Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) ocular brachytherapy by undertaking a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and a fault tree analysis (FTA). Process mapping and FMEA were performed for COMS ocular brachytherapy. For all FMs identified in FMEA, risk priority numbers (RPNs) were determined by assigning and multiplying occurrence, severity, and lack of detectability values, each ranging from 1 to 10. FTA was performed for the major process that had the highest ranked FM. Twelve major processes, 121 sub-process steps, 188 potential FMs, and 209 possible causes were identified. For 188 FMs, RPN scores ranged from 1.0 to 236.1. The plaque assembly process had the highest ranked FM. The majority of FMs were attributable to human failure (85.6%), and medical physicist-related failures were the most numerous (58.9% of all causes). After FMEA, additional QM methods were included for the top 10 FMs and 6 FMs with severity values > 9.0. As a result, for these 16 FMs and the 5 major processes involved, quality control steps were increased from 8 (50%) to 15 (93.8%), and major processes having quality assurance steps were increased from 2 to 4. To reduce high risk in current clinical practice, we proposed QM methods. They mainly include a check or verification of procedures/steps and the use of checklists for both ophthalmology and radiation oncology staff, and intraoperative ultrasound-guided plaque positioning for ophthalmology staff. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The biological effects and possible modes of action of nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Völker, Carolin; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Novel physicochemical and biological properties have led to a versatile spectrum of applications for nanosized silver particles. Silver nanoparticles are applied primarily for their antimicrobial effects, and may variety of commercially available products have emerged. To better predict and prevent possible environmental impacts from silver nanoparticles that are derived from increasing production volumes and environmental release, more data on the biological effects are needed on appropriate model organisms. We examined the literature that addressed the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on different levels of biological integration, including in vitro and in vivo test systems. Results of in vitro studies indicate a dose-dependent programmed cell death included by oxidative stress as main possible pathway of toxicity. Furthermore, silver nanoparticles may affect cellular enzymes by interference with free thiol groups and mimicry of endogenous ions. Similar mechanisms may apply for antibacterial effects produced by nonasilver. These effects are primary from the interference nanosilver has with bacterial cell membranes. Few in vivo studies have been performed to evaluated the toxic mode of action of nanosilver or to provide evidence for oxidative stress as an important mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. Organisms that are most acutely sensitive to nanosilver toxicity are the freshwater filter-freeding organisms. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated tha silver ions released from nanoparticle surface contribute to the toxicity, and, indeed, some findings indicated a unique nanoparticles effect. For an adequate evaluation of the environmental impact of nanosilver, greater emphasis should be placed on combining mechanistic investigations that are performed in vitro, with results obtained in in vivo test systems. Future in vivo test system studies should emphasize long-term exposure scenarios. Moreover, the dietary uptake of silver nanoparticles and

  10. Pulsatile Support Mode of BJUT-II Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) has Better Hemodynamic Effects on the Aorta than Constant Speed Mode: A Primary Numerical Study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Kaiyun; Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background BJUT-II VAD is a novel left ventricular assist device (LVADs), directly implanted into the ascending aorta. The pulsatile support mode is proposed to achieve better unloading performance than constant speed mode. However, the hemodynamic effects of this support mode on the aorta are still unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the hemodynamic effects BJUT-II VAD under pulsatile support mode on the aorta. Material/Methods Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies, based on a patient-specific aortic geometric model, were conducted. Wall shear stress (WSS), averaged WSS (avWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and averaged helicity density (Ha) were calculated to compare the differences in hemodynamic effects between pulsatile support mode and constant speed mode. Results The results show that avWSS under pulsatile support mode is significantly higher than that under constant speed mode (0.955Pa vs. 0.675Pa). Similarly, the OSI value under pulsatile mode is higher than that under constant speed mode (0.104 vs. 0.057). In addition, Ha under pulsatile mode for all selected cross-sections is larger than that under constant mode. Conclusions BJUT-II VAD, under pulsatile control mode, may prevent atherosclerosis lesions and aortic remodeling. The precise effects of pulsatile support mode on atherosclerosis and aortic remodeling need to be further studied in animal experiments. PMID:27363758

  11. Pulsatile Support Mode of BJUT-II Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) has Better Hemodynamic Effects on the Aorta than Constant Speed Mode: A Primary Numerical Study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Kaiyun; Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu; Zeng, Yi

    2016-07-01

    BACKGROUND BJUT-II VAD is a novel left ventricular assist device (LVADs), directly implanted into the ascending aorta. The pulsatile support mode is proposed to achieve better unloading performance than constant speed mode. However, the hemodynamic effects of this support mode on the aorta are still unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the hemodynamic effects BJUT-II VAD under pulsatile support mode on the aorta. MATERIAL AND METHODS Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies, based on a patient-specific aortic geometric model, were conducted. Wall shear stress (WSS), averaged WSS (avWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and averaged helicity density (Ha) were calculated to compare the differences in hemodynamic effects between pulsatile support mode and constant speed mode. RESULTS The results show that avWSS under pulsatile support mode is significantly higher than that under constant speed mode (0.955Pa vs. 0.675Pa). Similarly, the OSI value under pulsatile mode is higher than that under constant speed mode (0.104 vs. 0.057). In addition, Ha under pulsatile mode for all selected cross-sections is larger than that under constant mode. CONCLUSIONS BJUT-II VAD, under pulsatile control mode, may prevent atherosclerosis lesions and aortic remodeling. The precise effects of pulsatile support mode on atherosclerosis and aortic remodeling need to be further studied in animal experiments.

  12. Effect of the transverse parasitic mode on beam performance for the ADS driver linac in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Pei, Shi-Lun; Wang, Jiu-Qing; Li, Zhi-Hui

    2015-05-01

    The ADS (Accelerator Driven subcritical System) driver linac in China is designed to run in CW (Continuous Wave) mode with 10 mA designed beam current. In this scenario, the beam-induced parasitic modes in the ADS driver linac may make the beam unstable or deteriorate the beam performance. To evaluate the parasitic mode effect on the beam dynamics systematically, simulation studies using the ROOT-based numerical code SMD have been conducted. The longitudinal beam instability induced by the HOMs (High Order Modes) and SOMs (Same Order Modes) has little effect on the longitudinal beam performance for the current ADS driver linac design based on the 10 MeV/325 MHz injector I from previous studies. Here the transverse parasitic mode (i.e., dipole HOM) effect on the transverse beam performance at the ADS driver linac exit is investigated. To more reasonably quantify the dipole mode effect, the multi-bunch effective emittance is introduced in this paper.

  13. Finite Larmor radius effects on the coupled trapped electron and ion temperature gradient modes

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, I.; Isliker, H.; Pavlenko, V. P.

    2007-09-15

    The properties of the coupled trapped electron and toroidal ion temperature gradient modes are investigated using the standard reactive fluid model and taking rigorously into account the effects attributed to the ion polarization drift and to the drifts associated with the lowest-order finite ion Larmor radius effects. In the flat density regime, where the coupling between the modes is relatively weak, the properties of the unstable modes are slightly modified through these effects. For the peak density regions, where the coupling of the modes is rather strong, these second-order drifts determine the spectra of the unstable modes near the marginal conditions.

  14. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2007-12-28

    In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

  15. Failure mode and effects analysis: too little for too much?

    PubMed

    Dean Franklin, Bryony; Shebl, Nada Atef; Barber, Nick

    2012-07-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a structured prospective risk assessment method that is widely used within healthcare. FMEA involves a multidisciplinary team mapping out a high-risk process of care, identifying the failures that can occur, and then characterising each of these in terms of probability of occurrence, severity of effects and detectability, to give a risk priority number used to identify failures most in need of attention. One might assume that such a widely used tool would have an established evidence base. This paper considers whether or not this is the case, examining the evidence for the reliability and validity of its outputs, the mathematical principles behind the calculation of a risk prioirty number, and variation in how it is used in practice. We also consider the likely advantages of this approach, together with the disadvantages in terms of the healthcare professionals' time involved. We conclude that although FMEA is popular and many published studies have reported its use within healthcare, there is little evidence to support its use for the quantitative prioritisation of process failures. It lacks both reliability and validity, and is very time consuming. We would not recommend its use as a quantitative technique to prioritise, promote or study patient safety interventions. However, the stage of FMEA involving multidisciplinary mapping process seems valuable and work is now needed to identify the best way of converting this into plans for action.

  16. Effects of subchronic exposure to Caramel Colour III on the immune system in mice.

    PubMed

    Thuvander, A; Oskarsson, A

    1994-01-01

    Administration of Caramel Colour III is associated with lymphopenia in laboratory animals, especially if the animals are fed a vitamin B6-deficient diet. Recently, functional immunological alterations in rats exposed to Caramel Colour III have been reported. The component of Caramel Colour III that is responsible for the immunological effects has been shown to be 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI). In the present study, female Balb/c mice fed a diet with a relatively high vitamin B6 content were exposed to 2 or 10% of a commercial Caramel Colour III preparation with a low THI content (less than 25 ppm) in the drinking water for 9 wk. Although this treatment did not induce a lymphopenia in the exposed mice, flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations demonstrated reductions in the CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations. In addition, the proliferative response of spleen cells to B and T cell mitogens was significantly reduced in the mice exposed to 2% Caramel Colour III. No changes were observed in natural killer cell activity or in the humoral antibody response to a viral antigen. The results indicate that Caramel Colour III that meets the specified limit of less than 25 mg THI/kg may, nevertheless, interfere with the lymphoid system in mice with an adequate vitamin B6 status.

  17. Effects of Al(III) and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules. PMID:22163924

  18. Dislocation effects in FinFETs for different III-V compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Ji-Hyun; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-04-01

    While Si-based devices are facing the limits of scaling, III-V materials, having high mobility, have attracted more and more attention. However, their advantages are obtained by ignoring the drawbacks of inevitably present dislocations. In this paper, we present a theoretical model that describes the degradation in carrier mobility caused by these inevitable charged dislocations in nanometer-sized, quantum-confined III-V compound semiconductor fin-shaped field effect transistors. We conclude that the Fermi-level pinning effect needs to be resolved to give carriers high enough energy (Fermi energy in the channel) to effectively ignore Coulomb scattering of charges at dislocations in a channel made by III-V compound semiconductors.

  19. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  20. Flare loop radiative hydrodynamics. III - Nonlocal radiative transfer effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, R. C.; Fisher, G. H.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1983-01-01

    The study has three goals. The first is to demonstrate that processes exist whose intrinsic nonlocal nature cannot be represented by local approximations. The second is to elucidate the physical nature and origins of these nonlocal processes. The third is to suggest that the methods and results described here may prove useful in constructing semiempirical models of the chromosphere by means more efficient than trial and error. Matrices are computed that describe the effect of a temperature perturbation at an arbitrary point in the loop on density, hydrogen ionized fraction, total radiative loss rate, and radiative loss rate of selected hydrogen lines and continua at all other points. It is found that the dominant nonlocal radiative transfer effects can be separated into flux divergence coefficient effects and upper level population effects. The former are most important when the perturbation takes place in a region of significant opacity. Upper level population effects arise in both optically thick and thin regions in response to nonlocal density, ionization, and interlocking effects.

  1. No Middle Ground, but Many Mansions: Design Features of Effective Mixed Mode Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    In this account a model of communicative functions is used in an attempt to clarify the nature of mixed mode learning delivery. Formulated in research on communication in written mode, the model can be seen to offer insights into the nature of hypermedia communication, as well as helping to identify some key features of effective mixed mode course…

  2. No Middle Ground, but Many Mansions: Design Features of Effective Mixed Mode Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    In this account a model of communicative functions is used in an attempt to clarify the nature of mixed mode learning delivery. Formulated in research on communication in written mode, the model can be seen to offer insights into the nature of hypermedia communication, as well as helping to identify some key features of effective mixed mode course…

  3. Genetic heterogeneity in the apolipoprotein C-III promoter and effects of insulin.

    PubMed

    Dallinga-Thie, G M; Groenendijk, M; Blom, R N; De Bruin, T W; De Kant, E

    2001-09-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the in vivo and in vitro role of two newly identified variants (G(-)944A and A(-)1180C) located in the upstream promoter region of the apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) gene. These variants were studied in 30 probands diagnosed with FCHL, their relatives, and spouses. The allele frequencies of both variants were not different between the groups. No significant associations between plasma lipid traits and DNA variants were observed. We further analyzed the effect of the presence of these variants in the upstream enhancing region of the apoC-III gene, as five different in vivo occurring haplotypes, on the transcriptional activity of apoC-III in both HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. All five promoter constructs, including the wild type, showed similar enhancing activity of the apoC-III gene. The average transcription efficiency was enhanced 19-fold in HepG2 cells and 11-fold in Caco-2 cells. Previous studies have shown in vitro insulin-dependent down-regulation of the apoC-III gene transcription in HepG2 cells by DNA variation in an insulin response element (IRE) in the apoC-III promoter. We observed a 30% insulin-dependent down-regulation of apoC-III expression that was, however, independent of the presence of the two IRE variants. In contrast, in Caco-2 cells, a more variable insulin-dependent up-regulation was found that was also independent of the presence of the IRE variants.In conclusion, our data suggested that the apoC-III gene transcription in vitro is regulated by insulin but independent of the presence of the two IRE variants at -455 and -482. We were unable to detect associations between these apoC-III variants and plasma lipids and insulin in our FCHL population. This means that in vivo apoC-III transcription not only depends upon insulin but appears to be mediated by other mechanisms.

  4. Quantum dynamics through conical intersections in macrosystems: Combining effective modes and time-dependent Hartree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basler, Mathias; Gindensperger, Etienne; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2008-05-01

    We address the nonadiabatic quantum dynamics of (macro)systems involving a vast number of nuclear degrees of freedom (modes) in the presence of conical intersections. The macrosystem is first decomposed into a system part carrying a few, strongly coupled modes, and an environment, comprising the remaining modes. By successively transforming the modes of the environment, a hierarchy of effective Hamiltonians for the environment can be constructed. Each effective Hamiltonian depends on a reduced number of effective modes, which carry cumulative effects. The environment is described by a few effective modes augmented by a residual environment. In practice, the effective modes can be added to the system's modes and the quantum dynamics of the entire macrosystem can be accurately calculated on a limited time-interval. For longer times, however, the residual environment plays a role. We investigate the possibility to treat fully quantum mechanically the system plus a few effective environmental modes, augmented by the dynamics of the residual environment treated by the time-dependent Hartree (TDH) approximation. While the TDH approximation is known to fail to correctly reproduce the dynamics in the presence of conical intersections, it is shown that its use on top of the effective-mode formalism leads to much better results. Two numerical examples are presented and discussed; one of them is known to be a critical case for the TDH approximation.

  5. Constructing an effective prevention mechanism for MSW lifecycle using failure mode and effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Wu, Wen-Fang

    2015-12-01

    Municipal solid waste in Taiwan is a valuable source of renewable energy. Phases of municipal solid waste lifecycle (classification, disposal, storage, collection and transportation) before incineration or landfilled face various potential failures. Applying a proper technique to eliminate or decrease potential failures is desirable and needed. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to municipal solid waste lifecycle was found in literature. This study utilized the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as a convenient technique for determining, classifying and analyzing common failures in the municipal solid waste lifecycle. As a result, an appropriate risk scoring of severity, occurrence, and detection of failure modes and computing the Risk Priority Number for identifying the high potential failure modes were made. Nineteen failure modes were identified, and nine of them were ranked as the priority items for improvement. Recommended actions for all failure modes were suggested. Occurrences of failures were remarkably reduced after implementing the procedure for six months. The results of this study have minimized potential failures and brought continuous improvement, thus achieving a better protection of the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of terbium (III) on signaling molecules in horseradish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xuanbo; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-03-01

    Rare earth elements, especially terbium (Tb), are high-valence heavy metal elements that accumulate in the environment, and they show toxic effects on plants. Signaling molecules regulate many physiological and biochemical processes in plants. How rare earth elements affect signaling molecules remains largely unknown. In the present study, the effects of Tb(3+) on some extracellular and intracellular signaling molecules (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, auxin, H2O2, and Ca(2+)) in horseradish leaves were investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography, X-ray energy spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy, and Tb(3+) was sprayed on the surface of leaves. Tb(3+) treatment decreased the auxin and gibberellic acid contents and increased the abscisic acid content. These changes in the contents of phytohormones (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, and auxin) triggered excessive production of intracellular H2O2. Consequently, the increase in H2O2 content stimulated the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and the release of Ca(2+) from Ca(2+) stores, leading to Ca(2+) overload and the resulting inhibition of physiological and biochemical processes. The effects outlined above were more evident with increasing the concentration of Tb(3+) sprayed on horseradish leaves. Our data provide a possible underlying mechanism of Tb(3+) action on plants.

  7. Effective band structure of random III-V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Voicu; Zunger, Alex

    2010-03-01

    Random substitutional alloys have no long range order (LRO) or translational symmetry so rigorously speaking they have no E(k) band structure or manifestations thereof. Yet, many experiments on alloys are interpreted using the language of band theory, e.g. inferring Van Hove singularities, band dispersion and effective masses. Many standard alloy theories (VCA- or CPA-based) have the LRO imposed on the alloy Hamiltonian, assuming only on-site disorder, so they can not be used to judge the extent of LRO that really exists. We adopt the opposite way, by using large (thousand atom) randomly generated supercells in which chemically identical alloy atoms are allowed to have different local environments (a polymorphous representation). This then drives site-dependent atomic relaxation as well as potential fluctuations. The eigenstates from such supercells are then mapped onto the Brillouin zone (BZ) of the primitive cell, producing effective band dispersion. Results for (In,Ga)X show band-like behaviour only near the centre and faces of the BZ but rapidly lose such characteristics away from γ or for higher bands. We further analyse the effects of stoichiometry variation, internal relaxation, and short-range order on the alloy band structure.

  8. FMEA, the alternative process hazard method. [Failure Mode Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, R.K. )

    1993-05-01

    Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) is an old reliability/assurance tool finding its way into the HPI. Not popular yet, this hazard technique has some viable applications that can improve hazard assessment data. Notably, FMEA studies can identify possible areas for improvement that may have not been discovered using other methods. Also, FMEA is not as labor intensive and costly as other process hazard analysis (PHA) methods. PSHA 1910.119 set in place an informational structure whose main purpose is the reduction of potential accidents and minimizing risks in the event of an accident. Consequently, HPI operators must evaluate their process systems and identify potential major hazards, such as fires, explosions and accidental release of toxic/hazardous chemicals, and protect their facilities, employees, the public and the environment. But, which PHA method(s) apply to a particular plant or process still remains a difficult question. This paper describes what FMEA is; types of FMEA; how to conduct a FMEA study; comparison with HAZOP (hazard and operability study); computer software; applicability of FMEA; and examples of its use.

  9. The Worker Exposure Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2005-05-15

    The Worker Exposure Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (WE-FMEA) is a new approach to quantitatively evaluate worker risks from possible failures of co-located equipment in the complex environment of a magnetic or inertial fusion experiment. For next-step experiments such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) or the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the systems and equipment will be larger, handle more throughput or power, and will, in general, be more robust than past experiments. These systems and equipment are necessary to operate the machine, but the rooms are congested with equipment, piping, and cables, which poses a new level of hazard for workers who will perform hands-on maintenance. The WE-FMEA systematically analyzes the nearby equipment and the work environment for equipment failure or inherent hazards, and then develops exposure scenarios. Once identified, the exposure scenarios are evaluated for the worker hazards and quantitative worker risk is calculated. Then risk scenarios are quantitatively compared to existing statistical data on worker injuries; high-risk scenarios can be identified and addressed in more detail to determine the proper means to reduce, mitigate, or protect against the hazard. The WE-FMEA approach is described and a cooling system maintenance example is given.

  10. [Failure mode and effects analysis on computerized drug prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Paredes-Atenciano, J A; Roldán-Aviña, J P; González-García, Mercedes; Blanco-Sánchez, M C; Pinto-Melero, M A; Pérez-Ramírez, C; Calvo Rubio-Burgos, Miguel; Osuna-Navarro, F J; Jurado-Carmona, A M

    2015-01-01

    To identify and analyze errors in drug prescriptions of patients treated in a "high resolution" hospital by applying a Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).Material and methods A multidisciplinary group of medical specialties and nursing analyzed medical records where drug prescriptions were held in free text format. An FMEA was developed in which the risk priority index (RPI) was obtained from a cross-sectional observational study using an audit of the medical records, carried out in 2 phases: 1) Pre-intervention testing, and (2) evaluation of improvement actions after the first analysis. An audit sample size of 679 medical records from a total of 2,096 patients was calculated using stratified sampling and random selection of clinical events. Prescription errors decreased by 22.2% in the second phase. FMEA showed a greater RPI in "unspecified route of administration" and "dosage unspecified", with no significant decreases observed in the second phase, although it did detect, "incorrect dosing time", "contraindication due to drug allergy", "wrong patient" or "duplicate prescription", which resulted in the improvement of prescriptions. Drug prescription errors have been identified and analyzed by FMEA methodology, improving the clinical safety of these prescriptions. This tool allows updates of electronic prescribing to be monitored. To avoid such errors would require the mandatory completion of all sections of a prescription. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphometric analysis of treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction in growing Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, H. J.; Cevidanes, L. H.; Franchi, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present morphometric investigation was to evaluate the effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) in the treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion. The shape and size changes in the craniofacial configuration of a sample of 26 children with Class III malocclusions consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol were compared with a matched sample of 15 children with untreated Class III malocclusions. All subjects in the two groups were at a prepubertal stage of skeletal development at time of first observation. Average duration of treatment was 14 months. Significant treatment-induced modifications involved both the maxilla and the mandible. The most evident deformation consisted of marked forward displacement of the maxillary complex with more moderate favourable effects in the mandible. Deformations in the vertical dimension were not detected. The significant deformations were associated with significant differences in size in the group treated with the BAMP protocol. PMID:21187527

  12. Coordination Modes in the Formation of Ternary Complexes of Am(III), Cm(III) and Eu(III) with EDTA and NTA: TRLFS, 13C NMR, EXAFS, and Thermodynamics of the complexation.

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur,J.; Thakur, P.; Dodge, C.; Francis, A.; Choppin, G.

    2006-01-01

    The formation and the structure of the ternary complexes of trivalent Am, Cm, and Eu with mixtures of EDTA+NTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate and nitrilotriacetate) have been studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy, {sup 13}C NMR, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and two-phase metal ion equilibrium distribution at 6.60 m (NaClO{sub 4}) and a hydrogen ion concentration value (pcH) between 3.60 and 11.50. In the ternary complexes, EDTA binds via four carboxylates and two nitrogens, while the binding of the NTA varies with the hydrogen ion concentration, pcH, and the concentration ratios of the metal ion and the ligand. When the concentration ratios of the metal to ligand is low (1:1:1-1:1:2), two ternary complexes, M(EDTA)(NTAH){sup 3-} and M(EDTA)(NTA){sup 4-}, are formed at pcH ca. 9.00 in which NTA binds via three carboxylates, via two carboxylates and one nitrogen, or via two carboxylates and a H{sub 2}O. At higher ratios (1:1:20 and 1:10:10) and pcH's of ca. 9.00 and 11.50, one ternary complex, M(EDTA)(NTA){sup 4-}, is formed in which NTA binds via three carboxylates and not via nitrogen. The two-phase equilibrium distribution studies at tracer concentrations of Am, Cm, and Eu have also confirmed the formation of the ternary complex M(EDTA)(NTA){sup 4-} at temperatures between 0 and 60 {sup o}C. The stability constants (log{beta}{sub 111}) for these metal ions increase with increasing temperature. The endothermic enthalpy and positive entropy indicated a significant effect of cation dehydration in the formation of the ternary complexes at high ionic strength.

  13. Azide-bridged one-dimensional Mn(III) polymers: effects of side group of Schiff base ligands on structure and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mei; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2007-12-24

    By changing ancillary tetradentate Schiff base ligands (L), two new one-dimensional azide-bridged manganese(III) coordination complexes [MnIII(L)(mu1,3-N3)]n [L = 5-Fsalen (1), 5-OCH3 (2); salen = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-diaminoethane] as well as a mononuclear complex [MnIII(salophen)(N3)] (3) [salophen = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine] have been successfully obtained. All of them have been structurally and magnetically characterized. In the structures of 1-3 each MnIII ion is in a distorted octahedral geometry with an obvious Jahn-Teller effect, where the tetradentate L ligands all bind in the equatorial mode, whereas in the axial direction, the N3- ion acts as an end-to-end bridge in 1 and 2 while a terminal group in 3 with a methanol molecule at the other end. Magnetic characterization shows that the mu1,3-bridging azide ion proves to mainly transmit antiferromagnetic interaction between MnIII ions, but these three complexes exhibit various magnetic behaviors at low temperatures. Noteworthily, complex 2 behaves as a weak ferromagnet with a relatively large coercive field of 2.3 kOe, much larger than the value reported previously.

  14. Collisionless microtearing modes in hot tokamaks: Effect of trapped electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, Aditya K.; Ganesh, R.; Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.

    2015-07-15

    Collisionless microtearing modes have recently been found linearly unstable in sharp temperature gradient regions of large aspect ratio tokamaks. The magnetic drift resonance of passing electrons has been found to be sufficient to destabilise these modes above a threshold plasma β. A global gyrokinetic study, including both passing electrons as well as trapped electrons, shows that the non-adiabatic contribution of the trapped electrons provides a resonant destabilization, especially at large toroidal mode numbers, for a given aspect ratio. The global 2D mode structures show important changes to the destabilising electrostatic potential. The β threshold for the onset of the instability is found to be generally downshifted by the inclusion of trapped electrons. A scan in the aspect ratio of the tokamak configuration, from medium to large but finite values, clearly indicates a significant destabilizing contribution from trapped electrons at small aspect ratio, with a diminishing role at larger aspect ratios.

  15. Influence of retrieval mode on effects of production: Evidence for costs in free recall.

    PubMed

    Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal

    2016-06-01

    Study modality (visual, auditory) of words as well as production mode (reading aloud, writing down) have been shown to influence the production effect (PE). When study words are presented visually, reading them aloud yields superior memory. However, when the same study words are presented aurally, writing them down leads to superior memory. Missing in PE studies is the variable of retrieval mode (written, aloud), which was addressed in the present study. In a pair of experiments, we manipulated the 3 variables-study modality, production mode, and retrieval mode-in a factorial fashion. With visual study, aloud production mode (vocalizing) was found to be superior to written production, in both retrieval modes (written and aloud). However, the difference between the productions was significantly smaller in the aloud retrieval mode relative to the written retrieval mode. With auditory study, written production mode was superior to aloud production mode, in the written as well as in the aloud retrieval modes. Here, the difference between the productions was significantly smaller in the written relative to the aloud retrieval mode. In other words, the difference between productions was smaller for the retrieval mode that matched the superior production. We interpret these findings using a retrieval-cost account. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The effect of magnetopause motion on fast mode resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartinger, M. D.; Welling, D.; Viall, N. M.; Moldwin, M. B.; Ridley, A.

    2014-10-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere supports several types of ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. These include fast mode resonance (FMR): cavity modes, waveguide modes, and tunneling modes/virtual resonance. The magnetopause, often treated as the outer boundary for cavity/waveguide modes in the dayside magnetosphere, is not stationary. A rapidly changing outer boundary condition—e.g., due to rapid magnetopause motion—is not favorable for FMR generation and may explain the sparseness of FMR observations in the outer magnetosphere. We examine how magnetopause motion affects the dayside magnetosphere's ability to sustain FMR with idealized Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) simulations using the BATS-R-US global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code coupled with the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM). We present observations of FMR in BATS-R-US, reproducing results from other global MHD codes. We further show that FMR is present for a wide range of solar wind conditions, even during periods with large and rapid magnetopause displacements. We compare our simulation results to FMR observations in the dayside magnetosphere, finding that FMR occurrence does not depend on solar wind dynamic pressure, which can be used as a proxy for dynamic pressure fluctuations and magnetopause perturbations. Our results demonstrate that other explanations besides a nonstationary magnetopause—such as the inability to detect FMR in the presence of other ULF wave modes with large amplitudes—are required to explain the rarity of FMR observations in the outer magnetosphere.

  17. Mixed-mode fracture of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The mixed-mode fracture behavior of ceramic materials is of importance for monolithic ceramics in order to predict the onset of fracture under generalized loading conditions and for ceramic composites to describe crack deflection toughening mechanisms. Experimental data on surface flaw mixed-mode fracture in various ceramics indicate that the flaw-plane normal stress at fracture decreases with increasing in-flaw-plane shear stress, although present data exhibit a fairly wide range in details of this sigma - tau relationship. Fracture from large cracks suggests that Mode II has a greater effect on Mode I fracture than Mode III. A comparison of surface flaw and large crack mixed-mode I-II fracture responses indicated that surface flaw behavior is influenced by shear resistance effects.

  18. Effect of bimaxillary rotational setback surgery on upper airway structure in skeletal class III deformities.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yuh-Jia; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Yin-An; Liao, Yu-Fang; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2015-02-01

    Upper airway narrowing has been a concern of mandibular setback. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the effect of bimaxillary rotational setback surgery on upper airway structure in patients with skeletal class III deformities, and (2) to compare the preoperative and postoperative upper airways of class III patients with age- and sex-matched class I control subjects. The upper airways of 36 adults who consecutively underwent bimaxillary rotational setback surgery for skeletal class III deformities were assessed by means of cone-beam computed tomography before and at least 6 months after surgery. Results were compared with those of age- and sex-matched control subjects with skeletal class I structure. Before surgery, the class III patients had significantly larger velopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal volumes than did the control subjects (all p < 0.01). The velopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharynx volumes decreased significantly after surgery (all p < 0.01). The postoperative airways of class III patients were similar with regard to velopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal volume (all p > 0.01) compared to control subjects. The postoperative velopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airway volumes were associated with the baseline airway volume (p < 0.001) and horizontal movement of the soft palate (p < 0.01). These results suggest that upper airway volume is decreased after bimaxillary rotational setback surgery for skeletal class III deformities, but is not smaller than in normal controls, and the postoperative upper airway volume is related to airway volume at baseline and changes in the surrounding structures. Therapeutic, III.

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Testing Mode Effects in Grade K-12 Mathematics Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; Young, Michael J.; Brooks, Thomas; Olson, John

    2007-01-01

    This study conducted a meta-analysis of computer-based and paper-and-pencil administration mode effects on K-12 student mathematics tests. Both initial and final results based on fixed- and random-effects models are presented. The results based on the final selected studies with homogeneous effect sizes show that the administration mode had no…

  20. Insulin Sensitizing Effects of Oligomannuronate-Chromium (III) Complexes in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Han, Zhangrun; Li, Guangsheng; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guangli

    2011-01-01

    Background It was known that the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a major pathogenic factor in diabetes mellitus. Therefore prevention of metabolic disorder caused by insulin resistance and improvement of insulin sensitivity are very important for the therapy of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the ability of marine oligosaccharides oligomannuronate and its chromium (III) complexes from brown alga to enhance insulin sensitivity in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrated that oligomannuronate, especially its chromium (III) complexes, enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and increased the mRNA expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and insulin receptor (IR) after their internalization into C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Additionally, oligosaccharides treatment also significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of proteins involved in both AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK)/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways in C2C12 cells, indicating that the oligosaccharides activated both the insulin signal pathway and AMPK pathways as their mode of action. Moreover, oligosaccharides distributed to the mitochondria after internalization into C2C12 cells and increased the expression of transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1), and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p-ACC), which suggested that the actions of these oligosaccharides might be associated with mitochondria through increasing energy expenditure. All of these effects of marine oligosaccharides were comparable to that of the established anti-diabetic drug, metformin. In addition, the treatment with oligosaccharides showed less toxicity than that of metformin. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that oligomannuonate and its chromium (III) complexes improved insulin

  1. Effects of PECS Phase III Application Training on Independent Mands in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica June

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PECS phase III application training on independent mands in young children with autism. Participants were five children with autism ranging from ages 2 to 4 years old. A multiple baseline across participants was used to evaluate acquisition of independent correct mands across baseline and…

  2. Effectiveness of phosphate removal during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by dosing iron(III).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Wang, Jue; Chen, Bing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jiaqi; Liu, Lubo

    2017-05-15

    Phosphate-Fe(II) precipitation induced by Fe(III) reduction during the anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge was investigated for the removal of phosphorus and its possible recovery. The experiments were conducted with three Fe(III) sources at 35 °C and 55 °C. The results show that ferrihydrite-Fe(III) was effectively reduced during the anaerobic sludge digestion by 63% and 96% under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Whereas FeCl3-Fe(III) was only mesophilically reducible and the reduction of hematite-Fe(III) was unnoticeable at either temperature. Efficient precipitation of vivianite was not observed although high saturation index values, e.g., >14 (activity reduction not considered), had been reached. This reveals the complexity of vivianite precipitation in anaerobic digestion systems; for example, Fe(II) complexation and organic interference could not be ignored. With ferrihydrite amendments at a Fe/TP of 1.5, methane production from sludge digestion was reduced by 35.1% at 35 °C, and was unaffected when the digestion temperature went up to 55 °C. But, acidic FeCl3 severely inhibited the methane production and consequently the sludge biomass degradation.

  3. Effect of Ge autodoping during III-V MOVPE growth on Ge substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrutia, Laura; Barrigón, Enrique; García, Iván; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio; Algora, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    During the MOVPE growth of III-V layers on Ge substrates, Ge atoms can be evaporated or etched from the back of the wafer and reach the growth surface, becoming incorporated into the epilayers. This is the so-called Ge autodoping effect, which we have studied through a set of growth experiments of GaInP and Ga(In)As layers lattice matched to Ge substrates, which have been characterized by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy. The role of V/III ratio and growth rate on Ge autodoping has been studied and a MOVPE reactor pre-conditioning prior to the epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductor layers that mitigates this Ge autodoping has been identified. In addition, the use of 2-in. versus 4-in. Ge substrates has been compared and the use of a Si3N4 backside coating for the Ge substrates has been evaluated.

  4. Conformational Changes in the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for the Transport III Subunit Ist1 Lead to Distinct Modes of ATPase Vps4 Regulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jason; Davies, Brian A; Payne, Johanna A; Benson, Linda M; Katzmann, David J

    2015-12-11

    Intralumenal vesicle formation of the multivesicular body is a critical step in the delivery of endocytic cargoes to the lysosome for degradation. Endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) subunits polymerize on endosomal membranes to facilitate membrane budding away from the cytoplasm to generate these intralumenal vesicles. The ATPase Vps4 remodels and disassembles ESCRT-III, but the manner in which Vps4 activity is coordinated with ESCRT-III function remains unclear. Ist1 is structurally homologous to ESCRT-III subunits and has been reported to inhibit Vps4 function despite the presence of a microtubule-interacting and trafficking domain-interacting motif (MIM) capable of stimulating Vps4 in the context of other ESCRT-III subunits. Here we report that Ist1 inhibition of Vps4 ATPase activity involves two elements in Ist1: the MIM itself and a surface containing a conserved ELYC sequence. In contrast, the MIM interaction, in concert with a more open conformation of the Ist1 core, resulted in stimulation of Vps4. Addition of the ESCRT-III subunit binding partner of Ist1, Did2, also converted Ist1 from an inhibitor to a stimulator of Vps4 ATPase activity. Finally, distinct regulation of Vps4 by Ist1 corresponded with altered ESCRT-III disassembly in vitro. Together, these data support a model in which Ist1-Did2 interactions during ESCRT-III polymerization coordinate Vps4 activity with the timing of ESCRT-III disassembly.

  5. Effects of travel mode on exposures to particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David J; de Hoogh, Kees; Morris, Chloe; Gulliver, John

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring was carried out of particulate concentrations whilst simultaneously walking and driving 48 routes in London, UK. Monitoring was undertaken during May and June 2005. Route lengths ranged from 601 to 1351 m, and most routes were travelled in both directions. Individual journey times ranged from 1.5 to 15 min by car (average 3.7 min) and 7.3 to 30 min (average 12.8 min) whilst walking; car trips were therefore repeated up to 5 times for each single walking trip and the results averaged for the route. Car trips were made with windows closed and the ventilation system on a moderate setting. Results show that mean exposures while walking are greatly in excess of those while driving, by a factor 4.7 for the coarse particle mass (PM10-PM2.5), 2.2 for the fine particle mass (PM2.5-PM1), 1.9 for the very fine particle mass (mode from car to walking in response to policies aimed at encouraging a modal shift in travel behavior are thus likely to experience considerably increased journey-time personal exposures to traffic-related air pollution. More effort is consequently needed to increase separation between road vehicles and pedestrians if negative effects of these policies are to be avoided.

  6. Failure mode and effects analysis outputs: are they valid?

    PubMed

    Shebl, Nada Atef; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Barber, Nick

    2012-06-10

    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a prospective risk assessment tool that has been widely used within the aerospace and automotive industries and has been utilised within healthcare since the early 1990s. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of FMEA outputs within a hospital setting in the United Kingdom. Two multidisciplinary teams each conducted an FMEA for the use of vancomycin and gentamicin. Four different validity tests were conducted: Face validity: by comparing the FMEA participants' mapped processes with observational work. Content validity: by presenting the FMEA findings to other healthcare professionals. Criterion validity: by comparing the FMEA findings with data reported on the trust's incident report database. Construct validity: by exploring the relevant mathematical theories involved in calculating the FMEA risk priority number. Face validity was positive as the researcher documented the same processes of care as mapped by the FMEA participants. However, other healthcare professionals identified potential failures missed by the FMEA teams. Furthermore, the FMEA groups failed to include failures related to omitted doses; yet these were the failures most commonly reported in the trust's incident database. Calculating the RPN by multiplying severity, probability and detectability scores was deemed invalid because it is based on calculations that breach the mathematical properties of the scales used. There are significant methodological challenges in validating FMEA. It is a useful tool to aid multidisciplinary groups in mapping and understanding a process of care; however, the results of our study cast doubt on its validity. FMEA teams are likely to need different sources of information, besides their personal experience and knowledge, to identify potential failures. As for FMEA's methodology for scoring failures, there were discrepancies between the teams' estimates and similar incidents reported on the trust's incident

  7. Children’s Social Desirability: Effects of Test Assessment Mode

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patricia H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.; Smith, Albert F.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Alyssa L.; Puryear, Megan P.; Vaadi, Kate K.; Finney, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined a recently developed short version of the Children’s Social Desirability (CSD-S) scale with 157 fourth-grade children. Of interest was a) whether one-month test-retest reliability would vary as a function of test assessment mode (interview or classroom), gender, race, SES, and BMI percentile, and b) whether the degree of social desirability would vary as a function of these same variables. The CSD-S scale showed good test-retest reliability for both interview and classroom assessment modes (.85 and .83, respectively). Internal consistency also was good (first interview administration = .84; first classroom administration = .81). Reliability was good and did not vary significantly over assessment mode or any child subgroup variables, suggesting that the CSD-S scale is appropriate for general use. The interview mode elicited significantly more socially desirable answers than did the classroom mode. Social desirability did not differ across child subgroups. Some of these findings were examined, and replicated, on another sample. Thus, the CSD-S scale may be used with diverse groups of children to a) reliably assess a social desirability bias that may systematically bias other self-reports of interest to researchers and b) examine individual differences in degree of social desirability. PMID:25870465

  8. Children's Social Desirability: Effects of Test Assessment Mode.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patricia H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Smith, Albert F; Collins, Kathleen L; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Alyssa L; Puryear, Megan P; Vaadi, Kate K; Finney, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined a recently developed short version of the Children's Social Desirability (CSD-S) scale with 157 fourth-grade children. Of interest was a) whether one-month test-retest reliability would vary as a function of test assessment mode (interview or classroom), gender, race, SES, and BMI percentile, and b) whether the degree of social desirability would vary as a function of these same variables. The CSD-S scale showed good test-retest reliability for both interview and classroom assessment modes (.85 and .83, respectively). Internal consistency also was good (first interview administration = .84; first classroom administration = .81). Reliability was good and did not vary significantly over assessment mode or any child subgroup variables, suggesting that the CSD-S scale is appropriate for general use. The interview mode elicited significantly more socially desirable answers than did the classroom mode. Social desirability did not differ across child subgroups. Some of these findings were examined, and replicated, on another sample. Thus, the CSD-S scale may be used with diverse groups of children to a) reliably assess a social desirability bias that may systematically bias other self-reports of interest to researchers and b) examine individual differences in degree of social desirability.

  9. Molecular and cellular mechanism of the effect of La(III) on horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Huang, Xiaohua

    2010-09-01

    Horseradish is an important economic crop. It contains horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and lots of nutrients, and has specific pungency. Lanthanum is one of the heavy metals in the environment. It can transfer through the food chain to humans. In this paper, the molecular and cellular mechanism of the toxic effects of La(III) on HRP in vivo was investigated with an optimized combination of biophysical, biochemical, and cytobiological methods. It was found that La(III) could interact with O and/or N atoms in the backbone/side chains of the HRP molecule in the cell membrane of horseradish treated with 80 microM La(III), leading to the formation of a new complex of La and HRP (La-HRP). The formation of the La-HRP complex causes the redistribution of the electron densities of atoms in the HRP molecule, especially the decrease in the electron density of the active center, Fe(III), in the heme group of the La-HRP molecule compared with the native HRP molecule in vivo. Therefore, the electron transfer and the activity of HRP in horseradish treated with 80 microM La(III) are obviously decreased compared with those of the native HRP in vivo. This is a possible molecular and cellular mechanism for the toxic effect of La(III) on HRP in vivo. It is suggested that the accumulation of La in the environment, especially the formation of the La-HRP complex in vivo, is harmful to organisms.

  10. Alpha-particle effects on ballooning flute modes in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Andrushchenko, Z.N.; Bijko, A.Y.; Cheremnykh, O.K. )

    1990-11-01

    In this paper a more accurate dispersion equation for ideal ballooning flute modes in a plasma with alpha particles is obtained. It is shown that circulating and trapped alpha particles generate the eigenbranches of the mode oscillations with frequencies {omega} {approx lt} {omega}{sub *i}, where {omega}{sub *i}, is the ion drift frequency. The relevant growth rates and frequencies are found. It is ascertained that in the frequency range {omega}{sub *i} {lt} {omega} {lt} {bar {omega}{sub Db}}, where {bar {omega}{sub Db}} is the magnetic drift frequency average over a bounce period, trapped alpha particles may generate forced oscillations that influence the ideal ballooning flute mode stability boundary. It is shown that the stability may be improved for certain plasma parameters and trapped alpha-particle pressures.

  11. Cr(III) removal by a microalgal isolate, Chlorella miniata: effects of nitrate, chloride and sulfate.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Gong, Yu-Feng; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, nitrate, chloride and sulfate anion systems were used to investigate the presence of anions on the removal of Cr(III) by Chlorella miniata. Kinetic studies suggested that the equilibrium time of Cr(III) biosorption was not affected by the presence of different sodium salts, even at the concentration of 1.0 M, and all reached equilibrium after 24 h. Equilibrium experiments showed that the effects of different anions on Cr(III) biosorption varied, and the inhibitory order was SO4 (2-) > Cl(-) > NO3 (-). Langmuir isotherm indicated that the maximum sorption capacity of C. miniata increased with the increase of pH under different anion systems. The strongest inhibition effect of the sulfate system was attributed to the formation of Cr(OH)SO4 aq. and the decrease of Cr(OH)(2+) and Cr(3+) in solution, while the difference of inhibitory effect in the other two anion systems could be accounted by the formation of the inner-sphere surface complex in the nitrate system and the outer-sphere surface complex in the chloride system. The present study suggested that the presence of anions greatly affected the removal of Cr(III) on C. miniata and thereby their transport in the environment.

  12. Parker Instability in Nonuniform Gravitational Fields. III. The Effect of a Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, Hideyuki; Horiuchi, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Shibata, Kazunari; Mineshige, Shin

    1997-09-01

    Magnetized gas layers in gravitational fields (e.g., accretion disks and galactic disks) can be subject to the Parker instability, an undular mode of the magnetic buoyancy instabilities. By means of a linear stability analysis, we examined the effects of hot, tenuous regions (``coronae'') on the growth of the Parker instability in the underlying magnetized gas layers. As an unperturbed state, we consider the magnetized gas layers in static equilibrium. The stratified gas layers are threaded by horizontal magnetic fields in the x-direction. The temperature varies almost discontinuously at the coronal base in the z-direction. The ratio of magnetic pressure to gas pressure, α, is assumed to be constant. Our analysis has confirmed that the presence of a corona reduces the growth rate of the Parker instability and increases the critical wavelength. It is found that the growth of the Parker instability is more sensitive to the height of the coronal base than the temperature ratio between the disk and the corona is. In particular, the Parker instability is stabilized substantially when the coronal base lies below the height of maximum gravitational acceleration. When the wavenumber vector of the perturbation is parallel to the magnetic field (ky = 0), the growth rates of all modes in the disk are reduced considerably in the limit of the vanishing coronal base height. The first harmonic mode (1h-mode with odd symmetric velocity eigenfunctions with respect to the equatorial plane) is more easily stabilized by coronae than the fundamental mode is (f-mode with even symmetric velocity eigenfunctions). This is because global convective motion across the equatorial plane is allowed for the f-mode even when ky = 0, whereas it is not allowed for the 1h-mode. For the f-mode, furthermore, we find that the smallest possible γ (critical gamma) against the instability is γcrit = 1 + α, regardless of the value of ky. The reason for this is discussed briefly.

  13. Investigating higher order modes effects on thermionic RF gun transverse emittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, A.; Shokri, B.; Feghhi, S. A. H.

    2017-02-01

    As the excitation of higher order modes in high gradient accelerating cavities of the RF gun negatively influences electron beam quality, in the present work a theory is obtained based on generalizing Panofsky-Wenzel theorem to study the effect of transverse magnetic modes on transverse emittance growth of the RF gun. Based on this theory, the impact of higher order modes on transverse momentum is investigated. Based on analysis and simulation results, it is shown that different RF modes result in divergence or convergence effects on beam transverse dynamics. The presence of dipole and quadrupole modes can enhance the transverse emittance by 320 % and 450 % , respectively. The compound effect of the presence of two higher order modes results in 470 % transverse emittance growth.

  14. Multi-spatial-mode effects in squeezed-light-enhanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töyrä, Daniel; Brown, Daniel D.; Davis, McKenna; Song, Shicong; Wormald, Alex; Harms, Jan; Miao, Haixing; Freise, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Proposed near-future upgrades of the current advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors include the usage of frequency dependent squeezed light to reduce the current sensitivity-limiting quantum noise. We quantify and describe the degradation effects that spatial mode-mismatches between optical resonators have on the squeezed field. These mode-mismatches can to first order be described by scattering of light into second-order Gaussian modes. As a demonstration of principle, we also show that squeezing the second-order Hermite-Gaussian modes HG02 and HG20, in addition to the fundamental mode, has the potential to increase the robustness to spatial mode-mismatches. This scheme, however, requires independently optimised squeeze angles for each squeezed spatial mode, which would be challenging to realise in practise.

  15. Knock-on Effects of Mode Change on Academic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Sheena

    2004-01-01

    Factors such as increases in student numbers and technological developments are threatening the luxury of one-on-one tutorials and bringing changes in modes of academic discourse. This small scale exploratory study identifies characteristics of taped oral, compared to written, feedback that are attributable to its spoken nature (longer, less…

  16. Increasing Facilitator Effectiveness by Bridging Two Modes of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alperson, Erma Dosamantes

    To fully explore the range of our human consciousness, we must have access to all available modes of experiencing: the bodily-implicit and the rational-explicit. To the extent that we become alienated from our bodily-felt side, we respond solely in terms of what the external situation demands. We lose sight of our own feelings and needs and…

  17. [The effect of mode of delivery on woman's sexuality].

    PubMed

    Langrová, P; Vrublová, Y

    2013-12-01

    To find out whether the mode of delivery can influence the female sexuality and find out dimensions of female sexuality that can be influenced by the mode of delivery. Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava. The research sample was consisted of 99 after delivery. This women gave birth 6 months to 3 years ago. The sample contained 70 women after spontaneous vaginal delivery, 17 women after the section cesarean and 12 women after the optative vaginal delivery. The questionnaire Female sexual function index (FSFI) was used for the purpose of measuring sexuality. The questionnaire evaluates 6 domain sof fiale sexual functioning: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. The surfy was carried out in 3 private gynecologists. The mode of delivery does not affect the overall score in the dimension of desire, arousal,lubrication, orgasm and satisfaction. The differences were found in the incidence then were analysed the individual questionnaire items in the incidence of the problem with achieving and maintaining lubrication, frequency of orgasm and satisfaction with their partner. Women who had an optative vaginal delivery had higher incidence and rate of the pain during intercourse compared with women with vaginal deliveries. The mode of delivery affects sexual function of women specially in the adherence and degree of the pain. Cesarean section reduce the level of the pain during intercourse. The women after optative vaginal delivery were the most end angered group so these women would be given special care.

  18. Non-local effects on pedestal kinetic ballooning mode stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarelma, S.; Martin-Collar, J.; Dickinson, D.; McMillan, B. F.; Roach, C. M.; MAST Team; JET Contributors, The

    2017-06-01

    The H-mode pedestal height plays an important role in determining the global confinement of the tokamak plasma. In type I ELMy H-mode the ultimate limit for the pedestal pressure at constant width is set by the ideal MHD peeling-ballooning modes (PBMs) that are thought to be the trigger for the ELMs. However, the PBM criterion does not uniquely determine the pedestal. Increasing the width of the pedestal, the marginally peeling-ballooning stable pedestal height increases as well. The second criterion for the pedestal is set by the transport processes in the pedestal that limit the gradient between the ELMs. One candidate for driving this transport is the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) that is driven by the pressure gradient (Snyder et al 2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 085035). The KBM growth rate increases very rapidly after the critical pressure gradient is exceeded leading to very stiff profiles with the pressure gradient clamped near to the stability limit. In the local linear gyrokinetic analysis of experimental MAST and JET plasmas we have found that, like the {n}=∞ ideal MHD ballooning modes, the KBMs can access locally so called second stability if the magnetic shear becomes low enough (Dickinson et al 2011 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 53 115010; Saarelma et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 123012). However, in the pedestal region the local assumption that the equilibrium can be considered radially constant for the investigated modes is no longer justified. In this paper we revisit the KBM analysis using a global code ORB5 to investigate whether second stability access exists for KBMs. We find that counter to the local analysis, the global KBM stability is not sensitive to the magnetic shear in the pedestal region. At sufficiently high β (but still below the ideal peeling-ballooning limit) the pedestal region becomes KBM unstable regardless of the amount of bootstrap current assumed in the equilibrium reconstruction. However, just as in local analysis, the mode is stabilised

  19. Strain-effect transistors: Theoretical study on the effects of external strain on III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Shervin, Shahab; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Ravipati, Srikanth; Lee, Keon-Hwa; Bulashevich, Kirill; Ryou, Jae-Hyun

    2015-11-09

    This paper presents strain-effect transistors (SETs) based on flexible III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through theoretical calculations. We show that the electronic band structures of InAlGaN/GaN thin-film heterostructures on flexible substrates can be modified by external bending with a high degree of freedom using polarization properties of the polar semiconductor materials. Transfer characteristics of the HEMT devices, including threshold voltage and transconductance, are controlled by varied external strain. Equilibrium 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is enhanced with applied tensile strain by bending the flexible structure with the concave-side down (bend-down condition). 2DEG density is reduced and eventually depleted with increasing compressive strain in bend-up conditions. The operation mode of different HEMT structures changes from depletion- to enchantment-mode or vice versa depending on the type and magnitude of external strain. The results suggest that the operation modes and transfer characteristics of HEMTs can be engineered with an optimum external bending strain applied in the device structure, which is expected to be beneficial for both radio frequency and switching applications. In addition, we show that drain currents of transistors based on flexible InAlGaN/GaN can be modulated only by external strain without applying electric field in the gate. The channel conductivity modulation that is obtained by only external strain proposes an extended functional device, gate-free SETs, which can be used in electro-mechanical applications.

  20. Strain-effect transistors: Theoretical study on the effects of external strain on III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervin, Shahab; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Ravipati, Srikanth; Lee, Keon-Hwa; Bulashevich, Kirill; Ryou, Jae-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents strain-effect transistors (SETs) based on flexible III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through theoretical calculations. We show that the electronic band structures of InAlGaN/GaN thin-film heterostructures on flexible substrates can be modified by external bending with a high degree of freedom using polarization properties of the polar semiconductor materials. Transfer characteristics of the HEMT devices, including threshold voltage and transconductance, are controlled by varied external strain. Equilibrium 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is enhanced with applied tensile strain by bending the flexible structure with the concave-side down (bend-down condition). 2DEG density is reduced and eventually depleted with increasing compressive strain in bend-up conditions. The operation mode of different HEMT structures changes from depletion- to enchantment-mode or vice versa depending on the type and magnitude of external strain. The results suggest that the operation modes and transfer characteristics of HEMTs can be engineered with an optimum external bending strain applied in the device structure, which is expected to be beneficial for both radio frequency and switching applications. In addition, we show that drain currents of transistors based on flexible InAlGaN/GaN can be modulated only by external strain without applying electric field in the gate. The channel conductivity modulation that is obtained by only external strain proposes an extended functional device, gate-free SETs, which can be used in electro-mechanical applications.

  1. Size effects of nanocrystalline TiO2 on As(V) and As(III) adsorption and As(III) photooxidation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhonghou; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2009-09-15

    The physicochemical properties of TiO(2) particles in the diameter range between 6.6 and 30.1 nm and the effect of the crystalline size on arsenic adsorption and photocatalytical oxidation were investigated. TiO(2) nanoparticles of different sizes were single-phase anatase. The adsorption capacity of the TiO(2) for As(III) and As(V) increased linearly with the N(2) Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (S(BET)) of the particles. There was not much difference in the rate of As(III) photooxidation when the diameter of the TiO(2) nanoparticles was between 6.6 and 14.8 nm. However, the As(III) photooxidation rate clearly decreased when the particle size increased to 30.1 nm. Arsenite photooxidation data could be fitted with a first-order kinetics equation.

  2. Failure mode and effects analysis outputs: are they valid?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a prospective risk assessment tool that has been widely used within the aerospace and automotive industries and has been utilised within healthcare since the early 1990s. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of FMEA outputs within a hospital setting in the United Kingdom. Methods Two multidisciplinary teams each conducted an FMEA for the use of vancomycin and gentamicin. Four different validity tests were conducted: · Face validity: by comparing the FMEA participants’ mapped processes with observational work. · Content validity: by presenting the FMEA findings to other healthcare professionals. · Criterion validity: by comparing the FMEA findings with data reported on the trust’s incident report database. · Construct validity: by exploring the relevant mathematical theories involved in calculating the FMEA risk priority number. Results Face validity was positive as the researcher documented the same processes of care as mapped by the FMEA participants. However, other healthcare professionals identified potential failures missed by the FMEA teams. Furthermore, the FMEA groups failed to include failures related to omitted doses; yet these were the failures most commonly reported in the trust’s incident database. Calculating the RPN by multiplying severity, probability and detectability scores was deemed invalid because it is based on calculations that breach the mathematical properties of the scales used. Conclusion There are significant methodological challenges in validating FMEA. It is a useful tool to aid multidisciplinary groups in mapping and understanding a process of care; however, the results of our study cast doubt on its validity. FMEA teams are likely to need different sources of information, besides their personal experience and knowledge, to identify potential failures. As for FMEA’s methodology for scoring failures, there were discrepancies between the teams’ estimates

  3. Analytical relation between effective mode field area and waveguide dispersion in microstructure fibers.

    PubMed

    Moenster, Mathias; Steinmeyer, Günter; Iliew, Rumen; Lederer, Falk; Petermann, Klaus

    2006-11-15

    For optical fibers exhibiting a radially symmetric refractive index profile, there exists an analytical relation that connects waveguide dispersion and the Petermann-II mode field radius. We extend the usefulness of this relation to the nonradially symmetric case of microstructure fibers in the anomalous dispersion regime, yielding a simple relation between dispersion and effective mode field area. Assuming a Gaussian mode distribution, we derive a fundamental upper limit for the effective mode field area that is required to obtain a certain amount of anomalous waveguide dispersion. This relation is demonstrated to show excellent agreement for fiber designs suited for supercontinuum generation and soliton lasers in the near infrared.

  4. Analytical relation between effective mode field area and waveguide dispersion in microstructure fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moenster, Mathias; Steinmeyer, Günter; Iliew, Rumen; Lederer, Falk; Petermann, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    For optical fibers exhibiting a radially symmetric refractive index profile, there exists an analytical relation that connects waveguide dispersion and the Petermann-II mode field radius. We extend the usefulness of this relation to the nonradially symmetric case of microstructure fibers in the anomalous dispersion regime, yielding a simple relation between dispersion and effective mode field area. Assuming a Gaussian mode distribution, we derive a fundamental upper limit for the effective mode field area that is required to obtain a certain amount of anomalous waveguide dispersion. This relation is demonstrated to show excellent agreement for fiber designs suited for supercontinuum generation and soliton lasers in the near infrared.

  5. Effect of van der Waals interaction on the mode I fracture characteristics of graphene sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Avinash; Mertiny, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    In this paper a study has been performed to investigate the effect of van der Waals interaction forces on the mode I (opening mode) fracture characteristics of a graphene sheet. Finite element based atomistic approach was employed to perform the investigation, where graphene structure was assumed to behave like a space frame structure. Few graphene sheets were modeled in finite element environment with different set of interlayer spacing. Modified virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) was employed to estimate the strain energy release rate (SERR) under mode I of fracture criteria. Significant effect of van der Waals forces was observed on the mode I fracture characteristics of graphene.

  6. Effect of Deformation Mode on the Wear Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lina; Liu, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Owing to good biocompatibility, good fatigue resistance, and excellent superelasticity, various types of bio-medical devices based on NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) have been developed. Due to the complexity in deformation mode in service, for example NiTi implants, accurate assessment/prediction of the surface wear process is difficult. This study aims at providing a further insight into the effect of deformation mode on the wear behavior of NiTi SMA. In the present study, two types of wear testing modes were used, namely sliding wear mode and reciprocating wear mode, to investigate the effect of deformation mode on the wear behavior of NiTi SMA in both martensitic and austenitic states. It was found that, when in martensitic state and under high applied loads, sliding wear mode resulted in more surface damage as compared to that under reciprocating wear mode. When in austenitic state, although similar trends in the coefficient of friction were observed, the coefficient of friction and surface damage in general is less under reciprocating mode than under sliding mode. These observations were further discussed in terms of different deformation mechanisms involved in the wear tests, in particular, the reversibility of martensite variant reorientation and stress-induced phase transformation, respectively.

  7. Effect of confinement on the mode dynamics of dipole clusters.

    PubMed

    Schella, André; Melzer, André; July, Christoph; Bechinger, Clemens

    2015-02-14

    Dynamical properties of colloidal clusters composed of paramagnetic beads are presented. The clusters were trapped either in a parabolic trough or in a hard-wall confinement. In order to access the dynamics of the ensembles, the instantaneous normal mode (INM) approach is utilized, which uses cluster configurations as an input. The peaks in the mode spectra weaken when the system size is increased and when the coupling strength is lowered. The short-time diffusive properties of the clusters are deduced using the INM technique. It is found that angular diffusion is always larger than radial diffusion regardless of the shape of the external trap. Further, short-time diffusion seems to be almost independent of the coupling strength in the solid regime, but decreases with increasing packing fraction and size of the ensembles. In general, it is found that diffusion is larger for parabolically confined than for hard-wall trapped clusters.

  8. Vibrational Modes and the Dynamic Solvent Effect in Electron and Proton Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-18

    Vibrational Modes and the Dynamic Solvent Effect in Electron and Proton Transfer Paul F. Barbara, Gilbert C. Walker and Terrance P. Smith Science, 256, 975...Copies of the form are available from cognizant grant of contract administrator 92-13720i|i|Hfl|fl MARTICLES Vibrational Modes and the Dynamic Solvent...photosynthetic systems. (X + AGO)’ The kinetic impact of high-frequency In order to set the stage for a discussion A = (1) vibrational modes in electron

  9. Effects of light curing modes and ethanol-wet bonding on dentin bonding properties*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mu-zi; Wang, Jin-rui; Liu, Hong; Wang, Xia; Gan, Kang; Liu, Xiu-ju; Niu, De-li; Song, Xiao-qing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the effects of different light curing modes and ethanol-wet bonding on dentin bonding strength and durability. Methods: A total of 54 molars were randomly divided into three groups: Single Bond 2, Gluma Comfort Bond, and N-Bond. Based on the three light-curing modes and presence or absence of ethanol pretreatment, the samples were assigned to six subgroups: high-light mode, ethanol pretreatment+high-light mode, soft-start mode, ethanol pretreatment+soft-start mode, standard mode, and ethanol pretreatment+standard mode. All samples were bonded with resin based on the experimental groups. After 24 h and 6 months of water storage, a universal testing machine was used to measure microtensile bond strength. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to observe mixed layer morphology. Results: The 24-h and 6-month microtensile bond strengths of the ethanol pretreatment groups were significantly higher than those of the non-ethanol pretreatment groups at the same light modes (P<0.05). With or without ethanol pretreatment, the microtensile bond strengths of the high-light modes were significantly lower than those of the soft-start modes and standard modes (P<0.05). The microtensile bond strengths of samples from the 6-month water storage group significantly decreased compared with those of samples from the 24-h water storage group (P<0.05). The soft-start groups and standard groups formed better mixed layers than the high-light mode groups, whereas the ethanol pretreatment groups formed more uniform mixed layers than those without ethanol pretreatment. Conclusions: Ethanol-wet bonding technique, soft-start, and standard modes could improve dentin bonding properties. PMID:27604862

  10. Effects of light curing modes and ethanol-wet bonding on dentin bonding properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu-Zi; Wang, Jin-Rui; Liu, Hong; Wang, Xia; Gan, Kang; Liu, Xiu-Ju; Niu, De-Li; Song, Xiao-Qing

    2016-09-01

    This study explored the effects of different light curing modes and ethanol-wet bonding on dentin bonding strength and durability. A total of 54 molars were randomly divided into three groups: Single Bond 2, Gluma Comfort Bond, and N-Bond. Based on the three light-curing modes and presence or absence of ethanol pretreatment, the samples were assigned to six subgroups: high-light mode, ethanol pretreatment+high-light mode, soft-start mode, ethanol pretreatment+soft-start mode, standard mode, and ethanol pretreatment+standard mode. All samples were bonded with resin based on the experimental groups. After 24 h and 6 months of water storage, a universal testing machine was used to measure microtensile bond strength. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to observe mixed layer morphology. The 24-h and 6-month microtensile bond strengths of the ethanol pretreatment groups were significantly higher than those of the non-ethanol pretreatment groups at the same light modes (P<0.05). With or without ethanol pretreatment, the microtensile bond strengths of the high-light modes were significantly lower than those of the soft-start modes and standard modes (P<0.05). The microtensile bond strengths of samples from the 6-month water storage group significantly decreased compared with those of samples from the 24-h water storage group (P<0.05). The soft-start groups and standard groups formed better mixed layers than the high-light mode groups, whereas the ethanol pretreatment groups formed more uniform mixed layers than those without ethanol pretreatment. Ethanol-wet bonding technique, soft-start, and standard modes could improve dentin bonding properties.

  11. The Effect of Chin-cup Therapy in Class III Malocclusion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mousoulea, Sophia; Tsolakis, Ioannis; Ferdianakis, Efstratios; Tsolakis, Apostolos I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The treatment of Class III malocclusion has been challenging for orthodontists. Among a plethora of treatment modalities, the chin-cup is considered a traditional appliance for early orthopedic intervention. Objective: The present study aims to investigate the current scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of chin-cup therapy in Class III malocclusion of prognathic growing patients. Method: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1954 to October 2015. Articles were selected based on established inclusion/ exclusion criteria. Results: The search strategy resulted in 3285 articles.14 studies were selected for the final analysis. They were all CCTs, 13 of retrospective and 1 of prospective design. Methodological quality was evaluated by a risk of bias assessment, as suggested by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-Randomized Studies on Interventions. The reported evidence presented favorable short-term outcomes both in hard and soft tissues improving the Class III profile, as well as desirable dento-alveolar changes, positively affecting the Class III malocclusion. Conclusion: There is considerable agreement between studies that chin-cup therapy can be considered for the short-term treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion, as indicated by favorable changes both in the hard and soft tissues. The existence of considerable risk of bias in all selected studies and the unclear long-term effectiveness of chin-cup therapy highlight the need for further investigation to draw reliable conclusions. PMID:28077971

  12. Anharmonicity effects in the frictionlike mode of graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, C.; Lobato, A.; Abbasi-Pérez, D.; Fernández-Núñez, J.; Baonza, V. G.; Recio, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    Graphite is a prototypical solid lubricant demanding a thorough understanding of its low-friction behavior. The E2 g(1) Raman active vibrational mode of graphite is associated with the rigid-layer relative movement of its graphene sheets. Thus, this mode can provide a good means of exploring the low resistance of graphene layers to slip with respect to each other. To take advantage of this fact, the anharmonicity of the E2 g(1) mode has to be carefully characterized and evaluated since the atomic arrangement of carbon atoms in the ambient condition ABA stacking of graphite evidences potential asymmetry. The calculated one-dimensional energetic profile of the E2 g(1) mode reveals this local anisotropy around the energy minima and can be microscopically interpreted in terms of electron density interactions. Morse-type potentials accurately fit the energetic profiles at different interlayer separations, and provide simple analytical expressions for evaluating harmonic and anharmonic contributions to the Γ -point E2 g(1) frequency ωE2g(1 ) under a perturbative algebraic treatment. We quantify how the anharmonic contribution increases with the available energy (E ) at zero pressure, and how this contribution decreases as hydrostatic pressure (p ) or uniaxial stress is applied for a given available energy. The calculated ωE2g(1 )-p and ωE2g(1 )-E trends indicate an increasing (decreasing) of frictional forces in graphite with pressure (temperature). Our conclusions are supported by the good agreement of the calculated frequencies with existing Raman experiments under hydrostatic pressure conditions.

  13. Effect of fiber posts on the fracture resistance of maxillary central incisors with Class III restorations: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Abduljawad, Mohammed; Samran, Abdulaziz; Kadour, Jadalkareem; Karzoun, Wassim; Kern, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with Class III restorations show reduced fracture resistance. The placement of glass fiber posts may affect fracture resistance and should be further evaluated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of fiber posts on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with Class III restorations. Forty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into 4 test groups (n=10 each) according to the restoration strategy: control group; endodontically treated teeth without endodontic posts (GHT); endodontically treated teeth with 2 Class III restorations simulating coronal destruction (GCT); endodontically treated teeth with 2 Class III restorations and a carbon fiber post (GCF); and endodontically treated teeth with 2 Class III restorations and a glass-fiber post (GGF). The fiber posts were adhesively cemented with composite resin cement, and the cavities were restored with composite resin. After 3 months of water storage, all specimens were loaded at 45 degrees in a universal testing machine until fracture and evaluated for fracture mode. The data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey honest significant difference multiple comparisons test (α=.05). Mean ±SD failure loads ranged from 687.5 ±84.0 N to 943.8 ±93.1 N. One-way ANOVA revealed a statistically significant difference among the groups (P≤.05). The control group (GHT) had significantly higher resistance to fracture than the other groups (P≤.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, placement of a fiber post did not affect the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with 2 Class III restorations. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Model of Energetic Ion Effects on Pressure Driven Tearing Modes in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfmoon, M. R.; Brennan, D. P.

    2016-10-01

    Previous analysis of toroidal confinement experiments has shown that energetic ions interact with and affect MHD mode stability, which has been modeled and simulated for ideal MHD instabilities and resistive wall modes. In addition, the 2/1 tearing mode was found to be damped or stabilized by energetic ions, with significant effects on the slow growing resistive mode. This study focuses on the mode-particle interactions between energetic ions and pressure-driven, slow growing tearing modes which have been shown to be driven unstable in experiments as pressure increases. Using a reduced analytic description of a high aspect ratio tokamak equilibrium with a fixed total current and variable magnetic shear; we add in the effects of high energy particles as a modification to the perturbed pressure. We find the importance of global magnetic shear (s =1/q dq/dr) on the particle precession drift frequency, which determines whether or not the energetic particle population resonates with the mode. We find that for s>scrit at the radial position of the pressure jump, particles have a stabilizing effect on the 2/1 tearing mode. However, we find that for smode development.

  15. Effect of tris(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonate) iron(III) complexes on iron uptake and storage in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla S; Carvalho, Susana M P; Leite, Andreia; Moniz, Tânia; Roriz, Mariana; Rangel, António O S S; Rangel, Maria; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2016-09-01

    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a serious environmental problem affecting the growth of several crops in the world. The application of synthetic Fe(III) chelates is still one of the most common measures to correct IDC and the search for more effective Fe chelates remains an important issue. Herein, we propose a tris(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonate) iron(III) complex, Fe(mpp)3, as an IDC corrector. Different morphological, biochemical and molecular parameters were assessed as a first step towards understanding its mode of action, compared with that of the commercial fertilizer FeEDDHA. Plants treated with the pyridinone iron(III) complexes were significantly greener and had increased biomass. The total Fe content was measured using ICP-OES and plants treated with pyridinone complexes accumulated about 50% more Fe than those treated with the commercial chelate. In particular, plants supplied with compound Fe(mpp)3 were able to translocate iron from the roots to the shoots and did not elicit the expression of the Fe-stress related genes FRO2 and IRT1. These results suggest that 3,4-HPO iron(III) chelates could be a potential new class of plant fertilizing agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantum cascade emission in the III-nitride material system designed with effective interface grading

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Alex Y. Huang, Tzu-Yung; Zah, Chung-En; Gmachl, Claire F.; Bhat, Rajaram; Wang, Jie; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-09-28

    We report the realization of quantum cascade (QC) light emission in the III-nitride material system, designed with effective interface grading (EIG). EIG induces a continuous transition between wells and barriers in the quantum confinement, which alters the eigenstate system and even delocalizes the states with higher energy. Fully transverse-magnetic spontaneous emission is observed from the fabricated III-nitride QC structure, with a center wavelength of ∼4.9 μm and a full width at half maximum of ∼110 meV, both in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. A multi-peak photo-response spectrum is also measured from the QC structure, which again agrees well with theoretical calculations and verifies the effects of EIG.

  17. Assessment of the transition strip effect in the transonic flow over the sounding rocket Sonda III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão Filho, J. B. P.; Reis, M. L. C. C.; Francisco, C. P. F.; Silva, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of normalized pressure distribution are carried out over a 1:8 scale half-model of the Sonda III sounding rocket. The objective is to analyze the effect of the implementation of transition devices on the flow over the vehicle. Measurements show that the presence of the transition devices affect pressure distributions in different Mach numbers around the inter-stage region of Sonda III depending on its location and independently of the turbulent transition method employed. The study of these effects plays a significant role for future developments, since transition phenomena and the modification of the boundary layer behaviour due to the expansion can alter the load distributions and the turbulent structures of the flow. Furthermore, the experimental verification of such phenomena is crucial for the correct implementation of computational fluid dynamics calculations, as they might be able to capture the correct flow behaviour in these regions.

  18. Quantum cascade emission in the III-nitride material system designed with effective interface grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Alex Y.; Bhat, Rajaram; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wang, Jie; Huang, Tzu-Yung; Zah, Chung-En; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2015-09-01

    We report the realization of quantum cascade (QC) light emission in the III-nitride material system, designed with effective interface grading (EIG). EIG induces a continuous transition between wells and barriers in the quantum confinement, which alters the eigenstate system and even delocalizes the states with higher energy. Fully transverse-magnetic spontaneous emission is observed from the fabricated III-nitride QC structure, with a center wavelength of ˜4.9 μm and a full width at half maximum of ˜110 meV, both in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. A multi-peak photo-response spectrum is also measured from the QC structure, which again agrees well with theoretical calculations and verifies the effects of EIG.

  19. Effects of a novel magnetic orthopedic appliance (MOA-III) on the dentofacial complex in mild to moderate skeletal class III children.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ning; Feng, Jing; Hu, Zheng; Chen, Rongjing; Shen, Gang

    2015-10-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of skeletal and dental structures in mild to moderate skeletal Class III children following the use of a new magnetic orthopedic appliance (MOA-III). A total of 36 patients (14 boys and 22 girls, mean age 9 years and 5 months) who presented with a mild to moderate skeletal Class III jaw discrepancy were treated with MOA-III. Another group of 20 untreated patients (9 boys and 11 girls, mean age 9 years and 2 months) with the same level of deformity served as the control group. The average treatment time was 6.6 months. Radiographs were taken at the same time intervals for both groups. A paired t test was used to determine the significant differences before and after treatment, and a two-sample t test was used to analyze the differences between the treatment and control groups. The anterior crossbite in all subjects was corrected after MOA-III therapy. The maxillomandibular relationship showed favorable changes (ANB, Wits, overjet increased significantly, P < 0.001). The maxilla was anteriorly positioned (SNA, ptm-A, ptm-S increased significantly, P < 0.001) with clockwise rotation (PP-FH increased, P < 0.001). The mandible showed a slight downward and backward rotation (SNB decreased, P < 0.05, MP-SN, Y-axis increased, P < 0.05). The length of the mandibular body showed no significant changes (Go-Pg, P > 0.05). Significant upper incisor proclination and lower incisor retroclination were observed (UI-NA increased, P < 0.001, LI-NB, FMIA decreased, P < 0.001). The upper lip moved forward, and the lower lip moved backward (UL-EP increased, P < 0.001, LL-EP decreased, P < 0.05). In the control group, most of the parameters showed normal growth, except for some unfavorable mandibular skeletal and soft tissue changes (Go-Pg, Go-Co, MP-SN, N'-SN-Pg' increased, P < 0.001). Significant positive changes were induced with the MOA-III appliance compared to the untreated group. The MOA-III was effective for

  20. Global particle-in-cell simulations of plasma pressure effects on Alfvenic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, Alexey; Koenies, Axel; Hatzky, Roman

    2011-01-15

    Global linear gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of electromagnetic modes in realistic tokamak geometry are reported. The effect of plasma pressure on Alfvenic modes is studied. It is shown that the fast-particle pressure can considerably affect the shear Alfven wave continuum structure and hence the toroidicity-induced gap in the continuum. It is also found that the energetic ions can substantially reduce the growth rate of the ballooning modes (and perhaps completely stabilize them in a certain parameter range). Ballooning modes are found to be the dominant instabilities if the bulk-plasma pressure gradient is large enough.

  1. Comparative Effects of Electron Transfer Mediators on the Bioreduction of Fe(III) Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    The transfer of electrons from microbes to sparingly-soluble, extracellular electron acceptors such as Fe(III) oxides can occur via direct contact with the mineral surface, by dissolution of the mineral facilitated by exogenous or endogenous ligands and subsequent reduction of the dissolved Fe(III) ligand complex, and by facilitated electron transfer involving endogenous or exogenous electron transfer mediators (ETMs, also commonly referred to as electron shuttles) that are reduced by the microbes and then subsequently diffuse away from the cell and transfer electrons to the Fe(III) mineral surface, regenerating the oxidized form of the ETM. This study examines the effects of a series of compounds representing major classes of natural and synthetic organic ETMs (including low molecular-mass quinones, humic substances, phenazines, phenoxazines, phenothiazines, and indigo derivatives) on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) by the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN32. S. putrefaciens CN32 was able to reduce lepidocrocite in the absence of exogenous ETMs; however, relative to the control, all of the synthetic ETMs examined in this study enhanced the bioreduction of lepidocrocite. The extent of the enhanced bioreduction increased with decreasing reduction potential of the given ETM redox couple. However, the addition of Suwannee River fulvic acid, humic acid, or unfractionated NOM (10 mg organic C L-1) resulted in, at best, a minimal enhancement of lepidocrocite bioreduction relative to the control that did not contain any added exdogenous ETM. These results suggest that the relative contribution of humic substances to microbially mediated Fe(III) reduction may be minimal in low-carbon environments such as oligotrophic lakes and typical groundwaters.

  2. A study of the relative effectiveness and cost of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Furniss, M. A.; Potter, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a number of experiments to illuminate the relative effectiveness and costs of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode are reported. It was found that for equal time spent in preparing the search strategy, the batch and interactive modes gave approximately equal recall and relevance. The interactive mode however encourages the searcher to devote more time to the task and therefore usually yields improved output. Engineering costs as a result are higher in this mode. Estimates of associated hardware costs also indicate that operation in this mode is more expensive. Skilled RECON users like the rapid feedback and additional features offered by this mode if they are not constrained by considerations of cost.

  3. Effects of Conductivity Asymmetry Between the Northern and Southern Latitudes on Toroidal and Poloidal Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J. J.; Choi, J.; Lee, D. H.

    2016-12-01

    When the ionosphere has significant differences between the northern and southern conductance, it is well known that quarter-wave modes may occur as standing shear Alfvén waves. Owing to the finite conductivity at the ionospheric boundary, quarter-wave modes tend to have strong damping and energy dissipation, which indicates that we should pay attention to time-dependent feature of such transient modes. We study how quarter-waves are excited in both of toroidal and poloidal modes by adopting a 3-D dipole wave model. Unlike the previous studies that mainly showed peak frequency of the wave, we investigate the effects of 1) dipolar geometry, 2) ratios of bandwidth and peak frequency, 3) differential feature of toroidal and poloidal modes, respectively. It is presented how quarter-wave modes depend on various conditions above by examining time histories of electric and magnetic fields in the MHD dipole model where a broad range of ionospheric conductivities is considered.

  4. Effects of energetic ions on double tearing modes in reversed shear plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-Qu; Wang, Xiao-Gang

    2017-01-01

    The modified dispersion relation of q s  =  m/n double tearing modes (DTMs) with trapped energetic ions is derived by the matching procedure of mode structures in the ideal region and resistive layer. It is found that a mode transition between the DTM and the fishbone-like mode can be triggered, depending on fast ion driving, which provides a possible explanation for the observation of experiments (Günter et al 1999 Nucl. Fusion 39 1793; Maget et al 2006 Nucl. Fusion 46 797). The resistivity scaling of DTMs is changed significantly by on/off-axis heating beams. The effects of beam energy, electron inertia, magnetic shear and plasma resistivity on the stability of the mode and mode transition are discussed in detail.

  5. The effects of K2SO4 solution on the compressive strength of dental gypsum type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeilina, T.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Dental gypsum type III is used as a material for manufacturing working models of dentures. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the addition of a K2SO4 solution on the compressive strength of gypsum type III. A compressive strength test was performed using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The results showed that the compressive strength of gypsum type III with a 1.5% K2SO4 solution added was higher than for gypsum type III alone but lower than the compressive strength of gypsum type IV.

  6. The effect of lanthanum(III) and cerium(III) ions between layers of manganese oxide on water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Isaloo, Mohsen Abbasi; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Shen, Jian-Ren; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman

    2015-12-01

    Manganese oxide structure with lanthanum(III) or cerium(III) ions between the layers was synthesized by a simple method. The ratio of Mn to Ce or La in samples was 0.00, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32, 0.5, 0.82, or 1.62. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The compounds show efficient catalytic activity of water oxidation in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate with a turnover frequency of 1.6 mmol O2/mol Mn.s. In contrast to the water-oxidizing complex in Photosystem II, calcium(II) has no specific role to enhance the water-oxidizing activity of the layered manganese oxides and other cations can be replaced without any significant decrease in water-oxidizing activities of these layered Mn oxides. Based on this and previously reported results from oxygen evolution in the presence of H 2 (18) O, we discuss the mechanism and the important factors influencing the water-oxidizing activities of the manganese oxides.

  7. Effective Communication Modes in Multilingual Encounters: Comparing Alternatives in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mulken, Margot; Hendriks, Berna

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on an experimental study investigating alternative communication modes to English as a Lingua Franca. The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of different modes of communication and to gain insight in communication strategies used by interlocutors to solve referential conflicts. Findings show that ELF may not necessarily be…

  8. Effective Communication Modes in Multilingual Encounters: Comparing Alternatives in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mulken, Margot; Hendriks, Berna

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on an experimental study investigating alternative communication modes to English as a Lingua Franca. The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of different modes of communication and to gain insight in communication strategies used by interlocutors to solve referential conflicts. Findings show that ELF may not necessarily be…

  9. Effects of Video Caption Modes on English Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition Using Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of different display modes of video captions on mobile devices, including non-caption, full-caption, and target-word modes, on the English comprehension and vocabulary acquisition of fifth graders. During the one-month experiment, the status of the students' English listening comprehension and vocabulary…

  10. Effects of Video Caption Modes on English Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition Using Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of different display modes of video captions on mobile devices, including non-caption, full-caption, and target-word modes, on the English comprehension and vocabulary acquisition of fifth graders. During the one-month experiment, the status of the students' English listening comprehension and vocabulary…

  11. Effect of RF Waves on Ion Temperature Gradient Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S.; Martinell, J.; Imadera, K.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2016-10-01

    The ion-temperature-driven modes are studied in the presence of radio frequency waves by the use of the Gyro-Kinetic simulation Code and ASTRA Code. It is shown that the radio frequency waves through the ponderomotive force can stabilize the ion-temperature-gradient instabilities and contrary to the usual belief no radio frequency wave-induced flow generation hypothesis is required. This might be a major way to create a transport barrier in the fusion energy generation. Funding from Department of Energy is ackowledged.

  12. Gd(III) complexes for electron-electron dipolar spectroscopy: Effects of deuteration, pH and zero field splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbuio, Luca; Zimmermann, Kaspar; Häussinger, Daniel; Yulikov, Maxim

    2015-10-01

    Spectral parameters of Gd(III) complexes are intimately linked to the performance of the Gd(III)-nitroxide or Gd(III)-Gd(III) double electron-electron resonance (DEER or PELDOR) techniques, as well as to that of relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) spectroscopy with Gd(III) ions. These techniques are of interest for applications in structural biology, since they can selectively detect site-to-site distances in biomolecules or biomolecular complexes in the nanometer range. Here we report relaxation properties, echo detected EPR spectra, as well as the magnitude of the echo reduction effect in Gd(III)-nitroxide DEER for a series of Gadolinium(III) complexes with chelating agents derived from tetraazacyclododecane. We observed that solvent deuteration does not only lengthen the relaxation times of Gd(III) centers but also weakens the DEER echo reduction effect. Both of these phenomena lead to an improved signal-to-noise ratios or, alternatively, longer accessible distance range in pulse EPR measurements. The presented data enrich the knowledge on paramagnetic Gd(III) chelate complexes in frozen solutions, and can help optimize the experimental conditions for most types of the pulse measurements of the electron-electron dipolar interactions.

  13. Design of photonic band gap fibers with suppressed higher-order modes: Towards the development of effectively single mode large hollow-core fiber platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Florous, Nikolaos J.; Murao, Tadashi; Koshiba, Masanori

    2006-08-01

    The objective of the present investigation is to propose and theoretically demonstrate the effective suppression of higher-order modes in large-hollow-core photonic band gap fibers (PBGFs), mainly for low-loss data transmission platforms and/or high power delivery systems. The proposed design strategy is based on the index-matching mechanism of central air-core modes with defected outer core modes. By incorporating several air-cores in the cladding of the PBGF with 6-fold symmetry it is possible to resonantly couple the light corresponding to higher-order modes into the outer core, thus significantly increasing the leakage losses of the higher-order modes in comparison to the fundamental mode, thus making our proposed design to operate in an effectively single mode fashion with polarization independent propagation characteristics. The validation of the procedure is ensured with a detailed PBGF analysis based on an accurate finite element modal solver. Extensive numerical results show that the leakage losses of the higher-order modes can be enhanced in a level of at least 2 orders of magnitude in comparison to those of the fundamental mode. Our investigation is expected to remove an essential obstacle in the development of large-core single-mode hollow-core fibers, thus enabling them to surpass the attenuation of conventional fibers.

  14. Design of photonic band gap fibers with suppressed higher-order modes: towards the development of effectively single mode large hollow-core fiber platforms.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Florous, Nikolaos J; Murao, Tadashi; Koshiba, Masanori

    2006-08-07

    The objective of the present investigation is to propose and theoretically demonstrate the effective suppression of higher-order modes in large-hollow-core photonic band gap fibers (PBGFs), mainly for low-loss data transmission platforms and/or high power delivery systems. The proposed design strategy is based on the index-matching mechanism of central air-core modes with defected outer core modes. By incorporating several air-cores in the cladding of the PBGF with 6-fold symmetry it is possible to resonantly couple the light corresponding to higher-order modes into the outer core, thus significantly increasing the leakage losses of the higher-order modes in comparison to the fundamental mode, thus making our proposed design to operate in an effectively single mode fashion with polarization independent propagation characteristics. The validation of the procedure is ensured with a detailed PBGF analysis based on an accurate finite element modal solver. Extensive numerical results show that the leakage losses of the higher-order modes can be enhanced in a level of at least 2 orders of magnitude in comparison to those of the fundamental mode. Our investigation is expected to remove an essential obstacle in the development of large-core single-mode hollow-core fibers, thus enabling them to surpass the attenuation of conventional fibers.

  15. Robustness versus thermal effects of single-mode operation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with engineered leakage of high-order transverse optical modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalosha, V. P.; Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Kropp, J.-R.; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    Design of the oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with enhanced engineered lateral leakage of high-order transverse optical modes is studied by three-dimensional optical modeling to evaluate the robustness of the leakage selection approach with respect to thermal effects. Both Joule heat and heat generated by the free carrier absorption of the optical mode in the doped semiconductor layers and their impact on the refractive index profile are considered. We show that for typical regimes of the VCSEL design and operation absorption-induced heat exceeds by several times the Joule heat while the shape of the generated heated domains strongly differ. Modeling shows that well defined spectral separation between the transverse optical modes persists upon increase in injection current. Further, upon increase in current the lateral extension of the fundamental mode decreases and the mode shrinks towards the center of the VCSEL structure thus reducing the lateral leakage and increasing the mode lifetime, whereas similar effect for high-order transverse modes is much weaker. Thus the preferred conditions for the lasing of the fundamental mode persist and even improve upon current increase. At high currents the fundamental mode becomes favorable at all aperture diameters, also for those where the cold cavity approximation predicts preference for the excited mode lasing.

  16. The genome of an Encephalitozoon cuniculi type III strain reveals insights into the genetic diversity and mode of reproduction of a ubiquitous vertebrate pathogen.

    PubMed

    Pelin, A; Moteshareie, H; Sak, B; Selman, M; Naor, A; Eyahpaise, M-È; Farinelli, L; Golshani, A; Kvac, M; Corradi, N

    2016-05-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a model microsporidian species with a mononucleate nucleus and a genome that has been extensively studied. To date, analyses of genome diversity have revealed the existence of four genotypes in E. cuniculi (EcI, II, III and IV). Genome sequences are available for EcI, II and III, and are all very divergent, possibly diploid and genetically homogeneous. The mechanisms that cause low genetic diversity in E. cuniculi (for example, selfing, inbreeding or a combination of both), as well as the degree of genetic variation in their natural populations, have been hard to assess because genome data have been so far gathered from laboratory-propagated strains. In this study, we aim to tackle this issue by analyzing the complete genome sequence of a natural strain of E. cuniculi isolated in 2013 from a steppe lemming. The strain belongs to the EcIII genotype and has been designated EcIII-L. The EcIII-L genome sequence harbors genomic features intermediate to known genomes of II and III lab strains, and we provide primers that differentiate the three E. cuniculi genotypes using a single PCR. Surprisingly, the EcIII-L genome is also highly homogeneous, harbors signatures of heterozygosity and also one strain-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that introduces a stop codon in a key meiosis gene, Spo11. Functional analyses using a heterologous system demonstrate that this SNP leads to a deficient meiosis in a model fungus. This indicates that EcIII-L meiotic machinery may be presently broken. Overall, our findings reveal previously unsuspected genome diversity in E. cuniculi, some of which appears to affect genes of primary importance for the biology of this pathogen.

  17. Neoclassical effects on the stabilization of tearing mode by current modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaoqing Wang, Shaojie; Yang, Weihong

    2014-02-15

    The neoclassical effects on the stabilization of tearing modes by current modulation have been investigated. Neoclassical effects enhance the resistivity and reduce the resistive diffusion time of the modulation current. Therefore, the oscillating current can penetrate deeper into the plasma. With an oscillating loop voltage, the plasma oscillates radially at the Ware-pinch velocity. These neoclassical effects improve the efficiency of tearing mode stabilization by the current modulation.

  18. The effects of forehead and neck position on esthetics of class I, II and III profiles.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Parisa; Oshagh, Morteza; Aleyasin, Zeinab S; Pakshir, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    All parts of the face, other than jaw relationships, should be considered in orthodontic treatment planning. The role of forehead and neck in facial esthetics is well known; however, the majority of conventional facial analysis methods have not considered them. Neck and forehead may confer mutual effects on equilibrium and on esthetics of other facial components, and may change the overall convexity/concavity view of the profile. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of anteroposterior position of the forehead and neck on the esthetics of skeletal class I, II and III jaw relationships using profile silhouettes. Class II and III jaw relationships were constructed on the silhouette of a class I normal profile by altering the mandibular position. Retruded, normal and protruded positions were also applied for the forehead and neck. Three hundred Iranian laypeople (150 men, 150 women) scored the esthetics of profile silhouettes from 1 to 7. Half of the participants were told to consider the profiles as a man, and the other half were told to consider them as a woman. Data were analyzed using non-parametric methods. Class I jaw relation was found to be the most beautiful profile followed by class II and III respectively. Esthetics of different positions of the neck and forehead were significantly different (P < 0.05). In subjects with a normal neck and forehead position, and those with a retruded neck, the best esthetic relationship was class I, and the worst was class III. For protruded foreheads, the best jaw relationship was class II for females and class I for males, and the worst was class III for both. In a retruded forehead position, the most preferred jaw relationship was class I, and the worst was class II. For profiles with a protruded neck, the best esthetics was found to be in class III jaw relationship, and the worst was in class II. There was a small difference in scoring for male and female profiles (P < 0.05); there were also small

  19. Zero-mode clad waveguides for performing spectroscopy with confined effective observation volumes

    DOEpatents

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2005-07-12

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  20. Effect of Buckling Modes on the Fatigue Life and Damage Tolerance of Stiffened Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    The postbuckling response and the collapse of composite specimens with a co-cured hat stringer are investigated experimentally and numerically. These specimens are designed to evaluate the postbuckling response and the effect of an embedded defect on the collapse load and the mode of failure. Tests performed using controlled conditions and detailed instrumentation demonstrate that the damage tolerance, fatigue life, and collapse loads are closely tied with the mode of the postbuckling deformation, which can be different between two nominally identical specimens. Modes that tend to open skin/stringer defects are the most damaging to the structure. However, skin/stringer bond defects can also propagate under shearing modes. In the proposed paper, the effects of initial shape imperfections on the postbuckling modes and the interaction between different postbuckling deformations and the propagation of skin/stringer bond defects under quasi-static or fatigue loads will be examined.

  1. A refined understanding of compressibility effects on the stability of drift ballooning modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, T.; Park, G. Y.; Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S.; Singh, R.

    2017-07-01

    A study is conducted on the impact of plasma compressibility on the stability of drift ballooning modes. The two-fluid and four-field model developed by Hazeltine et al. [Phys. Fluids 28, 2466 (1985)] is employed in this study. Results of linear numerical simulations show that finite compressibility destabilizes ballooning modes which are otherwise stable due to the ion diamagnetic drift effect. A systematic study reveals that the parallel compressibility originating from the two-fluid effect, rather than the drift-acoustic wave coupling suggested by Hastie et al. [Phys. Plasmas 10, 4405 (2003)], plays the most important role in destabilizing the ballooning modes. An analytic evaluation of the dispersion relation underpins the strong sensitivity of this parallel compressibility term in the ballooning mode stability. The potential impact of this new understanding on the physics of small edge localized modes is discussed.

  2. Linear and nonlinear effect of sheared plasma flow on resistive tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qiming Hu, Xiwei; Yu, Q.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of sheared plasma flow on the m/n = 2/1 tearing mode is studied numerically (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers). It is found that in the linear phase the plasma flow with a weak or moderate shear plays a stabilizing effect on tearing mode. However, the mode is driven to be more unstable by sufficiently strong sheared flow when approaching the shear Alfvén resonance (AR). In the nonlinear phase, a moderate (strong) sheared flow leads to a smaller (larger) saturated island width. The stabilization of tearing modes by moderate shear plasma flow is enhanced for a larger plasma viscosity and a lower Alfvén velocity. It is also found that in the nonlinear phase AR accelerates the plasma rotation around the 2/1 rational surface but decelerates it at the AR location, and the radial location satisfying AR spreads inwards towards the magnetic axis.

  3. The Application of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Methodology to Intrathecal Drug Delivery for Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Teresa; Fisher, Stanley P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to utilize failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) to transform clinical insights into a risk mitigation plan for intrathecal (IT) drug delivery in pain management. Methods The FMEA methodology, which has been used for quality improvement, was adapted to assess risks (i.e., failure modes) associated with IT therapy. Ten experienced pain physicians scored 37 failure modes in the following categories: patient selection for therapy initiation (efficacy and safety concerns), patient safety during IT therapy, and product selection for IT therapy. Participants assigned severity, probability, and detection scores for each failure mode, from which a risk priority number (RPN) was calculated. Failure modes with the highest RPNs (i.e., most problematic) were discussed, and strategies were proposed to mitigate risks. Results Strategic discussions focused on 17 failure modes with the most severe outcomes, the highest probabilities of occurrence, and the most challenging detection. The topic of the highest‐ranked failure mode (RPN = 144) was manufactured monotherapy versus compounded combination products. Addressing failure modes associated with appropriate patient and product selection was predicted to be clinically important for the success of IT therapy. Conclusions The methodology of FMEA offers a systematic approach to prioritizing risks in a complex environment such as IT therapy. Unmet needs and information gaps are highlighted through the process. Risk mitigation and strategic planning to prevent and manage critical failure modes can contribute to therapeutic success. PMID:27477689

  4. Resistive effects on line-tied magnetohydrodynamic modes in cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Evstatiev, E. G.; Finn, John M.

    2007-09-15

    An investigation of the effect of resistivity on the linear stability of line-tied magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes is presented in cylindrical geometry, based on the method recently developed in the paper by Evstatiev et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 072902 (2006)]. The method uses an expansion of the full solution of the problem in one-dimensional radial eigenfunctions. This method is applied to study sausage modes (m=0, m being the poloidal wavenumber), kink modes (m=1), and m=2 modes. All these modes can be resistively unstable. It is found that m{ne}0 modes can be unstable below the ideal MHD threshold due to resistive diffusion of the field lines, with growth rates proportional to resistivity. For these resistive modes, there is no indication of tearing, i.e., current sheets or boundary layers due to ideal MHD singularities. That is, resistivity acts globally on the whole plasma column and not in layers. Modes with m=0, on the other hand, can exist as tearing modes if the equilibrium axial magnetic field reverses sign within the plasma.

  5. Effect of operating modes on simultaneous anaerobic sulfide and nitrate removal in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Zheng, Ping; Qaisar, Mahmood; Xing, Yajuan

    2014-05-01

    The effect of operating modes on the simultaneous sulfide and nitrate removal were studied in two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The batch and continuous operating modes were compared and evaluated in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation. Upon gradual increase in the influent sulfide concentration from 60 to 1,020 S mg L(-1), and the hydraulic retention time decrease from 17.2 to 6 h, the MFC accomplished a good substrate removal efficiency whereby nitrogen and sulfate were the main end products. The removal efficiency of the MFC in the continuous mode was much higher than that in the batch mode, and its current densities in the continuous mode were more stable and higher than in the batch mode, which could be explained by the linear relationship between electrons released by the substrates and accepted on the electrodes. The electricity output in the continuous mode of the MFC was higher than that in the batch mode. MFC's operation in the continuous mode was a better strategy for the simultaneous treatment of sulfide and nitrate.

  6. Kinetic Differences and Synergistic Antiviral Effects Between Type I and Type III Interferon Signaling Indicate Pathway Independence

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of acute respiratory viral infections is controlled by type I and III interferon (IFN) signaling. While the mechanisms of type I IFN signaling have been studied in detail, features that distinguish type III IFN signaling remain poorly understood. Type III IFNs play an essential role in limiting infections of intestinal and respiratory epithelial surfaces; however, type III IFNs have been shown to activate similar genes to type I IFNs, raising the question of how these IFNs differ and their signals interact. We measured the kinetics of type I and III IFN activation, functional stability, and downstream antiviral responses on A549 human lung epithelial cells. Similar kinetics were found for transcriptional upregulation and secretion of type I and III IFNs in response to infection by an RNA virus, peaking at 12 h postinfection, and both protein types had similar stabilities with functional half-lives extending beyond 2 days. Both IFNs activated potent cellular antiviral responses; however, responses to type III IFNs were delayed by 2–6 h relative to type I IFN responses. Combined treatments with type I and III IFNs produced enhanced antiviral effects, and quantitative analysis of these data with a Bliss interaction model provides evidence for independence of type I and III IFN downstream signaling pathways. This novel synergistic interaction has therapeutic implications for treatment of respiratory virus infections. PMID:25938799

  7. Matrix resin effects in composite delamination - Mode I fracture aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunston, Donald L.; Moulton, Richard J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Bascom, Willard D.

    1987-01-01

    A number of thermoset, toughened thermoset, and thermoplastic resin matrix systems were characterized for Mode I critical strain energy release rates, and their composites were tested for interlaminar critical strain energy release rates using the double cantilever beam method. A clear correlation is found between the two sets of data. With brittle resins, the interlaminar critical strain energy release rates are somewhat larger than the neat resin values due to a full transfer of the neat resin toughness to the composite and toughening mechanisms associated with crack growth. With tougher matrices, the higher critical strain energy release rates are only partially transferred to the composites, presumably because the fibers restrict the crack-tip deformation zones.

  8. Failure modes and effects analysis of fusion magnet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, M; Kazimi, M S; Siu, N O; Thome, R J

    1988-12-01

    A failure modes and consequence analysis of fusion magnet system is an important contributor towards enhancing the design by improving the reliability and reducing the risk associated with the operation of magnet systems. In the first part of this study, a failure mode analysis of a superconducting magnet system is performed. Building on the functional breakdown and the fault tree analysis of the Toroidal Field (TF) coils of the Next European Torus (NET), several subsystem levels are added and an overview of potential sources of failures in a magnet system is provided. The failure analysis is extended to the Poloidal Field (PF) magnet system. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of interactions within the fusion device caused by the operation of the PF magnets is presented in the form of an Interaction Matrix. A number of these interactions may have significant consequences for the TF magnet system particularly interactions triggered by electrical failures in the PF magnet system. In the second part of this study, two basic categories of electrical failures in the PF magnet system are examined: short circuits between the terminals of external PF coils, and faults with a constant voltage applied at external PF coil terminals. An electromagnetic model of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is used to examine the mechanical load conditions for the PF and the TF coils resulting from these fault scenarios. It is found that shorts do not pose large threats to the PF coils. Also, the type of plasma disruption has little impact on the net forces on the PF and the TF coils. 39 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Effects of synchronous versus asynchronous mode of propulsion on wheelchair basketball sprinting.

    PubMed

    Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Meyer, Christophe; Gorce, Philippe; Watelain, Eric

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to first investigate synchronous (SYN) versus asynchronous (ASY) mode of propulsion and, second, investigate the wheel camber effects on sprinting performance as well as temporal parameters. Seven wheelchair basketball players performed four maximal eight-second sprints on a wheelchair ergometer. They repeated the test according to two modes of propulsion (SYN and ASY) and two wheel cambers (9° and 15°). The mean maximal velocity and push power output was greater in the synchronous mode compared to the asynchronous mode for both camber angles. However, the fluctuation in the velocity profile is inferior for ASY versus SYN mode for both camber angles. Greater push time/cycle time (Pt/Ct) and arm frequency (AF) for synchronous mode versus asynchronous mode and inversely, lesser Ct and rest time (Rt) values for the synchronous mode, for which greater velocity were observed. SYN mode leads to better performance than ASY mode in terms of maximal propulsion velocity. However, ASY propulsion allows greater continuity of the hand-rim force application, reducing fluctuations in the velocity profile. The camber angle had no effect on ASY and SYN mean maximal velocity and push power output. The study of wheelchair propulsion strategies is important for better understanding physiological and biomechanical impacts of wheelchair propulsion for individuals with disabilities. From a kinematical point of view, this study highlights synchronous mode of propulsion to be more efficient, with regards to mean maximal velocity reaching during maximal sprinting exercises. Even if this study focuses on well-trained wheelchair athletes, results from this study could complement the knowledge on the physiological and biomechanical adaptations to wheelchair propulsion and therefore, might be interesting for wheelchair modifications for purposes of rehabilitation.

  10. Mass effect of redox reactions: A novel mode for surface plasmon resonance-based bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pei-Xin; Deng, Sheng-Yuan; Xin, Peng; Ji, Xu-Bo; Shan, Dan; Cosnier, Serge

    2015-12-15

    The pursuit of more specific and sensitive response is a perpetual goal for modern bioassays. This work proposed a novel label-free strategy about redox-related mass effect based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique for ultrasensitive determination of DNA. The protocol starts with the modification of SPR gilded disk with the capture DNA (cDNA). After the conjugation of immobilized cDNA with the target DNA (tDNA), the hybridization chain reaction was triggered by the introduction of mutual partial complementary primers to elongate the terminal into a nanoscale duplex. As it is reported that porphyrin could intercalate into the grooves of the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) scaffold, multiple positive-charged Fe(III)meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine (FeTMPyP) with symmetric structure were uptaken for in situ formation of porphyrin-dsDNA complex. Given FeTMPyP a highly efficient catalysis for the peroxide reduction, its presence as a biomimetic cofactor was validated via circular dichroism and UV-vis spectroscopy, demonstrating a tight binding as well as high catalytic activity and stability. Using 4-chloro-1-naphthol as a proton donor, the catalytic reduction of H2O2 would oxidize it into insoluble benzo-4-chloro-hexadienone, which simultaneously deposited on the heterogeneous interface, leading to a significant amplification in both SPR response and topological height profile. The signal increment was proportional to the concentration of tDNA, thus an ultrasensitive SPR-based DNA assay was developed with a linear range over four orders of magnitudes and a sub-femtomolar detection limit of 0.73 fM. The developed methodology exemplifies a different way of thinking about mass-sensing modes, extending conventional SPR-based DNA analysis to relevant biomedical applications.

  11. Effects of collective excitations on the G-band and RBM modes in the Raman spectra of metallic unfilled and filled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayen, Saurabh; Behera, Surjyo; Bose, Shyamalendu

    2006-03-01

    The Raman spectra of a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) consist of three types of modes; (i) the high frequency G-mode arising out of tangential oscillations of carbon atoms, (ii) D-mode due to the defects in the nanotube and (iii) the low frequency radial breathing mode (RBM) resulting out of radial oscillations of the carbon atoms. In this paper we theoretically investigate the effects of collective oscillations of electrons (plasmons) on the G and RBM modes in the Raman spectra of a filled and unfilled metallic SWNT. Inclusion of plasmon and the filling (rattler) atom produces four peaks in the Raman spectra in general. The positions and relative strengths of the Raman peaks [1] depend upon phonon frequencies of the nanotube and that of the filling atoms, the plasmon frequency, the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, strength of the interactions between the nanotube phonons and rattler phonon and radius of the nanotube [2]. Usually the intensity of the G-mode is higher than that of RBM. For heavier filling atoms the frequency of the rattler phonon is lower in value, which may broaden the peak to such an extent that it may disappear in the background spectrum altogether. 1.S.M. Bose et al., Physica B 351, 129 (2004) 2. S.M. Bose, S.Gayen and S. Behera, Phys. Rev. B 72, 153402 (2005).

  12. Effect of Aspect Ratio on H-mode and ELM Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. E.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Kriete, D. M.

    2015-11-01

    The H-mode confinement regime is achieved at near-unity aspect ratio (A < 1 . 2) in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment via high-field-side fueling and low edge recycling. Ohmic H-mode is attained in both limited and diverted magnetic topologies. This regime is characterized by: reduced Dα emissions; increased core rotation; increased central heating; formation of edge current and pressure pedestals; and measured energy confinement consistent with the ITER98pb(y,2) scaling. The H-mode power threshold, PLH , behaves quite differently at low- A when compared with high- A operations. PLH /PLH_ITPA 08 increases sharply as A is lowered and no difference in PLH for limited and diverted plasmas is observed at A ~ 1 . 2 . No minimum in PLH with density is observed. Some of these results are consistent with the FM3 model for the L-H transition. Two classes of ELMs have been observed. Small, Type III-like ELMs are present at low input power and have n <= 4 . At POH >>PLH , they transition to large, Type-I-like ELMs with intermediate 5 < n < 15 . The Type III ELM magnetic structures behave opposite that of high- A plasmas, with n much higher, presumably due to the naturally higher J / B peeling mode drive at low- A . Long-sought measurements of the Jedge (R , t) pedestal collapse during an ELM event show a complex, multimodal pedestal collapse and the subsequent ejection of a current-carrying filament. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  13. Mode coupling and aspect ratio effects on low and high-n plasma instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, L. E.

    2015-07-01

    In magnetically confined toroidal plasmas such as tokamaks, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities experience strong toroidal and nonlinear mode coupling effects. Resistive MHD simulations with the M3D code show the importance of mode coupling and compressible MHD effects, which contribute to stronger mode coupling. For the m/n = 1/1 internal kink mode and sawtooth crash and for the edge localized mode (ELM) at higher n, MHD reproduces many features of the experimental observations, including the fast sawtooth crash and the moderate n ∼ 10 toroidal harmonics of the ELM. A general property of the perpendicular momentum equation in toroidal fusion plasmas is that the unbalanced radial forces remain relatively small, so that the terms that are lowest order in small inverse aspect ratio mostly cancel. The higher order terms then have significant effects, even at small r/Ro and small amplitude. Effects are strongest for the lowest toroidal harmonics n ≃ 1 and the most strongly driven ones with highest amplitude. Unlike the n = 1 internal kink mode, the small amplitude ELM ballooning/peeling-type mode, and thus ELM MHD marginal stability, may be reasonably described by the lowest order in aspect ratio, for moderate and large n ≳ 10. The ELM crash, however, depends on higher order.

  14. The gallium(III)-salicylidene acylhydrazide complex shows synergistic anti-biofilm effect and inhibits toxin production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Rzhepishevska, Olena; Hakobyan, Shoghik; Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbro; Nygren, Yvonne; Karlsson, Torbjörn; Bucht, Anders; Elofsson, Mikael; Boily, Jean-François; Ramstedt, Madeleine

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial biofilms cause a range of problems in many areas and especially in health care. Biofilms are difficult to eradicate with traditional antibiotics and consequently there is a need for alternative ways to prevent and/or remove bacterial biofilms. Furthermore, the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria creates a challenge to find new types of antibiotics with a lower evolutionary pressure for resistance development. One route to develop such drugs is to target the so called virulence factors, i.e. bacterial systems used when bacteria infect a host cell. This study investigates synergy effects between Ga(III) ions, previously reported to suppress biofilm formation and growth in bacteria, and salicylidene acylhydrazides (hydrazones) that have been proposed as antivirulence drugs targeting the type three secretion system used by several Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aerugionosa, during bacterial infection of host cells. A library of hydrazones was screened for: Fe(III) binding, enhanced anti-biofilm effect with Ga(III) on P. aeruginosa, and low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. The metal coordination for the most promising ligand, 2-Oxo-2-[N-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazino]-acetamide (ME0163) with Ga(III) was investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy as well as density functional theory. The results showed that Ga(III) chelates the hydrazone with 5- and 6-membered chelating rings, and that the Ga(III)-ME0163 complex enhanced the antibiofilm effect of Ga(III) while suppressing the type three secretion system in P. aeruginosa. The latter effect was not observed for the hydrazone alone and was similar for Ga(III)-citrate and Ga(III)-ME0163 complexes, indicating that the inhibition of virulence was caused by Ga(III). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The effect of organic compounds in the oxidation kinetics of Cr(III) by H 2O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettine, Maurizio; Gennari, Francesca; Campanella, Luigi; Millero, Frank J.

    2008-12-01

    The oxidation of Cr(III) has been studied in NaCl solutions in the presence of two siderophore models, acetohydroxamic acid (Aha) and benzohydroxamic acid (Bha), the natural siderophore Desferal (DFOB) and the synthetic aminocarboxilate (ethylenedinitrilo)-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) as a function of pH (8-9), ionic strength (0.01-2 M) and temperature (10-50 °C), at different Cr(III)-organic compound ratios. The addition of Aha and Bha caused the rates to increase at low ligand/Cr(III) ratios and decrease at high ratios. The variation of the pseudo first order rate constant ( k1) as a function of the ligand concentration has been attributed to the formation of three Cr(III)-organo species (1:1, 1:2, 1:3), which can form in the presence of monohydroxamic acids. A kinetic model has been developed that gives a value of 600 (min -1) for the pseudo first order rate constant k and values approaching zero for k and k. These kinetic results demonstrate that these monohydroxamic acids are able to bind with Cr(III) under experimental conditions that may occur in natural waters and can increase the oxidation rates of Cr(III) with H 2O 2 by a factor of 3.5 at an Aha/Cr(III) ratio of about 50-100. The monohydroxamic acids also affect the rates on aged products of Cr(III), suggesting that these ligands are able to affect the oxidation rates by releasing reactive Cr(III). DFOB and EDTA do not have a great effect on the oxidation of Cr(III) with H 2O 2. This is thought to be due to the much longer times they need to form complexes with Cr(III) compared to Aha and Bha. The rates for the formation of DFOB and EDTA complexes with Cr(III) are not competitive with the rates of the formation of aged Cr(III). After allowing Cr(III) and DFOB to react for 5 days to form the complex, reaction rates of Cr(III) with H 2O 2 appear to be lowered probably because of steric hindrance of the chelated Cr(III).

  16. Effect of axial load on mode shapes and frequencies of beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaker, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of axial load on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of uniform beams and of a cantilevered beam with a concentrated mass at the tip is presented. Characteristic equations which yield the frequencies and mode shape functions for the various cases are given. The solutions to these equations are presented by a series of graphs so that frequency as a function of axial load can readily be determined. The effect of axial load on the mode shapes are also depicted by another series of graphs.

  17. Effects of Berry Curvature on the Collective Modes of Ultracold Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Hannah M.; Cooper, Nigel R.

    2013-11-01

    Topological energy bands have important geometrical properties described by the Berry curvature. We show that the Berry curvature changes the hydrodynamic equations of motion for a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate, and causes significant modifications to the collective mode frequencies. We illustrate our results for the case of two-dimensional Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a Zeeman field. Using an operator approach, we derive the effects of Berry curvature on the dipole mode in very general settings. We show that the sizes of these effects can be large and readily detected in experiment. Collective modes therefore provide a sensitive way to measure geometrical properties of energy bands.

  18. Spin effects on the instability and propagation modes of electrostatic plasma waves in quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ki, Dae-Han; Jung, Young-Dae

    2011-09-19

    The effects of the electron spin interaction on the pure instability and propagation modes of the quantum electrostatic waves are investigated in cold quantum electron plasmas. It is found that the influence of the electron spin interaction increases the group velocity of the propagation mode of the quantum electrostatic wave. In addition, it is shown that the electron spin interaction enhances the growth rate of the instability mode of the quantum electrostatic wave. It is also found that the effects of the electron spin interaction would be more important in the domain of small Fermi wave numbers.

  19. The effects of two methods of Class III malocclusion treatment on temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Hanefi; Alioğlu, Ceylan; Karayazgan, Banu; Tuncer, Necat; Kılıçoğlu, Hülya

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate, within a controlled clinical study, the effects of a Delaire-type facemask or a modified Jasper Jumper (JJ) used in the treatment of children with Class III malocclusions due to maxillary retrognathia on temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusions referred for orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups, a test and a control. The test group comprised 33 randomly chosen patients (15 females, 18 males) aged 8-11 years. The control group included 13 patients (eight females, five males) with similar features. TMD assessment was performed before and after treatment using a two-axis questionnaire, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMDs). Qualitative data were evaluated using chi-square and McNemar tests. No statistically significant differences related to the presence of TMD were observed pre- or post-treatment (P > 0.05). The most commonly encountered diagnosis was arthralgia in the JJ group both before and after treatment. Evaluation of joint and muscle regions showed decreased symptoms, apart from the diagnosed discomforts, in the JJ group (P < 0.05). Reduced symptoms were observed in the Delaire group; however, this reduction was not statistically significant. An increase, not considered to be statistically significant, was observed in the control group. The Delaire-type facemask and modified JJ used in the early phase of Class III malocclusion treatment did not result in TMD.

  20. Tricarboxylate-based Gd(III) coordination polymers exhibiting large magnetocaloric effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sui-Jun; Cao, Chen; Xie, Chen-Chao; Zheng, Teng-Fei; Tong, Xiao-Lan; Liao, Jin-Sheng; Chen, Jing-Lin; Wen, He-Rui; Chang, Ze; Bu, Xian-He

    2016-05-31

    Two Gd(III) coordination polymers with the formula [Gd(cit)(H2O)]∞ () and [Gd(nta)(H2O)2]∞ () (H4cit = citric acid, H3nta = nitrilotriacetic acid) have been successfully prepared under hydrothermal conditions. Complex exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) structure based on carboxylate-bridged layers, while complex is a double-layer structure containing eight-coordinated Gd(III). Magnetic investigations reveal that weak antiferromagnetic couplings between adjacent Gd(III) ions in both and with different Weiss values result in large cryogenic magnetocaloric effects. It is notable that the maximum entropy changes (-ΔS) of and reach 31.3 J kg(-1) K(-1) and 32.2 J kg(-1) K(-1) at 2 K for a moderate field change (ΔH = 3 T), and a remarkable -ΔS (41.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) for and 42.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ) could be obtained for ΔH = 7 T.

  1. Differential effects of Heparitinase I and Heparitinase III on endothelial tube formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play vital roles in many steps of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. HSPGs on endothelial cell surfaces act as coreceptors for a variety of pro-angiogenic growth factors such as FGF and VEGF and anti-angiogenic factors such as endostatin. However, the fine structural requirements of these binding interactions are dependent on the sulfation patterns of HSPGs. Previous studies have shown that Heparitinases, heparin lyases isolated from flavobacterium heparinum, can cleave heparan sulfate chains. These enzymes have been shown to reduce tumor—derived neovascularization in vivo in mice. However, the results from these experiments could not conclusively pinpoint the origin of the HS fragments. Thus, in this study we utilized an in vitro assay to assess the differential effects of Heparitinase I (Hep I) and Heparitinase III (Hep III) on endothelial tube formation. Hep III was found to be a more potent inhibitor of tube formation than Hep I. In conclusion, differential cleavage of endothelial cell surface bound HS can affect the extent of inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20599743

  2. Cooperative entangled effects between the cavity mode components of Raman process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enaki, Nicolae A.

    2016-12-01

    The cooperative excitation and absorption of light into three cavity modes (pump, Stokes and anti-Stokes), stimulated by excited radiators, is studied as bound entangled states of the photon subsystem. The three modes collective Roman emission and its connection with entangled state is defined introducing the cooperative description between photons of cavity modes. In the case, when the scattering rates in the Stokes and anti-Stokes modes coincide, the SU(2) and SU(1,1) symmetries are applied for a simple description of these cooperative processes. The possibilities to realize this effect in the free space is proposed, replacing the cavity modes with dipole active excited atoms in tow-quantum interaction with dipole-forbidden transitions of D atom. The statistical properties and detection method are proposed using the information entropy and atomic correlation functions.

  3. Fast Particle Effects on the Internal Kink, Fishbone and Alfven Modes

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Gorelenkov; S. Bernabei; C.Z. Cheng; G.Y. Fu; K. Hill; S. Kaye; G.J. Kramer; Y. Kusama; K. Shinohara; R. Nazikian; T. Ozeki; W. Park

    2000-11-15

    The issues of linear stability of low frequency perturbative and nonperturbative modes in advanced tokamak regimes are addressed based on recent developments in theory, computational methods, and progress in experiments. Perturbative codes NOVA and ORBIT are used to calculate the effects of TAEs on fast particle population in spherical tokamak NSTX. Nonperturbative analysis of chirping frequency modes in experiments on TFTR and JT-60U is presented using the kinetic code HINST, which identified such modes as a separate branch of Alfven modes - resonance TAE (R-TAE). Internal kink mode stability in the presence of fast particles is studied using the NOVA code and hybrid kinetic-MHD nonlinear code M3D.

  4. Effects of salt-related mode conversions on subsalt prospecting

    SciTech Connect

    Ogilvie, J.S.; Purnell, G.W.

    1996-03-01

    Mode conversion of waves during seismic reflection surveys has generally been considered a small phenomenon that could be neglected in data processing and interpretation. However, in subsalt prospecting, the contrast in material properties at the salt/sediment interface is often great enough that significant P-to-S and/or S-to-P conversion occurs. The resulting converted waves can be both a help and a hindrance for subsalt prospecting. A case history from the Mississippi Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico demonstrates strong converted-wave reflections from the base-of-salt that complicate the evaluation of a subsalt prospect using 3-D seismic data. Before and after stack, the converted-wave reflections are evident in 2-D and 3-D surveys across the prospect. Ray-tracing synthetic common midpoint (CMP) gathers provides some useful insights about the occurrence of these waves, but elastic-wave-equation modeling is even more useful. While the latter is more time-consuming, even in 2-D, it also provides a more realistic simulated seismic survey across the prospect, which helps to reveal how some converted waves survive the processes of CMP stack and migration, and thereby present possible pitfalls to an unwary interpreter. The insights gained from the synthetic-data suggest some simple techniques that can assist an interpreter in the 3-D interpretation of subsalt events.

  5. Atorvastatin and Fenofibrate have Comparable Effects on VLDL-Apolipoprotein C-III Kinetics in Men with the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Dick C; Watts, Gerald F; Ooi, Esther M.M; Ji, Juying; Johnson, Anthony G; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterised by insulin resistance and dyslipidemia that may accelerate atherosclerosis. Disturbed apolipoprotein (apo) C-III metabolism may account for dyslipidemia in these subjects. Atorvastatin and fenofibrate decrease plasma apoC-III, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods and Results The effects of atorvastatin (40 mg/d) and fenofibrate (200mg/d) on the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-apoC-III were investigated in a cross-over trial of 11 MetS men. VLDL-apoC-III kinetics were studied, following intravenous d3-leucine administration using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compartmental modeling. Compared with placebo, both atorvastatin and fenofibrate significantly decreased (P<0.001) plasma concentrations of triglyceride, apoB, apoB-48 and total apoC-III. Atorvastatin, not fenofibrate, significantly decreased plasma apoA-V concentrations (P<0.05). Both agents significantly increased the fractional catabolic rate (+32% and +30%, respectively) and reduced the production rate of VLDL-apoC-III (−20% and −24%, respectively), accounting for a significant reduction in VLDL-apoC-III concentrations (−41% and −39%, respectively).Total plasma apoC-III production rates were not significantly altered by the two agents. Neither treatment altered insulin resistance and body weight. Conclusions Both atorvastatin and fenofibrate have dual regulatory effects on VLDL-apoC-III kinetics in MetS; reduced production and increased fractional catabolism of VLDL-apoC-III may explain the triglyceride-lowering effect of these agents. PMID:18566295

  6. Inversed Vernier effect based single-mode laser emission in coupled microdisks.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Kaiyang; Li, Jiankai; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2015-09-02

    Recently, on-chip single-mode laser emissions in coupled microdisks have attracted considerable research attention due to their wide applications. While most of single-mode lasers in coupled microdisks or microrings have been qualitatively explained by either Vernier effect or inversed Vernier effect, none of them have been experimentally confirmed. Here, we studied the mechanism of single-mode laser operation in coupled microdisks. We found that the mode numbers had been significantly reduced to nearly single-mode within a large pumping power range from threshold to gain saturation. The detail laser spectra showed that the largest gain and the first lasing peak were mainly generated by one disk and the laser intensity was proportional to the wavelength detuning of two set of modes. The corresponding theoretical analysis showed that the experimental observations were dominated by internal coupling within one cavity, which was similar to the recently explored inversed Vernier effect in two coupled microrings. We believe our finding will be important for understanding the previous experimental findings and the development of on-chip single-mode laser.

  7. Inversed Vernier effect based single-mode laser emission in coupled microdisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Kaiyang; Li, Jiankai; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2015-09-01

    Recently, on-chip single-mode laser emissions in coupled microdisks have attracted considerable research attention due to their wide applications. While most of single-mode lasers in coupled microdisks or microrings have been qualitatively explained by either Vernier effect or inversed Vernier effect, none of them have been experimentally confirmed. Here, we studied the mechanism of single-mode laser operation in coupled microdisks. We found that the mode numbers had been significantly reduced to nearly single-mode within a large pumping power range from threshold to gain saturation. The detail laser spectra showed that the largest gain and the first lasing peak were mainly generated by one disk and the laser intensity was proportional to the wavelength detuning of two set of modes. The corresponding theoretical analysis showed that the experimental observations were dominated by internal coupling within one cavity, which was similar to the recently explored inversed Vernier effect in two coupled microrings. We believe our finding will be important for understanding the previous experimental findings and the development of on-chip single-mode laser.

  8. Inversed Vernier effect based single-mode laser emission in coupled microdisks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Kaiyang; Li, Jiankai; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, on-chip single-mode laser emissions in coupled microdisks have attracted considerable research attention due to their wide applications. While most of single-mode lasers in coupled microdisks or microrings have been qualitatively explained by either Vernier effect or inversed Vernier effect, none of them have been experimentally confirmed. Here, we studied the mechanism of single-mode laser operation in coupled microdisks. We found that the mode numbers had been significantly reduced to nearly single-mode within a large pumping power range from threshold to gain saturation. The detail laser spectra showed that the largest gain and the first lasing peak were mainly generated by one disk and the laser intensity was proportional to the wavelength detuning of two set of modes. The corresponding theoretical analysis showed that the experimental observations were dominated by internal coupling within one cavity, which was similar to the recently explored inversed Vernier effect in two coupled microrings. We believe our finding will be important for understanding the previous experimental findings and the development of on-chip single-mode laser. PMID:26330218

  9. Effect of direct dissipative coupling of two competing modes on intensity fluctuations in a quantum-dot-microcavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanaei, M.; Foerster, A.; Leymann, H. A. M.; Wiersig, J.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate two-mode photon correlations in a quantum-dot-microcavity laser with special emphasis on the effects induced by a direct coupling of two competing modes due to the dissipative character of the laser resonator. Numerical results based on a microscopic semiconductor theory reveal an enhanced autocorrelation of both modes and an enhanced anticorrelation between the modes. A detailed analysis is given in terms of dark and bright modes. It is shown that above the lasing threshold the original modes build up a bright mode coupled to the quantum dots and a dark mode, which interacts only indirectly with the quantum dots. We demonstrate that a populated dark mode can enable an efficient transfer of photons between the two original cavity modes, mediating an effective coupling between them.

  10. Mode effects in assessing cancer worry and risk perceptions: Is social desirability bias at play?1

    PubMed Central

    Persoskie, Alexander; Leyva, Bryan; Ferrer, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk perceptions and worry are important determinants of health behavior. Despite extensive research on these constructs, it is unknown whether people’s self-reports of perceived risk and worry are biased by their concerns about being viewed negatively by others (social desirability). Methods In this study, we examined whether reports of perceived risk and worry about cancer varied across survey modes differing in the salience of social desirability cues. We used data from the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, which assessed perceived cancer risk and worry in one of two survey modes: an interviewer-administered telephone survey (higher likelihood of socially desirable responding; n = 3,678) and a self-administered mail survey (lower likelihood of socially desirable responding; n = 3,445). Data were analyzed by regressing perceived risk and worry on survey mode and demographic factors. Results Analyses showed no effect of survey mode on cancer risk perceptions (B = 0.02, p = .55, d = .02). However, cancer worry was significantly higher in the self-administered mode than in the interviewer-administered mode (B = 0.24, p < .001, d = .26). Education moderated this effect, with respondents lower in education exhibiting a stronger mode effect. When cancer worry was dichotomized, the odds of reporting cancer worry were approximately twice as high in the self-administered mode compared to the interviewer-administered mode (OR = 2.13, p < .001). Conclusions These results bolster the veracity of self-reported cancer risk perceptions. They also suggest that interviewer-administered surveys may underestimate the frequency of cancer worry, particularly for samples lower in socioeconomic status. Studies are needed to test for this effect in clinical contexts. PMID:24718657

  11. Mode Effects in Assessing Cancer Worry and Risk Perceptions: Is Social Desirability Bias at Play?

    PubMed

    Persoskie, Alexander; Leyva, Bryan; Ferrer, Rebecca A

    2014-07-01

    Risk perceptions and worry are important determinants of health behavior. Despite extensive research on these constructs, it is unknown whether people's self-reports of perceived risk and worry are biased by their concerns about being viewed negatively by others (social desirability). In this study, we examined whether reports of perceived risk and worry about cancer varied across survey modes differing in the salience of social desirability cues. We used data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, which assessed perceived cancer risk and worry in 1 of 2 survey modes: an interviewer-administered telephone survey (higher likelihood of socially desirable responding; n = 3678) and a self-administered mail survey (lower likelihood of socially desirable responding; n = 3445). Data were analyzed by regressing perceived risk and worry on survey mode and demographic factors. Analyses showed no effect of survey mode on cancer risk perceptions (B = 0.02, P = 0.55, d = 0.02). However, cancer worry was significantly higher in the self-administered mode than in the interviewer-administered mode (B = 0.24, P < 0.001, d = 0.26). Education moderated this effect, with respondents lower in education exhibiting a stronger mode effect. When cancer worry was dichotomized, the odds of reporting cancer worry were approximately twice as high in the self-administered mode compared with the interviewer-administered mode (OR = 2.13, P < 0.001). These results bolster the veracity of self-reported cancer risk perceptions. They also suggest that interviewer-administered surveys may underestimate the frequency of cancer worry, particularly for samples lower in socioeconomic status. Studies are needed to test for this effect in clinical contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Effective mode area and its optimization in silicon-nanocrystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Premaratne, Malin; Agrawal, Govind P

    2012-06-15

    We revisit the problem of the optimization of a silicon-nanocrystal (Si-NC) waveguide, aiming to attain the maximum field confinement inside its nonlinear core and to ensure optimal waveguide performance for a given mode power. Using a Si-NC/SiO2 slot waveguide as an example, we show that the common definition of the effective mode area may lead to significant errors in estimation of optical intensity governing the nonlinear optical response and, as a result, to poor strength evaluation of the associated nonlinear effects. A simple and physically meaningful definition of the effective mode area is given to relate the total mode power to the average field intensity inside the nonlinear region and is employed to study the optimal parameters of Si-NC slot waveguides.

  13. Controlling the dynamical modes of the chiral magnetic structures by spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ronghua; Lim, Weng-Lee; Urazhdin, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    Recently, pure spin currents generated due to spin Hall effect have been proved as an efficient approach to reverse the magnetization, modify the dynamical relaxation rates, and excite magnetization oscillations in the heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures. In addition, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) can also induce chiral magnetization configurations and rich dynamics in these asymmetrical heterostructures . We controllably excited several distinct dynamical modes in spin Hall oscillator based on Pt/ [CoNi] magnetic multilayer with perpendicular anisotropy. At low current, a quasi-linear Slonczewski-like propagating spin wave mode was excited. This mode transforms to a localized soliton mode above a certain threshold current. At large fields, this mode can be identified as the spin wave `bullet' mode. At small fields, the localized mode is transformed to the topological structure of the `droplet' mode, which comes from the oscillations of the chiral domain walls forming the boundary of the bubble domain due to DMI. Our measurements demonstrate a straightforward route for emission of spin waves by nano-oscillators controlled either by current or by the applied magnetic field. This work was supported by the NSF grant ECCS-1218419.

  14. Rotational shear effects on edge harmonic oscillations in DIII-D quiescent H-mode discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Burrell, K. H.; Ferraro, N. M.; Osborne, T. H.; Austin, M. E.; Garofalo, A. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Kramer, G. J.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; McKee, G. R.; Muscatello, C. M.; Nazikian, R.; Ren, X.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Tobias, B. J.; Yan, Z.

    2016-07-01

    In the quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) regime, edge harmonic oscillations (EHOs) play an important role in avoiding transient edge localized mode (ELM) power fluxes by providing benign and continuous edge particle transport. A detailed theoretical, experimental and modeling comparison has been made of low-n (n  ⩽  5) EHO in DIII-D QH-mode plasmas. The calculated linear eigenmode structure from the extended magentoohydrodynamics (MHD) code M3D-C1 matches closely the coherent EHO properties from external magnetics data and internal measurements using the ECE, BES, ECE-Imaging and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) diagnostics, as well as the kink/peeling mode properties found by the ideal MHD code ELITE. Numerical investigations indicate that the low-n EHO-like solutions from M3D-C1 are destabilized by rotation and/or rotational shear while high-n modes are stabilized. This effect is independent of the rotation direction, suggesting that EHOs can be destabilized in principle with rotation in either direction. The modeling results are consistent with observations of EHO, support the proposed theory of the EHO as a low-n kink/peeling mode destabilized by edge E  ×  B rotational shear, and improve our understanding and confidence in creating and sustaining QH-mode in present and future devices.

  15. Crystallinity effects on scaling properties of photoinduced modes in silver nanoprisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Ming-Yaw; Ho, I-Lin; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2015-02-21

    The crystallinity effects on scaling properties of photoinduced modes in crystalline silver nanoprisms with C{sub 3v} symmetry are studied using a realistic atomistic model and group theory. Among all vibrational modes, photoinduced modes can be identified as those vibrational modes which possess larger in-phase radial atomic displacement and can be projected out by the projected density of states method. We found that the properties of vibrations in silver nanoprisms strongly depend on the particle’s aspect ratio (bisector length over thickness). By considering crystallinity of silver nanoprisms, the dominant modes with the in-plane oscillation become several closely spaced modes, and become obvious for nanoprisms with a smaller aspect ratio. The oscillation spectra show that the dominant planar modes are insensitive to thickness change. On the contrary, the atomic displacements show significantly different patterns for nanoprisms of different thicknesses. We also found that, for nanoprisms with same aspect ratio that is larger than 4, the vibrational properties of dominant modes exhibit scaling similarity. By using a simple linear transformation, the vibration frequencies for large-sized nanoprisms of aspect ratio 6 can be obtained by a corresponding scaling factor. The calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  16. Rotational shear effects on edge harmonic oscillations in DIII-D quiescent H-mode discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Burrell, Keith H.; Ferraro, Nathaniel M.; Osborne, Thomas H.; Austin, Max E.; Garofalo, Andrea M.; Groebner, Richard J.; Kramer, Gerrit J.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.; McKee, George R.; Muscatello, C. M.; Nazikian, R.; Ren, X.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Tobias, B. J.; Yan, Z.

    2016-06-21

    In the quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) regime, edge harmonic oscillations (EHO) play an important role in avoiding transient edge localized mode (ELM) power fluxes by providing benign and continuous edge particle transport. A detailed theoretical, experimental and modeling comparison has been made of low-n (n ≤ 5) EHO in DIII-D QH-mode plasmas. The calculated linear eigenmode structure from the extended MHD code M3D-C1 matches closely the coherent EHO properties from external magnetics data and internal measurements using the ECE, BES, ECE-Imaging and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) diagnostics, as well as the kink/peeling mode properties found by the ideal MHD code ELITE. Numerical investigations indicate that the low-n EHO-like solutions from M3D-C1 are destabilized by the rotational shear while high-n modes are stabilized. This effect is independent of the rotation direction, suggesting that EHO can be destabilized in principle with rotation in either direction. Furthermore, the modeling results are consistent with observations of the EHO, support the proposed theory of the EHO as a rotational shear driven kink/peeling mode, and improve our understanding and confidence in creating and sustaining QH-mode in present and future devices.

  17. Rotational shear effects on edge harmonic oscillations in DIII-D quiescent H-mode discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Burrell, Keith H.; Ferraro, Nathaniel M.; Osborne, Thomas H.; Austin, Max E.; Garofalo, Andrea M.; Groebner, Richard J.; Kramer, Gerrit J.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.; McKee, George R.; Muscatello, C. M.; Nazikian, R.; Ren, X.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Tobias, B. J.; Yan, Z.

    2016-06-21

    In the quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) regime, edge harmonic oscillations (EHO) play an important role in avoiding transient edge localized mode (ELM) power fluxes by providing benign and continuous edge particle transport. A detailed theoretical, experimental and modeling comparison has been made of low-n (n ≤ 5) EHO in DIII-D QH-mode plasmas. The calculated linear eigenmode structure from the extended MHD code M3D-C1 matches closely the coherent EHO properties from external magnetics data and internal measurements using the ECE, BES, ECE-Imaging and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) diagnostics, as well as the kink/peeling mode properties found by the ideal MHD code ELITE. Numerical investigations indicate that the low-n EHO-like solutions from M3D-C1 are destabilized by the rotational shear while high-n modes are stabilized. This effect is independent of the rotation direction, suggesting that EHO can be destabilized in principle with rotation in either direction. Furthermore, the modeling results are consistent with observations of the EHO, support the proposed theory of the EHO as a rotational shear driven kink/peeling mode, and improve our understanding and confidence in creating and sustaining QH-mode in present and future devices.

  18. Rotational shear effects on edge harmonic oscillations in DIII-D quiescent H-mode discharges

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Xi; Burrell, Keith H.; Ferraro, Nathaniel M.; ...

    2016-06-21

    In the quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) regime, edge harmonic oscillations (EHO) play an important role in avoiding transient edge localized mode (ELM) power fluxes by providing benign and continuous edge particle transport. A detailed theoretical, experimental and modeling comparison has been made of low-n (n ≤ 5) EHO in DIII-D QH-mode plasmas. The calculated linear eigenmode structure from the extended MHD code M3D-C1 matches closely the coherent EHO properties from external magnetics data and internal measurements using the ECE, BES, ECE-Imaging and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) diagnostics, as well as the kink/peeling mode properties found by the ideal MHD code ELITE.more » Numerical investigations indicate that the low-n EHO-like solutions from M3D-C1 are destabilized by the rotational shear while high-n modes are stabilized. This effect is independent of the rotation direction, suggesting that EHO can be destabilized in principle with rotation in either direction. Furthermore, the modeling results are consistent with observations of the EHO, support the proposed theory of the EHO as a rotational shear driven kink/peeling mode, and improve our understanding and confidence in creating and sustaining QH-mode in present and future devices.« less

  19. 75 FR 11530 - Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Wholesale Generator Status March 4, 2010. Docket Nos. Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC EG10-6-000 GardenGarden...-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective by operation of the Commission's...

  20. Overview of the effect of Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Child, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    The regulation of hazardous air pollutants by Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has a potential wide-ranging impact for the natural gas industry. Title III includes a list of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) which are targeted for reduction. Under Title III, HAP emissions from major sources will be reduced by the implementation of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. If the source is defined as a major source, it must also comply with Title V (operating permit) and Title VII (enhanced monitoring) requirements. This presentation will review Title III`s effect on the natural gas industry by discussing the regulatory requirements and schedules associated with MACT as well as the control technology options available for affected sources.

  1. Combined effects of Lanthanum(III) and elevated Ultraviolet-B radiation on root nitrogen nutrient in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guangrong; Wang, Lihong; Sun, Zhaoguo; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth element pollution and elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation occur simultaneously in some regions, but the combined effects of these two factors on plants have not attracted enough attention. Nitrogen nutrient is vital to plant growth. In this study, the combined effects of lanthanum(III) and elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation in soybean (Glycine max L.) roots were investigated. Treatment with 0.08 mmol L(-1) La(III) did not change the effects of elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), nitrate, ammonium, amino acids, or soluble protein in the roots. Treatment with 0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation synergistically decreased the NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities as well as the nitrate, amino acid, and soluble protein levels, except for the GDH activity and ammonium content. Combined treatment with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation produced severely deleterious effects on all test indices, and these effects were stronger than those induced by La(III) or elevated UV-B radiation treatment alone. Following the withdrawal of La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation, all test indices for the combined treatments with 0.08/0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation recovered to a certain extent, but they could not recover for treatments with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation. In summary, combined treatment with La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation seriously affected nitrogen nutrition in soybean roots through the inhibition of nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation.

  2. Effects of Survey Mode, Patient Mix, and Nonresponse on CAHPS® Hospital Survey Scores

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Marc N; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Goldstein, Elizabeth; Lehrman, William; Hambarsoomians, Katrin; Beckett, Megan K; Giordano, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the need for survey mode adjustments to hospital care evaluations by discharged inpatients and develop the appropriate adjustments. Data Source A total of 7,555 respondents from a 2006 national random sample of 45 hospitals who completed the CAHPS® Hospital (HCAHPS [Hospital Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems]) Survey. Study Design/Data Collection/Extraction Methods We estimated mode effects in linear models that predicted each HCAHPS outcome from hospital-fixed effects and patient-mix adjustors. Principal Findings Patients randomized to the telephone and active interactive voice response (IVR) modes provided more positive evaluations than patients randomized to mail and mixed (mail with telephone follow-up) modes, with some effects equivalent to more than 30 percentile points in hospital rankings. Mode effects are consistent across hospitals and are generally larger than total patient-mix effects. Patient-mix adjustment accounts for any nonresponse bias that could have been addressed through weighting. Conclusions Valid comparisons of hospital performance require that reported hospital scores be adjusted for survey mode and patient mix. PMID:19317857

  3. A Rare Water and Hydroxyl-Extended One-Dimensional Dysprosium(III) Chain and Its Magnetic Dilution Effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Pu; Zhang, Shan; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Yang, En-Cui; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2017-08-21

    A novel water and hydroxyl-extended one-dimensional dysprosium(III) chain was hydrothermally obtained, which exhibits a relatively high spin-reversal energy barrier of 88.7 K and intrachain ferromagnetic interaction with the coupling constant Jexch = 3.04 cm(-1) calculated by fitting magnetic susceptibilities using POLY_ANISO program based on ab initio calculations. To deeply understand the respective role of the single-ion anisotropy and intrachain exchange on the effective energy barrier, three crystallographically isostructural analogues containing isotropic Gd(III)-, diamagnetic Y(III)-, as well as Y(III)-doped Dy0.05Y0.95 were prepared and characterized structurally and magnetically. Due to the absence of significant intrachain exchange interaction, the effective energy barrier of the Dy0.05Y0.95 decreased by 9.9 K as compared with that of parent dysprosium(III) chain. Thus, it can be concluded that the intrachain ferromagnetic coupling and the magnetic anisotropy of the Dy(III) ion synergistically enhance the effective energy barrier of the dysprosium(III) chain, in which the single-ion anisotropy becomes more predominant.

  4. Media Presentation Mode, English Listening Comprehension and Cognitive Load in Ubiquitous Learning Environments: Modality Effect or Redundancy Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2011-01-01

    Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media presentation modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media presentation mode (sound and text versus sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load.…

  5. Media Presentation Mode, English Listening Comprehension and Cognitive Load in Ubiquitous Learning Environments: Modality Effect or Redundancy Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2011-01-01

    Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media presentation modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media presentation mode (sound and text versus sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load.…

  6. Surfactant-laden drop jellyfish-breakup mode induced by the Marangoni effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Drop breakup is a familiar event in both nature and technology. In this study, we find that the bag breakup mode can be replaced by a new breakup mode: jellyfish breakup, when the surfactant concentration of a surfactant-laden drop is high. This new breakup mode has a morphology resembling a jellyfish with many long tentacles. This is due to the inhomogeneous distribution of surfactant in the process of drop deformation and breakup. The thin film of liquid can remain stable as a result of the Marangoni effect. Finally, we propose that the dimensionless surfactant concentration can serve as a criterion for breakup mechanisms.

  7. Mode Summation Approach to Casimir Effect Between Two Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, L. P.

    2012-10-01

    In the last few years, several approaches have been developed to compute the exact Casimir interaction energy between two nonplanar objects, all lead to the same functional form, which is called the TGTG formula. In this paper, we explore the TGTG formula from the perspective of mode summation approach. Both scalar fields and electromagnetic fields are considered. In this approach, one has to first solve the equation of motion to find a wave basis for each object. The two T's in the TGTG formula are T-matrices representing the Lippmann-Schwinger T-operators, one for each of the objects. Each T-matrix can be found by matching the boundary conditions imposed on the object, and it is independent of the other object. However, it depends on whether the object is interacting with an object outside it, or an object inside it. The two G's in the TGTG formula are the translation matrices, relating the wave basis of an object to the wave basis of the other object. These translation matrices only depend on the wave basis chosen for each object, and they are independent of the boundary conditions on the objects. After discussing the general theory, we apply the prescription to derive the explicit formulas for the Casimir energies for the sphere-sphere, sphere-plane, cylinder-cylinder and cylinder-plane interactions. First the T-matrices for a plane, a sphere and a cylinder are derived for the following cases: the object is imposed with Dirichlet, Neumann or general Robin boundary conditions; the object is semitransparent; and the object is a magnetodielectric object immersed in a magnetodielectric media. Then the operator approach developed by R. C. Wittman [IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.36, 1078 (1988)] is used to derive the translation matrices. From these, the explicit TGTG formula for each of the scenarios can be written down. On the one hand, we have summarized all the TGTG formulas that have been derived so far for the sphere-sphere, cylinder-cylinder, sphere-plane and

  8. Bi-fluid and neoclassical effect on a Double-Tearing mode in Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Maget, Patrick Garbet, Xavier; Février, Olivier; Ségui, Jean-Luc; Lütjens, Hinrich; Luciani, Jean-François

    2014-06-15

    Tearing modes associated to hollow current profiles are prone to grow in moderate performance plasmas and often constrain the realization of non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, where long pulse duration is performed using Lower Hybrid waves for providing most of the plasma current. The prediction of MHD boundaries in such scenarios is complicated by the importance of diamagnetic effects, combined with curvature stabilization, which determine the stability of these modes. We show that diamagnetic effects, as well as neoclassical forces, are playing a key role in the linear and nonlinear regimes of Double-Tearing Modes on q = 5/3 and q = 2 in these experimental conditions. Detailed comparison with experimental measurements, combined with a scaling in plasma resistivity, give constraints about the experimental equilibrium. Resistive-Interchange Modes destabilized by diamagnetic rotation could also play a role in degrading the energy confinement in the negative magnetic shear region.

  9. Effects of Interchain Exchange Interactions on ESR Modes in Axial Triangular Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, Takashi; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Nagata, Kazukiyo

    1993-10-01

    We investigate the effects of a diagonal interchain interaction J2 on the ESR modes in the ABX3-type antiferromagnets with easy-axis anisotropy.The static properties are described by replacing the conventional interchain interaction J1 by J1-2J2. However, because of the phase difference between the sublattice magnetizations, J2 coupling produces marked effects on some ESR modes in cooperation with J1 coupling. Large separation between the ω1-mode and EPR line for H{\\perp}c and ω2- and ω3-modes for H{//}c (H>HSF) can be derived by maintaining consistency with the canting angle of spins from the c-axis and the spin wave dispersion at zero field. ESR measurements in CsMnI3 are reported. The frequency-field diagram obtained is described well by the model involving J2 coupling.

  10. Age-related decline in olympic triathlon performance: effect of locomotion mode.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Thierry; Sultana, Frédéric; Lepers, Romuald; Hausswirth, Christophe; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the decline in performance with age during Olympic triathlon Age Groups World Championships among the different locomotion modes. Mean performance of top 10 performers were analyzed for each group of age using the exponential model proposed by Baker, Tang, and Turner (2003, Experimental Aging Research, 29, 47-65). Comparison in performance decline was done between locomotion modes. Decline in performance in triathlon as a function of age follows an exponential model. A significant interaction effect between age and locomotion mode was observed on performance values. In swimming, a significant decrease was observed close to 5% per year after 45 years. Decline in performance was less pronounced in cycling until 60 years. Analysis of the effect of age in the different locomotion modes of a triathlon could provide information for maintaining quality of life with aging.

  11. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Introductory Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    effects based on how severe they are, how often they might occur, and how easily we can find them. 3. Effects: the consequences of failure. The...Actions ! 0 l!1 .. requirE-ments ~ l=ailure 1-’rP.vP.ntion .., llP.tP.c::tion Completion Dato Action• Taken P. il "’ ; · .. "’ = 0 i;r= ~ ~ " S pnrg

  12. A model of energetic ion effects on pressure driven tearing modes in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfmoon, M. R.; Brennan, D. P.

    2017-06-01

    The effects that energetic trapped ions have on linear resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities are studied in a reduced model that captures the essential physics driving or damping the modes through variations in the magnetic shear. The drift-kinetic orbital interaction of a slowing down distribution of trapped energetic ions with a resistive MHD instability is integrated to a scalar contribution to the perturbed pressure, and entered into an asymptotic matching formalism for the resistive MHD dispersion relation. Toroidal magnetic field line curvature is included to model trapping in the particle distribution, in an otherwise cylindrical model. The focus is on a configuration that is driven unstable to the m/n = 2/1 mode by increasing pressure, where m is the poloidal mode number and n is the toroidal. The particles and pressure can affect the mode both in the core region where there can be low and reversed shear and outside the resonant surface in significant positive shear. The results show that the energetic ions damp and stabilize the mode when orbiting in significant positive shear, increasing the marginal stability boundary. However, the inner core region contribution with low and reversed shear can drive the mode unstable. This effect of shear on the energetic ion pressure contribution is found to be consistent with the literature. These results explain the observation that the 2/1 mode was found to be damped and stabilized by energetic ions in δf-MHD simulations of tokamak experiments with positive shear throughout, while the 2/1 mode was found to be driven unstable in simulations of experiments with weakly reversed shear in the core. This is also found to be consistent with related experimental observations of the stability of the 2/1 mode changing significantly with core shear.

  13. A Tool To Support Failure Mode And Effects Analysis Based On Causal Modelling And Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, W. E.; Laib, S. L.

    1987-05-01

    A prototype knowledge-based system has been developed that supports Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA). The knowledge base consists of causal models of components and a representation for coupling these components into assemblies and systems. The causal models are qualitative models. They allow reasoning as to whether variables are increasing, decreasing or steady. The analysis strategies used by the prototype allow it to determine the effects of failure modes on the function of the part, the failure effect on the assembly the part is contained in, and the effect on the subsystem containing the assembly.

  14. Effects of Crimped Fiber Paths on Mixed Mode Delamination Behaviors in Woven Fabric Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    be exploited for increasing delamination resistance. The mode I and mode II strain energy release rates GI and GII, the effective critical strain... energy release rate Gc_eff, and crack growth stabilities were determined as functions of crimped fiber paths using mesoscale, two-dimensional multi...The presence of mixed strain energy release rates at the mesoscale due to the curvilinear fiber paths was shown to influence the interlaminar

  15. Effects of Field-Aligned Flows on Standing Kink and Sausage Modes Supported by Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.-X.; Li, B.; Xia, L.-D.; Chen, Y.-J.; Yu, H.

    2014-05-01

    Fundamental standing modes and their overtones play an important role in coronal seismology. We examine the effects of a significant field-aligned flow on standing modes that are supported by coronal loops, which are modeled here as cold magnetic slabs. Of particular interest are the period ratios of the fundamental to its ( n-1)th overtone [ P 1/ nP n ] for kink and sausage modes, and the threshold half-width-to-length ratio for sausage modes. For standing kink modes, the flow significantly reduces P 1/ nP n in general, the effect being particularly strong for higher n and weaker density contrast [] between loops and their surroundings. That said, even when approaches infinity, this effect is still substantial, reducing the minimal P 1/ nP n by up to 13.7 % (24.5 %) for n=2 ( n=4) relative to the static case, when the Alfvén Mach number [ M A] reaches 0.8, where M A measures the loop flow speed in units of the internal Alfvén speed. Although it is not negligible for standing sausage modes, the flow effect in reducing P 1/ nP n is not as strong. However, the threshold half-width-to-length ratio is considerably higher in the flowing case than in its static counterpart. For in the range [9,1024] and M A in the range [0,0.5], an exhaustive parameter study yields that this threshold is well fitted by , which involves the two parameters in a simple way. This allows one to analytically constrain the combination for a loop with a known width-to-length ratio when a standing sausage oscillation is identified. It also allows one to examine the idea of partial sausage modes in more detail, and the flow is found to significantly reduce the spatial extent where partial modes are allowed.

  16. Observation of coherent effects using a mode-locked rubidium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Welch, George R.

    2017-02-01

    We study a diode-pumped alkaline rubidium laser operating at the D 1-line transition. The mode-locked regime of laser operation using an active technique inside the laser cavity has been demonstrated. We have also experimentally shown that the mode-locked laser radiation can be used to observe coherent effects: the electromagnetically induced transparency and the nonlinear Faraday rotation in Rb vapor.

  17. Effect of Pressure Anisotropy on the m = 1 Small Wavelength Modes in Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, M.

    1987-05-01

    A generalization of Freidberg's perpendicular MHD model is used to investigate the effect of pressure anisotropy on the small wavelength internal kink (m = 1) mode instability in a Z-Pinch. A normal mode analysis of perturbed motion of an incompressible, collisionless and cylindrical plasma is performed. The stability criterion is (rΣB2)' <= 0, where Σ = 1 - (P|| - P⊥)/B2. It cannot be fulfilled without violation of the fire hose stability condition Σ >= 0.

  18. Effect of Bypass Capacitor in Common-mode Noise Reduction Technique for Automobile PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Takanori; Ichikawa, Kouji; Mabuchi, Yuichi; Nakamura, Atushi

    In this letter, we studied the use of common mode noise reduction technique for in-vehicle electronic equipment, each comprising large-scale integrated circuit (LSI), printed circuit board (PCB), wiring harnesses, and ground plane. We have improved the model circuit of the common mode noise that flows to the wire harness to add the effect of by-pass capacitors located near an LSI.

  19. Exchange effect and magneto-plasmon mode dispersion in an anisotropic two-dimensional electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoguang

    2016-11-01

    The exchange effect and the magneto-plasmon mode dispersion are studied theoretically for an anisotropic two-dimensional electronic system in the presence of a uniform perpendicular magnetic field. Employing an effective low-energy model with anisotropic effective masses, which is relevant for a monolayer of phosphorus, the exchange effect due to the electron-electron interaction is treated within the self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation. The magneto-plasmon mode dispersion is obtained by solving a Bethe-Salpeter equation for the electron density-density correlation function within the ladder diagram approximation. It is found that the exchange effect is reduced in the anisotropic system in comparison with the isotropic one. The magneto-plasmon mode dispersion shows a clear dependence on the direction of the wave vector. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61076092 and 61290303).

  20. Gravitational-wave observations of binary black holes: Effect of nonquadrupole modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Vijay; Ajith, Parameswaran; Husa, Sascha; Bustillo, Juan Calderon; Hannam, Mark; Pürrer, Michael

    2014-12-01

    We study the effect of nonquadrupolar modes in the detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves (GWs) from nonspinning black-hole binaries. We evaluate the loss of signal-to-noise ratio and the systematic errors in the estimated parameters when one uses a quadrupole-mode template family to detect GW signals with all the relevant modes, for target signals with total masses 20 M⊙≤M ≤250 M⊙ and mass ratios 1 ≤q ≤18 . Target signals are constructed by matching numerical-relativity simulations describing the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown of the binary with post-Newtonian/effective-one-body waveforms describing the early inspiral. We find that waveform templates modeling only the quadrupolar modes of the GW signal are sufficient (loss of detection rate <10 %) for the detection of GWs with mass ratios q ≤4 using advanced GW observatories. Neglecting the effect of nonquadrupole modes will introduce systematic errors in the estimated parameters. The systematic errors are larger than the expected 1 σ statistical errors for binaries with large, unequal masses (q ≳4 ,M ≳150 M⊙ ), for sky-averaged signal-to-noise ratios larger than 8. We provide a summary of the regions in the parameter space where neglecting nonquadrupole modes will cause unacceptable loss of detection rates and unacceptably large systematic biases in the estimated parameters.

  1. Modeling the effect of toroidal plasma rotation on drift-magnetohydrodynamic modes in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, I. T.; Sharapov, S. E.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Mikhailovskii, A. B.

    2006-06-01

    A new code, MISHKA-F (Flow), has been developed as an extension of the ideal magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) code MISHKA-1 [Mikhailovskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 23, 844 (1997)] in order to investigate the linear MHD stability of ideal and resistive eigenmodes with respect to the effects of toroidal rotation in tokamaks in general toroidal geometry with the ion diamagnetic drift effect taken into account. Benchmark test results of the MISHKA-F code show good agreement with analytic theory [A. B. Mikhailovskii and S. E. Sharapov, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 42, 57 (2000)] for the stability limits of the ideal n /m=1/1 internal kink mode. The combined stabilizing effects of the ion diamagnetic drift frequency, ω*i, and the toroidal flow shear are also studied. The ω*i stabilization of the internal kink mode is found to be more effective at finite flow shear. Finite-n ballooning modes are studied in plasmas with the toroidal flow shear effect included. The stabilization of the ballooning modes by toroidal rotation is found to agree well with earlier predictions [Webster et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2135 (2004)]. The effect of high flow shear is analyzed for a sawtoothing discharge typical in the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [Sykes et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1423 (2001)]. It is found that the ideal n =1 internal kink mode can be stabilized by toroidal rotation at values observed experimentally.

  2. Modeling the effect of toroidal plasma rotation on drift-magnetohydrodynamic modes in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, I.T.; Sharapov, S.E.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Mikhailovskii, A. B.

    2006-06-15

    A new code, MISHKA-F (Flow), has been developed as an extension of the ideal magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) code MISHKA-1 [Mikhailovskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 23, 844 (1997)] in order to investigate the linear MHD stability of ideal and resistive eigenmodes with respect to the effects of toroidal rotation in tokamaks in general toroidal geometry with the ion diamagnetic drift effect taken into account. Benchmark test results of the MISHKA-F code show good agreement with analytic theory [A. B. Mikhailovskii and S. E. Sharapov, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 42, 57 (2000)] for the stability limits of the ideal n/m=1/1 internal kink mode. The combined stabilizing effects of the ion diamagnetic drift frequency, {omega}{sub *i}, and the toroidal flow shear are also studied. The {omega}{sub *i} stabilization of the internal kink mode is found to be more effective at finite flow shear. Finite-n ballooning modes are studied in plasmas with the toroidal flow shear effect included. The stabilization of the ballooning modes by toroidal rotation is found to agree well with earlier predictions [Webster et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2135 (2004)]. The effect of high flow shear is analyzed for a sawtoothing discharge typical in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [Sykes et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1423 (2001)]. It is found that the ideal n=1 internal kink mode can be stabilized by toroidal rotation at values observed experimentally.

  3. Evolution of newborn rapidly rotating magnetars: Effects of R-mode and fall-back accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie-Shuang; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we investigate effects of the r-mode instability on a newborn rapidly-rotating magnetar with fall-back accretion. Such a magnetar could usually occur in core-collapse supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. We find that the magnetar's spin and r-mode evolution are influenced by accretion. If the magnetar is sufficiently spun up to a few milliseconds, gravitational radiation leads to the growth of the r-mode amplitude significantly. The maximum r-mode amplitude reaches an order of 0.001 when the damping due to the growth of a toroidal magnetic field balances the growth of the r-mode amplitude. If such a sufficiently spun-up magnetar was located at a distance less than 1 Mpc, then gravitational waves would be detectable by the Einstein Telescope but would have an extremely low event rate. However, if the spin-up is insufficient, the growth of the r-mode amplitude is mainly due to the accretion torque. In this case, the maximum r-mode amplitude is of the order of 10-6-10-5.

  4. Effect of dark matter halo on global spiral modes in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Soumavo; Saini, Tarun Deep; Jog, Chanda J.

    2016-02-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies form a major class of galaxies, and are characterized by low disc surface density and low star formation rate. These are known to be dominated by dark matter halo from the innermost regions. Here, we study the role of the dark matter halo on the grand-design, m = 2, spiral modes in a galactic disc by carrying out a global mode analysis in the WKB approximation. The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule is used to determine how many discrete global spiral modes are permitted. First, a typical superthin, LSB galaxy UGC 7321 is studied by taking only the galactic disc, modelled as a fluid; and then the disc embedded in a dark matter halo. We find that both cases permit the existence of global spiral modes. This is in contrast to earlier results where the inclusion of dark matter halo was shown to nearly fully suppress local, swing-amplified spiral features. Although technically global modes are permitted in the fluid model as shown here, we argue that due to lack of tidal interactions, these are not triggered in LSB galaxies. For comparison, we carried out a similar analysis for the Galaxy, for which the dark matter halo does not dominate in the inner regions. We show that here too the dark matter halo has little effect, hence the disc embedded in a halo is also able to support global modes. The derived pattern speed of the global mode agrees fairly well with the observed value for the Galaxy.

  5. Effects of heavy modes on vacuum stability in supersymmetric theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizi, Leonardo; Scrucca, Claudio A.

    2010-11-01

    We study the effects induced by heavy fields on the masses of light fields in supersymmetric theories, under the assumption that the heavy mass scale is much higher than the supersymmetry breaking scale. We show that the square-masses of light scalar fields can get two different types of significant corrections when a heavy multiplet is integrated out. The first is an indirect level-repulsion effect, which may arise from heavy chiral multiplets and is always negative. The second is a direct coupling contribution, which may arise from heavy vector multiplets and can have any sign. We then apply these results to the sGoldstino mass and study the implications for the vacuum metastability condition. We find that the correction from heavy chiral multiplets is always negative and tends to compromise vacuum metastability, whereas the contribution from heavy vector multiplets is always positive and tends on the contrary to reinforce it. These two effects are controlled respectively by Yukawa couplings and gauge charges, which mix one heavy and two light fields respectively in the superpotential and the Kähler potential. Finally we also comment on similar effects induced in soft scalar masses when the heavy multiplets couple both to the visible and the hidden sector.

  6. Mode-Specific Effects among Three Treatments for Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imber, Stanley D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Randomly assigned 250 depressed outpatients to interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine plus clinical management, or pill placebo plus clinical management treatments. All treatments demonstrated significant symptom reduction with few differences in general outcomes. None of the therapies produced consistent effects on…

  7. Effect of survey mode on response patterns: comparison of face-to-face and self-administered modes in health surveys.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte; Juel, Knud

    2014-04-01

    While face-to-face interviews are considered the gold standard of survey modes, self-administered questionnaires are often preferred for cost and convenience. This article examines response patterns in two general population health surveys carried out by face-to-face interview and self-administered questionnaire, respectively. Data derives from a health interview survey in the Region of Southern Denmark (face-to-face interview) and The Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2010 (self-administered questionnaire). Identical questions were used in both surveys. Data on all individuals were obtained from administrative registers and linked to survey data at individual level. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the effect of survey mode on response patterns. The non-response rate was higher in the self-administered survey (37.9%) than in the face-to-face interview survey (23.7%). Marital status, ethnic background and highest completed education were associated with non-response in both modes. Furthermore, sex and age were associated with non-response in the self-administered mode. No significant mode effects were observed for indicators related to use of health services, but significant mode effects were observed for indicators related to self-reported health-related quality of life, health behaviour, social relations and morbidity (long-standing illness). The same factors were generally associated with non-response in both modes. Indicators based on factual questions with simple answers categories were overall more comparable according to mode than indicators based on questions that involved more subjective assessments. Other measures such as efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the mode should also be considered when determining the most appropriate form of data collection.

  8. Reactor-pumped laser: kinetics effects on the SPR III reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Minnema, D.M.; McArthur, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Sandia Pulsed Reactor III (SPR III) is being used as the pumping source for evaluation of energy deposition and laser physics in gas mixtures for reactor-pumped lasers. The test apparatus includes moderating and reflecting materials both near and in the glory hole, and occasionally, small quantities of uranium deposited on ceramic tubes in the glory hole. These materials significantly affect reactor behavior. The most prominent change that occurs with moderating material in the glory hole is an increase in the effective neutron lifetime of the reactor, and a factor of 2 to 3 has been observed in these tests. This affects several aspects of the reactor's behavior: initial reactor period, pulse width, and yield versus initial reactivity insertion. The most significant effect occurs when small quantities of uranium (ranging from 0.4 grams to 6 grams U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) are included in the package. There is an apparent increase in lifetime up to a factor of 7 over the normal value, and a large change in the pulse symmetry. Investigation suggests that the moderating material and uranium behave as a pseudo delayed-neutron precursor with a delay time of about 1.6 milliseconds, and an apparent yield of 0.00017. This paper provides a detailed discussion of these observations.

  9. Strain effect in group-III nitride semiconductors and their alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qimin; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias; van de Walle, Chris

    2009-11-01

    Strain plays a crucial role in group-III nitride semiconductor based devices since it affects the band structure near the valence- and conduction-band edges and thus the optical properties and the device characteristics. However, the deformation potentials that describe the change in band structure under strain have not yet been reliably determined. We present a systematic study of the strain effects in AlN, GaN and InN in the wurtzite phase. We apply density functional theory and hybrid functionals to address the band-gap problem. We observe nonlinearities of transition energies under realistic strain condition that may, in part, explain the appreciable scatter in previous theoretical work on deformation potentials of group-III-nitrides. For the linear regime around the experimental lattice parameters, we present a complete set of deformation potentials. Applying our deformation potentials, we study strain effects in InGaN alloys (including c-, m-, and semi-polar planes) grown on GaN substrates. We make predictions for the transition energies in these systems and their dependence on In composition.

  10. Modeling framework for materials capable of solid-solid phase transformation: application to the analytical solution of the semi-infinite mode III crack problem in an idealized shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, Wael; Moumni, Ziad

    2015-04-01

    We propose two frameworks for the derivation of constitutive models for solids undergoing phase transformations. The first is based on the assumption that solid phases within the material are finely mixed whereas the second considers the material as a heterogeneous solution of phase fragments and uses the homogenization theory to derive equilibrium conditions for displacement fields and phase distributions. It is shown that in the case of reversible phase transformation, the energy of the material can be obtained by taking the convex envelope of the energy functions of the constituent phases. As an application, a schematic model is derived for an idealized shape memory alloy and used to obtain a novel analytical solution for the problem of semi-infinite mode III crack in this material. The derivation of the analytical solution uses the hodograph method to map Cartesian coordinates into the hodograph plane. The resulting boundary-value problem for the mode III crack considered becomes analytically tractable for the idealized shape memory alloy considered and leads to closed-form expressions for the displacement and phase volume fraction fields near the crack tip as well as for the boundaries between different phase regions.

  11. The growth of the tearing mode - Boundary and scaling effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Van Hoven, G.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical model of resistive magnetic tearing is developed in order to verify and relate the results of the principal approximations used in analytic analyses and to investigate the solutions and their growth-rate scalings over a large range of primary parameters which include parametric values applicable to the solar atmosphere. The computations cover the linear behavior for a variety of boundary conditions, emphasizing effects which differentiate magnetic tearing in astrophysical situations from that in laboratory devices. Eigenfunction profiles for long and short wavelengths are computed and the applicability of the 'constant psi' approximation is investigated. The growth rate is computed for values of the magnetic Reynolds number up to a trillion and of the dimensionless wavelength parameter down to 0.001. The analysis predicts significant effects due to differing values of the magnetic Reynolds number.

  12. Effect Of Clock Mode On Radiation Hardness Of An ADC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choon I.; Rax, Bernie G.; Johnston, Allan H.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses techniques for testing and evaluating effects of total dosages of ionizing radiation on performances of high-resolution successive-approximation analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), without having to test each individual bit or transition. Reduces cost of testing by reducing tests to few critical parametric measurements, from which one determines approximate radiation failure levels providing good approximations of responses of converters for purpose of total-dose-radiation evaluations.

  13. WE-G-BRA-08: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y; Bhatnagar, J; Bednarz, G; Flickinger, J; Arai, Y; Huq, M Saiful; Vacsulka, J; Monaco, E; Niranjan, A; Lunsford, L Dade; Feng, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To perform a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) study for Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery processes at our institution based on our experience with the treatment of more than 13,000 patients. Methods: A team consisting of medical physicists, nurses, radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and an external physicist expert was formed for the FMEA study. A process tree and a failure mode table were created for the GK procedures using the Leksell GK Perfexion and 4C units. Three scores for the probability of occurrence (O), the severity (S), and the probability of no detection (D) for failure modes were assigned to each failure mode by each professional on a scale from 1 to 10. The risk priority number (RPN) for each failure mode was then calculated (RPN = OxSxD) as the average scores from all data sets collected. Results: The established process tree for GK radiosurgery consists of 10 sub-processes and 53 steps, including a sub-process for frame placement and 11 steps that are directly related to the frame-based nature of the GK radiosurgery. Out of the 86 failure modes identified, 40 failure modes are GK specific, caused by the potential for inappropriate use of the radiosurgery head frame, the imaging fiducial boxes, the GK helmets and plugs, and the GammaPlan treatment planning system. The other 46 failure modes are associated with the registration, imaging, image transfer, contouring processes that are common for all radiation therapy techniques. The failure modes with the highest hazard scores are related to imperfect frame adaptor attachment, bad fiducial box assembly, overlooked target areas, inaccurate previous treatment information and excessive patient movement during MRI scan. Conclusion: The implementation of the FMEA approach for Gamma Knife radiosurgery enabled deeper understanding of the overall process among all professionals involved in the care of the patient and helped identify potential

  14. [Failure modes and effects analysis in the prescription, validation and dispensing process].

    PubMed

    Delgado Silveira, E; Alvarez Díaz, A; Pérez Menéndez-Conde, C; Serna Pérez, J; Rodríguez Sagrado, M A; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2012-01-01

    To apply a failure modes and effects analysis to the prescription, validation and dispensing process for hospitalised patients. A work group analysed all of the stages included in the process from prescription to dispensing, identifying the most critical errors and establishing potential failure modes which could produce a mistake. The possible causes, their potential effects, and the existing control systems were analysed to try and stop them from developing. The Hazard Score was calculated, choosing those that were ≥ 8, and a Severity Index = 4 was selected independently of the hazard Score value. Corrective measures and an implementation plan were proposed. A flow diagram that describes the whole process was obtained. A risk analysis was conducted of the chosen critical points, indicating: failure mode, cause, effect, severity, probability, Hazard Score, suggested preventative measure and strategy to achieve so. Failure modes chosen: Prescription on the nurse's form; progress or treatment order (paper); Prescription to incorrect patient; Transcription error by nursing staff and pharmacist; Error preparing the trolley. By applying a failure modes and effects analysis to the prescription, validation and dispensing process, we have been able to identify critical aspects, the stages in which errors may occur and the causes. It has allowed us to analyse the effects on the safety of the process, and establish measures to prevent or reduce them. Copyright © 2010 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of amino acid mutations in the pore-forming domain of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomonao; Masaki, Risa; Unno, Hideaki; Goda, Shuichiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2016-10-01

    The hemolytic lectin CEL-III forms transmembrane pores in the membranes of target cells. A study on the effect of site-directed mutation at Lys405 in domain 3 of CEL-III indicated that replacements of this residue by relatively smaller residues lead to a marked increase in hemolytic activity, suggesting that moderately destabilizing domain 3 facilitates formation of transmembrane pores through conformational changes.

  16. Mode of Action of Shigella Toxin. Effects on Ribosome Structure and Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-15

    accepted that clinical symptoms associated with these toxin -producing bacteria are, in part, a result of their effect on protein synthesis. To go one...NUMBER I Mode of Action of Shigella Toxin : Effects on Ribosome Structure and Function Annual Report STom G. Obrig, Ph.D. 0 August 15, 1983 Supported...REPORT A PERIOD COVERED MODE OF ACTION OF SII(;EI.LA TOXIN : EFFECTS Annual 11/15/82-8/l/83 ON RIBOSOME STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  17. Collective mode contributions to the Meissner effect: Fulde-Ferrell and pair-density wave superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyack, Rufus; Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon M.; Levin, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the necessity of including the generally omitted collective-mode contributions in calculations of the Meissner effect for nonuniform superconductors. We consider superconducting pairing with nonzero center-of-mass momentum, as is possibly relevant to high transition temperature cuprates, cold atoms, and color superconductors in quantum chromodynamics. For the concrete example of the Fulde-Ferrell phase we present a quantitative calculation of the superfluid density, showing not only that the collective-mode contributions are appreciable but also that they derive from the amplitude mode of the order parameter. This latter mode is generally viewed as being invisible in conventional superconductors. However, our analysis shows that it is extremely important in pair-density-wave-type superconductors, where it destroys stable superfluidity well before the mean-field order parameter vanishes.

  18. Effect of vortex inlet mode on low-power cylindrical Hall thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yongjie; Jia, Boyang; Xu, Yu; Wei, Liqiu; Su, Hongbo; Li, Peng; Sun, Hezhi; Peng, Wuji; Cao, Yong; Yu, Daren

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines a new propellant inlet mode for a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster called the vortex inlet mode. This new mode makes propellant gas diffuse in the form of a circumferential vortex in the discharge channel of the thruster. Simulation and experimental results show that the neutral gas density in the discharge channel increases upon the application of the vortex inlet mode, effectively extending the dwell time of the propellant gas in the channel. According to the experimental results, the vortex inlet increases the propellant utilization of the thruster by 3.12%-8.81%, thrust by 1.1%-53.5%, specific impulse by 1.1%-53.5%, thrust-to-power ratio by 10%-63%, and anode efficiency by 1.6%-7.3%, greatly improving the thruster performance.

  19. Normal Mode Splitting and Mechanical Effects of an Optical Lattice in a Ring Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinner, Julian; Lindholdt, Malik; Nagorny, Boris; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A novel regime of atom-cavity physics is explored, arising when large atom samples dispersively interact with high-finesse optical cavities. A stable far-detuned optical lattice of several million rubidium atoms is formed inside an optical ring resonator by coupling equal amounts of laser light to each propagation direction of a longitudinal cavity mode. An adjacent longitudinal mode, detuned by about 3 GHz, is used to perform probe transmission spectroscopy of the system. The atom-cavity coupling for the lattice beams and the probe is dispersive and dissipation results only from the finite photon-storage time. The observation of two well-resolved normal modes demonstrates the regime of strong cooperative coupling. The details of the normal mode spectrum reveal mechanical effects associated with the retroaction of the probe upon the optical lattice.

  20. Normal mode splitting and mechanical effects of an optical lattice in a ring cavity.

    PubMed

    Klinner, Julian; Lindholdt, Malik; Nagorny, Boris; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2006-01-20

    A novel regime of atom-cavity physics is explored, arising when large atom samples dispersively interact with high-finesse optical cavities. A stable far-detuned optical lattice of several million rubidium atoms is formed inside an optical ring resonator by coupling equal amounts of laser light to each propagation direction of a longitudinal cavity mode. An adjacent longitudinal mode, detuned by about 3 GHz, is used to perform probe transmission spectroscopy of the system. The atom-cavity coupling for the lattice beams and the probe is dispersive and dissipation results only from the finite photon-storage time. The observation of two well-resolved normal modes demonstrates the regime of strong cooperative coupling. The details of the normal mode spectrum reveal mechanical effects associated with the retroaction of the probe upon the optical lattice.

  1. Dipole-fiber systems: radiation field patterns, effective magnetic dipoles, and induced cavity modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakaramians, Shaghik; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Monro, Tanya M.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Afshar, Shahraam V.

    2015-12-01

    We study the radiation patterns produced by a dipole placed at the surface of a nanofiber and oriented perpendicular to it, either along the radial (r-oriented) or azimuthal (Φ-oriented) directions. We find that the dipole induces an effective circular cavity-like leaky mode in the nanofiber. The first radiation peak of the Φ-oriented dipole contributes only to TE radiation modes, while the radiation of the r-oriented dipole is composed of both TE and TM radiation modes, with relative contribution depending on the refractive index of the nanofiber. We reveal that the field pattern of the first resonance of a Φ-oriented dipole is associated with a magnetic dipole mode and strong magnetic response of an optical nanofiber.

  2. Effect of dark matter halo on global spiral modes in a collisionless galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Soumavo; Saini, Tarun Deep; Jog, Chanda J.

    2017-07-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are dominated by dark matter halo from the innermost radii; hence they are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of dark matter on different dynamical aspects of spiral galaxies. Here, we study the effect of dark matter halo on grand-design, m = 2 , spiral modes in a galactic disk, treated as a collisionless system, by carrying out a global modal analysis within the WKB approximation. First, we study a superthin, LSB galaxy UGC 7321 and show that it does not support discrete global spiral modes when modeled as a disk-alone system or as a disk plus dark matter system. Even a moderate increase in the stellar central surface density does not yield any global spiral modes. This naturally explains the observed lack of strong large-scale spiral structure in LSBs. An earlier work (Ghosh et al., 2016) where the galactic disk was treated as a fluid system for simplicity had shown that the dominant halo could not arrest global modes. We found that this difference arises due to the different dispersion relation used in the two cases and which plays a crucial role in the search for global spiral modes. Thus the correct treatment of stars as a collisionless system as done here results in the suppression of global spiral modes, in agreement with the observations. We performed a similar modal analysis for the Galaxy, and found that the dark matter halo has a negligible effect on large-scale spiral structure.

  3. Evaluation of Safety in a Radiation Oncology Setting Using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Eric C. Gaudette, Ray; Myers, Lee; Vanderver, Bruce; Engineer, Lilly; Zellars, Richard; Song, Danny Y.; Wong, John; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used tool for prospectively evaluating safety and reliability. We report our experiences in applying FMEA in the setting of radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We performed an FMEA analysis for our external beam radiation therapy service, which consisted of the following tasks: (1) create a visual map of the process, (2) identify possible failure modes; assign risk probability numbers (RPN) to each failure mode based on tabulated scores for the severity, frequency of occurrence, and detectability, each on a scale of 1 to 10; and (3) identify improvements that are both feasible and effective. The RPN scores can span a range of 1 to 1000, with higher scores indicating the relative importance of a given failure mode. Results: Our process map consisted of 269 different nodes. We identified 127 possible failure modes with RPN scores ranging from 2 to 160. Fifteen of the top-ranked failure modes were considered for process improvements, representing RPN scores of 75 and more. These specific improvement suggestions were incorporated into our practice with a review and implementation by each department team responsible for the process. Conclusions: The FMEA technique provides a systematic method for finding vulnerabilities in a process before they result in an error. The FMEA framework can naturally incorporate further quantification and monitoring. A general-use system for incident and near miss reporting would be useful in this regard.

  4. Evaluation of safety in a radiation oncology setting using failure mode and effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric C; Gaudette, Ray; Myers, Lee; Vanderver, Bruce; Engineer, Lilly; Zellars, Richard; Song, Danny Y; Wong, John; Deweese, Theodore L

    2009-07-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used tool for prospectively evaluating safety and reliability. We report our experiences in applying FMEA in the setting of radiation oncology. We performed an FMEA analysis for our external beam radiation therapy service, which consisted of the following tasks: (1) create a visual map of the process, (2) identify possible failure modes; assign risk probability numbers (RPN) to each failure mode based on tabulated scores for the severity, frequency of occurrence, and detectability, each on a scale of 1 to 10; and (3) identify improvements that are both feasible and effective. The RPN scores can span a range of 1 to 1000, with higher scores indicating the relative importance of a given failure mode. Our process map consisted of 269 different nodes. We identified 127 possible failure modes with RPN scores ranging from 2 to 160. Fifteen of the top-ranked failure modes were considered for process improvements, representing RPN scores of 75 and more. These specific improvement suggestions were incorporated into our practice with a review and implementation by each department team responsible for the process. The FMEA technique provides a systematic method for finding vulnerabilities in a process before they result in an error. The FMEA framework can naturally incorporate further quantification and monitoring. A general-use system for incident and near miss reporting would be useful in this regard.

  5. EVALUATION OF SAFETY IN A RADIATION ONCOLOGY SETTING USING FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Eric C.; Gaudette, Ray; Myers, Lee; Vanderver, Bruce; Engineer, Lilly; Zellars, Richard; Song, Danny Y.; Wong, John; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used tool for prospectively evaluating safety and reliability. We report our experiences in applying FMEA in the setting of radiation oncology. Methods and Materials We performed an FMEA analysis for our external beam radiation therapy service, which consisted of the following tasks: (1) create a visual map of the process, (2) identify possible failure modes; assign risk probability numbers (RPN) to each failure mode based on tabulated scores for the severity, frequency of occurrence, and detectability, each on a scale of 1 to 10; and (3) identify improvements that are both feasible and effective. The RPN scores can span a range of 1 to 1000, with higher scores indicating the relative importance of a given failure mode. Results Our process map consisted of 269 different nodes. We identified 127 possible failure modes with RPN scores ranging from 2 to 160. Fifteen of the top-ranked failure modes were considered for process improvements, representing RPN scores of 75 and more. These specific improvement suggestions were incorporated into our practice with a review and implementation by each department team responsible for the process. Conclusions The FMEA technique provides a systematic method for finding vulnerabilities in a process before they result in an error. The FMEA framework can naturally incorporate further quantification and monitoring. A general-use system for incident and near miss reporting would be useful in this regard. PMID:19409731

  6. Effect of periodic optical pumping on dynamics of passive mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung Ghiu; Kim, Joonyoung; Kim, Soeun

    2017-10-01

    We report on the effect of periodic optical pumping on a passively mode-locked fiber laser (MLFL) based on an erbium-doped fiber (EDF). We investigate the influence of various parameters (including average pump power into the fiber laser, the modulation frequency and duty cycle of the pump, and the polarization state of the light inside the cavity) on the transient response characteristic of the MLFL such as: relaxation oscillation (RO) build-up time (defined as the time delay from the onset of pumping to the generation of passively mode-locked pulses) and the power of the detected RF signal at the fundamental cavity-mode frequency (determined by the ring cavity length), which reflects the stability of mode-locking pulse train. We have found that the RO build-up time is inversely proportional to the average pump power while the RF power of the detected fundamental cavity mode (produced by the ring cavity) is proportional to the average pump power. A change in the duty cycle effectively leads the average pump power to vary, which in turn leads to changes in the transient response. The modulation frequency of the pump is rather related to the stability of the MLFL than its response time. Generally, the lower the modulation frequency, the more stable the mode-locked pulses generated in the fiber laser. Finally, the RO build-up time and, consequently, the pulse-generation time are highly sensitive to the state of polarization in the MLFL cavity.

  7. Effect of laser parameters and mode on pulp surgery outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra B. B.; Arrastia-Jitosho, Anna-Marie A.; Peavy, George M.; Kurosaki, Tom

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of localized laser pulp surgery in the canine model. Effects of laser parameters on treatment outcome were also investigated. Pulpal exposure 3 mm in diameter were prepared in healthy teeth and left open to infection from the oral cavity for 72 hours. Pulpal tissue was then removed using high speed handpiece with sterile irrigation, or a CO2 laser. Teeth were monitored clinically, radiographically for 3 months. Results for each criterion were evaluated on a scale of 0-(-2). After sacrifice, histological assessment was made soft and hard tissue response. Results for each category were evaluated on a standard scale of 0-(-2). All evaluations were performed by 1 blinded, pre-standardized clinician. Statistical assessment using the chi-square test and Fisher's Exact Test associated laser treatment with a significantly better clinical, radiographic and histological treatment outcome. NIH RRO1192, seed grant funding form Loma Linda University, the Edna P. Jacobsen Charitable Trust for Animals, Inc.

  8. Effect of physical activity during pregnancy on mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Domenjoz, Iris; Kayser, Bengt; Boulvain, Michel

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of structured physical exercise programs during pregnancy on the course of labor and delivery. We conducted a systematic review and metaanalysis using the following data sources: Medline and The Cochrane Library. In our study, we used randomized controlled trials (RCT) that evaluated the effects of exercise programs during pregnancy on labor and delivery. The results are summarized as relative risks. In the 16 RCTs that were included there were 3359 women. Women in exercise groups had a significantly lower risk of cesarean delivery (relative risk, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-0.99). Birthweight was not significantly reduced in exercise groups. The risk of instrumental delivery was similar among groups (relative risk, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.82-1.22). Data on Apgar score, episiotomy, epidural anesthesia, perineal tear, length of labor, and induction of labor were insufficient to draw conclusions. With the use of data from 11 studies (1668 women), our analysis showed that women in the exercise groups gained significantly less weight than women in control groups (mean difference, -1.13 kg; 95% CI, -1.49 to -0.78). Structured physical exercise during pregnancy reduces the risk of cesarean delivery. This is an important finding to convince women to be active during their pregnancy and should lead the physician to recommend physical exercise to pregnant women, when this is not contraindicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Failure mode and effects analysis and fault tree analysis of surface image guided cranial radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Manger, Ryan P; Paxton, Adam B; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya

    2015-05-01

    Surface image guided, Linac-based radiosurgery (SIG-RS) is a modern approach for delivering radiosurgery that utilizes optical stereoscopic imaging to monitor the surface of the patient during treatment in lieu of using a head frame for patient immobilization. Considering the novelty of the SIG-RS approach and the severity of errors associated with delivery of large doses per fraction, a risk assessment should be conducted to identify potential hazards, determine their causes, and formulate mitigation strategies. The purpose of this work is to investigate SIG-RS using the combined application of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and fault tree analysis (FTA), report on the effort required to complete the analysis, and evaluate the use of FTA in conjunction with FMEA. A multidisciplinary team was assembled to conduct the FMEA on the SIG-RS process. A process map detailing the steps of the SIG-RS was created to guide the FMEA. Failure modes were determined for each step in the SIG-RS process, and risk priority numbers (RPNs) were estimated for each failure mode to facilitate risk stratification. The failure modes were ranked by RPN, and FTA was used to determine the root factors contributing to the riskiest failure modes. Using the FTA, mitigation strategies were formulated to address the root factors and reduce the risk of the process. The RPNs were re-estimated based on the mitigation strategies to determine the margin of risk reduction. The FMEA and FTAs for the top two failure modes required an effort of 36 person-hours (30 person-hours for the FMEA and 6 person-hours for two FTAs). The SIG-RS process consisted of 13 major subprocesses and 91 steps, which amounted to 167 failure modes. Of the 91 steps, 16 were directly related to surface imaging. Twenty-five failure modes resulted in a RPN of 100 or greater. Only one of these top 25 failure modes was specific to surface imaging. The riskiest surface imaging failure mode had an overall RPN-rank of eighth

  10. EGIS-7229, the new combined class III antiarrhythmic agent: lack of EAD inducing effect.

    PubMed

    Bányász, T; Magyar, J; Varró, A; Kovács, A; Gyönös, I; Szénási, G; Nánási, P P

    1999-03-01

    EGIS-7229 is a novel antiarrhythmic candidate having multiple mechanisms of action with class III predominance. In this study, the effects of EGIS-7229 and sotalol on action potential duration (APD) and incidence of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) were studied and compared in rabbit papillary muscle by using conventional microelectrode techniques. In control bathing solution, both drugs increased APD in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the prolongation of APD was greater with sotalol than with EGIS-7229 when the same drug concentrations were compared. EAD developed in 3 of the 11 preparations (27%) bathed with a solution containing 3.6 mmol/l CsCl + 2 mmol/l KCl within the first 120 min of superfusion. The addition of 100 micromol/l sotalol to this superfusate increased the incidence of EAD to 83% (10 from 12), whereas the addition of the same concentration of EGIS-7229 prevented the development of EAD in all of the 9 preparations studied. These differences in incidence of EAD are likely attributable to differences in drug-induced increases of APD-50 in the presence of CsCl. Prolongation of APD-90 showed less correlation with incidence of EAD than changes in APD-50. On the basis of these in vitro results, high concentrations of EGIS-7229 cannot be expected to be torsadogenic in vivo--in contrast with sotalol--presumably owing to the combined class III + IV activity of the compound.

  11. Effect of chromium(III) gallate complex on stabilization of collagen.

    PubMed

    Jaikumar, Dhanya; Baskaran, Babu; Vaidyanathan, V G

    2017-03-01

    To improve the stability of the collagen, here we studied the interaction of chromium(III) polyphenolic complex, [Cr(GA)2] (GA: Gallic acid) with collagen using various spectroscopic techniques. Circular dichroism studies show that the [Cr(GA)2] and gallic acid did not induce any structural perturbations on the triple helix of the collagen. Both differential scanning calorimetric(DSC) data and micro-shrinkage temperature studies showed that [Cr(GA)2] stabilized the collagen by 6±1°C compared to gallic acid. Hydrodynamic studies revealed that the viscosity of collagen drastically reduced in the presence of [Cr(GA)2] while gallic acid did not. Fibrillation assay displayed a significant delay in fibril formation with Cr(III) complex compared to gallic acid treated collagen. The inhibition of fibril formation was further confirmed by microscopic data in which collagen fibres are seen with GA while [Cr(GA)2] treated collagen exhibit a thin microfibrils. From AFM studies, the d-periodicity of collagen was found to be decreased with [Cr(GA)2] while increased with gallic acid. The present study deliberate the advantage of metal complex containing polyphenolic ligand as crosslinking agent due to its synergistic effect of both metal center as well as polyphenolic groups in the stabilization of collagen structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Ce(III) and CeO₂ nanoparticles on soil-denitrification kinetics.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Jessica T; Arai, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    Cerium (Ce)-based compounds, such as CeO₂ nanoparticles (NPs), have received much attention in the last several years due to their popular applications in industrial and commercial uses. Understanding the impact of CeO₂ NPs on nutrient cycles, a subchronic toxicity study of CeO₂ NPs on soil-denitrification process was performed as a function of particle size (33 and 78 nm), total Ce concentration (50-500 mg L(-1)), and speciation [Ce(IV) vs. Ce(III)]. The antimicrobial effect on the soil-denitrification process was evaluated in both steady-state and zero-order kinetic models to assess particle- and chemical-species specific toxicity. It was found that soluble Ce(III) was far more toxic than Ce(IV)O₂ NPs when an equal total concentration of Ce was evaluated. Particle size-dependent toxicity, species-dependent toxicity, and concentration-dependent toxicity were all observed in this study for both the steady-state and the kinetic evaluations. Changes in physicochemical properties of Ce(IV)O₂ NPs might be important in assessing the environmental fate and toxicity of NPs in aquatic and terrestrial environments.

  13. Assessment of the effects of As(III) treatment on cyanobacteria lipidomic profiles by LC-MS and MCR-ALS.

    PubMed

    Marques, Aline S; Bedia, Carmen; Lima, Kássio M G; Tauler, Romà

    2016-08-01

    Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in a wide variety of habitats such as freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. In this work, the effects of As(III), a major toxic environmental pollutant, on the lipidomic profiles of two cyanobacteria species (Anabaena and Planktothrix agardhii) were assessed by means of a recently proposed method based on the concept of regions of interest (ROI) in liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) together with multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). Cyanobacteria were exposed to two concentrations of As(III) for a week, and lipid extracts were analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry in full scan mode. The data obtained were compressed by means of the ROI strategy, and the resulting LC-MS data sets were analyzed by the MCR-ALS method. Comparison of profile peak areas resolved by MCR-ALS in control and exposed samples allowed the discrimination of lipids whose concentrations were changed due to As(III) treatment. The tentative identification of these lipids revealed an important reduction of the levels of some galactolipids such as monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, the pigment chlorophyll a and its degradation product, pheophytin a, as well as carotene compounds such as 3-hydroxycarotene and carotene-3,3'-dione, all of these compounds being essential in the photosynthetic process. These results suggested that As(III) induced important changes in the composition of lipids of cyanobacteria, which were able to compromise their energy production processes. Graphical abstract Steps of the proposed LC-MS + MCR-ALS procedure.

  14. [Prophylaxis of consumption coagulopathy in shock. Dependence of the effect of heparin on the activity of antithrombin III (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, H; Blauhut, B; Necek, S; Kramar, H; Vinazzer, H

    1980-11-01

    In 16 patients admitted in shock, heparin prophylaxis for DIC was carried out. The effect of heparin was monitored by a series of coagulation tests. A distinct relation was found between the effect of heparin on the aPTT and on the thrombin clotting time and the activity of antithrombin III. Even a comparatively slight diminution of this activity resulted in a considerable decrease of the heparin effect on coagulation. Since this effect is of primary importance for the efficacy of prophylaxis of DIC, regular assays of antithrombin III are proposed in shock patients receiving heparin.

  15. Toxic effects of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) on energy metabolism of heterotrophic Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Pacheco-Rosales, Angélica; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; García, Noemí; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2010-11-15

    To assess the toxic effect of Cr on energy metabolism, heterotrophic Euglena gracilis was grown in a medium that prompts high yield biomass and in the presence of different Cr(VI) or Cr(III) concentrations. The cell growth IC₅₀ value was 12 and >250μM for Cr(VI) and Cr(III), respectively; in these cells chromium was accumulated and a fraction compartmentalized into mitochondria, and synthesis of cysteine and glutathione was induced. Respiration of control isolated mitochondria was strongly inhibited by added Cr(VI) or Cr(III) with L-lactate or succinate as substrates. In turn, cellular and mitochondrial respiration, respiratory Complexes I, III and IV, glycolysis and cytosolic NAD(+)-alcohol and -lactate dehydrogenases from cells cultured with Cr(VI) were significantly lower than control, whereas AOX and external NADH dehydrogenase activities were unaltered or increased, respectively. Addition of Cr(VI) or Cr(III) to isolated mitochondria or cytosol from control- or Cr(VI)-grown cells induced inhibition of respiration, respiratory Complexes III, IV and AOX, and glycolytic pyruvate kinase; whereas Complex I, external NADH dehydrogenase, and other glycolytic enzymes were unaffected. Protein contents of mitochondrial Complexes I, III, IV and V, and ANT were diminished in Cr(VI)-grown cells. Decreased respiration and glycolysis induced by Cr(VI) resulted in lower cellular ATP content. Results suggested that Cr(VI) cytotoxicity altered gene expression (as widely documented) and hence enzyme content, and induced oxidative stress, but it was also related with direct enzyme inhibition; Cr(III) was also cytotoxic although at higher concentrations. These findings establish new paradigms for chromium toxicity: Cr(VI) direct enzyme inhibition and non-innocuous external Cr(III) toxicity.

  16. The effect of the isotope on the H-mode density limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, A.; Wiesen, S.; Bernert, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Chankin, A. V.; Sergienko, G.; Huber, V.; Abreu, P.; Boboc, A.; Brix, M.; Carralero, D.; Delabie, E.; Eich, T.; Esser, H. G.; Guillemaut, C.; Jachmich, S.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Kruezi, U.; Lang, P.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Lowry, C. G.; Maggi, C. F.; Matthews, G. F.; Meigs, A. G.; Mertens, Ph.; Reimold, F.; Schweinzer, J.; Sips, G.; Stamp, M.; Viezzer, E.; Wischmeier, M.; Zohm, H.; contributors, JET; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms for the H-mode density limit in machines with fully metallic walls, systematic investigations of H-mode density limit plasmas in experiments with deuterium and hydrogen external gas fuelling have been performed on JET-ILW. The observed H-mode density limit on JET in D- as well as in H-plasmas demonstrates similar operation phases: the stable H-mode phase, degrading H-mode, breakdown of the H-mode with energy confinement deterioration accompanied by a dithering cycling phase, followed by the L-mode phase. The density limit is not related to an inward collapse of the hot core plasma due to an overcooling of the plasma periphery by radiation. Indeed, independently of the isotopic effect, the total radiated power stay almost constant during the H-mode phase until the H-L back transition. It was observed in D- and H-plasmas that neither detachment, nor the X-point MARFE itself do trigger the H-L transition and that they thus do not present a limit on the plasma density. It is the plasma confinement, most likely determined by edge parameters, which is ultimately responsible for the H-mode DL. By comparing similar discharges but fuelled with either deuterium or hydrogen, we have found that the H-mode density limit exhibits a dependence on the isotope mass: the density limit is up to 35% lower in hydrogen compared to similar deuterium plasma conditions (the obtained density limit is in agreement with the Greenwald limit for D-plasma). In addition, the density limit is nearly independent of the applied power both in deuterium or hydrogen fuelling conditions. The measured Greenwald fractions are consistent with the predictions from a theoretical model based on an MHD instability theory in the near-SOL. The JET operational domains are significantly broadened when increasing the plasma effective mass (e.g. tritium or deuterium-tritium operation), i.e. the L to H power threshold is reduced whereas the density limit for the L-mode back

  17. Examination of effects of Cu(II) and Cr(III) on Al(III) binding by dissolved organic matter using absorbance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Ma, Jing; Ji, Guodong

    2016-04-15

    Effects of Cu(II) and Cr(III) ions on the binding of Al(III) onto Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) exemplified by Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) at pH 6.0 were quantified in this study using linear and log-transformed SRHA absorbance spectra acquired at varying Al(3+) concentrations and Cu(2+) or Cr(3+) levels. The competition between Al(3+) and Cu(2+)/Cr(3+) for the binding sites in DOM was ascertained by examining the intensity and shapes of the metal-specific differential spectra of DOM. The results indicated that the binding of Al(3+) onto SRHA is little influenced in the cases of in presence of 1.0 and 10.0 μM background Cr(3+) and in presence of 1.0 μM background Cu(2+), but it is significantly depressed in presence of 10.0 μM Cu(2+). Changes of the spectral slope of the log-transformed absorbance spectra in the 350-400 nm wavelength range (S350-400) were unambiguously correlated with the total amount of DOM-bound metals. The concentrations of Me-DOM complexes were determined using the NICA-Donnan Model. The results demonstrate that differential absorbance measurements provide quantitatively interpretable information concerning the nature and mechanisms of metal-DOM interactions and effects of metal cations competition on these processes.

  18. Quantum interference effects on the intensity of the G modes in double-walled carbon nanotubes

    DOE PAGES

    Tran, Huy Nam; Blancon, Jean-Christophe Robert; Arenal, Raul; ...

    2017-05-08

    The effects of quantum interferences on the excitation dependence of the intensity of G modes have been investigated on single-walled carbon nanotubes [Duque et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 117404 (2012)]. In this work, by combining optical absorption spectroscopy and Raman scattering on individual index identified double-walled carbon nanotubes, we examine the experimental excitation dependence of the intensity of longitudinal optical and transverse optical G modes of the constituent inner and outer single-walled carbon nanotubes. The observed striking dependencies are understood in terms of quantum interference effects. Considering such effects, the excitation dependence of the different components of the G modesmore » permit to unambiguously assign each of them as originating from the longitudinal or transverse G modes of inner and outer tubes.« less

  19. [Effects of nitrogen source and aeration mode on algae growth in freshwater].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Guang; Jin, Xiang-Can; Sun, Ling; Sun, Hong-Wen; Zhu, Lin; Yu, Yang; Dai, Shu-Gui; Zhuang, Yuan-Yi

    2006-01-01

    Aquarium microcosms were used to study the effects of nitrogen source and aeration mode on the growth and species changes of algae in freshwater. Nitrate nitrogen(NO3(-) -N) and ammonia nitrogen(NH4(+) -N) were used as nitrogen sources. For each nitrogen source, four modes of aeration were selected, including control, continuous aeration, aeration during the day, and aeration at night. In the early stage of the experiment, algae in the NH4(+) -N treatment experiment grew well. In the later stage, algae in the NO3(-) -N treatment experiment grew better. For different aeration modes, continuous aeration show varied effects on algae growth in the two nitrogen source treatments. Day-only aeration had little effect on algae growth. Night-only aeration inhibited algae growth considerably. In NH(+) -N treatments, cyanophyta became dominant species easily. In contrast, chlorophyta dominated in NO3(-) -N treatments.

  20. Observing mesoscale eddy effects on mode-water subduction and transport in the North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lixiao; Li, Peiliang; Xie, Shang-Ping; Liu, Qinyu; Liu, Cong; Gao, Wendian

    2016-01-01

    While modelling studies suggest that mesoscale eddies strengthen the subduction of mode waters, this eddy effect has never been observed in the field. Here we report results from a field campaign from March 2014 that captured the eddy effects on mode-water subduction south of the Kuroshio Extension east of Japan. The experiment deployed 17 Argo floats in an anticyclonic eddy (AC) with enhanced daily sampling. Analysis of over 3,000 hydrographic profiles following the AC reveals that potential vorticity and apparent oxygen utilization distributions are asymmetric outside the AC core, with enhanced subduction near the southeastern rim of the AC. There, the southward eddy flow advects newly ventilated mode water from the north into the main thermocline. Our results show that subduction by eddy lateral advection is comparable in magnitude to that by the mean flow—an effect that needs to be better represented in climate models. PMID:26829888

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of the tearing mode with two-fluid and curvature effects in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Meshcheriakov, Dmytro; Maget, Patrick; Garbet, Xavier; Lütjens, Hinrich; Beyer, Peter

    2014-01-15

    Curvature and diamagnetic effects are both known to have an influence on tearing mode dynamics. In this paper, we investigate the impact of these effects on the nonlinear stability and saturation of a (2, 1) island using non-linear two-fluid MHD simulations and we apply our results to Tore Supra experiments, where its behavior is not well understood from the single fluid MHD model. Simulations show that a metastable state induced by diamagnetic effect exists for this mode and that it also produces a reduction of the saturated island size, in presence of toroidal curvature. The mode is found to be nonlinearly destabilized by a seed island and it saturates at a macroscopic level causing a significant confinement degradation. The interpretation of dual states, with either no island on q = 2 or a large one, observed on discharges with high non inductive current source on Tore Supra, is revisited.

  2. The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect

    Berkery, J. W. Sabbagh, S. A.; Betti, R.; Guazzotto, L.; Manickam, J.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability in tokamak fusion plasmas is derived through kinetic theory and assessed through calculation with the MISK code [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 0 57301 (2005)]. The fluid anisotropy is treated as a small perturbation on the plasma equilibrium and modeled with a bi-Maxwellian distribution function. A complete stability treatment without an assumption of high frequency mode rotation leads to anisotropic kinetic terms in the dispersion relation in addition to anisotropy corrections to the fluid terms. With the density and the average pressure kept constant, when thermal particles have a higher temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field than parallel, the fluid pressure-driven ballooning destabilization term is reduced. Additionally, the stabilizing kinetic effects of the trapped thermal ions can be enhanced. Together these two effects can lead to a modest increase in resistive wall mode stability.

  3. [Management modes of different ownership forests and their ecological effects: a review].

    PubMed

    Li, Na-Na; Li, Yue-Hui

    2011-06-01

    China is in a critical period for the ownership reform of state-owned and collectively owned forests, which desiderates theoretical support and practical experience. However, the researches on the management modes of these forests and their ecological effects are scarce. In Europe and America, manifold ownership forest management has a long history, and relevant experts have made many researches on the ownership management contents and modes, as well as their effects on forest timber productivity, biodiversity, and landscape feature. To summarize and refer to these research harvests is definitely necessary and imminence for our forest ownership reform. This paper reviewed the management aims, modes, and ecological effects of state-owned and privately owned (industrial private and non-industrial private) forests, the parcelization and divestiture of forest ownership, and the associated protection policies of different ownership forests in the representative countries and regions in Europe and North America. The research prospect was also put forward.

  4. Silver nanoparticles-enhanced rare earth co-luminescence effect of Tb(III)-Y(III)-dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Li, Huihui; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-01

    It was found that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) could enhance co-luminescence effect of rare earths ions Tb(3+) and Y(3+). Based on this, a sensitive fluorescence detection method for the determination of dopamine (DA) was proposed. Moreover, the detection limit for DA was very low (down to nM). This is because DA can remarkably enhance the luminescence intensity of the Tb(3+) ion by Y(3+) in the colloidal solution of AgNPs, forming a new co-luminescence system. Furthermore, based on the metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF), AgNPs can sensitize the co-luminescence effect of the complex of Tb(3+)-Y(3+)-DA. In a neutral buffer solution (pH 7.50), the luminescence intensity of the system was linearly related to the concentration of DA in the range of 2.0-100 nM, with a limit of detection as low as 0.57 nM. The proposed method was applied for the determination of DA in dopamine hydrochloride injections and human serum samples with good accuracy and satisfactory recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of weak collisionality on damped modes and its contribution to linear mode coupling in gyrokinetic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hilscher, P. P.; Imadera, K.; Li, J. Q.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2013-08-15

    We revisit the characteristics of stable, damped modes originating from the Landau damping by employing a discretized gyrokinetic Vlasov simulation and also eigenvalue analysis in an unsheared slab geometry. By comparing results between gyrokinetic simulation and an eigenvalue analysis, we found that there exists a critical collisionality β{sub c}{sup *} at which the Case-van Kampen (CvK) modes are damped down to the analytically estimated Landau damping rate and an eigenmode consistent with Landau's theory emerges. Consequently, the recurrence phenomenon disappears so that the Landau damping can be properly reproduced. The critical collisionality β{sub c}{sup *} depends on the resolution in velocity space; i.e., a higher (lower) resolution requires a lower (higher) collisionality, while tends to zero (β{sub c}{sup *}→0) as Δv→0. It is found through a reduced model that even in the collisionless case with marginally stable CvK modes, the linear mode coupling between unstable and stable/damped components through a tertiary mode and the resultant energy transfer can be properly calculated such that the stable/damped mode persists as an eigenstate.

  6. Correction: Effective Am(III)/Eu(III) separations using 2,6-bis(1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (BTP) functionalised titania particles and hierarchically porous beads.

    PubMed

    Veliscek-Carolan, J; Jolliffe, K A; Hanley, T L

    2015-07-25

    Correction for 'Effective Am(III)/Eu(III) separations using 2,6-bis(1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (BTP) functionalised titania particles and hierarchically porous beads' by J. Veliscek-Carolan et al., Chem. Commun., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cc03957f.

  7. The effect of electron beam pitch angle and density gradient on solar type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Pechhacker, R.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2012-11-15

    1.5D particle-in-cell simulations of a hot, low density electron beam injected into magnetized, maxwellian plasma were used to further explore the alternative non-gyrotropic beam driven electromagnetic (EM) emission mechanism, first studied in Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011). Variation of beam injection angle and background density gradient showed that the emission process is caused by the perpendicular component of the beam injection current, whereas the parallel component only produces Langmuir waves, which play no role in the generation of EM waves in our mechanism. Particular emphasis was put on the case, where the beam is injected perpendicularly to the background magnetic field, as this turned off any electrostatic wave generation along the field and left a purely electromagnetic signal in the perpendicular components. The simulations establish the following key findings: (i) Initially, waves at a few {omega}{sub ce}/{gamma} are excited, mode converted and emitted at Almost-Equal-To {omega}{sub pe} (ii) The emission intensity along the beam axis is proportional to the respective component of the kinetic energy of the beam; (iii) The frequency of the escaping EM emission is independent of the injection angle; (iv) A stronger background density gradient causes earlier emission; (v) The beam electron distribution function in phase space shows harmonic oscillation in the perpendicular components at the relativistic gyrofrequency; (vi) The requirement for cyclotron maser emission, ({partial_derivative}f/{partial_derivative}v{sub Up-Tack })>0, is fulfilled; (vii) The degree of linear polarization of the emission is strongly dependent on the beam injection angle; (viii) The generated electromagnetic emission is left-hand elliptically polarized as the pitch angle tends to 90 Degree-Sign ; and (ix) The generated electromagnetic energy is of the order of 0.1% of the initial beam kinetic energy.

  8. Explanation of non-additive effects in mixtures of similar mode of action chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Masashi; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Many models have been developed to predict the combined effect of drugs and chemicals. Most models are classified into two additive models: independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). It is generally considered if the modes of action of chemicals are similar then the combined effect obeys CA; however, many empirical studies report nonlinear effects deviating from the predictions by CA. Such deviations are termed synergism and antagonism. Synergism, which leads to a stronger toxicity, requires more careful management, and hence it is important to understand how and which combinations of chemicals lead to synergism. In this paper, three types of chemical reactions are mathematically modeled and the cause of the nonlinear effects among chemicals with similar modes of action was investigated. Our results show that combined effects obey CA only when the modes of action are exactly the same. Contrary to existing knowledge, combined effects are generally nonlinear even if the modes of action of the chemicals are similar. Our results further show that the nonlinear effects vanish out when the chemical concentrations are low, suggesting that the current management procedure of assuming CA is rarely inappropriate because environmental concentrations of chemicals are generally low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of locomotion mode recognition errors on volitional control of powered above-knee prostheses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Ming; Huang, He

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported various methods that recognize amputees' intent regarding locomotion modes, which is potentially useful for volitional control of powered artificial legs. However, occasional errors in locomotion mode recognition are inevitable. When these intent recognition decisions are used for volitional prosthesis control, the effects of the decision errors on the operation of the prosthesis and user's task performance is unknown. Hence, the goals of this study were to 1) systematically investigate the effects of locomotion mode recognition errors on volitional control of powered prosthetic legs and the user's gait stability, and 2) identify the critical mode recognition errors that impact safe and confident use of powered artificial legs in lower limb amputees. Five able-bodied subjects and two above-knee (AK) amputees were recruited and tested when wearing a powered AK prosthesis. Four types of locomotion mode recognition errors with different duration and at different gait phases were purposely applied to the prosthesis control. The subjects' gait stabilities were subjectively and objectively quantified. The results showed that not all of the mode recognition errors in volitional prosthesis control disturb the subjects' gait stability. The effects of errors on the user's balance depended on 1) the gait phase when the errors happened and 2) the amount of mechanical work change applied on the powered knee caused by the errors. Based on the study results, "critical errors" were defined and suggested as a new index to evaluate locomotion mode recognition algorithms for artificial legs. The outcome of this study might aid the future design of volitionally-controlled powered prosthetic legs that are reliable and safe for practice.

  10. Fast Sausage Modes in Magnetic Tubes with Continuous Transverse Profiles: Effects of a Finite Plasma Beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xiong, Ming; Yu, Hui; Guo, Ming-Zhe

    2016-12-01

    While standing fast sausage modes in flare loops are often invoked to interpret quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar flares, it is unclear as to how they are influenced by the combined effects of a continuous transverse structuring and a finite internal plasma beta ({β }{{i}}). We derive a generic dispersion relation governing linear sausage waves in straight magnetic tubes for which plasma pressure is not negligible, and the density and temperature inhomogeneities of essentially arbitrary form take place in a layer of arbitrary width. Focusing on fast modes, we find that {β }{{i}} only weakly influences {k}{{c}}, the critical longitudinal wavenumber separating the leaky from trapped modes. Likewise, for both trapped and leaky modes, the periods P in units of the transverse fast time depend only weakly on {β }{{i}}, which is compatible with the fact that the effective wave vectors of fast sausage modes are largely perpendicular to the background magnetic field. However, a weak {β }{{i}} dependence of the damping times τ is seen only when the length-to-radius ratio L/R is ∼50% larger than some critical value π /({k}{{c}}R), which itself rather sensitively depends on the density contrast, profile steepness, as well as on how the transverse structuring is described. In the context of QPPs, we conclude that the much simpler zero-beta theory can be employed for trapped modes, as long as one sees the deduced internal Alfvén speed as actually being the fast speed. In contrast, effects due to a finite beta in flare loops should be considered when leaky modes are exploited.

  11. A group III steroid solution without antibiotic components: an effective cure for external otitis.

    PubMed

    Emgård, Per; Hellström, Sten

    2005-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the clinical benefits of prescribing ear drops containing 0.05% solution of betamethasone dipropionate (BD), and ear drops containing hydrocortisone with oxytetracycline hydrochloride and polymyxin B (HCPB), for topical treatment of external otitis. Fifty-one patients were enrolled in this open randomized, parallel-group, multicentre study, performed in eight different ENT departments. The patients were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups: BD (n = 26) and HCPB (n = 25). Only ENT specialists investigated the patients. Bacterial and fungal cultures were raised on days 1 and 11, using swabbed material from ear canals. Twice daily the patients recorded their symptoms during the acute phase, using special diary cards.BD proved a significantly more effective cure than HCPB during the acute phase of external otitis and afforded a lower relapse frequency during a six-month follow-up period. The patients of the BD group were significantly less troubled by itching (p < 0.01) than those in the HCPB group. On day 11, at the end of the acute phase, growth of bacteria (p = 0.03) and fungi (p < 0.01) was less frequent in the BD group than in the HCPB group. No serious adverse events occurred, and those minor events observed were comparable between the two groups.Our conclusion is that the group III steroid solution, BD, cured the external otitis more effectively than did the HCPB solution, whether infected by bacteria or by fungi. No difference was evident regarding adverse effects. Furthermore, price favours a solution without any antibiotic component. In view of these observations, a group III steroid solution ought to be the preferred remedy for external otitis, whether infected or not.

  12. Effect of Oxidation Rate and Fe(II) State on Microbial Nitrate-Dependent Fe(III) Mineral Formation

    PubMed Central

    Senko, John M.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-01-01

    A nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium was isolated and used to evaluate whether Fe(II) chemical form or oxidation rate had an effect on the mineralogy of biogenic Fe(III) (hydr)oxides resulting from nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. The isolate (designated FW33AN) had 99% 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Klebsiella oxytoca. FW33AN produced Fe(III) (hydr)oxides by oxidation of soluble Fe(II) [Fe(II)sol] or FeS under nitrate-reducing conditions. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fe(III) (hydr)oxide produced by oxidation of FeS was shown to be amorphous, while oxidation of Fe(II)sol yielded goethite. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was then manipulated by incubating various cell concentrations of FW33AN with Fe(II)sol and nitrate. Characterization of products revealed that as Fe(II) oxidation rates slowed, a stronger goethite signal was observed by XRD and a larger proportion of Fe(III) was in the crystalline fraction. Since the mineralogy of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides may control the extent of subsequent Fe(III) reduction, the variables we identify here may have an effect on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe in anoxic ecosystems. PMID:16269756

  13. Effect of the oxidation rate and Fe(II) state on microbial nitrate-dependent Fe(III) mineral formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senko, John M.; Dewers , Thomas A.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-01-01

    A nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium was isolated and used to evaluate whether Fe(II) chemical form or oxidation rate had an effect on the mineralogy of biogenic Fe(III) (hydr)oxides resulting from nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. The isolate (designated FW33AN) had 99% 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Klebsiella oxytoca. FW33AN produced Fe(III) (hydr)oxides by oxidation of soluble Fe(II) [Fe(II)sol] or FeS under nitrate-reducing conditions. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fe(III) (hydr)oxide produced by oxidation of FeS was shown to be amorphous, while oxidation of Fe(II)sol yielded goethite. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was then manipulated by incubating various cell concentrations of FW33AN with Fe(II)sol and nitrate. Characterization of products revealed that as Fe(II) oxidation rates slowed, a stronger goethite signal was observed by XRD and a larger proportion of Fe(III) was in the crystalline fraction. Since the mineralogy of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides may control the extent of subsequent Fe(III) reduction, the variables we identify here may have an effect on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe in anoxic ecosystems.

  14. Effects of load voltage on voltage breakdown modes of electrical exploding aluminum wires in air

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Kun; Chao, Youchuang; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2015-06-15

    The effects of the load voltage on the breakdown modes are investigated in exploding aluminum wires driven by a 1 kA, 0.1 kA/ns pulsed current in air. From laser probing images taken by laser shadowgraphy, schlieren imaging, and interferometry, the position of the shockwave front, the plasma channel, and the wire core edge of the exploding product can be determined. The breakdown mode makes a transition from the internal mode, which involves breakdown inside the wire core, to the shunting mode, which involves breakdown in the compressed air, with decreasing charging voltage. The breakdown electrical field for a gaseous aluminum wire core of nearly solid density is estimated to be more than 20 kV/cm, while the value for gaseous aluminum of approximately 0.2% solid density decreases to 15–20 kV/cm. The breakdown field in shunting mode is less than 20 kV/cm and is strongly affected by the vaporized aluminum, the desorbed gas, and the electrons emitted from the wire core during the current pause. Ohmic heating during voltage collapses will induce further energy deposition in the current channel and thus will result in different expansion speeds for both the wire core and the shockwave front in the different modes.

  15. Effect of nonlinear energy transport on neoclassical tearing mode stability in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2017-05-01

    An investigation is made into the effect of the reduction in anomalous perpendicular electron heat transport inside the separatrix of a magnetic island chain associated with a neoclassical tearing mode in a tokamak plasma, due to the flattening of the electron temperature profile in this region, on the overall stability of the mode. The onset of the neoclassical tearing mode is governed by the ratio of the divergences of the parallel and perpendicular electron heat fluxes in the vicinity of the island chain. By increasing the degree of transport reduction, the onset of the mode, as the divergence ratio is gradually increased, can be made more and more abrupt. Eventually, when the degree of transport reduction passes a certain critical value, the onset of the neoclassical tearing mode becomes discontinuous. In other words, when some critical value of the divergence ratio is reached, there is a sudden bifurcation to a branch of neoclassical tearing mode solutions. Moreover, once this bifurcation has been triggered, the divergence ratio must be reduced by a substantial factor to trigger the inverse bifurcation.

  16. Spraying mode effect on droplet formation and ion chemistry in electrosprays.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Peter; Marginean, Ioan; Vertes, Akos

    2007-04-15

    Depending on the spraying conditions and fluid properties, a variety of electrospray regimes exists. Here we explore the changes in ion production that accompany the transitions among the three axial spraying modes, the burst mode, the pulsating Taylor cone mode, and the cone-jet mode. Spray current oscillation and phase Doppler anemometry measurements, fast imaging of the electrified meniscus, and mass spectrometry are utilized to study the formation, size, velocity, and chemical composition of droplets produced in the three modes. High-speed images indicate that the primary droplets are produced by varicose waves and lateral kink instabilities on the liquid jet emerging from the Taylor cone, whereas secondary droplets are formed by fission. Dramatic changes in the droplet size distributions result from the various production and breakup mechanisms observed at different emitter voltages and liquid flow rates. We demonstrate that droplet fission can be facilitated by space charge effects along the liquid jet and in the plume. Compared to the other two regimes, a significantly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, a lower degree of analyte oxidation, and milder fragmentation are observed for the cone-jet mode.

  17. Effects of Failure Modes on Strength of Aluminum Resistance Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Davies, Richard W.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Spinella, Donald J.

    2005-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of failure modes on the static strength and total energy absorption of aluminum spot-welded samples using experimental, statistical, and analytical approaches. The main failure modes for aluminum spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Two populations of aluminum spot welds were studied. Within each population, coupon configurations of lap shear, cross tension and coach peel were considered. Thirty replicate static strength tests were performed for each coupon configuration. The resulted peak load and energy absorption level associated with each failure mode was studied using statistical models. Next, an analytical model was developed to determine the failure mode of an aluminum resistance spot weld based on stress analysis. It is found that weld size, sheet thickness, and level of weld porosity and defects are the main factors determining the cross tension failure mode for an aluminum spot weld. The peak load and energy absorption levels for the cross tension and coach peel samples tested are found not to be very sensitive to the failure modes under static loading.

  18. Correlation effects and phonon modes softening with doping in Ba₁-xKxBiO₃.

    PubMed

    Korotin, Dm M; Novoselov, D; Anisimov, V I

    2014-05-14

    The monoclinic crystal structure of the undoped BaBiO₃ can be described as a cubic perovskite which is distorted by the frozen breathing and tilting phonon modes of the BiO₆ octahedra. The phonon mode softening is experimentally observed (Braden et al 1996 Europhys. Lett. 34 531) in Ba₁-xKxBiO₃ through potassium doping followed by a transition into an ideal cubic perovskite structure at x = 0.37, close to the emergence of superconductivity. In our previous paper (Korotin et al 2012 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24 415603) we demonstrated that it is necessary to take into account correlation effects using the DFT+U method in Wannier functions as a basis to obtain a good agreement between the calculated and experimental values of crystal structure distortion and the energy gap in BaBiO₃. In the present work, using the same method, we calculated the breathing mode phonon frequencies as a function of the potassium doping level in Ba₁-xKxBiO₃. The obtained frequencies are in good agreement with experimental values and the breathing mode softening with doping is reproduced, contrary to calculations made without consideration of correlation effects. We show that the cubic crystal structure becomes stable at x = 0.30 in agreement with the experimental transition to cubic perovskite at x = 0.37. The possible connections between the correlation effects, phonon mode softening and superconductivity in Ba₁-xKxBiO₃ are discussed.

  19. Application of failure mode and effect analysis in an assisted reproduction technology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Intra, Giulia; Alteri, Alessandra; Corti, Laura; Rabellotti, Elisa; Papaleo, Enrico; Restelli, Liliana; Biondo, Stefania; Garancini, Maria Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Viganò, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Assisted reproduction technology laboratories have a very high degree of complexity. Mismatches of gametes or embryos can occur, with catastrophic consequences for patients. To minimize the risk of error, a multi-institutional working group applied failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to each critical activity/step as a method of risk assessment. This analysis led to the identification of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk priority number (RPN) scoring system. In total, 11 individual steps and 68 different potential failure modes were identified. The highest ranked failure modes, with an RPN score of 25, encompassed 17 failures and pertained to "patient mismatch" and "biological sample mismatch". The maximum reduction in risk, with RPN reduced from 25 to 5, was mostly related to the introduction of witnessing. The critical failure modes in sample processing were improved by 50% in the RPN by focusing on staff training. Three indicators of FMEA success, based on technical skill, competence and traceability, have been evaluated after FMEA implementation. Witnessing by a second human operator should be introduced in the laboratory to avoid sample mix-ups. These findings confirm that FMEA can effectively reduce errors in assisted reproduction technology laboratories. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Realizing mode conversion and optical diode effect by coupling photonic crystal waveguides with cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Han; Zhang, Jin-Qian-Nan; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Wang, Dong-Lin; Chen, Zhi-Hui

    2015-09-01

    We propose a novel two-dimensional photonic crystal structure consisting of two line defect waveguides and a cavity to realize mode conversion based on the coupling effect. The W1/cavity/W2 structure breaks the spatial symmetry and successfully converts the even (odd) mode to the odd (even) mode in the W2 waveguide during the forward (backward) transmission. When considering the incidence of only the even mode, the optical diode effect emerges and achieves approximate 35 dB unidirectionality at the resonant frequency. Moreover, owing to the narrow bandpass feature and the flexibility of the tuning cavity, utilization of the proposed structure as a wavelength filter is demonstrated in a device with a Y-branch splitter. Here, we provide a heuristic design for a mode converter, optical diode, and wavelength filter derived from the coupling effect between a cavity and adjacent waveguides, and expect that the proposed structure can be applied as a building block in future all-optical integrated circuits. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61372037 and 61307069), Beijing Excellent Ph. D. Thesis Guidance Foundation, China (Grant No. 20131001301), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013021017-3).

  1. The effects of differential flow between rational surfaces on toroidal resistive MHD modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Dylan; Halfmoon, Michael; Rhodes, Dov; Cole, Andrew; Okabayashi, Michio; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Finn, John

    2016-10-01

    Differential flow between resonant surfaces can strongly affect the coupling and penetration of resonant components of resistive modes, and yet this mechanism is not yet fully understood. This study focuses on the evolution of tearing instabilities and the penetration of imposed resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in tokamak configurations relevant to DIII-D and ITER, including equilibrium flow shear. It has been observed on DIII-D that the onset of tearing instabilities leading to disruption is often coincident with a loss of differential rotation between a higher m/n tearing surface (normally the 4/3 or 3/2) and a lower m/n tearing surface (normally the 2/1). Imposing RMPs can strongly affect this coupling and the torques between the modes. We apply the nonlinear 3-D resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code NIMROD to study the mechanisms by which these couplings occur. Reduced MHD analyses are applied to study the effects of differential flow between resonant surfaces in the simulations. Interaction between resonant modes can cause significant energy transfer between them, effectively stabilizing one mode while the other grows. The flow mitigates this transfer, but also affects the individual modes. The combination of these effects determines the nonlinear outcome. Supported by US DOE Grants DE-SC0014005 and DE-SC0014119.

  2. Detailed study of bending effects in large mode area segmented cladding fibers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shaoshuo; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Pei, Li; Zhang, Chuanbiao; Wen, Xiaodong

    2016-12-10

    This paper studies the bending effects on segmented cladding fibers (SCFs) in detail. Rod-type SCFs have offered large effective mode areas (EMAs) very successfully. The low-index segments in the design also enable the optical fibers to be bend-resistant. In this paper, the bending performance of the SCFs has been investigated by using the finite element method. The results indicate that SCFs can provide low-loss effective single-mode operation in a wide bandwidth under a bent configuration, due to the leakage losses of the higher-order modes (HOMs). A large ratio between the HOMs and the fundamental mode losses can be ensured, over a wide range of duty cycle, refractive index difference, and bending radius. Therefore, the required fabrication accuracy decreases. The mode loss ratio and EMA are independent of the bending orientation. Operating at 1550 nm and 10 cm bend radius, large EMA (754  μm2) is achievable with a large loss ratio (>30). The trade-offs between loss, EMA, and bending are studied. The structure has potential for compact high power fiber lasers, amplifiers, and beam delivery applications.

  3. Effects of Different Light Curing Units/Modes on the Microleakage of Flowable Composite Resins

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, A. Ruya; Celik, Cigdem; Dayangac, Berrin; Ozgunaltay, Gul

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different light curing units and modes on microleakage of flowable composite resins. Methods Eighty Class V cavities were prepared in buccal and lingual surfaces of 40 extracted human premolars with cervical wall located in dentin and the occlusal wall in enamel. These teeth were randomly assigned into two groups (n=20) and restored with different flowable composites; Group I: Esthet-X Flow, Group II: Grandio Flow. Each group was randomly divided into four subgroups; while the samples of the first subgroup were polymerized with conventional Halogen light, the rest of them were polymerized with different curing modes of Light Emitting Diode (LED). The second subgroup was polymerized with fast-curing; the third subgroup with pulse-curing and those of the fourth subgroup with step-curing modes of LED. After the samples were thermocycled and immersed in dye, they were longitudinally sectioned. Dye penetration was assessed under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results None of the restorations showed leakage on enamel margins. On dentin margins no significant differences were observed between flowable composite resins polymerized with halogen light (P>.05). While step curing mode of LED presented significant differences between the resins, the difference was insignificant when fast-curing and pulse-curing mode of LED were used. No statistically significant differences were observed between curing units for Esthet-X Flow samples. For Grandio Flow samples, only step-curing mode of LED caused statistically higher leakage scores than halogen and other curing modes of LED (P<.05). Conclusions The effect of curing units’ type and curing mode on flowable composite resin leakage might be material-dependent. PMID:19212529

  4. Atom-mediated effective interactions between modes of a bimodal cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Prado, F. O.; Luiz, F. S.; Villas-Boas, J. M.; Alcalde, A. M.; Duzzioni, E. I.; Sanz, L.

    2011-11-15

    We show a procedure for engineering effective interactions between two modes in a bimodal cavity. Our system consists of one or more two-level atoms, excited by a classical field, interacting with both modes. The two effective Hamiltonians have forms similar to beam-splitter and quadratic beam-splitter interactions. We also demonstrate that the nonlinear Hamiltonian can be used to prepare an entangled coherent state, also known as a multidimensional entangled coherent state, which has been pointed out as an important entanglement resource. We show that the nonlinear interaction parameter can be enhanced considering N independent atoms trapped inside a high-finesse optical cavity.

  5. Effect of III-V on insulator structure on quantum well intermixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Seiya; Ikku, Yuki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2016-04-01

    To achieve the monolithic active/passive integration on the III-V CMOS photonics platform, quantum well intermixing (QWI) on III-V on insulator (III-V-OI) is studied for fabricating multi-bandgap III-V-OI wafers. By optimizing the QWI condition for a 250-nm-thick III-V layer, which contains a five-layer InGaAsP-based multi-quantum well (MQW) with 80-nm-thick indium phosphide (InP) cladding layers, we have successfully achieved a photoluminescence (PL) peak shift of over 100 nm on the III-V-OI wafer. We have also found that the progress of QWI on the III-V-OI wafer is slower than that on the InP bulk wafer regardless of the buried oxide (BOX) thickness, bonding interface materials, and handle wafers. We have also found that the progress of QWI on the III-V-OI wafer is slower than that on the InP bulk wafer regardless of the buried oxide (BOX) thickness, bonding interface materials, and bulk support wafers on which the III-V-OI structure is formed (handle wafers). By comparing between the measured PL shift and simulated diffusions of phosphorus vacancies and interstitials during QWI, we have found that the slow QWI progress in the III-V-OI wafer is probably attributed to the enhanced recombination of vacancies and interstitials by the diffusion blocking of vacancies and interstitials at the BOX interface.

  6. Effect of desferrioxamine B and Suwannee River fulvic acid on Fe(III) release and Cr(III) desorption from goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Angela G.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Dubbin, William E.

    2016-04-01

    Siderophores are biogenic chelating ligands that facilitate the solubilisation of Fe(III) and form stable complexes with a range of contaminant metals and therefore may significantly affect their biogeochemical cycling. Desferrioxamine B (DFOB) is a trihydroxamate siderophore that acts synergistically with fulvic acid and low molecular weight organic ligands to release Fe from Fe(III) oxides. We report the results of batch dissolution experiments in which we determine the rates of Cr(III) desorption and Fe(III) release from Cr(III)-treated synthetic goethite as influenced by DFOB, by fulvic acid, and by the two compounds in combination. We observed that adsorbed Cr(III) at 3% surface coverage significantly reduced Fe(III) release from goethite for all combinations of DFOB and fulvic acid. When DFOB (270 μM) was the only ligand present, dissolved Fe(III) and Cr(III) increased approximately 1000-fold and 16-fold, respectively, as compared to the ligand-free system, a difference we attribute to the slow rate of water exchange of Cr(III). Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) acts synergistically with DFOB by (i) reducing the goethite surface charge leading to increased HDFOB+ surface excess and by (ii) forming aqueous Fe(III)-SRFA species whose Fe(III) is subsequently removed by DFOB to yield aqueous Fe(III)-DFOB complexes. These observations shed new light on the synergistic relationship between DFOB and fulvic acid and reveal the mechanisms of Fe(III) acquisition available to plants and micro-organisms in Cr(III) contaminated environments.

  7. Luminescent Eu(III) and Gd(III) trisbipyridine cryptates: experimental and theoretical study of the substituent effects.

    PubMed

    Guillaumont, Dominique; Bazin, Hervé; Benech, Jean-Marc; Boyer, Marion; Mathis, Gérard

    2007-02-19

    Synthesis, absorption spectra and luminescebce properties of a series of lanthanide trisbipyridine cryptates Ln within R-Bpy x R-Bpy x R-Bpy, where Ln = Eu, Gd and R = H, COOH, COOCH3, CONH(CH2)2NH2 are described. Comparison of the unsubstituted parent compound with the substituted compounds shows that bipyridine substitution doesn't alter significantly the photophysical properties of the lanthanide cryptate. The absorption maximum is slightly red-shifted when three bipyridines are substituted, whereas substituting one bipyridines has a negligible effect on the absorption spectra. The experimental triplet state energy is between 21600 and 22 100 cm(-1) for the series of compounds and the luminescence lifetimes at 77 K are between 0.5 and 0.8 ms in HO2 and equal to 1.7 ms in D2O. The experimental characterizations are completed by DFT and TD-DFT calculations to assess the ability of these approaches to predict absorption maxima, triplet state energies and structural parameters of lanthanide cryptates and to characterize the electronic structure of the excited states. The calculations on the unsubstituted parent and substituted compounds show that absorption maxima and lowest 3pipi* triplet state energies can be accurately determined from density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD) DFT calculations.

  8. Genotoxic effects of Bismuth (III) oxide nanoparticles by Allium and Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Liman, Recep

    2013-09-01

    Genotoxic effects of Bismuth (III) oxide nanoparticles (BONPs) were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Allium and Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at five different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100ppm) for 4h. Exposure of BONPs significantly increased mitotic index (MI) except 12.5ppm, total chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in Allium test. While stickiness chromosome laggards, disturbed anaphase-telophase and anaphase bridges were observed in anaphase-telophase cells, pro-metaphase and c-metaphase in other cells. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncan's multiple range test was performed. These results indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  9. Effective electron mass in quantum wires of III-V, ternary and quaternary materials.

    PubMed

    Paitya, N; Ghatak, K P

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to study the effective electron mass (EEM) in Quantum wires (QWs) of III-V, ternary and quaternary materials on the basis of three and two band models of Kane within the framework of k x p formalism. It has been found, taking QWs of InAs, InSb, GaAs, Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te and In(1-x)Ga(x)As(1-y)P(t) that the 1D EEM increases with electron concentration per unit length and decreases with increasing film thickness respectively. For ternary and quaternary materials the EEM increases with increase in alloy composition. Under certain special conditions all the results for all the 1-D materials get simplified into the well known parabolic energy bands and thus confirming the compatibility test. The results of this paper find two applications in the fields of nanoscience and technology.

  10. Comments on the somatic effects section of the BEIR III report

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, H.H.

    1980-12-01

    The recent report of the BEIR Committee of the National Academy of Sciences presents a wide range of risk estimates for radiogenic cancer. The values that can be considered to be most plausible on the basis of radiobiological and epidemiological evidence are given little emphasis and they are presented as lower bounds of the probable risk. The upper bound is said to be provided by estimates based on the so-called linear hypothesis. The preferred analysis in BEIR III requires an arbitrary choice of a critical parameter. This results in estimates that differ little from those given in BEIR I and that may be too high by an order of magnitude. It also refuses to speculate on any health effects of background radiation. It thus does not support the validity of those concepts of radiation protection that are based on linearity.

  11. Effects of Internal Fields on the Optical Emission in Nanostructured III-N LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalavarthi, Krishna; Sundaresan, Sasi; Merrill, Ky; Ahmed, Shaikh

    2012-02-01

    Nanostructured optical emitters can accommodate a broader range of lattice mismatch, be used in full-solar-spectrum light emitting diodes, and provide higher temperature stability of the threshold current and the luminescence. However, strong quantum confinement and certain symmetry-lowering mechanisms (caused by various internal fields) lead to pronounced optical polarization anisotropy and strong suppression of interband transitions in these structures. The objective of this work is to study the competing effects of various internal fields on the electronic structure and optical properties of nanostructured III-N LEDs. A multiscale approach has been employed where: 1) the NEMO 3-D tool is used to calculate the atomistic strain distribution and one-particle electronic states within a sp3s*d5 tight-binding framework, and 2) the outputs from NEMO 3-D are then coupled to the Synopsys TCAD tool to determine the terminal electrical and optical properties of the device.

  12. Hydrogen effects in dilute III-N-V alloys: From defect engineering to nanostructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Pettinari, G.; Felici, M.; Capizzi, M.; Polimeni, A.; Trotta, R.

    2014-01-07

    The variation of the band gap energy of III-N-V semiconductors induced by hydrogen incorporation is the most striking effect that H produces in these materials. A special emphasis is given here to the combination of N-activity passivation by hydrogen with H diffusion kinetics in dilute nitrides. Secondary ion mass spectrometry shows an extremely steep (smaller than 5 nm/decade) forefront of the H diffusion profile in Ga(AsN) under appropriate hydrogenation conditions. This discovery prompts the opportunity for an in-plane nanostructuring of hydrogen incorporation and, hence, for a modulation of the material band gap energy at the nanoscale. The properties of quantum dots fabricated by a lithographically defined hydrogenation are presented, showing the zero-dimensional character of these novel nanostructures. Applicative prospects of this nanofabrication method are finally outlined.

  13. Effect of phosphate and sulfate on Ni repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide mineral recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Margaret A. G.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2015-09-01

    Dissolved Fe(II) activates coupled oxidative growth and reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxide minerals, causing recrystallization and the repartitioning of structurally-compatible trace metals. Phosphate and sulfate, two ligands common to natural aquatic systems, alter Fe(II) adsorption onto Fe(III) oxides and affect Fe(III) oxide dissolution and precipitation. However, the effect of these oxoanions on trace metal repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide recrystallization is unclear. The effects of phosphate and sulfate on Ni adsorption and Ni repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide recrystallization were investigated as such repartitioning may be affected by both Fe(II)-oxoanion and metal-oxoanion interactions. In most systems examined, phosphate alters Ni repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed recrystallization to a larger extent than sulfate. Phosphate substantially enhances Ni adsorption onto hematite but decreases (nearly inhibiting) Fe(II)-catalyzed Ni incorporation into and release from this mineral. In the goethite system, however, phosphate suppresses Ni release but enhances Ni incorporation in the presence of aqueous Fe(II). In contrast, sulfate has little effect on macroscopic Ni adsorption and release of Ni from Fe(III) oxides, but substantially enhances Ni incorporation into goethite. This demonstrates that phosphate and sulfate have unique, mineral-specific interactions with Ni during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide recrystallization. This research suggests that micronutrient bioavailability at redox interfaces in hematite-dominated systems may be especially suppressed by phosphate, while both oxoanions likely have limited effects in goethite-rich soils or sediments. Phosphate may also exert a large control on contaminant fate at redox interfaces, increasing Ni retention on iron oxide surfaces. These results further indicate that trace metal retention by iron oxides during lithification and later repartitioning during

  14. Effects of filtration modes on membrane fouling behavior and treatment in submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Tahir; Khan, Sher Jamal; Lee, Chung-Hak

    2014-11-01

    Relaxation or backwashing is obligatory for effective operation of membrane module and intermittent aeration is helpful for nutrients removal. This study was performed to investigate effects of different filtration modes on membrane fouling behavior and treatment in membrane bioreactor (MBR) operated at three modes i.e., 12, 10 and 8min filtration and 3, 2, and 2min relaxation corresponding to 6, 5 and 4cycles/hour, respectively. Various parameters including trans-membrane pressure, specific cake resistance, specific oxygen uptake rate, nutrients removal and sludge dewaterability were examined to optimize the filtration mode. TMP profiles showed that MBR(8+2) with 8min filtration and 2min relaxation reduced the fouling rate and depicted long filtration time in MBR treating synthetic wastewater. MBR(12+3) was more efficient in organic and nutrients removal while denitrification rate was high in MBR(8+2).

  15. Birefringence effects in multi-core fiber: coupled local-mode theory.

    PubMed

    Macho, Andrés; García-Meca, Carlos; Fraile-Peláez, F Javier; Morant, Maria; Llorente, Roberto

    2016-09-19

    In this paper, we evaluate experimentally and model theoretically the intra- and inter-core crosstalk between the polarized core modes in single-mode multi-core fiber media including temporal and longitudinal birefringent effects. Specifically, extensive experimental results on a four-core fiber indicate that the temporal fluctuation of fiber birefringence modifies the intra- and inter-core crosstalk behavior in both linear and nonlinear optical power regimes. To gain theoretical insight into the experimental results, we introduce an accurate multi-core fiber model based on local modes and perturbation theory, which is derived from the Maxwell equations including both longitudinal and temporal birefringent effects. Numerical calculations based on the developed theory are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Application of failure mode and effects analysis to intracranial stereotactic radiation surgery by linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Masini, Laura; Donis, Laura; Loi, Gianfranco; Mones, Eleonora; Molina, Elisa; Bolchini, Cesare; Krengli, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the application of the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) to intracranial stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) by linear accelerator in order to identify the potential failure modes in the process tree and adopt appropriate safety measures to prevent adverse events (AEs) and near-misses, thus improving the process quality. A working group was set up to perform FMEA for intracranial SRS in the framework of a quality assurance program. FMEA was performed in 4 consecutive tasks: (1) creation of a visual map of the process; (2) identification of possible failure modes; (3) assignment of a risk probability number (RPN) to each failure mode based on tabulated scores of severity, frequency of occurrence and detectability; and (4) identification of preventive measures to minimize the risk of occurrence. The whole SRS procedure was subdivided into 73 single steps; 116 total possible failure modes were identified and a score of severity, occurrence, and detectability was assigned to each. Based on these scores, RPN was calculated for each failure mode thus obtaining values from 1 to 180. In our analysis, 112/116 (96.6%) RPN values were <60, 2 (1.7%) between 60 and 125 (63, 70), and 2 (1.7%) >125 (135, 180). The 2 highest RPN scores were assigned to the risk of using the wrong collimator's size and incorrect coordinates on the laser target localizer frame. Failure modes and effects analysis is a simple and practical proactive tool for systematic analysis of risks in radiation therapy. In our experience of SRS, FMEA led to the adoption of major changes in various steps of the SRS procedure.

  17. Kinetic method for the determination of traces of thyroxine by its catalytic effect on the Mn(III) metaphosphate-As(III) reaction.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Ferenc T; Milovanović, Gordana A; Todorović, Marija

    2008-02-15

    A new, highly sensitive and simple kinetic method for the determination of thyroxine was proposed. The method was based on the catalytic effect of thyroxine on the oxidation of As(III) by Mn(III) metaphosphate. The kinetics of the reaction was studied in the presence of orthophosphoric acid. The reaction rate was followed spectrophotometrically at 516 nm. It was established that orthophosphoric acid increased the reaction rate and that the extent of the non-catalytic reaction was extremely small. A kinetic equation was postulated and the apparent rate constant was calculated. The dependence of the reaction rate on temperature was investigated and the energy of activation and other kinetic parameters were determined. Thyroxine was determined under the optimal experimental conditions in the range 7.0 x 10(-9) to 3.0 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) with a relative standard deviation up to 6.7% and a detection limit of 2.7 x 10(-9) molL(-1). In the presence of 0.08 mol L(-1) chloride, the detection limit decreased to 6.6 x 10(-10) mol L(-1). The proposed method was applied for the determination of thyroxine in tablets. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with the HPLC method.

  18. Effects of Caramel Colour III on the number of blood lymphocytes: a human study on Caramel Colour III immunotoxicity and a comparison of the results with data from rat studies.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; van Dokkum, W; van Loveren, H; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Spanhaak, S; Ockhuizen, T

    1992-05-01

    Administration of the colour additive Ammonia Caramel Colour (Caramel Colour III) to rats has been associated with decreased lymphocyte counts, specifically in rats fed a diet low in vitamin B6. This effect is rapidly reversible and is caused by an imidazole derivative (THI) in Caramel Colour III. In the present paper, the conduct of a human study with Caramel Colour III is outlined and the results of blood lymphocyte counts are presented. No decrease in the number of blood lymphocytes occurred in marginally vitamin B6-deficient humans who consumed Caramel Colour III at the acceptable daily intake level (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 7 days. These data are discussed in relation to the effects of Caramel Colour III and THI on blood lymphocyte numbers in rats.

  19. Shaping Effects on Resistive-Plasma Resistive-Wall Mode Stability in a Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Dov; Cole, A. J.; Navratil, G. A.; Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Brennan, D. P.; Finn, J. M.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    2016-10-01

    A sharp-boundary MHD model is used to explore the effects of toroidal curvature and cross-sectional shaping on resistive-plasma resistive-wall modes in a tokamak. Building on the work of Fitzpatrick, we investigate mode stability with fixed toroidal number n =1 and a broad spectrum of poloidal m-numbers, given varying aspect-ratio, elongation, triangularity and up-down asymmetry. The speed and versatility of the sharp-boundary model facilitate exploration of a large parameter space, revealing qualitative trends to be further investigated by larger codes. In addition, the study addresses the effect of geometric mode-coupling on higher beta stability limits associated with an ideal-plasma or ideal-wall. These beta limits were used by Brennan and Finn to identify plasma response domains for feedback control. Present results show how geometric mode-coupling affects the stability limits and plasma response domains. The results are explained by an analytic reduced-MHD model with two coupled modes having different m-numbers. The next phase of this work will explore feedback control in different tokamak geometries. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  20. Plasma Density Effects on Toroidal Flow Stabilization of Edge Localized Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shikui; Zhu, Ping; Banerjee, Debabrata

    2016-10-01

    Recent EAST experiments have demonstrated mitigation and suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) with toroidal rotation flow in higher collisionality regime, suggesting potential roles of plasma density. In this work, the effects of plasma density on the toroidal flow stabilization of the high- n edge localized modes have been extensively studied in linear calculations for a circular-shaped limiter H-mode tokamak, using the initial-value extended MHD code NIMROD. In the single MHD model, toroidal flow has a weak stabilizing effects on the high- n modes. Such a stabilization, however, can be significantly enhanced with the increase in plasma density. Furthermore, our calculations show that the enhanced stabilization of high- n modes from toroidal flow with higher edge plasma density persists in the 2-fluid MHD model. These findings may explain the ELM mitigation and suppression by toroidal rotation in higher collisionality regime due to the enhancement of plasma density obtained in EAST experiment. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China under Grant Nos. 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program and the President International Fellowship Initiative of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. The hemodynamic effect of the support mode for the intra-aorta pump on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu; Xuan, Yanjiao; Zeng, Yi; Liu, Youjun

    2013-02-01

    Intra-aorta pump is a novel rotary ventricular assist device. Because of the special structure and connection with the native heart, the hemodynamic effect of support mode of this pump on the cardiovascular system is not clear. In this work, three support modes, including "constant speed" mode, "co-pulse" mode, and "counter-pulse" mode, have been designed for the intra-aorta pump to evaluate the hemodynamic effect of different support modes on the cardiovascular system. Simulation results demonstrate that that both "co-pulse" mode and "counter-pulse" mode can achieve better unloading performance than "constant speed" mode. The intra-aorta pump controlled by "co-pulse" mode is beneficial for improving coronary flow. Moreover, the external work, which is defined as the product of left ventricular pressure and cardiac output, under "co-pulse" mode is the minimum of the three support modes (0.783 w vs. 0.615 w vs. 0.702 w). The pulsatility ratio, defined as the ratio of the peak-to-peak value of arterial pressure (AP) to the mean arterial pressure value, under "co-pulse" mode is the maximum of the three modes (24% vs. 32.8% vs. 23.7%). The equivalent afterload value, which is the ratio of pulsatile pressure at the pump inflow and pulsatile pump flow, is larger than other support modes (0.596 mm Hg.s/mL vs. 0.9704 mm Hg.s/mL vs. 0.55 mm Hg.s/mL). In brief, the intra-aorta pump under "co-pulse" mode support is beneficial for improving myocardial perfusion and restoring pulsatility of AP, while "counter-pulse" mode is beneficial to the perfusion of vital organs.

  2. Effects of impedance matching network on the discharge mode transitions in a radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Z. F.; Yuan, G. Y.; Gao, W.; Sun, J. C.

    2008-06-15

    In inductively coupled plasma sources, discharge transitions from electrostatic mode (E mode) to electromagnetic mode (H mode) and from H mode to E mode occur. In previous studies, only a few works paid attention to the effects of the impedance matching network. Cunge et al. [Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 8, 576 (1999)] investigated the E-H and H-E mode transitions under two different impedance matching situations, but no physical mechanism or interpretation was presented. This issue is remained to be systematically and quantitatively investigated, and the underlying mechanism to be unveiled. In this paper, the effects of the impedance matching network were experimentally studied in electropositive argon gas by varying the series capacitance in an inversely L-shaped matching network. The positive and negative feedback regions are established according to the effect of varying the series capacitance on the output power of the rf power supply. It was found that under the same experimental parameters, the discharge mode transitions are apt to be discontinuous and continuous in the positive and negative feedback regions, respectively. In addition, the critical coil rf current (or applied power) at the mode transition, the hysteretic loop width, and the difference in applied power during the discharge mode transition vary with the series capacitance. The critical coil rf current at the E-H mode transition is not always higher than that at the H-E mode transition.

  3. Hybrid simulation of energetic particle effects on tearing modes in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Huishan; Fu Guoyong

    2012-07-15

    The effects of energetic ions on stability of tearing mode are investigated by global kinetic/MHD hybrid simulations in a low beta tokamak plasma. The kinetic effects of counter circulating energetic ions from the non-adiabatic response are found to be strongly destabilizing while the effects from the adiabatic response are stabilizing. The net effect with both adiabatic and non-adiabatic contributions is destabilizing. On the other hand, the kinetic effects of co-circulating energetic ions from the non-adiabatic response are calculated to be weakly stabilizing while the corresponding adiabatic contribution is destabilizing for small energetic ion beta. The net effect is weakly stabilizing. The dependence of kinetic effects on energetic ion beta, gyroradius, and speed is studied systematically and the results agree in large part with the previous analytic results for the kinetic effects of circulating particles. For trapped energetic ions, their effects on tearing mode stability are dominated by the adiabatic response due to large banana orbit width and strong poloidal variation of particle pressure. The net effect of trapped energetic particles on tearing modes is much more destabilizing as compared to that of counter circulating particles at the same beta value.

  4. High relaxivity Gd(III)-DNA gold nanostars: investigation of shape effects on proton relaxation.

    PubMed

    Rotz, Matthew W; Culver, Kayla S B; Parigi, Giacomo; MacRenaris, Keith W; Luchinat, Claudio; Odom, Teri W; Meade, Thomas J

    2015-03-24

    Gadolinium(III) nanoconjugate contrast agents (CAs) have distinct advantages over their small-molecule counterparts in magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to increased Gd(III) payload, a significant improvement in proton relaxation efficiency, or relaxivity (r1), is often observed. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanoconjugate CA created by covalent attachment of Gd(III) to thiolated DNA (Gd(III)-DNA), followed by surface conjugation onto gold nanostars (DNA-Gd@stars). These conjugates exhibit remarkable r1 with values up to 98 mM(-1) s(-1). Additionally, DNA-Gd@stars show efficient Gd(III) delivery and biocompatibility in vitro and generate significant contrast enhancement when imaged at 7 T. Using nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion analysis, we attribute the high performance of the DNA-Gd@stars to an increased contribution of second-sphere relaxivity compared to that of spherical CA equivalents (DNA-Gd@spheres). Importantly, the surface of the gold nanostar contains Gd(III)-DNA in regions of positive, negative, and neutral curvature. We hypothesize that the proton relaxation enhancement observed results from the presence of a unique hydrophilic environment produced by Gd(III)-DNA in these regions, which allows second-sphere water molecules to remain adjacent to Gd(III) ions for up to 10 times longer than diffusion. These results establish that particle shape and second-sphere relaxivity are important considerations in the design of Gd(III) nanoconjugate CAs.

  5. Failure modes and effects criticality analysis and accelerated life testing of LEDs for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, M.; Christou, A.

    2012-12-01

    While use of LEDs in Fiber Optics and lighting applications is common, their use in medical diagnostic applications is not very extensive. Since the precise value of light intensity will be used to interpret patient results, understanding failure modes [1-4] is very important. We used the Failure Modes and Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA) tool to identify the critical failure modes of the LEDs. FMECA involves identification of various failure modes, their effects on the system (LED optical output in this context), their frequency of occurrence, severity and the criticality of the failure modes. The competing failure modes/mechanisms were degradation of: active layer (where electron-hole recombination occurs to emit light), electrodes (provides electrical contact to the semiconductor chip), Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) surface layer (used to improve current spreading and light extraction), plastic encapsulation (protective polymer layer) and packaging failures (bond wires, heat sink separation). A FMECA table is constructed and the criticality is calculated by estimating the failure effect probability (β), failure mode ratio (α), failure rate (λ) and the operating time. Once the critical failure modes were identified, the next steps were generation of prior time to failure distribution and comparing with our accelerated life test data. To generate the prior distributions, data and results from previous investigations were utilized [5-33] where reliability test results of similar LEDs were reported. From the graphs or tabular data, we extracted the time required for the optical power output to reach 80% of its initial value. This is our failure criterion for the medical diagnostic application. Analysis of published data for different LED materials (AlGaInP, GaN, AlGaAs), the Semiconductor Structures (DH, MQW) and the mode of testing (DC, Pulsed) was carried out. The data was categorized according to the materials system and LED structure such as AlGaInP-DH-DC, Al

  6. The effects of a K2SO4 solution on the surface hardness of gypsum type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, B. N.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Gypsum type III is commonly used for working models and as a tool for restorations or dentures manufacturing in the laboratory. K2SO4 solution is recommended to be added to gypsum type III because it can accelerate the setting time. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of a K2SO4 solution on the surface hardness of gypsum type III. The surface hardness was tested using a Vickers Hardness Tester with a load of 500 gf. The results were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The surface hardness of gypsum type III manipulated using a 1.5% K2SO4 solution was higher than the surface hardness of gypsum type III manipulated without K2SO4 but lower than the surface hardness of gypsum type IV. Therefore, the use of a 1.5% K2SO4 solution can increase the hardness of gypsum type III but not enough to make it equivalent to the surface hardness of gypsum type IV.

  7. Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on FeIII (hydr)oxide reduction and microbial community development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Man Jae; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Brulc, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Eric R.; Skinner, Kelly A.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Although dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction (DIR and DSR) profoundly affect the biogeochemical cycling of C, Fe, and S in subsurface systems, the dynamics of DIR and DSR in the presence of both FeIII (hydr)oxides and sulfate have not been well-studied with mixed microbial populations. This study examined the response of native microbial communities in subsurface sediment from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Rifle, CO to the availability of sulfate and specific FeIII (hydr)oxide minerals in experimental systems containing lactate as the electron donor, with ferrihydrite, goethite, or lepidocrocite and high (10.2 mM) or low (0.2 mM) sulfate as electron acceptors. We observed rapid fermentation of lactate to acetate and propionate. FeIII reduction was slow and limited in the presence of low-sulfate, but the extent of FeIII reduction increased more than 10 times with high-sulfate amendments. Furthermore, the extent of FeIII reduction was higher in ferrihydrite or lepidocrocite incubations than in goethite incubations. Propionate produced during fermentation of lactate was used as the electron donor for DSR. The concurrence of sulfate reduction and FeII production suggests that FeII production was driven primarily by reduction of FeIII by biogenic sulfide. X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis confirmed the formation of ferrous sulfide and the presence of O-coordinated ferrous species. 16S rRNA-based microbial community analysis revealed the development of distinct communities with different FeIII (hydr)oxides. These results highlight the highly coupled nature of C, Fe, and S biogeochemical cycles during DIR and DSR and provide new insight into the effects of electron donor utilization, sulfate concentration, and the presence of specific FeIII (hydr)oxide phases on microbial community development.

  8. Effectiveness and cost of failure mode and effects analysis methodology to reduce neurosurgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Hover, Alexander R; Sistrunk, William W; Cavagnol, Robert M; Scarrow, Alan; Finley, Phillip J; Kroencke, Audrey D; Walker, Judith L

    2014-01-01

    Mercy Hospital Springfield is a tertiary care facility with 32 000 discharges and 15 000 inpatient surgeries in 2011. From June 2009 through January 2011, a stable inpatient elective neurosurgery infection rate of 2.15% was observed. The failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) methodology to reduce inpatient neurosurgery infections was utilized. Following FMEA implementation, overall elective neurosurgery infection rates were reduced to 1.51% and sustained through May 2012. Compared with baseline, the post-FMEA deep-space and organ infection rate was reduced by 41% (P = .052). Overall hospital inpatient clean surgery infection rates for the same time frame did not decrease to the same extent, suggesting a specific effect of the FMEA. The study team believes that the FMEA interventions resulted in 14 fewer expected infections, $270 270 in savings, a 168-day reduction in expected length of stay, and 22 fewer readmissions. Given the serious morbidity and cost of health care-associated infections, the study team concludes that FMEA implementation was clinically cost-effective. © 2013 by the American College of Medical Quality.

  9. Effects of maxillary protraction for early correction of class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Oktay, Hüsamettin

    2014-02-01

    This prospective study investigated the skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue effects of a mini maxillary protractor appliance in class III subjects with maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion and compared these changes with those of untreated, well matched control sample with normal occlusions. Twenty patients with class III malocclusion (mean age 11.1 ± 0.8 years) and 20 subjects with normal occlusion (mean age 10.9 ± 0.4 years) were included to this study. The class III subjects were treated with the mini maxillary protractor appliance, and the others were used as control subjects. Paired t-test and Student's t-test were used to determine the within- and between-group differences, respectively. In the study group, the maxilla moved forward (SNA, 2.0 degrees and A-Y, 2.4mm) (P < 0.001) with a slight rotation of palatal and occlusal planes (SN-PP, -0.8 degree and SN-OP, -0.7 degree) (P > 0.05). The mandible displaced backwards and downwards (SNB, -1.1 degrees; SND, -0.9 degree; B-Y, -0.9 mm and Pog-Y, -0.3mm; P < 0.001). These movements in the maxilla and mandible caused a significant improvement in intermaxillary sagittal relationship (ANB, 3.0 degrees; Convexity, 6.3 degrees; Wits, 4.6mm; P < 0.001). The maxillary incisors moved forward (2.2 degrees) while the mandibular ones backward (-1.9 degrees). The improvement in overjet was 5.0mm, and 66.1 per cent of this change (3.3mm) was skeletal (A-Y; 2.4mm and B-Y; -0.9 mm), and the remaining (1.7 mm) dentoalveolar (U1-NA; 0.9 mm and L1-NB; -0.8mm). The change in Ls-E measurement was more in the study group (2.1mm), and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

  10. Line-of-sight geometrical and instrumental resolution effects on intensity perturbations by sausage modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolin, P.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Diagnostics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the solar atmosphere is a topic that often encounters interpretation problems, partly because of the high complexity of the solar atmospheric medium. Forward modelling can significantly guide interpretation, bridging the gap between numerical simulations and observations, and increasing the reliability of mode identification for applying MHD seismology. Aims: We determine the characteristics of the fast MHD sausage mode in the corona on the modulation of observable quantities, such as line intensity and spectral line broadening. Effects of the line-of-sight angle and of spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions are considered. Methods: We take a cylindrical tube that simulates a loop in a low-β coronal environment with an optically thin background and let it oscillate with the fast sausage mode. A parametric study is performed. Results: Longitudinal structuring of the intensity modulation is obtained and set by the nodal structure of the radial velocity. The modulation is strongly dependent on the contribution function of the spectral line. Under the assumption of equilibrium ionisation, the intensity variation can be very low (≲4% for Fe ix 171) or significant (35% for Fe xii 193). Most of this variation disappears when considering the radiative relaxation times of the ions, due to the fast timescales of the sausage mode in the corona. Regardless of the ionisation state of the plasma, the variation in spectral line broadening can be significant, even for low intensity modulation. The nature of this broadening is not thermal but is mostly turbulent. This places spectrometers in clear advantage over imaging instruments for the detection of the sausage mode. The modulation of all quantities can considerably decrease with the line-of-sight angle with respect to the perpendicular to the tube axis. The spatial and temporal resolution are the main factors affecting modulation, erasing longitudinal

  11. Effects of Presentation Mode and Computer Familiarity on Summarization of Extended Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Guoxing

    2010-01-01

    Comparability studies on computer- and paper-based reading tests have focused on short texts and selected-response items via almost exclusively statistical modeling of test performance. The psychological effects of presentation mode and computer familiarity on individual students are under-researched. In this study, 157 students read extended…

  12. Effects of Three Modes of Personalisation on Students' Achievement in Mathematical Word Problems in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, A. O. A.; Balogun, T. A.; Olagunju, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of modes of personalisation of instruction crossed with two levels each of verbal ability and cognitive style as moderator variables on the mathematical word problems achievement of 450 junior secondary Nigerian students. Personalisation was accomplished by incorporating selected information with students'…

  13. The Effect of Mode of Response on a Semidirect Test of Oral Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddle, Thom; Kormos, Judit

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted with 42 participants from a Chilean university, which aimed to determine the effect of mode of response on test performance and test-taker perception of test features by comparing a semidirect online version and a direct face-to-face version of a speaking test. Candidate performances on both test versions…

  14. Cognitive Processing Capacity and Learning-Mode Effects in Prose Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, James M.

    1977-01-01

    High cognitive processing capacity (CPC) students were superior to low-CPC students in prose learning. Of the four learning modes--programmed instruction (PI), control, chunking study outline, and adjunct questions--PI was the most effective. Substantial CPC and performance correlations and poor long-term retention suggested that PI was not best…

  15. Willingness to Request Help from Others: Effects of Mode of Interaction and Size of Request.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, E. Gary

    This study investigated the willingness of persons to ask others for help. It examined the effect of modes of interaction (asking for help by letter, phone, or in person) and the size of the request (whether they asked for a small or large favor). The sample consisted of 96 male and female undergraduates in introductory sociology classes. The…

  16. The Relative Effects of Explicit Correction and Recasts on Two Target Structures via Two Communication Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Yucel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of negative feedback type (i.e., explicit correction vs. recasts), communication mode (i.e., face-to-face communication vs. synchronous computer-mediated communication), and target structure salience (i.e., salient vs. nonsalient) on the acquisition of two Turkish morphemes. Forty-eight native speakers of…

  17. The Effects of Communication Mode on Negotiation of Meaning and Its Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Dogan; Inan, Banu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of communication mode ("i.e.", face to face versus computer mediated communication) on the instances of negotiation of meaning (NofM) and its level of noticing by learners. Sixty-four participants (32 dyads) completed two jigsaw tasks in two different mediums (one in each) and four days after the tasks…

  18. Effect of Mode of Interest Assessment on Clients' Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Rachel A.; Subich, Linda Mezydlo; Diegelman, Nathan M.; Wagner, Kimberly S.; Bardash, Rebekah J.

    2004-01-01

    To compare the effects of three different modes of interest assessment on career decision-making self-efficacy, 81 career-undecided college students participated in one of the following four conditions: an assessment intervention using the Strong Interest Inventory, an intervention using one of two methods of applying the Self-Directed Search, or…

  19. The Effects of Mode and Rate of Presentation on Evaluative Encoding in Children's Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joan Delahanty; Corsale, Kathleen

    1977-01-01

    The release-from-proactive-inhibition technique was used to assess the effects of mode of presentation and presentation rate on the development of elementary school children's ability to use the evaluative dimension of the Semantic Differential as an encoding device in short-term memory. (Author/JMB)

  20. The Effect of Various Instructional Modes on Children's Performance of Music Concept Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taebel, Donald K.

    The development of certain concepts of music in kindergarten, first, and second grade children was researched. Objectives of the study were: (1) To measure the effect of four instructional modes on the performance of tasks which embodied certain musical concepts; (2) To measure the performance differences between age levels; and (3) To measure and…