Science.gov

Sample records for model based separator

  1. Stage Separation Failure: Model Based Diagnostics and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchinsky, Dmitry; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Kulikov, Igor; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Hanson, John; Hill, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Safety of the next-generation space flight vehicles requires development of an in-flight Failure Detection and Prognostic (FD&P) system. Development of such system is challenging task that involves analysis of many hard hitting engineering problems across the board. In this paper we report progress in the development of FD&P for the re-contact fault between upper stage nozzle and the inter-stage caused by the first stage and upper stage separation failure. A high-fidelity models and analytical estimations are applied to analyze the following sequence of events: (i) structural dynamics of the nozzle extension during the impact; (ii) structural stability of the deformed nozzle in the presence of the pressure and temperature loads induced by the hot gas flow during engine start up; and (iii) the fault induced thrust changes in the steady burning regime. The diagnostic is based on the measurements of the impact torque. The prognostic is based on the analysis of the correlation between the actuator signal and fault-induced changes in the nozzle structural stability and thrust.

  2. Risk-Based Causal Modeling of Airborne Loss of Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geuther, Steven C.; Shih, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining safe separation between aircraft remains one of the key aviation challenges as the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges. The goals of the NextGen are to increase capacity and reduce flight delays to meet the aviation demand growth through the 2025 time frame while maintaining safety and efficiency. The envisioned NextGen is expected to enable high air traffic density, diverse fleet operations in the airspace, and a decrease in separation distance. All of these factors contribute to the potential for Loss of Separation (LOS) between aircraft. LOS is a precursor to a potential mid-air collision (MAC). The NASA Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) is committed to developing aircraft separation assurance concepts and technologies to mitigate LOS instances, therefore, preventing MAC. This paper focuses on the analysis of causal and contributing factors of LOS accidents and incidents leading to MAC occurrences. Mid-air collisions among large commercial aircraft are rare in the past decade, therefore, the LOS instances in this study are for general aviation using visual flight rules in the years 2000-2010. The study includes the investigation of causal paths leading to LOS, and the development of the Airborne Loss of Separation Analysis Model (ALOSAM) using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) to capture the multi-dependent relations of causal factors. The ALOSAM is currently a qualitative model, although further development could lead to a quantitative model. ALOSAM could then be used to perform impact analysis of concepts and technologies in the AOSP portfolio on the reduction of LOS risk.

  3. A Belief-Based Model of Air Traffic Controllers Performing Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    A model of an air traffic controller performing a separation assurance task was produced. The model was designed to be simple to use and deploy in a simulator, but still provide realistic behavior. The model is based upon an evaluation of the safety function of the controller for separation assurance, and utilizes fast and frugal heuristics and belief networks to establish a knowledge set for the controller model. Based on this knowledge set, the controller acts to keep aircraft separated. Validation results are provided to demonstrate the model s performance.

  4. A Belief-Based Model of Air Traffic Controllers Performing Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    A model of an air traffic controller performing a separation assurance task was produced. The model was designed to be simple to use and deploy in a simulator, but still provide realistic behavior. The model is based upon an evaluation of the safety function of the controller for separation assurance, and utilizes fast and frugal heuristics and belief networks to establish a knowledge set for the controller model. Based on this knowledge set, the controller acts to keep aircraft separated. Validation results are provided to demonstrate the model s performance.

  5. An incentive-based source separation model for sustainable municipal solid waste management in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wanying; Zhou, Chuanbin; Lan, Yajun; Jin, Jiasheng; Cao, Aixin

    2015-05-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management (MSWM) is most important and challenging in large urban communities. Sound community-based waste management systems normally include waste reduction and material recycling elements, often entailing the separation of recyclable materials by the residents. To increase the efficiency of source separation and recycling, an incentive-based source separation model was designed and this model was tested in 76 households in Guiyang, a city of almost three million people in southwest China. This model embraced the concepts of rewarding households for sorting organic waste, government funds for waste reduction, and introducing small recycling enterprises for promoting source separation. Results show that after one year of operation, the waste reduction rate was 87.3%, and the comprehensive net benefit under the incentive-based source separation model increased by 18.3 CNY tonne(-1) (2.4 Euros tonne(-1)), compared to that under the normal model. The stakeholder analysis (SA) shows that the centralized MSW disposal enterprises had minimum interest and may oppose the start-up of a new recycling system, while small recycling enterprises had a primary interest in promoting the incentive-based source separation model, but they had the least ability to make any change to the current recycling system. The strategies for promoting this incentive-based source separation model are also discussed in this study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Research of Longitudinal Safety Separation Based on Nagel-Schreckenberg Traffic Flow Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhaoning, Zhang; Ming, Cai; Lili, Wang; Chang, Sun

    The relation of traffic flow elements and safe separation is studied in this paper. Under the current separation standard, the reaction times of pilot and the probability of random deceleration were considered, based on Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic flow model, a flight Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic flow model was built according to the movement of the planes on the route. By computing an example the result can show the relation of the probability of random deceleration and the key element of air traffic flow. Furthermore, the optimal longitudinal safety separation of specific airplane is obtained. Compared with the actual air traffic flow, the model is feasible

  7. Model based separation of transmitted and received signal for single transducer distance measurement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, A.; Henning, B.

    2012-05-01

    Single transducer distance measurement systems have a blind zone which is increased if the transmitted signals are coded to reduce errors due to crosstalk. A method to reduce this blind zone is a model based separation of the transmitted and received signal. This contribution compares two systems, one working with the measured band pass signals, and another one which is based on I/Q-demodulated base band signals.

  8. Mechanical modeling of battery separator based on microstructure image analysis and stochastic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongyi; Zhu, Min; Marcicki, James; Yang, Xiao Guang

    2017-03-01

    A microstructure-based modeling method is developed to predict the mechanical behaviors of lithium-ion battery separators. Existing battery separator modeling methods cannot capture the structural features on the microscale. To overcome this issue, we propose an image-based microstructure Representative Volume Element (RVE) modeling method, which facilitates the understanding of the separators' complex macro mechanical behaviors from the perspective of microstructural features. A generic image processing workflow is developed to identify different phases in the microscopic image. The processed RVE image supplies microstructural information to the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Both mechanical behavior and microstructure evolution are obtained from the simulation. The evolution of microstructure features is quantified using the stochastic microstructure characterization methods. The proposed method successfully captures the anisotropic behavior of the separator under tensile test, and provides insights into the microstructure deformation, such as the growth of voids. We apply the proposed method to a commercially available separator as the demonstration. The analysis results are validated using experimental testing results that are reported in literature.

  9. Pattern analysis based models of masking by spatially separated sound sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkey, Robert H.

    1992-06-01

    One goal of this program is to examine masking among spatially separated sound sources. The results indicate that masking release on the order of 8-20 dB can be observed in free-field masking situations when the signal and the masker are spatially separated by 90 degrees. This magnitude of masking release is comparable to that observed in traditional binaural masking level difference experiments, where the stimuli are presented through headphones. However, while masking release observed in headphone studies is typically assumed to be based on interaural differences in phase or on interaural differences in intensity, we observed substantial masking release in the median plane where interaural differences are minimal. Our own headphone masking research is also questioning traditional models of binaural masking. Work is underway to develop a neural network based model of sound localization. The results of these studies will have implications for the development of virtual environments and auditory displays.

  10. A simple model for solute-solvent separation through nanopores based on core-softened potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vasconcelos, Cláudia K. B.; Batista, Ronaldo J. C.; da Rocha Régis, McGlennon; Manhabosco, Taíse M.; de Oliveira, Alan B.

    2016-07-01

    We propose an effective model for solute separation from fluids through reverse osmosis based on core-softened potentials. Such potentials have been used to investigate anomalous fluids in several situations under a great variety of approaches. Due to their simplicity, computational simulations become faster and mathematical treatments are possible. Our model aims to mimic water desalination through nano-membranes through reverse osmosis, for which we have found reasonable qualitative results when confronted against all-atoms simulations found in the literature. The purpose of this work is not to replace any fully atomistic simulation at this stage, but instead to pave the first steps towards coarse-grained models for water desalination processes. This may help to approach problems in larger scales, in size and time, and perhaps make analytical theories more viable.

  11. Comparison of background ozone estimates over the western United States based on two separate model methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolwick, Pat; Akhtar, Farhan; Baker, Kirk R.; Possiel, Norm; Simon, Heather; Tonnesen, Gail

    2015-05-01

    Two separate air quality model methodologies for estimating background ozone levels over the western U.S. are compared in this analysis. The first approach is a direct sensitivity modeling approach that considers the ozone levels that would remain after certain emissions are entirely removed (i.e., zero-out modeling). The second approach is based on an instrumented air quality model which tracks the formation of ozone within the simulation and assigns the source of that ozone to pre-identified categories (i.e., source apportionment modeling). This analysis focuses on a definition of background referred to as U.S. background (USB) which is designed to represent the influence of all sources other than U.S. anthropogenic emissions. Two separate modeling simulations were completed for an April-October 2007 period, both focused on isolating the influence of sources other than domestic manmade emissions. The zero-out modeling was conducted with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and the source apportionment modeling was completed with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). Our analysis shows that the zero-out and source apportionment techniques provide relatively similar estimates of the magnitude of seasonal mean daily 8-h maximum U.S. background ozone at locations in the western U.S. when base case model ozone biases are considered. The largest differences between the two sets of USB estimates occur in urban areas where interactions with local NOx emissions can be important, especially when ozone levels are relatively low. Both methodologies conclude that seasonal mean daily 8-h maximum U.S. background ozone levels can be as high as 40-45 ppb over rural portions of the western U.S. Background fractions tend to decrease as modeled total ozone concentrations increase, with typical fractions of 75-100 percent on the lowest ozone days (<25 ppb) and typical fractions between 30 and 50% on days with ozone above 75 ppb. The finding that

  12. Reduction of stochastic conductance-based neuron models with time-scales separation.

    PubMed

    Wainrib, Gilles; Thieullen, Michèle; Pakdaman, Khashayar

    2012-04-01

    We introduce a method for systematically reducing the dimension of biophysically realistic neuron models with stochastic ion channels exploiting time-scales separation. Based on a combination of singular perturbation methods for kinetic Markov schemes with some recent mathematical developments of the averaging method, the techniques are general and applicable to a large class of models. As an example, we derive and analyze reductions of different stochastic versions of the Hodgkin Huxley (HH) model, leading to distinct reduced models. The bifurcation analysis of one of the reduced models with the number of channels as a parameter provides new insights into some features of noisy discharge patterns, such as the bimodality of interspike intervals distribution. Our analysis of the stochastic HH model shows that, besides being a method to reduce the number of variables of neuronal models, our reduction scheme is a powerful method for gaining understanding on the impact of fluctuations due to finite size effects on the dynamics of slow fast systems. Our analysis of the reduced model reveals that decreasing the number of sodium channels in the HH model leads to a transition in the dynamics reminiscent of the Hopf bifurcation and that this transition accounts for changes in characteristics of the spike train generated by the model. Finally, we also examine the impact of these results on neuronal coding, notably, reliability of discharge times and spike latency, showing that reducing the number of channels can enhance discharge time reliability in response to weak inputs and that this phenomenon can be accounted for through the analysis of the reduced model.

  13. Numerical simulation of separating flows using computational models based on the vorticity confinement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lesong

    The objective of the present research is to investigate the recent development of the vorticity confinement method. First, a new formulation of the vorticity confinement term is studied. Advantages of the new formulation over the original one include the ability to conserve the momentum, and the ability to preserve the centroid motion of some flow properties such as the vorticity magnitude. Next, new difference schemes, which are simpler and more efficient than the old schemes, are discussed. At last, two computational models based on the vorticity confinement method are investigated. One of the models is devised to simulate inviscid flows over bodies with surfaces not aligned with the grid. The other is a surface boundary layer model, which is intended for efficiently simulating viscous flows with separations from the body surfaces. To validate the computational models, numerical simulations of three-dimensional flows over a 6:1 ellipsoid at incidence are performed. Comparisons have been made with exact solutions for inviscid simulations or experimental data for viscous simulations, and data obtained with conventional CFD methods. It is observed that both the inviscid and the viscous solutions with the new models exhibit good agreement with the exact solutions or the experiment data. The new models can have much higher efficiency than conventional CFD methods, and are able to obtain solutions with comparable accuracy.

  14. Experimental models of small closed systems with spatially separated unicellular organism-based components.

    PubMed

    Pis'man, T I; Pechurkin, N S; Sarangova, A B; Somova, L A

    1999-01-01

    Experimental models of small biotic cycles of different degree of closure and complexity with spatially separated components based on unicellular organisms have been studied. Gas closure of components looped into "autotroph-heterotroph" (chlorella-yeast) system doubled the lifetime of the system (as opposed to individually cultivated components). Higher complexity of the heterotroph component consisting of two yeast species also increased the lifetime of the system through more complete utilization of the substrate by competing yeast species. The lifetime of gas and substrate closed "producer-consumer" trophic chain (chlorella-paramecia) increased to 7 months. In 60 days the components' numbers reached their steady state followed by more than 40 cycles of the medium. The role of a predator organism (protozoan) in nitrogen cycling was demonstrated; reproduction of protozoa correlated directly with their emission of nitrogen in the ammonia form that is most optimum for growth of chlorella.

  15. A reactive burn model for shock initiation in a PBX: scaling and separability based on the hot spot concept

    SciTech Connect

    Show, Milton S; Menikoff, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    In the formulation of a reactive burn model for shock initiation, we endeavor to incorporate a number of effects based on the underlying physical concept of hot spot ignition followed by the growth of reaction due to diverging deflagration fronts. The passage of a shock front sets the initial condition for reaction, leading to a fraction of the hot spots that completely burn while others will quench. The form of the rate model is chosen to incorporate approximations based on the physical picture. In particular, the approximations imply scaling relations that are then used to mathematically separate various contributions. That is, the model is modular and refinements can be applied separately without changing the other contributions. For example, the effect of initial temperature, porosity, etc. predominantly enter the characterization of the non-quenching hot spot distribution. A large collection of velocity gauge data is shown to be well represented by the model with a very small number of parameters.

  16. Separations and safeguards model integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Zinaman, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Research and development of advanced reprocessing plant designs can greatly benefit from the development of a reprocessing plant model capable of transient solvent extraction chemistry. This type of model can be used to optimize the operations of a plant as well as the designs for safeguards, security, and safety. Previous work has integrated a transient solvent extraction simulation module, based on the Solvent Extraction Process Having Interaction Solutes (SEPHIS) code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The goal of this work was to strengthen the integration by linking more variables between the two codes. The results from this integrated model show expected operational performance through plant transients. Additionally, ORIGEN source term files were integrated into the SSPM to provide concentrations, radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and thermal power data for various spent fuels. This data was used to generate measurement blocks that can determine the radioactivity, neutron emission rate, or thermal power of any stream or vessel in the plant model. This work examined how the code could be expanded to integrate other separation steps and benchmark the results to other data. Recommendations for future work will be presented.

  17. Hierarchical searching in model-based LADAR ATR using statistical separability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelMarco, Stephen; Sobel, Erik; Douglas, Joel

    2006-05-01

    In this work we investigate simultaneous object identification improvement and efficient library search for model-based object recognition applications. We develop an algorithm to provide efficient, prioritized, hierarchical searching of the object model database. A common approach to model-based object recognition chooses the object label corresponding to the best match score. However, due to corrupting effects the best match score does not always correspond to the correct object model. To address this problem, we propose a search strategy which exploits information contained in a number of representative elements of the library to drill down to a small class with high probability of containing the object. We first optimally partition the library into a hierarchic taxonomy of disjoint classes. A small number of representative elements are used to characterize each object model class. At each hierarchy level, the observed object is matched against the representative elements of each class to generate score sets. A hypothesis testing problem, using a distribution-free statistical test, is defined on the score sets and used to choose the appropriate class for a prioritized search. We conduct a probabilistic analysis of the computational cost savings, and provide a formula measuring the computational advantage of the proposed approach. We generate numerical results using match scores derived from matching highly-detailed CAD models of civilian ground vehicles used in 3-D LADAR ATR. We present numerical results showing effects on classification performance of significance level and representative element number in the score set hypothesis testing problem.

  18. A kinetic model for the deterministic prediction of gel-based single-chirality single-walled carbon nanotube separation.

    PubMed

    Tvrdy, Kevin; Jain, Rishabh M; Han, Rebecca; Hilmer, Andrew J; McNicholas, Thomas P; Strano, Michael S

    2013-02-26

    We propose a kinetic model that describes the separation of single-chirality semiconducting carbon nanotubes based on the chirality-selective adsorption to specific hydrogels. Experimental elution profiles of the (7,3), (6,4), (6,5), (8,3), (8,6), (7,5), and (7,6) species are well described by an irreversible, first-order site association kinetic model with a single rate constant describing the adsorption of each SWNT to the immobile gel phase. Specifically, we find first-order binding rate constants for seven experimentally separated nanotubes normalized by the binding site molarity (M(θ)): k₇,₃ = 3.5 × 10⁻⁵ M(θ)⁻¹ s⁻¹, k₆,₄ = 7.7 × 10⁻⁸ M(θ)⁻¹ s⁻¹, k₈,₃ = 2.3 × 10⁻⁹ M(θ)⁻¹ s⁻¹, k₆,₅ = 3.8 × 10⁻⁹ M(θ)⁻¹ s⁻¹, k₇,₅ = 1.9 × 10⁻¹¹ M(θ)⁻¹ s⁻¹, k₈,₆ = 7.7 × 10⁻¹² M(θ)⁻¹ s⁻¹, and k₇,₆ = 3.8 × 10⁻¹² M(θ)⁻¹ s⁻¹. These results, as well as additional control experiments, unambiguously identify the separation process as a selective adsorption. Unlike certain chromatographic processes with retention time dependence, this separation procedure can be scaled to arbitrarily large volumes, as we demonstrate. This study provides a foundation for both the mechanistic understanding of gel-based SWNT separation as well as the potential industrial-scale realization of single-chirality production of carbon nanotubes.

  19. Turbulence modeling for separated flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, Paul A.

    1994-01-01

    Two projects are described in this report. The first involves assessing turbulence models in separated flow. The second addresses the anomalous behavior of certain turbulence models in stagnation point flow. The primary motivation for developing turbulent transport models is to provide tools for computing non-equilibrium, or complex, turbulent flows. Simple flows can be analyzed using data correlations or algebraic eddy viscosities, but in more complicated flows such as a massively separated boundary layer, a more elaborate level of modeling is required. It is widely believed that at least a two-equation transport model is required in such cases. The transport equations determine the evolution of suitable velocity and time-scales of the turbulence. The present study included assessment of second-moment closures in several separated flows, including sharp edge separation; smooth wall, pressure driven separation; and unsteady vortex shedding. Flows with mean swirl are of interest for their role in enhancing mixing both by turbulent and mean motion. The swirl can have a stabilizing effect on the turbulence. An axi-symmetric extension to the INS-2D computer program was written adding the capability of computing swirling flow. High swirl can produce vortex breakdown on the centerline of the jet and it occurs in various combustors.

  20. Sandpile-based model for capturing magnitude distributions and spatiotemporal clustering and separation in regional earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batac, Rene C.; Paguirigan, Antonino A., Jr.; Tarun, Anjali B.; Longjas, Anthony G.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a cellular automata model for earthquake occurrences patterned after the sandpile model of self-organized criticality (SOC). By incorporating a single parameter describing the probability to target the most susceptible site, the model successfully reproduces the statistical signatures of seismicity. The energy distributions closely follow power-law probability density functions (PDFs) with a scaling exponent of around -1. 6, consistent with the expectations of the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) law, for a wide range of the targeted triggering probability values. Additionally, for targeted triggering probabilities within the range 0.004-0.007, we observe spatiotemporal distributions that show bimodal behavior, which is not observed previously for the original sandpile. For this critical range of values for the probability, model statistics show remarkable comparison with long-period empirical data from earthquakes from different seismogenic regions. The proposed model has key advantages, the foremost of which is the fact that it simultaneously captures the energy, space, and time statistics of earthquakes by just introducing a single parameter, while introducing minimal parameters in the simple rules of the sandpile. We believe that the critical targeting probability parameterizes the memory that is inherently present in earthquake-generating regions.

  1. Ab initio-based fracture toughness estimates and transgranular traction-separation modelling of zirconium hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, P. A. T.; Kese, K.; Kroon, M.; Alvarez Holston, A.-M.

    2015-06-01

    In this work we report the results of an ab initio study of the transgranular fracture toughness and cleavage of brittle zirconium hydrides. We use the Griffith-Irwin relation to assess the fracture toughness using calculated surface energy and estimated isotropic Voigt-Reuss-Hill averages of the elastic constants. The calculated fracture toughness values are found to concur well with experimental data, which implies that fracture is dominated by cleavage failure. To investigate the cleavage energetics, we model the decohesion process. To describe the interplanar interaction we adopt Rose’s universal binding energy relation, which is found to reproduce the behaviour accurately. The modelling shows that the work of fracture and ductility decreases with increasing hydrogen content.

  2. Modeling and Global Optimization of DNA separation

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenkopf, Max A.; Ydstie, B. Erik; Mukherjee, Tamal; Schneider, James W.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a non-convex non-linear programming problem that determines the minimum run time to resolve different lengths of DNA using a gel-free micelle end-labeled free solution electrophoresis separation method. Our optimization framework allows for efficient determination of the utility of different DNA separation platforms and enables the identification of the optimal operating conditions for these DNA separation devices. The non-linear programming problem requires a model for signal spacing and signal width, which is known for many DNA separation methods. As a case study, we show how our approach is used to determine the optimal run conditions for micelle end-labeled free-solution electrophoresis and examine the trade-offs between a single capillary system and a parallel capillary system. Parallel capillaries are shown to only be beneficial for DNA lengths above 230 bases using a polydisperse micelle end-label otherwise single capillaries produce faster separations. PMID:24764606

  3. Full waveform inversion of diving & reflected waves for velocity model building with impedance inversion based on scale separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Brossier, Romain; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims to reconstruct high-resolution subsurface models from the full wavefield, which includes diving waves, post-critical reflections and short-spread reflections. Most successful applications of FWI are driven by the information carried by diving waves and post-critical reflections to build the long-to-intermediate wavelengths of the velocity structure. Alternative approaches, referred to as reflection waveform inversion (RWI), have been recently revisited to retrieve these long-to-intermediate wavelengths from short-spread reflections by using some prior knowledge of the reflectivity and a scale separation between the velocity macromodel and the reflectivity. This study presents a unified formalism of FWI, named as Joint FWI, whose aim is to efficiently combine the diving and reflected waves for velocity model building. The two key ingredients of Joint FWI are, on the data side, the explicit separation between the short-spread reflections and the wide-angle arrivals and, on the model side, the scale separation between the velocity macromodel and the short-scale impedance model. The velocity model and the impedance model are updated in an alternate way by Joint FWI and waveform inversion of the reflection data (least-squares migration), respectively. Starting from a crude velocity model, Joint FWI is applied to the streamer seismic data computed in the synthetic Valhall model. While the conventional FWI is stuck into a local minimum due to cycle skipping, Joint FWI succeeds in building a reliable velocity macromodel. Compared with RWI, the use of diving waves in Joint FWI improves the reconstruction of shallow velocities, which translates into an improved imaging at deeper depths. The smooth velocity model built by Joint FWI can be subsequently used as a reliable initial model for conventional FWI to increase the high-wavenumber content of the velocity model.

  4. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2014-06-01

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ("Energiewende") was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic-based separators

  5. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Meyer, Dirk C.; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann

    2014-06-16

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ('Energiewende') was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic-based separators

  6. Study of photon migration with various source-detector separations in near-infrared spectroscopic brain imaging based on three-dimensional Monte Carlo modeling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Sun, Chia-Wei; Lee, Po-Lei; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Yang, C; Jiang, Cho-Pei; Tong, Yuh-Ping; Yeh, Tzu-Chen; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2005-10-17

    We have simulated photon migration with various sourcedetector separations based on a three-dimensional Monte Carlo code. Whole brain MRI structure images are introduced in the simulation, and the brain model is more accurate than in previous studies. The brain model consists of the scalp, skull, CSF layer, gray matter, and white matter. We demonstrate dynamic propagating movies under different source-detector separations. The multiple backscattered intensity from every layer of the brain model is obtained by marking the deepest layer that every photon can reach. Also, the influences of an absorption target on the brain cortex are revealed.

  7. Finger Vein Segmentation from Infrared Images Based on a Modified Separable Mumford Shah Model and Local Entropy Thresholding.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Marios; Dermatas, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for finger vein pattern extraction from infrared images is presented. This method involves four steps: preprocessing which performs local normalization of the image intensity, image enhancement, image segmentation, and finally postprocessing for image cleaning. In the image enhancement step, an image which will be both smooth and similar to the original is sought. The enhanced image is obtained by minimizing the objective function of a modified separable Mumford Shah Model. Since, this minimization procedure is computationally intensive for large images, a local application of the Mumford Shah Model in small window neighborhoods is proposed. The finger veins are located in concave nonsmooth regions and, so, in order to distinct them from the other tissue parts, all the differences between the smooth neighborhoods, obtained by the local application of the model, and the corresponding windows of the original image are added. After that, veins in the enhanced image have been sufficiently emphasized. Thus, after image enhancement, an accurate segmentation can be obtained readily by a local entropy thresholding method. Finally, the resulted binary image may suffer from some misclassifications and, so, a postprocessing step is performed in order to extract a robust finger vein pattern.

  8. Separations Science Data Base: an abstractor's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Roddy, J.W.; McDowell, W.J.; Michelson, D.C.

    1981-07-01

    The Separations Science Data Base, designed specifically for the retrieval of information needed in chemical separations problems (i.e., how to perform a given separation under given conditions), is described. The procedure for entering records into the data base is given. The initial entries are concerned primarily with liquid-liquid extraction and liquid-solid ion exchange methods for metal ions and salts; however, the data base is constructed so that almost any separations process can be accommodated. Each record is indexed with information provided under the following fields: author; title; publication source; date of publication; organization performing and/or sponsoring the work; brief abstract of the work; abstract number if the work has been so referenced, and/or abstractor's initials; type of separation system used (e.g., flotation); specific or generic name of the separation agent used (e.g., acetylacetone); list of substances separated (e.g., gold, copper); qualitative description of the supporting medium or matrix containing the substances before separation (e.g., nitrate); type of literature where the article was printed (e.g., book); and type of information that the article contains. Each of these fields may be searched independently of the others (or in combination), and the last six fields contain specific key words that are listed on the input form. Definitions are provided for the 39 information terms.

  9. Multi-modal data fusion using source separation: Two effective models based on ICA and IVA and their properties

    PubMed Central

    Adali, Tülay; Levin-Schwartz, Yuri; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2015-01-01

    Fusion of information from multiple sets of data in order to extract a set of features that are most useful and relevant for the given task is inherent to many problems we deal with today. Since, usually, very little is known about the actual interaction among the datasets, it is highly desirable to minimize the underlying assumptions. This has been the main reason for the growing importance of data-driven methods, and in particular of independent component analysis (ICA) as it provides useful decompositions with a simple generative model and using only the assumption of statistical independence. A recent extension of ICA, independent vector analysis (IVA) generalizes ICA to multiple datasets by exploiting the statistical dependence across the datasets, and hence, as we discuss in this paper, provides an attractive solution to fusion of data from multiple datasets along with ICA. In this paper, we focus on two multivariate solutions for multi-modal data fusion that let multiple modalities fully interact for the estimation of underlying features that jointly report on all modalities. One solution is the Joint ICA model that has found wide application in medical imaging, and the second one is the the Transposed IVA model introduced here as a generalization of an approach based on multi-set canonical correlation analysis. In the discussion, we emphasize the role of diversity in the decompositions achieved by these two models, present their properties and implementation details to enable the user make informed decisions on the selection of a model along with its associated parameters. Discussions are supported by simulation results to help highlight the main issues in the implementation of these methods. PMID:26525830

  10. Multi-modal data fusion using source separation: Two effective models based on ICA and IVA and their properties.

    PubMed

    Adali, Tülay; Levin-Schwartz, Yuri; Calhoun, Vince D

    2015-09-01

    Fusion of information from multiple sets of data in order to extract a set of features that are most useful and relevant for the given task is inherent to many problems we deal with today. Since, usually, very little is known about the actual interaction among the datasets, it is highly desirable to minimize the underlying assumptions. This has been the main reason for the growing importance of data-driven methods, and in particular of independent component analysis (ICA) as it provides useful decompositions with a simple generative model and using only the assumption of statistical independence. A recent extension of ICA, independent vector analysis (IVA) generalizes ICA to multiple datasets by exploiting the statistical dependence across the datasets, and hence, as we discuss in this paper, provides an attractive solution to fusion of data from multiple datasets along with ICA. In this paper, we focus on two multivariate solutions for multi-modal data fusion that let multiple modalities fully interact for the estimation of underlying features that jointly report on all modalities. One solution is the Joint ICA model that has found wide application in medical imaging, and the second one is the the Transposed IVA model introduced here as a generalization of an approach based on multi-set canonical correlation analysis. In the discussion, we emphasize the role of diversity in the decompositions achieved by these two models, present their properties and implementation details to enable the user make informed decisions on the selection of a model along with its associated parameters. Discussions are supported by simulation results to help highlight the main issues in the implementation of these methods.

  11. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    DOEpatents

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  12. Sheathless Size-Based Acoustic Particle Separation

    PubMed Central

    Guldiken, Rasim; Jo, Myeong Chan; Gallant, Nathan D.; Demirci, Utkan; Zhe, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Particle separation is of great interest in many biological and biomedical applications. Flow-based methods have been used to sort particles and cells. However, the main challenge with flow based particle separation systems is the need for a sheath flow for successful operation. Existence of the sheath liquid dilutes the analyte, necessitates precise flow control between sample and sheath flow, requires a complicated design to create sheath flow and separation efficiency depends on the sheath liquid composition. In this paper, we present a microfluidic platform for sheathless particle separation using standing surface acoustic waves. In this platform, particles are first lined up at the center of the channel without introducing any external sheath flow. The particles are then entered into the second stage where particles are driven towards the off-center pressure nodes for size based separation. The larger particles are exposed to more lateral displacement in the channel due to the acoustic force differences. Consequently, different-size particles are separated into multiple collection outlets. The prominent feature of the present microfluidic platform is that the device does not require the use of the sheath flow for positioning and aligning of particles. Instead, the sheathless flow focusing and separation are integrated within a single microfluidic device and accomplished simultaneously. In this paper, we demonstrated two different particle size-resolution separations; (1) 3 μm and 10 μm and (2) 3 μm and 5 μm. Also, the effects of the input power, the flow rate, and particle concentration on the separation efficiency were investigated. These technologies have potential to impact broadly various areas including the essential microfluidic components for lab-on-a-chip system and integrated biological and biomedical applications. PMID:22368502

  13. Advances in inline quantification of co-eluting proteins in chromatography: Process-data-based model calibration and application towards real-life separation issues.

    PubMed

    Brestrich, Nina; Sanden, Adrian; Kraft, Axel; McCann, Karl; Bertolini, Joseph; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Pooling decisions in preparative liquid chromatography for protein purification are usually based on univariate UV absorption measurements that are not able to differentiate between product and co-eluting contaminants. This can result in inconsistent pool purities or yields, if there is a batch-to-batch variability of the feedstock. To overcome this analytical bottleneck, a tool for selective inline quantification of co-eluting model proteins using mid-UV absorption spectra and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was presented in a previous study and applied for real-time pooling decisions. In this paper, a process-data-based method for the PLS model calibration will be introduced that allows the application of the tool towards chromatography steps of real-life processes. The process-data-based calibration method uses recorded inline mid-UV absorption spectra that are correlated with offline fraction analytics to calibrate PLS models. In order to generate average spectra from the inline data, a Visual Basic for Application macro was successfully developed. The process-data-based model calibration was established using a ternary model protein system. Afterwards, it was successfully demonstrated in two case studies that the calibration method is applicable towards real-life separation issues. The calibrated PLS models allowed a successful quantification of the co-eluting species in a cation-exchange-based aggregate and fraction removal during the purification of monoclonal antibodies and of co-eluting serum proteins in an anion-exchange-based purification of Cohn supernatant I. Consequently, the presented process-data-based PLS model calibration in combination with the tool for selective inline quantification has a great potential for the monitoring of future chromatography steps and may contribute to manage batch-to-batch variability by real-time pooling decisions.

  14. Systematic and practical solvent system selection strategy based on the nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient model for real-life counter-current chromatography separation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Da-Bing; Yi, Lun-Zhao; Qin, Yan-Hua; Yun, Yong-Huan; Deng, Bai-Chuan; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-05-08

    Solvent system selection is the first step toward a successful counter-current chromatography (CCC) separation. This paper introduces a systematic and practical solvent system selection strategy based on the nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient (NRTL-SAC) model, which is efficient in predicting the solute partition coefficient. Firstly, the application of the NRTL-SAC method was extended to the ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water and chloroform/methanol/water solvent system families. Moreover, the versatility and predictive capability of the NRTL-SAC method were investigated. The results indicate that the solute molecular parameters identified from hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system family are capable of predicting a large number of partition coefficients in several other different solvent system families. The NRTL-SAC strategy was further validated by successfully separating five components from Salvia plebeian R.Br. We therefore propose that NRTL-SAC is a promising high throughput method for rapid solvent system selection and highly adaptable to screen suitable solvent system for real-life CCC separation.

  15. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrea L.; Borgida, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI) has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals’ endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology. PMID:26800454

  16. The Separate Spheres Model of Gendered Inequality.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrea L; Borgida, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Research on role congruity theory and descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes has established that when men and women violate gender stereotypes by crossing spheres, with women pursuing career success and men contributing to domestic labor, they face backlash and economic penalties. Less is known, however, about the types of individuals who are most likely to engage in these forms of discrimination and the types of situations in which this is most likely to occur. We propose that psychological research will benefit from supplementing existing research approaches with an individual differences model of support for separate spheres for men and women. This model allows psychologists to examine individual differences in support for separate spheres as they interact with situational and contextual forces. The separate spheres ideology (SSI) has existed as a cultural idea for many years but has not been operationalized or modeled in social psychology. The Separate Spheres Model presents the SSI as a new psychological construct characterized by individual differences and a motivated system-justifying function, operationalizes the ideology with a new scale measure, and models the ideology as a predictor of some important gendered outcomes in society. As a first step toward developing the Separate Spheres Model, we develop a new measure of individuals' endorsement of the SSI and demonstrate its reliability, convergent validity, and incremental predictive validity. We provide support for the novel hypotheses that the SSI predicts attitudes regarding workplace flexibility accommodations, income distribution within families between male and female partners, distribution of labor between work and family spheres, and discriminatory workplace behaviors. Finally, we provide experimental support for the hypothesis that the SSI is a motivated, system-justifying ideology.

  17. Adsorption Model for Off-Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2011-03-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include gas stream constituents, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. It models dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions for a multiple component gas stream. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which the breakthrough data is obtained. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data will be input into the adsorption model to develop a model specific for iodine adsorption on silver mordenite as well as model(s) specific for krypton and xenon adsorption. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Another future off-gas modeling goal is to develop a model for the unit operation absorption. The off-gas models will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

  18. Multi-stage separations based on dielectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2004-07-13

    A system utilizing multi-stage traps based on dielectrophoresis. Traps with electrodes arranged transverse to the flow and traps with electrodes arranged parallel to the flow with combinations of direct current and alternating voltage are used to trap, concentrate, separate, and/or purify target particles.

  19. Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL); and Flash player, version 5 or higher (available from Macromedia).

  20. Modelling of layered resonators for ultrasonic separation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Martyn; Shen, Yijun; Hawkes, Jeremy J

    2002-05-01

    The potential of ultrasonic techniques for the separation and concentration of particles within a fluid has been investigated in some detail in recent years. Devices for effecting such separation typically consist of a piezoceramic transducer driving into a matching layer, fluid layer and reflector layer. This paper uses an equivalent-circuit transducer model, coupled with acoustic impedance transfer relationships to model such cells with regards to both their electrical characteristics and the strength of the resonance produced under different conditions. The model is compared with experimental results from two different cells and is shown to match experimental values well in terms of electrical characteristics and separator performance. The effects of matching layer thickness are also examined using the model. The importance of the adhesive bonding layer is demonstrated, and it is shown that the model can predict the effects of such a layer. The model is also used to demonstrate the effects of coincident resonances in cell layers and to examine the pressure distribution across cells at key frequencies.

  1. Physical model studies of water column separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autrique, R.; Rodal, E.; Sánchez, A.; Carmona, L.

    2012-11-01

    Results of physical model studies of water column separation following an upstream valve closure in a horizontal pipe are presented, using three dimensionless parameters: the magnitude of the transient, M, or the ratio between the Joukowsky pressure and the initial absolute head; ΔHr, or the ratio between the maximum overpressure and the Joukowsky pressure, and tcr, the duration of the vapor cavity relative to the pipeline period. Conclusions are derived, aiming to a better understanding of water column separation extreme pressures and to the establishment of useful preliminary design guidelines.

  2. Modeling of the charge-state separation at ITEP experimental facility for material science based on a Bernas ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Barminova, H. Y. Saratovskyh, M. S.

    2016-02-15

    The experiment automation system is supposed to be developed for experimental facility for material science at ITEP, based on a Bernas ion source. The program CAMFT is assumed to be involved into the program of the experiment automation. CAMFT is developed to simulate the intense charged particle bunch motion in the external magnetic fields with arbitrary geometry by means of the accurate solution of the particle motion equation. Program allows the consideration of the bunch intensity up to 10{sup 10} ppb. Preliminary calculations are performed at ITEP supercomputer. The results of the simulation of the beam pre-acceleration and following turn in magnetic field are presented for different initial conditions.

  3. Modeling of the charge-state separation at ITEP experimental facility for material science based on a Bernas ion source.

    PubMed

    Barminova, H Y; Saratovskyh, M S

    2016-02-01

    The experiment automation system is supposed to be developed for experimental facility for material science at ITEP, based on a Bernas ion source. The program CAMFT is assumed to be involved into the program of the experiment automation. CAMFT is developed to simulate the intense charged particle bunch motion in the external magnetic fields with arbitrary geometry by means of the accurate solution of the particle motion equation. Program allows the consideration of the bunch intensity up to 10(10) ppb. Preliminary calculations are performed at ITEP supercomputer. The results of the simulation of the beam pre-acceleration and following turn in magnetic field are presented for different initial conditions.

  4. Separated transonic airfoil flow calculations with a nonequilibrium turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, L. S.; Johnson, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Navier-Stokes transonic airfoil calculations based on a recently developed nonequilibrium, turbulence closure model are presented for a supercritical airfoil section at transonic cruise conditions and for a conventional airfoil section at shock-induced stall conditions. Comparisons with experimental data are presented which show that this nonequilibrium closure model performs significantly better than the popular Baldwin-Lomax and Cebeci-Smith equilibrium algebraic models when there is boundary-layer separation that results from the inviscid-viscous interactions.

  5. Model-free data analysis for source separation based on Non-Negative Matrix Factorization and k-means clustering (NMFk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesselinov, V. V.; Alexandrov, B.

    2014-12-01

    The identification of the physical sources causing spatial and temporal fluctuations of state variables such as river stage levels and aquifer hydraulic heads is challenging. The fluctuations can be caused by variations in natural and anthropogenic sources such as precipitation events, infiltration, groundwater pumping, barometric pressures, etc. The source identification and separation can be crucial for conceptualization of the hydrological conditions and characterization of system properties. If the original signals that cause the observed state-variable transients can be successfully "unmixed", decoupled physics models may then be applied to analyze the propagation of each signal independently. We propose a new model-free inverse analysis of transient data based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) method for Blind Source Separation (BSS) coupled with k-means clustering algorithm, which we call NMFk. NMFk is capable of identifying a set of unique sources from a set of experimentally measured mixed signals, without any information about the sources, their transients, and the physical mechanisms and properties controlling the signal propagation through the system. A classical BSS conundrum is the so-called "cocktail-party" problem where several microphones are recording the sounds in a ballroom (music, conversations, noise, etc.). Each of the microphones is recording a mixture of the sounds. The goal of BSS is to "unmix'" and reconstruct the original sounds from the microphone records. Similarly to the "cocktail-party" problem, our model-freee analysis only requires information about state-variable transients at a number of observation points, m, where m > r, and r is the number of unknown unique sources causing the observed fluctuations. We apply the analysis on a dataset from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) site. We identify and estimate the impact and sources are barometric pressure and water-supply pumping effects. We also estimate the

  6. A Separable, Dynamically Local Ontological Model of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienaar, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    A model of reality is called separable if the state of a composite system is equal to the union of the states of its parts, located in different regions of space. Spekkens has argued that it is trivial to reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics using a separable ontological model, provided one allows for arbitrary violations of `dynamical locality'. However, since dynamical locality is strictly weaker than local causality, this leaves open the question of whether an ontological model for quantum mechanics can be both separable and dynamically local. We answer this question in the affirmative, using an ontological model based on previous work by Deutsch and Hayden. Although the original formulation of the model avoids Bell's theorem by denying that measurements result in single, definite outcomes, we show that the model can alternatively be cast in the framework of ontological models, where Bell's theorem does apply. We find that the resulting model violates local causality, but satisfies both separability and dynamical locality, making it a candidate for the `most local' ontological model of quantum mechanics.

  7. Extended Nonnegative Tensor Factorisation Models for Musical Sound Source Separation

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Derry; Cranitch, Matt; Coyle, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recently, shift-invariant tensor factorisation algorithms have been proposed for the purposes of sound source separation of pitched musical instruments. However, in practice, existing algorithms require the use of log-frequency spectrograms to allow shift invariance in frequency which causes problems when attempting to resynthesise the separated sources. Further, it is difficult to impose harmonicity constraints on the recovered basis functions. This paper proposes a new additive synthesis-based approach which allows the use of linear-frequency spectrograms as well as imposing strict harmonic constraints, resulting in an improved model. Further, these additional constraints allow the addition of a source filter model to the factorisation framework, and an extended model which is capable of separating mixtures of pitched and percussive instruments simultaneously. PMID:18551178

  8. Application of Wall-modeled LES to Turbulent Separated Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Prahladh S.; Park, George I.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

    2016-11-01

    Resolved Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are unaffordable for very high Reynolds number (Re) wall-bounded flows. While the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based methods predict high Re attached flows accurately with little cost, their fidelity is degraded significantly in flows involving separation. A popular compromise between cost and accuracy is to use a Wall-modeled LES (WMLES) approach. In WMLES, the outer portion of the boundary layer is resolved with LES while the inner portion is modeled. In order to assess the performance of the widely used wall-stress models in separated flows, we perform WMLES simulations using an unstructured, compressible finite volume LES solver. The equilibrium and non-equilibrium wall models that require the solution of the simplified/full RANS on a separate near-wall domain are employed. Two configurations are studied: the shock-induced separation in a transonic flow over an axisymmetric bump placed on a cylinder, and a low-Mach flow past a NACA 4412 airfoil at a near-stall condition. Detailed comparisons will be made with available experimental data to comment on the applicability of WMLES in predicting complex turbulent flows involving separation.

  9. Optimal control of an asymptotic model of flow separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, Ubaid; Schmid, Peter; LFC-UK Team

    2015-11-01

    In the presence of surface imperfections, the boundary layer developing over an aircraft wing can separate and reattach, leading to a small separation bubble. We are interested in developing a low-order model that can be used to control the onset of separation at high Reynolds numbers typical of aircraft flight. In contrast to previous studies, we use a high Reynolds number asymptotic description of the Navier-Stokes equations to describe the motion of motion of the fluid. We obtain a steady solution to the nonlinear triple-deck equations for the separated flow over a small bump at high Reynolds numbers. We derive for the first time the adjoint of the nonlinear triple-deck equations and use it to study optimal control of the separated flow. We calculate the sensitivity of the properties of the separation bubble to local base flow modifications and steady forcing. We assess the validity of using this simplified asymptotic model by comparing our results with those obtained using the full Navier-Stokes equations.

  10. GPU accelerated numerical simulations of viscoelastic phase separation model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Keda; Su, Jiaye; Guo, Hongxia

    2012-07-05

    We introduce a complete implementation of viscoelastic model for numerical simulations of the phase separation kinetics in dynamic asymmetry systems such as polymer blends and polymer solutions on a graphics processing unit (GPU) by CUDA language and discuss algorithms and optimizations in details. From studies of a polymer solution, we show that the GPU-based implementation can predict correctly the accepted results and provide about 190 times speedup over a single central processing unit (CPU). Further accuracy analysis demonstrates that both the single and the double precision calculations on the GPU are sufficient to produce high-quality results in numerical simulations of viscoelastic model. Therefore, the GPU-based viscoelastic model is very promising for studying many phase separation processes of experimental and theoretical interests that often take place on the large length and time scales and are not easily addressed by a conventional implementation running on a single CPU.

  11. Nonparametric statistical modeling of binary star separations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heacox, William D.; Gathright, John

    1994-01-01

    We develop a comprehensive statistical model for the distribution of observed separations in binary star systems, in terms of distributions of orbital elements, projection effects, and distances to systems. We use this model to derive several diagnostics for estimating the completeness of imaging searches for stellar companions, and the underlying stellar multiplicities. In application to recent imaging searches for low-luminosity companions to nearby M dwarf stars, and for companions to young stars in nearby star-forming regions, our analyses reveal substantial uncertainty in estimates of stellar multiplicity. For binary stars with late-type dwarf companions, semimajor axes appear to be distributed approximately as a(exp -1) for values ranging from about one to several thousand astronomical units. About one-quarter of the companions to field F and G dwarf stars have semimajor axes less than 1 AU, and about 15% lie beyond 1000 AU. The geometric efficiency (fraction of companions imaged onto the detector) of imaging searches is nearly independent of distances to program stars and orbital eccentricities, and varies only slowly with detector spatial limitations.

  12. Dynamic Absorption Model for Off-Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2011-07-01

    Modeling and simulations will aid in the future design of U.S. advanced reprocessing plants for the recovery and recycle of actinides in used nuclear fuel. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, a rate based, dynamic absorption model is being developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include liquid and gas stream constituents, column properties, liquid and gas phase reactions, number of stages, and inlet conditions. It simulates multiple component absorption with countercurrent flow and accounts for absorption by mass transfer and chemical reaction. The assumption of each stage being a discrete well-mixed entity was made. Therefore, the model is solved stagewise. The simulation outputs component concentrations in both phases as a function of time from which the rate of absorption is determined. Temperature of both phases is output as a function of time also. The model will be used able to be used as a standalone model in addition to in series with other off-gas separation unit operations. The current model is being generated based on NOx absorption; however, a future goal is to develop a CO2 specific model. The model will have the capability to be modified for additional absorption systems. The off-gas models, both adsorption and absorption, will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

  13. Simple turbulence models and their application to boundary layer separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadcock, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements in the boundary layer and wake of a stalled airfoil are presented in two coordinate systems, one aligned with the airfoil chord, the other being conventional boundary layer coordinates. The NACA 4412 airfoil is studied at a single angle of attack corresponding to maximum lift, the Reynolds number based on chord being 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power. Turbulent boundary layer separation occurred at the 85 percent chord position. The two-dimensionality of the flow was documented and the momentum integral equation studied to illustrate the importance of turbulence contributions as separation is approached. The assumptions of simple eddy-viscosity and mixing-length turbulence models are checked directly against experiment. Curvature effects are found to be important as separation is approached.

  14. Battery Separators Based on Polyphenylquinoxaline Polymer Blends.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    concluded that PPQ/ Cellulose Acetate is a good candidate material for alkaline battery separators; however, because of cost considerations, it is not competative with similar state-of-the-art materials. (Author)

  15. Numerical modeling of active separation control by synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aram, Shawn

    Zero-Net Mass-Flux (ZNMF) actuators or synthetic jet actuators are versatile micro scale devices with numerous applications in the field of fluid mechanics. The primary focus of the current work is to use time-accurate simulations to study the interaction of these jets with cross flows and to optimize their performance for the control of boundary layer separation. This study consists of four parts. In the first part, a class of phenomenology-based models is proposed to reproduce the flow associated with synthetic jets in grazing flows and simplify the task of ZNMF-based flow control simulations. The proposed models have a non-uniform jet velocity profile with only two spatial degrees of freedom and a uniform slip velocity on the slot-flow boundary. A comparison of key integral quantities associated with the momentum, energy and vorticity fluxes shows that the models with a non-uniform jet velocity during the expulsion phase and uniform jet velocity during the ingestion phase can predict these quantities with good accuracy, whereas a simple plug flow model with a zero slip and uniform jet velocity under-predicts these three quantities during the expulsion phase. Based on our initial analysis, three of the simplest models are selected for further study, including an assessment of their performance for a canonical separated flow at different forcing frequencies. A key finding is that a simple plug-flow type model can predict incorrect trends for separation reduction with the jet frequency. A preliminary attempt is also made to provide empirical closure to these models. The effect of synthetic jets orientation on its interaction with a zero pressure gradient laminar boundary layer is explored in the second part. A rectangular slot is chosen in this study and streamwise and spanwise orientations of this slot are examined. The orientation of the slot is found to have a significant impact on its interaction with the boundary layer. The dominant feature in the streamwise

  16. Steam separator modeling for various nuclear reactor transients

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, C Y; Mullen, G; Knoess, C; Griffith, P

    1987-06-01

    In a pressurized water reactor steam generator, a moisture separator is used to separate steam and liquid and to insure that essentially dry steam is supplied to the turbine. During a steam line break or combined steam line break plus tube rupture, a number of phenomena can occur in the separator which have no counterparts during steady-state operation. How the separator will perform under these circumstances is important for two reasons, it affects the carry-over of radioactive iodine and the water inventory in the secondary side. This study has as its goal the development of a simple separator model which can be applied to a variety of steam generator for off-design conditions. Experiments were performed using air and water on three different types of centrifugal separators: a cyclone as a generic separator, a Combustion Engineering type stationary swirl vane separator, and a Westinghouse type separator. The cyclone separator system has three stages of separation: first the cyclone, then a gravity separator, and finally a chevron plate separator. The other systems have only a centrifugal separator to isolate the effect of the primary separator. Experiments were also done in MIT blowdown rig, with and without a separator, using steam and water. The separators appear to perform well at flow rates well above the design values as long as the downcomer water level is not high. High downcomer water level rather than high flow rates appear to be the primary cause of degraded performance. Appreciable carry-over from the separator section of a steam generator occurs when the drain lines from three stages of separation are unable to carry off the liquid flow. Failure scenarios of the separator for extreme range of conditions from the quasi-steady state transient to the fast transients are presented. A general model structure and simple separator models are provided.

  17. Membrane-based technologies for biogas separations.

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhankar; Khan, Asim L; Cano-Odena, Angels; Liu, Chunqing; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2010-02-01

    Over the past two decades, membrane processes have gained a lot of attention for the separation of gases. They have been found to be very suitable for wide scale applications owing to their reasonable cost, good selectivity and easily engineered modules. This critical review primarily focuses on the various aspects of membrane processes related to the separation of biogas, more in specific CO(2) and H(2)S removal from CH(4) and H(2) streams. Considering the limitations of inorganic materials for membranes, the present review will only focus on work done with polymeric materials. An overview on the performance of commercial membranes and lab-made membranes highlighting the problems associated with their applications will be given first. The development studies carried out to enhance the performance of membranes for gas separation will be discussed in the subsequent section. This review has been broadly divided into three sections (i) performance of commercial polymeric membranes (ii) performance of lab-made polymeric membranes and (iii) performance of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for gas separations. It will include structural modifications at polymer level, polymer blending, as well as synthesis of mixed matrix membranes, for which addition of silane-coupling agents and selection of suitable fillers will receive special attention. Apart from an overview of the different membrane materials, the study will also highlight the effects of different operating conditions that eventually decide the performance and longevity of membrane applications in gas separations. The discussion will be largely restricted to the studies carried out on polyimide (PI), cellulose acetate (CA), polysulfone (PSf) and polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) membranes, as these membrane materials have been most widely used for commercial applications. Finally, the most important strategies that would ensure new commercial applications will be discussed (156 references).

  18. How Many Separable Sources? Model Selection In Independent Components Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Roger P.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Strother, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mixtures consisting solely of non-Gaussian sources, mixtures including two or more Gaussian components cannot be separated using standard independent components analysis methods that are based on higher order statistics and independent observations. The mixed Independent Components Analysis/Principal Components Analysis (mixed ICA/PCA) model described here accommodates one or more Gaussian components in the independent components analysis model and uses principal components analysis to characterize contributions from this inseparable Gaussian subspace. Information theory can then be used to select from among potential model categories with differing numbers of Gaussian components. Based on simulation studies, the assumptions and approximations underlying the Akaike Information Criterion do not hold in this setting, even with a very large number of observations. Cross-validation is a suitable, though computationally intensive alternative for model selection. Application of the algorithm is illustrated using Fisher's iris data set and Howells' craniometric data set. Mixed ICA/PCA is of potential interest in any field of scientific investigation where the authenticity of blindly separated non-Gaussian sources might otherwise be questionable. Failure of the Akaike Information Criterion in model selection also has relevance in traditional independent components analysis where all sources are assumed non-Gaussian. PMID:25811988

  19. 5 CFR 831.503 - Retirement based on involuntary separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... separation. 831.503 Section 831.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... involuntary separation. (a) General. An employee who would otherwise be eligible for retirement based on involuntary separation from the service is not entitled to an annuity under section 8336(d)(1) of title...

  20. 5 CFR 831.503 - Retirement based on involuntary separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... separation. 831.503 Section 831.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... involuntary separation. (a) General. An employee who would otherwise be eligible for retirement based on involuntary separation from the service is not entitled to an annuity under section 8336(d)(1) of title...

  1. 5 CFR 831.503 - Retirement based on involuntary separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... separation. 831.503 Section 831.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... involuntary separation. (a) General. An employee who would otherwise be eligible for retirement based on involuntary separation from the service is not entitled to an annuity under section 8336(d)(1) of title...

  2. 5 CFR 831.503 - Retirement based on involuntary separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... separation. 831.503 Section 831.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... involuntary separation. (a) General. An employee who would otherwise be eligible for retirement based on involuntary separation from the service is not entitled to an annuity under section 8336(d)(1) of title...

  3. 5 CFR 831.503 - Retirement based on involuntary separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... separation. 831.503 Section 831.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... involuntary separation. (a) General. An employee who would otherwise be eligible for retirement based on involuntary separation from the service is not entitled to an annuity under section 8336(d)(1) of title...

  4. A computational model for swirl vane phase separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lider, Serhat

    The main objective of this study is to develop a mechanistic separator-dryer model for the TRAC-BF1 code to solve the problems associated with the modeling of the steam separation phenomena. This model, in a sense, is an extension to the existing separator-dryer model in the TRAC-BF1 code. The phasic velocities and the pressures for the vapor core and the liquid film regions of the swirl vane separator are solved by the use of phasic mass and momentum equations along with pressure drop. A new dryer efficiency model is also introduced. In this model, the dryer efficiency is calculated by the corrugated plate efficiency model. The important part of the study focuses on the implementation of the separator-dryer model to the code. The implementation uses the correct convective parameters in the solution of the conservation equation for the mixing cell of separator-dryer component. The model is tested and assessed against the experimental data, an actual reactor transient, and the results of the existing model. The results indicates that the new steam separation model is more accurate and more robust when compared to the separator-dryer model.

  5. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.

  6. Phase-field modeling of liquids splitting between separating surfaces and its application to high-resolution roll-based printing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizir, F. E.; Hardt, D. E.

    2017-05-01

    An in-depth understanding of the liquid transport in roll-based printing systems is essential for advancing the roll-based printing technology and enhancing the performance of the printed products. In this study, phase-field simulations are performed to characterize the liquid transport in roll-based printing systems, and the phase-field method is shown to be an effective tool to simulate the liquid transport. In the phase-field simulations, the liquid transport through the ink transfer rollers is approximated as the stretching and splitting of liquid bridges with pinned or moving contact lines between vertically separating surfaces. First, the effect of the phase-field parameters and the mesh characteristics on the simulation results is examined. The simulation results show that a sharp interface limit is approached as the capillary width decreases while keeping the mobility proportional to the capillary width squared. Close to the sharp interface limit, the mobility changes over a specified range are observed to have no significant influence on the simulation results. Next, the ink transfer from the cells on the surface of an ink-metering roller to the surface of stamp features is simulated. Under negligible inertial effects and in the absence of gravity, the amount of liquid ink transferred from an axisymmetric cell with low surface wettability to a stamp with high surface wettability is found to increase as the cell sidewall steepness and the cell surface wettability decrease and the stamp surface wettability and the capillary number increase. Strategies for improving the resolution and quality of roll-based printing are derived based on an analysis of the simulation results. The application of novel materials that contain cells with irregular surface topography to stamp inking in high-resolution roll-based printing is assessed.

  7. Optimal separable bases and molecular collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Lionel W.

    1997-12-01

    A new methodology is proposed for the efficient determination of Green`s functions and eigenstates for quantum systems of two or more dimensions. For a given Hamiltonian, the best possible separable approximation is obtained from the set of all Hilbert space operators. It is shown that this determination itself, as well as the solution of the resultant approximation, are problems of reduced dimensionality for most systems of physical interest. Moreover, the approximate eigenstates constitute the optimal separable basis, in the sense of self-consistent field theory. These distorted waves give rise to a Born series with optimized convergence properties. Analytical results are presented for an application of the method to the two-dimensional shifted harmonic oscillator system. The primary interest however, is quantum reactive scattering in molecular systems. For numerical calculations, the use of distorted waves corresponds to numerical preconditioning. The new methodology therefore gives rise to an optimized preconditioning scheme for the efficient calculation of reactive and inelastic scattering amplitudes, especially at intermediate energies. This scheme is particularly suited to discrete variable representations (DVR`s) and iterative sparse matrix methods commonly employed in such calculations. State to state and cumulative reactive scattering results obtained via the optimized preconditioner are presented for the two-dimensional collinear H + H2 → H2 + H system. Computational time and memory requirements for this system are drastically reduced in comparison with other methods, and results are obtained for previously prohibitive energy regimes.

  8. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  9. Separability of Item and Person Parameters in Response Time Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses two forms of separability of item and person parameters in the context of response time models. The first is "separate sufficiency," and the second is "ranking independence." For each form a theorem stating sufficient conditions is proved. The two forms are shown to include several cases of models from psychometric…

  10. Separability of Item and Person Parameters in Response Time Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses two forms of separability of item and person parameters in the context of response time models. The first is "separate sufficiency," and the second is "ranking independence." For each form a theorem stating sufficient conditions is proved. The two forms are shown to include several cases of models from psychometric…

  11. Probabilistic Modeling of Aircraft Trajectories for Dynamic Separation Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    With a proliferation of new and unconventional vehicles and operations expected in the future, the ab initio airspace design will require new approaches to trajectory prediction for separation assurance and other air traffic management functions. This paper presents an approach to probabilistic modeling of the trajectory of an aircraft when its intent is unknown. The approach uses a set of feature functions to constrain a maximum entropy probability distribution based on a set of observed aircraft trajectories. This model can be used to sample new aircraft trajectories to form an ensemble reflecting the variability in an aircraft's intent. The model learning process ensures that the variability in this ensemble reflects the behavior observed in the original data set. Computational examples are presented.

  12. Novel platform for minimizing cell loss on separation process: Droplet-based magnetically activated cell separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngho; Hong, Su; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Kangsun; Yun, Seok; Kang, Yuri; Paek, Kyeong-Kap; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Byungkyu

    2007-07-01

    To reduce the problem of cell loss due to adhesion, one of the basic phenomena in microchannel, we proposed the droplet-based magnetically activated cell separator (DMACS). Based on the platform of the DMACS—which consists of permanent magnets, a coverslip with a circle-shaped boundary, and an injection tube—we could collect magnetically (CD45)-labeled (positive) cells with high purity and minimize cell loss due to adhesion. To compare separation efficiency between the MACS and the DMACS, the total number of cells before and after separation with both the separators was counted by flow cytometry. We could find that the number (3241/59940) of cells lost in the DMACS is much less than that (22360/59940) in the MACS while the efficiency of cell separation in the DMACS (96.07%) is almost the same as that in the MACS (96.72%). Practically, with fluorescent images, it was visually confirmed that the statistical data are reliable. From the viability test by using Hoechst 33 342, it was also demonstrated that there was no cell damage on a gas-liquid interface. Conclusively, DMACS will be a powerful tool to separate rare cells and applicable as a separator, key component of lab-on-a-chip.

  13. Application of a Reynolds stress model to separating boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Sung HO

    1993-01-01

    Separating turbulent boundary layers occur in many practical engineering applications. Nonetheless, the physics of separation/reattachment of flows is poorly understood. During the past decade, various turbulence models were proposed and their ability to successfully predict some types of flows was shown. However. prediction of separating/reattaching flows is still a formidable task for model developers. The present study is concerned with the process of separation from a smooth surface. Features of turbulent separating boundary layers that are relevant to modeling include the following: the occurrence of zero wall shear stress, which causes breakdown of the boundary layer approximation; the law of the wall not being satisfied in the mean back flow region; high turbulence levels in the separated region; a significant low-frequency motion in the separation bubble; and the turbulence structure of the separated shear layer being quite different from that of either the mixing layers or the boundary layers. These special characteristics of separating boundary layers make it difficult for simple turbulence models to correctly predict their behavior.

  14. Modified Maxium Likelihood Estimation Method for Completely Separated and Quasi-Completely Separated Data for a Dose-Response Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    MODIFIED MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION METHOD FOR COMPLETELY SEPARATED AND QUASI-COMPLETELY SEPARATED DATA...Likelihood Estimation Method for Completely Separated and Quasi-Completely Separated Data for a Dose-Response Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...quasi-completely separated , the traditional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method generates infinite estimates. The bias-reduction (BR) method

  15. Numerical modeling, calibration, and validation of an ultrasonic separator.

    PubMed

    Cappon, Hans; Keesman, Karel J

    2013-03-01

    Our overall goal is to apply acoustic separation technology for the recovery of valuable particulate matter from wastewater in industry. Such large-scale separator systems require detailed design and evaluation to optimize the system performance at the earliest stage possible. Numerical models can facilitate and accelerate the design of this application; therefore, a finite element (FE) model of an ultrasonic particle separator is a prerequisite. In our application, the particle separator consists of a glass resonator chamber with a piezoelectric transducer attached to the glass by means of epoxy adhesive. Separation occurs most efficiently when the system is operated at its main eigenfrequency. The goal of the paper is to calibrate and validate a model of a demonstrator ultrasonic separator, preserving known physical parameters and estimating the remaining unknown or less-certain parameters to allow extrapolation of the model beyond the measured system. A two-step approach was applied to obtain a validated model of the separator. The first step involved the calibration of the piezoelectric transducer. The second step, the subject of this paper, involves the calibration and validation of the entire separator using nonlinear optimization techniques. The results show that the approach lead to a fully calibrated 2-D model of the empty separator, which was validated with experiments on a filled separator chamber. The large sensitivity of the separator to small variations indicated that such a system should either be made and operated within tight specifications to obtain the required performance or the operation of the system should be adaptable to cope with a slightly off-spec system, requiring a feedback controller.

  16. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    PubMed

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  17. Interactive Tooth Separation from Dental Model Using Segmentation Field

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tooth segmentation on dental model is an essential step of computer-aided-design systems for orthodontic virtual treatment planning. However, fast and accurate identifying cutting boundary to separate teeth from dental model still remains a challenge, due to various geometrical shapes of teeth, complex tooth arrangements, different dental model qualities, and varying degrees of crowding problems. Most segmentation approaches presented before are not able to achieve a balance between fine segmentation results and simple operating procedures with less time consumption. In this article, we present a novel, effective and efficient framework that achieves tooth segmentation based on a segmentation field, which is solved by a linear system defined by a discrete Laplace-Beltrami operator with Dirichlet boundary conditions. A set of contour lines are sampled from the smooth scalar field, and candidate cutting boundaries can be detected from concave regions with large variations of field data. The sensitivity to concave seams of the segmentation field facilitates effective tooth partition, as well as avoids obtaining appropriate curvature threshold value, which is unreliable in some case. Our tooth segmentation algorithm is robust to dental models with low quality, as well as is effective to dental models with different levels of crowding problems. The experiments, including segmentation tests of varying dental models with different complexity, experiments on dental meshes with different modeling resolutions and surface noises and comparison between our method and the morphologic skeleton segmentation method are conducted, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of our method. PMID:27532266

  18. Chitosan-based membrane chromatography for protein adsorption and separation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yezhuo; Feng, Zhicheng; Shao, Zhengzhong; Chen, Xin

    2012-08-01

    A chitosan-based membrane chromatography was set up by using natural chitosan/carboxymethylchitosan (CS/CMCS) blend membrane as the matrix. The dynamic adsorption property for protein (lysozyme as model protein) was detailed discussed with the change in pore size of the membrane, the flow rate and the initial concentration of the feed solution, and the layer of membrane in membrane stack. The best dynamic adsorption capacity of lysozyme on the CS/CMCS membrane chromatography was found to be 15.3mg/mL under the optimal flow conditions. Moreover, the CS/CMCS membrane chromatography exhibited good repeatability and reusability with the desorption efficiency of ~90%. As an application, lysozyme and ovalbumin were successfully separated from their binary mixture through the CS/CMCS membrane chromatography. This implies that such a natural chitosan-based membrane chromatography may have great potential on the bioseparation field in the future.

  19. Linear solvation energy relationships in normal phase chromatography based on gradient separations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Lucy, Charles A

    2017-09-22

    Coupling the modified Soczewiñski model and one gradient run, a gradient method was developed to build a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) for normal phase chromatography. The gradient method was tested on dinitroanilinopropyl (DNAP) and silica columns with hexane/dichloromethane (DCM) mobile phases. LSER models built based on the gradient separation agree with those derived from a series of isocratic separations. Both models have similar LSER coefficients and comparable goodness of fit, but the LSER model based on gradient separation required fewer trial and error experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Digital microfluidic magnetic separation for particle-based immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alphonsus H C; Choi, Kihwan; Luoma, Robert P; Robinson, John M; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2012-10-16

    We introduce a new format for particle-based immunoassays relying on digital microfluidics (DMF) and magnetic forces to separate and resuspend antibody-coated paramagnetic particles. In DMF, fluids are electrostatically controlled as discrete droplets (picoliters to microliters) on an array of insulated electrodes. By applying appropriate sequences of potentials to these electrodes, multiple droplets can be manipulated simultaneously and various droplet operations can be achieved using the same device design. This flexibility makes DMF well-suited for applications that require complex, multistep protocols such as immunoassays. Here, we report the first particle-based immunoassay on DMF without the aid of oil carrier fluid to enable droplet movement (i.e., droplets are surrounded by air instead of oil). This new format allowed the realization of a novel on-chip particle separation and resuspension method capable of removing greater than 90% of unbound reagents in one step. Using this technique, we developed methods for noncompetitive and competitive immunoassays, using thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and 17β-estradiol (E2) as model analytes, respectively. We show that, compared to conventional methods, the new DMF approach reported here reduced reagent volumes and analysis time by 100-fold and 10-fold, respectively, while retaining a level of analytical performance required for clinical screening. Thus, we propose that the new technique has great potential for eventual use in a fast, low-waste, and inexpensive instrument for the quantitative analysis of proteins and small molecules in low sample volumes.

  1. Downscaling Smooth Tomographic Models: Separating Intrinsic and Apparent Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Thomas; Capdeville, Yann; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a number of tomographic models based on full waveform inversion have been published. Due to computational constraints, the fitted waveforms are low pass filtered, which results in an inability to map features smaller than half the shortest wavelength. However, these tomographic images are not a simple spatial average of the true model, but rather an effective, apparent, or equivalent model that provides a similar 'long-wave' data fit. For example, it can be shown that a series of horizontal isotropic layers will be seen by a 'long wave' as a smooth anisotropic medium. In this way, the observed anisotropy in tomographic models is a combination of intrinsic anisotropy produced by lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of minerals, and apparent anisotropy resulting from the incapacity of mapping discontinuities. Interpretations of observed anisotropy (e.g. in terms of mantle flow) requires therefore the separation of its intrinsic and apparent components. The "up-scaling" relations that link elastic properties of a rapidly varying medium to elastic properties of the effective medium as seen by long waves are strongly non-linear and their inverse highly non-unique. That is, a smooth homogenized effective model is equivalent to a large number of models with discontinuities. In the 1D case, Capdeville et al (GJI, 2013) recently showed that a tomographic model which results from the inversion of low pass filtered waveforms is an homogenized model, i.e. the same as the model computed by upscaling the true model. Here we propose a stochastic method to sample the ensemble of layered models equivalent to a given tomographic profile. We use a transdimensional formulation where the number of layers is variable. Furthermore, each layer may be either isotropic (1 parameter) or intrinsically anisotropic (2 parameters). The parsimonious character of the Bayesian inversion gives preference to models with the least number of parameters (i.e. least number of layers, and

  2. DNA Based Electrolyte/Separator for Lithium Battery Application (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-07

    electronics to hybrid and electric vehicles . Two general categories of secondary batteries are mainly explored: the first are liquid electrolyte metal-ion...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0302 DNA BASED ELECTROLYTE/SEPARATOR FOR LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATION (POSTPRINT) Jitendra Kumar1, Fahima...BASED ELECTROLYTE/SEPARATOR FOR LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATION (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-D-5405-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  3. Biophysical separation of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains based on antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Paul V.; Huey, Shannon; Davis, Paige; McLemore, Ryan; McLaren, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic approaches to separations can provide unique capabilities. In the past, capillary and microchip-based approaches to electrophoresis have demonstrated extremely high-resolution separations. More recently, dielectrophoretic systems have shown excellent results for the separation of bioparticles. Here we demonstrate resolution of a difficult pair of targets: gentamicin resistant and susceptible strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. This separation has significant potential implications for healthcare. This establishes a foundation for biophysical separations as a direct diagnostic tool, potentially improving nearly every figure of merit for diagnostics and antibiotic stewardship. The separations are performed on a modified gradient insulator-based dielectrophoresis (g-iDEP) system and demonstrate that the presence of antibiotic resistance enzymes (or secondary effects) produces a sufficient degree of electrophysical difference to allow separation. The differentiating factor is the ratio of electrophoretic to dielectrophoretic mobilities. This factor is 4.6 ± 0.6 × 109 V m–2 for the resistant strain, versus 9.2 ± 0.4 × 109 V m–2 for the susceptible strain. Using g-iDEP separation, this difference produces clear and easily discerned differentiation of the two strains. PMID:26086047

  4. Limitations of Adjoint-Based Optimization for Separated Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, J. Javier; Sharma, Ati; Sandberg, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Cabin noise is generated by the transmission of turbulent pressure fluctuations through a vibrating panel and can lead to fatigue. In the present study, we model this problem by using DNS to simulate the flow separating off a backward facing step and interacting with a plate downstream of the step. An adjoint formulation of the full compressible Navier-Stokes equations with varying viscosity is used to calculate the optimal control required to minimize the fluid-structure-acoustic interaction with the plate. To achieve noise reduction, a cost function in wavenumber space is chosen to minimize the excitation of the lower structural modes of the structure. To ensure the validity of time-averaged cost functions, it is essential that the time horizon is long enough to be a representative sample of the statistical behaviour of the flow field. The results from the current study show how this scenario is not always feasible for separated flows, because the chaotic behaviour of turbulence surpasses the ability of adjoint-based methods to compute time-dependent sensitivities of the flow.

  5. 38 CFR 21.7045 - Eligibility based on involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational... Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Eligibility § 21.7045 Eligibility based on involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program. An...

  6. Blood separation on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Dungchai, Wijitar; Chailapakul, Orawon; Henry, Charles S; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2012-09-21

    A microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) for the separation of blood plasma from whole blood is described. The device can separate plasma from whole blood and quantify plasma proteins in a single step. The μPAD was fabricated using the wax dipping method, and the final device was composed of a blood separation membrane combined with patterned Whatman No.1 paper. Blood separation membranes, LF1, MF1, VF1 and VF2 were tested for blood separation on the μPAD. The LF1 membrane was found to be the most suitable for blood separations when fabricating the μPAD by wax dipping. For blood separation, the blood cells (both red and white) were trapped on blood separation membrane allowing pure plasma to flow to the detection zone by capillary force. The LF1-μPAD was shown to be functional with human whole blood of 24-55% hematocrit without dilution, and effectively separated blood cells from plasma within 2 min when blood volumes of between 15-22 μL were added to the device. Microscopy was used to confirm that the device isolated plasma with high purity with no blood cells or cell hemolysis in the detection zone. The efficiency of blood separation on the μPAD was studied by plasma protein detection using the bromocresol green (BCG) colorimetric assay. The results revealed that protein detection on the μPAD was not significantly different from the conventional method (p > 0.05, pair t-test). The colorimetric measurement reproducibility on the μPAD was 2.62% (n = 10) and 5.84% (n = 30) for within-day and between day precision, respectively. Our proposed blood separation on μPAD has the potential for reducing turnaround time, sample volume, sample preparation and detection processes for clinical diagnosis and point-of care testing.

  7. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Using Recursive, Spatially Separated, Overlapping Model Subsystems Mixed within an ONIOM-Based Fragmentation Energy Extrapolation Technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjie; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2015-09-08

    Here, we demonstrate the application of fragment-based electronic structure calculations in (a) ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and (b) reduced dimensional potential calculations, for medium- and large-sized protonated water clusters. The specific fragmentation algorithm used here is derived from ONIOM, but includes multiple, overlapping “model” systems. The interaction between the various overlapping model systems is (a) approximated by invoking the principle of inclusion-exclusion at the chosen higher level of theory and (b) within a real calculation performed at the chosen lower level of theory. The fragmentation algorithm itself is written using bit-manipulation arithmetic, which will prove to be advantageous, since the number of fragments in such methods has the propensity to grow exponentially with system size. Benchmark calculations are performed for three different protonated water clusters: H₉O₄⁺, H₁₃O₆⁺ and H(H₂O)₂₁⁺. For potential energy surface benchmarks, we sample the normal coordinates and compare our surface energies with full MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations. The mean absolute error for the fragment-based algorithm is <0.05 kcal/mol, when compared with MP2 calculations, and <0.07 kcal/mol, when compared with CCSD(T) calculations over 693 different geometries for the H₉O₄⁺ system. For the larger H(H₂O)₂₁⁺ water cluster, the mean absolute error is on the order of a 0.1 kcal/mol, when compared with full MP2 calculations for 84 different geometries, at a fraction of the computational cost. Ab initio dynamics calculations were performed for H₉O₄⁺ and H₁₃O₆⁺, and the energy conservation was found to be of the order of 0.01 kcal/mol for short trajectories (on the order of a picosecond). The trajectories were kept short because our algorithm does not currently include dynamical fragmentation, which will be considered in future publications. Nevertheless, the velocity autocorrelation functions and their

  8. Size-based separations of proteins by capillary electrophoresis using linear polyacrylamide as a sieving medium: model studies and analysis of cider proteins.

    PubMed

    Gomis, Domingo Blanco; Junco, Sara; Expósito, Yoana; Gutiérrez, Ma Dolores

    2003-05-01

    Electrophoretic conditions to separate sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein complexes according to their relative molecular mass by capillary electrophoresis (CE) using linear polyacrylamide as a sieving matrix were examined. Five purified proteins with relative molecular masses between 14 400 and 66 200 Da were separated on a coated fused-silica capillary with an internal diameter of 100 microm and an effective length of 24 cm (total length, 32.5 cm). Benzoic acid was added to the solution of purified proteins as internal standard; beta-mercaptoethanol was also added as reducing agent. The running buffer composition was 0.05 M tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), 0.035 M aspartic acid, 0.1% m/v SDS, 4% m/v acrylamide, the resulting pH being 8.0. The applied voltage was 7 kV (reversed voltage polarity) in order to avoid high current intensities. Under optimized conditions, the five proteins were separated in less than 15 min, with a % relative standard deviation (RSD) between 0.2 and 0.4 for migration times in the same day. Good efficiency (values between 150 000 and 40 000 N/m) and resolution (values between 2 and 2.8) were obtained. The inverse of relative migration times was found to correlate with the logarithm of their relative molecular mass. Finally, cider proteins were analyzed and their relative molecular masses were determined. These results were compared with those obtained by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

  9. Metal-organic frameworks for membrane-based separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Michael S.; Moreton, Jessica C.; Benz, Lauren; Cohen, Seth M.

    2016-12-01

    As research into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) enters its third decade, efforts are naturally shifting from fundamental studies to applications, utilizing the unique features of these materials. Engineered forms of MOFs, such as membranes and films, are being investigated to transform laboratory-synthesized MOF powders to industrially viable products for separations, chemical sensors and catalysts. Following encouraging demonstrations of gas separations using MOF-based membranes, liquid-phase separations are now being explored in an effort to build effective membranes for these settings. In this Review, we highlight MOF applications that are in their nascent stages, specifically liquid-phase separations using MOF-based mixed-matrix membranes. We also highlight the analytical techniques that provide important insights into these materials, particularly at surfaces and interfaces, to better understand MOFs and their interactions with other materials, which will ultimately lead to their use in advanced technologies.

  10. Battery separators based on polyphenylquinoxaline polymer blends. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Angres, I.; Kowalchik, L.; Parkhurst, W.

    1981-04-01

    This document is a final report on battery separators based on polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) polymer blends. The report describes the preparation of the polymer blends and their extrusion into membranes, reports a series of quality assurance tests for the membranes, and reports cycle life testing of the new membranes. The test results for the PPQ blend membranes are compared with the results obtained for standard separator membranes. It is concluded that PPQ/Cellulose Acetate is a good candidate material for alkaline battery separators; however, because of cost considerations, it is not competative with similar state-of-the-art materials.

  11. Separations systems data base: a users' manual. Revision I

    SciTech Connect

    Roddy, J.W.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    A separations systems data base (SEPSYS), designed specifically for the retrieval of information needed in chemical separations problems (i.e., how to perform a given separation under given conditions), is described. Included are descriptions of the basic methods of searching and retrieving information from the data base, the procedure for entering records into the data base, a listing of additional references concerning the computer information process, and an example of a typical record. The initial entries are concerned primarily with liquid-liquid extraction and liquid-solid ion exchange methods for metal ions and salts; however, the data base is constructed so that almost any separation process can be accommodated. Each record is indexed with information provided under the following fields: author; title; publication source; date of publication; organization sponsoring the work; brief abstract of the work; abstract number if the work has been so referenced, and/or abstractors initials; type of separation system used (e.g., flotation); specific or generic name of the separation agent used (e.g., acetylacetone); list of substances separated (e.g., gold, copper); qualitative description of the supporting medium or matrix containing the substances before separation (e.g., nitrate); type of literature where the record was printed (e.g., book); and type of information that the article contains. Each of these fields may be searched independently of the others (or in combination), and the last six fields contain specific key words that are listed in the report. Definitions are provided for the 36 information terms.

  12. A Convex Geometry-Based Blind Source Separation Method for Separating Nonnegative Sources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zuyuan; Xiang, Yong; Rong, Yue; Xie, Kan

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a convex geometry (CG)-based method for blind separation of nonnegative sources. First, the unaccessible source matrix is normalized to be column-sum-to-one by mapping the available observation matrix. Then, its zero-samples are found by searching the facets of the convex hull spanned by the mapped observations. Considering these zero-samples, a quadratic cost function with respect to each row of the unmixing matrix, together with a linear constraint in relation to the involved variables, is proposed. Upon which, an algorithm is presented to estimate the unmixing matrix by solving a classical convex optimization problem. Unlike the traditional blind source separation (BSS) methods, the CG-based method does not require the independence assumption, nor the uncorrelation assumption. Compared with the BSS methods that are specifically designed to distinguish between nonnegative sources, the proposed method requires a weaker sparsity condition. Provided simulation results illustrate the performance of our method.

  13. Modeling and testing of a tube-in-tube separation mechanism of bodies in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Dan; Gany, Alon

    2016-12-01

    A tube-in-tube concept for separation of bodies in space was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The separation system is based on generation of high pressure gas by combustion of solid propellant and restricting the expansion of the gas only by ejecting the two bodies in opposite directions, in such a fashion that maximizes generated impulse. An interior ballistics model was developed in order to investigate the potential benefits of the separation system for a large range of space body masses and for different design parameters such as geometry and propellant. The model takes into account solid propellant combustion, heat losses, and gas phase chemical reactions. The model shows that for large bodies (above 100 kg) and typical separation velocities of 5 m/s, the proposed separation mechanism may be characterized by a specific impulse of 25,000 s, two order of magnitude larger than that of conventional solid rockets. It means that the proposed separation system requires only 1% of the propellant mass that would be needed for a conventional rocket for the same mission. Since many existing launch vehicles obtain such separation velocities by using conventional solid rocket motors (retro-rockets), the implementation of the new separation system design can reduce dramatically the mass of the separation system and increase safety. A dedicated experimental setup was built in order to demonstrate the concept and validate the model. The experimental results revealed specific impulse values of up to 27,000 s and showed good correspondence with the model.

  14. THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM ISOTOPES BY GASEOUS DIFFUSION: A LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    URANIUM, ISOTOPE SEPARATION), (*GASEOUS DIFFUSION SEPARATION, LINEAR PROGRAMMING ), (* LINEAR PROGRAMMING , GASEOUS DIFFUSION SEPARATION), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, GAS FLOW, NUCLEAR REACTORS, OPERATIONS RESEARCH

  15. Mathematical modeling and remote monitoring of ion-exchange separation of transplutonium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Tselishchev, I.V.; Elesin, A.A.

    1988-07-01

    A mathematical model and calculational algorithms for the elution curves for ion-exchange separation of transplutonium elements (TPE) and the limits of optimal fractionation of the substances being separated, based on indicators of the process (yield, purification), are presented. The calculational programs are part of the programming provision of a small informational-calculational system based on the microcomputer Elektronika DZ-28, intended for remote monitoring of TPE separation. The elaborated programs can be implemented in the preliminary choice of necessary conditions of the TPE separation process, and also during and after the separation process for comparison of calculated results with the results of continuous, on-line remote monitoring and with the results of laboratory sample analysis. The possible application of the programs has been checked in the instance of the separation of curium and americium, and einsteinium and californium, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with the results of remote and laboratory-analytical monitoring.

  16. Drop Size Distribution - Based Separation of Stratiform and Convective Rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurai, Merhala; Gatlin, Patrick; Williams, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    For applications in hydrology and meteorology, it is often desirable to separate regions of stratiform and convective rain from meteorological radar observations, both from ground-based polarimetric radars and from space-based dual frequency radars. In a previous study by Bringi et al. (2009), dual frequency profiler and dual polarization radar (C-POL) observations in Darwin, Australia, had shown that stratiform and convective rain could be separated in the log10(Nw) versus Do domain, where Do is the mean volume diameter and Nw is the scaling parameter which is proportional to the ratio of water content to the mass weighted mean diameter. Note, Nw and Do are two of the main drop size distribution (DSD) parameters. In a later study, Thurai et al (2010) confirmed that both the dual-frequency profiler based stratiform-convective rain separation and the C-POL radar based separation were consistent with each other. In this paper, we test this separation method using DSD measurements from a ground based 2D video disdrometer (2DVD), along with simultaneous observations from a collocated, vertically-pointing, X-band profiling radar (XPR). The measurements were made in Huntsville, Alabama. One-minute DSDs from 2DVD are used as input to an appropriate gamma fitting procedure to determine Nw and Do. The fitted parameters - after averaging over 3-minutes - are plotted against each other and compared with a predefined separation line. An index is used to determine how far the points lie from the separation line (as described in Thurai et al. 2010). Negative index values indicate stratiform rain and positive index indicate convective rain, and, moreover, points which lie somewhat close to the separation line are considered 'mixed' or 'transition' type precipitation. The XPR observations are used to evaluate/test the 2DVD data-based classification. A 'bright-band' detection algorithm was used to classify each vertical reflectivity profile as either stratiform or convective

  17. Mathematical model for multicomponent separations on the continuous annular chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Bratzler, R.L.; Begovich, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A model for multicomponent separations on ion exchange columns has been adapted for use in studying the performance of the continuous annular chromatograph. The model accurately predicts solute peak positions in the column effluent and qualitatively predicts trends in solute effluent resolution as a function of increasing bandwidth of the solute feed pulse. The major virtues of the model are its simplicity in terms of the calculations involved and the fact that it incorporates the nonlinear solute-resin binding isotherms common in many ion exchange separations. Because dispersion effects are not accounted for in the model, discrepancies exist between the shapes of the effluent peaks predicted by the model and those determined experimentally.

  18. Spectral separation of optical spin based on antisymmetric Fano resonances

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Xianji; Yu, Sunkyu; Hong, Jiho; Park, Namkyoo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a route to the spectral separation of optical spin angular momentum based on spin-dependent Fano resonances with antisymmetric spectral profiles. By developing a spin-form coupled mode theory for chiral materials, the origin of antisymmetric Fano spectra is clarified in terms of the opposite temporal phase shift for each spin, which is the result of counter-rotating spin eigenvectors. An analytical expression of a spin-density Fano parameter is derived to enable quantitative analysis of the Fano-induced spin separation in the spectral domain. As an application, we demonstrate optical spin switching utilizing the extreme spectral sensitivity of the spin-density reversal. Our result paves a path toward the conservative spectral separation of spins without any need of the magneto-optical effect or circular dichroism, achieving excellent purity in spin density superior to conventional approaches based on circular dichroism. PMID:26561372

  19. Plastic substrates based separation channels in electromigration techniques.

    PubMed

    Charvátová, Jana; Deyl, Zdenek; Klevar, Miroslav; Miksík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam

    2004-02-05

    Three types of plastic materials (polyester, polyurethane and polymethylmethacrylate) were tested as materials for manufacturing separation columns (polyester and polyurethane capillaries were used) or separation channels (polymethylmethacrylate) in the chip format. A set of 11 fluorescein isothiocyanate amino acid derivatives was used as the test mixture. Using alpha-cyclodextrin additive to the background electrolyte in the case of the chip separation was also tested. The main problem with all plastic separation media was the selectivity of the separation. The best results, practically identical with bare fused silica capillary, were obtained with the polymethylmethacrylate chip, provided that alpha-cyclodextrin in a concentration 40 mmol/l was added to the background electrolyte. An important observation was that in SDS containing background electrolyte all the plastic materials used exhibited a distinct electroosmotic flow, which was ascribe to the sorption of the negatively charged constituents of the background electrolyte to the capillary wall. Regarding the order in which the individual components of the test mixture were brought to the detector only a single change was observed. Histidine migrated in the polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate separation channels more slowly than in the bare silica or polyurethane based capillaries.

  20. Modeling and Analysis on Pervaporation Separation of Composite Zeolite Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Stewart

    Pervaporation is a membrane separation technology that has had industrial application and which is the subject of ongoing research. Two major factors are important in judging the quality of a membrane: selectivity and permeation flux. Although many types of materials can be used for the separation layer, zeolites will be the material considered in this thesis. A simple mathematical model has been developed to demonstrate the inter-relationships between relative permeation flux, reduced selectivity, and the relative resistance to mass transfer of the support to the zeolite layer. The model was applied to several membranes from our laboratory and to two examples from the literature. The model offers a useful way of conceptualizing membrane performance and facilitates the comparison of different membrane performances. The model predicts the effect of different supports on zeolite supported membrane performance.

  1. Improved Separability Criteria Based on Bloch Representation of Density Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shu-Qian; Yu, Juan; Li, Ming; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The correlation matrices or tensors in the Bloch representation of density matrices are encoded with entanglement properties. In this paper, based on the Bloch representation of density matrices, we give some new separability criteria for bipartite and multipartite quantum states. Theoretical analysis and some examples show that the proposed criteria can be more efficient than the previous related criteria. PMID:27350031

  2. Modeling and simulation of steady state model approach for horizontal three phase separator (HTPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triwibowo, Bayu; Prasetiawan, Haniif; Hisyam, Anwaruddin; Fauzan, Mohammad Fariz; Rizky, Muhammad Habib Fahd

    2017-03-01

    Main function of oil production facility is to separate oil well stream into three phases i.e. oil, gas and water. A vessel called three phase separator is used for this purpose, commonly in horizontal arrangement. In order to optimize the process, an accurate model for horizontal three phase separator (HTPS) is needed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool capable of simulating a wide range of fluid flows. HTPS dimensions used in this simulation were taken from one of oil and gas company in Indonesia. The CFD simulation used in this study is based on volume of fluid and k-ɛ turbulence models. Gas outlet was assumed using porous media zone model with fluid porosity 0.99. Simulation result displayed concentration and velocity distribution for each component inside HTPS. The result of concentration distribution shows that the region of fluid divided into upper region and lower region. The lower region major component were water and upper region mainly consist of gas and oil. The contour of concentration distribution indicated a good separation process with distribution of water flow rate at the outlet of water, oil, and gas respectively are 405,67; 115,65; and 172.01 lb/min

  3. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin: Separation of Monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneault, A.; Johnson, D. K.; Chornet, E.

    2007-12-01

    In our quest for fractionating lignocellulosic biomass and valorizing specific constitutive fractions, we have developed a strategy for the separation of 12 added value monomers generated during the hydrolytic based-catalyzed depolymerization of a Steam Exploded Aspen Lignin. The separation strategy combines liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE), followed by vacuum distillation, liquid chromatography (LC) and crystallization. LLE, vacuum distillation and flash LC were tested experimentally. Batch vacuum distillation produced up to 4 fractions. Process simulation confirmed that a series of 4 vacuum distillation columns could produce 5 distinct monomer streams, 3 of which require further chromatography and crystallization for purification.

  4. Subspace-Based Bayesian Blind Source Separation for Hyperspectral Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Subspace-based Bayesian blind source separation for hyperspectral imagery Nicolas Dobigeon∗, Saı̈d Moussaoui †, Martial Coulon∗, Jean-Yves Tourneret... Moussaoui , J.-Y. Tourneret, and C. Carteret, “Bayesian separation of spectral sources under non-negativity and full additivity constraints,” Sig. Proc...vol. 89, no. 12, pp. 2657–2669, Dec. 2009. [3] S. Moussaoui , D. Brie, A. Mohammad-Djafari, and C. Carteret, “Sepa- ration of non-negative mixture

  5. Dynamic Computational Model of Symptomatic Bacteremia to Inform Bacterial Separation Treatment Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sinead E.; Bell, Charleson S.; Cover, Timothy L.; Giorgio, Todd D.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of multi-drug resistance has decreased the effectiveness of antibiotics, which has led to increased mortality rates associated with symptomatic bacteremia, or bacterial sepsis. To combat decreasing antibiotic effectiveness, extracorporeal bacterial separation approaches have been proposed to capture and separate bacteria from blood. However, bacteremia is dynamic and involves host-pathogen interactions across various anatomical sites. We developed a mathematical model that quantitatively describes the kinetics of pathogenesis and progression of symptomatic bacteremia under various conditions, including bacterial separation therapy, to better understand disease mechanisms and quantitatively assess the biological impact of bacterial separation therapy. Model validity was tested against experimental data from published studies. This is the first multi-compartment model of symptomatic bacteremia in mammals that includes extracorporeal bacterial separation and antibiotic treatment, separately and in combination. The addition of an extracorporeal bacterial separation circuit reduced the predicted time of total bacteria clearance from the blood of an immunocompromised rodent by 49%, compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Implementation of bacterial separation therapy resulted in predicted multi-drug resistant bacterial clearance from the blood of a human in 97% less time than antibiotic treatment alone. The model also proposes a quantitative correlation between time-dependent bacterial load among tissues and bacteremia severity, analogous to the well-known ‘area under the curve’ for characterization of drug efficacy. The engineering-based mathematical model developed may be useful for informing the design of extracorporeal bacterial separation devices. This work enables the quantitative identification of the characteristics required of an extracorporeal bacteria separation device to provide biological benefit. These devices will potentially decrease the

  6. Dynamic Computational Model of Symptomatic Bacteremia to Inform Bacterial Separation Treatment Requirements.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sinead E; Bell, Charleson S; McClain, Mark S; Cover, Timothy L; Giorgio, Todd D

    The rise of multi-drug resistance has decreased the effectiveness of antibiotics, which has led to increased mortality rates associated with symptomatic bacteremia, or bacterial sepsis. To combat decreasing antibiotic effectiveness, extracorporeal bacterial separation approaches have been proposed to capture and separate bacteria from blood. However, bacteremia is dynamic and involves host-pathogen interactions across various anatomical sites. We developed a mathematical model that quantitatively describes the kinetics of pathogenesis and progression of symptomatic bacteremia under various conditions, including bacterial separation therapy, to better understand disease mechanisms and quantitatively assess the biological impact of bacterial separation therapy. Model validity was tested against experimental data from published studies. This is the first multi-compartment model of symptomatic bacteremia in mammals that includes extracorporeal bacterial separation and antibiotic treatment, separately and in combination. The addition of an extracorporeal bacterial separation circuit reduced the predicted time of total bacteria clearance from the blood of an immunocompromised rodent by 49%, compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Implementation of bacterial separation therapy resulted in predicted multi-drug resistant bacterial clearance from the blood of a human in 97% less time than antibiotic treatment alone. The model also proposes a quantitative correlation between time-dependent bacterial load among tissues and bacteremia severity, analogous to the well-known 'area under the curve' for characterization of drug efficacy. The engineering-based mathematical model developed may be useful for informing the design of extracorporeal bacterial separation devices. This work enables the quantitative identification of the characteristics required of an extracorporeal bacteria separation device to provide biological benefit. These devices will potentially decrease the

  7. Shape-based separation of microparticles with magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Ran

    2016-11-01

    Precise manipulations, e.g., sorting and focusing, of nonspherical micro-particles in fluidic environment has important applications in the fields of biology sciences and biomedical engineering. However, non-spherical microparticles are hard to manipulate because they tumble in shear flows. Most of existing techniques, including traditional filtration and centrifugation, and recent microfluidic technology, have difficulty in separating microparticles by shape. We demonstrate a novel shape-based separation technique by combining external magnetic fields with pressure-driven flows in a microchannel. Due to the magnetic field, prolate ellipsoidal particles migrate laterally at different speeds than the spherical ones, leading to effective separation. Our experimental investigations reveal the underlying physical mechanism of the observed shape-dependent migration. We find that the magnetic field breaks the rotational symmetry of the nonspherical particles, and induces shape-dependent lift force and migration velocity.

  8. On the modeling of separation foils in thermoforming simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margossian, Alexane; Bel, Sylvain; Hinterhölzl, Roland

    2016-10-01

    Composite forming simulations consist in modelling the forming process of composite components to anticipate the occurrence of potential flaws such as out-of-plane wrinkles and fibre re-orientation. Forming methods often consist of automated processes in which flat composite blanks are forced to comply with tool geometries. Although Finite Element forming simulations require the modelling of all stakeholders (blankholder, tooling and composite blank), consumables such as separation films are often not considered. Used in thermoforming processes, these films are placed between tooling and composite to ease part removal after forming. These films are also used to decrease tool/ply friction and thus, enhance forming quality. This work presents thermoforming simulations of pre-impregnated carbon fibre thermoplastic blanks in which separation films are modelled in the same manner as composite layers, i.e. by a layer of shell elements. The mechanical properties of such films are also characterised at the same temperature as forming occurs. The proposed approach is finally compared to the actual modelling method, in which separation films are not modelled as such but in which their influence is only considered within the friction coefficient between tooling and blank.

  9. Modeling multicomponent gas separation using hollow-fiber membrane contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, D.T.; Freeman, B.D.; Fleming, G.K.

    1998-06-01

    A model developed for multicomponent gas separation using hollow-fiber contactors permits simulation of cocurrent, countercurrent, and crossflow contacting patterns with permeate purging (or sweep). The numerical approach proposed permits simulation to much higher stage cuts than previously published work and provides rapid and stable solutions for cases with many components, with widely varying permeability coefficients. This new approach also permits the rational and straightforward incorporation of effects such as permeate sweep, pressure-dependent permeability coefficients, and bore side pressure gradients. Simulation results are presented for separation of commercially significant multicomponent gas mixtures using polymer permeation properties similar to those of polysulfone. The effect of permeate purging on separation performance is explored for air separation. The influence of pressure ratio on hydrogen separation performance for a refinery stream is presented. Air is modeled as a four-component mixture of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O and the refinery stream contains five components: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. In air separation, permeate purging with a small fraction of the residue stream provides a very effective method for improving module efficiency for drying but is not efficient for improving nitrogen purity or recovery. In multicomponent mixtures, maxima in the compositions of components of intermediate permeability may be observed as a function of distance along the hollow fiber. This result suggests the use of membrane staging to capture these components at their maximum concentration.

  10. Separating Stars and Galaxies Probabilistically Based on Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strait, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Using photometric data from the Deep Lens Survey (DLS) we develop a star-galaxy separation algorithm based on objects' colors in six bands (B,V,R,z,J,K). Using a training set selected from a catalog of stars classified via their DLS shapes, we fit a third order polynomial to the filtered color-color data to approximate the stellar locus. Our algorithm produces a weighted probability of an object being a star. Based on each object's distance from the stellar locus in color-color space, we fit the resulting histogram as the sum of two Gaussians. We find that near-infrared information (J and K) provide the best separation, but explore using optical information alone to determine the classification as well. Our results demonstrate that the use of color information in a probabilistic algorithm has the potential to dramatically improve star-galaxy classification when used in conjunction with existing shape-based algorithms.​

  11. Modeling of turbulent separated flows for aerodynamic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Steady, high speed, compressible separated flows modeled through numerical simulations resulting from solutions of the mass-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on benchmark flows that represent simplified (but realistic) aerodynamic phenomena. These include impinging shock waves, compression corners, glancing shock waves, trailing edge regions, and supersonic high angle of attack flows. A critical assessment of modeling capabilities is provided by comparing the numerical simulations with experiment. The importance of combining experiment, numerical algorithm, grid, and turbulence model to effectively develop this potentially powerful simulation technique is stressed.

  12. Ion separations based on electrical potentials nanoporous and microporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jason

    This dissertation examines several types of ion separations in nanometer to micrometer pores in membranes. Membranes provide an attractive platform for ion separations, primarily because they operate continuously (i.e. not in a batch mode), and small pores offer the potential for ion separation based on charge and electrophoretic mobility differences. Initial studies employed charged, nanoporous membranes to separate monovalent and divalent ions. Adsorption of polyelectrolyte multilayers in nanoporous membranes afforded control over the surface charge and pore radii in track-etched membranes, and electrostatic ion-exclusion, particularly for divalent ions, occurred in these membranes because the electrical double layer filled the entire nanopore. Initial experiments employed adsorption of (PSS/PAH) multilayers in the 50-nm diameter pores of PCTE membranes to give a K+/Mg2+ selectivity of ~10 in pressure-driven dead-end filtration. Adsorption of (PSS/PAH) 1 films in 30-nm pores gave a similar K+/Mg2+ selectivity with a simpler modification procedure. Separations utilizing (PSS/PAH)1 films in 30-nm pores showed the lowest ion rejections with high ion concentrations, consistent with enhanced screening of the electrical double layer at high ionic strength. However, solutions with < 5 mM ionic strength exhibited essentially 100% Mg2+ rejections (the Mg2+ concentration in the permeate was below the method detection limit). Moreover, K+ rejections increased in the presence of Mg2+, which may stem from Mg2+-adsorption within the PEM and increased surface charge. Finally, separation of Br- and SO42- with a PSS1-modified, 30-nm PCTE membrane validated the exclusion mechanism for anions. The average Br-/SO42- selectivity was 3.4 +/- 0.8 for a solution containing 0.5 mM NaBr and 0.5 mM Na2SO4. The low selectivity in this case likely stems from a relatively large pore. The membranes used for the separation of monovalent and divalent ions also facilitated separation of

  13. Modeling stick-slip-separation dynamics in a bimodal standing wave ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Lv, Qibao; Liu, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasonic motor (USM) is an electromechanical coupling system with ultrasonic vibration, which is driven by the frictional contact force between the stator (vibrating body) and the rotor/slider (driven body). Stick-slip motion can occur at the contact interface when USM is operating, which may affect the performance of the motor. This paper develops a physically-based model to investigate the complex stick-slip-separation dynamics in a bimodal standing wave ultrasonic motor. The model includes both friction nonlinearity and intermittent separation nonlinearity of the system. Utilizing Hamilton's principle and assumed mode method, the dynamic equations of the stator are deduced. Based on the dynamics of the stator and the slider, sticking force during the stick phase is derived, which is used to examine the stick-to-slip transition. Furthermore, the stick-slip-separation kinematics is analyzed by establishing analytical criteria that predict the transition between stick, slip and separation of the interface. Stick-slip-separation motion is observed in the resulting model, and numerical simulations are performed to study the influence of parameters on the range of possible motions. Results show that stick-slip motion can occur with greater preload and smaller voltage amplitude. Furthermore, a dimensionless parameter is proposed to predict the occurrence of stick-slip versus slip-separation motions, and its role in designing ultrasonic motors is discussed. It is shown that slip-separation motion is favorable for the slider velocity.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Separated Flows Using Wall-Modeled LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vane, Zachary; Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz

    2014-11-01

    Calculations using an unstructured, wall-modeled large eddy simulation (WMLES) solver are performed for several high Reynolds number test cases of interest. While the equilibrium formulation of this wall-model (Bodart, Larsson & Moin, AIAA 2013-2724) has proven to be accurate for steady, attached boundary layers, its application to non-equilibrium or highly three-dimensional problems has yet to be fully explored. A series of turbulent flows that exhibit boundary layer separation due to the geometries involved in each test case are considered. First, spanwise-periodic simulations for the flow over periodic hills are performed at multiple Reynolds numbers. Next, calculations involving separation caused by three-dimensional bodies are used to generate more complex flow fields and to evaluate the accuracy of the WMLES in the separated wake region downstream. The performance of the WMLES is quantified through comparisons with existing numerical and experimental data sets. The effects of grid resolution and variations in several wall-model parameters are also investigated to determine their influence on the overall calculation.

  15. High throughput SNP detection system based on magnetic nanoparticles separation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Jia, Yingying; Ma, Man; Li, Zhiyang; Liu, Hongna; Li, Song; Deng, Yan; Zhang, Liming; Lu, Zhuoxuan; Wang, Wei; He, Nongyue

    2013-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was one-base variations in DNA sequence that can often be helpful to find genes associations for hereditary disease, communicable disease and so on. We developed a high throughput SNP detection system based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) separation and dual-color hybridization or single base extension. This system includes a magnetic separation unit for sample separation, three high precision robot arms for pipetting and microtiter plate transferring respectively, an accurate temperature control unit for PCR and DNA hybridization and a high accurate and sensitive optical signal detection unit for fluorescence detection. The cyclooxygenase-2 gene promoter region--65G > C polymorphism locus SNP genotyping experiment for 48 samples from the northern Jiangsu area has been done to verify that if this system can simplify manual operation of the researchers, save time and improve efficiency in SNP genotyping experiments. It can realize sample preparation, target sequence amplification, signal detection and data analysis automatically and can be used in clinical molecule diagnosis and high throughput fluorescence immunological detection and so on.

  16. Mode separation of Lamb waves based on dispersion compensation method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; Moilanen, Petro; Wang, Weiqi

    2012-04-01

    Ultrasonic Lamb modes typically propagate as a combination of multiple dispersive wave packets. Frequency components of each mode distribute widely in time domain due to dispersion and it is very challenging to separate individual modes by traditional signal processing methods. In the present study, a method of dispersion compensation is proposed for the purpose of mode separation. This numerical method compensates, i.e., compresses, the individual dispersive waveforms into temporal pulses, which thereby become nearly un-overlapped in time and frequency and can thus be extracted individually by rectangular time windows. It was further illustrated that the dispersion compensation also provided a method for predicting the plate thickness. Finally, based on reversibility of the numerical compensation method, an artificial dispersion technique was used to restore the original waveform of each mode from the separated compensated pulse. Performances of the compensation separation techniques were evaluated by processing synthetic and experimental signals which consisted of multiple Lamb modes with high dispersion. Individual modes were extracted with good accordance with the original waveforms and theoretical predictions.

  17. Modeling Human Population Separation History Using Physically Phased Genomes.

    PubMed

    Song, Shiya; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Emery, Sarah; Kidd, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-01

    Phased haplotype sequences are a key component in many population genetic analyses since variation in haplotypes reflects the action of recombination, selection, and changes in population size. In humans, haplotypes are typically estimated from unphased sequence or genotyping data using statistical models applied to large reference panels. To assess the importance of correct haplotype phase on population history inference, we performed fosmid pool sequencing and resolved phased haplotypes of five individuals from diverse African populations (including Yoruba, Esan, Gambia, Maasai, and Mende). We physically phased 98% of heterozygous SNPs into haplotype-resolved blocks, obtaining a block N50 of 1 Mbp. We combined these data with additional phased genomes from San, Mbuti, Gujarati, and Centre de'Etude du Polymorphism Humain European populations and analyzed population size and separation history using the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent and multiple sequentially Markovian coalescent models. We find that statistically phased haplotypes yield a more recent split-time estimation compared with experimentally phased haplotypes. To better interpret patterns of cross-population coalescence, we implemented an approximate Bayesian computation approach to estimate population split times and migration rates by fitting the distribution of coalescent times inferred between two haplotypes, one from each population, to a standard isolation-with-migration model. We inferred that the separation between hunter-gatherer populations and other populations happened ∼120-140 KYA, with gene flow continuing until 30-40 KYA; separation between west-African and out-of-African populations happened ∼70-80 KYA; while the separation between Maasai and out-of-African populations happened ∼50 KYA. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Modeling Human Population Separation History Using Physically Phased Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shiya; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Emery, Sarah; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Phased haplotype sequences are a key component in many population genetic analyses since variation in haplotypes reflects the action of recombination, selection, and changes in population size. In humans, haplotypes are typically estimated from unphased sequence or genotyping data using statistical models applied to large reference panels. To assess the importance of correct haplotype phase on population history inference, we performed fosmid pool sequencing and resolved phased haplotypes of five individuals from diverse African populations (including Yoruba, Esan, Gambia, Maasai, and Mende). We physically phased 98% of heterozygous SNPs into haplotype-resolved blocks, obtaining a block N50 of 1 Mbp. We combined these data with additional phased genomes from San, Mbuti, Gujarati, and Centre de’Etude du Polymorphism Humain European populations and analyzed population size and separation history using the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent and multiple sequentially Markovian coalescent models. We find that statistically phased haplotypes yield a more recent split-time estimation compared with experimentally phased haplotypes. To better interpret patterns of cross-population coalescence, we implemented an approximate Bayesian computation approach to estimate population split times and migration rates by fitting the distribution of coalescent times inferred between two haplotypes, one from each population, to a standard isolation-with-migration model. We inferred that the separation between hunter-gatherer populations and other populations happened ∼120–140 KYA, with gene flow continuing until 30–40 KYA; separation between west-African and out-of-African populations happened ∼70–80 KYA; while the separation between Maasai and out-of-African populations happened ∼50 KYA. PMID:28049708

  19. Simulation of Separated Flows with the K-Epsilon Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poroseva, Svetlana; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2001-11-01

    The standard k-ɛ model is widely use in industrial applications even if its limits and disadvantages are well known. It was shown in a previous work^*, that with the standard k and ɛ transport equations and an appropriate modeling of the coefficients, it is possible to predict correctly free shear flows and equilibrium boundary layers under different pressure gradient. In the present work the same approach has been used to simulate separated flows in a planar diffuser and backstep, an axi-symmetric combustion chamber and a channel with wavy-walls. The computations are in good agreement with the experimental data for both the mean velocity and shear stress profiles. In addition, they are comparable with results obtained with the more complex v^2-f-model^**. Simulations have been carried out using a commercial CFD code (Fluent). ^* Poroseva, S.V. & Bezard, H., On ability of standard k-ɛ model to simulate aerodynamic turbulent flows, CFD Journal, 2001, v.9, N 1, pp. 464-470 ^** Durbin, P.A. Separated Flow Computations Using the v^2-f Model, AIAA J., 1995

  20. Evolutionary multi-objective optimization based comparison of multi-column chromatographic separation processes for a ternary separation.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Jari; Kukkonen, Saku; Sainio, Tuomo

    2014-09-05

    Performance characteristics of two advanced multi-column chromatographic separation processes with discontinuous feed, Multi-Column Recycling Chromatogrphy (MCRC) and Japan Organo (JO), were investigated for a ternary separation using multi-objective optimization with an evolutionary algorithm. Conventional batch process was used as a reference. Fractionation of a concentrated acid hydrolysate of wood biomass into sulfuric acid, monosaccharide, and acetic acid fractions was used as a model system. Comparison of the separation processes was based on selected performance parameters in their optimized states. Flow rates and step durations were taken as decision variables whereas the column configuration and dimensions were fixed. The MCRC process was found to be considerably more efficient than the other processes with respect to eluent consumption. The batch process gave the highest productivity and the JO process the lowest. Both of the multi-column processes gave significantly higher monosaccharide yield than the batch process. When eluent consumption and monosaccharide yield are taken into account together with productivity, the MCRC process was found to be the most efficient in the studied case.

  1. Wall-layer model for LES with massive separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhari, Ahmad; Armenio, Vincenzo; Roman, Federico

    2016-11-01

    Currently, Wall Functions (WF) work well under specific conditions, mostly exhibit drawbacks specially in flows with separation beyond curvatures. In this work, we propose a more general WF which works well in attached and detached flows, in presence and absence of Immersed Boundaries (IB). First we modified an equilibrium stress WF for boundary-fitted geometry making dynamic the computation of the k (von Karman constant) of the log-law; the model was first applied to a periodic open channel flow, and then to the flow over a 2D single hill using uniform coarse grids; the model captured separation with reasonable accuracy. Thereafter IB Method by Roman et al. was improved to avoid momentum loss at the interface between the fluid-solid regions. This required calibration of interfacial eddy viscosity; also a random stochastic forcing was used in wall-normal direction to increase Reynolds stresses and improve mean velocity profile. Finally, to reproduce flow separation, a simplified boundary layer equation was applied to construct velocity at near wall computational nodes. The new scheme was tested on the 2D single hill and periodic hills applying Cartesian and curvilinear grids; good agreement with references was obtained with reduction in cost and complexity. Financial support from project COSMO "CFD open source per opera morta" PAR FSC 2007-2013, Friuli Venezia Giulia.

  2. Chromatographic Studies of Protein-Based Chiral Separations.

    PubMed

    Bi, Cong; Zheng, Xiwei; Azaria, Shiden; Beeram, Sandya; Li, Zhao; Hage, David S

    2016-09-01

    The development of separation methods for the analysis and resolution of chiral drugs and solutes has been an area of ongoing interest in pharmaceutical research. The use of proteins as chiral binding agents in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been an approach that has received particular attention in such work. This report provides an overview of proteins that have been used as binding agents to create chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and in the use of chromatographic methods to study these materials and protein-based chiral separations. The supports and methods that have been employed to prepare protein-based CSPs will also be discussed and compared. Specific types of CSPs that are considered include those that employ serum transport proteins (e.g., human serum albumin, bovine serum albumin, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein), enzymes (e.g., penicillin G acylase, cellobiohydrolases, and α-chymotrypsin) or other types of proteins (e.g., ovomucoid, antibodies, and avidin or streptavidin). The properties and applications for each type of protein and CSP will also be discussed in terms of their use in chromatography and chiral separations.

  3. Chromatographic Studies of Protein-Based Chiral Separations

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Cong; Zheng, Xiwei; Azaria, Shiden; Beeram, Sandya; Li, Zhao; Hage, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of separation methods for the analysis and resolution of chiral drugs and solutes has been an area of ongoing interest in pharmaceutical research. The use of proteins as chiral binding agents in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been an approach that has received particular attention in such work. This report provides an overview of proteins that have been used as binding agents to create chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and in the use of chromatographic methods to study these materials and protein-based chiral separations. The supports and methods that have been employed to prepare protein-based CSPs will also be discussed and compared. Specific types of CSPs that are considered include those that employ serum transport proteins (e.g., human serum albumin, bovine serum albumin, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein), enzymes (e.g., penicillin G acylase, cellobiohydrolases, and α-chymotrypsin) or other types of proteins (e.g., ovomucoid, antibodies, and avidin or streptavidin). The properties and applications for each type of protein and CSP will also be discussed in terms of their use in chromatography and chiral separations. PMID:28344977

  4. Separation of peptides on superficially porous particle based macrocyclic glycopeptide liquid chromatography stationary phases: consideration of fast separations.

    PubMed

    Wimalasinghe, Rasangi M; Breitbach, Zachary S; Lee, Jauh T; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2017-03-01

    Macrocyclic glycopeptide based liquid chromatography stationary phases are known for their highly selective peptide separations. Fast and ultrafast (t R < 1 min) high-efficiency separations were achieved with superficially porous particle (SPP)-based stationary phases. Separations of pharmaceutically important classes of peptides such as enkephalins and bradykinins have been achieved in less than 5 min in isocratic elution modes. Selectivity for peptides structurally similar to one another was increased with use of teicoplanin-based stationary phases compared with commercial C18 stationary phases. Ultrafast isocratic separations of structurally related peptides were achieved with teicoplanin- and vancomycin-based short SPP columns. Acidic mobile phases produced better separations. Ammonium formate was the optimal mobile phase buffer additive. Use of an appropriate combination of a macrocyclic glycopeptide stationary phase and a mobile phase permits faster and more electrospray ionization mass spectrometry compatible isocratic separations than previous gradient approaches. The tryptic peptide separation characteristics of the teicoplanin stationary phase are demonstrated. Additionally, compared with commercial C18 stationary phases, teicoplanin showed tryptic peptide separations with different selectivities. Graphical Abstract Ultrafast separation of enkephalin peptide epimers.

  5. Separation of Doppler radar-based respiratory signatures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee Siong; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Evans, Robin J; Steinfort, Christopher L

    2016-08-01

    Respiration detection using microwave Doppler radar has attracted significant interest primarily due to its unobtrusive form of measurement. With less preparation in comparison with attaching physical sensors on the body or wearing special clothing, Doppler radar for respiration detection and monitoring is particularly useful for long-term monitoring applications such as sleep studies (i.e. sleep apnoea, SIDS). However, motion artefacts and interference from multiple sources limit the widespread use and the scope of potential applications of this technique. Utilising the recent advances in independent component analysis (ICA) and multiple antenna configuration schemes, this work investigates the feasibility of decomposing respiratory signatures into each subject from the Doppler-based measurements. Experimental results demonstrated that FastICA is capable of separating two distinct respiratory signatures from two subjects adjacent to each other even in the presence of apnoea. In each test scenario, the separated respiratory patterns correlate closely to the reference respiration strap readings. The effectiveness of FastICA in dealing with the mixed Doppler radar respiration signals confirms its applicability in healthcare applications, especially in long-term home-based monitoring as it usually involves at least two people in the same environment (i.e. two people sleeping next to each other). Further, the use of FastICA to separate involuntary movements such as the arm swing from the respiratory signatures of a single subject was explored in a multiple antenna environment. The separated respiratory signal indeed demonstrated a high correlation with the measurements made by a respiratory strap used currently in clinical settings.

  6. Mechanical Properties Based Particle Separation via Traveling Surface Acoustic Wave.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhichao; Collins, David J; Guo, Jinhong; Ai, Ye

    2016-12-06

    Most microfluidics-based sorting methodologies utilize size differences between suspended micro-objects as the defining characteristic by which they are sorted. Sorting based on mechanical properties, however, would provide a new avenue for sample preparation, detection and diagnosis for a number of emerging biological and medical analyses. In this study, we demonstrate separation of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microspheres based entirely on their difference in mechanical properties using traveling surface acoustic waves (TSAWs). We theoretically examine the correlation of the applied TSAW frequency, particle density and sound speed with respect to the resultant acoustic radiation force (ARF) that acts to translate particles, and experimentally corroborate these predictions by translating PS and PMMA particles simultaneously in a stationary flow. Even when PS and PMMA particles have the same diameters, they exhibit strongly nonlinear and distinct acoustophoretic responses as a function of their mechanical properties and the applied TSAW frequency. By specifically matching the appropriate acoustic frequency to the desired particle size, each particle population can be selectively translated and sorted. We demonstrate that this mechanical property based sorting can continuously separate these particle populations with at least 95% efficiency in the mixed 10/15 μm diameter PS and PMMA particle solutions tested.

  7. Comparative study of hybrid RANS-LES models for separated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G.; Lakshmanan, S. K.; Gopalan, H.; De, A.

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid RANS-LES models are proven to be capable of predicting massively separated flows with reasonable computation cost. In this paper, Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) based detached eddy simulation (DES) model and three SST based hybrid models with different RANS to LES switching criteriaare investigated. The flow over periodic hill at Re = 10,595 is chosen as the benchmark for comparing the performance of the different models due to the complex flow physics and reasonablecomputational cost. The model performances are evaluated based on their prediction capabilities of velocity and stress profiles, and separation and reattachment point. The simulated results are validatedagainst experimental and numerical results available in literature. The S-A DES model predicted separation bubble accurately at the top of the hill, as reported earlier in experiments and other numerical results. This model also correctly predicted velocity and stress profiles in recirculation region. However, the performance of this model was poor in the post reattachment region. On the other hand, the k-ω SST based hybrid models performed poorly in recirculation region, but it fairly predicted stress profiles in post reattachment region.

  8. Kinematic Modeling of Separation Compression for Paired Approaches to Closely-Spaced Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    In a simultaneous paired approach to closely-spaced parallel runways, a pair of aircraft flies in close proximity on parallel approach paths. The longitudinal separation between the aircraft must be maintained within a range that avoids wake encounters and, if one of the aircraft blunders, avoids collision. To increase operational availability, the approach procedure must accommodate a mixture of aircraft sizes and, consequently, approach speeds. In these procedures, the slower aircraft is placed in the lead position. The faster aircraft maintains separation from the slow aircraft in a dependent operation until final approach and flies independently afterward. Due to the higher approach speed of the fast aircraft, longitudinal separation will decrease during final approach. Therefore, the fast aircraft must position itself before the final approach so that it will remain within the safe range of separation as separation decreases. Given the approach geometry and speed schedule for each aircraft, one can use kinematics to estimate the separation loss between a pair of aircraft. A kinematic model can complement fast-time Monte-Carlo simulations of the approach by enabling a tailored reduction in the variation of starting position for the fast aircraft. One could also implement the kinematic model in ground-based or on-board decision support tools to compute the optimal initial separation for a given pair of aircraft. To better match the auto-coupled flight of real aircraft, the paper derives a kinematic model where the speed schedule is flown using equivalent airspeed. The predicted time of flight using the equivalent airspeed kinematic model compares well against a high-fidelity aircraft simulation performing the same approach. This model also demonstrates a modest increase in the predicted loss of separation when contrasted against a kinematic model that assumes the scheduled speed is true airspeed.

  9. Citrate based ``TALSPEAK`` lanthanide-actinide separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Bond, W.D.; Toth, L.M.; Davis, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The potential hazard posed to future generations by long-lived radionuclides such as the transuranic elements (TRU) is perceived as a major problem associated with the use of nuclear power. TRU wastes have to remain isolated from the environment for ``geological`` periods of time. The costs of building, maintaining, and operating a ``geological TRU repository`` can be very high. Therefore, there are significant economical advantages in segregating the relatively low volume of TRU wastes from other nuclear wastes. The chemical behavior of lanthanides and actinides, 4f and 5f elements respectively, is rather similar. As a consequence, the separation of these two groups is difficult. The ``TALSPEAK`` process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Complexes) is one of the few means available to separate the trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. The method is based on the preferential complexation of the trivalent actinides by an aminopolyacetic acid. Cold experiments showed that by using citric acid the deleterious effects produced by impurities such as zirconium are greatly reduced.

  10. A computational efficient modelling of laminar separation bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dini, Paolo; Maughmer, Mark D.

    1990-01-01

    In predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils operating at low Reynolds numbers, it is often important to account for the effects of laminar (transitional) separation bubbles. Previous approaches to the modelling of this viscous phenomenon range from fast but sometimes unreliable empirical correlations for the length of the bubble and the associated increase in momentum thickness, to more accurate but significantly slower displacement-thickness iteration methods employing inverse boundary-layer formulations in the separated regions. Since the penalty in computational time associated with the more general methods is unacceptable for airfoil design applications, use of an accurate yet computationally efficient model is highly desirable. To this end, a semi-empirical bubble model was developed and incorporated into the Eppler and Somers airfoil design and analysis program. The generality and the efficiency was achieved by successfully approximating the local viscous/inviscid interaction, the transition location, and the turbulent reattachment process within the framework of an integral boundary-layer method. Comparisons of the predicted aerodynamic characteristics with experimental measurements for several airfoils show excellent and consistent agreement for Reynolds numbers from 2,000,000 down to 100,000.

  11. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Paul; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Czerwinski, Ken

    2015-11-16

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas – surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  12. Hydrate-based heavy metal separation from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongchen; Dong, Hongsheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Mingjun; Li, Yanghui; Ling, Zheng; Zhao, Jiafei

    2016-02-01

    A novel hydrate-based method is proposed for separating heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. We report the first batch of experiments and removal characteristics in this paper, the effectiveness and feasibility of which are verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis and cross-experiment. 88.01-90.82% of removal efficiencies for Cr3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ were obtained. Further study showed that higher R141b-effluent volume ratio contributed to higher enrichment factor and yield of dissociated water, while lower R141b-effluent volume ratio resulted in higher removal efficiency. This study provides insights into low-energy, intensive treatment of wastewater.

  13. Dehumidification via membrane separation for space-based applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gienger, Jane Kucera; Ray, Roderick J.; Chullen, Cinda

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a membrane-based dehumidification process for space-based applications, such as spacecraft cabins and EVA space suits. Results presented are from: (1) screening tests conducted to determine the efficacy of various membranes to separate water vapor from air, and (2) parametric and long-term tests of membranes operated at conditions that simulate the range of environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and relative humidity) expected in the planned Space Station. Also included in this paper is a discussion of preliminary designs of membrane-based dehumidification processes for the Space Station and EVA space suits. These designs result in compact and energy-efficient systems that offer significant advantages over conventional dehumidification processes.

  14. Dehumidification via membrane separation for space-based applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gienger, Jane Kucera; Ray, Roderick J.; Chullen, Cinda

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a membrane-based dehumidification process for space-based applications, such as spacecraft cabins and EVA space suits. Results presented are from: (1) screening tests conducted to determine the efficacy of various membranes to separate water vapor from air, and (2) parametric and long-term tests of membranes operated at conditions that simulate the range of environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and relative humidity) expected in the planned Space Station. Also included in this paper is a discussion of preliminary designs of membrane-based dehumidification processes for the Space Station and EVA space suits. These designs result in compact and energy-efficient systems that offer significant advantages over conventional dehumidification processes.

  15. Development of a segmented model for a continuous electrophoretic moving bed enantiomer separation.

    PubMed

    Thome, Brian M; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2003-01-01

    With the recent demonstration of a continuous electrophoretic "moving bed" enantiomer separation at mg/h throughputs, interest has now turned to scaling up the process for use as a benchtop pharmaceutical production tool. To scale the method, a steady-state mathematical model was developed that predicts the process response to changes in input feed rate and counterflow or "moving bed" velocities. The vortex-stabilized apparatus used for the separation was modeled using four regions based on the different hydrodynamic flows in each section. Concentration profiles were then derived on the basis of the properties of the Piperoxan-sulfated beta-cyclodextrin system being studied. The effects of different regional flow rates on the concentration profiles were evaluated and used to predict the maximum processing rate and the hydrodynamic profiles required for a separation. Although the model was able to qualitatively predict the shapes of the concentration profiles and show where the theoretical limits of operation existed, it was not able to quantitatively match the data from actual enantiomer separations to better than 50% accuracy. This is believed to be due to the simplifying assumptions involved, namely, the neglect of electric field variations and the lack of a competitive binding isotherm in the analysis. Although the model cannot accurately predict concentrations from a separation, it provides a good theoretical framework for analyzing how the process responds to changes in counterflow rate, feed rate, and the properties of the molecules being separated.

  16. Theoretic model and computer simulation of separating mixture metal particles from waste printed circuit board by electrostatic separator.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming; Zhou, Yaohe

    2008-05-30

    Traditionally, the mixture metals from waste printed circuit board (PCB) were sent to the smelt factory to refine pure copper. Some valuable metals (aluminum, zinc and tin) with low content in PCB were lost during smelt. A new method which used roll-type electrostatic separator (RES) to recovery low content metals in waste PCB was presented in this study. The theoretic model which was established from computing electric field and the analysis of forces on the particles was used to write a program by MATLAB language. The program was design to simulate the process of separating mixture metal particles. Electrical, material and mechanical factors were analyzed to optimize the operating parameters of separator. The experiment results of separating copper and aluminum particles by RES had a good agreement with computer simulation results. The model could be used to simulate separating other metal (tin, zinc, etc.) particles during the process of recycling waste PCBs by RES.

  17. Separation of Fission Products Based on Ionic Liquids: Anion Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2004-03-28

    The applications of ionic liquids (ILs) as new separation media have been actively investigated recently. The most commonly studied class of ILs for such applications is based on dialkyl imidazolium cations. In comparison with conventional molecular solvents, ILs exhibit enhanced distribution coefficients for a number of complexing neutral ligands in extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of the alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations on the distribution coefficients of solvent extraction using crown ethers was the subject of a number of the previous investigations. The distribution coefficients have been found to decrease with the alkyl chain length of the IL cations. This observation implies that the extraction process also involves the exchange of the IL cations with metal ions. The longer the alkyl chain lengths of the IL cations are, the more hydrophobic the IL cations are and the more difficult to be transported into aqueous phases via ion exchange. Accordingly, the ion-exchange process is another unique property of IL-based extractions involving charged species. Here, we report the investigation about the effect of the variation of IL anions on the solvent extraction of metal ions using crown ethers as extractants. The elucidation of different solvation effects involved in ionic liquids could lead to optimized separation media for these novel solvents.

  18. A model for a liquid membrane separation stage

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The coupled mixer-settlers having a common settling zone suggested for use to extract fission products from a conversion reactor blanket are analogues of membrane apparatuses and at a first glance in terms of hydrodynamics do not differ from conventional mixer-settlers. However, the common settling zone complicates both the design solutions and their modelling. For example, different emulsion types can result in mixers and it is not known how this fact will affect phenomena such as separation rates, disperse phase entrainment under conditions close to flooding. For initial studies of the feasibility of the process in principle and the primary optimization of the structure of the transfer scheme one needs to have a model and a program to calculate the statics of a multistage membrane facility of this type.

  19. Calibration of base flow separation methods with streamflow conductivity.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Mark; Cimino, Joseph; Ross, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The conductivity mass-balance (CMB) method can be used to calibrate analytical base flow separation methods. The principal CMB assumptions are base flow conductivity is equal to streamflow conductivity at lowest flows, runoff conductivity is equal to streamflow conductivity at highest flows, and base flow and runoff conductivities are assumed to be constants over the period of record. To test the CMB assumptions, fluid conductivities of ground water, surface runoff, and streamflow were measured during wet and dry conditions in a 12-km(2) stream basin. Ground water conductivities at wells varied an average of 6% from dry to wet conditions, while stream conductivities varied 58%. Shallow ground water conductivity varied significantly with distance from the stream, with lowest conductivities of 87 microS/cm near the divide, a maximum of 520 microS/cm 59 m from the stream, and 215 microS/cm 22 m from the stream. Runoff conductivities measured in three rain events remained nearly constant, with lower conductivities of 35 microS/cm near the divide and 50 microS/cm near the stream. The CMB method was applied to the records from 10 USGS stream-gauging stations in Texas, Kentucky, Georgia, and Florida to calibrate the USGS base flow separation technique, HYSEP, by varying the time parameter 2N*. There is a statistically significant relationship between basin areas and calibrated values of 2N*, expressed as N = 0.46A(0.44), with N in days and A in km(2). The widely accepted relationship N = 0.83A(0.2) is not valid for these basins. Other analytic methods can also be calibrated with the CMB method.

  20. Separation of large DNA molecules by size exclusion chromatography-based microchip with on-chip concentration structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Naoki; Itoh, Shintaro; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Zhang, Hedong

    2016-06-01

    The separation of DNA molecules according to their size represents a fundamental bioanalytical procedure. Here, we report the development of a chip-sized device, consisting of micrometer-sized fence structures fabricated in a microchannel, for the separation of large DNA molecules (over 10 kbp) based on the principle of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). In order to achieve separation, two approaches were utilized: first, the DNA samples were concentrated immediately prior to separation using nanoslit structures, with the aim of improving the resolution. Second, a theoretical model of SEC-based separation was established and applied in order to predict the optimal voltage range for separation. In this study, we achieved separation of λ DNA (48.5 kbp) and T4 DNA (166 kbp) using the present SEC-based microchip.

  1. Generalized gradient approximation model exchange holes for range-separated hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Thomas M.; Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a general model for the spherically averaged exchange hole corresponding to a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange functional. Parameters are reported for several common GGAs. Our model is based upon that of Ernzerhof and Perdew [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3313 (1998)]. It improves upon the former by precisely reproducing the energy of the parent GGA, and by enabling fully analytic evaluation of range-separated hybrid density functionals. Analytic results and preliminary thermochemical tests indicate that our model also improves upon the simple, local-density-based exchange hole model of Iikura et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 3540 (2001)]. PMID:18500854

  2. Localized Ambient Solidity Separation Algorithm Based Computer User Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Tongda; Chai, Yueting; Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Most of popular clustering methods typically have some strong assumptions of the dataset. For example, the k-means implicitly assumes that all clusters come from spherical Gaussian distributions which have different means but the same covariance. However, when dealing with datasets that have diverse distribution shapes or high dimensionality, these assumptions might not be valid anymore. In order to overcome this weakness, we proposed a new clustering algorithm named localized ambient solidity separation (LASS) algorithm, using a new isolation criterion called centroid distance. Compared with other density based isolation criteria, our proposed centroid distance isolation criterion addresses the problem caused by high dimensionality and varying density. The experiment on a designed two-dimensional benchmark dataset shows that our proposed LASS algorithm not only inherits the advantage of the original dissimilarity increments clustering method to separate naturally isolated clusters but also can identify the clusters which are adjacent, overlapping, and under background noise. Finally, we compared our LASS algorithm with the dissimilarity increments clustering method on a massive computer user dataset with over two million records that contains demographic and behaviors information. The results show that LASS algorithm works extremely well on this computer user dataset and can gain more knowledge from it.

  3. Localized Ambient Solidity Separation Algorithm Based Computer User Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Tongda; Chai, Yueting; Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Most of popular clustering methods typically have some strong assumptions of the dataset. For example, the k-means implicitly assumes that all clusters come from spherical Gaussian distributions which have different means but the same covariance. However, when dealing with datasets that have diverse distribution shapes or high dimensionality, these assumptions might not be valid anymore. In order to overcome this weakness, we proposed a new clustering algorithm named localized ambient solidity separation (LASS) algorithm, using a new isolation criterion called centroid distance. Compared with other density based isolation criteria, our proposed centroid distance isolation criterion addresses the problem caused by high dimensionality and varying density. The experiment on a designed two-dimensional benchmark dataset shows that our proposed LASS algorithm not only inherits the advantage of the original dissimilarity increments clustering method to separate naturally isolated clusters but also can identify the clusters which are adjacent, overlapping, and under background noise. Finally, we compared our LASS algorithm with the dissimilarity increments clustering method on a massive computer user dataset with over two million records that contains demographic and behaviors information. The results show that LASS algorithm works extremely well on this computer user dataset and can gain more knowledge from it. PMID:26221133

  4. Phase Separation of Model Segmented Poly(Carbonate Urethanes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Rebeca; Hung, Elena; Runt, James

    2006-03-01

    The present paper focuses on the phase separated morphology and segment demixing of model poly(carbonate urethanes) [PCU] with hard segment contents ranging from 30 -- 65% and soft segments composed of 1,6 poly(hexamethylene carbonate) [MW = 1K]. Hard segments were formed from 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate and 1,4 butanediol. This family of materials represents a recent approach in the development of polyurethanes with improved long-term biostability, and is under clinical investigation in a number of biomedical devices. Only a single glass transition temperature was observed for each copolymer, increasing in temperature with increasing hard segment content. However, loss spectra from dynamic mechanical analysis showed clear evidence of two mixed phases. The results of small-angle X-ray scattering and tapping mode AFM experiments were consistent with these observations and will be discussed. Finally, these results will be compared with initial findings on phase separation in another family of polyurethane copolymers of current interest as blood-contact materials in biomedical devices having mixed poly(dimethylsiloxane) -- poly(hexamethyleneoxide) soft segments.

  5. Modeling of piezoelectric plates with variables separation for static analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, P.; Gallimard, L.; Polit, O.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the modeling of laminated composite plates with embedded piezoelectric layers is addressed through a variables separation approach. Both the displacement and electric potential fields are approximated as a sum of separated functions of the in-plane coordinates x, y and the transverse coordinate z. This choice yields to a nonlinear problem that can be solved by an iterative process. That consists of solving a 2D and 1D problem successively at each iteration. In the thickness direction, a fourth and second-order expansion in each layer is considered for the displacements and the electric potential, respectively. For the in-plane description, classical eight-node quadrilateral finite element is used. Numerical examples involving several representative laminates are addressed to show the accuracy of the present LayerWise (LW) method. It is shown that it can provide quasi-3D results less costly than classical LW computations. In particular, the estimation of the transverse stresses which is of major importance for damage analysis is very good.

  6. Modelling and optimisation of enzymatic separating micro-reactor.

    PubMed

    Tmej, F; Limbergová, Z; Hasal, P

    2005-11-01

    A mathematical model of an enzymatic separating microreactor with the electro-osmotic control of reaction component transport rates is analysed. The micro-reactor is considered in a form of a thin channel filled with a gel containing an immobilised enzyme and an adsorbent where the enzyme reaction, the molecular diffusion, the electro-osmotic flux and the adsorption take place. The substrate inhibited enzyme reaction splitting a non-ionic substrate to two non-ionic products is considered. The reactor operates in a periodic regime, when the channel entry is exposed to the periodic substrate concentration pulses. A chromatographic separation of reaction components, therefore, proceeds in the channel. Effects of principal operational parameters of the reactor system-the reaction channel length, the electric current density, the substrate inlet concentration, the rate of adsorption, and the enzyme activity--on resolution of the products at reactor outlet are analysed. The existence of optimum parameter values (maximising the resolution of reaction products) is shown and a multiparametric optimisation of the reactor performance is accomplished.

  7. A modeling approach for orthogonality of comprehensive two-dimensional separations.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhong-Da; Hugel, Helmut M; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-07-02

    A novel method is developed for orthogonality evaluation of comprehensive two-dimensional separations (C2DS). Utilization of efficiency measures such as peak capacity (n(c)) can be critically evaluated for C2DS analysis to describe an orthogonal separation of the analytes in a 2D plane. Unlike most previous methods focusing on "bin coverage" over 2D space, rather than taking into account the distribution based on accurate peak retention, in the proposed method, the separation orthogonality of C2DS is divided into two parts (i.e., C(pert) and C(peaks)). These correspond to peak coverage percent, and 2D distribution correlation of compounds, respectively. Bin occupation and a simple-linear regression model, on the basis of normalized retention times in 2D separation space ((1)t(R) and (2)t(R)), are further introduced to quantitatively define the two terms. Orthogonality ranges from 0 to 1 correspond to perfectly correlated and orthogonal separations, respectively, which are presented based on both C(pert) and C(peaks) considerations. The advantage of this method is the use of separation properties of C2DS to characterize practical 2D peak distribution and does not rely on assumptions or any imposed limitations. Simulation of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was achieved by using the Abraham solvation parameter model, and applied to generate examples for orthogonality assessment. In this work, 225 compounds comprising a range of chemical classes were simulated for separation on two column set pairs comprising low polarity/polar and moderately polar/polar combinations. Results illustrate that the proposed method applied to GC × GC provides a reasonable assessment of 2D separation performance and may be used to derive optimal experimental conditions when used with an experimental design strategy.

  8. The Lag Model, a Turbulence Model for Wall Bounded Flows Including Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Coakley, Thomas J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new class of turbulence model is described for wall bounded, high Reynolds number flows. A specific turbulence model is demonstrated, with results for favorable and adverse pressure gradient flowfields. Separation predictions are as good or better than either Spalart Almaras or SST models, do not require specification of wall distance, and have similar or reduced computational effort compared with these models.

  9. Hydrate-based heavy metal separation from aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yongchen; Dong, Hongsheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Mingjun; Li, Yanghui; Ling, Zheng; Zhao, Jiafei

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydrate-based method is proposed for separating heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. We report the first batch of experiments and removal characteristics in this paper, the effectiveness and feasibility of which are verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis and cross-experiment. 88.01–90.82% of removal efficiencies for Cr3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ were obtained. Further study showed that higher R141b–effluent volume ratio contributed to higher enrichment factor and yield of dissociated water, while lower R141b–effluent volume ratio resulted in higher removal efficiency. This study provides insights into low-energy, intensive treatment of wastewater. PMID:26887357

  10. PVA-based tunable buffering membranes for isoelectric trapping separations.

    PubMed

    Fleisher-Craver, Helen C; Vigh, Gyula

    2008-11-01

    PVA-based buffering membranes with tunable pH values were prepared on a PVA substrate by reacting PVA, glycerol-1,3-diglycidyl ether, -NH2 group-containing buffers and -NH2 group-containing titrants in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The pH of the buffering membranes could be tuned in the 3separate proteins having a DeltapI as small as 0.1. The membranes were mechanically and hydrolytically stable and could be stored, even in 10

  11. Modeling high gradient magnetic separation from biological fluids.

    SciTech Connect

    Bockenfeld, D.; Chen, H.; Rempfer, D.; Kaminski, M. D.; Rosengart, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Univ. of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine

    2006-01-01

    A proposed portable magnetic separator consists of an array of biocompatible capillary tubing and magnetizable wires immersed in an externally applied homogeneous magnetic field. While subject to the homogeneous magnetic field, the wires create high magnetic field gradients, which aid in the collection of blood-borne magnetic nanospheres from blood flow. In this study, a 3-D numerical model was created using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.2 software to determine the configuration of the wire-tubing array from two possible configurations, one being an array with rows alternating between wires and tubing, and the other being an array where wire and tubing alternate in two directions. The results demonstrated that the second configuration would actually capture more of the magnetic spheres. Experimental data obtained by our group support this numerical result.

  12. Modeling and separation of rare earth elements by countercurrent electromigration: A new separation column

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, S.M. |; Arbilla, G.; Carvalho, M.S.

    1998-07-01

    The separation of a samarium (90%) and europium (10%) mixture in {alpha}-hydroxy isobutyric acid was performed in a new countercurrent electromigration system. The mobilities of these elements were estimated, and samarium of better than 99.9% purity was obtained. The equilibrium of multicoordinate complexes of these elements with {alpha}-hydroxy isobutyric acid ({alpha}-HIBA) plays an important role in the separation process. The equilibrium concentrations of the involved species were calculated by a computational procedure, and a kinetic study of the complexation reaction was also performed.

  13. Modeling the influence of bubble pressure on grain boundary separation and fission gas release

    SciTech Connect

    Pritam Chakraborty; Michael R. Tonks; Giovanni Pastore

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary (GB) separation as a mechanism for fission gas release (FGR), complementary to gas bubble interlinkage, has been experimentally observed in irradiated light water reactor fuel. However there has been limited effort to develop physics-based models incorporating this mechanism for the analysis of FGR. In this work, a computational study is carried out to investigate GB separation in UO2 fuel under the effect of gas bubble pressure and hydrostatic stress. A non-dimensional stress intensity factor formula is obtained through 2D axisymmetric analyses considering lenticular bubbles and Mode-I crack growth. The obtained functional form can be used in higher length-scale models to estimate the contribution of GB separation to FGR.

  14. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  15. Coupling a Transient Solvent Extraction Module with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; DePaoli, David W; Gauld, Ian C

    2009-10-01

    A past difficulty in safeguards design for reprocessing plants is that no code existed for analysis and evaluation of the design. A number of codes have been developed in the past, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the SSPM Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a much more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and the initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  16. Coupling a transient solvent extraction module with the separations and safeguards performance model.

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, David W.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Gauld, Ian C.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; de Almeida, Valmor F.

    2009-10-01

    A number of codes have been developed in the past for safeguards analysis, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  17. Microfluidic device based on a micro-hydrocyclone for particle-liquid separation.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, P; Bagdi, P; Sen, A K

    2011-12-07

    This paper presents theoretical analysis, design, simulation, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device ('Micro-hydrocyclone') for separation of micron and submicron size solid particles from liquid in a particle liquid mixture. A theoretical analysis of the micro-hydrocyclone is performed to understand the physics and develop suitable design models. The structure of the proposed device is designed based on the Bradley model, as it offers lower cut-size thus making it suitable for microfluidics applications. The operational parameters are derived from the dimensional group model. The particle separation process inside the micro-hydrocyclone is simulated by solving fluid flows using Navier-Stokes equations and particle dynamics using a Lagrangian approach in a Eulerian fluid. The influence of inlet velocity and density on separation efficiency is investigated. The device is fabricated with SU-8 photoresist on a PMMA substrate using a combination of photolithography and micro-milling. Experiments are performed to demonstrate particle-liquid separation using polystyrene microbeads suspended in PBS as the feed sample. The influence of inlet velocity and particle size on particle separation efficiency is measured and compared with that obtained from simulations and a good match was found. The proposed device can be easily integrated with micro-environments thus it is suitable for lab-on-chip and microsystems development. The device may have applications in chemical analysis, materials research, point-of-care, blood sample preparation and other biomedical applications.

  18. Blind separation of convolutive sEMG mixtures based on independent vector analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Guo, Yina; Tian, Wenyan

    2015-12-01

    An independent vector analysis (IVA) method base on variable-step gradient algorithm is proposed in this paper. According to the sEMG physiological properties, the IVA model is applied to the frequency-domain separation of convolutive sEMG mixtures to extract motor unit action potentials information of sEMG signals. The decomposition capability of proposed method is compared to the one of independent component analysis (ICA), and experimental results show the variable-step gradient IVA method outperforms ICA in blind separation of convolutive sEMG mixtures.

  19. Novel Perfluorinated Polymer-Based Pervaporation Membranes for Separation of Solvent/Water Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Smuleac, V; Wu, J; Nemser, S; Majumdar, S; Bhattacharyya, D

    2010-04-15

    Traditionally, the pervaporation of water-solvent mixtures where the solvent is the major component is performed using hydrophilic membranes (such as PVA or zeolites). In the present paper a new type of pervaporation membrane (amorphous perfluorinated polymer, hydrophobic) was studied for separation of water-solvent mixtures. This membrane has high free volume and is inert for all solvents, and has a remarkable mechanical, chemical and thermal stability. The water is transported by solution diffusion model and the separation of solvent is primarily based on molecular sieving (size exclusion) principles. The membrane shows a high stability for operation over a broad range of feed concentrations without swelling; the operating temperature does not have a significant effect on membrane separation performance. Separation factors as high as 349 and 500 for water-ethanol and water-IPA mixtures (2-98 % wt water-solvent) and fluxes of 0.15 and 0.05 kg/m(2)h, respectively were obtained at 22 °C. The permeance-based selectivities were also calculated, and the selectivity is approximately constant for a wide range of feed concentrations. The pervaporation of more complex (ternary) mixtures of water-ethanol-ethyl acetate showed that this system could be successfully applied for solute separation based on size exclusion.

  20. Novel Perfluorinated Polymer-Based Pervaporation Membranes for Separation of Solvent/Water Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Smuleac, V.; Wu, J.; Nemser, S.; Majumdar, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, the pervaporation of water-solvent mixtures where the solvent is the major component is performed using hydrophilic membranes (such as PVA or zeolites). In the present paper a new type of pervaporation membrane (amorphous perfluorinated polymer, hydrophobic) was studied for separation of water-solvent mixtures. This membrane has high free volume and is inert for all solvents, and has a remarkable mechanical, chemical and thermal stability. The water is transported by solution diffusion model and the separation of solvent is primarily based on molecular sieving (size exclusion) principles. The membrane shows a high stability for operation over a broad range of feed concentrations without swelling; the operating temperature does not have a significant effect on membrane separation performance. Separation factors as high as 349 and 500 for water-ethanol and water-IPA mixtures (2-98 % wt water-solvent) and fluxes of 0.15 and 0.05 kg/m2h, respectively were obtained at 22 °C. The permeance-based selectivities were also calculated, and the selectivity is approximately constant for a wide range of feed concentrations. The pervaporation of more complex (ternary) mixtures of water-ethanol-ethyl acetate showed that this system could be successfully applied for solute separation based on size exclusion. PMID:22879688

  1. Protein separation using affinity-based reversed micelles

    PubMed

    Sun; Gu; Tong; Bai; Ichikawa; Furusaki

    1999-05-01

    Reversed micellar two-phase extraction is a developing technique for protein separation. Introduction of an affinity ligand is considered to be an effective approach to increase the selectivity and capacity of reversed micelles. In this article, Cibacron Blue F3G-A (CB) as an affinity ligand was immobilized to reversed micelles composed of soybean lecithin by a two-phase reaction. The affinity partitioning of lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to the CB-lecithin micelles was studied. Formation of mixed micelles by additionally introducing a nonionic surfactant, Tween 85, to the CB-lecithin micelles was effective to increase the solubilization of lysozyme due to the increase of W0 (water/surfactant molar ratio)/micellar size. The partitioning isotherms of lysozyme to the CB-lecithin micelles with and without Tween 85 were expressed by the Langmuir equation. The dissociation constants in the Langmuir equation decreased on addition of Tween 85, indicating the increase of the effectiveness of lysozyme binding to the immobilized CB. On addition of 20 g/L Tween 85 to 50 g/L lecithin/hexane micellar phase containing 0.1 mmol/L CB, the extraction capacity for lysozyme could be increased by 42%. Moreover, the CB-lecithin micelles with or without Tween 85 showed significant size exclusion for BSA due to its high molecular weight. Thus, lysozyme and BSA were separated from artificial solutions containing the two proteins. In addition, the affinity-based reversed micellar phase containing Tween 85 was recycled three times for lysozyme purification from crude egg-white solutions. Lysozyme purity increased by 16-18-fold, reaching 60-70% in the recycled use.

  2. Efficient methods for screening of metal organic framework membranes for gas separations using atomically detailed models.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Seda; Sholl, David S

    2009-10-06

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) define a diverse class of nanoporous materials having potential applications in adsorption-based and membrane-based gas separations. We have previously used atomically detailed models to predict the performance of MOFs for membrane-based separations of gases, but these calculations require considerable computational resources and time. Here, we introduce an efficient approximate method for screening MOFs based on atomistic models that will accelerate the modeling of membrane applications. The validity of this approximate method is examined by comparison with detailed calculations for CH4/H2, CO2/CH4, and CO2/H2 mixtures at room temperature permeating through IRMOF-1 and CuBTC membranes. These results allow us to hypothesize a connection between two computationally efficient correlations predicting mixture adsorption and mixture self-diffusion properties and the validity of our approximate screening method. We then apply our model to six additional MOFs, IRMOF-8, -9, -10, and -14, Zn(bdc)(ted)0.5, and COF-102, to examine the effect of chemical diversity and interpenetration on the performance of metal organic framework membranes for light gas separations.

  3. Modeling reaction fronts of separated condensed phase reactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koundinyan, Sushilkumar; Stewart, D. Scott; Matalon, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    We present a Gibbs free energy approach to modeling reaction fronts in condensed phase reactive materials. The current interest is in chemical reactions of condensed phase reactants that are initially separated. In energetic materials such reactions are observed to occur extremely fast and at relatively sharp fronts. The condensed phase combustion process differs in several aspects from classical gaseous combustion due to the disparity between the characteristic thermal conductivity length and the mass diffusion lengths and a volume, temperature, stress, mass fraction equation of state that principally depends only on the component reference volumes and the current mixture composition. To retain a simple planar configuration, we consider the two reactants, in solid phase, are in motion towards each other characterized by counter-flow geometry. We apply the model to a simplified Titanium-Boron system and present the analysis of reaction zone length for various strain rates. The numerical results are validated with asymptotic approximations at the Burke-Schumann (complete combustion) limit.

  4. Modeling reaction fronts of separated condensed phase reactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koundinyan, Sushilkumar; Matalon, Moshe; Stewart, D. Scott; Bdzil, John

    2015-06-01

    We present a Gibbs free energy approach to modeling reaction fronts in condensed phase reactive materials. The current interest is in chemical reactions of condensed phase reactants that are initially separated. In energetic materials such reactions are observed to occur extremely fast and at relatively sharp fronts. The solid-to-solid combustion process differs in several aspects from classical gaseous combustion due to the disparity between the characteristic thermal conductivity length and the mass diffusion lengths and a volume, temperature, stress, mass fraction equation of state that principally depends only on the component reference volumes and the current mixture composition. To retain a simple planar configuration, we consider the two reactants, in solid phase, are in motion towards each other characterized by counter-flow geometry. We apply the model to a simplified Titanium-Boron system and present the analysis of reaction zone length for various strain rates. The numerical results are validated with asymptotic approximations at the Burke-Schumann limit. Supported by HDTRA1-10-1-0020 (DTRA), AF Sub MO C00039417-1 (AFOSR/TRE).

  5. Simulation model for overloaded monoclonal antibody variants separations in ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guélat, Bertrand; Ströhlein, Guido; Lattuada, Marco; Delegrange, Lydia; Valax, Pascal; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-08-31

    A model was developed for the design of a monoclonal antibody charge variants separation process based on ion-exchange chromatography. In order to account for a broad range of operating conditions in the simulations, an explicit pH and salt concentration dependence has been included in the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The reliability of this model was tested using experimental chromatographic retention times as well as information about the structural characteristics of the different charge variants, e.g. C-terminal lysine groups and deamidated groups. Next, overloaded isocratic elutions at various pH and salt concentrations have been performed to determine the saturation capacity of the ion-exchanger. Furthermore, the column simulation model was applied for the prediction of monoclonal antibody variants separations with both pH and salt gradient elutions. A good prediction of the elution times and peak shapes was observed, even though none of the model parameters was adjusted to fit the experimental data. The trends in the separation performance obtained through the simulations were generally sufficient to identify the most promising operating conditions. The predictive column simulation model thus developed in this work, including a set of parameters determined through specific independent experiments, was experimentally validated and offers a useful basis for a rational optimization of monoclonal antibody variants separation processes on ion-exchange chromatography.

  6. Theoretical model for coupled radial and translational motion of two bubbles at arbitrary separation distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doinikov, Alexander A.; Bouakaz, Ayache

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical model is developed that describes nonlinear spherical pulsations and translational motions of two interacting bubbles at arbitrary separation distances between the bubbles. The derivation of the model is based on the multipole expansion of the bubble velocity potentials and the use of the Lagrangian formalism. The model consists of four coupled ordinary differential equations. Two of them are modified Rayleigh-Plesset equations for the radial oscillations of the bubbles and the other two describe the translational displacement of the bubble centers. The equations are not subject to the assumption that the distance between the bubbles is large compared to the bubble radii and hence make it possible to simulate the bubble dynamics starting from large separation distances up to contact between the bubbles providing that the deviation of the bubble shape from sphericity is negligible. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed model. It is shown that the correct modeling of the translational dynamics of the bubbles at small separation distances requires terms accurate up to ninth order in the inverse separation distance. Physical mechanisms are analyzed that lead to the change of the direction of the relative translational motion of the bubbles in finite-amplitude acoustic fields.

  7. Fully automated objective-based method for master recession curve separation.

    PubMed

    Posavec, Kristijan; Parlov, Jelena; Nakić, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    The fully automated objective-based method for master recession curve (MRC) separation was developed by using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) code. The core of the program code is used to construct an MRC by using the adapted matching strip method (Posavec et al. 2006). Criteria for separating the MRC into two or three segments are determined from the flow-duration curve and are represented as the probable range of percent of flow rate duration. Successive separations are performed automatically on two and three MRCs using sets of percent of flow rate duration from selected ranges and an optimal separation model scenario, having the highest average coefficient of determination R(2), is selected as the most appropriate one. The resulting separated master recession curves are presented graphically, whereas the statistics are presented numerically, all in separate sheets. Examples of field data obtained from two springs in Istria, Croatia, are used to illustrate its application. The freely available Excel spreadsheet and VBA program ensures the ease of use and applicability for larger data sets.

  8. A Parametric Model of the LARCODEMS Heavy Media Separator by Means of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Mario Menéndez; Sierra, Héctor Muñiz; Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Juez, Francisco Javier de Cos

    2017-06-30

    Modeling of a cylindrical heavy media separator has been conducted in order to predict its optimum operating parameters. As far as it is known by the authors, this is the first application in the literature. The aim of the present research is to predict the separation efficiency based on the adjustment of the device's dimensions and media flow rates. A variety of heavy media separators exist that are extensively used to separate particles by density. There is a growing importance in their application in the recycling sector. The cylindrical variety is reported to be the most suited for processing a large range of particle sizes, but optimizing its operating parameters remains to be documented. The multivariate adaptive regression splines methodology has been applied in order to predict the separation efficiencies using, as inputs, the device dimension and media flow rate variables. The results obtained show that it is possible to predict the device separation efficiency according to laboratory experiments performed and, therefore, forecast results obtainable with different operating conditions.

  9. A Parametric Model of the LARCODEMS Heavy Media Separator by Means of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Mario Menéndez; Juez, Francisco Javier de Cos

    2017-01-01

    Modeling of a cylindrical heavy media separator has been conducted in order to predict its optimum operating parameters. As far as it is known by the authors, this is the first application in the literature. The aim of the present research is to predict the separation efficiency based on the adjustment of the device’s dimensions and media flow rates. A variety of heavy media separators exist that are extensively used to separate particles by density. There is a growing importance in their application in the recycling sector. The cylindrical variety is reported to be the most suited for processing a large range of particle sizes, but optimizing its operating parameters remains to be documented. The multivariate adaptive regression splines methodology has been applied in order to predict the separation efficiencies using, as inputs, the device dimension and media flow rate variables. The results obtained show that it is possible to predict the device separation efficiency according to laboratory experiments performed and, therefore, forecast results obtainable with different operating conditions. PMID:28773091

  10. Species separation in rocket exhaust plumes and analytic plume flow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppenwallner, G.

    2001-08-01

    Species separation in the exhaust plume of control thrusters of satellites is of main importance for the contamination analysis. Contamination concerns mainly scientific instruments or sensitive surfaces.. In continuum fluid dynamics a multi- component gas mixture can be treated as mixture with mean properties and with a flow field independent composition. This basic feature of continuum flow ceases to be valid in the rarefied flow regimes. In this regime there are two main mechanism which cause a separation of species in the flow field. a. Strong velocity gradients or streamline curvature. Strong stream line curvatures with large centrifugal forces exist close to the nozzle throat of sonic free jets [Sherman] or at the nozzle lip. Heavy gas constituents will not be able to follow these strong stream line curvatures. b. Different thermal velocity or thermal diffusivity of heavy and light gas constituents The transition from continuum to free molecular plume expansion can approximately be described by the sudden freeze model of Bird. At the freezing point molecular collisions suddenly cease and the further expansion is given by the velocity vector of the individual molecules at this freezing point. As light molecules have a larger thermal speed c than the heavy ones their spreading potential is also higher. This mechanism will also produce an enrichment of the plume boundary with light molecules. The approaches to model species separation in exhaust plumes as result of the above mechanism will be reviewed. To gain more insight into the separation the following cases are analyzed in detail: [B ]The free molecular supersonic expansion from a freezing plane. □ The various analytic plume flow models and their capability to predict the lateral spreading at the plume boundary (e.g. Simmons, Boynton, Brook, DLR) □ DSMC test case calculations of single and two-species plumes with mass separation. (M. Ivanov, ITAM) Based on this analysis a new 3 region model for species

  11. Reynolds stress modeling of separated turbulent flows over helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpman, Emre

    A numerical investigation of inviscid and viscous flows around three-dimensional complex bodies is made using unstructured meshes. Inviscid flow solutions around an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter fuselage are performed to analyze the aerodynamics of ducted tail rotors in low-power, near-edgewise flow conditions. A numerical solution of the Euler Equations is obtained for the flow over the Comanche fuselage with a uniform actuator disk and blade element models for the FANTAIL(TM); the main rotor is excluded in this study. The solutions are obtained by running the PUMA2 computational fluid dynamics code with an unstructured grid with 2.8 million tetrahedral cells. PUMA2 is an in-house computer code written in ANSI C++. Excellent correlation between the calculations and a variety of static test data are presented and discussed. The dynamic relationship between the antitorque thrust moment and applied collective pitch angle is studied by changing the pitch angle input by five degrees at a rate of 144 degrees per second. Dynamic fan thrust and moment response to applied collective pitch in hover and forward flight are presented and discussed. In order to remove the deficiency of the Euler equations in predicting separated flows, which is mostly the case in helicopter fuselage aerodynamics, a concurrent study is performed to simulate turbulent flows around three-dimensional bodies. Most of the turbulence models in the literature contain simplified assumptions which make them computationally cheap but of limited accuracy. Dramatic improvements in the computer processing speed and parallel processing made it possible to use more complete models, such as Reynolds Stress Models, for turbulent flow simulations around complex geometries, which is the focus of this work. The Reynolds Stress Model consists of coupling Reynolds transport equations with the Favre-Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations, which results in a system of 12 coupled nonlinear partial differential equations

  12. Enantiomeric phase separation in a lattice gas model: Guggenheim approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckaby, Dale A.; Shinmi, Masato; Ausloos, Marcel; Clippe, Paulette

    1986-05-01

    We consider a lattice gas in which the two enantiomeric forms of a tetrahedral molecule, consisting of a central carbon atom bonded to four different groups A, B, G, and H, are adsorbed onto a triangular lattice, such that the carbon atom is above a lattice site, the three bonds to A, B, and G point toward neighboring lattice sites, and the bond to H points perpendicular to and away from the plane of the lattice. For a certain choice of intermolecular interactions, such as may exist between the zwitterion forms of an amino acid, the phase diagram was investigated using a Guggenheim approximation with two order parameters. Enantiomeric phase separation into two symmetric condensed phases occurs at low temperatures. These condensed phases become a single racemic condensed phase at a critical line, and they are in equilibrium with a racemic gas phase along a line of triple points. These two lines coincide at a critical endpoint. The racemic condensed and gas phases are in equilibrium along a two phase coexistence line which begins at the critical endpoint and ends at a critical point. No tricritical point was found in the model for the special choice of interactions studied.

  13. Self-operated blood plasma separation using micropump in polymer-based microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Won Ick; Chung, Kwang Hyo; Pyo, Hyeon Bong; Park, Seon Hee

    2006-12-01

    The blood is one of the best indicators of health because blood circulates all body tissues and collects information. The COC(Cyclo Olefin Copolymer) has better various properties than PMMA(Polymethy Mechacrylate) and PC(Polycarbonate) that are widely used in biotechnology field. This paper presents a new method of plasma separation on the COC in terms of surface modification for the development of a disposable protein chip. The blood plasma separation device was composed of a whole blood inlet, microchannel with filtration region of micropillars, micropump with microheater, and a blood cell outlet. Micropump with microheater was designed by ANSYS and flow model in the microchannel was designed by CFD-ACE + simulators. We successfully fabricated a polymer based microfluidic device for blood plasma separation by MEMS(Micro Electro Mechanical System) technology. By using this device, cell-free plasma was successfully obtained through the filtration from a drop of whole blood without external force of a syringe pump.

  14. Using synthetic model systems to understand charge separation and spin dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers.

    SciTech Connect

    Wasielewski, M. R.

    1998-08-27

    Our current work in modeling reaction center dynamics has resulted in the observation of each major spin-dependent photochemical pathway that is observed in reaction centers. The development of new, simpler model systems has permitted us to probe deeply into the mechanistic issues that drive these dynamics. Based on these results we have returned to biomimetic chlorophyll-based electron donors to mimic these dynamics. Future studies will focus on the details of electronic structure and energetic of both the donor-acceptor molecules and their surrounding environment that dictate the mechanistic pathways and result in efficient photosynthetic charge separation.

  15. Separation of crack extension modes in orthotropic delamination models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L.

    1995-01-01

    In the analysis of an interface crack between dissimilar elastic materials, the mode of crack extension is typically not unique, due to oscillatory behavior of near-tip stresses and displacements. This behavior currently limits the applicability of interfacial fracture mechanics as a means to predict composite delamination. The Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) is a method used to extract mode 1 and mode 2 energy release rates from numerical fracture solutions. The mode of crack extension extracted from an oscillatory solution using the VCCT is not unique due to the dependence of mode on the virtual crack extension length, Delta. In this work, a method is presented for using the VCCT to extract Delta-independent crack extension modes for the case of an interface crack between two in-plane orthotropic materials. The method does not involve altering the analysis to eliminate its oscillatory behavior. Instead, it is argued that physically reasonable, Delta-independent modes of crack extension can be extracted from oscillatory solutions. Knowledge of near-tip fields is used to determine the explicit Delta dependence of energy release rate parameters. Energy release rates are then defined that are separated from the oscillatory dependence on Delta. A modified VCCT using these energy release rate definitions is applied to results from finite element analyses, showing that Delta-independent modes of crack extension result. The modified technique has potential as a consistent method for extracting crack extension modes from numerical solutions. The Delta-independent modes extracted using this technique can also serve as guides for testing the convergence of finite element models. Direct applications of this work include the analysis of planar composite delamination problems, where plies or debonded laminates are modeled as in-plane orthotropic materials.

  16. Evidence-Based Practice: Separating Science From Pseudoscience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Catherine M; Hunsley, John

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires that clinicians be guided by the best available evidence. In this article, we address the impact of science and pseudoscience on psychotherapy in psychiatric practice. We describe the key principles of evidence-based intervention. We describe pseudoscience and provide illustrative examples of popular intervention practices that have not been abandoned, despite evidence that they are not efficacious and may be harmful. We distinguish efficacy from effectiveness, and describe modular approaches to treatment. Reasons for the persistence of practices that are not evidence based are examined at both the individual and the professional system level. Finally, we offer suggestions for the promotion of EBP through clinical practice guidelines, modelling of scientific decision making, and training in core skills. PMID:26720821

  17. Evidence-Based Practice: Separating Science From Pseudoscience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Catherine M; Hunsley, John

    2015-12-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires that clinicians be guided by the best available evidence. In this article, we address the impact of science and pseudoscience on psychotherapy in psychiatric practice. We describe the key principles of evidence-based intervention. We describe pseudoscience and provide illustrative examples of popular intervention practices that have not been abandoned, despite evidence that they are not efficacious and may be harmful. We distinguish efficacy from effectiveness, and describe modular approaches to treatment. Reasons for the persistence of practices that are not evidence based are examined at both the individual and the professional system level. Finally, we offer suggestions for the promotion of EBP through clinical practice guidelines, modelling of scientific decision making, and training in core skills.

  18. The Baldwin-Lomax model for separated and wake flows using the entropy envelope concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, J. S.; Ng, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Implementation of the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model is difficult and ambiguous within flows characterized by strong viscous-inviscid interactions and flow separations. A new method of implementation is proposed which uses an entropy envelope concept and is demonstrated to ensure the proper evaluation of modeling parameters. The method is simple, computationally fast, and applicable to both wake and boundary layer flows. The method is general, making it applicable to any turbulence model which requires the automated determination of the proper maxima of a vorticity-based function. The new method is evalulated within two test cases involving strong viscous-inviscid interaction.

  19. The influence of bus stop on traffic flow with velocity-difference-separation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengjun; Wang, Wei; Ge, Hongxia

    2016-06-01

    Based on velocity-difference-separation model, the mixed traffic flow on two-lane road is investigated. For a fixed road length, the influence of bus and bus stops on traffic flow is studied with the increasing traffic density. Compared with the result without bus stops given by Li et al., a new traffic state is found, which is valuable for studying the impacts of public transport on urban traffic flow.

  20. Elastoplastic viscous model of rotor-stator impact interaction without separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, A. N.; Shokhin, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    The impact interaction without separation between a flexible rotor and a rigid stator is analyzed in the framework of the plane model based on the equations of motion in Cartesian coordinates and the Hertz, Rivin, and Gerstner relations. It is shown that there are critical values of the system parameters at which the so-called asynchronous rolling of the rotor on the stator arises.

  1. Discrete phase model representation of particulate matter (PM) for simulating PM separation by hydrodynamic unit operations.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, Joshua A; Sansalone, John J

    2009-11-01

    Modeling the separation of dilute particulate matter (PM) has been a topic of interest since the introduction of unit operations for clarification of rainfall-runoff. One consistent yet controversial issue is the representation of PM and PM separation mechanisms for treatment. While Newton's Law and surface overflow rate were utilized, many historical models represented PM as a lumped gravimetric index largely out of economy and lack of particle analysis methods. As a result such models did not provide information about particle fate in or through a unit operation. In this study, PM discrete phase modeling (DPM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are applied to model PM fate as a function of particle size and flow rate in two common types of hydrodynamic separator (HS) units. The study examines the discretization requirements (as a discretization number, DN) and errors for particle size distributions (PSDs) that range from the common heterodisperse to a monodisperse PSD. PSDs are categorized based on granulometric indices. Results focus on ensuring modeling accuracy while examining the role of size dispersivity and overall PM fineness on DN requirements. The fate of common heterodisperse PSDs is accurately predicted for a DN of 16, whereas a single particle size index, commonly the d(50m), is limited to monodisperse PSDs in order to achieve similar accuracy.

  2. Entropy-based separation of yeast cells using a microfluidic system of conjoined spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Kai-Jian; Qin, S.-J. Bai, Zhong-Chen; Zhang, Xin; Mai, John D.

    2013-11-21

    A physical model is derived to create a biological cell separator that is based on controlling the entropy in a microfluidic system having conjoined spherical structures. A one-dimensional simplified model of this three-dimensional problem in terms of the corresponding effects of entropy on the Brownian motion of particles is presented. This dynamic mechanism is based on the Langevin equation from statistical thermodynamics and takes advantage of the characteristics of the Fokker-Planck equation. This mechanism can be applied to manipulate biological particles inside a microfluidic system with identical, conjoined, spherical compartments. This theoretical analysis is verified by performing a rapid and a simple technique for separating yeast cells in these conjoined, spherical microfluidic structures. The experimental results basically match with our theoretical model and we further analyze the parameters which can be used to control this separation mechanism. Both numerical simulations and experimental results show that the motion of the particles depends on the geometrical boundary conditions of the microfluidic system and the initial concentration of the diffusing material. This theoretical model can be implemented in future biophysics devices for the optimized design of passive cell sorters.

  3. A TRUEX-based separation of americium from the lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Nicholas C. Schmitt; Mary E. Case

    2011-03-01

    Abstract: The inextractability of the actinide AnO2+ ions in the TRUEX process suggests the possibility of a separation of americium from the lanthanides using oxidation to Am(V). The only current method for the direct oxidation of americium to Am(V) in strongly acidic media is with sodium bismuthate. We prepared Am(V) over a wide range of nitric acid concentrations and investigated its solvent extraction behavior for comparison to europium. While a separation is achievable in principal, the presence of macro amounts of cerium competes for the sparingly soluble oxidant and the oxidant itself competes for CMPO complexation. These factors conspire to reduce the Eu/Am separation factor from ~40 using tracer solutions to ~5 for extractions from first cycle raffinate simulant solution. To separate pentavalent americium directly from the lanthanides using the TRUEX process, an alternative oxidizing agent will be necessary.

  4. Fundamentals and Theory of HPTLC-Based Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variyar, Prasad S.; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Sharma, Arun

    High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is a form of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) that provides superior separation power using optimized coating material, novel procedures for mobile-phase feeding, layer conditioning, and improved sample application. It promotes for higher separation efficiencies, shorter analysis time, lower amounts of mobile phase, and efficient data acquisition and processing. The major parameters that influence separation of the constituents within a mixture are the partition coefficients, retention factor (R f ), and capacity factor of the individual constituents on the plate, selectivity of the mobile and stationary phase to the solutes, and the plate height that decide the separation efficiency as well as resolution of the individual constituents within a mixture. The partition coefficient is defined as the molar concentration of the analyte in the stationary phase to that in the mobile phase. R f , a fundamental qualitative value, is expressed as the ratio of migration distances of an individual components of a mix relative to the mobile phase. Capacity factor (k) is a fundamental characteristic of a substance that determines its qualitative chromatographic behavior. It can be expressed as the ratio of the retention time of the substance in the stationary to that in the mobile phase and is influenced by the chemical nature of the two phases. The separation number (SN) that influences separation power of HPLC is defined as the highest possible number of components that are completely separated in a mixture under a gradient-free isocratic TLC. The efficacy of separation of two components of a mixture in a chromatogram is termed as resolution and is influenced by the selectivity of the components between the stationary and the mobile phase, mobile phase flow rate influenced by particle size and solvent strength that influence capacity factors.

  5. Deterministic Migration-Based Separation of White Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeongyeon; Choi, Young Joon; Seo, Hyekyung; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Choi, Sungyoung

    2016-10-01

    Functional and phenotypic analyses of peripheral white blood cells provide useful clinical information. However, separation of white blood cells from peripheral blood requires a time-consuming, inconvenient process and thus analyses of separated white blood cells are limited in clinical settings. To overcome this limitation, a microfluidic separation platform is developed to enable deterministic migration of white blood cells, directing the cells into designated positions according to a ridge pattern. The platform uses slant ridge structures on the channel top to induce the deterministic migration, which allows efficient and high-throughput separation of white blood cells from unprocessed whole blood. The extent of the deterministic migration under various rheological conditions is explored, enabling highly efficient migration of white blood cells in whole blood and achieving high-throughput separation of the cells (processing 1 mL of whole blood less than 7 min). In the separated cell population, the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations is well preserved, and T cells secrete cytokines without any functional impairment. On the basis of the results, this microfluidic platform is a promising tool for the rapid enrichment of white blood cells, and it is useful for functional and phenotypic analyses of peripheral white blood cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Error separation technique for measuring aspheric surface based on dual probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhong-wei; Jing, Hong-wei; Kuang, Long; Wu, Shi-bin

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we present an error separation method based on dual probes for the swing arm profilometer to calibrate the rotary table errors. Two probes and the rotation axis of swinging arm are in a plane. The scanning tracks cross each other as both probes scan the mirror edge to edge. Since the surface heights should ideally be the same at these scanning crossings, this crossings height information can be used to calibrate the rotary table errors. But the crossings height information contains the swing arm air bearing errors and measurement errors of probes. The errors seriously affect the correction accuracy of rotary table errors. The swing arm air bearing errors and measurement errors of probes are randomly distributed, we use least square method to remove these errors. In this paper, we present the geometry of the dual probe swing arm profilometer system, and the profiling pattern made by both probes. We analyze the influence the probe separation has on the measurement results. The algorithm for stitching together the scans into a surface is also presented. The difference of the surface heights at the crossings of the adjacent scans is used to find a transformation that describes the rotary table errors and then to correct for the errors. To prove the error separation method based on a dual probe can successfully calibrate the rotary table errors, we establish SAP error model and simulate the effect of the error separation method based on a dual probe on calibrating the rotary table errors.

  7. Modeling Separate and Combined Atmospheres in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Finn, Cory; Kwauk, Xianmin; Blackwell, Charles; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We modeled BIO-Plex designs with separate or combined atmospheres and then simulated controlling the atmosphere composition. The BIO-Plex is the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, a large regenerative life support test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. Although plants grow better at above-normal carbon dioxide levels, humans can tolerate even higher carbon dioxide levels. Incinerator exhaust has very high levels of carbon dioxide. An elaborate BIO-Plex design would maintain different atmospheres in the crew and plant chambers and isolate the incinerator exhaust in the airlock. This design easily controls the crew and plant carbon dioxide levels but it uses many gas processors, buffers, and controllers. If all the crew's food is grown inside BIO-Plex, all the carbon dioxide required by the plants is supplied by crew respiration and the incineration of plant and food waste. Because the oxygen mass flow must balance in a closed loop, the plants supply all the oxygen required by the crew and the incinerator. Using plants for air revitalization allows using fewer gas processors, buffers, and controllers. In the simplest design, a single combined atmosphere was used for the crew, the plant chamber, and the incinerator. All gas processors, buffers, and controllers were eliminated. The carbon dioxide levels were necessarily similar for the crew and plants. If most of the food is grown, carbon dioxide can be controlled at the desired level by scheduling incineration. An intermediate design uses one atmosphere for the crew and incinerator chambers and a second for the plant chamber. This allows different carbon dioxide levels for the crew and plants. Better control of the atmosphere is obtained by varying the incineration rate. Less gas processing storage and control is needed if more food is grown.

  8. Modeling Separate and Combined Atmospheres in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Finn, Cory; Kwauk, Xian-Min; Blackwell, Charles; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We modeled BIO-Plex designs with separate or combined atmospheres and then simulated controlling the atmosphere composition. The BIO-Plex is the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, a large regenerative life support test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. Although plants grow better at above-normal carbon dioxide levels, humans can tolerate even higher carbon dioxide levels. incinerator exhaust has very high levels of carbon dioxide. An elaborate BIO-Plex design would maintain different atmospheres in the crew and plant chambers and isolate the incinerator exhaust in the airlock. This design easily controls the crew and plant carbon dioxide levels but it uses many gas processors, buffers, and controllers. If all the crew's food is grown inside BIO-Plex, all the carbon dioxide required by the plants is supplied by crew respiration and the incineration of plant and food waste. Because the oxygen mass flow must balance in a closed loop, the plants supply all the oxygen required by the crew and the incinerator. Using plants for air revitalization allows using fewer gas processors, buffers, and controllers. In the simplest design, a single combined atmosphere was used for the crew, the plant chamber, and the incinerator. All gas processors, buffers, and controllers were eliminated. The carbon dioxide levels were necessarily similar for the crew and plants. If most of the food is grown, carbon dioxide can be controlled at the desired level by scheduling incineration. An intermediate design uses one atmosphere for the crew and incinerator chambers and a second for the plant chamber. This allows different carbon dioxide levels for the crew and plants. Better control of the atmosphere is obtained by varying the incineration rate. Less gas processing, storage, and control is needed if more food is grown.

  9. Modeling Separate and Combined Atmospheres in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Finn, Cory; Kwauk, Xianmin; Blackwell, Charles; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We modeled BIO-Plex designs with separate or combined atmospheres and then simulated controlling the atmosphere composition. The BIO-Plex is the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, a large regenerative life support test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. Although plants grow better at above-normal carbon dioxide levels, humans can tolerate even higher carbon dioxide levels. Incinerator exhaust has very high levels of carbon dioxide. An elaborate BIO-Plex design would maintain different atmospheres in the crew and plant chambers and isolate the incinerator exhaust in the airlock. This design easily controls the crew and plant carbon dioxide levels but it uses many gas processors, buffers, and controllers. If all the crew's food is grown inside BIO-Plex, all the carbon dioxide required by the plants is supplied by crew respiration and the incineration of plant and food waste. Because the oxygen mass flow must balance in a closed loop, the plants supply all the oxygen required by the crew and the incinerator. Using plants for air revitalization allows using fewer gas processors, buffers, and controllers. In the simplest design, a single combined atmosphere was used for the crew, the plant chamber, and the incinerator. All gas processors, buffers, and controllers were eliminated. The carbon dioxide levels were necessarily similar for the crew and plants. If most of the food is grown, carbon dioxide can be controlled at the desired level by scheduling incineration. An intermediate design uses one atmosphere for the crew and incinerator chambers and a second for the plant chamber. This allows different carbon dioxide levels for the crew and plants. Better control of the atmosphere is obtained by varying the incineration rate. Less gas processing storage and control is needed if more food is grown.

  10. Modeling Separate and Combined Atmospheres in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Finn, Cory; Kwauk, Xian-Min; Blackwell, Charles; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We modeled BIO-Plex designs with separate or combined atmospheres and then simulated controlling the atmosphere composition. The BIO-Plex is the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, a large regenerative life support test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. Although plants grow better at above-normal carbon dioxide levels, humans can tolerate even higher carbon dioxide levels. incinerator exhaust has very high levels of carbon dioxide. An elaborate BIO-Plex design would maintain different atmospheres in the crew and plant chambers and isolate the incinerator exhaust in the airlock. This design easily controls the crew and plant carbon dioxide levels but it uses many gas processors, buffers, and controllers. If all the crew's food is grown inside BIO-Plex, all the carbon dioxide required by the plants is supplied by crew respiration and the incineration of plant and food waste. Because the oxygen mass flow must balance in a closed loop, the plants supply all the oxygen required by the crew and the incinerator. Using plants for air revitalization allows using fewer gas processors, buffers, and controllers. In the simplest design, a single combined atmosphere was used for the crew, the plant chamber, and the incinerator. All gas processors, buffers, and controllers were eliminated. The carbon dioxide levels were necessarily similar for the crew and plants. If most of the food is grown, carbon dioxide can be controlled at the desired level by scheduling incineration. An intermediate design uses one atmosphere for the crew and incinerator chambers and a second for the plant chamber. This allows different carbon dioxide levels for the crew and plants. Better control of the atmosphere is obtained by varying the incineration rate. Less gas processing, storage, and control is needed if more food is grown.

  11. Commute Maps: Separating Slowly Mixing Molecular Configurations for Kinetic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Noé, Frank; Banisch, Ralf; Clementi, Cecilia

    2016-11-08

    Identification of the main reaction coordinates and building of kinetic models of macromolecular systems require a way to measure distances between molecular configurations that can distinguish slowly interconverting states. Here we define the commute distance that can be shown to be closely related to the expected commute time needed to go from one configuration to the other, and back. A practical merit of this quantity is that it can be easily approximated from molecular dynamics data sets when an approximation of the Markov operator eigenfunctions is available, which can be achieved by the variational approach to approximate eigenfunctions of Markov operators, also called variational approach of conformation dynamics (VAC) or the time-lagged independent component analysis (TICA). The VAC or TICA components can be scaled such that a so-called commute map is obtained in which Euclidean distance corresponds to the commute distance, and thus kinetic models such as Markov state models can be computed based on Euclidean operations, such as standard clustering. In addition, the distance metric gives rise to a quantity we call total kinetic content, which is an excellent score to rank input feature sets and kinetic model quality.

  12. Turbulent transport modelling of separating and reattaching shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launder, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    The improvement of capabilities for computer simulation of turbulent recirculating flows was investigated. Attention has been limited to two dimensional flows and principally to statistically stationary motion. Improvement of turbulence modeling explored the treatment of the near wall sublayer and of the exterior fully turbulent region, working within the framework of turbulence closures requiring the solution of transport equations for the turbulence energy and its dissipation rate. The work on the numerical procedure, based on the Gosman-Pun program TEACH, addressed the problems of incorporating the turbulence model as well as the extension to time dependent flows, the incorporation of a third order approximation of convective transport, and the treatment of non-orthogonal boundaries.

  13. Separation of base flow from streamflow using groundwater levels - illustrated for the Pang catchment (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E.; van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2005-03-01

    A new filter to separate base flow from streamflow has developed that uses observed groundwater levels. To relate the base flow to the observed groundwater levels, a non-linear relation was used. This relation is suitable for unconfined aquifers with deep groundwater levels that do not respond to individual rainfall event. Because the filter was calibrated using total streamflow, an estimate of the direct runoff was also needed. The direct runoff was estimated from precipitation and potential evapotranspiration using a water balance model. The parameters for the base flow and direct runoff were estimated simultaneously using a Monte Carlo approach. Instead of one best solution, a range of satisfactory solutions was accepted. The filter was applied to data from two nested gauging stations in the Pang catchment (UK). Streamflow at the upstream station (Frilsham) is strongly dominated by base flow from the main aquifer, whereas at the downstream station (Pangbourne) a significant component of direct runoff also occurs. The filter appeared to provide satisfactory estimates at both stations. For Pangbourne, the rise of the base flow was strongly delayed compared with the rise of the streamflow. However, base flow exceeded streamflow on several occasions, especially during summer and autumn, which might be explained by evapotranspiration from riparian vegetation. To evaluate the results, the base flow was also estimated using three existing base-flow separation filters: an arithmetic filter (BFI), a digital filter (Boughton) and another filter based on groundwater levels (Kliner and Knek). Both the BFI and Boughton filters showed a much smaller difference in base flow between the two stations. The Kliner and Knek filter gave consistently lower estimates of the base flow. Differences and lack of clarity in the definition of base flow complicated the comparison between the filters. An advantage of the method introduced in this paper is the clear interpretation of the

  14. Hydrograph separation for karst watersheds using a two-domain rainfall-discharge model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Highly parameterized, physically based models may be no more effective at simulating the relations between rainfall and outflow from karst watersheds than are simpler models. Here an antecedent rainfall and convolution model was used to separate a karst watershed hydrograph into two outflow components: one originating from focused recharge in conduits and one originating from slow flow in a porous annex system. In convolution, parameters of a complex system are lumped together in the impulse-response function (IRF), which describes the response of the system to an impulse of effective precipitation. Two parametric functions in superposition approximate the two-domain IRF. The outflow hydrograph can be separated into flow components by forward modeling with isolated IRF components, which provides an objective criterion for separation. As an example, the model was applied to a karst watershed in the Madison aquifer, South Dakota, USA. Simulation results indicate that this watershed is characterized by a flashy response to storms, with a peak response time of 1 day, but that 89% of the flow results from the slow-flow domain, with a peak response time of more than 1 year. This long response time may be the result of perched areas that store water above the main water table. Simulation results indicated that some aspects of the system are stationary but that nonlinearities also exist.

  15. Monolithic capillary columns based on pentaerythritol acrylates for molecular-size-based separations of synthetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Kurganov, Alexander; Victorova, Elena; Kanateva, Anastasiia

    2015-07-01

    Monolithic capillary columns based on pentaerythritol triacrylate and pentaerythritol tetraacrylate were synthesized using different compositions of polymerization mixtures and different polymerization conditions. The impact of porogen type and porogen/monomer ratio on the porosity of synthesized monoliths was investigated. Porogen type appears to be the main factor influencing the separating properties of the monolithic sorbent. Using optimal polymerization conditions (porogen type, porogen/monomer ratio, reaction temperature, time etc.) monoliths with a porous structure optimized for polymer separations can be obtained. The monolithic capillary columns containing porous sorbents with optimized porosity are capable of separating 10 to 12 polystyrene standards in one chromatographic run utilizing both size exclusion chromatography and hydrodynamic chromatography separation mechanisms. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Evaporation-based Ge/.sup.68 Ga Separation

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Whipple, Richard E.; Grant, Patrick M.; O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.

    1981-01-01

    Micro concentrations of .sup.68 Ga in secular equilibrium with .sup.68 Ge in strong aqueous HCl solution may readily be separated in ionic form from the .sup.68 Ge for biomedical use by evaporating the solution to dryness and then leaching the .sup.68 Ga from the container walls with dilute aqueous solutions of HCl or NaCl. The chloro-germanide produced during the evaporation may be quantitatively recovered to be used again as a source of .sup.68 Ga. If the solution is distilled to remove any oxidizing agents which may be present as impurities, the separation factor may easily exceed 10.sup.5. The separation is easily completed and the .sup.68 Ga made available in ionic form in 30 minutes or less.

  17. Extraction and Separation Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with ADAMS Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Anderson, Keith; Cuthbert, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Carlo analysis to provide the maximum expected range of the state variables at programmer deployment to be used as ICs in DSS. Extensive comparisons were made with Decelerator System Simulation Application (DSSA) to validate the mated portion of the ADAMS extraction trajectory. Results of the comparisons improved the fidelity of ADAMS with a ramp pitch profile update from DSSA. Post-test reconstructions resulted in improvements to extraction parachute drag area knock-down factors, extraction line modeling, and the inclusion of ball-to-socket attachments used as a release mechanism on the PTV. Modeling of two Extraction parachutes was based on United States Air Force (USAF) tow test data and integrated into ADAMS for nominal and Monte Carlo trajectory assessments. Video overlay of ADAMS animations and actual C-12 chase plane test videos supported analysis and observation efforts of extraction and separation events. The COTS ADAMS simulation has been integrated with NASA based simulations to provide complete end to end trajectories with a focus on the extraction, separation, and programmer deployment sequence. The flexibility of modifying ADAMS inputs has proven useful for sensitivity studies and extraction/separation modeling efforts. 1

  18. Immunomagnetic separation for MEMS-based biosensor of waterborne pathogens detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianjiang; Zhang, Rongbiao

    2017-07-01

    Rapid isolation and detection of special pathogens present in environmental drinking water is critical for water quality monitoring. Numerical analysis and experimental investigations on immunomagnetic capture and isolation of waterborne pathogens with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in microfluidic channel are performed. A finite-element COMSOL-based model is established to demonstrate the novel method of on-chip capturing pathogens using MNPs together with periodic pulse magnetic field. Simulation results determine the optimum magnetic pole current and switching frequency for magnetic separation. With the magnetic isolation experiment platform built up, as a pathogen example of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the performance of the method is experimentally verified. Both numerical and experimental results are found to agree reasonably well. Results of these investigations show that the capture efficiency of the immunomagnetic separation method is more than 92%, which could be encouraging for the design and optimization of MEMS-based biosensor of waterborne pathogen detection.

  19. A new method for geochemical anomaly separation based on the distribution patterns of singularity indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yue; Zhou, Kefa; Cheng, Qiuming

    2017-08-01

    Singularity analysis is one of the most important models in the fractal/multifractal family that has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for identifying hybrid distribution patterns of geochemical data, such as normal and multifractal distributions. However, the question of how to appropriately separate these patterns using reasonable thresholds has not been well answered. In the present study, a new method termed singularity-quantile (S-Q) analysis was proposed to separate multiple geochemical anomaly populations based on integrating singularity analysis and quantile-quantile plot (QQ-plot) analysis. The new method provides excellent abilities for characterizing frequency distribution patterns of singularity indices by plotting singularity index quantiles vs. standard normal quantiles. From a perspective of geochemical element enrichment processes, distribution patterns of singularity indices can be evidently separated into three groups by means of the new method, corresponding to element enrichment, element generality and element depletion, respectively. A case study for chromitite exploration based on geochemical data in the western Junggar region (China), was employed to examine the potential application of the new method. The results revealed that the proposed method was very sensitive to the changes of singularity indices with three segments when it was applied to characterize geochemical element enrichment processes. And hence, the S-Q method can be considered as an efficient and powerful tool for separating hybrid geochemical anomalies on the basis of statistical and inherent fractal/multifractal properties.

  20. Modeling Multibody Stage Separation Dynamics Using Constraint Force Equation Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Pamadi, Bandu N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of the constraint force equation methodology and its implementation for multibody separation problems using three specially designed test cases. The first test case involves two rigid bodies connected by a fixed joint, the second case involves two rigid bodies connected with a universal joint, and the third test case is that of Mach 7 separation of the X-43A vehicle. For the first two cases, the solutions obtained using the constraint force equation method compare well with those obtained using industry- standard benchmark codes. For the X-43A case, the constraint force equation solutions show reasonable agreement with the flight-test data. Use of the constraint force equation method facilitates the analysis of stage separation in end-to-end simulations of launch vehicle trajectories

  1. BREN: body reflection essence-neuter model for separation of reflection components.

    PubMed

    Je, Changsoo; Park, Hyung-Min

    2015-05-01

    We propose a novel reflection color model consisting of body essence and (mixed) neuter, and present an effective method for separating dichromatic reflection components using a single image. Body essence is an entity invariant to interface reflection, and has two degrees of freedom unlike hue and maximum chromaticity. As a result, the proposed method is insensitive to noise and proper for colors around CMY (cyan, magenta, and yellow) as well as RGB (red, green, and blue), contrary to the maximum chromaticity-based methods. Interface reflection is separated by using a Gaussian function, which removes a critical thresholding problem. Furthermore, the method does not require any region segmentation. Experimental results show the efficacy of the proposed model and method.

  2. Mathematical Model of Nonstationary Separation Processes Proceeding in the Cascade of Gas Centrifuges in the Process of Separation of Multicomponent Isotope Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, A. A.; Ushakov, A. A.; Sovach, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed and realized on software a mathematical model of the nonstationary separation processes proceeding in the cascades of gas centrifuges in the process of separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures. With the use of this model the parameters of the separation process of germanium isotopes have been calculated. It has been shown that the model adequately describes the nonstationary processes in the cascade and is suitable for calculating their parameters in the process of separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures.

  3. Rapid and efficient filtration-based procedure for separation and safe analysis of CBRN mixed samples.

    PubMed

    Bentahir, Mostafa; Laduron, Frederic; Irenge, Leonid; Ambroise, Jérôme; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Separating CBRN mixed samples that contain both chemical and biological warfare agents (CB mixed sample) in liquid and solid matrices remains a very challenging issue. Parameters were set up to assess the performance of a simple filtration-based method first optimized on separate C- and B-agents, and then assessed on a model of CB mixed sample. In this model, MS2 bacteriophage, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (AcNPV), Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores were used as biological agent simulants whereas ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and pinacolyl methylphophonic acid (PMPA) were used as VX and soman (GD) nerve agent surrogates, respectively. Nanoseparation centrifugal devices with various pore size cut-off (30 kD up to 0.45 µm) and three RNA extraction methods (Invisorb, EZ1 and Nuclisens) were compared. RNA (MS2) and DNA (AcNPV) quantification was carried out by means of specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCR). Liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) methods was used for quantifying EMPA and PMPA. Culture methods and qPCR demonstrated that membranes with a 30 kD cut-off retain more than 99.99% of biological agents (MS2, AcNPV, Bacillus Atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores) tested separately. A rapid and reliable separation of CB mixed sample models (MS2/PEG-400 and MS2/EMPA/PMPA) contained in simple liquid or complex matrices such as sand and soil was also successfully achieved on a 30 kD filter with more than 99.99% retention of MS2 on the filter membrane, and up to 99% of PEG-400, EMPA and PMPA recovery in the filtrate. The whole separation process turnaround-time (TAT) was less than 10 minutes. The filtration method appears to be rapid, versatile and extremely efficient. The separation method developed in this work constitutes therefore a useful model for further evaluating and comparing additional separation alternative procedures for a safe handling and

  4. Rapid and Efficient Filtration-Based Procedure for Separation and Safe Analysis of CBRN Mixed Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bentahir, Mostafa; Laduron, Frederic; Irenge, Leonid; Ambroise, Jérôme; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Separating CBRN mixed samples that contain both chemical and biological warfare agents (CB mixed sample) in liquid and solid matrices remains a very challenging issue. Parameters were set up to assess the performance of a simple filtration-based method first optimized on separate C- and B-agents, and then assessed on a model of CB mixed sample. In this model, MS2 bacteriophage, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (AcNPV), Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores were used as biological agent simulants whereas ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and pinacolyl methylphophonic acid (PMPA) were used as VX and soman (GD) nerve agent surrogates, respectively. Nanoseparation centrifugal devices with various pore size cut-off (30 kD up to 0.45 µm) and three RNA extraction methods (Invisorb, EZ1 and Nuclisens) were compared. RNA (MS2) and DNA (AcNPV) quantification was carried out by means of specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCR). Liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) methods was used for quantifying EMPA and PMPA. Culture methods and qPCR demonstrated that membranes with a 30 kD cut-off retain more than 99.99% of biological agents (MS2, AcNPV, Bacillus Atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores) tested separately. A rapid and reliable separation of CB mixed sample models (MS2/PEG-400 and MS2/EMPA/PMPA) contained in simple liquid or complex matrices such as sand and soil was also successfully achieved on a 30 kD filter with more than 99.99% retention of MS2 on the filter membrane, and up to 99% of PEG-400, EMPA and PMPA recovery in the filtrate. The whole separation process turnaround-time (TAT) was less than 10 minutes. The filtration method appears to be rapid, versatile and extremely efficient. The separation method developed in this work constitutes therefore a useful model for further evaluating and comparing additional separation alternative procedures for a safe handling and

  5. Psychological Separation and the Sexual Abuse Victim: A Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, Marilyn; Vigilanti, Mary Ann

    This paper hypothesizes about the occurrence of double-binds in incestuous families and proposes a method of treatment which attempts to help adult women who were sexually abused as children cope with the double-bind and achieve separation-individuation. The double-bind is defined as a no-win situation in which the abuse victim received…

  6. Separation of purine and pyrimidine bases and nucleosides by hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Marrubini, Giorgio; Mendoza, Bolivar Enrique Castillo; Massolini, Gabriella

    2010-03-01

    The separation of 12 model compounds chosen among purine and pyrimidine bases and nucleosides was studied by using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). The compounds investigated were small molecules with relevant properties for biomedical and pharmaceutical studies. The mixture of pyrimidines and purines was applied on a ZIC-HILIC 150 x 2.1 mm, 5 microm, and two TSKgel Amide-80 150 x 2.0 mm, 5 microm and 3 microm particle size columns. The retention of the analytes was studied by varying ACN%, ammonium formate concentration, pH, and column temperature. The results obtained confirmed the elution order of nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides based on their hydrophobicity. The retention mechanism of the columns was studied considering the models used for describing partitioning and surface adsorption. The influence on retention of chromatographic conditions (ACN%, salt concentration, pH, and temperature) was described and discussed for both columns. The optimization of the conditions studied allowed to assess a gradient method for the separation of the 12 analytes. The developed method is a valuable alternative to existing methods for the separation of the compounds concerned.

  7. Inkjet Printing Based Separation of Mammalian Cells by Capillary Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifei; Li, Nan; Zeng, Hulie; Nakajima, Hizuru; Lin, Jin-Ming; Uchiyama, Katsumi

    2017-09-05

    This study describes a method to investigate the separation of cells by capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with inkjet printing system. The results validated the feasibility of inkjet printing for mammalian cells to achieve the drop-on-demand and convenient sampling into capillary then zone electrophoresis was applied to separate different cells according to their electrophoretic mobility, finally the peak signal were measured by UV detector. Linear relationship between the peak area and the droplet number was obtained within the range of 25-400 drops (R(2) = 0.996) at a fixed cell concentration 10(6)/mL, indicating that this system could be used for rapid and accurate quantification of cells.

  8. Bacteriophage-based nanoprobes for rapid bacteria separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juhong; Duncan, Bradley; Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Li-Sheng; Rotello, Vincent M.; Nugen, Sam R.

    2015-10-01

    The lack of practical methods for bacterial separation remains a hindrance for the low-cost and successful development of rapid detection methods from complex samples. Antibody-tagged magnetic particles are commonly used to pull analytes from a liquid sample. While this method is well-established, improvements in capture efficiencies would result in an increase of the overall detection assay performance. Bacteriophages represent a low-cost and more consistent biorecognition element as compared to antibodies. We have developed nanoscale bacteriophage-tagged magnetic probes, where T7 bacteriophages were bound to magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoprobe allowed the specific recognition and attachment to E. coli cells. The phage magnetic nanprobes were directly compared to antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoprobes. The capture efficiencies of bacteriophages and antibodies on nanoparticles for the separation of E. coli K12 at varying concentrations were determined. The results indicated a similar bacteria capture efficiency between the two nanoprobes.The lack of practical methods for bacterial separation remains a hindrance for the low-cost and successful development of rapid detection methods from complex samples. Antibody-tagged magnetic particles are commonly used to pull analytes from a liquid sample. While this method is well-established, improvements in capture efficiencies would result in an increase of the overall detection assay performance. Bacteriophages represent a low-cost and more consistent biorecognition element as compared to antibodies. We have developed nanoscale bacteriophage-tagged magnetic probes, where T7 bacteriophages were bound to magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoprobe allowed the specific recognition and attachment to E. coli cells. The phage magnetic nanprobes were directly compared to antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoprobes. The capture efficiencies of bacteriophages and antibodies on nanoparticles for the separation of E. coli K12 at varying

  9. New Developments in Membrane-Based Chemical Separations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    triacetate polymeric membrane with a crown ether incorporated as a carrier. They studied the properties and stability of these membranes for metal ion...authors is consistent with the thermodynamic stability of the crown ether with these ions as well as the trend in transport of these ions in other liquid...pyridine from quinine . Figure 4, shows the UV absorbance spectra of the feed and the permeate solutions in a molecular- separation experiment. Such

  10. Gas separation device based on electrical swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-10-26

    A method and apparatus for separating one constituent, especially carbon dioxide, from a fluid mixture, such as natural gas. The fluid mixture flows through an adsorbent member having an affinity for molecules of the one constituent, the molecules being adsorbed on the adsorbent member. A voltage is applied to the adsorbent member, the voltage imparting a current flow which causes the molecules of the one constituent to be desorbed from the adsorbent member.

  11. On the Prediction of Separation Bubbles Using a Modified Chen-Thyson Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platzer, Max F.; Ekaterinaris, John A.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    The prediction of separation bubbles on NACA 65-213 and NACA 0012 using a modified Chen-Thyson transition model is presented. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Analysis of NACA 65-213 separation bubble using cebeci's viscous-inviscid interaction method; 3) Analysis of NACA 0012 separation bubble using navier-stokes method; and 4) Comparison with experiment.

  12. Model of the separation of the Marvin Spur from the Lomonosov Ridge in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreider, Al. A.

    2014-07-01

    The axes of the zones of the separation of the peripheral continental fragments of the Lomonosov Ridge (the Marvin Spur and the local block of the Alpha Ridge) from its main body in the part of the Makarov Basin near Greenland are restored. The Euler poles and the angles of rotation describing the separation process are determined. The depths of the conjugate isobaths are found to be different by hundreds of meters. This circumstance most likely reflects the fact of the different scale sliding of the peripheral areas of the continental crust from the main body of the Lomonosov Ridge down the lithospheric fault plane (and thereby the different scale dip during the separation) according to the modified B. Wernike model presented here. The primary bottom topography that existed before the separation of the sliding fragments from the ridge are restored based on the reconstruction. For the case of the part of the Lomonosov Ridge near Greenland, it is established that the initially peripheral sections from the part of the Lomonosov Ridge near Greenland towered over the main surface of the Lomonosov Ridge approximately by half a kilometer and higher.

  13. Magnetic-based microfluidic platform for biomolecular separation.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Qasem; Samper, Victor; Poenar, Daniel; Yu, Chen

    2006-06-01

    A novel microfluidic platform for manipulation of micro/nano magnetic particles was designed, fabricated and tested for applications dealing with biomolecular separation. Recently, magnetic immunomagnetic cell separation has attracted a noticeable attention due to the high selectivity of such separation methods. Strong magnetic field gradients can be developed along the entire wire, and the miniaturized size of these current-carrying conductors strongly enhances the magnetic field gradient and therefore produces large, tunable and localized magnetic forces that can be applied on magnetic particles and confine them in very small spots. Further increases in the values of the generated magnetic field gradients can be achieved by employing miniaturized ferromagnetic structures (pillars) which can be magnetized by an external magnetic field or by micro-coils on the same chip. In this study, we demonstrate magnetic beads trapping, concentration, transportation and sensing in a liquid sample under continuous flow by employing high magnetic field gradients generated by novel multi-functional magnetic micro-devices. Each individual magnetic micro-device consists of the following components: 1. Cu micro-coils array embedded in the silicon substrate with high aspect ratio conductors for efficient magnetic field generation 2. Magnetic pillar(s) made of the magnetic alloy NiCoP for magnetic field focusing and magnetic field gradient enhancement. Each pillar is magnetized by its corresponding coil 3. Integrated sensing coil for magnetic beads detection 4. Microfluidic chamber containing all the previous components. Magnetic fields of about 0.1 T and field gradients of around 300 T/cm have been achieved, which allowed to develop a magnetic force of 3 x 10(-9) N on a magnetic particle with radius of 1 mum. This force is large enough to trap/move this particle as the required force to affect such particles in a liquid sample is on the order of approximately pN. Trapping rates of up

  14. Carbon nanotube-based separation columns for microchip electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, K B; Delacourt, B; Kutter, J P

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication of the stationary phase for microchip chromatography is most often done by packing of the individual separation channel after fabrication of the microfluidic chip, which is a very time-consuming and costly process (Kutter. J Chromatogr A 1221:72-82, 2012). Here, we describe in detail the fabrication and operation protocols for devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube stationary phases for reverse-phase chromatography. In this protocol, the lithographically defined stationary phase is fabricated in the channel before bonding of a lid, thereby circumventing the difficult packaging procedures used in more conventional protocols.

  15. Kinetics of phase separation in thin films: Lattice versus continuum models for solid binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subir K.; Horbach, Jürgen; Binder, Kurt

    2009-02-01

    A description of phase separation kinetics for solid binary (A,B) mixtures in thin film geometry based on the Kawasaki spin-exchange kinetic Ising model is presented in a discrete lattice molecular field formulation. It is shown that the model describes the interplay of wetting layer formation and lateral phase separation, which leads to a characteristic domain size l(t) in the directions parallel to the confining walls that grows according to the Lifshitz-Slyozov t1/3 law with time t after the quench. Near the critical point of the model, the description is shown to be equivalent to the standard treatments based on Ginzburg-Landau models. Unlike the latter, the present treatment is reliable also at temperatures far below criticality, where the correlation length in the bulk is only of the order of a lattice spacing, and steep concentration variations may occur near the walls, invalidating the gradient square approximation. A further merit is that the relation to the interaction parameters in the bulk and at the walls is always transparent, and the correct free energy at low temperatures is consistent with the time evolution by construction.

  16. Optimization-based technique for separation and detection of saccadic movements and eye-blinking in electrooculography biosignals.

    PubMed

    Krupiński, Robert; Mazurek, Przemysław

    2011-01-01

    Electrooculography (EOG) gives the possibility of eye tracking using biosignal measurements. Typical EOG signal consists of rapid value changes (saccades) separated by almost constant values. Additionally, the pulse shape from eyelid blinking is observed. The separation of them is possible using numerous methods, like median filtering. The proposed optimization method based on a model fitting using the variable number of parameters gives the possibility of features localization even for nearby saccades and blinking pulses.

  17. Constraint Force Equation Methodology for Modeling Multi-Body Stage Separation Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Pamadi, Bandu N.; Hotchko, Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a generalized approach to the multi-body separation problems in a launch vehicle staging environment based on constraint force methodology and its implementation into the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2), a widely used trajectory design and optimization tool. This development facilitates the inclusion of stage separation analysis into POST2 for seamless end-to-end simulations of launch vehicle trajectories, thus simplifying the overall implementation and providing a range of modeling and optimization capabilities that are standard features in POST2. Analysis and results are presented for two test cases that validate the constraint force equation methodology in a stand-alone mode and its implementation in POST2.

  18. Modeling the phase separation in binary lipid membrane under externally imposed oscillatory shear flow.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Bo; Niu, Li-Sha; Shi, Hui-Ji

    2008-09-01

    By adding external velocity terms, the two-dimensional time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations are modified. Based on this, the phase separation in binary lipid membrane under externally imposed oscillatory shear flow is numerically modeled employing the Cell Dynamical System (CDS) approach. Considering shear flows with different frequencies and amplitudes, several aspects of such a phase evolving process are studied. Firstly, visualized results are shown via snapshot figures of the membrane shape. And then, the simulated scattering patterns at typical moments are presented. Furthermore, in order to more quantitatively discuss this phase-separation process, the time growth laws of the characteristic domain sizes in both directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow are investigated for each case. Finally, the peculiar rheological properties of such binary lipid membrane system have been discussed, mainly the normal stress difference and the viscoelastic complex shear moduli.

  19. A new method for base flow separation based on heads illustrated in the Pang catchment (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E.; van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2003-04-01

    A new separation filter based on observed groundwater heads was developed to separate streamflow into two components: base flow and direct runoff. Base flow was estimated using heads and direct runoff was estimated using excess precipitation. Together they were calibrated on the observed total streamflow. Instead of one best solution, a range of satisfactory solutions derived from a Monte Carlo simulation was accepted. For the calibration, data from two nested gauging stations in the Pang catchment (UK) were used. The streamflow at the upstream station is strongly dominated by base flow from the main aquifer. The downstream station also includes a significant flow component from a fast responding region with low permeability deposits. The results of this separation filter were compared to the results from three other filters, namely an arithmetic filter (BFI), the Boughton two-parameter digital filter and another filter based on heads developed by Kliner and Knĕžek. For the upstream station three of the filters gave reasonable, consistent estimates, only the estimates from the Kliner and Knĕžek filter, which are minimum estimates, were lower. For the downstream station, however, the base flow estimates differ. The base flow estimate from the method proposed in this paper is considerably lower than for the BFI and Boughton filters. These filters do not distinguish between interflow from the low permeability deposits in the downstream part of the catchment and the much more delayed outflow from the main aquifer, and thus the base flow estimate was only slightly smaller for the downstream station than for the upstream station. The filter proposed in this paper based on heads only estimates the base flow component derived from the main aquifer. The main difference occurs during winter. Apparantly in this period of the year a large component interflow occurs which cannot directly be related to precipitation, but which is neither derived from the main aquifer.

  20. Correlation Based Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holschneider, M.; Mauerberger, S.; Lesur, V.; Baerenzung, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method for determining geomagnetic field models. It is based on the construction of an a priori correlation structure derived from our knowledge about characteristic length scales and sources of the geomagnetic field. The magnetic field measurements are then seen as correlated random variables too and the inversion process amounts to compute the a posteriori correlation structure using Bayes theorem. We show how this technique allows the statistical separation of the various field contributions and the assessment of their uncertainties.

  1. Deformability-based circulating tumor cell separation with conical-shaped microfilters: Concept, optimization, and design criteria.

    PubMed

    Aghaamoo, Mohammad; Zhang, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) separation technology has made positive impacts on cancer science in many aspects. The ability of detecting and separating CTCs can play a key role in early cancer detection and treatment. In recent years, there has been growing interest in using deformability-based CTC separation microfilters due to their simplicity and low cost. Most of the previous studies in this area are mainly based on experimental work. Although experimental research provides useful insights in designing CTC separation devices, there is still a lack of design guidelines based on fundamental understandings of the cell separation process in the filters. While experimental efforts face challenges, especially microfabrication difficulties, we adopt numerical simulation here to study conical-shaped microfilters using deformability difference between CTCs and blood cells for the separation process. We use the liquid drop model for modeling a CTC passing through such microfilters. The accuracy of the model in predicting the pressure signature of the system is validated by comparing it with previous experiments. Pressure-deformability analysis of the cell going through the channel is then carried out in detail in order to better understand how a CTC behaves throughout the filtration process. Different system design criteria such as system throughput and unclogging of the system are discussed. Specifically, pressure behavior under different system throughput is analyzed. Regarding the unclogging issue, we define pressure ratio as a key parameter representing the ability to overcome clogging in such CTC separation devices and investigate the effect of conical angle on the optimum pressure ratio. Finally, the effect of unclogging applied pressure on the system performance is examined. Our study provides detailed understandings of the cell separation process and its characteristics, which can be used for developing more efficient CTC separation devices.

  2. Deformability-based circulating tumor cell separation with conical-shaped microfilters: Concept, optimization, and design criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) separation technology has made positive impacts on cancer science in many aspects. The ability of detecting and separating CTCs can play a key role in early cancer detection and treatment. In recent years, there has been growing interest in using deformability-based CTC separation microfilters due to their simplicity and low cost. Most of the previous studies in this area are mainly based on experimental work. Although experimental research provides useful insights in designing CTC separation devices, there is still a lack of design guidelines based on fundamental understandings of the cell separation process in the filters. While experimental efforts face challenges, especially microfabrication difficulties, we adopt numerical simulation here to study conical-shaped microfilters using deformability difference between CTCs and blood cells for the separation process. We use the liquid drop model for modeling a CTC passing through such microfilters. The accuracy of the model in predicting the pressure signature of the system is validated by comparing it with previous experiments. Pressure-deformability analysis of the cell going through the channel is then carried out in detail in order to better understand how a CTC behaves throughout the filtration process. Different system design criteria such as system throughput and unclogging of the system are discussed. Specifically, pressure behavior under different system throughput is analyzed. Regarding the unclogging issue, we define pressure ratio as a key parameter representing the ability to overcome clogging in such CTC separation devices and investigate the effect of conical angle on the optimum pressure ratio. Finally, the effect of unclogging applied pressure on the system performance is examined. Our study provides detailed understandings of the cell separation process and its characteristics, which can be used for developing more efficient CTC separation devices. PMID:26064193

  3. Phase separation in model lipid membranes: physics and biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Vernita; Beales, Paul; Deserno, Markus; Andrew, Caroline; Zhao, Zhijun; Egelhaaf, Stefan; Poon, Wilson

    2007-03-01

    Lipids are biological amphiphiles that, in aqueous solution, self-assemble into a variety of structures, including bilayer membranes that form hollow vesicles. In membranes with two or more constituents, lipids are well-mixed when the temperature is sufficiently high. As the temperature is lowered, systems undergo ordering transitions, membranes phase-separate laterally, and the resulting domains pattern vesicles. Here we demonstrate different aspects of this patterning that are important both for basic science and for their technological potentials: the packings of lipids in ordered-phase domains determine the domains' morphologies and inclusivities; adherent regions of membranes favour the growth of ordered-phase domains; rapid phase separation forms many small stripe domains that pattern vesicles with a `baseball' texture. These phenomena demonstrate basic physics and also have strong potential for exploitation to achieve vesicles with controllable patterns and properties. Lipid structures such as vesicles are attractive candidates for such technological development because they are intrinsicly biocompatible and because technologies using liposomes for controlled delivery and release are already widespread and under active development.

  4. Magnetic separation of iron-based nanosorbents from watery solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Irina; Bakhteeva, Iuliia; Zhakov, Sergey; Baerner, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Iron and iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) both naked and with chemically modified surface are promising agents for different environmental applications, in particular for water purification and for analytical control of water and soil pollution. The MNP can be used as sorbents with selective abilities due to designed surface functionalization. While a lot of research has been devoted to the impurity sorption processes, the second part, that is the efficient removal of the MNP sorbents from the watery solution, has not been sufficiently studied so far. For that particles with magnetic cores are especially attractive due to the possibility of their subsequent magnetic separation from water without using coagulants, i.e. without a secondary water pollution, just by applying external magnetic fields B. In order to remove magnetic sorbent nanoparticles ( 10-100 nm) effectively from the water solution gradient magnetic fields are required. Depending on the MNP size, the magnetic moment, the chemical properties of the solution, the water purification conditions , either the low gradient magnetic separation (LGMS) with dB/dz < 100 T/m or the high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) with dB/dz > 100 T/m is used. The gradient magnetic field is provided by permanent magnets or electromagnets of different configuration. In this work the sedimentation dynamics of naked Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (10-30 nm) in water was studied in a vertical gradient magnetic field (B1 ≤ 0.3T, dB/dz ≤ 0.13 T/cm). By this LGMS , the sedimentation time of the naked Fe3O4 NP is reduced down from several days to several minutes. The sedimentation time for Fe3O4@SiO2 decreases from several weeks to several hours and to several minutes when salts Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaH2PO4 are added to the solution. The results are interpreted in terms of MNP aggregate formation caused by electrostatic, steric and magnetic inter-particle interactions in the watery solution. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The work was

  5. A computational approach to predicting ligand selectivity for the size-based separation of trivalent lanthanides

    DOE PAGES

    Ivanov, Alexander S.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2016-06-20

    An accurate description of solvation effects for trivalent lanthanide ions is a main stumbling block to the qualitative prediction of selectivity trends along the lanthanide series. In this work, we propose a simple model to describe the differential effect of solvation in the competitive binding of a ligand by lanthanide ions by including weakly co-ordinated counterions in the complexes of more than a +1 charge. The success of the approach to quantitatively reproduce selectivities obtained from aqueous phase complexation studies demonstrates its potential for the design and screening of new ligands for efficient size-based separation.

  6. A computational approach to predicting ligand selectivity for the size-based separation of trivalent lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Alexander S.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2016-06-20

    An accurate description of solvation effects for trivalent lanthanide ions is a main stumbling block to the qualitative prediction of selectivity trends along the lanthanide series. In this work, we propose a simple model to describe the differential effect of solvation in the competitive binding of a ligand by lanthanide ions by including weakly co-ordinated counterions in the complexes of more than a +1 charge. The success of the approach to quantitatively reproduce selectivities obtained from aqueous phase complexation studies demonstrates its potential for the design and screening of new ligands for efficient size-based separation.

  7. An investigation of paper based microfluidic devices for size based separation and extraction applications.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Z W; Wu, R G; Wang, Z P; Tan, H L

    2015-09-01

    Conventional microfluidic devices are typically complex and expensive. The devices require the use of pneumatic control systems or highly precise pumps to control the flow in the devices. This work investigates an alternative method using paper based microfluidic devices to replace conventional microfluidic devices. Size based separation and extraction experiments conducted were able to separate free dye from a mixed protein and dye solution. Experimental results showed that pure fluorescein isothiocyanate could be separated from a solution of mixed fluorescein isothiocyanate and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin. The analysis readings obtained from a spectrophotometer clearly show that the extracted tartrazine sample did not contain any amount of Blue-BSA, because its absorbance value was 0.000 measured at a wavelength of 590nm, which correlated to Blue-BSA. These demonstrate that paper based microfluidic devices, which are inexpensive and easy to implement, can potentially replace their conventional counterparts by the use of simple geometry designs and the capillary action. These findings will potentially help in future developments of paper based microfluidic devices.

  8. A point vortex model for the formation of ocean eddies by flow separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwick, O. R.; Johnson, E. R.; McDonald, N. R.

    2015-01-01

    A simple model for the formation of ocean eddies by flow separation from sharply curved horizontal boundary topography is developed. This is based on the Brown-Michael model for two-dimensional vortex shedding, which is adapted to more realistically model mesoscale oceanic flow by including a deforming free surface. With a free surface, the streamfunction for the flow is not harmonic so the conformal mapping methods used in the standard Brown-Michael approach cannot be used and the problem must be solved numerically. A numerical scheme is developed based on a Chebyshev spectral method for the streamfunction partial differential equation and a second order implicit timestepping scheme for the vortex position ordinary differntial equations. This method is used to compute shed vortex trajectories for three background flows: (A) a steady flow around a semi-infinite plate, (B) a free vortex moving around a semi-infinite plate, and (C) a free vortex moving around a right-angled wedge. In (A), the inclusion of surface deformation dramatically slows the vortex and changes its trajectory from a straight path to a curved one. In (B) and (C), without the inclusion of flow separation, free vortices traverse fully around the tip along symmetrical trajectories. With the effects of flow separation included, very different trajectories are found: for all values of the model parameter—the Rossby radius—the free and shed vortices pair up and move off to infinity without passing around the tip. Their final propagation angle depends strongly and monotonically on the Rossby radius.

  9. Prediction of flow separation from aircraft tails using a RSM turbulence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Andrea; Benton, Jeremy; Tucker, Paul G.

    2014-11-01

    Enhancing engineers' capability to predict flow separation would generate important benefits in aircraft design. In this study the attention is focused on the vertical tail plane (VTP), which consists of a fixed part (the fin) and a moveable control surface (the rudder). For standard two-engine aircraft configurations, the size of the VTP is driven by the condition of loss of an engine during takeoff and low speed climb: in this condition the fin and the rudder have to be sufficient in size to balance the aircraft. Due to uncertainties in prediction of VTP effectiveness, aircraft designers keep to a conservative approach, risking specifying a larger size for the VTP than it is probably necessary. Uncertainties come from difficulties in predicting the separation of the flow from the surfaces of the aircraft using current CFD techniques, which are based on the use of RANS equations with eddy viscosity turbulence models. The CFD simulations presented in this study investigate the use of a RSM turbulence model with RANS and URANS. The introduction of a time-dependency gives benefits in the accuracy of the flow solution in presence of massive flow separation. This leads to the investigation of hybrid RANS/LES techniques with the aim of improving the solution of the detached flow. EU FP7 project ANADE (Grant Agreement Number 289428).

  10. Signal Separation of Helicopter Radar Returns Using Wavelet-Based Sparse Signal Optimisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Signal Separation Of Helicopter Radar Returns Using Wavelet-Based Sparse Signal Optimisation Si Tran Nguyen Nguyen 1, Sandun Kodituwakku...RR–0436 ABSTRACT A novel wavelet-based sparse signal representation technique is used to separate the main and tail rotor blade components of a... separation techniques cannot be applied. A sparse signal representation technique is now proposed for this problem with the tunable Q wavelet transform

  11. Measurement and Structural Model Class Separation in Mixture CFA: ML/EM versus MCMC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaoli, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Parameter recovery was assessed within mixture confirmatory factor analysis across multiple estimator conditions under different simulated levels of mixture class separation. Mixture class separation was defined in the measurement model (through factor loadings) and the structural model (through factor variances). Maximum likelihood (ML) via the…

  12. Measurement and Structural Model Class Separation in Mixture CFA: ML/EM versus MCMC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaoli, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Parameter recovery was assessed within mixture confirmatory factor analysis across multiple estimator conditions under different simulated levels of mixture class separation. Mixture class separation was defined in the measurement model (through factor loadings) and the structural model (through factor variances). Maximum likelihood (ML) via the…

  13. Covariant nonlocal chiral quark models with separable interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dumm, D. Gomez; Grunfeld, A. G.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2006-09-01

    We present a comparative analysis of chiral quark models which include nonlocal covariant four-fermion couplings. We consider two alternative ways of introducing the nonlocality, as well as various shapes for the momentum-dependent form factors governing the effective interactions. In all cases we study the behavior of model parameters and analyze numerical results for constituent quark masses and quark propagator poles. Advantages of these covariant nonlocal schemes over instantaneous nonlocal schemes and the standard NJL model are pointed out.

  14. Model system studies with a phase separated membrane bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  15. Phase separated membrane bioreactor - Results from model system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestrial simulation.

  16. Phase separated membrane bioreactor - Results from model system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestrial simulation.

  17. Phase separated membrane bioreactor: Results from model system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  18. Phase separated membrane bioreactor: results from model system studies.

    PubMed

    Petersen, G R; Seshan, P K; Dunlop, E H

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestrial [correction of terrestial] simulation.

  19. Reprocessing system with nuclide separation based on chromatography in hydrochloric acid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tachibana, Yu; Koyama, Shi-ichi

    2013-07-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposed system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the minor actinide separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In the reprocessing and separation processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. It was confirmed that the dissolution in the hydrochloric acid solution is easily achieved by the plasma voloxidation and by the addition of oxygen peroxide into the hydrochloric acid solution.

  20. Lab-chip HPLC with integrated droplet-based microfluidics for separation and high frequency compartmentalisation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Cho, Soong-Won; Kang, Dong-Ku; Edel, Joshua B; Chang, Soo-Ik; deMello, Andrew J; O'Hare, Danny

    2012-09-21

    We demonstrate the integration of a droplet-based microfluidic device with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in a monolithic format. Sequential operations of separation, compartmentalisation and concentration counter were conducted on a monolithic chip. This describes the use of droplet-based microfluidics for the preservation of chromatographic separations, and its potential application as a high frequency fraction collector.

  1. Entanglement-Based dc Magnetometry with Separated Ions*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruster, T.; Kaufmann, H.; Luda, M. A.; Kaushal, V.; Schmiegelow, C. T.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Poschinger, U. G.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate sensing of inhomogeneous dc magnetic fields by employing entangled trapped ions, which are shuttled in a segmented Paul trap. As sensor states, we use Bell states of the type |↑↓ ⟩ +ei φ|↓↑ ⟩ encoded in two 40Ca+ ions stored at different locations. The linear Zeeman effect leads to the accumulation of a relative phase φ , which serves for measuring the magnetic-field difference between the constituent locations. Common-mode magnetic-field fluctuations are rejected by the entangled sensor state, which gives rise to excellent sensitivity without employing dynamical decoupling and therefore enables accurate dc sensing. Consecutive measurements on sensor states encoded in the S1 /2 ground state and in the D5 /2 metastable state are used to separate an ac Zeeman shift from the linear dc Zeeman effect. We measure magnetic-field differences over distances of up to 6.2 mm, with accuracies down to 300 fT and sensitivities down to 12 pT /√{Hz }. Our sensing scheme features spatial resolutions in the 20-nm range. For optimizing the information gain while maintaining a high dynamic range, we implement an algorithm for Bayesian frequency estimation.

  2. 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) based cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Healy, John J.; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cui, Xiao-Guang; Ryle, James P.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-05-01

    The 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) can describe a variety of paraxial optical systems. Digital algorithms to numerically evaluate the 2D-NS-LCTs are not only important in modeling the light field propagations but also of interest in various signal processing based applications, for instance optical encryption. Therefore, in this paper, for the first time, a 2D-NS-LCT based optical Double-random- Phase-Encryption (DRPE) system is proposed which offers encrypting information in multiple degrees of freedom. Compared with the traditional systems, i.e. (i) Fourier transform (FT); (ii) Fresnel transform (FST); (iii) Fractional Fourier transform (FRT); and (iv) Linear Canonical transform (LCT), based DRPE systems, the proposed system is more secure and robust as it encrypts the data with more degrees of freedom with an augmented key-space.

  3. Model of municipal solid waste source separation activity: a case study of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Li, Zhen-Shan; Fu, Hui-Zhen

    2011-02-01

    One major challenge faced by Beijing is dealing with the enormous amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated, which contains a high percentage of food waste. Source separation is considered an effective means of reducing waste and enhancing recycling. However, few studies have focused on quantification of the mechanism of source separation activity. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish a mathematical model of source separation activity (MSSA) that correlates the source separation ratio with the following parameters: separation facilities, awareness, separation transportation, participation atmosphere, environmental profit, sense of honor, and economic profit. The MSSA consisted of two equations, one related to the behavior generation stage and one related to the behavior stability stage. The source separation ratios of the residential community, office building, and primary and middle school were calculated using the MSSA. Data for analysis were obtained from a 1-yr investigation and a questionnaire conducted at 128 MSW clusters around Beijing. The results revealed that office buildings had an initial separation ratio of 80% and a stable separation ratio of 65.86%, whereas residential communities and primary and middle schools did not have a stable separation ratio. The MSSA curve took on two shapes. In addition, internal motivations and the separation transportation ratio were found to be key parameters of the MSSA. This model can be utilized for other cities and countries.

  4. Cluster-based control of a separating flow over a smoothly contoured ramp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Eurika; Noack, Bernd R.; Spohn, Andreas; Cattafesta, Louis N.; Morzyński, Marek

    2017-01-01

    The ability to manipulate and control fluid flows is of great importance in many scientific and engineering applications. The proposed closed-loop control framework addresses a key issue of model-based control: The actuation effect often results from slow dynamics of strongly nonlinear interactions which the flow reveals at timescales much longer than the prediction horizon of any model. Hence, we employ a probabilistic approach based on a cluster-based discretization of the Liouville equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. The proposed methodology frames high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamics into low-dimensional, probabilistic, linear dynamics which considerably simplifies the optimal control problem while preserving nonlinear actuation mechanisms. The data-driven approach builds upon a state space discretization using a clustering algorithm which groups kinematically similar flow states into a low number of clusters. The temporal evolution of the probability distribution on this set of clusters is then described by a control-dependent Markov model. This Markov model can be used as predictor for the ergodic probability distribution for a particular control law. This probability distribution approximates the long-term behavior of the original system on which basis the optimal control law is determined. We examine how the approach can be used to improve the open-loop actuation in a separating flow dominated by Kelvin-Helmholtz shedding. For this purpose, the feature space, in which the model is learned, and the admissible control inputs are tailored to strongly oscillatory flows.

  5. The lonely mouse: verification of a separation-induced model of depression in female mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alison L; Brown, Richard E

    2010-02-11

    Animal models of depression seldom test females, even though women are twice as likely as men to suffer from major depressive disorder. Since female mice are sensitive to social isolation, we tested a separation-based model of depression in three experiments. In experiment 1 female C57BL/6J mice were housed in three conditions: isolated (housed individually from 8 weeks of age), separated (housed in groups and then separated and housed individually at 23 weeks of age) and grouped (housed in groups from 8 weeks of age). At 24 weeks of age, there was a significant increase in weight and in immobility in individually housed mice in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), a reduction in transitions in the L/D box, a reduced startle response and reduced prepulse inhibition, but no differences in cued or context fear conditioning. Experiment 2 showed that fluoxetine treatment administered via drinking water attenuated depressive-like behaviour in the FST and TST in individually housed female C57BL/6J mice, but had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour. Experiment 3 found that group-housed females had higher baseline corticosterone (CORT) levels than isolated females and fluoxetine had no effect on CORT levels. Thus, separation from group housing is a reliable and valid method for inducing depression-like behaviour in female mice. This procedure is both versatile, allowing for the study of genetic and environmental interactions, and accessible, making it useful for studying depression and testing new drugs for its treatment.

  6. Sample injection and electrophoretic separation on a simple laminated paper based analytical device.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiu; Zhong, Minghua; Cai, Longfei; Zheng, Qingyu; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    We described a strategy to perform multistep operations on a simple laminated paper-based separation device by using electrokinetic flow to manipulate the fluids. A laminated crossed-channel paper-based separation device was fabricated by cutting a filter paper sheet followed by lamination. Multiple function units including sample loading, sample injection, and electrophoretic separation were integrated on a single paper based analytical device for the first time, by applying potential at different reservoirs for sample, sample waste, buffer, and buffer waste. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, mixed sample solution containing carmine and sunset yellow were loaded in the sampling channel, and then injected into separation channel followed by electrophoretic separation, by adjusting the potentials applied at the four terminals of sampling and separation channel. The effects of buffer pH, buffer concentration, channel width, and separation time on resolution of electrophoretic separation were studied. This strategy may be used to perform multistep operations such as reagent dilution, sample injection, mixing, reaction, and separation on a single microfluidic paper based analytical device, which is very attractive for building micro total analysis systems on microfluidic paper based analytical devices.

  7. Separated Component-Based Restoration of Speckled SAR Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. William Marsh Rice University 6100 Main St., MS-16 Houston...where F is the normalized fading speckle noise random variable. It follows a Gamma distribution with unit mean and variance 1L and has the following pdf p...plicative noise model (1) into an additive model Ỹ = ln(Y ) = ln(F ) + ln(X) = F̃ + X̃, (3) where F̃ = ln(F ) and X̃ = ln(X). The pdf of the random variable

  8. Guide to CO{sub 2} separations in imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Bara, J.E.; Carlisle, T.K.; Gabriel, C.J.; Camper, D.; Finotello, A.; Gin, D.L.; Noble, R.D.

    2009-03-18

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are nonvolatile, tunable solvents. The solubilities of gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}, have been studied in a number of RTILs. Process temperature and the chemical structures of the cation and anion have significant impacts on gas solubility and gas pair selectivity. Models based on regular solution theory and group contributions are useful to predict and explain CO{sub 2} solubility and selectivity in imidazolium-based RTILs. In addition to their role as a physical solvent, RTILs might also be used in supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) as a highly permeable and selective transport medium. Performance data for SILMs indicates that they exhibit large permeabilities as well as CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities that outperform many polymer membranes. Furthermore, the greatest potential of RTILs for CO{sub 2} separations might lie in their ability to chemically capture CO{sub 2} when used in combination with amines. Amines can be tethered to the cation or the anion, or dissolved in RTILs, providing a wide range of chemical solvents for CO{sub 2} capture. However, despite all of their promising features, RTILs do have drawbacks to use in CO{sub 2} separations, which have been overlooked as appropriate comparisons of RTILs to common organic solvents and polymers have not been reported. A thorough summary of the capabilities-and limitations-of imidazolium-based RTILs in CO{sub 2}-based separations with respect to a variety of materials is thus provided.

  9. Separation of thorium and uranium in nitric acid solution using silica based anion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanliang; Wei, Yuezhou; He, Linfeng; Tang, Fangdong

    2016-09-30

    To separate thorium and uranium in nitric acid solution using anion exchange process, a strong base silica-based anion exchange resin (SiPyR-N4) was synthesized. Batch experiments were conducted and the separation factor of thorium and uranium in 9M nitric acid was about 10. Ion exchange chromatography was applied to separate thorium and uranium in different ratios. Uranium could be eluted by 9M nitric acid and thorium was eluted by 0.1M nitric acid. It was proved that thorium and uranium can be separated and recovered successfully by this method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cluster kinetics model of particle separation in vibrated granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Benjamin J.; Madras, Giridhar

    2006-01-01

    We model the Brazil-nut effect (BNE) by hypothesizing that granules form clusters that fragment and aggregate. This provides a heterogeneous medium in which the immersed intruder particle rises (BNE) or sinks (reverse BNE) according to relative convection currents and buoyant and drag forces. A simple relationship proposed for viscous drag in terms of the vibrational intensity and the particle to grain density ratio allows simulation of published experimental data for rise and sink times as functions of particle radius, initial depth of the particle, and particle-grain density ratio. The proposed model correctly describes the experimentally observed maximum in risetime.

  11. Chemical shift-based water/fat separation in the presence of susceptibility-induced fat resonance shift

    PubMed Central

    Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Yu, Huanzhou; Shimakawa, Ann; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Chemical shift-based water/fat separation methods have been emerging due to the growing clinical need for fat quantification in different body organs. Accurate quantification of proton-density fat fraction requires the assessment of many confounding factors, including the need of modeling the presence of multiple peaks in the fat spectrum. Most recent quantitative chemical shift-based water/fat separation approaches rely on a multi-peak fat spectrum with pre-calibrated peak locations and pre-calibrated or self-calibrated peak relative amplitudes. However, water/fat susceptibility differences can induce fat spectrum resonance shifts depending on the shape and orientation of the fatty inclusions. The effect is of particular interest in the skeletal muscle due to the anisotropic arrangement of extracellular lipids. In the present work, the effect of susceptibility-induced fat resonance shift on the fat fraction is characterized in a conventional complex-based chemical shift-based water/fat separation approach that does not model the susceptibility-induced fat resonance shift. A novel algorithm is then proposed in order to quantify the resonance shift in a complex-based chemical shift-based water/fat separation approach that considers the fat resonance shift in the signal model, aiming to extract information about the orientation/geometry of lipids. The technique is validated in a phantom and preliminary in vivo results are shown in the calf musculature of healthy and diabetic subjects. PMID:22247024

  12. Microchip separations-based sensors for cellular analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manica, Drew Prentice

    The objective of this thesis has been to introduce and develop novel methods for microchip separations for bioanalytical applications. A novel detection scheme is introduced, involving simultaneous dual amperometric and fluorescence detection on a microchip. Dual detection is shown to increase selectivity and throughput, resolve co-migrating species that may be selectively detected, and provide a convenient means to normalize for the irreproducibility of migration times often encountered in CE applications. Such normalization is expected to facilitate the use of microchip CE to monitor biological samples, which are inclined to exacerbate the irreproducibility of migration times. The use of electrochemical detection presents a unique and fundamental challenge. An effective method for reproducibly regenerating a clean surface is demonstrated. The method is optimized and utilized to achieve high sensitivity even for highly adsorptive compounds, such as those released from mast cells. The development of an in-situ electrode-cleaning protocol is an essential step toward reliably monitoring cellular release on a microchip CEEC device. Two novel techniques are presented which are capable of producing disposable microanalytical systems on glass. Electrodes and channels produced with these methods exhibit performance characteristics that are comparable to examples in current literature. These techniques demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a disposable glass lab-on-a-chip, which may be used for cellular analysis or as a point-of-use sensor. Increased interest in analyzing biological samples has led to the development of a wide range of derivatizing agents for biological compounds such as amino acids and peptides. A common tag that is both fluorescent and electroactive is naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA). While there has been much discussion regarding the stability of a similar compound, o-phthalaldehyde, there has been no discussion regarding the stability of

  13. Blooms' separation of the final exam of Engineering Mathematics II: Item reliability using Rasch measurement model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuaad, Norain Farhana Ahmad; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Tawil, Norgainy Mohd; Othman, Haliza; Asshaari, Izamarlina; Osman, Mohd Hanif; Ismail, Nur Arzilah

    2014-06-01

    In engineering studies and researches, Mathematics is one of the main elements which express physical, chemical and engineering laws. Therefore, it is essential for engineering students to have a strong knowledge in the fundamental of mathematics in order to apply the knowledge to real life issues. However, based on the previous results of Mathematics Pre-Test, it shows that the engineering students lack the fundamental knowledge in certain topics in mathematics. Due to this, apart from making improvements in the methods of teaching and learning, studies on the construction of questions (items) should also be emphasized. The purpose of this study is to assist lecturers in the process of item development and to monitor the separation of items based on Blooms' Taxonomy and to measure the reliability of the items itself usingRasch Measurement Model as a tool. By using Rasch Measurement Model, the final exam questions of Engineering Mathematics II (Linear Algebra) for semester 2 sessions 2012/2013 were analysed and the results will provide the details onthe extent to which the content of the item providesuseful information about students' ability. This study reveals that the items used in Engineering Mathematics II (Linear Algebra) final exam are well constructed but the separation of the items raises concern as it is argued that it needs further attention, as there is abig gap between items at several levels of Blooms' cognitive skill.

  14. Active separation control of high-Re turbulent separated flow over a wall-mounted hump using RANS, DES, and LES turbulence modeling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Subhadeep

    -Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations-based turbulence models and three-dimensional time-dependent Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) methods. Multiple turbulence modeling approaches help to ascertain what models are most appropriate for capturing the physics of this complex separated flow. The various turbulence modeling cases are simulated with the same grid and solution methodology, and the turbulence models' equations are solved with the same numerical method. This ensures that the variances amongst the results obtained with different models are exclusively due to use of the different turbulence models, and indeed enable assessment of the performance of these models with respect to one another. The results will help us better decide what models to choose for flows with adverse pressure gradients, flow separation and control of separated flows. Validation work using Turbulent Couette flow demonstrates that, for LES, a fine enough grid is required throughout the computational domain and not just near the wall, to capture the turbulent flow structures and flow physics. For the flow over the wall-mounted hump, the simulation results agree well with experiment. Significant computational-resources savings was realized by using an analytical exit velocity profile for the active flow control jets, instead of simulating the entire flow-control manifold without sacrificing the quality of the work. Results compared with experimental values were surface pressure coefficient, skin friction coefficient, mean velocity profiles, Reynolds stresses and flow reattachment locations. Simulation results show some degree of variation with experimental results in the separated flow region. The steady-suction active control was able to reduce the reattachment length the most. The region of negative streamwise velocity was the smallest in the active flow control with steady suction. The multiple jets cases, with steady suction and synthetic jets, were able to reduce the

  15. An exact solution of spherical mean-field plus a special separable pairing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lianrong; Pan, Feng; Draayer, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    An exact solution of nuclear spherical mean-field plus a special orbit-dependent separable pairing model is studied, of which the separable pairing interaction parameters are obtained by a linear fitting in terms of the single-particle energies considered. The advantage of the model is that, similar to the standard pairing case, it can be solved easily by using the extended Heine-Stieltjes polynomial approach. With the analysis of the model in the ds- and pf-shell subspace, it is shown that this special separable pairing model indeed provides similar pair structures of the model with the original separable pairing interaction, and is obviously better than the standard pairing model in many aspects.

  16. The use of conducting polymers in membrane-based separations: a review and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, John

    2003-03-01

    As a material family, pi-conjugated polymers (also known as intrinsically conductive polymers) elicit the possibility of both exploiting the chemical and physical attributes of the polymer for membrane-based separations and incorporating its electronic and electrochemical properties to enhance the separation figures-of-merit. This review article, although by no means comprehensive, provides a current snapshot of the investigations from many research laboratories in the use of conducting polymers for membrane-based separations. The review focuses primarily on polyaniline, polypyrrole, and substituted-polythiophene and includes applications in gas separations, liquid (and/or vapor) separations, and ion separations. Additionally, we discuss the broad challenges and accomplishments in membrane formation from conducting polymers.

  17. Modelling of change of the classifier separation characteristics by water injection into the apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueck, J. G.; Pikushchak, E. V.; Minkov, L. L.

    2009-06-01

    The investigation of the influence of additional water injection in a classifier on the particle separation process characteristics has been performed on the basis of numerical modelling. It has been shown that the increase in water injection velocity leads to the increase of both the cut size and the minimal value of separation curve. The change of the injector opening size influences only the minimum value of the separation function not altering the cut size at the specified water injection velocity.

  18. Numerical modeling of separated flows in three-dimensional diffusers and application of synthetic jets for separation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikov, S. Yu.; Pudovikov, D. E.; Torohov, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Solving the problem of creating an environmentally friendly "green plane" implies development and implementation of several actions aimed at increasing airplane performance and reducing environmental contamination. One possible way to solve this problem is to reduce the powerplant weight, in particular, by decreasing its length. The airplane engine flowpath comprises transition ducts: those between the low- and high-pressure compressors, between the compressor and combustor, and between the high- and low-pressure turbines. In a modern high-bypass turbofan, the flowpath varies in the streamwise direction. Shorter transition ducts have greater curvature. Because of this, intensive separation may occur, which leads to increased losses in the flowpath and to significant growth of nonuniformity of flow parameters. Vast experience of numerical and experimental studies of unsteady separated flows has been accumulated by now. In many cases, however, these investigations are performed in a two-dimensional (2D) formulation, which is primarily caused by the high cost of three-dimensional (3D) unsteady calculations. The numerical and experimental work [1] shows that flows in diffuser ducts can have an essentially unsteady 3D structure. This is valid even for ducts modeling 2D configurations. This paper describes the results of a numerical study of the flow structure and its features in model S-shaped transition ducts, as well as the results of using a synthetic jet generator for flow control and for reduction of total pressure losses. Three-dimensional flows are numerically modeled by the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) / RANS methods. The calculations show that the use of the synthetic jet generator can lead to duct loss reduction by 45%.

  19. Evaluation of strategies for size based separation of polydisperse vesicle suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storslett, Kari J.; Muller, Susan J.

    2016-11-01

    Microfluidic devices can be used to separate suspensions of deformable particles with different intrinsic characteristics (e.g. size) with reasonable throughputs and without external labeling. Using vesicle suspensions to test microfluidic separation schemes provides insight into cell separation. Two schemes for separating vesicle suspensions by size are discussed: filtration and inertial focusing. The filter physically prevents most large vesicles from passing through. The filtrate is collected at one outlet and the larger vesicles are collected at another. This device showed good size separation between the two collected suspensions and was able to reduce the polydispersity of the collected suspensions relative to the original suspension. The inertial separation device was based on a design studied by Di Carlo et al.. This design was modified for our suspension and showed an ability to separate the suspension by size; however, the separated suspension's polydispersity was only slightly reduced. The advantage of the inertial separation device was its greatly increased throughput. A separation strategy may be selected based on the relative importance of high throughput vs. reduced polydispersity.

  20. Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, II; Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2011-02-15

    The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. The invented electrochemical cell generally comprising: a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. The novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

  1. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. II. Diffusion in a binary mixture.

    PubMed

    Thieulot, Cedric; Janssen, L P B M; Español, Pep

    2005-07-01

    A previously formulated smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for a phase separating mixture is tested for the case when viscous processes are negligible and only mass and energy diffusive processes take place. We restrict ourselves to the case of a binary mixture that can exhibit liquid-liquid phase separation. The thermodynamic consistency of the model is assessed and the potential of the model to study complex pattern formation in the presence of various thermal boundaries is illustrated.

  2. A Novel Methodology for Metal Ion Separation Based on Molecularly Imprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Xiaobin; Mosha, Donnati; Hassan, Mansour M.; Givens, Richard S.; Busch, Daryle H.

    2004-03-31

    The siderophore-based extraction of iron from the soil by bacteria is proposed as a model for a new separation methodology labeled the soil poutice, a molecular device that would selectively retrieve the complex of a targeted metal ion. In this report we described the synthesis and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers and their application in the specific recognition of macrocyclic metal complexes. The imprinting is based on non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, electrostatic attractions and minor metal-ligand coordination. Good rebinding capacity for the imprinting metal complex was observed in acetonitrile as well as in water. The polymers are resistant to strong acids and oxidizing agents and showed an increase of rebinding capacity during cycles of reuse. The imprinting procedure, combined with the previously known selective chelation of macrocyclic ligands, supports the feasibility of a new methodology that can be used to extract waste metal ions effectively and selectively from soils and ground water.

  3. Actuator fault tolerant multi-controller scheme using set separation based diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seron, María M.; De Doná, José A.

    2010-11-01

    We present a fault tolerant control strategy based on a new principle for actuator fault diagnosis. The scheme employs a standard bank of observers which match the different fault situations that can occur in the plant. Each of these observers has an associated estimation error with distinctive dynamics when an estimator matches the current fault situation of the plant. Based on the information from each observer, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) module is able to reconfigure the control loop by selecting the appropriate control law from a bank of controllers, each of them designed to stabilise and achieve reference tracking for one of the given fault models. The main contribution of this article is to propose a new FDI principle which exploits the separation of sets that characterise healthy system operation from sets that characterise transitions from healthy to faulty behaviour. The new principle allows to provide pre-checkable conditions for guaranteed fault tolerance of the overall multi-controller scheme.

  4. Effect of Turbulence Models on Two Massively-Separated Benchmark Flow Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2003-01-01

    Two massively-separated flow cases (the 2-D hill and the 3-D Ahmed body) were computed with several different turbulence models in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code CFL3D as part of participation in a turbulence modeling workshop held in Poitiers, France in October, 2002. Overall, results were disappointing, but were consistent with results from other RANS codes and other turbulence models at the workshop. For the 2-D hill case, those turbulence models that predicted separation location accurately ended up yielding a too-long separation extent downstream. The one model that predicted a shorter separation extent in better agreement with LES data did so only by coincidence: its prediction of earlier reattachment was due to a too-late prediction of the separation location. For the Ahmed body, two slant angles were computed, and CFD performed fairly well for one of the cases (the larger slant angle). Both turbulence models tested in this case were very similar to each other. For the smaller slant angle, CFD predicted massive separation, whereas the experiment showed reattachment about half-way down the center of the face. These test cases serve as reminders that state- of-the-art CFD is currently not a reliable predictor of massively-separated flow physics, and that further validation studies in this area would be beneficial.

  5. 38 CFR 21.7045 - Eligibility based on involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational..., voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program. An.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3018B) (d) Alternate eligibility requirements for participants in the Post-Vietnam...

  6. 38 CFR 21.7045 - Eligibility based on involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational..., voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program. An.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3018B) (d) Alternate eligibility requirements for participants in the Post-Vietnam...

  7. 38 CFR 21.7045 - Eligibility based on involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational..., voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program. An.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3018B) (d) Alternate eligibility requirements for participants in the Post-Vietnam...

  8. 38 CFR 21.7045 - Eligibility based on involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational..., voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program. An.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3018B) (d) Alternate eligibility requirements for participants in the Post-Vietnam...

  9. Iterated function system models in data analysis: detection and separation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Zachary; Meiss, James D; Bradley, Elizabeth; Garland, Joshua

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the use of iterated function system (IFS) models for data analysis. An IFS is a discrete-time dynamical system in which each time step corresponds to the application of one of the finite collection of maps. The maps, which represent distinct dynamical regimes, may be selected deterministically or stochastically. Given a time series from an IFS, our algorithm detects the sequence of regime switches under the assumption that each map is continuous. This method is tested on a simple example and an experimental computer performance data set. This methodology has a wide range of potential uses: from change-point detection in time-series data to the field of digital communications.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Dependence of Separative Power of the Gas Centrifuge on the Length of Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Borisevich, V. D.; Borman, V. D.; Tronin, I. V.; Tronin, V. N.

    Numerical modelling and optimization of the gas flow and isotope separation in the Iguasu gas centrifuge (GC) for uranium enrichment have been performed for different lengths of the rotor. The calculations show that the specific separative power of the GC reduces with the length of the rotor. We show that the reduction of the specific separative power is connected with the growth of the pressure in the optimal regime and corresponding growth of temperature to prevent the working gas sublimation. The specific separative power remains constant with the growth of the rotor length provided that the temperature of the rotor is taken to be constant.

  11. Charge-based separation of particles and cells with similar sizes via the wall-induced electrical lift.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cory; Lu, Xinyu; Todd, Andrew; Raval, Yash; Tzeng, Tzuen-Rong; Song, Yongxin; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Dongqing; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2017-01-01

    The separation of particles and cells in a uniform mixture has been extensively studied as a necessity in many chemical and biomedical engineering and research fields. This work demonstrates a continuous charge-based separation of fluorescent and plain spherical polystyrene particles with comparable sizes in a ψ-shaped microchannel via the wall-induced electrical lift. The effects of both the direct current electric field in the main-branch and the electric field ratio in between the inlet branches for sheath fluid and particle mixture are investigated on this electrokinetic particle separation. A Lagrangian tracking method based theoretical model is also developed to understand the particle transport in the microchannel and simulate the parametric effects on particle separation. Moreover, the demonstrated charge-based separation is applied to a mixture of yeast cells and polystyrene particles with similar sizes. Good separation efficiency and purity are achieved for both the cells and the particles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. 5 CFR 843.311 - Annuity based on death of a separated employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beginning on the day after the death of the separated employee. (ii) The rate of the adjusted annuity equals... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annuity based on death of a separated... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE...

  13. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jeff L; Morey, A Michael; Kadrmas, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg–Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models. PMID:26788888

  14. Depth-based signal separation with vertical line arrays in the deep ocean.

    PubMed

    McCargar, Reid; Zurk, Lisa M

    2013-04-01

    Deep vertical line arrays can exploit the reliable acoustic path (RAP), which provides low transmission loss (TL) for targets at moderate ranges, and increased TL for distant interferers. However, nearby surface interference also has favorable RAP propagation and cannot be separated from a submerged target without horizontal aperture. In this work, a physics-based Fourier transform variant is introduced, which achieves depth-based signal separation by exploiting the spatial structure resulting from the coherent addition of the direct and surface-reflected propagation paths present for submerged sources. Simulation results demonstrate depth-based signal separation without requiring knowledge of the ocean environment.

  15. A Nanoscale, Liquid-Phase DNA Separation Device Based on Brownian Ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Joel S.

    1998-03-01

    Realizing the goals of the Human Genome Project depends on the ability to perform size-based separations of DNA molecules. DNA analysis has traditionally required inconvenient gel-based electrophoretic separations. We describe a novel, micromachined, non-electrophoretic device suitable for lab-on-a-chip applications. The device is designed to transport DNA using an asymmetric, periodic potential to rectify Brownian motion. The separation occurs in a homogeneous liquid, avoiding the use of gels or other special media. Experimental results from a working prototype NanoNiagara device validate theoretical predictions of its ability to transport DNA molecules based on size.

  16. Shape-based Particle Separation via Elasto-Inertia Pinched Flow Fractionation (eiPFF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinyu; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2015-11-01

    We report in this talk a continuous-flow shape-based separation of spherical and peanut-shaped rigid particles of equal volume via elasto-inertial pinched flow fractionation (eiPFF). This separation exploits the shape-dependence of the cross-stream particle migration induced by the elaso-inertial lift force in viscoelastic fluids. The parametric effects on this separation are systematically investigated in terms of dimensionless numbers. It is found that this separation is strongly affected by the Reynolds number, Weissenberg number and channel aspect ratio. Interestingly, the elasto-inertial deflection of peanut particles can be either greater or smaller than that of spherical particles.

  17. ICA-based UHF RFID multi-tag hybrid data blind separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Wang, Hong-jun; Song, Zi-liang

    2013-03-01

    This work presents an ICA-based UHF RFID multi-tag hybrid data blind separation algorithm. After analysis, we find that UHF RFID multi-tag hybrid data is consistent with the requirements of ICA algorithm. Simulated experimental results show that excellent results can be obtained by using ICA techniques in blind separating of tags data. For evaluating the separation performance objectively, a new indicator- the Similarity of Sources and Results (SSR) is defined. The anti- noise performance of this algorithm is analyzed quantitatively too. A good theoretical and experimental basis for applying blind separation technology to UHF RFID tags anti-collision algorithm has been established in this paper.

  18. Size based separation of micro-particles using adhesive ciliated surfaces: Mimicing the behaviour of suspension feeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Anurag; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Balazs, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Separation of different size micro-particles in microfluidic devices is important for many biomedical applications. Inspired by the selective intake of small food particles by marine suspension feeders, we propose a novel separation mechanism of micro-particles using active cilia arrays with adhesive tips. By means of Lattice Boltzmann simulations, we show that mixture of two different size particles with size ratio greater than or equal to two can be nearly completely separated by tuning adhesion strength and cilia stiffness. The proposed technique can be used even at low Reynolds number (Re << 1) where separation mechanisms based on inertial effects will be of little use. For a given cilia-particle interaction, the balance of hydrodynamic and adhesive forces favors capture of particles below a critical size, which can be predicted by a simple analytical model.

  19. Hydrodynamic size-based separation and characterization of protein aggregates from total cell lysates

    PubMed Central

    Tanase, Maya; Zolla, Valerio; Clement, Cristina C; Borghi, Francesco; Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Rodriguez-Navarro, Jose Antonio; Roda, Barbara; Zattoni, Andrea; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Santambrogio, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe a protocol that uses hollow-fiber flow field-flow fractionation (FFF) coupled with multiangle light scattering (MALS) for hydrodynamic size-based separation and characterization of complex protein aggregates. The fractionation method, which requires 1.5 h to run, was successfully modified from the analysis of protein aggregates, as found in simple protein mixtures, to complex aggregates, as found in total cell lysates. In contrast to other related methods (filter assay, analytical ultracentrifugation, gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography), hollow-fiber flow FFF coupled with MALS allows a flow-based fractionation of highly purified protein aggregates and simultaneous measurement of their molecular weight, r.m.s. radius and molecular conformation (e.g., round, rod-shaped, compact or relaxed). The polyethersulfone hollow fibers used, which have a 0.8-mm inner diameter, allow separation of as little as 20 μg of total cell lysates. In addition, the ability to run the samples in different denaturing and nondenaturing buffer allows defining true aggregates from artifacts, which can form during sample preparation. The protocol was set up using Paraquat-induced carbonylation, a model that induces protein aggregation in cultured cells. This technique will advance the biochemical, proteomic and biophysical characterization of molecular-weight aggregates associated with protein mutations, as found in many CNS degenerative diseases, or chronic oxidative stress, as found in aging, and chronic metabolic and inflammatory conditions. PMID:25521790

  20. Numerical study of insulator-based dielectrophoresis method for circulating tumor cell separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaamoo, Mohammad; Aghilinejad, Arian; Chen, Xiaolin

    2017-02-01

    Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) is known as a powerful technique for separation and manipulation of bioparticles. In recent years, iDEP designs using arrays of insulating posts have shown promising results towards reaching high-efficient bioparticles manipulation. However, there is still an essential need for providing comprehensive design guidelines and further optimizing such devices. In this research, we utilized numerical simulation to study, in detail, insulating posts iDEP technique with the specific application of bioparticles separation. To achieve this, we first developed a robust numerical model to predict the electric and fluid flow fields' distribution, and how bioparticles are being manipulated inside the system. This enabled us to study the fundamental principles of such an iDEP method. In the next step, different design aspects of insulating posts iDEP were investigated. Specifically, we focused on the effect of posts geometry and configuration on the systems' key operation criteria such as the effectiveness of the electric field non-uniformity, the flow velocity distribution and shear stress rates. Furthermore, we studied how different electrodes' setup may affect the electric field distribution and consequently the device performance. Finally, the developed numerical tool was used to demonstrate separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from white blood cells (WBCs). For this purpose, MDA-231 breast cancer cells and Granulocytes were chosen as an indicator of CTCs ad WBCs. Our developed numerical model and presented results lay the groundwork for design and fabrication of high-efficient insulating posts iDEP microchips.

  1. Current status of ceramic-based membranes for oxygen separation from air.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Salwa Meredith; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash

    2010-10-15

    There has been tremendous progress in membrane technology for gas separation, in particular oxygen separation from air in the last 20 years. It provides an alternative route to the existing conventional separation processes such as cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption as well as cheaper production of oxygen with high purity. This review presents the recent advances of ceramic membranes for the separation of oxygen from air at high temperature. It covers the issues and problems with respect to the selectivity and separation performance. The paper also presents different approaches applied to overcome these challenges. The future directions of ceramic-based membranes for oxygen separation from air are also presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sound field separating on arbitrary surfaces enclosing a sound scatterer based on combined integral equations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zongwei; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji; Chen, Zichen

    2014-12-01

    To eliminate the limitations of the conventional sound field separation methods which are only applicable to regular surfaces, a sound field separation method based on combined integral equations is proposed to separate sound fields directly in the spatial domain. In virtue of the Helmholtz integral equations for the incident and scattering fields outside a sound scatterer, combined integral equations are derived for sound field separation, which build the quantitative relationship between the sound fields on two arbitrary separation surfaces enclosing the sound scatterer. Through boundary element discretization of the two surfaces, corresponding systems of linear equations are obtained for practical application. Numerical simulations are performed for sound field separation on different shaped surfaces. The influences induced by the aspect ratio of the separation surfaces and the signal noise in the measurement data are also investigated. The separated incident and scattering sound fields agree well with the original corresponding fields described by analytical expressions, which validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the combined integral equations based separation method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Separation of harmonic sounds using multipitch analysis and linear models for the overtone series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Tuomas; Klapuri, Anssi

    2002-05-01

    A signal processing method for the separation of concurrent harmonic sounds is described. The method is based on a two-stage approach. First, a multiple fundamental frequency estimator is applied to find initial sound parameters which are reliable, but inaccurate and static. Second, time-varying sinusoidal parameters are estimated in an iterative algorithm. The harmonic structure is retained by keeping the frequency ratio of overtones constant over time. Overlapping harmonic components are resolved using linear models for the overtone series. In practice, the models retain the spectral envelope continuity of natural sounds. Simulation experiments were carried out using generated test signals, which were random mixtures of two to six notes from recorded natural instruments. The system is able to produce meaningful results in all polyphonies, the quality of separated sounds gradually degrading along with the polyphony. Some denoising algorithms were applied to suppress nonstationary noise component, such as drums in real-world music signals. However, the usability of the system for real musical signals is still quite limited.

  4. Separation of variables in anisotropic models and non-skew-symmetric elliptic r-matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrypnyk, Taras

    2017-05-01

    We solve a problem of separation of variables for the classical integrable hamiltonian systems possessing Lax matrices satisfying linear Poisson brackets with the non-skew-symmetric, non-dynamical elliptic so(3)⊗ so(3)-valued classical r-matrix. Using the corresponding Lax matrices, we present a general form of the "separating functions" B( u) and A( u) that generate the coordinates and the momenta of separation for the associated models. We consider several examples and perform the separation of variables for the classical anisotropic Euler's top, Steklov-Lyapunov model of the motion of anisotropic rigid body in the liquid, two-spin generalized Gaudin model and "spin" generalization of Steklov-Lyapunov model.

  5. Separation of variables in anisotropic models and non-skew-symmetric elliptic r-matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrypnyk, Taras

    2016-11-01

    We solve a problem of separation of variables for the classical integrable hamiltonian systems possessing Lax matrices satisfying linear Poisson brackets with the non-skew-symmetric, non-dynamical elliptic so(3)⊗ so(3) -valued classical r-matrix. Using the corresponding Lax matrices, we present a general form of the "separating functions" B(u) and A(u) that generate the coordinates and the momenta of separation for the associated models. We consider several examples and perform the separation of variables for the classical anisotropic Euler's top, Steklov-Lyapunov model of the motion of anisotropic rigid body in the liquid, two-spin generalized Gaudin model and "spin" generalization of Steklov-Lyapunov model.

  6. Controller Design Based on Nonlinear Separation Control Method for OTEC Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sugi, Takenao; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Uehara, Haruo

    An OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) pilot plant consists of two parts; an OTEC system of main part and a heat reservoir system of sub part. The nonlinear separation control method was applied to the controller design for the OTEC pilot plant. The nonlinear separation models were constructed for the OTEC system and the heat reservoir system. The controller for the OTEC system and the heat reservoir system was designed by using the both nonlinear separation models. A detail simulation study showed that the multi-layer controller for the OTEC pilot plant brought a satisfactory control performance by comparing a conventional PI control.

  7. A practical implementation of turbulence models for the computation of three-dimensional separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marx, Yves P.

    1991-01-01

    An upwind MUSCL-type implicit scheme for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is presented and details on the implementation for three-dimensional flows of a 'diagonal' upwind implicit operator are developed. Turbulence models for separated flows are also described with an emphasis on the numerical specificities of the Johnson-King nonequilibrium model. Good predictions of separated two- and three-dimensional flows are demonstrated.

  8. A practical implementation of turbulence models for the computation of three-dimensional separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marx, Yves P.

    1991-01-01

    An upwind MUSCL-type implicit scheme for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is presented and details on the implementation for three-dimensional flows of a 'diagonal' upwind implicit operator are developed. Turbulence models for separated flows are also described with an emphasis on the numerical specificities of the Johnson-King nonequilibrium model. Good predictions of separated two- and three-dimensional flows are demonstrated.

  9. Separable least squares identification of long memory block structured models: application to lung tissue viscoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Westwick, David T; Suki, Bela

    2006-01-01

    A separable least squares algorithm is developed for the identification of a Wiener model whose dynamic element is a constant phase model that has been modified to include a purely viscous term. The separation of variables reduces the dimensionality of the search space from 5 to 2, greatly simplifying the optimization procedure used to estimate the parameters, The algorithm is tested on experimental stress/strain data from a strip of lung parenchyma.

  10. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  11. Separation & Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, Carrie J.; Quach, Anh P.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Ela, Wendell P.; Saez, Avelino E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

    2004-12-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  12. Pervaporation separation of n-heptane/thiophene mixtures by polyethylene glycol membranes: Modeling and experimental.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ligang; Zhang, Yuzhong; Kong, Ying

    2009-11-01

    Gasoline desulfurization by membrane processes is a newly emerged technology, which has provided an efficient new approach for sulfur removal and gained increasing attention of the membrane and petrochemical field. A deep understanding of the solution/diffusion of gasoline molecules on/in the membrane can provide helpful information in improving or optimizing membrane performance. In this study, a desulfurization mechanism of polyethylene glycol (PEG) membranes has been investigated by the study of sorption and diffusion behavior of typical sulfur and hydrocarbon species through PEG membranes. A solution-diffusion model based on UNIFAC and free volume theory has been established. Pervaporation (PV) and sorption experiments were conducted to compare with the model calculation results and to analyze the mass transport behavior. The dynamic sorption curves for pure components and the sorption experiments for binary mixtures showed that thiophene, which had a higher solubility coefficient than n-heptane, was the preferential sorption component, which is key in the separation of thiophene/hydrocarbon mixtures. In all cases, the model calculation results fit well the experimental data. The UNIFAC model was a sound way to predict the solubility of solvents in membranes. The established model can predict the removal of thiophene species from hydrocarbon compounds by PEG membranes effectively.

  13. Chip electrochromatographic systems: Novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube and silica monoliths based separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Shubhodeep

    2009-12-01

    Miniaturized chemical analysis systems, also know as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices have been rapidly developing over the last decade. Capillary electrochromatography (CEC), a multidimensional separation technique combining capillary electrophoresis (CE) and liquid chromatography (LC) has been of great interest for chip based applications. Preliminary work has been undertaken to develop vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and photopolymerizable silica solgel as novel stationary phase materials for 'chip CEC' separations. Patterned growth of CNTs in a specific location of the channel has been carried out using a solid phase Fe-Al catalyst as well as a vapor deposited ferrocene catalyst. Characterization of the CNT "forests" was achieved using optical microscopy, secondary electron microscopy, high resolution tunneling electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Proof-of-concept applications were demonstrated using reversed phase CEC separations as well as solid phase extraction of a glycosylated protein using concanavilin A immobilized onto the CNT bed. Photopolymerizable silica solgel materials were developed as stationary phase for microfluidic electrochromatographic separations in disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip devices. Effect on morphology and pore size of gels were studied as function of UV and solgel polymerization conditions, porogen, salt additives, geometry and hydrolyzable methoxy-ies. Structural morphologies were studied with Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM). Pore size and pore volumes were characterized by thermal porometry, nitrogen BET adsorptions and differential scanning calorimetry. Computational fluid dynamics and confocal microscopy tools were employed to study the transport of fluids and model analytes. These investigations were directed towards evolving improved strategies for rinsing of uncrosslinked monomers to form porous monoliths as well as to effect a desired separation under a set of electrochromatograhic conditions

  14. Microfluidic system for dielectrophoretic separation based on a trapezoidal electrode array.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungyoung; Park, Je-Kyun

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a novel microfluidic device for dielectrophoretic separation based on a trapezoidal electrode array (TEA). In this method, particles with different dielectric properties are separated by the device composed of the TEA for the dielectrophoretic deflection of particles under negative dielectrophoresis (DEP) and poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) microfluidic channel with a sinuous and expanded region. Polystyrene microparticles are exposed to an electric field generated from the TEA in the microfluidic channel and are dielectrophoretically focused to make all of them line up to one sidewall. When these particles arrive at the region of another TEA for dielectrophoretic separation, they are separated having different positions along the perpendicular direction to the fluid flow due to their different dielectrophoretic velocities. To evaluate the separation process and performance, both the effect of the flow rate on dielectrophoretic focusing and the influence of the number of trapezoidal electrodes on dielectrophoretic separation are investigated. Now that this method utilizes the TEA as a source of negative DEP, non-specific particle adhering to the electrode surface can be prevented; conventional separation approaches depending on the positive DEP force suffer from this problem. In addition, since various particle types are continuously separated, this method can be easily applicable to the separation and analysis of various dielectric particles with high particle recovery and selectivity.

  15. Conductivity of carbonate- and perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes in porous separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaux, Didier; Chang, Yu H.; Villaluenga, Irune; Chen, X. Chelsea; Chintapalli, Mahati; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2016-08-01

    In lithium batteries, a porous separator filled with an electrolyte is placed in between the electrodes. Properties of the separator such as porosity and wettability strongly influence the conductivity of the electrolyte-separator composite. This study focuses on three commercial separators: a single layer polypropylene (Celgard 2500), a trilayer polypropylene-polyethylene-polypropylene (PP-PE-PP), and a porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Electron microscopy was used to characterize the pore structure, and these experiments reveal large differences in pore morphology. The separators were soaked in both carbonate- and perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes. The conductivity of the neat electrolytes (σ0) varied from 6.46 × 10-6 to 1.76 × 10-2 S cm-1. The porosity and wettability of the separator affect the electrolyte uptake that in turn affect the conductivity of electrolyte-separator composites. The conductivity of the electrolyte-separator composites (σ) was found to follow a master equation, σ = 0.51·σ0·ϕc3.2±0.2, where ϕc is the volume fraction of the electrolyte in each separator.

  16. Recalibration of the Shear Stress Transport Model to Improve Calculation of Shock Separated Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    2013-01-01

    The Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST) k . turbulence model is one of the most widely used two-equation Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models for aerodynamic analyses. The model extends Menter s baseline (BSL) model to include a limiter that prevents the calculated turbulent shear stress from exceeding a prescribed fraction of the turbulent kinetic energy via a proportionality constant, a1, set to 0.31. Compared to other turbulence models, the SST model yields superior predictions of mild adverse pressure gradient flows including those with small separations. In shock - boundary layer interaction regions, the SST model produces separations that are too large while the BSL model is on the other extreme, predicting separations that are too small. In this paper, changing a1 to a value near 0.355 is shown to significantly improve predictions of shock separated flows. Several cases are examined computationally and experimental data is also considered to justify raising the value of a1 used for shock separated flows.

  17. Tunable separations based on a molecular size effect for biomolecules by poly(ethylene glycol) gel-based capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takuya; Nishimura, Naoki; Furuta, Hayato; Kubota, Kei; Naito, Toyohiro; Otsuka, Koji

    2017-06-16

    We report novel capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels for the effective separations of biomolecules containing sugars and DNAs based on a molecular size effect. The gel capillaries were prepared in a fused silica capillary modified with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate using a variety of the PEG-based hydrogels. After the fundamental evaluations in CGE regarding the separation based on the molecular size effect depending on the crosslinking density, the optimized capillary provided the efficient separation of glucose ladder (G1 to G20). In addition, another capillary showed the successful separation of DNA ladder in the range of 10-1100 base pair, which is superior to an authentic acrylamide-based gel capillary. For both glucose and DNA ladders, the separation ranges against the molecular size were simply controllable by alteration of the concentration and/or units of ethylene oxide in the PEG-based crosslinker. Finally, we demonstrated the separations of real samples, which included sugars carved out from monoclonal antibodies, mAbs, and then the efficient separations based on the molecular size effect were achieved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology in membrane-based separations for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Wenqian

    This dissertation presents results of three related projects focused on the applications of membrane separation technology to water treatment: 1) Experimental design and evaluation of polyelectrolyte multilayer films as regenerable membrane coatings with controllable surface properties; 2) Modeling of the interactions of nanoscale TiO2 and NOM molecules in aqueous solutions of environmentally relevant compositions; 3) Experimental design and preliminary testing of a membrane-based crossflow filtration hydrocyclone process for the separation of oil-in-water dispersions. Chapter 2 describes the design of polyelectrolyte multilayers as nanoscale membrane coatings and their application in nanofiltration of feed waters that contain suspended colloids and dissolved species. Layer-by-layer deposition of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes was employed to prepare membrane coatings allowing for a fine control over their surface properties. This approach to membrane design also affords a possibility of regenerating coatings after they are fouled by colloids. This project demonstrated, for first time, the possibility of designing nanofiltration membranes with regenerable skin. Chapter 3 describes a study on the mechanisms of natural organic matter (NOM) adsorption onto the surface of titania nanoparticles. Titainia (TiO 2) is often used in the fabrication of ceramic membranes and understanding how NOM interacts with TiO2 can help to better predict ceramic membrane fouling by NOM-containing waters. The combined effect of pH and calcium on the interactions of nonozonated and ozonated NOM with nanoscale TiO 2 was investigated by applying extended Derjaguin --- Landau --- Verwey - Overbeek (XDLVO) modeling. XDLVO surface energy analysis predicted NOM adsorption onto TiO2 in the ozone-controlled regime but not in the calcium-controlled regime. In both regimes, short range NOM-NOM and NOM-TiO2 interactions were governed by acid-base and van der Waals forces, whereas the role of

  19. Separation of variables in anisotropic models: anisotropic Rabi and elliptic Gaudin model in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrypnyk, T.

    2017-08-01

    We study the problem of separation of variables for classical integrable Hamiltonian systems governed by non-skew-symmetric non-dynamical so(3)\\otimes so(3) -valued elliptic r-matrices with spectral parameters. We consider several examples of such models, and perform separation of variables for classical anisotropic one- and two-spin Gaudin-type models in an external magnetic field, and for Jaynes-Cummings-Dicke-type models without the rotating wave approximation.

  20. Model order estimation for blind source separation of multichannel magnetoencephalogram and electroencephalogram signals.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Christian W

    2008-01-01

    Most blind source separation (BSS) approaches - especially independent component analysis (ICA) - assume a noiseless mixture of the same number of sources as sensors. It is doubtful, however, whether this assumption actually holds for multichannel magnetoencephalogram (MEG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements comprising a large number of channels. Corroborating and extending previous results, this work further examines the utility of second-order statistical methods based on probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA) and factor analysis (FA) models for estimating the number of underlying sources in multichannel MEG and EEG. Compared with conventional PCA-based eigenvalue thresholding, both PPCA and FA approaches yield stable model order estimates which are almost independent of total signal power. The FA model provides a more optimal description of both MEG and EEG data than PPCA, in terms of balancing goodness-of-fit and parsimony. These findings add to the growing evidence that anisotropic 'sensor noise' may be a statistically robust characteristic of both the EEG and MEG, which most BSS algorithms and applications do not address.

  1. Lattice-gas models of phase separation: interfaces, phase transitions, and multiphase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, D.H. ); Zaleski, S. )

    1994-10-01

    Momentum-conserving lattice gases are simple, discrete, microscopic models of fluids. This review describes their hydrodynamics, with particular attention given to the derivation of macroscopic constitutive equations from microscopic dynamics. Lattice-gas models of phase separation receive special emphasis. The current understanding of phase transitions in these momentum-conserving models is reviewed; included in this discussion is a summary of the dynamical properties of interfaces. Because the phase-separation models are microscopically time irreversible, interesting questions are raised about their relationship to real fluid mixtures. Simulation of certain complex-fluid problems, such as multiphase flow through porous media and the interaction of phase transitions with hydrodynamics, is illustrated.

  2. Propagation dynamics of an epidemic model with infective media connecting two separated networks of populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guanghu; Chen, Guanrong; Zhang, Haifeng; Fu, Xinchu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the fact that most human pathogens originate from animals, this paper attempts to illustrate the propagation dynamics of some zoonotic infections, which spread in two separated networks of populations (human network I and animal network II) and cross-species (vectors, or infective media). An epidemic time-evolution model is proposed via mean-field approximation and its global dynamics are investigated. It is found that the basic reproduction number in terms of epidemiological parameters and the network structure is the threshold condition determining the propagation dynamics. Further, the influences of various infection rates and contact patterns are verified. Numerical results show that the heterogeneity in connection patterns and inner infection in network I can easily trigger endemic dynamics, but when a pathogen, such as H7N9, has weak infectivity in humans, the effects of animal-animal interactions and the contacts with vectors tend to induce endemic states and enhance the prevalence in all the populations.

  3. Phosphonium-based ionic liquids in electrokinetic capillary chromatography for the separation of neutral analytes.

    PubMed

    Wiedmer, Susanne K; King, Alistair W T; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2012-08-31

    In this work we elucidated the applicability of phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) as pseudostationary phase in electrokinetic capillary chromatography (EKC) with UV-detection. The phosphonium ILs studied contain bromide, chlorine, or tosylate ions, as counter ions, and alkyl side chains of variable length on the phosphorous atom. The effects of the type and concentration of the IL, pH, ionic strength, and type of background electrolyte solution on the electroosmotic flow (EOF) and on the effective electrophoretic mobilities of some neutral model analytes were investigated and large variations in the migration times were observed. Especially the IL employed remarkably affected the strength and direction of the EOF Successful separations were obtained for neutral aromatic singly substituted analytes, namely benzene, toluene, phenol, and nitrobenzene. The results demonstrated the potential of capillary electromigration methods for rapid interaction studies between ILs and analytes, which is useful for the development of novel materials for sample preparation and separation purposes or for novel catalyst and chemical processing studies.

  4. Base Flow Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.

  5. Single channel speech separation in modulation frequency domain based on a novel pitch range estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Azar; Abutalebi, Hamid Reza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Sheikhzadeh, Hamid

    2012-12-01

    Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA) has been the focus in recent literature for speech separation from monaural mixtures. The performance of current CASA systems on voiced speech separation strictly depends on the robustness of the algorithm used for pitch frequency estimation. We propose a new system that estimates pitch (frequency) range of a target utterance and separates voiced portions of target speech. The algorithm, first, estimates the pitch range of target speech in each frame of data in the modulation frequency domain, and then, uses the estimated pitch range for segregating the target speech. The method of pitch range estimation is based on an onset and offset algorithm. Speech separation is performed by filtering the mixture signal with a mask extracted from the modulation spectrogram. A systematic evaluation shows that the proposed system extracts the majority of target speech signal with minimal interference and outperforms previous systems in both pitch extraction and voiced speech separation.

  6. Quantitative analysis of aqueous phase composition of model dentin adhesives experiencing phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qiang; Park, Jonggu; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Pamatmat, Francis; Misra, Anil; Laurence, Jennifer S.; Marangos, Orestes; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    There have been reports of the sensitivity of our current dentin adhesives to excess moisture, for example, water-blisters in adhesives placed on over-wet surfaces, and phase separation with concomitant limited infiltration of the critical dimethacrylate component into the demineralized dentin matrix. To determine quantitatively the hydrophobic/hydrophilic components in the aqueous phase when exposed to over-wet environments, model adhesives were mixed with 16, 33, and 50 wt % water to yield well-separated phases. Based upon high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection, it was found that the amounts of hydrophobic BisGMA and hydrophobic initiators are less than 0.1 wt % in the aqueous phase. The amount of these compounds decreased with an increase in the initial water content. The major components of the aqueous phase were hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and water, and the HEMA content ranged from 18.3 to 14.7 wt %. Different BisGMA homologues and the relative content of these homologues in the aqueous phase have been identified; however, the amount of crosslinkable BisGMA was minimal and, thus, could not help in the formation of a crosslinked polymer network in the aqueous phase. Without the protection afforded by a strong crosslinked network, the poorly photoreactive compounds of this aqueous phase could be leached easily. These results suggest that adhesive formulations should be designed to include hydrophilic multimethacrylate monomers and water compatible initiators. PMID:22331596

  7. Generalized separable parameter space techniques for fitting 1K-5K serial compartment models

    PubMed Central

    Kadrmas, Dan J.; Oktay, M. Bugrahan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Kinetic modeling is widely used to analyze dynamic imaging data, estimating kinetic parameters that quantify functional or physiologic processes in vivo. Typical kinetic models give rise to nonlinear solution equations in multiple dimensions, presenting a complex fitting environment. This work generalizes previously described separable nonlinear least-squares techniques for fitting serial compartment models with up to three tissue compartments and five rate parameters. Methods: The approach maximally separates the linear and nonlinear aspects of the modeling equations, using a formulation modified from previous basis function methods to avoid a potential mathematical degeneracy. A fast and robust algorithm for solving the linear subproblem with full user-defined constraints is also presented. The generalized separable parameter space technique effectively reduces the dimensionality of the nonlinear fitting problem to one dimension for 2K-3K compartment models, and to two dimensions for 4K-5K models. Results: Exhaustive search fits, which guarantee identification of the true global minimum fit, required approximately 10 ms for 2K-3K and 1.1 s for 4K-5K models, respectively. The technique is also amenable to fast gradient-descent iterative fitting algorithms, where the reduced dimensionality offers improved convergence properties. The objective function for the separable parameter space nonlinear subproblem was characterized and found to be generally well-behaved with a well-defined global minimum. Separable parameter space fits with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm required fewer iterations than comparable fits for conventional model formulations, averaging 1 and 7 ms for 2K-3K and 4K-5K models, respectively. Sensitivity to initial conditions was likewise reduced. Conclusions: The separable parameter space techniques described herein generalize previously described techniques to encompass 1K-5K compartment models, enable robust solution of the linear

  8. Generalized separable parameter space techniques for fitting 1K-5K serial compartment models.

    PubMed

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Oktay, M Bugrahan

    2013-07-01

    Kinetic modeling is widely used to analyze dynamic imaging data, estimating kinetic parameters that quantify functional or physiologic processes in vivo. Typical kinetic models give rise to nonlinear solution equations in multiple dimensions, presenting a complex fitting environment. This work generalizes previously described separable nonlinear least-squares techniques for fitting serial compartment models with up to three tissue compartments and five rate parameters. The approach maximally separates the linear and nonlinear aspects of the modeling equations, using a formulation modified from previous basis function methods to avoid a potential mathematical degeneracy. A fast and robust algorithm for solving the linear subproblem with full user-defined constraints is also presented. The generalized separable parameter space technique effectively reduces the dimensionality of the nonlinear fitting problem to one dimension for 2K-3K compartment models, and to two dimensions for 4K-5K models. Exhaustive search fits, which guarantee identification of the true global minimum fit, required approximately 10 ms for 2K-3K and 1.1 s for 4K-5K models, respectively. The technique is also amenable to fast gradient-descent iterative fitting algorithms, where the reduced dimensionality offers improved convergence properties. The objective function for the separable parameter space nonlinear subproblem was characterized and found to be generally well-behaved with a well-defined global minimum. Separable parameter space fits with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm required fewer iterations than comparable fits for conventional model formulations, averaging 1 and 7 ms for 2K-3K and 4K-5K models, respectively. Sensitivity to initial conditions was likewise reduced. The separable parameter space techniques described herein generalize previously described techniques to encompass 1K-5K compartment models, enable robust solution of the linear subproblem with full user-defined constraints

  9. Exploring a Method for Improving Turbulent Separated-Flow Predictions with kappa-omega Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2009-01-01

    A particular failing of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes separated turbulent flow computations is addressed within the context of a kappa-omega two-equation turbulence model. The failing is the tendency for turbulence models to under-predict turbulent shear stress in the shear layers of some separation bubbles, yielding late boundary layer reattachment and recovery. Inspired by unpublished work of Volker, Langtry, and Menter, the author undertook an independent investigation in an attempt to improve the ability of the Menter shear stress transport (SST) model to predict flowfield characteristics in and downstream of separation bubbles. The fix is an ad hoc term that is a function of the local ratio of turbulent production to dissipation; it is used to multiply the omega-destruction term, increasing eddy viscosity in separated regions. With this fix, several flowfields are investigated. Results show that, although the "separation fix" can provide dramatic improvement in some cases, it is not consistently good for all flows. Thus, although it may prove helpful in many situations in its current form, this model may benefit from further refinements, including better sensitization to the energetics of turbulence in the separated region.

  10. Improving Robustness of Deep Neural Network Acoustic Models via Speech Separation and Joint Adaptive Training

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Arun; Wang, DeLiang

    2015-01-01

    Although deep neural network (DNN) acoustic models are known to be inherently noise robust, especially with matched training and testing data, the use of speech separation as a frontend and for deriving alternative feature representations has been shown to improve performance in challenging environments. We first present a supervised speech separation system that significantly improves automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance in realistic noise conditions. The system performs separation via ratio time-frequency masking; the ideal ratio mask (IRM) is estimated using DNNs. We then propose a framework that unifies separation and acoustic modeling via joint adaptive training. Since the modules for acoustic modeling and speech separation are implemented using DNNs, unification is done by introducing additional hidden layers with fixed weights and appropriate network architecture. On the CHiME-2 medium-large vocabulary ASR task, and with log mel spectral features as input to the acoustic model, an independently trained ratio masking frontend improves word error rates by 10.9% (relative) compared to the noisy baseline. In comparison, the jointly trained system improves performance by 14.4%. We also experiment with alternative feature representations to augment the standard log mel features, like the noise and speech estimates obtained from the separation module, and the standard feature set used for IRM estimation. Our best system obtains a word error rate of 15.4% (absolute), an improvement of 4.6 percentage points over the next best result on this corpus. PMID:26973851

  11. Use of individual retention modeling for gradient optimization in hydrophilic interaction chromatography: separation of nucleobases and nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Tyteca, Eva; Guillarme, Davy; Desmet, Gert

    2014-11-14

    In this study, the separation of twelve nucleobases and nucleosides was optimized via chromatogram simulation (i.e., prediction of individual retention times and estimation of the peak widths) with the use of an empirical (reversed-phase) non-linear model proposed by Neue and Kuss. Retention time prediction errors of less than 2% were observed for all compounds on different stationary phases. As a single HILIC column could not resolve all peaks, the modeling was extended to coupled-column systems (with different stationary phase chemistries) to increase the separation efficiency and selectivity. The analytical expressions for the gradient retention factor on a coupled column system were derived and accurate retention time predictions were obtained (<2% prediction errors in general). The optimized gradient (predicted by the optimization software) included coupling of an amide and an pentahydroxy functionalized silica stationary phases with a gradient profile from 95 to 85%ACN in 6 min and resulted in almost baseline separation of the twelve nucleobases and nucleosides in less than 7 min. The final separation was obtained in less than 4h of instrument time (including equilibration times) and was fully obtained via computer-based optimization. As such, this study provides an example of a case where individual retention modeling can be used as a way to optimize the gradient conditions in the HILIC mode using a non-linear model such as the Neue and Kuss model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Turbulence modeling for subsonic separated flows over 2-D airfoils and 3-D wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Aaron M.

    Accurate predictions of turbulent boundary layers and flow separation through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are becoming more and more essential for the prediction of loads in the design of aerodynamic flight components. Standard eddy viscosity models used in many commercial codes today do not capture the nonequilibrium effects seen in a separated flow and thus do not generally make accurate separation predictions. Part of the reason for this is that under nonequilibrium conditions such as a strong adverse pressure gradient, the history effects of the flow play an important role in the growth and decay of turbulence. More recent turbulence models such as Olsen and Coakley's Lag model and Lillard's lagRST model seek to simulate these effects by lagging the turbulent variables when nonequilibrium effects become important. The purpose of the current research is to assess how these nonequilibrium turbulence models capture the separated regions on various 2-D airfoils and 3-D wings. Nonequilibrium models including the Lag model and the lagRST model are evaluated in comparison with three baseline models (Spalart-Allmaras, Wilcox's k-omega, and Menter's SST) using a modified version of the OVERFLOW code. Tuning the model coefficients of the Lag and lagRST models is also explored. Results show that the various lagRST formulations display an improvement in velocity profile predictions over the standard RANS models, but have trouble capturing the edge of the boundary layer. Experimental separation location measurements were not available, but several trends are noted which may be useful to tuning the model coefficients in the future.

  13. A Crucial Test of the Population Separation Model of Auditory Stream Segregation in Macaque Primary Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Yonatan I; Kim, Mimi; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2017-09-27

    effective separation of tonotopic activity patterns was observed under ALT than under SYNC conditions, thus paralleling the perceptual organization of the sequences. Based on these findings, we conclude that PS remains a plausible neurophysiological model of auditory stream segregation. Copyright © 2017 the authors.

  14. Continuous size-based separation of microparticles in a microchannel with symmetric sharp corner structures

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Liang-Liang; He, Xu-Kun; Han, Yu; Du, Li; Zhao, Liang; Zhe, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    A new microchannel with a series of symmetric sharp corner structures is reported for passive size-dependent particle separation. Micro particles of different sizes can be completely separated based on the combination of the inertial lift force and the centrifugal force induced by the sharp corner structures in the microchannel. At appropriate flow rate and Reynolds number, the centrifugal force effect on large particles, induced by the sharp corner structures, is stronger than that on small particles; hence after passing a series of symmetric sharp corner structures, large particles are focused to the center of the microchannel, while small particles are focused at two particle streams near the two side walls of the microchannel. Particles of different sizes can then be completely separated. Particle separation with this device was demonstrated using 7.32 μm and 15.5 μm micro particles. Experiments show that in comparison with the prior multi-orifice flow fractionation microchannel and multistage-multiorifice flow fractionation microchannel, this device can completely separate two-size particles with narrower particle stream band and larger separation distance between particle streams. In addition, it requires no sheath flow and complex multi-stage separation structures, avoiding the dilution of analyte sample and complex operations. The device has potentials to be used for continuous, complete particle separation in a variety of lab-on-a-chip and biomedical applications. PMID:24738015

  15. Continuous size-based separation of microparticles in a microchannel with symmetric sharp corner structures.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liang-Liang; He, Xu-Kun; Han, Yu; Du, Li; Zhao, Liang; Zhe, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    A new microchannel with a series of symmetric sharp corner structures is reported for passive size-dependent particle separation. Micro particles of different sizes can be completely separated based on the combination of the inertial lift force and the centrifugal force induced by the sharp corner structures in the microchannel. At appropriate flow rate and Reynolds number, the centrifugal force effect on large particles, induced by the sharp corner structures, is stronger than that on small particles; hence after passing a series of symmetric sharp corner structures, large particles are focused to the center of the microchannel, while small particles are focused at two particle streams near the two side walls of the microchannel. Particles of different sizes can then be completely separated. Particle separation with this device was demonstrated using 7.32 μm and 15.5 μm micro particles. Experiments show that in comparison with the prior multi-orifice flow fractionation microchannel and multistage-multiorifice flow fractionation microchannel, this device can completely separate two-size particles with narrower particle stream band and larger separation distance between particle streams. In addition, it requires no sheath flow and complex multi-stage separation structures, avoiding the dilution of analyte sample and complex operations. The device has potentials to be used for continuous, complete particle separation in a variety of lab-on-a-chip and biomedical applications.

  16. Charge-based separation of proteins and peptides by electrically induced dynamic pH profiles.

    PubMed

    Brod, E; S Ben-Yosef, V; Bandhakavi, S; Sivan, U

    2016-01-29

    A new method for generating complex, dynamic pH profiles in an ampholyte-free separation channel is presented together with the theory behind its operation. The pH is modulated by an array of proton and hydroxide ion injectors placed along the separation channel. The ions generated in-situ by electrically driven water splitting across a bipolar membrane are injected to the channel in the presence of a longitudinal electric field, leading to the formation of a multi-step pH profile. Real-time control over the pH profile along the channel facilitates new dynamic separation strategies as well as steering and harvesting of focused molecules, which are both impossible with conventional separation methods. These freedoms are particularly attractive for Lab-on-a-Chip applications. The pH step-like profile alleviates one of the main hurdles of conventional isoelectric separation methods, namely, the slowing down of focused molecules as they approach their focusing spot. As a result, separation is completed within minutes for both peptides and proteins, even with low applied electric fields. We demonstrate protein and peptide separation within minutes, and resolution of ΔpI=0.2. Novel separation strategies based on spatio-temporal pH control are demonstrated as well.

  17. Parameter Estimation for a crop model: separate and joint calibration of soil and plant parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, A.; Jackisch, C.; Luis, S.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation plays a major role both in the atmospheric and terrestrial water cycle. A great deal of vegetation cover in the developed world consists of agricultural used land (i.e. 44 % of the territory of the EU). Therefore, crop models have become increasingly prominent for studying the impact of Global Change both on economic welfare as well as on influence of vegetation on climate, and feedbacks with hydrological processes. By doing so, it is implied that crop models properly reflect the soil water balance and vertical exchange with the atmosphere. Although crop models can be incorporated in Surface Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Schemes for that purpose, their main focus has traditionally not been on predicting water and energy fluxes, but yield. In this research we use data from two lysimeters in Brandis (Saxony, Germany), which have been planted with the crops of the surrounding farm, to test the capability of the crop model in SWAP. The lysimeters contain different natural soil cores, leading to substantially different yield. This experiment gives the opportunity to test, if the crop model is portable - that is if a calibrated crop can be moved between different locations. When using the default parameters for the respective environment, the model does neither quantitatively nor qualitatively reproduce the difference in yield and LAI for the different lysimeters. The separate calibration of soil and plant parameter was poor compared to the joint calibration of plant and soil parameters. This suggests that the model is not portable, but needs to be calibrated for individual locations, based on measurements or expert knowledge.

  18. Network-based representation of energy transfer in unsteady separated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Aditya; Taira, Kunihiko

    2015-11-01

    We construct a network-based representation of energy pathways in unsteady separated flows using a POD-Galerkin projection model. In this formulation, we regard the POD modes as the network nodes and the energy transfer between the modes as the network edges. Based on the energy transfer analysis performed by Noack et al. (2008), edge weights are characterized on the interaction graph. As an example, we examine the energy transfer within the two-dimensional incompressible flow over a circular cylinder. In particular, we analyze the energy pathways involved in flow transition from the unstable symmetric steady state to periodic shedding cycle. The growth of perturbation energy over the network is examined to highlight key features of flow physics and to determine how the energy transfer can be influenced. Furthermore, we implement closed-loop flow control on the POD-Galerkin model to alter the energy interaction path and modify the global behavior of the wake dynamics. The insights gained will be used to perform further network analysis on fluid flows with added complexity. Work supported by US Army Research Office (W911NF-14-1-0386) and US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (YIP: FA9550-13-1-0183).

  19. Noisy blind source separation based on CEEMD and Savitzky-Golay filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hua-Fu; Huang, Gao-Ming

    2017-09-01

    The standard independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm is difficult to extract signals in noise condition, a blind separation algorithm based on denoising pretreatment was proposed. Mixed signals firstly were decomposed into several stationary intrinsic mode components (IMF) using complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD), and high frequency IMF components were filtered with Savitzky-Golay filtering, then using the whole components reconstructed the mixed signals, finally applying the fast independent component analysis(FastICA) to separate the reconstructed signals. Simulation results showed that the proposed method improved the effect of blind signal separation under low signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Enantiomeric separation of biaryl atropisomers using cyclofructan based chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Woods, Ross M; Patel, Darshan C; Lim, Yeeun; Breitbach, Zachary S; Gao, Hongyin; Keene, Craig; Li, Gongqiang; Kürti, László; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-08-29

    Normal phase chiral HPLC methods are presented for the enantiomeric separation of 30 biaryl atropisomers including 18 new compounds recently produced via a novel synthetic approach. Three new cyclofructan based chiral stationary phases were evaluated. Separations were achieved for all but six analytes and the LARIHC™ CF6-P alone provided 15 baseline separations. Effects of polar modifiers and temperature effects also were studied. Apparent thermodynamic parameters were determined by van't Hoff plots. Preparative scale methods were developed and employed resulting in the first ever isolation of these novel atropisomers in their pure enantiomeric form. Insights into the mechanism of retention and chiral discrimination are presented.

  1. Enantiomeric Separation of Biaryl Atropisomers Using Cyclofructan Based Chiral Stationary Phases

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Ross M.; Patel, Darshan C.; Lim, Yeeun; Breitbach, Zachary S.; Gao, Hongyin; Keene, Craig; Li, Gongqiang; Kürti, László

    2014-01-01

    Normal phase chiral HPLC methods are presented for the enantiomeric separation of 30 biaryl atropisomers including 18 new compounds recently produced via a novel synthetic approach. Three new cyclofructan based chiral stationary phases were evaluated. Separations were achieved for all but six analytes and the LARIHC™ CF6-P alone provided 15 baseline separations. Effects of polar modifiers and temperature effects also were studied. Apparent thermodynamic parameters were determined by van't Hoff plots. Preparative scale methods were developed and employed resulting in the first ever isolation of these novel atropisomers in their pure enantiomeric form. Insights into the mechanism of retention and chiral discrimination are presented. PMID:24835594

  2. Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2011-03-08

    The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. A preferred embodiment of the invented electrochemical cell generally comprises a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. A preferred novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

  3. Exact solution of the mean-field plus separable pairing model reexamined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Feng; Zhou, Dan; Dai, Lianrong; Draayer, J. P.

    2017-03-01

    Exact solution of the nuclear mean-field plus separable pairing model is reexamined. New auxiliary constraints for solving the Bethe ansatz equations of the model are proposed. By using these auxiliary constraints, the Bethe ansatz form of eigenvectors of the mean-field plus separable pairing Hamiltonian with nondegenerate single-particle energies and nondegenerate separable pairing strengths purposed previously is verified. Since the solutions of the model with one- and two-orbit cases are known, verification of the solutions for these two special cases is made. To demonstrate structure and features of the solution, the model with three orbits in the d s shell is taken as a nontrivial example, of which two-pair results and the ground state of the three-pair case are provided explicitly. Since the number of equations involved increases with the number of orbits and pairs, to solve these equations for a large number of orbits and pairs seems still difficult.

  4. Kinetic model of phase separation in binary mixtures with hard mobile impurities.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, V V; Peng, G; Qiu, F; Jasnow, D; Balazs, A C

    1999-10-01

    We develop a mean-field rate-equation model for the kinetics of phase separation in binary mixtures with hard mobile impurities. For impurities preferentially wet by one of the components, the phase separation is arrested in the late stage. The "steady-state" domain size depends strongly on both the particle diffusion constant and the particle concentration. We compare theoretical results with the simulation data and find good qualitative agreement.

  5. Finite Element Modeling of Adsorption Processes for Gas Separation and Purification

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Paul H.; Williams, Richard M.; Hayes, James C.

    2009-09-22

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in the design and fabrication of automated radioxenon collection systems for nuclear explosion monitoring. In developing new systems there is an ever present need to reduce size, power consumption and complexity. Most of these systems have used adsorption based techniques for gas collection and/or concentration and purification. These processes include pressure swing adsorption, vacuum swing adsorption, temperature swing adsorption, gas chromatography and hybrid processes that combine elements of these techniques. To better understand these processes, and help with the development of improved hardware, a finite element software package (COMSOL Multiphysics) has been used to develop complex models of these adsorption based operations. The partial differential equations used include a mass balance for each gas species and adsorbed species along with a convection conduction energy balance equation. These equations in conjunction with multicomponent temperature dependent isotherm models are capable of simulating separation processes ranging from complex multibed PSA processes, and multicomponent temperature programmed gas chromatography, to simple two component temperature swing adsorption. These numerical simulations have been a valuable tool for assessing the capability of proposed processes and optimizing hardware and process parameters.

  6. Development of a Systems Engineering Model of the Chemical Separations Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lijian; Li, Jianhong; Chen, Yitung; Clarksean, Randy; Ladler, Jim; Vandergrift, George

    2002-07-01

    Work is being performed to develop a general-purpose systems engineering model for the AAA separation process. The work centers on the development of a new user interface for the AMUSE code and on the specification of a systems engineering model. This paper presents background information and an overview of work completed to date. (authors)

  7. CFD modelling of flow field and particle tracking in a hydrodynamic stormwater separator.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Bang, K W; Choi, C S; Lim, H S

    2010-01-01

    The best management practices (BMPs) for control of urban stormwater pollution are evaluated to remove solid particles containing various pollutants. Currently, most storm runoff treatment devices using primary pollutant removal mechanism are applied to storm water since most pollutants in runoff are associated with the solid particulates. A hydrodynamic separator is a storm water treatment device using centrifugal motion which separates solids pollution from runoff. In this study, the velocity flow field and particle tracking of hydrodynamic separator were investigated using anthracite as a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model particle. The Fluent 6.3.26 CFD program was used to predict the solid particles removal efficiency for various parameters such as particle size, surface loading rate, and the ratio of underflow to overflow. The velocity flow field in a hydrodynamic stormwater separator (HDS) has been simulated using CFD RNG κ-ε model. Modeling results for the removal efficiency of HDS were similar with the results obtained from experimental measurements of laboratory scale HDS. These results showed that the simulated velocity field was useful to interpret the behavior of flow in the hydrodynamic separator. The results obtained from particle tracking can be applied to predict the separation efficiency.

  8. Designing and modeling a centrifugal microfluidic device to separate target blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Selahi, AmirAli; Madadelahi, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to design a novel and efficient portable lab-on-a-CD (LOCD) microfluidic device for separation of specific cells (target cells) using magnetic beads. In this study the results are shown for neutrophils as target cells. However, other kinds of target cells can be separated in a similar approach. The designed microfluidics can be utilized as a point of care system for neutrophil detection. This microfluidic system employs centrifugal and magnetic forces for separation. After model validation by the experimental data in the literature (that may be used as a design tool for developing centrifugo-magnetophoretic devices), two models are presented for separation of target cells using magnetic beads. The first model consists of one container in the inlet section and two containers in the outlets. Initially, the inlet container is filled with diluted blood sample which is a mixture of red blood cells (RBCs) plus neutrophils which are attached to Magnetic beads. It is shown that by using centrifugal and magnetic forces, this model can separate all neutrophils with recovery factor of ~100%. In the second model, due to excess of magnetic beads in usual experimental analysis (to ensure that all target cells are attached to them) the geometry is improved by adding a third outlet for these free magnetic beads. It is shown that at angular velocity of 45 rad s-1, recovery factor of 100% is achievable for RBCs, free magnetic beads and neutrophils as target cells.

  9. Ionic liquid-based materials: a platform to design engineered CO2 separation membranes.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Liliana C; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2016-05-21

    During the past decade, significant advances in ionic liquid-based materials for the development of CO2 separation membranes have been accomplished. This review presents a perspective on different strategies that use ionic liquid-based materials as a unique tuneable platform to design task-specific advanced materials for CO2 separation membranes. Based on compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, we provide a judicious assessment of the CO2 separation efficiency of different membranes, and highlight breakthroughs and key challenges in this field. In particular, configurations such as supported ionic liquid membranes, polymer/ionic liquid composite membranes, gelled ionic liquid membranes and poly(ionic liquid)-based membranes are detailed, discussed and evaluated in terms of their efficiency, which is attributed to their chemical and structural features. Finally, an integrated perspective on technology, economy and sustainability is provided.

  10. Improving Temporal Resolution of Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging in Rats using the Partially Separable Function Model

    PubMed Central

    Brinegar, Cornelius; Schmitter, Sarah S.; Mistry, Nilesh N.; Johnson, G. Allan; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (or DCE-MRI) is a useful tool for measuring blood flow and perfusion, and it has found use in the study of pulmonary perfusion in animal models. However, DCE-MRI experiments are difficult in small animals such as rats. A recently developed method known as Interleaved Radial Imaging and Sliding window-keyhole (IRIS) addresses this problem by using a data acquisition scheme that covers (k, t)-space with data acquired from multiple bolus injections of a contrast agent. However, the temporal resolution of IRIS is limited by the effects of temporal averaging inherent in the sliding window and keyhole operations. This paper describes a new method to cover (k, t)-space based on the theory of partially separable functions (PSF). Specifically, a sparse sampling of (k, t)-space is performed to acquire two data sets, one with high temporal resolution and the other with extended k-space coverage. The high temporal resolution training data are used to determine the temporal basis functions of the PSF model, while the other data set is used to determine the spatial variations of the model. The proposed method was validated by simulations and demonstrated by an experimental study. In this particular study, the proposed method achieved a temporal resolution of 32 ms. PMID:20564601

  11. Static Enforcement of Static Separation-of-Duty Policies in Usage Control Authorization Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Ruixuan; Hu, Jinwei; Xu, Dewu

    Separation-of-Duty (SoD) is a fundamental security principle for prevention of fraud and errors in computer security. It has been studied extensively in traditional access control models. However, the research of SoD policy in the recently proposed usage control (UCON) model has not been well studied. This paper formulates and studies the fundamental problem of static enforcement of static SoD (SSoD) policies in the context of UCONA, a sub-model of UCON only considering authorizations. Firstly, we define a set-based specification of SSoD policies, and the safety checking problem for SSoD in UCONA. Secondly, we study the problem of determining whether an SSoD policy is enforceable. Thirdly, we show that it is intractable (coNP-complete) to direct statically enforce SSoD policies in UCONA, while checking whether a UCONA state satisfies a set of static mutually exclusive attribute (SMEA) constraints is efficient, which provides a justification for using SMEA constraints to enforce SSoD policies. Finally, we introduce a indirect static enforcement for SSoD policies in UCONA. We show how to generate the least restrictive SMEA constraints for enforcing SSoD policies in UCONA, by using the attribute-level SSoD requirement as an intermediate step. The results are fundamental to understanding SSoD policies in UCON.

  12. Effect of temperature on acid-base equilibria in separation techniques. A review.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Leonardo G; Tascon, Marcos; Castells, Cecilia B

    2015-08-19

    Studies on the theoretical principles of acid-base equilibria are reviewed and the influence of temperature on secondary chemical equilibria within the context of separation techniques, in water and also in aqueous-organic solvent mixtures, is discussed. In order to define the relationships between the retention in liquid chromatography or the migration velocity in capillary electrophoresis and temperature, the main properties of acid-base equilibria have to be taken into account for both, the analytes and the conjugate pairs chosen to control the solution pH. The focus of this review is based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), with emphasis on the use of temperature as a useful variable to modify selectivity on a predictable basis. Simplified models were evaluated to achieve practical optimizations involving pH and temperature (in LLE and CE) as well as solvent composition in reversed-phase LC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator for point-of-care applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael; Gross, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D.; Edelstein, Paul H.; Collman, Ronald G.; Bau, Haim H.

    2014-01-01

    Often, high sensitivity, point of care, clinical tests, such as HIV viral load, require large volumes of plasma. Although centrifuges are ubiquitously used in clinical laboratories to separate plasma from whole blood, centrifugation is generally inappropriate for on-site testing. Suitable alternatives are not readily available to separate the relatively large volumes of plasma from milliliters of blood that may be needed to meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low abundance target molecules. We report on a simple to use, low-cost, pump-free, membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from undiluted whole blood within minutes. This plasma separator consists of an asymmetric, porous, polysulfone membrane housed in a disposable chamber. The separation process takes advantage of both gravitational sedimentation of blood cells and size exclusion-based filtration. The plasma separator demonstrated a “blood in-plasma out” capability, consistently extracting 275 ±33.5 μL of plasma from 1.8 mL of undiluted whole blood in less than 7 min. The device was used to separate plasma laden with HIV viruses from HIV virus-spiked whole blood with recovery efficiencies of 95.5% ± 3.5%, 88.0% ± 9.5%, and 81.5% ± 12.1% for viral loads of 35,000, 3,500 and 350 copies/mL, respectively. The separation process is self-terminating to prevent excessive hemolysis. The HIV-laden plasma was then injected into our custom-made microfluidic chip for nucleic acid Testing And Was Successfully Subjected To Reverse Transcriptase Loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), demonstrating that the plasma is sufficiently pure to support high efficiency nucleic acid amplification. PMID:24099566

  14. Membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator for point-of-care applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael; Gross, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D; Edelstein, Paul H; Collman, Ronald G; Bau, Haim H

    2013-11-05

    Often, high-sensitivity, point-of-care (POC) clinical tests, such as HIV viral load, require large volumes of plasma. Although centrifuges are ubiquitously used in clinical laboratories to separate plasma from whole blood, centrifugation is generally inappropriate for on-site testing. Suitable alternatives are not readily available to separate the relatively large volumes of plasma from milliliters of blood that may be needed to meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low-abundance target molecules. We report on a simple-to-use, low-cost, pump-free, membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from undiluted whole blood within minutes. This plasma separator consists of an asymmetric, porous, polysulfone membrane housed in a disposable chamber. The separation process takes advantage of both gravitational sedimentation of blood cells and size exclusion-based filtration. The plasma separator demonstrated a "blood in-plasma out" capability, consistently extracting 275 ± 33.5 μL of plasma from 1.8 mL of undiluted whole blood within less than 7 min. The device was used to separate plasma laden with HIV viruses from HIV virus-spiked whole blood with recovery efficiencies of 95.5% ± 3.5%, 88.0% ± 9.5%, and 81.5% ± 12.1% for viral loads of 35,000, 3500, and 350 copies/mL, respectively. The separation process is self-terminating to prevent excessive hemolysis. The HIV-laden plasma was then injected into our custom-made microfluidic chip for nucleic acid testing and was successfully subjected to reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), demonstrating that the plasma is sufficiently pure to support high-efficiency nucleic acid amplification.

  15. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt

  16. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Yasmin; Chuhta, Jesse D.; Hughes, Michael P.; Radke, Tara S.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics models used to verify no re-contact. The NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) architecture includes a highly-integrated Forward Bay Cover (FBC) jettison assembly design that combines parachutes and piston thrusters to separate the FBC from the Crew Module (CM) and avoid re-contact. A multi-disciplinary team across numerous organizations examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the FBC separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute elements, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1. Additional testing will be required to support human certification of this separation event, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust human-rated FBC separation event.

  17. Separation of deviatoric stress tensors from heterogeneous calcite twin data using a statistical mixture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    It is essential for the techniques of paleostress analysis to separate stresses from heterogeneous data (e.g., Tikoff et al., 2013). A statistical mixture model is shown in this paper to be effective for calcite twinning paleopiezometry: Given the orientations of twinned e-planes and their gliding directions, the present inverse method based on the mixture model determines not only deviatoric stress tensors, but also estimates the number of tensors that should be read from a data set using Bayesian information criterion. The present method is based on the fact that mechanical twinning occurs on an e-plane if the resolved shear stress along its gliding direction, τ, is greater than a critical value, τc (e.g., Lacombe, 2010). The orientation data from e-planes corresponds to points on a 5-dimensional unit sphere, a spherical cap on which indicates a deviatoric stress tensor. The twinning condition, τ > τc, is identical with the condition that the points corresponding to the orientation data are distributed upon the spherical cap (Yamaji, 2015a). It means that the paleostress analysis of calcite twins comes down to the problem of fitting a spherical cap to data points on the sphere (Yamaji, 2015b). Given a heterogeneous data set, two or more spherical caps should be fitted to the data point on the sphere. A statistical mixture model is employed for this fitting in the present work. Such a statistical model enables us to evaluate the number of stresses recorded in the data set. The present method was tested with artificial data sets and a natural data set obtained from a Miocene graben in central Japan. From the former type of data sets, the method determined the deviatoric stress tensors that were assumed to generate the data sets. The natural data were inverted to give two stresses that appeared appropriate for the tectonic setting of the area where the data were obtained.

  18. Fabrication and testing of novel blood separation devices based on microchannel bend structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattert, C.; Jurischka, R.; Schoth, A.; Kerth, P.; Menz, W.

    2005-02-01

    Most clinical chemistry tests are performed on cell-free serum or plasma. Therefore micro assay devices for blood tests require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. Polymers are ideally suited for these applications due to their material properties and their applicability for high volume production. These requirements are achieved by a new on-chip blood separation technique based on microchannel bend structures and a rapid processing technology for micro assay devices using injection molding or hot embossing. Different prototype polymer chips with channel dimensions down to 20 μm and aspect ratios of 4 have been fabricated by injection molding and hot embossing. The inserts for the molding tools were fabricated by an UV-LIGA technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been tested with human blood samples. The results show different separation efficiencies up to 100 % for blood cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry as well as cell concentration. As compared to present microfluidic devices for the separation of blood cells like filters, membranes or filtration by diffusion the microchannel bend is an integrated on-chip blood separation method. It combines the advantages of rapid separation times and a simple geometry that leads to cost-effective high volume production using injection molding.

  19. Single-channel mixed signal blind source separation algorithm based on multiple ICA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiefeng; Li, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Take separating the fetal heart sound signal from the mixed signal that get from the electronic stethoscope as the research background, the paper puts forward a single-channel mixed signal blind source separation algorithm based on multiple ICA processing. Firstly, according to the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), the single-channel mixed signal get multiple orthogonal signal components which are processed by ICA. The multiple independent signal components are called independent sub component of the mixed signal. Then by combining with the multiple independent sub component into single-channel mixed signal, the single-channel signal is expanded to multipath signals, which turns the under-determined blind source separation problem into a well-posed blind source separation problem. Further, the estimate signal of source signal is get by doing the ICA processing. Finally, if the separation effect is not very ideal, combined with the last time's separation effect to the single-channel mixed signal, and keep doing the ICA processing for more times until the desired estimated signal of source signal is get. The simulation results show that the algorithm has good separation effect for the single-channel mixed physiological signals.

  20. An exactly solvable Ogston model of gel electrophoresis: X. Application to high-field separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Michel G; Slater, Gary W

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we generalized our lattice model of gel electrophoresis to study the net velocity of particles being pulled by a high-intensity electric field through an arbitrary distribution of immobile obstacles (Gauthier, M. G., Slater, G. W., J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 117, 6745-6756). In this article, we show how the high-field version of our model can be used to compare the velocity of particles with different electric charges and/or physical sizes. We then investigate specific two-dimensional distributions of obstacles that can be used to separate particles, e.g., in a microfluidic device. More precisely, we compare the velocity of differently charged or sized analytes in sieving, trapping and deflecting systems to model various electrophoretic separation techniques. In particular, we study the nonlinear effects present in ratchet systems and how they can be combined with time-asymmetric pulsed fields to provide new modes of separation.

  1. Magnetic reconnection in 3D magnetosphere models: magnetic separators and open flux production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocer, A.; Dorelli, J.; Toth, G.; Komar, C. M.; Cassak, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are multiple competing definitions of magnetic reconnection in 3D (e.g., Hesse and Schindler [1988], Lau and Finn [1990], and Boozer [2002]). In this work we focus on separator reconnection. A magnetic separator can be understood as the 3D analogue of a 2D x line with a guide field, and is defined by the line corresponding to the intersection of the separatrix surfaces associated with the magnetic nulls. A separator in the magnetosphere represents the intersection of four distinct magnetic topologies: solar wind, closed, open connected to the northern hemisphere, and open connected to the southern hemisphere. The integral of the parallel electric field along the separator defines the rate of open flux production, and is one measure of the reconnection rate. We present three methods for locating magnetic separators and apply them to 3D resistive MHD simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere using the BATS-R-US code. The techniques for finding separators and determining the reconnection rate are insensitive to IMF clock angle and can in principle be applied to any magnetospheric model. The present work examines cases of high and low resistivity, for two clock angles. We also examine the separator during Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  2. Performance of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models in Predicting Separated Flows: Study of the Hump Flow Model Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelli, Daniele; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2012-01-01

    Separation can be seen in most aerodynamic flows, but accurate prediction of separated flows is still a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The behavior of several Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models in predicting the separated ow over a wall-mounted hump is studied. The strengths and weaknesses of the most popular RANS models (Spalart-Allmaras, k-epsilon, k-omega, k-omega-SST) are evaluated using the open source software OpenFOAM. The hump ow modeled in this work has been documented in the 2004 CFD Validation Workshop on Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control. Only the baseline case is treated; the slot flow control cases are not considered in this paper. Particular attention is given to predicting the size of the recirculation bubble, the position of the reattachment point, and the velocity profiles downstream of the hump.

  3. A LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL OF THE GASEOUSDIFFUSION ISOTOPE-SEPARATION PROCESS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ISOTOPE SEPARATION, LINEAR PROGRAMMING ), (*GASEOUS DIFFUSION SEPARATION, LINEAR PROGRAMMING ), (* LINEAR PROGRAMMING , GASEOUS DIFFUSION SEPARATION), NUCLEAR REACTORS, REACTOR FUELS, URANIUM, PURIFICATION

  4. Separation of nitrogen heterocyclic compounds from model coal tar fraction by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.J.; Chun, Y.J.

    2005-07-01

    The separation of four kinds of nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) from a model mixture comprising NHCs (indole (In), quinoline (Q), iso-quinoline (iQ), quinaldine (Qu)), three kinds of bicyclic aromatic compounds (BACs; 1-methyl-naphthalene (IMN), 2-methyl naphthalene (2MN), dimethylnaphthalene (DMN)), biphenyl (Bp) and phenyl ether (Pe) was examined by a solvent extraction. The model mixture used as a raw material of this work was prepared according to the components and compositions contained in coal tar fraction (the temperature ranges of fraction: 240-265{sup o}C). An aqueous solution of methanol, ethanol, iso-propyl alcohol, N,N-dimethyl acetamide, DMF, formamide, N-methylformamide/methanol, and formamide/methanol were used as solvents. An aqueous solution of formamide was found suitable for separating NHCs contained in coal tar fraction based on distribution coefficient and selectivity. The effect of operation factors on separating NHCs was investigated by the distribution equilibrium using an aqueous solution of formamide. Increasing the operation temperature and the volume ratio of solvent to feed at initial (S/F)(o) resulted in improving the distribution coefficients of each NHC, but increasing the volume fraction of water in the solvent at initial (y(w,O)) resulted in deteriorating the distribution coefficients of each NHC. With increasing y(w,O) and (S/F)(o), the selectivities of each NHC in reference to DMN increased. Increase in operation temperature resulted in decrease in selectivities of each NHC in reference to DMN. At an experimental condition fixed, the sequence of the distribution coefficient and selectivity in reference to DMN for each NHC was In {gt} iQ {gt} Q {gt} Qu, and also the sequence of the distribution coefficient for each BAC was IMN {gt} 2MN {gt} DMN. The sequence of the distribution coefficient for entire compounds analyzed by this work was In {gt} iQ {gt} Q {gt} Qu {gt} BP {gt} 1MN {gt} 2MN {gt} Pe {gt} DMN.

  5. Thermally assisted acoustophoresis as a new stiffness-based separation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolatmoradi, Ata; El-Zahab, Bilal

    2017-02-01

    The use of acoustophoretic separation devices provides a feasible means in biomedical diagnostics for label-free separation of diseased cells. Separation via acoustophoresis, however, has been restricted mainly to size contrast. Thermally-assisted acoustophoresis, as a newly-developed approach, integrates acoustic and thermal actuators on the same platform, enabling a stiffness-based separation when adjusted properly. Using this method, we have demonstrated the possibility of separating cell-mimicking liposomes based on their membrane stiffness. In a temperature-tuned microchannel with an overlaid ultrasonic standing wave, the acoustic contrast factor of a liposome is mainly determined according to its compressibility compared to that of medium. The sign of this factor was observed to flip to a negative value at a specific temperature, unique to the composition of the liposome. This sign switch was hypothesized to be due to the thermotropic phase transitions in the liposome's membrane upon which an apparent effect on the compressibility is experienced by the liposome. By choosing the midpoint of the existing temperature window for two different compositions, within which liposomes were mechanically distinct enough to become differentiable in the acoustic radiation field, we examined the separation efficiency under different flow rate conditions.

  6. Community-based surveillance to monitor trends in unaccompanied and separated children in eastern DRC.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Beth L; Spencer, Craig; Mansourian, Hani; Noble, Eva; Munganga, Gustave B; Stark, Lindsay

    2015-12-01

    Children who are separated from their families and usual caregivers in emergencies face a multitude of risks. The humanitarian community lacks methods to systematically capture changes in the frequency and nature of such separations over time. A mobile phone-based community surveillance system was piloted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The goal was to identify new cases of unaccompanied and separated children on a weekly basis. Over an 11-week period, community focal points reported 62 cases of separation across 10 communities. The majority of children had been under the care of their parents prior to separation. More than half of the children were unaccompanied, meaning that they were living without an adult relative or customary caregiver. The pilot results suggest that implementing a mobile phone-based surveillance system in a humanitarian setting may be feasible and cost-effective and fills a critical gap in the measurement of separated and unaccompanied children in emergencies. A longer pilot to better understand how the system performs over time is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF{sub 6} volatilization and chromatographic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yuezhou; Liu, Ruiqin; Wu, Yan; Zu, Jianhua; Zhao, Long; Mimura, Hitoshi; Shi, Weiqun; Chai, Zhifang; Yang, Jinling; Ding, Youqian

    2013-07-01

    To recover U, Pu, MA (Np, Am, Cm) and some specific fission products FPs (Cs, Sr, Tc, etc.) from various spent nuclear fuels (LWR/FBR: Oxide, Metal Fuels), we are studying an advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF6 volatilization (Pyro) and chromatographic separation (Aqueous). Spent fuels are de-cladded by means of thermal and mechanical methods and then applied to the fluorination/volatilization process, which selectively recovers the most amount of U. Then, the remained fuel components are converted to oxides and dissolved by HNO{sub 3} solution. Compared to U, since Pu, MA and FPs are significantly less abundant in spent fuels, the scale of the aqueous separation process could become reasonably small and result in less waste. For the chromatographic separation processes, we have prepared different types of porous silica-based organic/inorganic adsorbents with fast diffusion kinetics, improved chemical stability and low pressure drop in a packed column. So they are advantageously applicable to efficient separation of the actinides and FP elements from the fuel dissolved solution. In this work, adsorption and separation behavior of representative actinides and FP elements was studied. Small scale separation tests using simulated and genuine fuel dissolved solutions were carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed process. (authors)

  8. High temperature stable Li-ion battery separators based on polyetherimides with improved electrolyte compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    l'Abee, Roy; DaRosa, Fabien; Armstrong, Mark J.; Hantel, Moritz M.; Mourzagh, Djamel

    2017-03-01

    We report (electro-)chemically stable, high temperature resistant and fast wetting Li-ion battery separators produced through a phase inversion process using novel polyetherimides (PEI) based on bisphenol-aceton diphthalic anhydride (BPADA) and para-phenylenediamine (pPD). In contrast to previous studies using PEI based on BPADA and meta-phenylenediamine (mPD), the separators reported herein show limited swelling in electrolytes and do not require fillers to render sufficient mechanical strength and ionic conductivity. In this work, the produced 15-25 μm thick PEI-pPD separators show excellent electrolyte compatibility, proven by low degrees of swelling in electrolyte solvents, low contact angles, fast electrolyte wicking and high electrolyte uptake. The separators cover a tunable range of morphologies and properties, leading to a wide range of ionic conductivities as studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) demonstrated dimensional stability up to 220 °C. Finally, single layer graphite/lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) pouch cells were assembled using this novel PEI-pPD separator, showing an excellent capacity retention of 89.3% after 1000 1C/2C cycles, with a mean Coulombic efficiency of 99.77% and limited resistance build-up. We conclude that PEI-pPD is a promising new material candidate for high performance separators.

  9. Clustering Algorithm for Unsupervised Monaural Musical Sound Separation Based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Ha; Lee, Seokjin; Sung, Koeng-Mo

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is widely used for monaural musical sound source separation because of its efficiency and good performance. However, an additional clustering process is required because the musical sound mixture is separated into more signals than the number of musical tracks during NMF separation. In the conventional method, manual clustering or training-based clustering is performed with an additional learning process. Recently, a clustering algorithm based on the mel-frequency cepstrum coefficient (MFCC) was proposed for unsupervised clustering. However, MFCC clustering supplies limited information for clustering. In this paper, we propose various timbre features for unsupervised clustering and a clustering algorithm with these features. Simulation experiments are carried out using various musical sound mixtures. The results indicate that the proposed method improves clustering performance, as compared to conventional MFCC-based clustering.

  10. Recent developments in membrane-based separations in biotechnology processes: review.

    PubMed

    Rathore, A S; Shirke, A

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-based separations are the most ubiquitous unit operations in biotech processes. There are several key reasons for this. First, they can be used with a large variety of applications including clarification, concentration, buffer exchange, purification, and sterilization. Second, they are available in a variety of formats, such as depth filtration, ultrafiltration, diafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and microfiltration. Third, they are simple to operate and are generally robust toward normal variations in feed material and operating parameters. Fourth, membrane-based separations typically require lower capital cost when compared to other processing options. As a result of these advantages, a typical biotech process has anywhere from 10 to 20 membrane-based separation steps. In this article we review the major developments that have occurred on this topic with a focus on developments in the last 5 years.

  11. Modification of the murakami retention model in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for micellar chromatographic separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginova, L. P.; Boichenko, A. P.; Kulikov, A. Yu.

    2008-09-01

    A retention model for micellar liquid chromatography was tested based on the data of separation of three benzodiazepins and six β-blockers. The model was obtained by analyzing changes in the microenvironment of a sorbate in transferring from the mobile to stationary phase. It can be used to describe the retention of benzodiazepins, which are neutral under the separation conditions, and the positively charged β-blockers. The calculated model coefficients are indicative of an increase in the number of 1-pentanol molecules and sodium dodecyl sulfate monomers in the microenvironment of the sorbates in transferring from the mobile to stationary phase. The solvation of the positive β-blockers by anionic surfactant monomers was higher than that of neutral benzodiazepins.

  12. Separation behavior of electron-beam curing derived, acrylate-based monoliths.

    PubMed

    Bandari, Rajendar; Elsner, Christian; Knolle, Wolfgang; Kühnel, Christa; Decker, Ulrich; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2007-11-01

    Electron beam (EB) curing-derived monolith materials were prepared from ethyl methacrylate (EMA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), 2-propanol, 1-dodecanol, and toluene within the confines of 3 mmx100 mm id glass columns, applying a total dose of 22 kGy for curing. Monolithic columns were checked for their separation behavior for selected dansylated (DNS)-amino acids as well as for cyclophilin 18. Their separation performance was compared to that of a C18-modified silica-based rigid rod (Chromoliths). In the separation of dansylated amino acids, retention times were reduced on EB-derived columns, where the peak resolution was significantly better than on a Chromolith. This finding was attributed to a larger fraction of small pores (<2.15 nm) in the EB curing-derived monoliths. Finally, EB curing-derived monoliths have been used to separate cyclophilin 18 from crude cell lysis mixtures.

  13. Separation of soybean isoflavone aglycone homologues by ionic liquid-based extraction.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yifeng; Xing, Huabin; Yang, Qiwei; Bao, Zongbi; Su, Baogen; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2012-04-04

    The separation of a compound of interest from its structurally similar homologues is an important and challenging problem in producing high-purity natural products, such as the separation of genistein from other soybean isoflavone aglycone (SIA) homologues. The present work provided a novel method for separating genistein from its structurally similar homologues by ionic liquid (IL)-based liquid-liquid extraction using hydrophobic IL-water or hydrophilic IL/water-ethyl acetate biphasic systems. Factors that influence the distribution equilibrium of SIAs, including the structure and concentration of IL, pH value of the aqueous phase, and temperature, were investigated. Adequate distribution coefficients and selectivities over 7.0 were achieved with hydrophilic IL/water-ethyl acetate biphasic system. Through a laboratory-scale simulation of fractional extraction process containing four extraction stages and four scrubbing stages, genistein was separated from the SIA homologues with a purity of 95.3% and a recovery >90%.

  14. Carbon dioxide (hydrogen sulfide) membrane separations and WGS membrane reactor modeling for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin

    Acid-gas removal is of great importance in many environmental or energy-related processes. Compared to current commercial technologies, membrane-based CO2 and H2S capture has the advantages of low energy consumption, low weight and space requirement, simplicity of installation/operation, and high process flexibility. However, the large-scale application of the membrane separation technology is limited by the relatively low transport properties. In this study, CO2 (H2S)-selective polymeric membranes with high permeability and high selectivity have been studied based on the facilitated transport mechanism. The membrane showed facilitated effect for both CO2 and H2S. A CO2 permeability of above 2000 Barrers, a CO2/H2 selectivity of greater than 40, and a CO2/N2 selectivity of greater than 200 at 100--150°C were observed. As a result of higher reaction rate and smaller diffusing compound, the H2S permeability and H2S/H2 selectivity were about three times higher than those properties for CO2. The novel CO2-selective membrane has been applied to capture CO 2 from flue gas and natural gas. In the CO2 capture experiments from a gas mixture with N2 and H2, a permeate CO 2 dry concentration of greater than 98% was obtained by using steam as the sweep gas. In CO2/CH4 separation, decent CO 2 transport properties were obtained with a feed pressure up to 500 psia. With the thin-film composite membrane structure, significant increase on the CO2 flux was achieved with the decrease of the selective layer thickness. With the continuous removal of CO2, CO2-selective water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor is a promising approach to enhance CO conversion and increase the purity of H2 at process pressure under relatively low temperature. The simultaneous reaction and transport process in the countercurrent WGS membrane reactor was simulated by using a one-dimensional non-isothermal model. The modeling results show that a CO concentration of less than 10 ppm and a H2 recovery of greater

  15. Evaluation of the Sensitivity of Two-Phase Flow Model for the Steam Separator Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michio Murase; Masao Chaki

    2006-07-01

    Reducing of the pressure losses of steam separator systems of boiling water reactor (BWR) plants is useful to reduce the required pump head and enhance core stability design margin. The need to reduce the pressure losses of steam separator systems is especially important in BWR plants that have high power density cores and natural circulation systems. The core flow rate of a BWR plant with a natural circulation system is affected by the pressure losses of steam separator systems. In BWR plants with high power density cores, the core stability design margin is affected by these pressure losses. Generally, reducing the pressure losses of the steam separator systems leads to increased carry-under and carryover. Reducing the pressure losses while keeping the characteristics of both carry-under and carryover is desired, so many studies have been done. The steam separator of a BWR plant consists of a standpipe section, a swirl vane section and three-barrel sections. Two-phase flow of steam and water enters the steam separator through the standpipe section and reaches the swirl vane section. In the swirl vane section, the two-phase flow is given centrifugal force and is basically separated into steam and water. Therefore investigating the two-phase flow characteristics of the swirl vane section is very important. After the swirl vane section, the two-phase flow enters the barrel sections. Each barrel has a pick-off ring. The water in the barrel section is mainly removed by these pick-off rings because the water mainly flows upward as a liquid film in the barrel section due to the centrifugal force given in the swirl vane section. We researched the effect of using the drag force model of the swirling two-phase flow in analyzing a steam separator and we found that the drag force model greatly affects the results of the analysis. (authors)

  16. Microfluidic Separation of Circulating Tumor Cells Based on Size and Deformability.

    PubMed

    Park, Emily S; Duffy, Simon P; Ma, Hongshen

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been implicated as the seeds of cancer metastasis and therefore have the potential to provide significant prognostic and diagnostic values. Here, we describe a procedure for separating CTCs from whole blood based on size and deformability using the microfluidic ratchet device. This device leverages the ratcheting motion of single cells created as they are deformed through funnel-shaped constrictions using oscillatory flow in order to divert cells based on differences in size and deformability. Subsequent methods for CTC identification and enumeration using immunofluorescence after separation are also described.

  17. Extraction-Separation Performance and Dynamic Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with Adams Simulation: 2nd Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Anderson, Keith; Varela, Jose G.; Bernatovich, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project has advanced into the third generation of its parachute test campaign and requires technically comprehensive modeling capabilities to simulate multi-body dynamics (MBD) of test articles released from a C-17. Safely extracting a 30,000 lbm mated test article from a C-17 and performing stable mid-air separation maneuvers requires an understanding of the interaction between elements in the test configuration and how they are influenced by extraction parachute performance, aircraft dynamics, aerodynamics, separation dynamics, and kinetic energy experienced by the system. During the real-time extraction and deployment sequences, these influences can be highly unsteady and difficult to bound. An avionics logic window based on time, pitch, and pitch rate is used to account for these effects and target a favorable separation state in real time. The Adams simulation has been employed to fine-tune this window, as well as predict and reconstruct the coupled dynamics of the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV) and Cradle Platform Separation System (CPSS) from aircraft extraction through the mid-air separation event. The test-technique for the extraction of CPAS test articles has evolved with increased complexity and requires new modeling concepts to ensure the test article is delivered to a stable test condition for the programmer phase. Prompted by unexpected dynamics and hardware malfunctions in drop tests, these modeling improvements provide a more accurate loads prediction by incorporating a spring-damper line-model derived from the material properties. The qualification phase of CPAS testing is on the horizon and modeling increasingly complex test-techniques with Adams is vital to successfully qualify the Orion parachute system for human spaceflight.

  18. Performance analysis of a microfluidic mixer based on high gradient magnetic separation principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengyu; Han, Xiaotao; Cao, Quanliang; Li, Liang

    2017-09-01

    To achieve a rapid mixing between a water-based ferrofluid and DI water in a microfluidic environment, a magnetically actuated mixing system based on high gradient magnetic separation principles is proposed in this work. The microfluidic system consists of a T-shaped mirochannel and an array of integrated soft-magnetic elements at the sidewall of the channel. With the aid of an external magnetic bias field, these elements are magnetized to produce a magnetic volume force acting on the fluids containing magnetic nanoparticles, and then to induce additional flows for improving the mixing performance. The mixing process is numerically investigated through analyzing the concentration distribution of magnetic nanoparticles using a coupled particle-fluid transport model, and mixing performances under different parametrical conditions are investigated in detail. Numerical results show that a high mixing efficiency around 97.5% can be achieved within 2 s under an inlet flow rate of 1 mm s-1 and a relatively low magnetic bias field of 50 mT. Meanwhile, it has been found that there is an optimum number of magnetic elements used for obtaining the best mixing performance. These results show the potential of the proposed mixing method in lab-on-a-chip system and could be helpful in designing and optimizing system performance.

  19. A new model of repulsive force in eddy current separation for recovering waste toner cartridges.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jujun; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-08-15

    Eddy current separation (ECS) is an efficient method for separating aluminum from plastic in crushed waste toner cartridge (TCs). However, in China, ECS quality of aluminum from plastic is rather low in production practice. Repeating separation even manual sorting is required in the production. Improving separation quality of aluminum has been the pressing problem in the recovery of waste TCs. Furthermore, improving ECS quality can reduce the secondary-pollution (furan and dioxin) brought by plastic in later smelting process for the purification of recovered aluminum. Thus, a new model of repulsive force containing impact factors (machine: B(r), k, R, S(m), B(m); material: S(p), V, γ; and operation: ω(m), v, δ) of the separation process was constructed for guiding the ECS process of waste TCs recovering in this paper. For testing whether the model of repulsive force was suitable to guide the ECS, calculation and experiment of detachment angle of aluminum flake were studied. The calculation results of the detachment angles were agreed with the testing experiment. It indicates that the model is suitable for guiding the ECS of waste TCs recovering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Status of Safeguards and Separations Model Development at Plant and Molecular Levels

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F; Hay, Benjamin; DePaoli, David W

    2009-10-01

    A primary goal of the Safeguards and Separations IPSC effort is the development of process modeling tools that allow dynamic simulations of separations plant operations under various configurations and conditions, and integration of relevant safeguards analyses. A requirement of the effort is to develop codes on modern, expandable architectures, with flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options. During FY09, efforts at ORNL have been focused on two priority tasks toward achieving the IPSC goal: (1) a top-down exploration of architecture - Subtask 1: Explore framework for code development and integration for plant-level simulation; and (2) a bottom-up fundamental modeling effort - Subtask 2: Development of molecular-level agent design code. Subtask 1 is important because definition and development of architecture is a key issue for the overall effort, as selection of an overall approach and code/data requirements is a necessary first step in the organization, design and development of separations and safeguards codes that will be incorporated. The agent design effort of Subtask 2 is a molecular-level modeling effort that has a direct impact on a near-term issue of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. A current focus of experimental efforts is the development of robust agents and processes for separation of Am/Cm. Development of enhanced agent-design codes will greatly accelerate discovery and experimental testing.

  1. Continuous-flow separation of live and dead yeasts using reservoir-based dielectrophoresis (rDEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Saurin; Showers, Daniel; Vedantam, Pallavi; Tzeng, Tzuen-Rong; Qian, Shizhi; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2012-11-01

    Separating live and dead cells is critical to the diagnosis of early stage diseases and to the efficacy test of drug screening etc. We develop a novel microfluidic approach to continuous separation of yeast cells by viability inside a reservoir. It exploits the cell dielectrophoresis that is induced by the inherent electric field gradient at the reservoir-microchannel junction to selectively trap dead yeasts and continuously sort them from live ones. We term this approach reservoir-based dielectrophoresis (rDEP). The transporting, focusing, and trapping of live and dead yeast cells at the reservoir-microchannel junction are studied separately by varying the DC-biased AC electric fields. These phenomena can all be reasonably predicted by a 2D numerical model. We find that the AC to DC field ratio for live yeast trapping is higher than that for dead cells because the former experiences a weaker rDEP while having a larger electrokinetic mobility. It is this difference in the AC to DC field ratio that enables the viability-based yeast cell separation. The rDEP approach has unique advantages over existing DEP-based techniques such as the occupation of zero channel space and the elimination of in-channel mechanical or electrical parts. NSF

  2. Dynamic control of protein conformation transition in chromatographic separation based on hydrophobic interactions: molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Lu, Diannan; Liu, Zheng

    2009-03-20

    Conformational transitions of a protein in hydrophobic interaction based chromatography, including hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), and their impact on the separation process and performance were probed by molecular dynamics simulation of a 46-bead beta-barrel coarse-grained model protein in a confined pore, which represents the porous adsorbent. The transition of the adsorbed protein from the native conformation to an unfolded one occurred as a result of strong hydrophobic interactions with the pore surface, which reduced the formation of protein aggregates. The conformational transition was also displayed in the simulation once an elution buffer characterized by weaker hydrophobicity was introduced to strip protein from pore surface. The discharged proteins that underwent conformational transition were prone to aggregation; thus, an unsatisfactory yield of the native protein was obtained. An orthogonal experiment revealed that in addition to the strengths of the protein-protein and protein-adsorbent hydrophobic interactions, the elution time required to reduce the above-mentioned interactions also determined the yield of native protein by HIC and RPLC. Stepwise elution, characterized by sequential reduction of the hydrophobic interactions between the protein and adsorbent, was presented as a dynamic strategy for tuning conformational transitions to favor the native conformation and reduce the formation of protein aggregates during the elution process. The yield of the native protein obtained by this dynamic operation strategy was higher than that obtained by steady-state elution. The simulation study qualitatively reproduced the experimental observations and provided molecular insight that would be helpful for designing and optimizing HIC and RPLC separation of proteins.

  3. Model based manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using model based control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The model-based control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.

  4. Analysis of Extensive Cross-Flow Separation using Higher-Order RANS Closure Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morison, J. H.; Panaras, A. G.; Gatski, T. B.; Georgantopoulos, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    The turbulent flow fields associated with the incompressible flow over a 6:1 prolate spheroid at high angle of attack, and the supersonic flow over an ogive cylinder are studied. Both these flows are characterized by large separation and vortical flow regions and therefore provide a challenging database for comparison of turbulent closure models. Of interest is the ability to predict the effects of separation and associated vortical motion common to both flows. Two turbulent models are investigated that each represent the class of linear eddy-viscosity models (LEVMs) and explicit algebraic stress models (EASMs). Since the EASM accounts for anisotropic effects, the in- fluence of these effects on flow field predictions can be assessed. The EASM model is shown to both improve the separation location prediction and pressure trough under the secondary vortex on the 6:1 prolate spheroid at high angle of attack and high Reynolds number, and improve the prediction of the separation location on a supersonic ogive cylinder.

  5. Heat-Flow-Driven Oligonucleotide Gelation Separates Single-Base Differences.

    PubMed

    Morasch, Matthias; Braun, Dieter; Mast, Christof B

    2016-06-01

    DNA phase transitions are often induced by the addition of condensation agents or by dry concentration. Herein, we show that the non-equilibrium setting of a moderate heat flow across a water-filled chamber separates and gelates DNA strands with single-base resolution. A dilute mix of DNA with two slightly different gel-forming sequences separates into sequence-pure hydrogels under constant physiological solvent conditions. A single base change in a 36 mer DNA inhibits gelation. Only sequences with the ability to form longer strands are concentrated, further elongated, and finally gelated by length-dependent thermal trapping. No condensation agents, such as multivalent ions, were added. Equilibrium aggregates from dry concentration did not show any sequence separation. RNA is expected to behave identically owing to its equal thermophoretic properties. The highly sequence-specific phase transition points towards new possibilities for non-equilibrium origins of life.

  6. A novel viscoelastic-based ferrofluid for continuous sheathless microfluidic separation of nonmagnetic microparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yan, Sheng; Yuan, Dan; Zhao, Qianbin; Tan, Say Hwa; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Li, Weihua

    2016-10-05

    Separation of microparticles has found broad applications in biomedicine, industry and clinical diagnosis. In a conventional aqueous ferrofluid, separation of microparticles usually employs a sheath flow or two offset magnets to confine particle streams for downstream particle sorting. This complicates the fluid control, device fabrication, and dilutes the particle sample. In this work, we propose and develop a novel viscoelastic ferrofluid by replacing the Newtonian base medium of the conventional ferrofluid with non-Newtonian poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) aqueous solution. The properties of both viscoelastic 3D focusing and negative magnetophoresis of the viscoelastic ferrofluid were verified and investigated. By employing the both properties in a serial manner, continuous and sheathless separation of nonmagnetic particles based on particle size has been demonstrated. This novel viscoelastic ferrofluid is expected to bring more flexibility and versatility to the design and functionality in microfluidic devices.

  7. An innovative device for powders classification based on combined aerodynamic and electrostatic separation of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piriou, Bruno; Mayer-Laigle, Claire; Maalel, Firas; Plissot, Jorys; Rouau, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    An innovative separator have been developed which aims at sorting out powders fractions according to aerodynamic and electrostatic properties of particles. The prototype is composed of a projection unit, a separation module and a classification/collection zone. The projection part is ensured by a pressurized gun. The separation module is conceived to disperse particles according to front and transverse directions. At the output of the gun, electrodes can be disposed to deviate the trajectory of charged particles. The classification part is made of a series of collecting bins. Starch, fine ash powders, and mixtures of these two materials were used to test the working of the separator. The efficiency of the separation was assessed by yields and particle sizes distribution of the collected fractions in the different bins. An aerodynamic classification was achieved along the main axis, with the finest particles crossing larger distances. With a blend of starch and ash, particles from both materials were unevenly distributed in the classifyier, opening the way to a possible separation based simply on aerodynamic properties. When an electric deviation was applied in addition to the projection of powders, the distribution of particles in the collecting part was modified.

  8. Theoretical Basis for the Separation of W and Mo with Manganese Dioxide: A Speciation-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yunfeng; Chen, Xingyu; Zhao, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jialiang; He, Lihua

    2016-02-01

    The separation of W and Mo has been a technical problem in extractive metallurgy. It is known that manganese nodule (mainly manganese oxides) can adsorb W efficiently in the thalassochemistry; if there exists a difference between the adsorption behaviors of W and Mo onto manganese dioxide, then W/Mo separation may be achieved using manganese dioxide. In this paper, the adsorption characteristics of W and Mo onto ``nascent'' manganese dioxide were studied under different pH, ionic strength, and different concentration. The results showed that the adsorption of W onto manganese dioxide was higher than Mo both in single-sorbate solution and mixed solution. Besides, ionic strength had no impact on the W and Mo adsorption, while pH significantly affected the W and Mo adsorption. The adsorption of W followed the Freundlich isotherm, indicating that the surface of manganese dioxide was heterogeneous. Speciation-based model was developed to describe the W and Mo adsorption onto manganese dioxide. This model can be well applicable for describing the adsorption behavior of W and Mo in a wide pH range of 2 to 12 and a wide surface loading range. Besides, the optimum pH range of W/Mo separation in mixed solution predicted by this model was 6 to 6.5, which agrees well with the experimental results, and the separation factor achieved the maximum value 7 at this optimum pH range. Such model offers an important insight into the adsorption mechanism of W and Mo onto manganese dioxide, and lays a theoretical foundation for the process of separating W and Mo with manganese dioxide.

  9. Spatial memory-related brain activity in normally reared and different maternal separation models in rats.

    PubMed

    Banqueri, María; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L

    2017-09-08

    Early life stress comprises a wide range of adverse events that can occur in the subject's early developmental stages: from child abuse to rodent repeated maternal separation models. This study used young adult male Wistar rats that were maternally raised (AFR), maternally separated from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND10 (MS10), or maternally separated from PND1 to PND21 (MS21), to assess the effects of maternal separation on spatial learning and memory using the Morris Water Maze (MWM). We also performed quantitative cytochrome oxidase (COx) histochemistry on some selected brain areas in order to find out whether maternal separation affects brain energy metabolism. We obtained a similar spatial learning pattern in maternally raised and maternally separated subjects, with MS10 showing faster acquisition; however, different brain networks with different energy consumptions were used by each group. MS10 spent more energy to get the same behavioral outputs, whereas MS21 resembled AFR more in term of energy demands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling of ion transport through a porous separator in vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Wei, L.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we develop a two-dimensional, transient model to investigate the mechanisms of ion-transport through a porous separator in VRFBs and their effects on battery performance. Commercial-available separators with pore sizes of around 45 nm are particularly investigated and effects of key separator design parameters and operation modes are explored. We reveal that: i) the transport mechanism of vanadium-ion crossover through available separators is predominated by convection; ii) reducing the pore size below 15 nm effectively minimizes the convection-driven vanadium-ion crossover, while further reduction in migration- and diffusion-driven vanadium-ion crossover can be achieved only when the pore size is reduced to the level close to the sizes of vanadium ions; and iii) operation modes that can affect the pressure at the separator/electrode interface, such as the electrolyte flow rate, exert a significant influence on the vanadium-ion crossover rate through the available separators, indicating that it is critically important to equalize the pressure on each half-cell of a power pack in practical applications.

  11. Charge- and size-based separation of macromolecules using ultrathin silicon membranes.

    PubMed

    Striemer, Christopher C; Gaborski, Thomas R; McGrath, James L; Fauchet, Philippe M

    2007-02-15

    Commercial ultrafiltration and dialysis membranes have broad pore size distributions and are over 1,000 times thicker than the molecules they are designed to separate, leading to poor size cut-off properties, filtrate loss within the membranes, and low transport rates. Nanofabricated membranes have great potential in molecular separation applications by offering more precise structural control, yet transport is also limited by micrometre-scale thicknesses. This limitation can be addressed by a new class of ultrathin nanostructured membranes where the membrane is roughly as thick (approximately 10 nm) as the molecules being separated, but membrane fragility and complex fabrication have prevented the use of ultrathin membranes for molecular separations. Here we report the development of an ultrathin porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si) membrane using straightforward silicon fabrication techniques that provide control over average pore sizes from approximately 5 nm to 25 nm. Our pnc-Si membranes can retain proteins while permitting the transport of small molecules at rates an order of magnitude faster than existing materials, separate differently sized proteins under physiological conditions, and separate similarly sized molecules carrying different charges. Despite being only 15 nm thick, pnc-Si membranes that are free-standing over 40,000 microm2 can support a full atmosphere of differential pressure without plastic deformation or fracture. By providing efficient, low-loss macromolecule separations, pnc-Si membranes are expected to enable a variety of new devices, including membrane-based chromatography systems and both analytical and preparative microfluidic systems that require highly efficient separations.

  12. Charge- and size-based separation of macromolecules using ultrathin silicon membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striemer, Christopher C.; Gaborski, Thomas R.; McGrath, James L.; Fauchet, Philippe M.

    2007-02-01

    Commercial ultrafiltration and dialysis membranes have broad pore size distributions and are over 1,000 times thicker than the molecules they are designed to separate, leading to poor size cut-off properties, filtrate loss within the membranes, and low transport rates. Nanofabricated membranes have great potential in molecular separation applications by offering more precise structural control, yet transport is also limited by micrometre-scale thicknesses. This limitation can be addressed by a new class of ultrathin nanostructured membranes where the membrane is roughly as thick (~10nm) as the molecules being separated, but membrane fragility and complex fabrication have prevented the use of ultrathin membranes for molecular separations. Here we report the development of an ultrathin porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si) membrane using straightforward silicon fabrication techniques that provide control over average pore sizes from approximately 5nm to 25nm. Our pnc-Si membranes can retain proteins while permitting the transport of small molecules at rates an order of magnitude faster than existing materials, separate differently sized proteins under physiological conditions, and separate similarly sized molecules carrying different charges. Despite being only 15nm thick, pnc-Si membranes that are free-standing over 40,000μm2 can support a full atmosphere of differential pressure without plastic deformation or fracture. By providing efficient, low-loss macromolecule separations, pnc-Si membranes are expected to enable a variety of new devices, including membrane-based chromatography systems and both analytical and preparative microfluidic systems that require highly efficient separations.

  13. Planning for System Improvement in the Metropolitan Separate School Board: The School Review Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Separate School Board, Toronto (Ontario).

    The school review model is used by the Metropolitan Separate School Board of Toronto (Ontario) to determine, in a positive and supportive manner, the extent to which policies, procedures, and practices have been implemented in the local schools to achieve the Board's goals and objectives. The following areas are reviewed: (1) the Catholic school…

  14. A fracture mechanics study of the phase separating planar electrodes: Phase field modeling and analytical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haftbaradaran, H.; Maddahian, A.; Mossaiby, F.

    2017-05-01

    It is well known that phase separation could severely intensify mechanical degradation and expedite capacity fading in lithium-ion battery electrodes during electrochemical cycling. Experiments have frequently revealed that such degradation effects could be substantially mitigated via reducing the electrode feature size to the nanoscale. The purpose of this work is to present a fracture mechanics study of the phase separating planar electrodes. To this end, a phase field model is utilized to predict how phase separation affects evolution of the solute distribution and stress profile in a planar electrode. Behavior of the preexisting flaws in the electrode in response to the diffusion induced stresses is then examined via computing the time dependent stress intensity factor arising at the tip of flaws during both the insertion and extraction half-cycles. Further, adopting a sharp-interphase approximation of the system, a critical electrode thickness is derived below which the phase separating electrode becomes flaw tolerant. Numerical results of the phase field model are also compared against analytical predictions of the sharp-interphase model. The results are further discussed with reference to the available experiments in the literature. Finally, some of the limitations of the model are cautioned.

  15. Separable Transition Density in the Hybrid Model for Tumor-Immune System Competition

    PubMed Central

    Cattani, Carlo; Ciancio, Armando

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid model, on the competition tumor cells immune system, is studied under suitable hypotheses. The explicit form for the equations is obtained in the case where the density function of transition is expressed as the product of separable functions. A concrete application is given starting from a modified Lotka-Volterra system of equations. PMID:22291853

  16. Factors influencing separation distances against odour annoyance calculated by Gaussian and Lagrangian dispersion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piringer, Martin; Knauder, Werner; Petz, Erwin; Schauberger, Günther

    2016-09-01

    Direction-dependent separation distances to avoid odour annoyance, calculated with the Gaussian Austrian Odour Dispersion Model AODM and the Lagrangian particle diffusion model LASAT at two sites, are analysed and compared. The relevant short-term peak odour concentrations are calculated with a stability-dependent peak-to-mean algorithm. The same emission and meteorological data, but model-specific atmospheric stability classes are used. The estimate of atmospheric stability is obtained from three-axis ultrasonic anemometers using the standard deviations of the three wind components and the Obukhov stability parameter. The results are demonstrated for the Austrian villages Reidling and Weissbach with very different topographical surroundings and meteorological conditions. Both the differences in the wind and stability regimes as well as the decrease of the peak-to-mean factors with distance lead to deviations in the separation distances between the two sites. The Lagrangian model, due to its model physics, generally calculates larger separation distances. For worst-case calculations necessary with environmental impact assessment studies, the use of a Lagrangian model is therefore to be preferred over that of a Gaussian model. The study and findings relate to the Austrian odour impact criteria.

  17. Modifications of the law of the wall and algebraic turbulence modelling for separated boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, B. S.; Maccormack, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Various modifications of the conventional algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model are investigated for application to separated flows. Friction velocity is defined in a way that avoids singular behavior at separation and reattachment but reverts to the conventional definition for flows with small pressure gradients. This leads to a modified law of the wall for separated flows. The effect on the calculated flow field of changes in the model that affect the eddy viscosity at various distances from the wall are determined by (1) switching from Prandtl's form to an inner layer formula due to Clauser at various distances from the wall, (2) varying the constant in the Van Driest damping factor, (3) using Clauser's inner layer formula all the way to the wall, and (4) applying a relaxation procedure in the evaluation of the constant in Clauser's inner layer formula. Numerical solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to determine the effects of the modifications. Experimental results from shock-induced separated flows at Mach numbers 2.93 and 8.45 are used for comparison. For these cases improved predictions of wall pressure distribution and positions of separation and reattachment are obtained from the relaxation version of the Clauser inner layer eddy viscosity formula.

  18. Integrated separation of blood plasma from whole blood for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Brown, Theodore P; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2012-01-21

    Many diagnostic tests in a conventional clinical laboratory are performed on blood plasma because changes in its composition often reflect the current status of pathological processes throughout the body. Recently, a significant research effort has been invested into the development of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) implementing these conventional laboratory tests for point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings. This paper describes the use of red blood cell (RBC) agglutination for separating plasma from finger-prick volumes of whole blood directly in paper, and demonstrates the utility of this approach by integrating plasma separation and a colorimetric assay in a single μPAD. The μPAD was fabricated by printing its pattern onto chromatography paper with a solid ink (wax) printer and melting the ink to create hydrophobic barriers spanning through the entire thickness of the paper substrate. The μPAD was functionalized by spotting agglutinating antibodies onto the plasma separation zone in the center and the reagents of the colorimetric assay onto the test readout zones on the periphery of the device. To operate the μPAD, a drop of whole blood was placed directly onto the plasma separation zone of the device. RBCs in the whole blood sample agglutinated and remained in the central zone, while separated plasma wicked through the paper substrate into the test readout zones where analyte in plasma reacted with the reagents of the colorimetric assay to produce a visible color change. The color change was digitized with a portable scanner and converted to concentration values using a calibration curve. The purity and yield of separated plasma was sufficient for successful operation of the μPAD. This approach to plasma separation based on RBC agglutination will be particularly useful for designing fully integrated μPADs operating directly on small samples of whole blood.

  19. Dip-separated structural filtering using seislet transform and adaptive empirical mode decomposition based dip filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangkang

    2016-07-01

    The seislet transform has been demonstrated to have a better compression performance for seismic data compared with other well-known sparsity promoting transforms, thus it can be used to remove random noise by simply applying a thresholding operator in the seislet domain. Since the seislet transform compresses the seismic data along the local structures, the seislet thresholding can be viewed as a simple structural filtering approach. Because of the dependence on a precise local slope estimation, the seislet transform usually suffers from low compression ratio and high reconstruction error for seismic profiles that have dip conflicts. In order to remove the limitation of seislet thresholding in dealing with conflicting-dip data, I propose a dip-separated filtering strategy. In this method, I first use an adaptive empirical mode decomposition based dip filter to separate the seismic data into several dip bands (5 or 6). Next, I apply seislet thresholding to each separated dip component to remove random noise. Then I combine all the denoised components to form the final denoised data. Compared with other dip filters, the empirical mode decomposition based dip filter is data-adaptive. One only needs to specify the number of dip components to be separated. Both complicated synthetic and field data examples show superior performance of my proposed approach than the traditional alternatives. The dip-separated structural filtering is not limited to seislet thresholding, and can also be extended to all those methods that require slope information.

  20. Separation of nuclear isomers for cancer therapeutic radionuclides based on nuclear decay after-effects.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, R; van der Meer, A; Das, S K; de Bruin, M; Gascon, J; Wolterbeek, H T; Denkova, A G; Serra-Crespo, P

    2017-03-13

    (177)Lu has sprung as a promising radionuclide for targeted therapy. The low soft tissue penetration of its β(-) emission results in very efficient energy deposition in small-size tumours. Because of this, (177)Lu is used in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours and is also clinically approved for prostate cancer therapy. In this work, we report a separation method that achieves the challenging separation of the physically and chemically identical nuclear isomers, (177m)Lu and (177)Lu. The separation method combines the nuclear after-effects of the nuclear decay, the use of a very stable chemical complex and a chromatographic separation. Based on this separation concept, a new type of radionuclide generator has been devised, in which the parent and the daughter radionuclides are the same elements. The (177m)Lu/(177)Lu radionuclide generator provides a new production route for the therapeutic radionuclide (177)Lu and can bring significant growth in the research and development of (177)Lu based pharmaceuticals.

  1. Separation of nuclear isomers for cancer therapeutic radionuclides based on nuclear decay after-effects

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, R.; van der Meer, A.; Das, S. K.; de Bruin, M.; Gascon, J.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Denkova, A. G.; Serra-Crespo, P.

    2017-01-01

    177Lu has sprung as a promising radionuclide for targeted therapy. The low soft tissue penetration of its β− emission results in very efficient energy deposition in small-size tumours. Because of this, 177Lu is used in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours and is also clinically approved for prostate cancer therapy. In this work, we report a separation method that achieves the challenging separation of the physically and chemically identical nuclear isomers, 177mLu and 177Lu. The separation method combines the nuclear after-effects of the nuclear decay, the use of a very stable chemical complex and a chromatographic separation. Based on this separation concept, a new type of radionuclide generator has been devised, in which the parent and the daughter radionuclides are the same elements. The 177mLu/177Lu radionuclide generator provides a new production route for the therapeutic radionuclide 177Lu and can bring significant growth in the research and development of 177Lu based pharmaceuticals. PMID:28287131

  2. Separation of nuclear isomers for cancer therapeutic radionuclides based on nuclear decay after-effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, R.; van der Meer, A.; Das, S. K.; de Bruin, M.; Gascon, J.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Denkova, A. G.; Serra-Crespo, P.

    2017-03-01

    177Lu has sprung as a promising radionuclide for targeted therapy. The low soft tissue penetration of its β‑ emission results in very efficient energy deposition in small-size tumours. Because of this, 177Lu is used in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours and is also clinically approved for prostate cancer therapy. In this work, we report a separation method that achieves the challenging separation of the physically and chemically identical nuclear isomers, 177mLu and 177Lu. The separation method combines the nuclear after-effects of the nuclear decay, the use of a very stable chemical complex and a chromatographic separation. Based on this separation concept, a new type of radionuclide generator has been devised, in which the parent and the daughter radionuclides are the same elements. The 177mLu/177Lu radionuclide generator provides a new production route for the therapeutic radionuclide 177Lu and can bring significant growth in the research and development of 177Lu based pharmaceuticals.

  3. Understanding sensitization behavior of lead selenide photoconductive detectors by charge separation model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lihua E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Weng, Binbin; Chang, Caleb; Yuan, Zijian; Shi, Zhisheng E-mail: shi@ou.edu

    2014-02-28

    We introduce a charge separation model in this work to explain the mechanism of enhanced photoconductivity of polycrystalline lead salt photoconductors. Our results show that this model could clarify the heuristic fabrication processes of such lead salt detectors that were not well understood and often considered mysterious for nearly a century. The improved lifetime and performance of the device, e.g., responsivity, are attributed to the spatial separation of holes and electrons, hence less possibility of carrier recombination. This model shows that in addition to crystal quality the size of crystallites, the depth of outer conversion layer, and doping concentration could all affect detector performance. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and thus offer a very useful tool for further improvement of lead salt detectors. The model was developed with lead salt family of photoconductors in mind, but may well be applicable to a wider class of semiconducting films.

  4. Cholinium-based supported ionic liquid membranes: a sustainable route for carbon dioxide separation.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Liliana C; Patinha, David J S; Ferreira, Rui; Garcia, Helga; Silva Pereira, Cristina; Freire, Carmen S R; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at full sustainability of CO2 separation processes, a series of supported ionic liquid membranes based on environmentally friendly cholinium carboxylate ionic liquids were successfully prepared. Their gas permeation properties were measured and high permselectivities were obtained for both CO2 /CH4 and CO2 /N2 .

  5. MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY: OPPORTUNITIES FOR POLYHEDRAL OLIGOMERIC SILSESQUIOXANES (POSS) IN MEMBRANE-BASED SEPARATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membrane Technology: Opportunities for Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS?) in Membrane-Based Separations

    Leland M. Vane, Ph.D.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    Office of Research & Development
    Cincinnati, OH 45268
    Vane.Leland@epa.gov

    A sign...

  6. Metal-organic framework-based separator for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Songyan; Liu, Xizheng; Zhu, Kai; Wu, Shichao; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are a promising energy-storage technology due to their relatively low cost and high theoretical energy density. However, one of their major technical problems is the shuttling of soluble polysulfides between electrodes, resulting in rapid capacity fading. Here, we present a metal-organic framework (MOF)-based battery separator to mitigate the shuttling problem. We show that the MOF-based separator acts as an ionic sieve in lithium-sulfur batteries, which selectively sieves Li+ ions while efficiently suppressing undesired polysulfides migrating to the anode side. When a sulfur-containing mesoporous carbon material (approximately 70 wt% sulfur content) is used as a cathode composite without elaborate synthesis or surface modification, a lithium-sulfur battery with a MOF-based separator exhibits a low capacity decay rate (0.019% per cycle over 1,500 cycles). Moreover, there is almost no capacity fading after the initial 100 cycles. Our approach demonstrates the potential for MOF-based materials as separators for energy-storage applications.

  7. BASEFLOW SEPARATION BASED ON ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF THE BOUSSINESQ EQUATION. (R824995)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A technique for baseflow separation is presented based on similarity solutions of the Boussinesq equation. The method makes use of the simplifying assumptions that a horizontal impermeable layer underlies a Dupuit aquifer which is drained by a fully penetratin...

  8. MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY: OPPORTUNITIES FOR POLYHEDRAL OLIGOMERIC SILSESQUIOXANES (POSS) IN MEMBRANE-BASED SEPARATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membrane Technology: Opportunities for Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS?) in Membrane-Based Separations

    Leland M. Vane, Ph.D.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    Office of Research & Development
    Cincinnati, OH 45268
    Vane.Leland@epa.gov

    A sign...

  9. FPGA-based real-time blind source separation with principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew; Meyer-Baese, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular technique in reducing the dimension of a large data set so that more informed conclusions can be made about the relationship between the values in the data set. Blind source separation (BSS) is one of the many applications of PCA, where it is used to separate linearly mixed signals into their source signals. This project attempts to implement a BSS system in hardware. Due to unique characteristics of hardware implementation, the Generalized Hebbian Algorithm (GHA), a learning network model, is used. The FPGA used to compile and test the system is the Altera Cyclone III EP3C120F780I7.

  10. Active control of massively separated high-speed/base flows with electric arc plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlauw, Bradley G.

    The current project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of electric arc plasma actuators on high-speed separated flows. Two underlying goals motivated these experiments. The first goal was to provide a flow control technique that will result in enhanced flight performance for supersonic vehicles by altering the near-wake characteristics. The second goal was to gain a broader and more sophisticated understanding of these complex, supersonic, massively-separated, compressible, and turbulent flow fields. The attainment of the proposed objectives was facilitated through energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges near the base corner separation point. The control authority of electric arc plasma actuators on a supersonic axisymmetric base flow was evaluated for several actuator geometries, frequencies, forcing modes, duty cycles/on-times, and currents. Initially, an electric arc plasma actuator power supply and control system were constructed to generate the arcs. Experiments were performed to evaluate the operational characteristics, electromagnetic emission, and fluidic effect of the actuators in quiescent ambient air. The maximum velocity induced by the arc when formed in a 5 mm x 1.6 mm x 2 mm deep cavity was about 40 m/s. During breakdown, the electromagnetic emission exhibited a rise and fall in intensity over a period of about 340 ns. After breakdown, the emission stabilized to a near-constant distribution. It was also observed that the plasma formed into two different modes: "high-voltage" and "low-voltage". It is believed that the plasma may be switching between an arc discharge and a glow discharge for these different modes. The two types of plasma do not appear to cause substantial differences on the induced fluidic effects of the actuator. In general, the characterization study provided a greater fundamental understanding of the operation of the actuators, as well as data for computational model comparison. Preliminary investigations

  11. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors and control based on simulation of high-purity heat integrated air separation column.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Liu, Xinggao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the dynamic behaviors on the basis of simulation for high-purity heat integrated air separation column (HIASC) are studied. A nonlinear generic model control (GMC) scheme is proposed based on the nonlinear behavior analyses of a HIASC process, and an adaptive generic model control (AGMC) scheme is further presented to correct the model parameters online. Related internal model control (IMC) scheme and multi-loop PID (M-PID) scheme are also developed as the comparative base. The comparative researches are carried out among these linear and nonlinear control schemes in detail. The simulation research results show that the proposed AGMC schemes present advantages in both servo control and regulatory control for the high-purity HIASC. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Audio video based fast fixed-point independent vector analysis for multisource separation in a room environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanfeng; Naqvi, Syed Mohsen; Chambers, Jonathon A.

    2012-12-01

    Fast fixed-point independent vector analysis (FastIVA) is an improved independent vector analysis (IVA) method, which can achieve faster and better separation performance than original IVA. As an example IVA method, it is designed to solve the permutation problem in frequency domain independent component analysis by retaining the higher order statistical dependency between frequencies during learning. However, the performance of all IVA methods is limited due to the dimensionality of the parameter space commonly encountered in practical frequency-domain source separation problems and the spherical symmetry assumed with the source model. In this article, a particular permutation problem encountered in using the FastIVA algorithm is highlighted, namely the block permutation problem. Therefore a new audio video based fast fixed-point independent vector analysis algorithm is proposed, which uses video information to provide a smart initialization for the optimization problem. The method cannot only avoid the ill convergence resulting from the block permutation problem but also improve the separation performance even in noisy and high reverberant environments. Different multisource datasets including the real audio video corpus AV16.3 are used to verify the proposed method. For the evaluation of the separation performance on real room recordings, a new pitch based evaluation criterion is also proposed.

  13. Metabonomics study of liver cancer based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with HILIC and RPLC separations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Wenzhao; Lv, Shen; Yin, Peiyuan; Zhao, Xinjie; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Fengxia; Xu, Guowang

    2009-09-14

    In this study, urinary metabolites from liver cancer patients and healthy volunteers were studied by a metabonomic method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Both hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) were used to separate the urinary metabolites. Principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares to latent structure-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were built to separate the healthy volunteers from the liver cancer patients and to find compounds that are expressed in significantly different amounts between the two populations. 21 metabolite ions were considered as potential biomarkers according to the Variable importance in the Project (VIP) value and S-plot. Compared with RPLC, a more sensitive and stable response can be recorded in HILIC mode due to the high content of organic solvent used. Moreover, the liver cancer group and the healthy volunteers can be better separated based on the data from the HILIC separation, which indicates that HILIC is suitable for urinary metabonomic analysis. In HILIC mode, several polar compounds related to arginine and proline metabolism, alanine and aspartate metabolism, lysine degradation, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism were found to be significantly changed in the concentrations of the two different populations: healthy and cancer. In contrast, in RPLC mode, these changed compounds are related to fatty acids oxidation.

  14. Support vector machines and kd-tree for separating quasars from large survey data bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dan; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2008-05-01

    We compare the performance of two automated classification algorithms, k-dimensional tree (kd-tree) and support vector machines (SVMs), to separate quasars from stars in the data bases of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) catalogues. The two algorithms are trained on subsets of SDSS and 2MASS objects whose nature is known via spectroscopy. We choose different attribute combination as input patterns to train the classifier using photometric data only and present the classification results obtained by these two methods. Performance metrics, such as precision and recall, true positive rate and true negative rate, F-measure, G-mean and Weighted Accuracy, are computed to evaluate the performance of the two algorithms. The study shows that both kd-tree and SVMs are effective automated algorithms to classify point sources. SVMs show slightly higher accuracy, but kd-tree requires less computation time. Given different input patterns based on various parameters (e.g. magnitudes, colour information), we conclude that both kd-tree and SVMs show better performance with fewer features. What is more, our results also indicate that the accuracy using the four colours (u - g,g - r,r - i and i - z) and r magnitude based on SDSS model magnitudes adds up to the highest value. The classifiers trained by kd-tree and SVMs can be used to solve the automated classification problems faced by the virtual observatory (VO); moreover, they can all be applied for the photometric preselection of quasar candidates for large survey projects in order to optimise the efficiency of telescopes.

  15. Performance Metrics for Depth-based Signal Separation Using Deep Vertical Line Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, John K.

    Vertical line arrays (VLAs) deployed below the critical depth in the deep ocean can exploit reliable acoustic path (RAP) propagation, which provides low transmission loss (TL) for targets at moderate ranges, and increased TL for distant interferers. However, sound from nearby surface interferers also undergoes RAP propagation, and without horizontal aperture, a VLA cannot separate these interferers from submerged targets. A recent publication by McCargar and Zurk (2013) addressed this issue, presenting a transform-based method for passive, depth-based separation of signals received on deep VLAs based on the depth-dependent modulation caused by the interference between the direct and surface-reflected acoustic arrivals. This thesis expands on that work by quantifying the transform-based depth estimation method performance in terms of the resolution and ambiguity in the depth estimate. Then, the depth discrimination performance is quantified in terms of the number of VLA elements.

  16. Computation of Separated and Unsteady Flows with One- and Two-Equation Turbulence Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekaterinaris, John A.; Menter, Florian R.

    1994-01-01

    The ability of one- and two-equation turbulence models to predict unsteady separated flows over airfoils is evaluated. An implicit, factorized, upwind-biased numerical scheme is used for the integration of the compressible, Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent eddy viscosity is obtained from the computed mean flowfield by integration of the turbulent field equations. The two-equation turbulence models are discretized in space with an upwind-biased, second order accurate total variation diminishing scheme. One and two-equation turbulence models are first tested for a separated airfoil flow at fixed angle of incidence. The same models are then applied to compute the unsteady flowfields about airfoils undergoing oscillatory motion at low subsonic Mach numbers. Experimental cases where the flow has been tripped at the leading edge and where natural transition was allowed to occur naturally are considered. The more recently developed field-equation turbulence models capture the physics of unsteady separated flow significantly better than the standard kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models. However, certain differences in the hysteresis effects are obtained. For an untripped high-Reynolds-number flow, it was found necessary to take into account the leading edge transitional flow region in order to capture the correct physical mechanism that leads to dynamic stall.

  17. Equilibrium microphase separation in the two-leaflet model of lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reigada, Ramon; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the coupling between local lipid composition and the thickness of the membrane, microphase separation in two-component lipid membranes can take place; such effects may underlie the formation of equilibrium nanoscale rafts. Using a kinetic description, this phenomenon is analytically and numerically investigated. The phase diagram is constructed through the stability analysis for linearized kinetic equations, and conditions for microphase separation are discussed. Simulations of the full kinetic model reveal the development of equilibrium membrane nanostructures with various morphologies from the initial uniform state.

  18. Model-Invariant Hybrid LES-RANS Computation of Separated Flow Past Periodic Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The requirement that physical quantities not vary with a hybrid LESRANS model's blending parameter imposes conditions on the computation that lead to better results across LES-RANS transitions. This promises to allow placement of those transitions so that LES is performed only where required by the physics, improving computational efficiency. The approach is applied to separated flow past periodic hills, where good predictions of separation-bubble size are seen due to the gradual, controlled, LES-RANS transition and the resulting enhanced near-wall eddy viscosity.

  19. An improved analytical model of the separated region on nozzle boattails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presz, W. M., Jr.; Buteau, J. D.; King, R. W.; Putnam, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    A viscous flow calculation is formulated for modelling the effects of separated, reverse flow regions on nozzle afterbody pressures and drags at subsonic Mach numbers. A discriminating streamline approach is used. Effects of skin friction, axial pressure gradient, and nozzle jet entrainment on the separated discriminating streamline shape are included. The viscous flow calculation is coupled to a potential flow calculation. The combined analysis is found to accurately predict both the magnitude of the measured afterbody pressures and drag, and also their variation with Reynolds number, Mach number and afterbody shape.

  20. A Model of Isotope Separation in Cells at the Early Stages of Evolution.

    PubMed

    Melkikh, A V; Bokunyaeva, A O

    2016-03-01

    The separation of the isotopes of certain ions can serve as an important criterion for the presence of life in the early stages of its evolution. A model of the separation of isotopes during their transport through the cell membrane is constructed. The dependence of the selection coefficient on various parameters is found. In particular, it is shown that the maximum efficiency of the transport of ions corresponds to the minimum enrichment coefficient. At the maximum enrichment, the efficiency of the transport system approaches ½. Calculated enrichment coefficients are compared with experimentally obtained values for different types of cells, and the comparison shows a qualitative agreement between these quantities.

  1. Core-corona separation in the UrQMD hybrid model

    SciTech Connect

    Steinheimer, J.; Bleicher, M.

    2011-08-15

    We employ the UrQMD transport + hydrodynamics hybrid model to estimate the effects of a separation of the hot equilibrated core and the dilute corona created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. It is shown that the fraction of the system that can be regarded as an equilibrated fireball changes over a wide range of energies. This has an impact, especially on strange particle abundances. We show that such a core corona separation allows for an improvement in the description of strange particle ratios and flow as a function of beam energy as well as strange particle yields as a function of centrality.

  2. Separation of piracetam derivatives on polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Kažoka, H; Koliškina, O; Veinberg, G; Vorona, M

    2013-03-15

    High-performance liquid chromatography was used for the enantiomeric separation of two chiral piracetam derivatives. The suitability of six commercially available polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) under normal phase mode for direct enantioseparation has been investigated. The influence of the CSPs as well the nature and content of an alcoholic modifier in the mobile phase on separation and elution order was studied. It was established that CSP Lux Amylose-2 shows high chiral recognition ability towards 4-phenylsubstituted piracetam derivatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Separation of enantiomers by supercritical fluid chromatography on polysaccharide derivative-based chiral stationary phases].

    PubMed

    Li, Dongyan; Wu, Xi; Hao, Fangli; Yang, Yang; Chen, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Eleven kinds of chiral compounds have been well separated within 10 min on polysaccharide derivative-based chiral stationary phases named Chiralpak IA, IB, IC, ID, IE and IF by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The chiral recognition of these chiral compounds has demonstrated good complementary enantioselectivities of the six chiral columns, which were proved to be useful for chiral SFC. Both the elution time and enantioselectivies could be significantly affected by the modifier types and their concentrations, such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, which should be optimized during the experiments. In addition, the solvent versatility of the immobilized chiral stationary phase on the optimization of the chiral separation was helpful.

  4. Sheath-Free Elasto-Inertia Separation of Particles Based on Shape in Straight Rectangular Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Xiangchun; Lu, Xinyu

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate the use of straight rectangular microchannels to obtain a shape-based separation of equal-volumed spherical and peanut-shaped particles in viscoelastic fluids. This continuous sheath-free separation arises from the shape-dependent equilibrium particle positions as a result of the flow-induced elasto-inertial lift. A continuous transition from single to dual and to triple equilibrium positions is observed for both types of particles with the increase of flow rate. However, the flow rate at which the transition occurs differs with the particle shape, which is thought to correlate the rotational effects of non-spherical particles.

  5. Ferrofluid-based Diamagnetic Particle Separation in U-shaped Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yilong; Xuan, Xiangchun

    We demonstrate in this talk a continuous-flow sheath-free separation method of diamagnetic particles in ferrofluids through U-shaped microchannels. Due to the action of a size-dependent magnetic force, diamagnetic particles are focused into a single stream in the inlet branch of the U-turn and then continuously separated into two streams in its outlet branch. We also develop a 3D numerical model to predict and understand the diamagnetic particle transport during the separation process. The numerical predictions are found to agree well with the experimental observations in a systematic study of multiple parameter effects including ferrofluid flow rate, concentration and magnet-channel distance. This work was supported by NSF.

  6. A new turbulence closure model for boundary layer flows with strong adverse pressure gradients and separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. A.; King, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    A new turbulence closure model designed specifically to treat two-dimensional, turbulent boundary layers with strong adverse pressure gradients and attendant separation, is presented. The influence of history effects are modeled by using an ordinary differential equation (ODE) derived from the turbulence kinetic-energy equation, to describe the streamwise development of the maximum Reynolds shear stress in conjunction with an assumed eddy-viscosity distribution which has as its velocity scale the maximum Reynolds shear stress. In the outer part of the boundary layer, the eddy viscosity is treated as a free parameter which is adjusted in order to satisfy the ODE for the maximum shear stress. Because of this, the model s not simply an eddy-viscosity model, but contains features of a Reynolds-stress model. Comparisons with experiments are presented which clearly show the proposed model to be superior to the Cebeci-Smith model in treating strongly retarded and separated flows. In contrast to two-equation, eddy-viscosity models, it requires only slightly more computational effort than simple models like the Cebeci-Smith model.

  7. Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huimin; Rogers, Robin D.; Dai, Sheng, Dai; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Buchanan, A. C. III; Hussey, Charles L.

    2003-06-16

    The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions.

  8. Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huimin; Hussey, Charles L.

    2005-09-30

    The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Thiazolium-Based Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, Patrick C; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Yeary, Joshua S; Oyola, Yatsandra; Jiang, Deen; Dai, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel thiazolium-bis(triflamide) based ionic liquids has been synthesized and characterized. Physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids such as thermal stability, phase transitions, and infrared spectra were analysed and compared to the imidazolium-based congeners. Several unique classes of ancillary substitutions are examined with respect to impacts on overall structure, in addition to their carbon dioxide absorption properties in supported ionic-liquid membranes for gas separation.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Thiazolium-Based Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, PC; Mahurin, SM; Fulvio, PF; Yeary, JS; Oyola, Y; Jiang, DE; Dai, S

    2012-09-05

    A series of novel thiazolium-bis(triflamide) based ionic liquids has been synthesized and characterized. Physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids such as thermal stability, phase transitions, and infrared spectra were analyzed and compared to the imidazolium-based congeners. Several unique classes of ancillary substitutions are examined with respect to impacts on overall structure, in addition to their carbon dioxide absorption properties in supported ionic-liquid membranes for gas separation.

  11. Pattern separation in the hippocampus through the eyes of computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Chavlis, Spyridon; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2017-03-18

    Pattern separation is a mnemonic process that has been extensively studied over the years. It entails the ability -of primarily hippocampal circuits- to distinguish between highly similar inputs, via generating different neuronal activity (output) patterns. The dentate gyrus (DG) in particular has long been hypothesized to implement pattern separation by detecting and storing similar inputs as distinct representations. The ways in which these distinct representations can be generated have been explored in a number of theoretical and computational modeling studies. Here, we review two categories of pattern separation models: those that address the phenomenon in an abstract mathematical fashion and those that delve into the underlying biological mechanisms by taking into account the anatomy and/or physiology of hippocampal circuits. We summarize the strategies, findings and limitations of these modeling approaches in the light of new experimental findings and propose a unifying framework whereby different network, cellular and sub-cellular mechanisms converge to a common goal: controlling sparsity, the key determinant of pattern separation in the DG.

  12. Size-based separation and collection of mouse pancreatic islets for functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Yong, Wang; Harvat, Tricia; Adewola, Adeola; Wang, Shesun; Oberholzer, Jose; Eddington, David T

    2010-10-01

    Islet size has recently been demonstrated to be an important factor in determining human islet transplantation outcomes. In this study, a multi-layered microfluidic device was developed and quantified for size-based separation of a heterogeneous population of mouse islets. The device was fabricated using standard soft lithography and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Size-based separation was first demonstrated via injection of a heterogeneous population of glass beads between 50-300 microm in diameter which were separated into five sub-populations based on their diameter. Next, a heterogeneous population of mouse pancreatic islets, between 50-250 microm in diameter was separated into four sub-populations. Throughout this process the islets remained intact without any signs of damage, as indicated by cell viability staining. Islet glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of each sub-population of islets was also evaluated demonstrating that islets smaller than 150 microm have superior stimulation indexes (SI) compared to islets larger than 150 microm. In this study, we found that islets between 100 microm and 150 microm in diameter had the greatest SI value in a heterogeneous population of islets.

  13. Enantiomeric separation of isochromene derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography using cyclodextrin based stationary phases and principal component analysis of the separation data.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, Yasith S; Woods, Ross M; Breitbach, Zachary S; Handa, Sachin; Slaughter, LeGrande M; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2013-08-30

    Isochromene derivatives are very important precursors in the natural products industry. Hence the enantiomeric separations of chiral isochromenes are important in the pharmaceutical industry and for organic asymmetric synthesis. Here we report enantiomeric separations of 21 different chiral isochromene derivatives, which were synthesized using alkynylbenzaldehyde cyclization catalyzed by chiral gold(I) acyclic diaminocarbene complexes. All separations were achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography with cyclodextrin based (Cyclobond) chiral stationary phases. Retention data of 21 chiral compounds and 14 other previously separated isochromene derivatives were analyzed using principal component analysis. The effect of the structure of the substituents on the isochromene ring on enantiomeric resolution as well as the other separation properties was analyzed in detail. Using principal component analysis it can be shown that the structural features that contribute to increased retention are different from those that enhance enantiomeric resolution. In addition, principal component analysis is useful for eliminating redundant factors from consideration when analyzing the effect of various chromatographic parameters. It was found that the chiral recognition mechanism is different for the larger γ-cyclodextrin as compared to the smaller β-cyclodextrin derivatives. Finally this specific system of chiral analytes and cyclodextrin based chiral selectors provides an effective format to examine the application of principal component analysis to enantiomeric separations using basic retention data and structural features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous separation of racemic 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-amino acids in a centrifugal contact separator with the aid of cinchona-based chiral host compounds.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Andrew J; Kwant, Gerard J; de Vries, Johannes G

    2009-01-01

    Resolution through revolution: It is possible to extract 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-protected amino acids enantioselectively with the aid of a table-top centrifugal contact separator and a catalytic amount of a chiral host compound based on the Cinchona alkaloids. Enantioselectivities of up to 80 % could be reached in a single pass. This allows the development of a process for the continuous separation of racemates.The resolution of racemates is mostly performed by crystallisation of diastereomeric salts. Direct physical separation could be much more efficient, but so far most concepts, with the exception of SMB, have proven to be non-scaleable. Here we report the first scalable process for the resolution of N-protected amino acid derivatives through selective extraction, with the aid of a catalytic amount of a chiral host compound based on Cinchona alkaloids. The method hinges on the use of centrifugal contact separators (CCSs) for fast mixing and separation. Although the highest ee obtained was only 80 %, the concept can be extended through the use of a series of CCSs in countercurrent mode to effect full separation.

  15. Gearbox coupling modulation separation method based on match pursuit and correlation filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guolin; Ding, Kang; Lin, Huibin

    2016-01-01

    The vibration signal of faulty gearbox commonly involves complex coupling modulation components. The method of sparse representation has been successfully used for gearbox fault diagnosis, but most of the literatures only focus on the extraction of impact modulation and always neglect the steady modulation representing the distributed faults. This paper presents a new method for separating coupling modulation from vibration signal of gearbox based on match pursuit and correlation filtering. To separate the steady modulation caused by distributed fault and the impact modulation caused by impact fault, two sub-dictionaries are specially designed according to the gearbox operating and structural parameters and the characteristics of vibration signal. The new dictionaries have clear physical meaning and good adaptability. In addition, an amplitude recovery step is conducted to improve the matching accuracy in the match pursuit. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can separate the coupling components of gearbox vibration signal effectively under intensive background noise.

  16. Impact of tuning CO2-philicity in polydimethylsiloxane-based membranes for carbon dioxide separation

    DOE PAGES

    Hong, Tao; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Mahurin, Shannon M.; ...

    2017-02-22

    Amidoxime-functionalized polydimethylsiloxane (AO-PDMSPNB) membranes with various amidoxime compositions were synthesized via ring-opening metathesis polymerization followed by post-polymerization modification. Compared to other previously reported PDMS-based membranes, the amidoxime-functionalized membranes show enhanced CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity. The overall gas separation performance (CO2 permeability 6800 Barrer; CO2/N2 selectivity 19) of the highest performing membrane exceeds the Robeson upper bound line, and the excellent permeability of the copolymer itself provides great potential for real world applications where huge volumes of gases are separated. This study details how tuning the CO2-philicity within rubbery polymer matrices influences gas transport properties. Key parameters for tuning gasmore » transport properties are discussed, and the experimental results show good consistency with theoretical calculations. Finally, this study provides a roadmap to enhancing gas separation performance in rubbery polymers by tuning gas solubility selectivity.« less

  17. Skull base tumor model.

    PubMed

    Gragnaniello, Cristian; Nader, Remi; van Doormaal, Tristan; Kamel, Mahmoud; Voormolen, Eduard H J; Lasio, Giovanni; Aboud, Emad; Regli, Luca; Tulleken, Cornelius A F; Al-Mefty, Ossama

    2010-11-01

    Resident duty-hours restrictions have now been instituted in many countries worldwide. Shortened training times and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. The development of educational models for brain anatomy is a fascinating innovation allowing neurosurgeons to train without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period. The authors describe the use of Stratathane resin ST-504 polymer (SRSP), which is inserted at different intracranial locations to closely mimic meningiomas and other pathological entities of the skull base, in a cadaveric model, for use in neurosurgical training. Silicone-injected and pressurized cadaveric heads were used for studying the SRSP model. The SRSP presents unique intrinsic metamorphic characteristics: liquid at first, it expands and foams when injected into the desired area of the brain, forming a solid tumorlike structure. The authors injected SRSP via different passages that did not influence routes used for the surgical approach for resection of the simulated lesion. For example, SRSP injection routes included endonasal transsphenoidal or transoral approaches if lesions were to be removed through standard skull base approach, or, alternatively, SRSP was injected via a cranial approach if the removal was planned to be via the transsphenoidal or transoral route. The model was set in place in 3 countries (US, Italy, and The Netherlands), and a pool of 13 physicians from 4 different institutions (all surgeons and surgeons in training) participated in evaluating it and provided feedback. All 13 evaluating physicians had overall positive impressions of the model. The overall score on 9 components evaluated--including comparison between the tumor model and real tumor cases, perioperative requirements, general impression, and applicability--was 88% (100% being the best possible

  18. Engineering model of the electric drives of separation device for simulation of automatic control systems of reactive power compensation by means of serially connected capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juromskiy, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    It is developed a mathematical model for an electric drive of high-speed separation device in terms of the modeling dynamic systems Simulink, MATLAB. The model is focused on the study of the automatic control systems of the power factor (Cosφ) of an actuator by compensating the reactive component of the total power by switching a capacitor bank in series with the actuator. The model is based on the methodology of the structural modeling of dynamic processes.

  19. A Temperature-Dependent Phase-Field Model for Phase Separation and Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Christian; Kraus, Christiane; Rocca, Elisabetta; Rossi, Riccarda

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we study a model for phase separation and damage in thermoviscoelastic materials. The main novelty of the paper consists in the fact that, in contrast with previous works in the literature concerning phase separation and damage processes in elastic media, in our model we encompass thermal processes, nonlinearly coupled with the damage, concentration and displacement evolutions. More particularly, we prove the existence of "entropic weak solutions", resorting to a solvability concept first introduced in Feireisl (Comput Math Appl 53:461-490, 2007) in the framework of Fourier-Navier-Stokes systems and then recently employed in Feireisl et al. (Math Methods Appl Sci 32:1345-1369, 2009) and Rocca and Rossi (Math Models Methods Appl Sci 24:1265-1341, 2014) for the study of PDE systems for phase transition and damage. Our global-in-time existence result is obtained by passing to the limit in a carefully devised time-discretization scheme.

  20. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. I. General equations.

    PubMed

    Thieulot, Cedric; Janssen, L P B M; Español, Pep

    2005-07-01

    We present a thermodynamically consistent discrete fluid particle model for the simulation of a recently proposed set of hydrodynamic equations for a phase separating van der Waals fluid mixture [P. Español and C.A.P. Thieulot, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9109 (2003)]. The discrete model is formulated by following a discretization procedure given by the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method within the thermodynamically consistent general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling (GENERIC) framework. Each fluid particle carries information on the mass, momentum, energy, and the mass fraction of the different components. The discrete model allows one to simulate nonisothermal dynamic evolution of phase separating fluids with surface tension effects while respecting the first and second laws of thermodynamics exactly.

  1. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. I. General equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, Cedric; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Español, Pep

    2005-07-01

    We present a thermodynamically consistent discrete fluid particle model for the simulation of a recently proposed set of hydrodynamic equations for a phase separating van der Waals fluid mixture [P. Español and C.A.P. Thieulot, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9109 (2003)]. The discrete model is formulated by following a discretization procedure given by the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method within the thermodynamically consistent general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling (GENERIC) framework. Each fluid particle carries information on the mass, momentum, energy, and the mass fraction of the different components. The discrete model allows one to simulate nonisothermal dynamic evolution of phase separating fluids with surface tension effects while respecting the first and second laws of thermodynamics exactly.

  2. Model-Invariant Hybrid Computations of Separated Flows for RCA Standard Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) subproject has identified several smooth-body separated flows as standard test cases to emphasize the challenge these flows present for computational methods and their importance to the aerospace community. Results of computations of two of these test cases, the NASA hump and the FAITH experiment, are presented. The computations were performed with the model-invariant hybrid LES-RANS formulation, implemented in the NASA code VULCAN-CFD. The model- invariant formulation employs gradual LES-RANS transitions and compensation for model variation to provide more accurate and efficient hybrid computations. Comparisons revealed that the LES-RANS transitions employed in these computations were sufficiently gradual that the compensating terms were unnecessary. Agreement with experiment was achieved only after reducing the turbulent viscosity to mitigate the effect of numerical dissipation. The stream-wise evolution of peak Reynolds shear stress was employed as a measure of turbulence dynamics in separated flows useful for evaluating computations.

  3. Unsteady separation experiments on 2-D airfoils, 3-D wings, and model helicopter rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorber, Peter F.; Carta, Franklin O.

    1992-01-01

    Information on unsteady separation and dynamic stall is being obtained from two experimental programs that have been underway at United Technologies Research Center since 1984. The first program is designed to obtain detailed surface pressure and boundary layer condition information during high amplitude pitching oscillations of a large (17.3 in. chord) model wing in a wind tunnel. The second program involves the construction and testing of a pressure-instrumented model helicopter rotor. This presentation describes some of the results of these experiments, and in particular compares the detailed dynamic stall inception information obtained from the oscillating wing with the unsteady separation and reverse flow results measured on the retreating blade side of the model rotor during wind tunnel testing.

  4. Developments in magnet modeling and beam optics for the ARIS separator at FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo, M.; Hausmann, M.; Chouhan, S.

    2016-06-01

    A description is given on the methods used for field analysis of magnets and the extracted parameters used for accurate beam simulations of the fragment separator. For the strong focusing magnets, Fourier decomposition is used in order to extract induced fields associated with higher order multipoles. For dipoles, a 2D field map model is used instead in order to emulate complex field distributions. The theory of the models and the techniques chosen are described, along with results from Monte Carlo beam simulations up to 5th order. The n = 6 multipole induced by the quadrupole is the most significant component. The effects on separator performance with and without this component in the model are demonstrated.

  5. Massive separation around bluff bodies: comparisons among different cfd solvers and turbulence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenio, Vincenzo; Fakhari, Ahmad; Petronio, Andrea; Padovan, Roberta; Pittaluga, Chiara; Caprino, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Massive flow separation is ubiquitous in industrial applications, ruling drag and hydrodynamic noise. In spite of considerable efforts, its numerical prediction still represents a challenge for CFD models in use in engineering. Aside commercial software, over the latter years the opensource software OpenFOAMR (OF) has emerged as a valid tool for prediction of complex industrial flows. In the present work, we simulate two flows representative of a class of situations occurring in industrial problems: the flow around sphere and that around a wall-mounted square cylinder at Re = 10000 . We compare the performance two different tools, namely OF and ANSYS CFX 15.0 (CFX) using different unstructured grids and turbulence models. The grids have been generated using SNAPPYHEXMESH and ANSYS ICEM CFD 15.0 with different near wall resolutions. The codes have been run in a RANS mode using k - ɛ model (OF) and SST - k - ω (CFX) with and without wall-layer models. OF has been also used in LES, WMLES and DES mode. Regarding the sphere, RANS models were not able to catch separation, while good prediction of separation and distribution of stresses over the surface were obtained using LES, WMLES and DES. Results for the second test case are currently under analysis. Financial support from COSMO ``cfd open source per opera mortta'' PAR FSC 2007-2013, Friuli Venezia Giulia.

  6. Elastic reverse-time migration based on amplitude-preserving P- and S-wave separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jia-Jia; Luan, Xi-Wu; Fang, Gang; Liu, Xin-Xin; Pan, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Jie

    2016-09-01

    Imaging the PP- and PS-wave for the elastic vector wave reverse-time migration requires separating the P- and S-waves during the wave field extrapolation. The amplitude and phase of the P- and S-waves are distorted when divergence and curl operators are used to separate the P- and S-waves. We present a P- and S-wave amplitude-preserving separation algorithm for the elastic wavefield extrapolation. First, we add the P-wave pressure and P-wave vibration velocity equation to the conventional elastic wave equation to decompose the P- and S-wave vectors. Then, we synthesize the scalar P- and S-wave from the vector Pand S-wave to obtain the scalar P- and S-wave. The amplitude-preserved separated P- and S-waves are imaged based on the vector wave reverse-time migration (RTM). This method ensures that the amplitude and phase of the separated P- and S-wave remain unchanged compared with the divergence and curl operators. In addition, after decomposition, the P-wave pressure and vibration velocity can be used to suppress the interlayer reflection noise and to correct the S-wave polarity. This improves the image quality of P- and S-wave in multicomponent seismic data and the true-amplitude elastic reverse time migration used in prestack inversion.

  7. Exploring active flow control for efficient control of separation on an Ahmed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Jonathan; Alvi, Farrukh

    2016-11-01

    Active flow control is applied to an Ahmed model with a rear slant angle of 25°, where a typical flow field consists of a three-dimensional separation region on the rear slant of the bluff body. Linear arrays of discrete microjets, previously proven to effectively control this separation, are investigated further. A principal aim of this experimental study is to examine the sensitivity of control as the actuator location is shifted with respect to the separation location. Aerodynamic force and surface pressure measurements, combined with the velocity field obtained using particle image velocimetry, provide a measure of control efficacy and insight into the interaction of jet arrays with the local flow field, including the separating shear layer. An energy balance is conducted to characterize control efficiency for multiple positions over a range of microjet array blowing conditions. Results show that moving the actuator array further into the separation region requires higher microjet momentum to obtain a desired aerodynamic benefit. An empirical relationship is also developed for determining the required jet velocity as a function of position by relating the jet penetration distance to local flow features and length scales. Partial support by FCAAP and NSF.

  8. High-Throughput Genetic Analysis and Combinatorial Chiral Separations Based on Capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wenwan

    2003-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers many advantages over conventional analytical methods, such as speed, simplicity, high resolution, low cost, and small sample consumption, especially for the separation of enantiomers. However, chiral method developments still can be time consuming and tedious. They designed a comprehensive enantioseparation protocol employing neutral and sulfated cyclodextrins as chiral selectors for common basic, neutral, and acidic compounds with a 96-capillary array system. By using only four judiciously chosen separation buffers, successful enantioseparations were achieved for 49 out of 54 test compounds spanning a large variety of pKs and structures. Therefore, unknown compounds can be screened in this manner to identify optimal enantioselective conditions in just one rn. In addition to superior separation efficiency for small molecules, CE is also the most powerful technique for DNA separations. Using the same multiplexed capillary system with UV absorption detection, the sequence of a short DNA template can be acquired without any dye-labels. Two internal standards were utilized to adjust the migration time variations among capillaries, so that the four electropherograms for the A, T, C, G Sanger reactions can be aligned and base calling can be completed with a high level of confidence. the CE separation of DNA can be applied to study differential gene expression as well. Combined with pattern recognition techniques, small variations among electropherograms obtained by the separation of cDNA fragments produced from the total RNA samples of different human tissues can be revealed. These variations reflect the differences in total RNA expression among tissues. Thus, this Ce-based approach can serve as an alternative to the DNA array techniques in gene expression analysis.

  9. Model-Based Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Model-Based Improvement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University ,Software Engineering...Institute (SEI),Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  10. Stage Separation Failure: Model Based Diagnostics and Prognostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    estimate the characteristic time of the heating of the nozzle wall analytically we use Bartz’ approximation (Bartz, 1965; Incropera and DeWitt, 2002...Publishing Company, Inc. New York. F.P. Incropera and D. P. DeWitt (2002), Introduction to Heat Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, NY, D.G. Luchinsky, V.V

  11. Model-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    2007-01-01

    Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a model-based systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the model is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the model is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define model-based systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.

  12. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  13. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  14. Experiment and modeling for the separation of guaifenesin enantiomers using simulated moving bed and Varicol units.

    PubMed

    Gong, Rujin; Lin, Xiaojian; Li, Ping; Yu, Jianguo; Rodrigues, Alirio E

    2014-10-10

    The separation of guaifenesin enantiomers by both simulated moving bed (SMB) process and Varicol process was investigated experimentally and theoretically, where the columns were packed with cellulose tris 3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate (Chiralcel OD) stationary phase and a mixture of n-hexane and ethanol was used as mobile phase. The operation conditions were designed based on the separation region with the consideration of mass transfer resistance and axial dispersion, and the experiments to separate guaifenesin enantiomers were carried out on VARICOL-Micro unit using SMB process with the column configuration of 1/2/2/1 and Varicol process with the column configuration of 1/1.5/1.5/1, respectively. Single enantiomer with more than 99.0% purity was obtained in both processes with the productivity of 0.42 genantiomer/dcm(3) CSP for SMB process and 054 genantiomer/dcm(3) CSP for Varicol process. These experimental results obtained from SMB and Varicol processes were compared with those reported from literatures. In addition, according to the numerical simulation, the effects of solid-film mass transfer resistance and axial dispersion on the internal profiles were discussed, and the effect of column configuration on the separation performance of SMB and Varicol processes was analyzed for a few columns system. The feasibility and efficiency for the separation of guaifenesin enantiomers by SMB and Varicol processes were evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Using computer modeling to predict and optimize separations for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Frank L; Schettler, Paul D; Vogt, Leslie A; Cochran, Jack W

    2008-04-04

    In order to fully realize the separation power of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), a means of predicting and optimizing separations based on operating variables was developed. This approach initially calculates the enthalpy (DeltaH) and entropy (DeltaS) for the target compounds from experimental input data, and then uses this information to simultaneously optimize all column and runtime variables, including stationary phase composition, by comparing the performance of large numbers of simulated separations. This use of computer simulation has been shown to be a useful aid in conventional separations. It becomes almost essential for GC x GC optimization because of the large number of variables involved and their very complex interaction. Agreement between experimental and predicted values of standard test samples (Grob mix) using GC x GC separation shows that this approach is accurate. We believe that this success can be extended to more challenging mixtures resulting in optimizations that are simpler and transferable between GC x GC instruments.

  16. Design, development and characterization of microfluidic media for continuous size-based separation of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devendra, Raghavendra

    Microfluidics is a growing field of research in separations. Microfluidic technologies offer a greater control over system properties with an efficient performance while providing a potential for integration of several processes into one micro-total-analysis system. While several conventional separation technologies have been miniaturized to micro-scale techniques, there is an effort to develop novel processes that take advantage of the features of micro-scale flows, such as similarities in pore-species dimensions and the ability to tailor the geometric structures of the stationary phase to specific applications. In certain cases, the geometric structure of the pore space drives the separative displacement; the advances in microfabrication allow greater control over the geometry as well as the surface chemistry of the media. It is convenient and possible to integrate the microstructure into main separation channel and design autonomous continuous flow separation systems on a lab-on-achip platform. A promising approach to develop passive and continuous flow microfluidic separation devices is to design periodic arrays of obstacles that cause different species to move in different directions within the device, also known as vector chromatography. The principle of separation of small particles in such periodic microstructures is based on the mobility of particles. The mobility of a particle is based on its size, the geometry of the stationary phase and the viscosity of the suspending phase. In the first part of this thesis, we present a study of diffusive transport in periodic anisotropic systems. We designed and fabricated anisotropic periodicities in microfluidic devices and characterized the mobilities in principal directions by directly measuring the one dimensional diffusivities through experiments. In anisotropic periodic microstructures, the mobility has unequal components, by virtue of which the velocity of the particle does not remain collinear with the

  17. A model for the separation of large DNA molecules by crossed field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Southern, E M; Anand, R; Brown, W R; Fletcher, D S

    1987-08-11

    The idea that large DNA molecules adopt a stretched conformation as they pass through gels suggests a simple mechanism for the separation of DNA by crossed field electrophoresis: at each change in field direction a DNA molecule takes off in the new direction of the field by a movement which is led by what was formerly its back end. The effect of this ratcheting motion is to subtract from the DNA molecule's forward movement, at each step, an amount which is proportional to its length. We find that this model explains most of the features of the separation, and we describe experiments, using a novel electrophoresis apparatus, which support the model. The apparatus turns the gel between two preset orientations in a uniform electric field at preset time intervals. This separation method has the practical advantage over some others that the DNA molecules follow straight tracks. A further advantage is that the parameters which determine the separation are readily predicted from the simple theory describing their motion.

  18. Maternal separation as a model of brain-gut axis dysfunction.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Hyland, Niall P; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2011-03-01

    Early life stress has been implicated in many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Maternal separation in rodents is a well-studied model of early life stress. However, stress during this critical period also induces alterations in many systems throughout the body. Thus, a variety of other disorders that are associated with adverse early life events are often comorbid with psychiatric illnesses, suggesting a common underlying aetiology. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is thought to involve a dysfunctional interaction between the brain and the gut. Essential aspects of the brain-gut axis include spinal pathways, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, the immune system, as well as the enteric microbiota. Accumulating evidence suggest that stress, especially in early life, is a predisposing factor to IBS. The objective of this review was to assess and compile the most relevant data on early life stress and alterations at all levels of the brain gut axis. In this review, we describe the components of the brain-gut axis individually and how they are altered by maternal separation. The separated phenotype is characterised by alterations of the intestinal barrier function, altered balance in enteric microflora, exaggerated stress response and visceral hypersensitivity, which are all evident in IBS. Thus, maternally separated animals are an excellent model of brain-gut axis dysfunction for the study of disorders such as IBS and for the development of novel therapeutic interventions.

  19. Three-dimensional shape invariant non-separable model with equidistant spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Bardavelidze, M. S.; Cannata, F.; Ioffe, M. V.; Nishnianidze, D. N.

    2013-01-15

    A class of three-dimensional models, which satisfy supersymmetric intertwining relations with the simplest-oscillator-like-variant of shape invariance, is constructed. It is proved that the models are not amenable to the conventional separation of variables for the complex potentials, but their spectra are real and equidistant (such as, for isotropic harmonic oscillator). The special case of such potential with quadratic interaction is solved completely. The Hamiltonian of the system is non-diagonalizable, and its wave functions and associated functions are built analytically. The symmetry properties of the model and degeneracy of energy levels are studied.

  20. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model, designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately. It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd-nitrogen family approximations.

  1. Calculations of helium separation via uniform pores of stanene-based membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guoping; Jiao, Yan; Jiao, Yalong; Ma, Fengxian; Kou, Liangzhi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The development of low energy cost membranes to separate He from noble gas mixtures is highly desired. In this work, we studied He purification using recently experimentally realized, two-dimensional stanene (2D Sn) and decorated 2D Sn (SnH and SnF) honeycomb lattices by density functional theory calculations. To increase the permeability of noble gases through pristine 2D Sn at room temperature (298 K), two practical strategies (i.e., the application of strain and functionalization) are proposed. With their high concentration of large pores, 2D Sn-based membrane materials demonstrate excellent helium purification and can serve as a superior membrane over traditionally used, porous materials. In addition, the separation performance of these 2D Sn-based membrane materials can be significantly tuned by application of strain to optimize the He purification properties by taking both diffusion and selectivity into account. Our results are the first calculations of He separation in a defect-free honeycomb lattice, highlighting new interesting materials for helium separation for future experimental validation. PMID:26885459

  2. Calculations of helium separation via uniform pores of stanene-based membranes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guoping; Jiao, Yan; Jiao, Yalong; Ma, Fengxian; Kou, Liangzhi; Du, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    The development of low energy cost membranes to separate He from noble gas mixtures is highly desired. In this work, we studied He purification using recently experimentally realized, two-dimensional stanene (2D Sn) and decorated 2D Sn (SnH and SnF) honeycomb lattices by density functional theory calculations. To increase the permeability of noble gases through pristine 2D Sn at room temperature (298 K), two practical strategies (i.e., the application of strain and functionalization) are proposed. With their high concentration of large pores, 2D Sn-based membrane materials demonstrate excellent helium purification and can serve as a superior membrane over traditionally used, porous materials. In addition, the separation performance of these 2D Sn-based membrane materials can be significantly tuned by application of strain to optimize the He purification properties by taking both diffusion and selectivity into account. Our results are the first calculations of He separation in a defect-free honeycomb lattice, highlighting new interesting materials for helium separation for future experimental validation.

  3. Complete chromogen separation and analysis in double immunohistochemical stains using Photoshop-based image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehr, H A; van der Loos, C M; Teeling, P; Gown, A M

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of two different antigens on paraffin-embedded and frozen tissues can be accomplished by double immunohistochemistry. However, many double chromogen systems suffer from signal overlap, precluding definite signal quantification. To separate and quantitatively analyze the different chromogens, we imported images into a Macintosh computer using a CCD camera attached to a diagnostic microscope and used Photoshop software for the recognition, selection, and separation of colors. We show here that Photoshop-based image analysis allows complete separation of chromogens not only on the basis of their RGB spectral characteristics, but also on the basis of information concerning saturation, hue, and luminosity intrinsic to the digitized images. We demonstrate that Photoshop-based image analysis provides superior results compared to color separation using bandpass filters. Quantification of the individual chromogens is then provided by Photoshop using the Histogram command, which supplies information on the luminosity (corresponding to gray levels of black-and-white images) and on the number of pixels as a measure of spatial distribution. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:119-125, 1999)

  4. A Preliminary Assessment of Phase Separator Ground-Based and Reduced-Gravity Testing for ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Nancy Rabel

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of phase separator ground-based and reduced-gravity testing for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Multiphase Flow Technology Program; 2) Types of Separators; 3) MOBI Phase Separators; 4) Experiment set-up; and 5) Preliminary comparison/results.

  5. Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.

  6. Equilibrium theory-based analysis of nonlinear waves in separation processes.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, Marco; Rajendran, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Different areas of engineering, particularly separation process technology, deal with one-dimensional, nonstationary processes that under reasonable assumptions, namely negligible dispersion effects and transport resistances, are described by mathematical models consisting of systems of first-order partial differential equations. Their behavior is characterized by continuous or discontinuous composition (or thermal) fronts that propagate along the separation unit. The equilibrium theory (i.e., the approach discussed here to determine the solution to these model equations) predicts this with remarkable accuracy, despite the simplifications and assumptions. Interesting applications are in adsorption, chromatography and ion-exchange, distillation, gas injection, heat storage, sedimentation, precipitation, and dissolution waves. We show how mathematics can enlighten the engineering aspects, and we guide the researcher not only to reach a synthetic understanding of properties of fundamental and applicative interest but also to discover new, unexpected, and fascinating phenomena. The tools presented here are useful to teachers, researchers, and practitioners alike.

  7. Towards DMD-Based Estimation and Control of Flow Separation using an Array of Surface Pressure Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Eric; Cattafesta, Louis; Zhang, Hao; Rowley, Clancy

    2016-11-01

    Closed-loop control of flow separation requires the spatio-temporal states of the flow to be fed back through the controller in real time. Previously, static and dynamic estimation methods have been employed that provide reduced-order model estimates of the POD-coefficients of the flow velocity using surface pressure measurements. However, this requires a "learning" dataset a priori. This approach is effective as long as the dynamics during control do not stray from the learning dataset. Since only a few dynamical features are required for feedback control of flow separation, many of the details provided by full-field snapshots are superfluous. This motivates a state-observation technique that extracts key dynamical features directly from surface pressure, without requiring PIV snapshots. The results of identifying DMD modes of separated flow through an array of surface pressure sensors in real-time are presented. This is accomplished by employing streaming DMD "on the fly" to surface pressure snapshots. These modal characteristics exhibit striking similarities to those extracted from PIV data and the pressure field obtained via solving Poisson's equation. Progress towards closed-loop separation control based on the dynamic modes of surface pressure will be discussed. Supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-14-1-0289.

  8. Drag reduction by controlled base flow separation for missile shaped bodies flying at hypersonic Mach number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, V.; Sun, M.; Jagadeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.; Takayama, K.

    The problem of wake flow at high speeds and the drag associated with it are a significant source of observation in the design of missiles, projectiles and other typical high speed vehicles. A large separated wake at the base of the body in flight would cause an increase in the overall drag due to reduced base pressure force, which otherwise would oppose the axial force on the body. The wake studies of high speed bodies also gain importance due to the severe aerodynamic heating problem and a high rise in the temperature of the base flow.

  9. Model Based Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  10. Highly accelerated cardiac cine parallel MRI using low-rank matrix completion and partial separability model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Jingyuan; Nakarmi, Ukash; Zhang, Chaoyi; Ying, Leslie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach to highly accelerated dynamic parallel MRI using low rank matrix completion, partial separability (PS) model. In data acquisition, k-space data is moderately randomly undersampled at the center kspace navigator locations, but highly undersampled at the outer k-space for each temporal frame. In reconstruction, the navigator data is reconstructed from undersampled data using structured low-rank matrix completion. After all the unacquired navigator data is estimated, the partial separable model is used to obtain partial k-t data. Then the parallel imaging method is used to acquire the entire dynamic image series from highly undersampled data. The proposed method has shown to achieve high quality reconstructions with reduction factors up to 31, and temporal resolution of 29ms, when the conventional PS method fails.

  11. Modeling of reversible charge separation in reaction centers of photosynthesis: an incoherent approach.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, A G; Shuvalov, V A

    2014-02-21

    Primary charge separation in reaction centers (RCs) of bacterial photosynthesis is modeled in this work. An incoherent population dynamics of RCs states is formulated by kinetic equations. It is assumed that charge separation is accompanied by regular motion of the system along additional coordinates. This motion modulates an energetics of the reactions, and this modulation causes femtosecond oscillations in the population of the states. The best qualitative and quantitative accordance with experimental data on native, modified and mutant RCs of Rba. sphaeroides is achieved in the five states model that includes two excited states P(*)905BAHA and P(*)940BAHA and three charge separated states I, P(+)BA(-)HA and P(+)BAHA(-) (P is a primary electron donor, bacteriochlorophyll dimer, BA and HA are electron acceptors, monomeric bacteriochlorophyll and bacteriopheophytin in active A-branch respectively). The excited states emit at 905 and 940 nm and have approximately the same energy and high interaction rate. The intermediate state I is populated earlier than the P(+)BA(-)HA state and has energy close to the energy of the excited states, a high rate of population and depopulation and spectral identity to the BA(-). A sum of the I and P(+)BA(-)HA populations fits the experimental kinetics of the BA(-) absorption band at 1020 nm. The model explains an oscillatory phenomenon in the kinetics of the P(*) stimulated emission and of the BA(-) absorption. In the schemes without the I state, accordance with the experiment is achieved at unreal parameter values or is not achieved at all. A qualitative agreement of the model with the experiment can be achieved at a wide range of parameter values. The nature of the states I and P(*)940BAHA is discussed in terms of partial charge separation between P and BA and inside P respectively.

  12. Balancing precision and risk: should multiple detection methods be analyzed separately in N-mixture models?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, Tabitha A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Kendall, Katherine C.; Beier, Paul; Stetz, Jeffrey B.; Macleod, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Using multiple detection methods can increase the number, kind, and distribution of individuals sampled, which may increase accuracy and precision and reduce cost of population abundance estimates. However, when variables influencing abundance are of interest, if individuals detected via different methods are influenced by the landscape differently, separate analysis of multiple detection methods may be more appropriate. We evaluated the effects of combining two detection methods on the identification of variables important to local abundance using detections of grizzly bears with hair traps (systematic) and bear rubs (opportunistic). We used hierarchical abundance models (N-mixture models) with separate model components for each detection method. If both methods sample the same population, the use of either data set alone should (1) lead to the selection of the same variables as important and (2) provide similar estimates of relative local abundance. We hypothesized that the inclusion of 2 detection methods versus either method alone should (3) yield more support for variables identified in single method analyses (i.e. fewer variables and models with greater weight), and (4) improve precision of covariate estimates for variables selected in both separate and combined analyses because sample size is larger. As expected, joint analysis of both methods increased precision as well as certainty in variable and model selection. However, the single-method analyses identified different variables and the resulting predicted abundances had different spatial distributions. We recommend comparing single-method and jointly modeled results to identify the presence of individual heterogeneity between detection methods in N-mixture models, along with consideration of detection probabilities, correlations among variables, and tolerance to risk of failing to identify variables important to a subset of the population. The benefits of increased precision should be weighed against

  13. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Yasmin; Radke, Tara; Chuhta, Jesse; Hughes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics model and to verify no recontact. NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) teams examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute parameters, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1, but more testing is required to support human certification, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust but affordable human spacecraft capability.

  14. 81929 - Fission-Product Separation Based on Room - Temperature Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Robin D. Rogers

    2004-12-09

    This project has demonstrated that Sr2+ and Cs+ can be selectively extracted from aqueous solutions into ionic liquids using crown ethers and that unprecedented large distribution coefficients can be achieved for these fission products. The volume of secondary wastes can be significantly minimized with this new separation technology. Through the current EMSP funding, the solvent extraction technology based on ionic liquids has been shown to be viable and can potentially provide the most efficient separation of problematic fission products from high level wastes. The key results from the current funding period are the development of highly selective extraction process for cesium ions based on crown ethers and calixarenes, optimization of selectivities of extractants via systematic change of ionic liquids, and investigation of task-specific ionic liquids incorporating both complexant and solvent characteristics.

  15. Molecular separations with breathing metal-organic frameworks: modelling packed bed adsorbers.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Tom R C; Baron, Gino V; Denayer, Joeri F M

    2016-03-14

    Various metal-organic framework (MOFs) adsorbents show peculiar adsorption behaviour as they can adopt different crystal phases, each phase with its own adsorption characteristics. Besides external stimuli such as temperature or light, different species of guest adsorbate can trigger a transition (breathing) of the host structure at a different pressure. Such phase transitions also occur during dynamic separations on a packed bed of adsorbent, where the concentrations of the adsorbates vary throughout axial column distance and time. This work presents a general strategy to model the adsorption behavior of such phase changing adsorbents during column separations and focuses on remarkable model predictions for pure components and binary mixtures in diluted and non-diluted conditions. During binary breakthrough experiments, the behaviour of flexible adsorbents is quite complex. A succession of complete or even partial phase transformations (resulting in phase coexistence) can occur during the adsorption process. A variety of unusual breakthrough profiles is observed for diluted binary mixtures. Simulations reveal at least five types of breakthrough profiles to emerge. The occurrence of these cases can be rationalized by the hodograph technique, combined with the phase diagram of the adsorbent. The remarkable experimental breakthrough profiles observed for ortho-xylene/ethylbenzene (diluted) and CO2/CH4 (non-diluted) separation on the flexible MIL-53 framework can be rationalized by application of the proposed model strategy.

  16. Polymer-based separations: Synthesis and application of polymers for ionic and molecular recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Polymer-based separations have utilized resins such as sulfonic, acrylic, and iminodiacetic acid resins and the XAD series. Selective polymeric reagents for reaction with a targeted metal ion were synthesized as polymers with two different types of functional groups, each operating on the ions through a different mechanism. There are 3 classes of DMBPs (dual mechanism bifunctional polymers). Research during this period dealing with metal ion recognition focused on two of these classes (reduction of metal ions to metal; selective complexation).

  17. Capillarity-driven blood plasma separation on paper-based devices.

    PubMed

    Kar, Shantimoy; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-10-07

    We demonstrate capillarity-driven plasma separation from whole blood on simple paper-based H-channels. This methodology, unlike other reported techniques, does not necessitate elaborate and complex instrumentation, and the usage of expensive consumables. We believe that this technique will be ideally suited to be implemented in rapid and portable blood diagnostic devices designed to be operative at locations with limited resources.

  18. Continuous Flow Deformability-Based Separation of Circulating Tumor Cells Using Microfluidic Ratchets.

    PubMed

    Park, Emily S; Jin, Chao; Guo, Quan; Ang, Richard R; Duffy, Simon P; Matthews, Kerryn; Azad, Arun; Abdi, Hamidreza; Todenhöfer, Tilman; Bazov, Jenny; Chi, Kim N; Black, Peter C; Ma, Hongshen

    2016-04-13

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) offer tremendous potential for the detection and characterization of cancer. A key challenge for their isolation and subsequent analysis is the extreme rarity of these cells in circulation. Here, a novel label-free method is described to enrich viable CTCs directly from whole blood based on their distinct deformability relative to hematological cells. This mechanism leverages the deformation of single cells through tapered micrometer scale constrictions using oscillatory flow in order to generate a ratcheting effect that produces distinct flow paths for CTCs, leukocytes, and erythrocytes. A label-free separation of circulating tumor cells from whole blood is demonstrated, where target cells can be separated from background cells based on deformability despite their nearly identical size. In doping experiments, this microfluidic device is able to capture >90% of cancer cells from unprocessed whole blood to achieve 10(4) -fold enrichment of target cells relative to leukocytes. In patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, where CTCs are not significantly larger than leukocytes, CTCs can be captured based on deformability at 25× greater yield than with the conventional CellSearch system. Finally, the CTCs separated using this approach are collected in suspension and are available for downstream molecular characterization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Volume based vs. time based chromatograms: reproducibility of data for gradient separations under high and low pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Stankovich, Joseph J; Gritti, Fabrice; Stevenson, Paul G; Vajda, Péter; Beaver, Lois Ann; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-05-23

    A critical aspect in fast gradient separations carried out under constant pressure, in the very high pressure liquid chromatography (VHPLC) mode is that time-based chromatograms may not yield highly reproducible separations. A proposed solution to improve the reproducibility of these separations involves plotting the chromatograms as functions of the volume eluted vs. UV absorbance instead of time vs. UV. To study the consequences of using the volume-based rather than the time-based chromatograms, separations were first performed under low pressures that do not generate significant amounts of heat and for which the variations of the eluent density along the columns are negligible. Secondly, they were performed under very high pressures that do generate heat and measurable variations of the local retention factor and eluent density along the column. Comparison of the results provides estimates of the improvements obtained when volume based chromatograms are used in gradient analyses. Using a column packed with fully porous particles, four different types of methods and several sets for each method were used to perform the gradient elution runs: two sets of constant flow rate operations, four sets of constant pressure operations, two sets of constant pressure operations with programmed flow rate, and one set using the constant heat loss approach. The differences between time-based and volume-based chromatograms are demonstrated by using eight replicates of early, middle, and last eluting peaks. The results show that volume-based chromatograms improve the retention time reproducibility of the four constant pressure methods by a factor of 3.7 on average. If the column is not thermally conditioned prior to performing a long series of separations, flow controlled methods (constant flow rate, programmed constant pressure, and constant wall heat approaches) are more precise. If one gradient run is used to bring the column to a relatively stable temperature, constant

  20. Synthesis and development of ordered, phase-separated, room-temperature ionic liquid-based AB and ABC block copolymers for gas separation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenauer, Erin F.

    CO2 capture process development is an economically and environmentally important challenge, as concerns over greenhouse gas emissions continue to receive worldwide attention. Many applications require the separation of CO 2 from other light gases such as N2, CH4, and H2 and a number of technologies have been developed to perform such separations. While current membrane technology offers an economical, easy to operate and scale-up solution, polymeric membranes cannot withstand high temperatures and aggressive chemical environments, and they often exhibit an unfavorable tradeoff between permeability and selectivity. Room-temperature ionic-liquids (RTILs) are very attractive as next-generation CO2-selective separation media and their development into polymerized membranes combat these challenges. Furthermore, polymers that can self-assemble into nanostructured, phase-separated morphologies (e.g., block copolymers, BCPs) have a direct effect on gas transport as materials morphology can influence molecular diffusion and membrane transport performance. In this thesis, nanophase-separated, RTIL-based AB and ABC di- and tri-BCPs were prepared via the sequential, living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of an IL-based monomer and one or more mutually immiscible co-monomers. This novel type of ion-containing BCP system forms various ordered nanostructures in the melt state via primary and secondary structure control. Monomer design and control of block composition, sequence, and overall polymer lengths were found to directly affect the ordered polymer assembly. Supported, composite membranes of these new BCPs were successfully fabricated, and the effect of BCP composition and nanostructure on CO2/light gas transport properties was studied. These nanostructured IL-based BCPs represent innovative polymer architectures and show great potential CO2/light gas membrane separation applications.

  1. Gravity packaging final waste recovery based on gravity separation and chemical imaging control.

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia; Potenza, Fabio; Luciani, Valentina; Di Maio, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Plastic polymers are characterized by a high calorific value. Post-consumer plastic waste can be thus considered, in many cases, as a typical secondary solid fuels according to the European Commission directive on End of Waste (EoW). In Europe the practice of incineration is considered one of the solutions for waste disposal waste, for energy recovery and, as a consequence, for the reduction of waste sent to landfill. A full characterization of these products represents the first step to profitably and correctly utilize them. Several techniques have been investigated in this paper in order to separate and characterize post-consumer plastic packaging waste fulfilling the previous goals, that is: gravity separation (i.e. Reflux Classifier), FT-IR spectroscopy, NIR HyperSpectralImaging (HSI) based techniques and calorimetric test. The study demonstrated as the proposed separation technique and the HyperSpectral NIR Imaging approach allow to separate and recognize the different polymers (i.e. PolyVinyl Chloride (PVC), PolyStyrene (PS), PolyEthylene (PE), PoliEtilene Tereftalato (PET), PolyPropylene (PP)) in order to maximize the removal of the PVC fraction from plastic waste and to perform the full quality control of the resulting products, can be profitably utilized to set up analytical/control strategies finalized to obtain a low content of PVC in the final Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF), thus enhancing SRF quality, increasing its value and reducing the "final waste". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization design of satellite separation systems based on Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xingzhi; Chen, Xiaoqian; Zhao, Yong; Yao, Wen

    2014-03-01

    The separation systems are crucial for the launch of satellites. With respect to the existing design issues of satellite separation systems, an optimization design approach based on Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm is proposed, and a hierarchical optimization of system mass and separation angular velocity is designed. Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm is studied for the problem and the optimization parameters are discussed. Dynamic analysis of ADAMS used to validate the designs is integrated with iSIGHT. Then the optimization method is employed for a typical problem using the helical compression spring mechanism, and the corresponding objective functions are derived. It turns out that the mass of compression spring catapult is decreased by 30.7% after optimization and the angular velocity can be minimized considering spring stiffness errors. Moreover, ground tests and on-orbit flight indicate that the error of separation speed is controlled within 1% and the angular velocity is reduced by nearly 90%, which proves the design result and the optimization approach.

  3. Clogging-free microfluidics for continuous size-based separation of microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yousang; Kim, Seonil; Lee, Jusin; Choi, Jaewoong; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Lee, Su-Jae; Sul, Onejae; Lee, Seung-Beck

    2016-01-01

    In microfluidic filtration systems, one of the leading obstacles to efficient, continuous operation is clogging of the filters. Here, we introduce a lateral flow microfluidic sieving (μ-sieving) technique to overcome clogging and to allow continuous operation of filter based microfluidic separation. A low frequency mechanical oscillation was added to the fluid flow, which made possible the release of aggregated unwanted polystyrene (PS) particles trapped between the larger target PS particles in the filter demonstrating continuous μ-sieving operation. We achieved collection of the target PS particles with 100% separation efficiency. Also, on average, more than 98% of the filtered target particles were retrieved after the filtration showing high retrieval rates. Since the oscillation was applied to the fluid but not to the microfluidic filter system, mechanical stresses to the system was minimized and no additional fabrication procedures were necessary. We also applied the μ-sieving technique to the separation of cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) from whole blood and showed that the fluidic oscillations prevented the filters from being blocked by the filtered cancer cells allowing continuous microfluidic separation with high efficiency. PMID:27198601

  4. An improved stochastic separated flow model for turbulent two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. K.; Zhang, H. Q.; Lau, K. S.

    An improved stochastic separated flow model is proposed to obtain reasonable statistical characteristics of a two-phase flow. Effects of the history of a particle and its current trajectory position on the mean-square fluctuating velocity of the dispersed phase are continuously considered in this model. Comparing with the conventional model, results using the improved model are more reasonable and can also be obtained more easily. Furthermore, the improved model requires less computational particles for simulating dispersed-phase turbulence at the beginning of the stochastic trajectory. In this paper, an application in turbulent two-phase flow of planar mixing layer is carried out. Numerical results including velocity, mean-square fluctuating velocity, particle number density and pdf of fluctuation velocity of dispersed phase are shown to compare well with experimental data.

  5. Blind source separation for groundwater pressure analysis based on nonnegative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Boian S.; Vesselinov, Velimir V.

    2014-09-01

    The identification of the physical sources causing spatial and temporal fluctuations of aquifer water levels is a challenging, yet a very important hydrogeological task. The fluctuations can be caused by variations in natural and anthropogenic sources such as pumping, recharge, barometric pressures, etc. The source identification can be crucial for conceptualization of the hydrogeological conditions and characterization of aquifer properties. We propose a new computational framework for model-free inverse analysis of pressure transients based on Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) method for Blind Source Separation (BSS) coupled with k-means clustering algorithm, which we call NMFk. NMFk is capable of identifying a set of unique sources from a set of experimentally measured mixed signals, without any information about the sources, their transients, and the physical mechanisms and properties controlling the signal propagation through the subsurface flow medium. Our analysis only requires information about pressure transients at a number of observation points, m, where m≥r, and r is the number of unknown unique sources causing the observed fluctuations. We apply this new analysis on a data set from the Los Alamos National Laboratory site. We demonstrate that the sources identified by NMFk have real physical origins: barometric pressure and water-supply pumping effects. We also estimate the barometric pressure efficiency of the monitoring wells. The possible applications of the NMFk algorithm are not limited to hydrogeology problems; NMFk can be applied to any problem where temporal system behavior is observed at multiple locations and an unknown number of physical sources are causing these fluctuations.

  6. Modelling of fast hydrogen permeability of alloys for membrane gas separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaika, Yu. V.; Rodchenkova, N. I.

    2017-05-01

    The method of measuring the specific hydrogen permeability is used to study various alloys that are promising for gas separation installations. The nonlinear boundary value problem of hydrogen permeability complying with the specific features of the experiment and its modifications taking into account the high transfer rate is presented. Substantial difference from the quasi-equilibrium model (Richardson approximation in the assumption of the equilibrium Sieverts' law near the surface) has been discussed. The model is tested on published experimental data on Ta77Nb23 alloy.

  7. Modelling and simulation of the behaviour of a biofluid in a microchannel biochip separator.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiangdong; Patel, Mayur K; Kersaudy-Kerhoas, Maïwenn; Bailey, Chris; Desmulliez, Marc P Y

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the flow behaviour of a biofluid in a microchannel systems through conceptual analysis and modelling. The application is the design of a microfluidic chip developed for the separation of plasma from blood. The effect of key design features of the microchannels on the flow behaviour of the biofluid is explored. These include geometric features such as the constriction, bending channel, bifurcation and the channel length ratio between the main and side channels. The performance of each design is discussed in terms of separation efficiency of the red blood cells with respect to the rest of the medium. Particular phenomena such as the Fahraeus and Fahraeus-Lindqvist effects, the Zweifach-Fung bifurcation law and the cell-free layer are discussed. In this paper, the fluid is modelled as a single-phase flow assuming either Newtonian or Non-Newtonian behaviour to investigate the effect of the fluid viscosity on both flow and separation efficiency. For a flow rate-controlled Newtonian flow system, it is found that viscosity and outlet pressure have little effect on the velocity distribution through each of the microchannels. For a diluted fluid where the flow in the whole channel system is modelled with a uniform viscosity, less plasma is separated from blood than observed in the non-Newtonian case. This results in an increase in the flow rate ratio between the main and side channels. A comparison of Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows shows that both flows tend to behave identically with an increase in the shear strain rate.

  8. Macroscopic nanoporous graphene membranes for molecular-sieving-based gas separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutilier, Michael; Karnik, Rohit; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Nanoporous graphene membranes have the potential to exceed permeance and selectivity limits of existing gas separation membranes. This is made possible by the atomic thickness of the material, which can support sub-nanometer pores that enable molecular sieving while presenting low resistance to permeate flow. The feasibility of gas separation by graphene nanopores has been demonstrated experimentally on micron-scale areas of graphene. However, scaling up to macroscopic membrane areas presents significant challenges, including graphene imperfections and control of the selective nanopore size distribution across large areas. Towards this goal, gas permeance experiments are conducted on single and few layer graphene membranes to understand leakage pathways and a model is developed to predict conditions under which molecular sieving can occur in macroscopic membranes. Approaches to seal or mitigate the effects of micron and nanometer scale defects in graphene are investigated and methods of creating a high density of selectively permeable nanopores are explored. Experimental results demonstrating separation ratios exceeding the Knudsen effusion limit, indicating molecular sieving in agreement with the model predictions, are presented and discussed.

  9. Sequence-Based Separation of Single-Stranded DNA by using Nucleotides in Capillary Electrophoresis: Focus on Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueru; McGown, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    DNA analysis has widespread applicability in biology, medicine, biotechnology and forensics. DNA separation by length is readily achieved using sieving gels in electrophoresis. Separation by sequence is less simple, generally requiring adequate differences in native or induced conformation or differences in thermal or chemical stability of the strands that are hybridized prior to measurement. We previously demonstrated separation of four single-stranded DNA 76-mers that differ by only a few A-G substitutions based solely on sequence using guanosine-5′-monophosphate (GMP) in the running buffer. We attributed separation to the unique self-assembly of GMP to form higher order structures. Here we examine an expanded set of 76-mers designed to probe the mechanism of the separation and effects of experimental conditions. We were surprised to find that other ribonucleotides achieved the similar separation to GMP, and that some separation was achieved using sodium phosphate instead of GMP. Potassium phosphate achieved almost as good separations as the ribonucleotides. This suggests that the separation medium provides a physicochemical environment for the DNA that effects strand migration in a sequence-selective manner. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the mechanism involves specific interactions between the phosphates and the DNA strands or is a result of other properties of the separation medium. Phosphate generally has been avoided in DNA separations by capillary gel electrophoresis because its high ionic strength exacerbates Joule heating. Our results suggest that phosphate compounds should be examined for separation of DNA based on sequence. PMID:23576075

  10. Sequence-based separation of single-stranded DNA using nucleotides in capillary electrophoresis: focus on phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueru; McGown, Linda B

    2013-06-01

    DNA analysis has widespread applicability in biology, medicine, biotechnology, and forensics. DNA separation by length is readily achieved using sieving gels in electrophoresis. Separation by sequence is less simple, generally requiring adequate differences in native or induced conformation or differences in thermal or chemical stability of the strands that are hybridized prior to measurement. We previously demonstrated separation of four single-stranded DNA 76-mers that differ by only a few A-G substitutions based solely on sequence using guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP) in the running buffer. We attributed separation to the unique self-assembly of GMP to form higher order structures. Here, we examine an expanded set of 76-mers designed to probe the mechanism of the separation and effects of experimental conditions. We were surprised to find that other ribonucleotides achieved the similar separation to GMP, and that some separation was achieved using sodium phosphate instead of GMP. Potassium phosphate achieved almost as good separations as the ribonucleotides. This suggests that the separation medium provides a physicochemical environment for the DNA that effects strand migration in a sequence-selective manner. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the mechanism involves specific interactions between the phosphates and the DNA strands or is a result of other properties of the separation medium. Phosphate generally has been avoided in DNA separations by capillary gel electrophoresis because its high ionic strength exacerbates Joule heating. Our results suggest that phosphate compounds should be examined for separation of DNA based on sequence.

  11. Evaluation of turbulence models for prediction of separated turbulent boundary layer under unsteady adverse pressure gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junshin; You, Donghyun

    2014-11-01

    Predicitive capabilites of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) techniques for separated flow under unsteady adverse pressure gradients have been assessed using SST k - ω model and Spalart-Allmaras model by comparing their results with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. Both DNS and RANS have been conducted with a zero pressure gradient, a steady adverse pressure gradient, and an unsteady adverse pressure gradient, respectively. Comparative studies show that both RANS models predict earlier separation and fuller velocity profiles at the reattachment zone than DNS in the unsteady case, while reasonable agreements with DNS are observed for steady counterparts. Causes for differences in the predictive capability of RANS for steady and unsteady cases, are explained by examining the Reynolds stress term and eddy viscosity term in detail. The Reynolds stress and eddy viscosity are under-predicted by both RANS models in the unsteady case. The origin of the under-prediction of the Reynolds stress with both RANS models is revealed by investigating Reynolds stress budget terms obtained from DNS. Supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant NRF-2012R1A1A2003699 and the Brain Korea 21+ program.

  12. Experimental and Model Studies on Continuous Separation of 2-Phenylpropionic Acid Enantiomers by Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Centrifugal Contactor Separators.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kewen; Zhang, Pangliang; Yin, Shuangfeng

    2016-03-01

    Multistage enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) of 2-phenylpropionic acid (2-PPA) enantiomers using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as extractant was studied experimentally in a counter-current cascade of centrifugal contactor separators (CCSs). Performance of the process was evaluated by purity (enantiomeric excess, ee) and yield (Y). A multistage equilibrium model was established on the basis of single-stage model for chiral extraction of 2-PPA enantiomers and the law of mass conservation. A series of experiments on the extract phase/washing phase ratio (W/O ratio), extractant concentration, the pH value of aqueous phase, and the number of stages was conducted to verify the multistage equilibrium model. It was found that model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. The model was applied to predict and optimize the symmetrical separation of 2-PPA enantiomers. The optimal conditions for symmetric separation involves a W/O ratio of 0.6, pH of 2.5, and HP-β-CD concentration of 0.1 mol L(-1) at a temperature of 278 K, where eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach up to 37% and Yeq (equal yield) to 69%. By simulation and optimization, the minimum number of stages was evaluated at 98 and 106 for eeeq > 95% and eeeq > 97%.

  13. Development of a field-based separator for the rapid identification of uranium and plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, Carol J.; Kaminski, Michael D.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Kalensky, Michael; Sullivan, Vivian S.; Tsai, Yifen

    2015-07-01

    The development of rapid, radioanalytical techniques to separate uranium and plutonium from complex, field samples are needed for the timely and accurate determination of nuclear material origin, and processing activities. Widespread use of nuclear power and technology in the world has increased demands on analytical laboratories from the monitoring of numerous low-level, environmental samples with variable compositions. Environmental sampling has proven to be one of the strongest technical measures for detecting nuclear material and activities. With the increase in sampling demands, new technologies must offer improvements such as automation, high throughput, reproducible chemical separations, short analysis times, and reduced costs to be effective. We have been developing a portable, separations system for uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) separations based upon selective extraction of target elements using an extraction chromatographic resin which would allow for simple and fast identifcation when coupled with the appropriate sample digestor and detection systems. The microfluidic design minimizes elution volumes and concentrates the elements of interest in a purified stream. Flowsheet development and testing was demonstrated on a single, micro-column system with an acidified, iron, uranium, and plutonium nitrate stream. The recovery of Pu was optimized by examining various reducing agents at different concentrations for rapid, quantitative recovery from the flow-through design. Quantitative recovery and high selectivity of U and Pu was achieved in the appropriate stripping stages and provided purified and concentrated U and Pu streams. The microfluidic system suggests automation in a small, footprint unit while exploiting the in-line processing of extraction chromatographic resins as the primary means of concentrating the radionuclides from the raw acidic feed and separating the elements into purified streams.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2007-06-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  15. Modeling gradient elution in countercurrent chromatography: efficient separation of tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shihua; Wu, Dingfang; Liang, Junling; Berthod, Alain

    2012-04-01

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a support-free liquid-liquid chromatography using centrifugal fields to hold the liquid stationary phase. CCC has been widely applied in the separation of various natural and synthetic components using a variety of biphasic liquid systems. The related hexane or heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol or ethanol/water biphasic liquid systems demonstrated their significance in CCC. Gradient is difficult in CCC since any composition change in one phase induces a composition change of the other phase to maintain phase equilibrium. This work provides a new insight into linear gradient elution in CCC that is feasible with some biphasic liquid systems such as selected compositions of the hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water systems. The equations modeling solute motion inside the CCC column are proposed. Particular compositions of the liquid system, namely the hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water 8:2:E:W compositions with E + W = 10, were studied from W = 1 to 9. They showed moderate changes in the upper organic phase compositions. The model is tested with the separation of tanshinones from the rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Different linear solvent gradient profiles were experimentally performed between 8:2:5:5 and 8:2:3:7 compositions and the results were evaluated using the proposed model. Five tanshinones including dihydrotanshinone I, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, 1,2-dihydrotanshinquinone, and tanshinone IIA have been successfully separated (>95% purities) using a gradient profile optimized by the developed model. The gradient model can be used only with biphasic liquid systems in which one phase shows minimum composition changes when the other phase composition changes notably. This case is not the general case for biphasic liquid systems but can be applied with specific compositions of the quaternary hexane or heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol or ethanol/water most useful CCC liquid systems. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  16. Multiplexed Affinity-Based Separation of Proteins and Cells Using Inertial Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Aniruddh; Hou, Han Wei; Mahan, Alison. E.; Han, Jongyoon; Alter, Galit

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of low abundance proteins or rare cells from complex mixtures, such as blood, is required for many diagnostic, therapeutic and research applications. Current affinity-based protein or cell separation methods use binary ‘bind-elute’ separations and are inefficient when applied to the isolation of multiple low-abundance proteins or cell types. We present a method for rapid and multiplexed, yet inexpensive, affinity-based isolation of both proteins and cells, using a size-coded mixture of multiple affinity-capture microbeads and an inertial microfluidic particle sorter device. In a single binding step, different targets–cells or proteins–bind to beads of different sizes, which are then sorted by flowing them through a spiral microfluidic channel. This technique performs continuous-flow, high throughput affinity-separation of milligram-scale protein samples or millions of cells in minutes after binding. We demonstrate the simultaneous isolation of multiple antibodies from serum and multiple cell types from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or whole blood. We use the technique to isolate low abundance antibodies specific to different HIV antigens and rare HIV-specific cells from blood obtained from HIV+ patients. PMID:27026280

  17. Functional Allocation for Ground-Based Automated Separation Assurance in NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Martin, Lynne; Homola, Jeffrey; Cabrall, Christopher; Brasil, Connie

    2010-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research effort into functional allocation in a NextGen environment, a controller-in-the-loop study on ground-based automated separation assurance was conducted at NASA Ames' Airspace Operations Laboratory in February 2010. Participants included six FAA front line managers, who are currently certified professional controllers and four recently retired controllers. Traffic scenarios were 15 and 30 minutes long where controllers interacted with advanced technologies for ground-based separation assurance, weather avoidance, and arrival metering. The automation managed the separation by resolving conflicts automatically and involved controllers only by exception, e.g., when the automated resolution would have been outside preset limits. Results from data analyses show that workload was low despite high levels of traffic, Operational Errors did occur but were closely tied to local complexity, and safety acceptability ratings varied with traffic levels. Positive feedback was elicited for the overall concept with discussion on the proper allocation of functions and trust in automation.

  18. A frequency-control particle separation device based on resultant effects of electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shiang-Chi; Tung, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2016-08-01

    Particle separation plays an important role in microfluidic sample preparation for various biomedical applications. In this paper, we report a particle manipulation and separation scheme using a microfluidic device based on low-volume/low-voltage electrokinetic frequency modulation. Utilizing a circular micro-electrode array, both electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis can be contributed to manipulate particles in the device by controlling the frequency of applied sinusoidal travelling wave signals. Theoretical simulations based on finite-element methods are employed to establish fundamental understanding of the developed scheme. For experimental demonstration, polystyrene beads (6 μm in diameter) and human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60) are used to validate the frequency-modulation effect. Furthermore, different diameter polystyrene beads (6 μm and 10 μm in diameter) are mixed to show potentials of precise particle separations (˜90% efficiency) by the reported frequency-controlled electrokinetic device. The developed technique can be exploited as an actuation scheme and particle manipulation method for microfluidic sample preparations of low ionic concentration samples.

  19. Feature-based attentional modulation increases with stimulus separation in divided-attention tasks.

    PubMed

    Sally, Sharon L; Vidnyánsky, Zoltán; Papathomas, Thomas V

    2009-01-01

    Attention modifies our visual experience by selecting certain aspects of a scene for further processing. It is therefore important to understand factors that govern the deployment of selective attention over the visual field. Both location and feature-specific mechanisms of attention have been identified and their modulatory effects can interact at a neural level (Treue and Martinez-Trujillo, 1999). The effects of spatial parameters on feature-based attentional modulation were examined for the feature dimensions of orientation, motion and color using three divided-attention tasks. Subjects performed concurrent discriminations of two briefly presented targets (Gabor patches) to the left and right of a central fixation point at eccentricities of +/-2.5 degrees , 5 degrees , 10 degrees and 15 degrees in the horizontal plane. Gabors were size-scaled to maintain consistent single-task performance across eccentricities. For all feature dimensions, the data show a linear increase in the attentional effects with target separation. In a control experiment, Gabors were presented on an isoeccentric viewing arc at 10 degrees and 15 degrees at the closest spatial separation (+/-2.5 degrees ) of the main experiment. Under these conditions, the effects of feature-based attentional effects were largely eliminated. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that feature-based attention prioritizes the processing of attended features. Feature-based attentional mechanisms may have helped direct the attentional focus to the appropriate target locations at greater separations, whereas similar assistance may not have been necessary at closer target spacings. The results of the present study specify conditions under which dual-task performance benefits from sharing similar target features and may therefore help elucidate the processes by which feature-based attention operates.

  20. Flight test results for a separate surface stability augmented Beech model 99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, G. E.; Henry, H. F.; Roskam, J.

    1977-01-01

    A flight evaluation of a Beech model 99 equipped with an attitude command control system incorporating separate surface stability augmentation (SSSA) was conducted to determine whether an attitude command control system could be implemented using separate surface controls, and to determine whether the handling and ride qualities of the aircraft were improved by the SSSA attitude command system. The results of the program revealed that SSSA is a viable approach to implementing attitude command and also that SSSA has the capability of performing less demanding augmentation tasks such as yaw damping, wing leveling, and pitch damping. The program also revealed that attitude command did improve the pilot rating and ride qualities of the airplane while flying an IFR mission in turbulence. Some disadvantages of the system included the necessity of holding aileron force in a banked turn and excessive stiffness in the pitch axis.

  1. Discovery of optimal zeolites for challenging separations and chemical transformations using predictive materials modeling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Peng; Jeon, Mi Young; Ren, Limin; Knight, Chris; Deem, Michael W; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2015-01-21

    Zeolites play numerous important roles in modern petroleum refineries and have the potential to advance the production of fuels and chemical feedstocks from renewable resources. The performance of a zeolite as separation medium and catalyst depends on its framework structure. To date, 213 framework types have been synthesized and >330,000 thermodynamically accessible zeolite structures have been predicted. Hence, identification of optimal zeolites for a given application from the large pool of candidate structures is attractive for accelerating the pace of materials discovery. Here we identify, through a large-scale, multi-step computational screening process, promising zeolite structures for two energy-related applications: the purification of ethanol from fermentation broths and the hydroisomerization of alkanes with 18-30 carbon atoms encountered in petroleum refining. These results demonstrate that predictive modelling and data-driven science can now be applied to solve some of the most challenging separation problems involving highly non-ideal mixtures and highly articulated compounds.

  2. Discovery of optimal zeolites for challenging separations and chemical transformations using predictive materials modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Peng; Jeon, Mi Young; Ren, Limin; Knight, Chris; Deem, Michael W.; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J. Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites play numerous important roles in modern petroleum refineries and have the potential to advance the production of fuels and chemical feedstocks from renewable resources. The performance of a zeolite as separation medium and catalyst depends on its framework structure. To date, 213 framework types have been synthesized and >330,000 thermodynamically accessible zeolite structures have been predicted. Hence, identification of optimal zeolites for a given application from the large pool of candidate structures is attractive for accelerating the pace of materials discovery. Here we identify, through a large-scale, multi-step computational screening process, promising zeolite structures for two energy-related applications: the purification of ethanol from fermentation broths and the hydroisomerization of alkanes with 18-30 carbon atoms encountered in petroleum refining. These results demonstrate that predictive modelling and data-driven science can now be applied to solve some of the most challenging separation problems involving highly non-ideal mixtures and highly articulated compounds.

  3. First results obtained in France with the latest model of the Fresenius cell separator: AS 104.

    PubMed

    Coffe, C; Couteret, Y; Devillers, M; Fest, T; Hervé, P; Kieffer, Y; Lamy, B; Masse, M; Morel, P; Pouthier-Stein, F

    1993-01-01

    In Besançon, we carried out 40 plateletphereses with the latest model of the Fresenius cell separator AS 104 to check this new system against the new generation of cell separators, according to the following criteria: less than 2x10 6 leukocytes (before filtration) and more than 5x10 11 platelets. The results show that platelet concentrates contained 5.04+/-0.88x10 11 platelets in a total volume of 435+/-113 mL. The mean platelet recovery was 40.95+/-4.86% (from 31.7 to 51.6). The leukocyte content was 2.28+/-5.48x10 6 and the red blood cell contamination was 3.48+/-2.38x10 8. The quality of the platelets was very satisfactory. There was no problem with donor biocompatibility or procedure safety, few adverse donor reactions (0.6%) and good therapeutic efficiency of platelet concentrates.

  4. Anisotropy-resolving models for predicting separation in 3--D asymmetric diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyapaul, Elbert; Durbin, Paul

    2011-11-01

    All linear eddy-viscosity models are qualitatively incorrect in predicting separation in 3-D asymmetric diffusers. The failure to predict normal stress and shear stress anisotropy at high production-dissipation ratios is the cause. The Explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (Wallin and Johansson, 2000) predicts the mean flow field in the diffuser accurately, but not the wall pressure and Reynolds stresses. Recalibrating the coefficients of the rapid part of pressure-strain model improves the wall pressure prediction. Including the convective, diffusive, streamline curvature effects on anisotropy has not been beneficial. The model has been tested using a family of diffusers having the same nominal streamwise pressure gradient, LES data is used as a reference. Professor

  5. Reducing Societal Obesity: Establishing a Separate Exercise Model through Studies of Group Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Puterbaugh, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The past 50 years has brought attention to high and increasing levels of human obesity in most of the industrialized world. The medical profession has noticed, has evaluated, and has developed models for studying, preventing, and reversing obesity. The current model prescribes activity in specific quantities such as days, minutes, heart rates, and footfalls. Although decreased levels of activity have come from changes revolving around built environments and social networks, the existing medical model to lower body weights by increasing activity remains individually prescriptive. It is not working. The study of societal obesity precludes the individual and must involve group behavioral studies. Such studies necessitate acquiring separate tools and, therefore, require a significant change in the evaluation and treatment of obesity. Finding groups with common activities and lower levels of obesity would allow the development of new models of land use and encourage active lifestyles through shared interests. PMID:27429800

  6. Method for separating metal chelates from other materials based on solubilities in supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Phelps, Cindy

    2001-01-01

    A method for separating a desired metal or metalloi from impurities using a supercritical extraction process based on solubility differences between the components, as well as the ability to vary the solvent power of the supercritical fluid, is described. The use of adduct-forming agents, such as phosphorous-containing ligands, to separate metal or metalloid chelates in such processes is further disclosed. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones; phosphine oxides, such as trialkylphosphine oxides, triarylphosphine oxides and alkylarylphosphine oxides; phosphinic acids; carboxylic acids; phosphates, such as trialkylphosphates, triarylphosphates and alkylarylphosphates; crown ethers; dithiocarbamates; phosphine sulfides; phosphorothioic acids; thiophosphinic acids; halogenated analogs of these chelating agents; and mixtures of these chelating agents. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated.

  7. Scalable and efficient separation of hydrogen isotopes using graphene-based electrochemical pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada-Hidalgo, M.; Zhang, S.; Hu, S.; Esfandiar, A.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Geim, A. K.

    2017-05-01

    Thousands of tons of isotopic mixtures are processed annually for heavy-water production and tritium decontamination. The existing technologies remain extremely energy intensive and require large capital investments. New approaches are needed to reduce the industry's footprint. Recently, micrometre-size crystals of graphene are shown to act as efficient sieves for hydrogen isotopes pumped through graphene electrochemically. Here we report a fully-scalable approach, using graphene obtained by chemical vapour deposition, which allows a proton-deuteron separation factor of around 8, despite cracks and imperfections. The energy consumption is projected to be orders of magnitude smaller with respect to existing technologies. A membrane based on 30 m2 of graphene, a readily accessible amount, could provide a heavy-water output comparable to that of modern plants. Even higher efficiency is expected for tritium separation. With no fundamental obstacles for scaling up, the technology's simplicity, efficiency and green credentials call for consideration by the nuclear and related industries.

  8. Highly accurate and fast optical penetration-based silkworm gender separation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chanhorm, Sataporn

    2015-07-01

    Based on our research work in the last five years, this paper highlights our innovative optical sensing system that can identify and separate silkworm gender highly suitable for sericulture industry. The key idea relies on our proposed optical penetration concepts and once combined with simple image processing operations leads to high accuracy in identifying of silkworm gender. Inside the system, there are electronic and mechanical parts that assist in controlling the overall system operation, processing the optical signal, and separating the female from male silkworm pupae. With current system performance, we achieve a very highly accurate more than 95% in identifying gender of silkworm pupae with an average system operational speed of 30 silkworm pupae/minute. Three of our systems are already in operation at Thailand's Queen Sirikit Sericulture Centers.

  9. Blind source separation based x-ray image denoising from an image sequence.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-Yu; Li, Yan; Fei, Bin; Li, Wei-Liang

    2015-09-01

    Blind source separation (BSS) based x-ray image denoising from an image sequence is proposed. Without priori knowledge, the useful image signal can be separated from an x-ray image sequence, for original images are supposed as different combinations of stable image signal and random image noise. The BSS algorithms such as fixed-point independent component analysis and second-order statistics singular value decomposition are used and compared with multi-frame averaging which is a common algorithm for improving image's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Denoising performance is evaluated in SNR, standard deviation, entropy, and runtime. Analysis indicates that BSS is applicable to image denoising; the denoised image's quality will get better when more frames are included in an x-ray image sequence, but it will cost more time; there should be trade-off between denoising performance and runtime, which means that the number of frames included in an image sequence is enough.

  10. Rolling Process Modeling Report: Finite-Element Prediction of Roll Separating Force and Rolling Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Soulami, Ayoub; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2014-04-23

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy plate-type fuel for the U.S. high-performance research reactors. This work supports the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative. This report documents modeling results of PNNL’s efforts to perform finite-element simulations to predict roll separating forces and rolling defects. Simulations were performed using a finite-element model developed using the commercial code LS-Dyna. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel have been conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll-pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. This report discusses various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., dog-boning and thickness non-uniformity).

  11. Hypersonic Separated Flows About "Tick" Configurations With Sensitivity to Model Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, J. N.; O'Byrne, S.; Gai, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents computational results obtained by applying the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for hypersonic nonequilibrium flow about "tick-shaped" model configurations. These test models produces a complex flow where the nonequilibrium and rarefied aspects of the flow are initially enhanced as the flow passes over an expansion surface, and then the flow encounters a compression surface that can induce flow separation. The resulting flow is such that meaningful numerical simulations must have the capability to account for a significant range of rarefaction effects; hence the application of the DSMC method in the current study as the flow spans several flow regimes, including transitional, slip, and continuum. The current focus is to examine the sensitivity of both the model surface response (heating, friction and pressure) and flowfield structure to assumptions regarding surface boundary conditions and more extensively the impact of model design as influenced by leading edge configuration as well as the geometrical features of the expansion and compression surfaces. Numerical results indicate a strong sensitivity to both the extent of the leading edge sharpness and the magnitude of the leading edge bevel angle. Also, the length of the expansion surface for a fixed compression surface has a significant impact on the extent of separated flow.

  12. Hypersonic separated flows about "tick" configurations with sensitivity to model design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, J. N.; O'Byrne, S.; Gai, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents computational results obtained by applying the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for hypersonic nonequilibrium flow about "tick-shaped" model configurations. These test models produces a complex flow where the nonequilibrium and rarefied aspects of the flow are initially enhanced as the flow passes over an expansion surface, and then the flow encounters a compression surface that can induce flow separation. The resulting flow is such that meaningful numerical simulations must have the capability to account for a significant range of rarefaction effects; hence the application of the DSMC method in the current study as the flow spans several flow regimes, including transitional, slip, and continuum. The current focus is to examine the sensitivity of both the model surface response (heating, friction and pressure) and flowfield structure to assumptions regarding surface boundary conditions and more extensively the impact of model design as influenced by leading edge configuration as well as the geometrical features of the expansion and compression surfaces. Numerical results indicate a strong sensitivity to both the extent of the leading edge sharpness and the magnitude of the leading edge bevel angle. Also, the length of the expansion surface for a fixed compression surface has a significant impact on the extent of separated flow.

  13. Collaborative Research: Separating Forced and Unforced Decadal Predictability in Models and Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Tippett, Michael K.

    2014-04-09

    This report is a progress report of the accomplishments of the research grant “Collaborative Research: Separating Forced and Unforced Decadal Predictability in Models and Observa- tions” during the period 1 May 2011- 31 August 2013. This project is a collaborative one between Columbia University and George Mason University. George Mason University will submit a final technical report at the conclusion of their no-cost extension. The purpose of the proposed research is to identify unforced predictable components on decadal time scales, distinguish these components from forced predictable components, and to assess the reliability of model predictions of these components. Components of unforced decadal predictability will be isolated by maximizing the Average Predictability Time (APT) in long, multimodel control runs from state-of-the-art climate models. Components with decadal predictability have large APT, so maximizing APT ensures that components with decadal predictability will be detected. Optimal fingerprinting techniques, as used in detection and attribution analysis, will be used to separate variations due to natural and anthropogenic forcing from those due to unforced decadal predictability. This methodology will be applied to the decadal hindcasts generated by the CMIP5 project to assess the reliability of model projections. The question of whether anthropogenic forcing changes decadal predictability, or gives rise to new forms of decadal predictability, also will be investigated.

  14. On an application of Tikhonov's fixed point theorem to a nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard type system modeling phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colli, Pierluigi; Gilardi, Gianni; Sprekels, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates a nonlocal version of a model for phase separation on an atomic lattice that was introduced by P. Podio-Guidugli (2006) [36]. The model consists of an initial-boundary value problem for a nonlinearly coupled system of two partial differential equations governing the evolution of an order parameter ρ and the chemical potential μ. Singular contributions to the local free energy in the form of logarithmic or double-obstacle potentials are admitted. In contrast to the local model, which was studied by P. Podio-Guidugli and the present authors in a series of recent publications, in the nonlocal case the equation governing the evolution of the order parameter contains in place of the Laplacian a nonlocal expression that originates from nonlocal contributions to the free energy and accounts for possible long-range interactions between the atoms. It is shown that just as in the local case the model equations are well posed, where the technique of proving existence is entirely different: it is based on an application of Tikhonov's fixed point theorem in a rather unusual separable and reflexive Banach space.

  15. Sliding-triboelectric nanogenerators based on in-plane charge-separation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sihong; Lin, Long; Xie, Yannan; Jing, Qingshen; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-05-08

    Aiming at harvesting ambient mechanical energy for self-powered systems, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have been recently developed as a highly efficient, cost-effective and robust approach to generate electricity from mechanical movements and vibrations on the basis of the coupling between triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. However, all of the previously demonstrated TENGs are based on vertical separation of triboelectric-charged planes, which requires sophisticated device structures to ensure enough resilience for the charge separation, otherwise there is no output current. In this paper, we demonstrated a newly designed TENG based on an in-plane charge separation process using the relative sliding between two contacting surfaces. Using Polyamide 6,6 (Nylon) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films with surface etched nanowires, the two polymers at the opposite ends of the triboelectric series, the newly invented TENG produces an open-circuit voltage up to ~1300 V and a short-circuit current density of 4.1 mA/m(2) with a peak power density of 5.3 W/m(2), which can be used as a direct power source for instantaneously driving hundreds of serially connected light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The working principle and the relationships between electrical outputs and the sliding motion are fully elaborated and systematically studied, providing a new mode of TENGs with diverse applications. Compared to the existing vertical-touching based TENGs, this planar-sliding TENG has a high efficiency, easy fabrication, and suitability for many types of mechanical triggering. Furthermore, with the relationship between the electrical output and the sliding motion being calibrated, the sliding-based TENG could potentially be used as a self-powered displacement/speed/acceleration sensor.

  16. An Open Trial of Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT) for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Timko, C. Alix; Zucker, Nancy L.; Herbert, James D.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Merwin, Rhonda M.

    2016-01-01

    Family based-treatments have the most empirical support in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa; yet, a significant percentage of adolescents and their families do not respond to manualized family based treatment (FBT). The aim of this open trial was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of an innovative family-based approach to the treatment of anorexia: Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT). Treatment was grounded in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), delivered in a separated format, and included an ACT-informed skills program. Adolescents (ages 12–18) with anorexia or sub-threshold anorexia and their families received 20 treatment sessions over 24 weeks. Outcome indices included eating disorder symptomatology reported by the parent and adolescent, percentage of expected body weight achieved, and changes in psychological acceptance/avoidance. Half of the adolescents (48.0%) met criteria for full remission at the end of treatment, 29.8% met criteria for partial remission, and 21.3% did not improve. Overall, adolescents had a significant reduction in eating disorder symptoms and reached expected body weight. Treatment resulted in changes in psychological acceptance in the expected direction for both parents and adolescents. This open trial provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of ASFT for adolescents with anorexia. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25898341

  17. Simultaneous separation of hydrophobic and polar bases using a silica hydride stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Matyska, Maria T; Boysen, Reinhard I; Pesek, Joseph J; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the retention behavior of selected hydrophobic and polar bases on a minimally modified silica hydride phase was investigated. From these results and the associated retention plots, significant differences in the chromatographic dependencies of these two classes of basic compounds were evident. The polar bases exhibited strong retention with mobile phases of high organic solvent content, but displayed weak retention with mobile phases of high water content. In contrast, the hydrophobic bases showed "U-shape" retention dependencies, indicative of the interplay of both RP and normal-phase retention characteristics. These studies have demonstrated that hydrophobic and polar bases can be simultaneously separated on the same column either under typical RP-like or aqueous normal-phase-like conditions, respectively, with distinctive selectivity. Finally, the effects of temperature on the RP and aqueous normal phase modality of separations with these analytes were investigated, where discrete changes in retention behavior were also observed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. An open trial of Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Timko, C Alix; Zucker, Nancy L; Herbert, James D; Rodriguez, Daniel; Merwin, Rhonda M

    2015-06-01

    Family based-treatments have the most empirical support in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa; yet, a significant percentage of adolescents and their families do not respond to manualized family based treatment (FBT). The aim of this open trial was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of an innovative family-based approach to the treatment of anorexia: Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT). Treatment was grounded in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), delivered in a separated format, and included an ACT-informed skills program. Adolescents (ages 12-18) with anorexia or sub-threshold anorexia and their families received 20 treatment sessions over 24 weeks. Outcome indices included eating disorder symptomatology reported by the parent and adolescent, percentage of expected body weight achieved, and changes in psychological acceptance/avoidance. Half of the adolescents (48.0%) met criteria for full remission at the end of treatment, 29.8% met criteria for partial remission, and 21.3% did not improve. Overall, adolescents had a significant reduction in eating disorder symptoms and reached expected body weight. Treatment resulted in changes in psychological acceptance in the expected direction for both parents and adolescents. This open trial provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of ASFT for adolescents with anorexia. Directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Entropy-based automated classification of independent components separated from fMCG.

    PubMed

    Comani, S; Srinivasan, V; Alleva, G; Romani, G L

    2007-03-07

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is a noninvasive technique suitable for the prenatal diagnosis of the fetal heart function. Reliable fetal cardiac signals can be reconstructed from mul