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Sample records for model greenlab deal

  1. Does the Structure–Function Model GREENLAB Deal with Crop Phenotypic Plasticity Induced by Plant Spacing? A Case Study on Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qiaoxue; Louarn, Gaëtan; Wang, Yiming; Barczi, Jean-Francois; de Reffye, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant growth models able to simulate phenotypic plasticity are increasingly required because (1) they should enable better predictions of the observed variations in crop production, yield and quality, and (2) their parameters are expected to have a more robust genetic basis, with possible implications for selection of quantitative traits such as growth- and allocation-related processes. The structure–function plant model, GREENLAB, simulates resource-dependent plasticity of plant architecture. Evidence for its generality has been previously reported, but always for plants grown in a limited range of environments. This paper aims to test the model concept to its limits by using plant spacing as a means to generate a gradient of competition for light, and by using a new crop species, tomato, known to exhibit a strong photomorphogenetic response. Methods A greenhouse experiment was carried out with three homogeneous planting densities (plant spacing = 0·3, 0·6 and 1 m). Detailed records of plant development, plant architecture and organ growth were made throughout the growing period. Model calibration was performed for each situation using a statistical optimization procedure (multi-fitting). Key Results and Conclusions Obvious limitations of the present version of the model appeared to account fully for the plant plasticity induced by inter-plant competition for light. A lack of stability was identified for some model parameters at very high planting density. In particular, those parameters characterizing organ sink strengths and governing light interception proved to be environment-dependent. Remarkably, however, responses of the parameter values concerned were consistent with actual growth measurements and with previously reported results. Furthermore, modifications of total biomass production and of allocation patterns induced by the planting-density treatments were accurately simulated using the sets of optimized parameters. These results

  2. The Derivation of Sink Functions of Wheat Organs using the GREENLAB Model

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mengzhen; Evers, Jochem B.; Vos, Jan; de Reffye, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims In traditional crop growth models assimilate production and partitioning are described with empirical equations. In the GREENLAB functional–structural model, however, allocation of carbon to different kinds of organs depends on the number and relative sink strengths of growing organs present in the crop architecture. The aim of this study is to generate sink functions of wheat (Triticum aestivum) organs by calibrating the GREENLAB model using a dedicated data set, consisting of time series on the mass of individual organs (the ‘target data’). Methods An experiment was conducted on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum, ‘Minaret’), in a growth chamber from, 2004 to, 2005. Four harvests were made of six plants each to determine the size and mass of individual organs, including the root system, leaf blades, sheaths, internodes and ears of the main stem and different tillers. Leaf status (appearance, expansion, maturity and death) of these 24 plants was recorded. With the structures and mass of organs of four individual sample plants, the GREENLAB model was calibrated using a non-linear least-square-root fitting method, the aim of which was to minimize the difference in mass of the organs between measured data and model output, and to provide the parameter values of the model (the sink strengths of organs of each type, age and tiller order, and two empirical parameters linked to biomass production). Key Results and Conclusions The masses of all measured organs from one plant from each harvest were fitted simultaneously. With estimated parameters for sink and source functions, the model predicted the mass and size of individual organs at each position of the wheat structure in a mechanistic way. In addition, there was close agreement between experimentally observed and simulated values of leaf area index. PMID:18045794

  3. Parameter optimization and field validation of the functional-structural model GREENLAB for maize at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuntao; Wen, Meiping; Guo, Yan; Li, Baoguo; Cournède, Paul-Henry; de Reffye, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    Plant population density (PPD) influences plant growth greatly. Functional-structural plant models such as GREENLAB can be used to simulate plant development and growth and PPD effects on plant functioning and architectural behaviour can be investigated. This study aims to evaluate the ability of GREENLAB to predict maize growth and development at different PPDs. Two field experiments were conducted on irrigated fields in the North China Plain with a block design of four replications. Each experiment included three PPDs: 2.8, 5.6 and 11.1 plants m(-2). Detailed observations were made on the dimensions and fresh biomass of above-ground plant organs for each phytomer throughout the seasons. Growth stage-specific target files (a description of plant organ weight and dimension according to plant topological structure) were established from the measured data required for GREENLAB parameterization. Parameter optimization was conducted using a generalized least square method for the entire growth cycles for all PPDs and years. Data from in situ plant digitization were used to establish geometrical symbol files for organs that were then applied to translate model output directly into 3-D representation for each time step of the model execution. The analysis indicated that the parameter values of organ sink variation function, and the values of most of the relative sink strength parameters varied little among years and PPDs, but the biomass production parameter, computed plant projection surface and internode relative sink strength varied with PPD. Simulations of maize plant growth based on the fitted parameters were reasonably good as indicated by the linearity and slopes similar to unity for the comparison of simulated and observed values. Based on the parameter values fitted from different PPDs, shoot (including vegetative and reproductive parts of the plant) and cob fresh biomass for other PPDs were simulated. Three-dimensional representation of individual plant and

  4. Parameter Optimization and Field Validation of the Functional–Structural Model GREENLAB for Maize at Different Population Densities

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuntao; Wen, Meiping; Guo, Yan; Li, Baoguo; Cournède, Paul-Henry; de Reffye, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant population density (PPD) influences plant growth greatly. Functional–structural plant models such as GREENLAB can be used to simulate plant development and growth and PPD effects on plant functioning and architectural behaviour can be investigated. This study aims to evaluate the ability of GREENLAB to predict maize growth and development at different PPDs. Methods Two field experiments were conducted on irrigated fields in the North China Plain with a block design of four replications. Each experiment included three PPDs: 2·8, 5·6 and 11·1 plants m−2. Detailed observations were made on the dimensions and fresh biomass of above-ground plant organs for each phytomer throughout the seasons. Growth stage-specific target files (a description of plant organ weight and dimension according to plant topological structure) were established from the measured data required for GREENLAB parameterization. Parameter optimization was conducted using a generalized least square method for the entire growth cycles for all PPDs and years. Data from in situ plant digitization were used to establish geometrical symbol files for organs that were then applied to translate model output directly into 3-D representation for each time step of the model execution. Key Results The analysis indicated that the parameter values of organ sink variation function, and the values of most of the relative sink strength parameters varied little among years and PPDs, but the biomass production parameter, computed plant projection surface and internode relative sink strength varied with PPD. Simulations of maize plant growth based on the fitted parameters were reasonably good as indicated by the linearity and slopes similar to unity for the comparison of simulated and observed values. Based on the parameter values fitted from different PPDs, shoot (including vegetative and reproductive parts of the plant) and cob fresh biomass for other PPDs were simulated. Three

  5. Parameter Optimization and Field Validation of the Functional–Structural Model GREENLAB for Maize

    PubMed Central

    GUO, YAN; MA, YUNTAO; ZHAN, ZHIGANG; LI, BAOGUO; DINGKUHN, MICHAEL; LUQUET, DELPHINE; DE REFFYE, PHILIPPE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims There are three reasons for the increasing demand for crop models that build the plant on the basis of architectural principles and organogenetic processes: (1) realistic concepts for developing new crops need to be guided by such models; (2) there is an increasing interest in crop phenotypic plasticity, based on variable architecture and morphology; and (3) engineering of mechanized cropping systems requires information on crop architecture. The functional–structural model GREENLAB was recently presented that simulates resource-dependent plasticity of plant architecture. This study introduces a new methodology for crop parameter optimization against measured data called multi-fitting, validates the calibrated model for maize with independent field data, and describes a technique for 3D visualization of outputs. • Methods Maize was grown near Beijing during the 2000, 2001 and 2003 (two sowing dates) summer seasons in a block design with four to five replications. Detailed morphological and topological observations were made on the plant architecture throughout the development of the four crops. Data obtained in 2000 was used to establish target files for parameter optimization using the generalized least square method, and parameter accuracy was evaluated by coefficient of variance. In situ plant digitization was used to establish 3D symbol files for organs that were then used to translate model outputs directly into 3D representations for each time step of model execution. •Key Results and Conclusions Multi-fitting against several target files obtained at different growth stages gave better parameter accuracy than single fitting at maturity only, and permitted extracting generic organ expansion kinetics from the static observations. The 2000 model gave excellent predictions of plant architecture and vegetative growth for the other three seasons having different temperature regimes, but predictions of inter-seasonal variability of

  6. Parameter Stability of the Functional–Structural Plant Model GREENLAB as Affected by Variation within Populations, among Seasons and among Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuntao; Li, Baoguo; Zhan, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Luquet, Delphine; de Reffye, Philippe; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims It is increasingly accepted that crop models, if they are to simulate genotype-specific behaviour accurately, should simulate the morphogenetic process generating plant architecture. A functional–structural plant model, GREENLAB, was previously presented and validated for maize. The model is based on a recursive mathematical process, with parameters whose values cannot be measured directly and need to be optimized statistically. This study aims at evaluating the stability of GREENLAB parameters in response to three types of phenotype variability: (1) among individuals from a common population; (2) among populations subjected to different environments (seasons); and (3) among different development stages of the same plants. Methods Five field experiments were conducted in the course of 4 years on irrigated fields near Beijing, China. Detailed observations were conducted throughout the seasons on the dimensions and fresh biomass of all above-ground plant organs for each metamer. Growth stage-specific target files were assembled from the data for GREENLAB parameter optimization. Optimization was conducted for specific developmental stages or the entire growth cycle, for individual plants (replicates), and for different seasons. Parameter stability was evaluated by comparing their CV with that of phenotype observation for the different sources of variability. A reduced data set was developed for easier model parameterization using one season, and validated for the four other seasons. Key Results and Conclusions The analysis of parameter stability among plants sharing the same environment and among populations grown in different environments indicated that the model explains some of the inter-seasonal variability of phenotype (parameters varied less than the phenotype itself), but not inter-plant variability (parameter and phenotype variability were similar). Parameter variability among developmental stages was small, indicating that parameter

  7. Computing competition for light in the GREENLAB model of plant growth: a contribution to the study of the effects of density on resource acquisition and architectural development.

    PubMed

    Cournède, Paul-Henry; Mathieu, Amélie; Houllier, François; Barthélémy, Daniel; de Reffye, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    The dynamical system of plant growth GREENLAB was originally developed for individual plants, without explicitly taking into account interplant competition for light. Inspired by the competition models developed in the context of forest science for mono-specific stands, we propose to adapt the method of crown projection onto the x-y plane to GREENLAB, in order to study the effects of density on resource acquisition and on architectural development. The empirical production equation of GREENLAB is extrapolated to stands by computing the exposed photosynthetic foliage area of each plant. The computation is based on the combination of Poisson models of leaf distribution for all the neighbouring plants whose crown projection surfaces overlap. To study the effects of density on architectural development, we link the proposed competition model to the model of interaction between functional growth and structural development introduced by Mathieu (2006, PhD Thesis, Ecole Centrale de Paris, France). The model is applied to mono-specific field crops and forest stands. For high-density crops at full cover, the model is shown to be equivalent to the classical equation of field crop production (Howell and Musick, 1985, in Les besoins en eau des cultures; Paris: INRA Editions). However, our method is more accurate at the early stages of growth (before cover) or in the case of intermediate densities. It may potentially account for local effects, such as uneven spacing, variation in the time of plant emergence or variation in seed biomass. The application of the model to trees illustrates the expression of plant plasticity in response to competition for light. Density strongly impacts on tree architectural development through interactions with the source-sink balances during growth. The effects of density on tree height and radial growth that are commonly observed in real stands appear as emerging properties of the model.

  8. Characterization of the interactions between architecture and source-sink relationships in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) using the GreenLab model.

    PubMed

    Jullien, Alexandra; Mathieu, Amélie; Allirand, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Amélie; de Reffye, Philippe; Cournède, Paul-Henry; Ney, Bertrand

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize the interaction between architecture and source-sink relationships in winter oilseed rape (WOSR): do the costs of ramification compromise the source-sink ratio during seed filling? The GreenLab model is a good candidate to address this question because it has been already used to describe interactions between source-sink relationships and architecture for other species. However, its adaptation to WOSR is a challenge because of the complexity of its developmental scheme, especially during the reproductive phase. Equations were added in GreenLab to compute expansion delays for ramification, flowering of each axis and photosynthesis of pods including the energetic cost of oil synthesis. Experimental field data were used to estimate morphological parameters while source-sink parameters of the model were estimated by adjustment of model outputs to the data. Ecophysiological outputs were used to assess the sources/sink relationships during the whole growth cycle. First results indicated that, at the plant scale, the model correctly simulates the dynamics of organ growth. However, at the organ scale, errors were observed that could be explained either by secondary growth that was not incorporated or by uncertainties in morphological parameters (durations of expansion and life). Ecophysiological outputs highlighted the dramatic negative impact of ramification on the source-sink ratio, as well as the decrease in this ratio during seed filling despite pod envelope photosynthesis that allowed significant biomass production to be maintained. This work is a promising first step in the construction of a structure-function model for a plant as complex as WOSR. Once tested for other environments and/or genotypes, the model can be used for studies on WOSR architectural plasticity.

  9. Characterization of the interactions between architecture and source–sink relationships in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) using the GreenLab model

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Alexandra; Mathieu, Amélie; Allirand, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Amélie; de Reffye, Philippe; Cournède, Paul-Henry; Ney, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims This study aimed to characterize the interaction between architecture and source–sink relationships in winter oilseed rape (WOSR): do the costs of ramification compromise the source–sink ratio during seed filling? The GreenLab model is a good candidate to address this question because it has been already used to describe interactions between source–sink relationships and architecture for other species. However, its adaptation to WOSR is a challenge because of the complexity of its developmental scheme, especially during the reproductive phase. Methods Equations were added in GreenLab to compute expansion delays for ramification, flowering of each axis and photosynthesis of pods including the energetic cost of oil synthesis. Experimental field data were used to estimate morphological parameters while source–sink parameters of the model were estimated by adjustment of model outputs to the data. Ecophysiological outputs were used to assess the sources/sink relationships during the whole growth cycle. Key Results First results indicated that, at the plant scale, the model correctly simulates the dynamics of organ growth. However, at the organ scale, errors were observed that could be explained either by secondary growth that was not incorporated or by uncertainties in morphological parameters (durations of expansion and life). Ecophysiological outputs highlighted the dramatic negative impact of ramification on the source–sink ratio, as well as the decrease in this ratio during seed filling despite pod envelope photosynthesis that allowed significant biomass production to be maintained. Conclusions This work is a promising first step in the construction of a structure–function model for a plant as complex as WOSR. Once tested for other environments and/or genotypes, the model can be used for studies on WOSR architectural plasticity. PMID:20980324

  10. Dealing with Diversity in Computational Cancer Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David; McKeever, Steve; Stamatakos, Georgios; Dionysiou, Dimitra; Graf, Norbert; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Marias, Konstantinos; Wang, Zhihui; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for interconnecting computational cancer models from different sources and scales within clinically relevant scenarios to increase the accuracy of the models and speed up their clinical adaptation, validation, and eventual translation. We briefly review current interoperability efforts drawing upon our experiences with the development of in silico models for predictive oncology within a number of European Commission Virtual Physiological Human initiative projects on cancer. A clinically relevant scenario, addressing brain tumor modeling that illustrates the need for coupling models from different sources and levels of complexity, is described. General approaches to enabling interoperability using XML-based markup languages for biological modeling are reviewed, concluding with a discussion on efforts towards developing cancer-specific XML markup to couple multiple component models for predictive in silico oncology. PMID:23700360

  11. NASA's GreenLab Research Facility: A Guide for a Self-Sustainable Renewable Energy Ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bomani, B. M. McDowell; Hendricks, R. C.; Elbuluk, Malik; Okon, Monica; Lee, Eric; Gigante, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The sustainability of humanity, as we know it, directly depends on the ability to secure affordable fuel, food, and freshwater. NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has initiated a laboratory pilot study on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as utilizing wind and solar technology as alternative renewable energy resources. The GreenLab Research Facility focuses on optimizing biomass feedstock using algae and halophytes as the next generation of renewable aviation fuels. The unique approach in this facility helps achieve optimal biomass feedstock through climatic adaptation of balanced ecosystems that do not use freshwater, compete with food crops, or use arable land. In addition, the GreenLab Research Facility is powered, in part, by alternative and renewable energy sources, reducing the major environmental impact of present electricity sources. The ultimate goal is to have a 100 percent clean energy laboratory that, when combined with biomass feedstock research, has the framework in place for a self-sustainable renewable energy ecosystem that can be duplicated anywhere in the world and can potentially be used to mitigate the shortage of food, fuel, and water. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility at Glenn and its power and energy sources, and provides recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the facility s concept.

  12. A Primary Prevention Model for Helping Teachers Deal with Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Ronald E.

    Emphasizing the importance of the role of primary preventive mental health, an inservice program was designed and implemented by the Tri-County Human Services Center in rural, southwest Wisconsin to help school personnel deal with the signs and symptoms of teacher burnout. Acting on the principle that the prevention of disorders, as well as the…

  13. The GreenLab Research Facility: A Micro-Grid Integrating Production, Consumption and Storage of Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell Bomani, Bilal Mark; Elbuluk, Malik; Fain, Henry; Kankam, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has initiated a laboratory-pilot study that concentrates on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as, utilizing wind and solar technologies as alternative renewable energy resources, and in addition, the use of pumped water for storage of energy that can be retrieved through hydroelectric generation. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility and its power and energy sources with .recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the concept of such a facility

  14. Dealing with Disruptive and Emotional College Students: A Systems Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Thomas J.; Fister, Deborah L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a systemic model for handling disruptive behaviors among college students. The model, in which college counselors have a leading role, uses faculty liaisons, a faculty and staff handbook, faculty and staff training, and policy development to address the problem. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/GCP)

  15. Dealing with uncertainty in modeling intermittent water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieb, A. M.; Rycroft, C.; Wilkening, J.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittency in urban water supply affects hundreds of millions of people in cities around the world, impacting water quality and infrastructure. Building on previous work to dynamically model the transient flows in water distribution networks undergoing frequent filling and emptying, we now consider the hydraulic implications of uncertain input data. Water distribution networks undergoing intermittent supply are often poorly mapped, and household metering frequently ranges from patchy to nonexistent. In the face of uncertain pipe material, pipe slope, network connectivity, and outflow, we investigate how uncertainty affects dynamical modeling results. We furthermore identify which parameters exert the greatest influence on uncertainty, helping to prioritize data collection.

  16. Dealing with noisy absences to optimize species distribution models: an iterative ensemble modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Lauzeral, Christine; Grenouillet, Gaël; Brosse, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widespread in ecology and conservation biology, but their accuracy can be lowered by non-environmental (noisy) absences that are common in species occurrence data. Here we propose an iterative ensemble modelling (IEM) method to deal with noisy absences and hence improve the predictive reliability of ensemble modelling of species distributions. In the IEM approach, outputs of a classical ensemble model (EM) were used to update the raw occurrence data. The revised data was then used as input for a new EM run. This process was iterated until the predictions stabilized. The outputs of the iterative method were compared to those of the classical EM using virtual species. The IEM process tended to converge rapidly. It increased the consensus between predictions provided by the different methods as well as between those provided by different learning data sets. Comparing IEM and EM showed that for high levels of non-environmental absences, iterations significantly increased prediction reliability measured by the Kappa and TSS indices, as well as the percentage of well-predicted sites. Compared to EM, IEM also reduced biases in estimates of species prevalence. Compared to the classical EM method, IEM improves the reliability of species predictions. It particularly deals with noisy absences that are replaced in the data matrices by simulated presences during the iterative modelling process. IEM thus constitutes a promising way to increase the accuracy of EM predictions of difficult-to-detect species, as well as of species that are not in equilibrium with their environment.

  17. Dealing with Noisy Absences to Optimize Species Distribution Models: An Iterative Ensemble Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lauzeral, Christine; Grenouillet, Gaël; Brosse, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widespread in ecology and conservation biology, but their accuracy can be lowered by non-environmental (noisy) absences that are common in species occurrence data. Here we propose an iterative ensemble modelling (IEM) method to deal with noisy absences and hence improve the predictive reliability of ensemble modelling of species distributions. In the IEM approach, outputs of a classical ensemble model (EM) were used to update the raw occurrence data. The revised data was then used as input for a new EM run. This process was iterated until the predictions stabilized. The outputs of the iterative method were compared to those of the classical EM using virtual species. The IEM process tended to converge rapidly. It increased the consensus between predictions provided by the different methods as well as between those provided by different learning data sets. Comparing IEM and EM showed that for high levels of non-environmental absences, iterations significantly increased prediction reliability measured by the Kappa and TSS indices, as well as the percentage of well-predicted sites. Compared to EM, IEM also reduced biases in estimates of species prevalence. Compared to the classical EM method, IEM improves the reliability of species predictions. It particularly deals with noisy absences that are replaced in the data matrices by simulated presences during the iterative modelling process. IEM thus constitutes a promising way to increase the accuracy of EM predictions of difficult-to-detect species, as well as of species that are not in equilibrium with their environment. PMID:23166691

  18. Framing Librarianship in the Academy: An Analysis Using Bolman and Deal's Model of Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming-May, Rachel A.; Douglass, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Since the earliest days of the profession, academic librarians have attempted to reconcile their status within the academy. This project takes a new approach to this effort by using Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal's "Four Frames" model to analyze the issues. To more closely examine the dynamics, tensions, and implications associated with…

  19. Framing Librarianship in the Academy: An Analysis Using Bolman and Deal's Model of Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming-May, Rachel A.; Douglass, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Since the earliest days of the profession, academic librarians have attempted to reconcile their status within the academy. This project takes a new approach to this effort by using Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal's "Four Frames" model to analyze the issues. To more closely examine the dynamics, tensions, and implications associated with…

  20. Model-based approaches to deal with detectability: a comment on Hutto (2016)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marques, Tiago A.; Thomas, Len; Kéry, Marc; Buckland, Steve T.; Borchers, David L.; Rexstad, Eric; Fewster, Rachel M.; MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Royle, Andy; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Handel, Colleen M.; Pavlacky, David C.; Camp, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    In a recent paper, Hutto (2016a) challenges the need to account for detectability when interpreting data from point counts. A number of issues with model-based approaches to deal with detectability are presented, and an alternative suggested: surveying an area around each point over which detectability is assumed certain. The article contains a number of false claims and errors of logic, and we address these here. We provide suggestions about appropriate uses of distance sampling and occupancy modeling, arising from an intersection of design- and model-based inference.

  1. A Leasing Model to Deal with Partial Failures in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Boix, Elisa; van Cutsem, Tom; Vallejos, Jorge; de Meuter, Wolfgang; D'Hondt, Theo

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) many partial failures are the result of temporary network partitions due to the intermittent connectivity of mobile devices. Some of these failures will be permanent and require application-level failure handling. However, it is impossible to distinguish a permanent from a transient failure. Leasing provides a solution to this problem based on the temporal restriction of resources. But to date no leasing model has been designed specifically for MANETs. In this paper, we identify three characteristics required for a leasing model to be usable in a MANET, discuss the issues with existing leasing models and then propose the leased object references model, which integrates leasing with remote object references. In addition, we describe an implementation of the model in the programming language AmbientTalk. Leased object references provide an extensible framework that allows programmers to express their own leasing patterns and enables both lease holders (clients) and lease grantors (services) to deal with permanent failures.

  2. Dealing with uncertainty in landscape genetic resistance models: a case of three co-occurring marsupials.

    PubMed

    Dudaniec, Rachael Y; Worthington Wilmer, Jessica; Hanson, Jeffrey O; Warren, Matthew; Bell, Sarah; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetics lacks explicit methods for dealing with the uncertainty in landscape resistance estimation, which is particularly problematic when sample sizes of individuals are small. Unless uncertainty can be quantified, valuable but small data sets may be rendered unusable for conservation purposes. We offer a method to quantify uncertainty in landscape resistance estimates using multimodel inference as an improvement over single model-based inference. We illustrate the approach empirically using co-occurring, woodland-preferring Australian marsupials within a common study area: two arboreal gliders (Petaurus breviceps, and Petaurus norfolcensis) and one ground-dwelling antechinus (Antechinus flavipes). First, we use maximum-likelihood and a bootstrap procedure to identify the best-supported isolation-by-resistance model out of 56 models defined by linear and non-linear resistance functions. We then quantify uncertainty in resistance estimates by examining parameter selection probabilities from the bootstrapped data. The selection probabilities provide estimates of uncertainty in the parameters that drive the relationships between landscape features and resistance. We then validate our method for quantifying uncertainty using simulated genetic and landscape data showing that for most parameter combinations it provides sensible estimates of uncertainty. We conclude that small data sets can be informative in landscape genetic analyses provided uncertainty can be explicitly quantified. Being explicit about uncertainty in landscape genetic models will make results more interpretable and useful for conservation decision-making, where dealing with uncertainty is critical.

  3. Dealing with mentally ill domestic violence perpetrators: A therapeutic jurisprudence judicial model.

    PubMed

    Winick, Bruce J; Wiener, Richard; Castro, Anthony; Emmert, Aryn; Georges, Leah S

    2010-01-01

    People suffering from mental illness are increasingly referred to the domestic violence court. Yet the typical diversion programs available, including batterer's intervention programs, are inappropriate for those with serious mental illness. As a result, the Miami-Dade Domestic Violence Court has developed a new approach for dealing with this population that applies mental health court techniques in domestic violence court. This article will describe and discuss this pioneering model. It also will situate this model within the context of other problem-solving courts and discuss how the court uses principles and approaches of therapeutic jurisprudence. The paper presents some preliminary data that describe the social and legal characteristics of 20 defendants in the Domestic Violence Mental Health Court followed over a two year period between 2005 and 2007.

  4. Dealing With Unexpected Events on the Flight Deck: A Conceptual Model of Startle and Surprise.

    PubMed

    Landman, Annemarie; Groen, Eric L; van Paassen, M M René; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W; Mulder, Max

    2017-08-01

    A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. Today's debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of pilots' ability to deal with unexpected events. Unexpected events, such as technical malfunctions or automation surprises, potentially induce a "startle factor" that may significantly impair performance. Literature on surprise, startle, resilience, and decision making is reviewed, and findings are combined into a conceptual model. A number of recent flight incident and accident cases are then used to illustrate elements of the model. Pilot perception and actions are conceptualized as being guided by "frames," or mental knowledge structures that were previously learned. Performance issues in unexpected situations can often be traced back to insufficient adaptation of one's frame to the situation. It is argued that such sensemaking or reframing processes are especially vulnerable to issues caused by startle or acute stress. Interventions should focus on (a) increasing the supply and quality of pilot frames (e.g., though practicing a variety of situations), (b) increasing pilot reframing skills (e.g., through the use of unpredictability in training scenarios), and (c) improving pilot metacognitive skills, so that inappropriate automatic responses to startle and surprise can be avoided. The model can be used to explain pilot behavior in accident cases, to design experiments and training simulations, to teach pilots metacognitive skills, and to identify intervention methods.

  5. Combining intermediate complexity models and seasonal palaeo records: how to deal with model and climate variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, H. J.; Dekker, S. C.; Wassen, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) are popular tools for palaeo climate simulations. Recent studies applied these models in comparison to terrestrial proxy records and aimed to reconstruct changes in seasonal climate forced by altered ocean circulation patterns. To strengthen this powerful methodology, we argue that the magnitude of the simulated atmospheric changes should be considered in relation to the internal variability of both the climate system and the intermediate complexity model. To attribute a shift in modelled climate to reality, this ‘signal' should be detectable above the ‘noise' related to the internal variability of the climate system and the internal variability of the model. Both noise and climate signals vary over the globe and change with the seasons. We therefore argue that spatial explicit fields of noise should be considered in relation to the strengths of the simulated signals at a seasonal timescale. We approximated total noise on terrestrial temperature and precipitation from a 29 member simulation with the EMIC PUMA-2 and global temperature and precipitation datasets. To illustrate this approach, we calculate Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNRs) in terrestrial temperature and precipitation on simulations of an El Niño warm event, a phase change in Atlantic Meridional Oscillation (AMO) and a Heinrich cooling event. The results of the El Niño and AMO simulations indicate that the chance to accurately detect a climate signal increases with increasing SNRs. Considering the regions and seasons with highest SNRs, the simulated El Niño anomalies show good agreement with observations (r² = 0.8 and 0.6 for temperature and precipitation at SNRs > 4). The AMO signals rarely surpass the noise levels and remain mostly undetected. The simulation of a Heinrich event predicts highest SNRs for temperature (up to 10) over Arabia and Russia during Boreal winter and spring. Highest SNRs for precipitation (up to 12) are predicted over

  6. Dealing with Cultural Diversity: The Endorsement of Societal Models among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2007-01-01

    The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in favor of the mosaic model and less in favor of…

  7. Dealing with Cultural Diversity: The Endorsement of Societal Models among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2007-01-01

    The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in favor of the mosaic model and less in favor of…

  8. Deal or No Deal? Evaluating Big Deals and Their Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.; Fiscella, Joan B.; Bahnmaier-Blaszczak, Sara; Lowery, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents methods to develop metrics that compare Big Deal journal packages and the journals within those packages. Deal-level metrics guide selection of a Big Deal for termination. Journal-level metrics guide selection of individual subscriptions from journals previously provided by a terminated deal. The paper argues that, while the…

  9. Deal or No Deal? Evaluating Big Deals and Their Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.; Fiscella, Joan B.; Bahnmaier-Blaszczak, Sara; Lowery, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents methods to develop metrics that compare Big Deal journal packages and the journals within those packages. Deal-level metrics guide selection of a Big Deal for termination. Journal-level metrics guide selection of individual subscriptions from journals previously provided by a terminated deal. The paper argues that, while the…

  10. A Framework for Dealing With Uncertainty due to Model Structure Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Keur, P.; Refsgaard, J.; van der Sluijs, J.; Brown, J.

    2004-12-01

    Although uncertainty about structures of environmental models (conceptual uncertainty) has been recognised often to be the main source of uncertainty in model predictions, it is rarely considered in environmental modelling. Rather, formal uncertainty analyses have traditionally focused on model parameters and input data as the principal source of uncertainty in model predictions. The traditional approach to model uncertainty analysis that considers only a single conceptual model, fails to adequately sample the relevant space of plausible models. As such, it is prone to modelling bias and underestimation of model uncertainty. In this paper we review a range of strategies for assessing structural uncertainties. The existing strategies fall into two categories depending on whether field data are available for the variable of interest. Most research attention has until now been devoted to situations, where model structure uncertainties can be assessed directly on the basis of field data. This corresponds to a situation of `interpolation'. However, in many cases environmental models are used for `extrapolation' beyond the situation and the field data available for calibration. A framework is presented for assessing the predictive uncertainties of environmental models used for extrapolation. The key elements are the use of alternative conceptual models and assessment of their pedigree and the adequacy of the samples of conceptual models to represent the space of plausible models by expert elicitation. Keywords: model error, model structure, conceptual uncertainty, scenario analysis, pedigree

  11. A framework for dealing with uncertainty due to model structure error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.; Brown, James; van der Keur, Peter

    2006-11-01

    Although uncertainty about structures of environmental models (conceptual uncertainty) is often acknowledged to be the main source of uncertainty in model predictions, it is rarely considered in environmental modelling. Rather, formal uncertainty analyses have traditionally focused on model parameters and input data as the principal source of uncertainty in model predictions. The traditional approach to model uncertainty analysis, which considers only a single conceptual model, may fail to adequately sample the relevant space of plausible conceptual models. As such, it is prone to modelling bias and underestimation of predictive uncertainty. In this paper we review a range of strategies for assessing structural uncertainties in models. The existing strategies fall into two categories depending on whether field data are available for the predicted variable of interest. To date, most research has focussed on situations where inferences on the accuracy of a model structure can be made directly on the basis of field data. This corresponds to a situation of 'interpolation'. However, in many cases environmental models are used for 'extrapolation'; that is, beyond the situation and the field data available for calibration. In the present paper, a framework is presented for assessing the predictive uncertainties of environmental models used for extrapolation. It involves the use of multiple conceptual models, assessment of their pedigree and reflection on the extent to which the sampled models adequately represent the space of plausible models.

  12. Dealing with time-varying recruitment and length in Hill-type muscle models.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ahmed; Kenney, Laurence; Howard, David

    2016-10-03

    Hill-type muscle models are often used in muscle simulation studies and also in the design and virtual prototyping of functional electrical stimulation systems. These models have to behave in a sufficiently realistic manner when recruitment level and contractile element (CE) length change continuously. For this reason, most previous models have used instantaneous CE length in the muscle׳s force vs. length (F-L) relationship, but thereby neglect the instability problem on the descending limb (i.e. region of negative slope) of the F-L relationship. Ideally CE length at initial recruitment should be used but this requires a multiple-motor-unit muscle model to properly account for different motor-units having different initial lengths when recruited. None of the multiple-motor-unit models reported in the literature have used initial CE length in the muscle׳s F-L relationship, thereby also neglecting the descending limb instability problem. To address the problem of muscle modelling for continuously varying recruitment and length, and hence different values of initial CE length for different motor-units, a new multiple-motor-unit muscle model is presented which considers the muscle to comprise 1000 individual Hill-type virtual motor-units, which determine the total isometric force. Other parts of the model (F-V relationship and passive elements) are not dependent on the initial CE length and, therefore, they are implemented for the muscle as a whole rather than for the individual motor-units. The results demonstrate the potential errors introduced by using a single-motor-unit model and also the instantaneous CE length in the F-L relationship, both of which are common in FES control studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrology under change: an evaluation protocol to investigate how hydrological models deal with changing catchments

    Treesearch

    G. Thirel; V. Andreassian; C. Perrin; J.-N. Audouy; L. Berthet; Pamela Edwards; N. Folton; C. Furusho; A. Kuentz; J. Lerat; G. Lindstrom; E. Martin; T. Mathevet; R. Merz; J. Parajka; D. Ruelland; J. Vaze

    2015-01-01

    Testing hydrological models under changing conditions is essential to evaluate their ability to cope with changing catchments and their suitability for impact studies. With this perspective in mind, a workshop dedicated to this issue was held at the 2013 General Assembly of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) in Göteborg, Sweden, in July 2013...

  14. Dealing with the Stress of College: A Model for Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler Giancola, Jennifer; Grawitch, Matthew J.; Borchert, Dana

    2009-01-01

    With an increase in nontraditional students attending college, there is a need to understand how work/school/life stress affects adult students. The purpose of this study is to test a comprehensive stress model that posits appraisal (cognitive evaluation) and coping as mediators between stressors/interrole conflict and psychosocial outcomes. The…

  15. Modeling the spatial variability of dispersivity to deal with anomalous mass transport in the subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capilla, J. E.; Sanchez Fuster, I.; Sanchez Barrero, L.

    2012-12-01

    The limitations of the classical Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) approach to model mass transport remain a subject of research. The term anomalous transport is usually applied when the ADE fails to reproduce real field or lab experiments tracer tests data. Some authors address this limitation using high-resolution heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity (K) fields. Besides, the non-Fickian behavior of transport is another issue addressed. However, the effects of the spatial variability of dispersivity, and the influence of the model support scale on this property, have been rarely studied. The lack of experimental knowledge on the dispersivity behavior leads to model this basic parameter as an averaged calibrated parameter highly dependent on the model discretization size. In order to study the local behavior of the dispersivity a porous medium tank was designed and built at the Technical University of Valencia (Spain). This paper presents new results and conclusions obtained from the experiments conducted in this lab prototype. The steady flow through the porous medium tank lab is quasi-2D, and the K field imitates the patterns of spatial variability found in a real and highly heterogeneous formation (MADE2 site). The tracer tests are run using a conservative dye tracer and the tank is monitored by a grid of pressure transducers and taking digital images that are processed to map the evolution of solute concentrations in the tank. The set of exhaustive head and concentration data is used to compute detail local information of the effective dispersivity field at different time steps, and at different support scales. The analysis of results shows that the dispersivity field displays patterns of spatial variability related with the physical nature of the local material and also with the local evolution of concentrations at every grid block. We have found that the anomalous transport behavior observed in the lab tank can be accurately modeled using the classical ADE

  16. An Awareness-Based Learning Model to Deal with Service Collaboration in Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletta, Mauricio; Herrero, Pilar

    Cloud computing addresses the use of scalable and often virtualized resources. It is based on service-level agreements that provide external users with services under request. Cloud computing is still evolving. New specific collaboration models among service providers are needed for enabling effective service collaboration, allowing the process of serving consumers to be more efficient. This paper presents AMBAR-C, an adaptation of AMBAR (Awareness-based learning Model for distriButive collAborative enviRonment) designed to allow nodes in a distributed environment to accomplish an effective collaboration among service providers in a "cloud" by means of a multi-agent architecture in which agents are aware of its surroundings throughout a parametrical and flexible use of this information. As occurs in AMBAR, AMBAR-C makes use of heuristic strategies to improve effectiveness and efficiency in collaborations of these particular environments.

  17. A Review of Applied Aspects of Dealing with Gut Microbiota Impact on Rodent Models.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) affects numerous human diseases, as well as rodent models for these. We will review this impact and summarize ways to handle this challenge in animal research. The GM is complex, with the largest fractions being the gram-positive phylum Firmicutes and the gram-negative phylum Bacteroidetes. Other important phyla are the gram-negative phyla Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, and the gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria. GM members influence models for diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, allergies, autoimmunity, cancer, and neuropsychiatric diseases. GM characterization of all individual animals and incorporation of their GM composition in data evaluation may therefore be considered in future protocols. Germfree isolator-housed rodents or rodents made virtually germ free by antibiotic cocktails can be used to study diverse microbial influences on disease expression. Through subsequent inoculation with selected strains or cocktails of microbes, new "defined flora" models can yield valuable knowledge on the impact of the GM, and of specific GM members and their interactions, on important disease phenotypes and mechanisms. Rodent husbandry and microbial quality assurance practices will be important to ensure and confirm appropriate and research relevant GM.

  18. Dealing with unquantifiable uncertainties in landslide modelling for urban risk reduction in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Susana; Holcombe, Liz; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Landslides have many negative economic and societal impacts, including the potential for significant loss of life and damage to infrastructure. Slope stability assessment can be used to guide decisions about the management of landslide risk, but its usefulness can be challenged by high levels of uncertainty in predicting landslide occurrence. Prediction uncertainty may be associated with the choice of model that is used to assess slope stability, the quality of the available input data, or a lack of knowledge of how future climatic and socio-economic changes may affect future landslide risk. While some of these uncertainties can be characterised by relatively well-defined probability distributions, for other uncertainties, such as those linked to climate change, no probability distribution is available to characterise them. This latter type of uncertainty, often referred to as deep uncertainty, means that robust policies need to be developed that are expected to perform acceptably well over a wide range of future conditions. In our study the impact of deep uncertainty on slope stability predictions is assessed in a quantitative and structured manner using Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model (CHASM). In particular, we use several GSA methods including the Method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis and Classification and Regression Trees (CART), as well as advanced visualization tools, to assess the combination of conditions that may lead to slope failure. Our example application is a slope in the Caribbean, an area that is naturally susceptible to landslides due to a combination of high rainfall rates during the hurricane season, steep slopes, and highly weathered residual soils. Rapid unplanned urbanisation and changing climate may further exacerbate landslide risk in the future. Our example shows how we can gain useful information in the presence of deep uncertainty by combining physically based models with GSA in

  19. Dealing with deep uncertainties in landslide modelling for disaster risk reduction under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Susana; Holcombe, Elizabeth Ann; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-02-01

    Landslides have large negative economic and societal impacts, including loss of life and damage to infrastructure. Slope stability assessment is a vital tool for landslide risk management, but high levels of uncertainty often challenge its usefulness. Uncertainties are associated with the numerical model used to assess slope stability and its parameters, with the data characterizing the geometric, geotechnic and hydrologic properties of the slope, and with hazard triggers (e.g. rainfall). Uncertainties associated with many of these factors are also likely to be exacerbated further by future climatic and socio-economic changes, such as increased urbanization and resultant land use change. In this study, we illustrate how numerical models can be used to explore the uncertain factors that influence potential future landslide hazard using a bottom-up strategy. Specifically, we link the Combined Hydrology And Stability Model (CHASM) with sensitivity analysis and Classification And Regression Trees (CART) to identify critical thresholds in slope properties and climatic (rainfall) drivers that lead to slope failure. We apply our approach to a slope in the Caribbean, an area that is naturally susceptible to landslides due to a combination of high rainfall rates, steep slopes, and highly weathered residual soils. For this particular slope, we find that uncertainties regarding some slope properties (namely thickness and effective cohesion of topsoil) are as important as the uncertainties related to future rainfall conditions. Furthermore, we show that 89 % of the expected behaviour of the studied slope can be characterized based on only two variables - the ratio of topsoil thickness to cohesion and the ratio of rainfall intensity to duration.

  20. Laboratory-based Interpretation of Seismological Models: Dealing with Incomplete or Incompatible Experimental Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, I.; Kennett, B. L.; Faul, U. H.

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with cooperative developments in seismology during the past 25 years, there have been phenomenal advances in mineral/rock physics making laboratory-based interpretation of seismological models increasingly useful. However, the assimilation of diverse experimental data into a physically sound framework for seismological application is not without its challenges as demonstrated by two examples. In the first example, that of equation-of-state and elasticity data, an appropriate, thermodynamically consistent framework involves finite-strain expansion of the Helmholz free energy incorporating the Debye approximation to the lattice vibrational energy, as advocated by Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni. Within this context, pressure, specific heat and entropy, thermal expansion, elastic constants and their adiabatic and isothermal pressure derivatives are all calculable without further approximation in an internally consistent manner. The opportunities and challenges of assimilating a wide range of sometimes marginally incompatible experimental data into a single model of this type will be demonstrated with reference to MgO, unquestionably the most thoroughly studied mantle mineral. A neighbourhood-algorithm inversion has identified a broadly satisfactory model, but uncertainties in key parameters associated particularly with pressure calibration remain sufficiently large as to preclude definitive conclusions concerning lower-mantle chemical composition and departures from adiabaticity. The second example is the much less complete dataset concerning seismic-wave dispersion and attenuation emerging from low-frequency forced-oscillation experiments. Significant progress has been made during the past decade towards an understanding of high-temperature, micro-strain viscoelastic relaxation in upper-mantle materials, especially as regards the roles of oscillation period, temperature, grain size and melt fraction. However, the influence of other potentially important

  1. Modeling environmental impacts of urban expansion: a systematic method for dealing with uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Yang, Sheng; Chen, Jining

    2012-08-07

    In a rapidly transitioning China, urban land use has changed dramatically, both spatially and in terms of magnitude; these changes have significantly affected the natural environment. This paper reports the development of an Integrated Environmental Assessment of Urban Land Use Change (IEA-ULUC) model, which combines cellular automata, scenario analysis, and stochastic spatial sampling with the goal of exploring urban land-use change, related environmental impacts, and various uncertainties. By applying the IEA-ULUC model to a new urban development area in Dalian in northeastern China, the evolution of spatial patterns from 1986 to 2005 was examined to identify key driving forces affecting the changing trajectories of local land use. Using these results, future urban land use in the period 2005-2020 was projected for four scenarios of economic development and land-use planning regulation. A stochastic sampling process was implemented to generate industrial land distributions for each land expansion scenario. Finally, domestic and industrial water pollution loads to the ocean were estimated, and the environmental impacts of each scenario are discussed. The results showed that the four urban expansion scenarios could lead to considerable differences in environmental responses. In principle, urban expansion scenarios along the intercity transportation rail/roadways could have higher negative environmental impacts than cluster-developing scenarios, while faster economic growth could more intensely aggravate the environment than in the moderate growth scenarios.

  2. A pretty good sponge: Dealing with open boundaries in limited-area ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavelle, J. W.; Thacker, W. C.

    The problem of computing within a limited domain surrounded by open boundaries is discussed within the context of the shallow-water wave equations by comparing three different treatments, all of which surround the domain by absorbing zones intended to prevent reflections of outgoing waves. The first, which has attracted a lot of attention for use in electromagnetic and aeroacoustic applications, is intended to prevent all reflections. However, it has not yet been developed to handle the second important requirement of open boundaries, namely the ability to pass information about external conditions into the domain of interest. The other two treatments, which absorb differences from a specified external solution, allow information to pass through the open boundary in both directions. One, based on the flow relaxation scheme of [Martinsen, E.A., Engedahl, H., 1987. Implementation and testing of a lateral boundary scheme as an open-boundary condition in a barotropic ocean model. Coastal Eng. 11, 603-627] and termed here the "simple sponge," relaxes all fields toward their external counterparts. The other, a simplification and generalization of the perfectly matched layer, referred to here as the "pretty good sponge," avoids absorbing the component of momentum parallel to the open boundary. Comparisons for a case that is dominated by outgoing waves shows the pretty good sponge to perform essentially as well as the perfectly matched layer and better than the simple sponge. In comparisons for a geostrophically balanced eddy passing through open boundaries, the pretty good sponge out-performed the simple sponge when the only external information available was about the advecting flow, but when information about the nature of the eddy in the sponge zones was also available, the simple sponge performed better. For the case of an equatorial soliton passing through the boundary and no information provided about its nature outside the open domain, again the pretty good sponge

  3. Dealing with electronic waste: modeling the costs and environmental benefits of computer monitor disposal.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2003-05-01

    The importance of information technology to the world economy has brought about a surge in demand for electronic equipment. With rapid technological change, a growing fraction of the increasing stock of many types of electronics becomes obsolete each year. We model the costs and benefits of policies to manage 'e-waste' by focusing on a large component of the electronic waste stream-computer monitors-and the environmental concerns associated with disposal of the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We find that the benefits of avoiding health effects associated with CRT disposal appear far outweighed by the costs for a wide range of policies. For the stock of monitors disposed of in the United States in 1998, we find that policies restricting or banning some popular disposal options would increase disposal costs from about US dollar 1 per monitor to between US dollars 3 and US dollars 20 per monitor. Policies to promote a modest amount of recycling of monitor parts, including lead, can be less expensive. In all cases, however, the costs of the policies exceed the value of the avoided health effects of CRT disposal.

  4. Mathematical Decision Models Applied for Qualifying and Planning Areas Considering Natural Hazards and Human Dealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Jose M.; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Elena; Andina, Diego

    2014-05-01

    The authors were involved in the use of some Mathematical Decision Models, MDM, to improve knowledge and planning about some large natural or administrative areas for which natural soils, climate, and agro and forest uses where main factors, but human resources and results were important, natural hazards being relevant. In one line they have contributed about qualification of lands of the Community of Madrid, CM, administrative area in centre of Spain containing at North a band of mountains, in centre part of Iberian plateau and river terraces, and also Madrid metropolis, from an official study of UPM for CM qualifying lands using a FAO model from requiring minimums of a whole set of Soil Science criteria. The authors set first from these criteria a complementary additive qualification, and tried later an intermediate qualification from both using fuzzy logic. The authors were also involved, together with colleagues from Argentina et al. that are in relation with local planners, for the consideration of regions and of election of management entities for them. At these general levels they have adopted multi-criteria MDM, used a weighted PROMETHEE, and also an ELECTRE-I with the same elicited weights for the criteria and data, and at side AHP using Expert Choice from parallel comparisons among similar criteria structured in two levels. The alternatives depend on the case study, and these areas with monsoon climates have natural hazards that are decisive for their election and qualification with an initial matrix used for ELECTRE and PROMETHEE. For the natural area of Arroyos Menores at South of Rio Cuarto town, with at North the subarea of La Colacha, the loess lands are rich but suffer now from water erosions forming regressive ditches that are spoiling them, and use of soils alternatives must consider Soil Conservation and Hydraulic Management actions. The use of soils may be in diverse non compatible ways, as autochthonous forest, high value forest, traditional

  5. Building deals on bedrock.

    PubMed

    Harding, David; Rovit, Sam

    2004-09-01

    The headlines are filled with the sorry tales of companies like Vivendi and AOL Time Warner that tried to use mergers and acquisitions to grow big fast or transform fundamentally weak business models. But, drawing on extensive data and experience, the authors conclude that major deals make sense in only two circumstances: when they reinforce a company's existing basis of competition or when they help a company make the shift, as the industry's competitive base changes. In most stable industries, the authors contend, only one basis--superior cost position, brand power, consumer loyalty, real-asset advantage, or government protection--leads to industry leadership, and companies should do only those deals that bolster a strategy to capitalize on that competitive base. That's what Kellogg did when it acquired Keebler. Rather than bow to price pressures from lesser players, Kellogg sought to strengthen its existing basis of competition--its brand--through Keebler's innovative distribution system. A company coping with a changing industry should embark on a series of acquisitions (most likely coupled with divestitures) aimed at moving the firm to the new competitive basis. That's what Comcast did when changes in government regulations fundamentally altered the broadcast industry. In such cases, speed is essential, the investments required are huge, and half-measures can be worse than nothing at all. Still, the research shows, successful acquirers are not those that try to swallow a single, large, supposedly transformative deal but those that go to the M&A table often and take small bites. Deals can fuel growth--as long as they're anchored in the fundamental way money is made in your industry. Fail to understand that and no amount of integration planning will keep you and your shareholders from bearing the high cost of your mistakes.

  6. Sub-grid scale model for dynamo simulations in a rotating plane layer model --- Dealing with unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Buffett, B. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Sub-grid scale modeling is required for the geodynamo simulations because the fluid motion and the magnetic field in the Earth's outer core have small scale components which cannot be resolved in numerical simulations. We model the influence of sub-grid scale motion for the momentum and heat flux, the Lorentz force, and the induction term using the nonlinear gradient model by Leonard (1974), which is a form of the scale similarity model. The result suggests that the nonlinear gradient model can represent basic characteristics of the effects of the sub-grid scale motion, but we observe some discrepancies which are due to the spatial dependence of the filter function when the grid is non-equidistant. Ghosal and Moin (1995) point out that this error arises when the order of filtering and spatial differentiation operation is changed. In the present study, we correct the commutation error specifically for the nonlinear gradient model. In this case, the commutation error can be written as the product of derivative of the second order moment of the filter function and second derivative of the field. We append this correction term to our model, and evaluate the SGS terms from a snapshot of a MHD simulation in a rotating plane layer model. The prediction shows that the correction of the commutation error substantially improves the predicted SGS terms around the boundaries when compared with a direct estimate of SGS terms on the finer grid. In fact, the magnitude of the correction for the divergence of SGS terms is comparable to the uncorrected prediction of the nonlinear gradient model. These results indicate that the addition of the present correction for the spatial derivative is necessary to obtain the correct SGS terms for unstructured grid, such as the plane layer model or spherical shell model.

  7. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Dealing With Asthma Triggers KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Asthma Triggers ... or the flu weather conditions exercise continue Managing Asthma Asthma can't be cured but it can ...

  8. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Dealing With Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Peer Pressure Print ... talk about how to handle it. Defining Peer Pressure Peers influence your life, even if you don' ...

  9. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Dealing With Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Peer Pressure A ... talk about how to handle it. Defining Peer Pressure Peers influence your life, even if you don' ...

  10. Dealing with Your Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... grief > Dealing with your grief Dealing with your grief E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... can do to help you feel better. Order bereavement materials Order our resources for grieving families , including ...

  11. Algebraic tools for dealing with the atomic shell model. I. Wavefunctions and integrals for hydrogen-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhykov, Andrey; Koval, Peter; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    of the hydrogen-like ions, however, the underlying 'mathematics' is not always that easy to deal with. Apart from the well-known level structure of these ions as obtained from either the Schrödinger or Dirac equation, namely, a great deal of other properties are often needed. These properties are related to the interaction of bound electron(s) with external particles and fields and, hence, require to evaluate transition amplitudes, including wavefunctions and (transition) operators of quite different complexity. Although various special functions, such as the Laguerre polynomials, spherical harmonics, Whittaker functions, or the hypergeometric functions of various kinds can be used in most cases in order to express these amplitudes in a concise form, their derivation is time consuming and prone for making errors. In addition to their complexity, moreover, there exist a large number of mathematical relations among these functions which are difficult to remember in detail and which have often hampered quantitative studies in the past. Method of solution: A set of MAPLE procedures is developed which provides both the nonrelativistic and relativistic (analytical) solutions of the 'hydrogen atom model' and which facilitates the symbolic evaluation of various transition amplitudes. Restrictions onto the complexity of the problem: Over the past decades, a large number of representations have been worked out for the hydrogenic wave and Green's functions, using different variables and coordinates [2]. From these, the position-space representation in spherical coordinates is certainly of most practical interest and has been used as the basis of the present implementation. No attempt has been made by us so far to provide the wave and Green's functions also in momentum space, for which the relativistic momentum functions would have to be constructed numerically. Although the DIRAC program supports both symbolic and numerical computations, the latter one are based on MAPLE

  12. A model based on linguistic 2-tuples for dealing with multigranular hierarchical linguistic contexts in multi-expert decision-making.

    PubMed

    Herrera, F; Martinez, L

    2001-01-01

    In those problems that deal with multiple sources of linguistic information we can find problems defined in contexts where the linguistic assessments are assessed in linguistic term sets with different granularity of uncertainty and/or semantics (multigranular linguistic contexts). Different approaches have been developed to manage this type of contexts, that unify the multigranular linguistic information in an unique linguistic term set for an easy management of the information. This normalization process can produce a loss of information and hence a lack of precision in the final results. In this paper, we shall present a type of multigranular linguistic contexts we shall call linguistic hierarchies term sets, such that, when we deal with multigranular linguistic information assessed in these structures we can unify the information assessed in them without loss of information. To do so, we shall use the 2-tuple linguistic representation model. Afterwards we shall develop a linguistic decision model dealing with multigranular linguistic contexts and apply it to a multi-expert decision-making problem.

  13. The Met Office Hadley Centre climate modelling capability: the competing requirements for improved resolution, complexity and dealing with uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Pope, V; Brown, S; Clark, R; Collins, M; Collins, W; Dearden, C; Gunson, J; Harris, G; Jones, C; Keen, A; Lowe, J; Ringer, M; Senior, C; Sitch, S; Webb, M; Woodward, S

    2007-11-15

    Predictions of future climate change require complex computer models of the climate system to represent the full range of processes and interactions that influence climate. The Met Office Hadley Centre uses 'families' of models as part of the Met Office Unified Model Framework to address different classes of problems. The HadGEM family is a suite of state-of-the-art global environment models that are used to reduce uncertainty and represent and predict complex feedbacks. The HadCM3 family is a suite of well established but cheaper models that are used for multiple simulations, for example, to quantify uncertainty or to test the impact of multiple emissions scenarios.

  14. A web-based portfolio model as the students' final assignment: Dealing with the development of higher education trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utanto, Yuli; Widhanarto, Ghanis Putra; Maretta, Yoris Adi

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to develop a web-based portfolio model. The model developed in this study could reveal the effectiveness of the new model in experiments conducted at research respondents in the department of curriculum and educational technology FIP Unnes. In particular, the further research objectives to be achieved through this development of research, namely: (1) Describing the process of implementing a portfolio in a web-based model; (2) Assessing the effectiveness of web-based portfolio model for the final task, especially in Web-Based Learning courses. This type of research is the development of research Borg and Gall (2008: 589) says "educational research and development (R & D) is a process used to develop and validate educational production". The series of research and development carried out starting with exploration and conceptual studies, followed by testing and evaluation, and also implementation. For the data analysis, the technique used is simple descriptive analysis, analysis of learning completeness, which then followed by prerequisite test for normality and homogeneity to do T - test. Based on the data analysis, it was concluded that: (1) a web-based portfolio model can be applied to learning process in higher education; (2) The effectiveness of web-based portfolio model with field data from the respondents of large group trial participants (field trial), the number of respondents who reached mastery learning (a score of 60 and above) were 24 people (92.3%) in which it indicates that the web-based portfolio model is effective. The conclusion of this study is that a web-based portfolio model is effective. The implications of the research development of this model, the next researcher is expected to be able to use the guideline of the development model based on the research that has already been conducted to be developed on other subjects.

  15. Some clarifications about Lemaître-Tolman models of the Universe used to deal with the dark energy problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Célérier, M.-N.

    2012-07-01

    Context. During the past fifteen years, inhomogeneous cosmological models have been put forward to explain the observed dimming of the SNIa luminosity without resorting to dark energy. The simplest models are the spherically symmetric Lemaître-Tolman (LT) solutions with a central observer. Their use must be considered as a mere first step towards more sophisticated models. Spherical symmetry is but a mathematical simplification and one must consider spherical symmetric models as exhibiting an energy density smoothed out over angles around us. However, they have been taken at face value by some authors who tried to use them for either irrelevant purposes or to put them to the test as if they were robust models of our Universe. Aims: We wish to clarify how these models must be used in cosmology. Methods: We first use the results obtained by Iguchi and collaborators to derive the density profiles of the pure growing and decaying mode LT models. We then discuss the relevance of the different test proposals in the light of the interpretation given above. Results: We show that decaying-mode (parabolic) LT models always exhibit an overdensity near their centre and growing-mode (elliptic or hyperbolic) LT models, a void. This is at variance with some statements in the literature. We dismiss all previous proposals merely designed to test the spherical symmetry of the LT models, and we agree that the value of H0 and the measurement of the redshift drift are valid tests of the models. However, we suspect that this last test, which is the best in principle, will be more complicated to implement than usually claimed.

  16. Dealing with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep in touch in other ways, like using social media, sending cards, talking on the phone, texting, or using email. It will do a lot to lift the spirits of someone who is dealing with cancer. Keep in mind that the person you care about is simply sick. Despite the ...

  17. Dealing with "The Bomb"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Every superintendent eventually has to deal with "The Bomb." This refers to a loaded question from a board member dropped at an inopportune moment in a public meeting when the superintendent has been given no time to prepare an informed response. The superintendent's typical reactions include the "deer in the headlights" look, a big gulp or even a…

  18. Dealing with Dwindling Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, S. V.

    Factors contributing to the struggle for survival faced by postsecondary institutions and ways to deal with dwindling resources, in particular by regionalism and regionalization, are considered. Among the contributing factors are the leveling off of the college-age population (18-21-year-olds), the declining status of advanced learning in American…

  19. Dealing with Divorce

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctorHow can I tell my kids about my divorce?What danger signs should I look out for in my children?What danger signs should I look out for ... area to help my kids deal with the divorce? Last Updated: December 2016 This ... depression, Overview, Psychiatric and Psychologic Emotional Well-Being, ...

  20. Dealing with "The Bomb"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Every superintendent eventually has to deal with "The Bomb." This refers to a loaded question from a board member dropped at an inopportune moment in a public meeting when the superintendent has been given no time to prepare an informed response. The superintendent's typical reactions include the "deer in the headlights" look, a big gulp or even a…

  1. Model-based waveform design for optimal detection: A multi-objective approach to dealing with incomplete a priori knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hamschin, Brandon M; Loughlin, Patrick J

    2015-11-01

    This work considers the design of optimal, energy-constrained transmit signals for active sensing for the case when the designer has incomplete or uncertain knowledge of the target and/or environment. The mathematical formulation is that of a multi-objective optimization problem, wherein one can incorporate a plurality of potential targets, interference, or clutter models and in doing so take advantage of the wide range of results in the literature related to modeling each. It is shown, via simulation, that when the objective function of the optimization problem is chosen to maximize the minimum (i.e., maxmin) probability of detection among all possible model combinations, the optimal waveforms obtained are advantageous. The advantage results because the maxmin waveforms judiciously allocate energy to spectral regions where each of the target models respond strongly and each of the environmental models affect minimal detection performance degradation. In particular, improved detection performance is shown compared to linear frequency modulated transmit signals and compared to signals designed with the wrong target spectrum assumed. Additionally, it is shown that the maxmin design yields performance comparable to an optimal design matched to the correct target/environmental model. Finally, it is proven that the maxmin problem formulation is convex.

  2. Dealing with uncertainty: turbulent parameterizations and grid-spacing effects in numerical modelling of deep moist convective processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, E.; Parodi, A.; Siccardi, F.

    2009-11-01

    Computer power has grown to the point that very-fine-mesh mesoscale modelling is now possible. Going down through scales is clumsily supposed to reduce uncertainty and to improve the predictive ability of the models. This work provides a contribution to understand how the uncertainty in the numerical weather prediction (NWP) of severe weather events is affected by increasing the model grid resolution and by choosing a parameterization which is able to represent turbulent processes at such finer scales. A deep moist convective scenario, a supercell, in a simplified atmospheric setting is studied by mean of high resolution numerical simulations with COSMO-Model. Different turbulent closures are used and their impacts on the space-time properties of convective fields are discussed. The convective-resolving solutions adopting Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulent closure converge with respect to the overall flow field structure when grid spacing is properly reduced. By comparing the rainfall fields produced by the model on larger scales with those at the convergence scales it's possible to size up the uncertainty introduced by the modelling itself on the predicted ground effects in such simplified scenario.

  3. Hydrological modelling of the Mara River Basin, Kenya: Dealing with uncertain data quality and calibrating using river stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulsman, P.; Bogaard, T.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2016-12-01

    In hydrology and water resources management, discharge is the main time series for model calibration. Rating curves are needed to derive discharge from continuously measured water levels. However, assuring their quality is demanding due to dynamic changes and problems in accurately deriving discharge at high flows. This is valid everywhere, but even more in African socio-economic context. To cope with these uncertainties, this study proposes to use water levels instead of discharge data for calibration. Also uncertainties in rainfall measurements, especially the spatial heterogeneity needs to be considered. In this study, the semi-distributed rainfall runoff model FLEX-Topo was applied to the Mara River Basin. In this model seven sub-basins were distinguished and four hydrological response units with each a unique model structure based on the expected dominant flow processes. Parameter and process constrains were applied to exclude unrealistic results. To calibrate the model, the water levels were back-calculated from modelled discharges, using cross-section data and the Strickler formula calibrating parameter `k•s1/2', and compared to measured water levels. The model simulated the water depths well for the entire basin and the Nyangores sub-basin in the north. However, the calibrated and observed rating curves differed significantly at the basin outlet, probably due to uncertainties in the measured discharge, but at Nyangores they were almost identical. To assess the effect of rainfall uncertainties on the hydrological model, the representative rainfall in each sub-basin was estimated with three different methods: 1) single station, 2) average precipitation, 3) areal sub-division using Thiessen polygons. All three methods gave on average similar results, but method 1 resulted in more flashy responses, method 2 dampened the water levels due to averaging the rainfall and method 3 was a combination of both. In conclusion, in the case of unreliable rating curves

  4. A Focus on the Death Kinetics in Predictive Microbiology: Benefits and Limits of the Most Important Models and Some Tools Dealing with Their Application in Foods.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2015-10-12

    Predictive Microbiology (PM) deals with the mathematical modeling of microorganisms in foods for different applications (challenge test, evaluation of microbiological shelf life, prediction of the microbiological hazards connected with foods, etc.). An interesting and important part of PM focuses on the use of primary functions to fit data of death kinetics of spoilage, pathogenic, and useful microorganisms following thermal or non-conventional treatments and can also be used to model survivors throughout storage. The main topic of this review is a focus on the most important death models (negative Gompertz, log-linear, shoulder/tail, Weibull, Weibull+tail, re-parameterized Weibull, biphasic approach, etc.) to pinpoint the benefits and the limits of each model; in addition, the last section addresses the most important tools for the use of death kinetics and predictive microbiology in a user-friendly way.

  5. Dealing with Feeling: A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Strategies Derived from the Process Model of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas L.; Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal

    2012-01-01

    The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER)…

  6. Dealing with Feeling: A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Strategies Derived from the Process Model of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas L.; Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal

    2012-01-01

    The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER)…

  7. Deals Among Rational Agents,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    8217.--..- .--. ..... .. ......-..- . .-- .. : .. ., . . . - .. .. ....-. . . . Theorem 2 will not hold under minimal deal rationality. Imagine that a perverse opponent chooses his offer group as follows: 1. If you include in your...agents’ behavior (citing the similarity with [25]): (A3). If a game has a single Pareto equilibrium, the players will choose the strategy which...prominent solution. [A Taxonomy of 2 x 2 Games] In short, game theory has been willing to take for granted certain types of behavior without

  8. Dealing with difficult people.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    The number ofpeople security officers deal with and the number of challenges they present, are increasing every day, the author reports. Developing verbal skills to handle those challenges is not easy, but is essential in helping them and the facility you work for, he says. A veteran of 400 plus hours in training healthcare workers in crisis prevention, he provides in this article a number of effective ways to achieve tension reduction.

  9. Dealing with correlated choices: how a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies.

    PubMed

    Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.

  10. Dealing with correlated choices: How a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.

  11. Quantitative Genetics and Functional–Structural Plant Growth Models: Simulation of Quantitative Trait Loci Detection for Model Parameters and Application to Potential Yield Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Letort, Véronique; Mahe, Paul; Cournède, Paul-Henry; de Reffye, Philippe; Courtois, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Prediction of phenotypic traits from new genotypes under untested environmental conditions is crucial to build simulations of breeding strategies to improve target traits. Although the plant response to environmental stresses is characterized by both architectural and functional plasticity, recent attempts to integrate biological knowledge into genetics models have mainly concerned specific physiological processes or crop models without architecture, and thus may prove limited when studying genotype × environment interactions. Consequently, this paper presents a simulation study introducing genetics into a functional–structural growth model, which gives access to more fundamental traits for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection and thus to promising tools for yield optimization. Methods The GREENLAB model was selected as a reasonable choice to link growth model parameters to QTL. Virtual genes and virtual chromosomes were defined to build a simple genetic model that drove the settings of the species-specific parameters of the model. The QTL Cartographer software was used to study QTL detection of simulated plant traits. A genetic algorithm was implemented to define the ideotype for yield maximization based on the model parameters and the associated allelic combination. Key Results and Conclusions By keeping the environmental factors constant and using a virtual population with a large number of individuals generated by a Mendelian genetic model, results for an ideal case could be simulated. Virtual QTL detection was compared in the case of phenotypic traits – such as cob weight – and when traits were model parameters, and was found to be more accurate in the latter case. The practical interest of this approach is illustrated by calculating the parameters (and the corresponding genotype) associated with yield optimization of a GREENLAB maize model. The paper discusses the potentials of GREENLAB to represent environment × genotype

  12. The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechid, D.; Jacob, D.; Podzun, R.

    2010-09-01

    The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within the BMBF funded research priority "KLIMZUG - Managing Climate Change in the Regions of the Future", innovative strategies for adaptation to climate change are developed. The funding activity particularly stresses the regional aspect since the global problem climate change must be tackled by measures at regional and local level. The focus of the joint project "KLIMZUG-NORD - Strategic Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region" is to establish an interdisciplinary network between the research, administrative and economic sectors in this region. The regional climate change information is provided by the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology as input for climate change impact assessments. The cross-sectional task "climate change" is to prepare consistent regional climate data and to advise on its reasonable use. The project benefits from the results of the ENSEMBLES EU project, in which an extensive set of regional climate change simulations at 50 km horizontal resolution were performed for 1950 to 2100. For impact studies, higher horizontal resolutions are required. With the regional climate model REMO, three global climate change scenarios from ECHAM5-MPIOM were downscaled to 50 km with three ensemble members each. In a second step, some members were further downscaled to 10 km for central Europe. For the global and regional simulations, the trends were analysed and indicate a strong internal climate variability, which further increases the range of climate change simulation results. This all recommends the application of 1

  13. Dealing with feeling: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal

    2012-07-01

    The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER) strategies. ER instructions were coded according to a new taxonomy, and meta-analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each strategy across studies. The findings revealed differences in effectiveness between ER processes: Attentional deployment had no effect on emotional outcomes (d(+) = 0.00), response modulation had a small effect (d(+) = 0.16), and cognitive change had a small-to-medium effect (d(+) = 0.36). There were also important within-process differences. We identified 7 types of attentional deployment, 4 types of cognitive change, and 4 types of response modulation, and these distinctions had a substantial influence on effectiveness. Whereas distraction was an effective way to regulate emotions (d(+) = 0.27), concentration was not (d(+) = -0.26). Similarly, suppressing the expression of emotion proved effective (d(+) = 0.32), but suppressing the experience of emotion or suppressing thoughts of the emotion-eliciting event did not (d(+) = -0.04 and -0.12, respectively). Finally, reappraising the emotional response proved less effective (d(+) = 0.23) than reappraising the emotional stimulus (d(+) = 0.36) or using perspective taking (d(+) = 0.45). The review also identified several moderators of strategy effectiveness including factors related to the (a) to-be-regulated emotion, (b) frequency of use and intended purpose of the ER strategy, (c) study design, and (d) study characteristics.

  14. Dealing with returned manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-11-01

    It is useful for authors to learn to deal with returned manuscripts with a rejection decision or a request for revision. Common reasons for rejection include contents outside the scope of the journal or inappropriate for the journal, incomplete submission, poor methodology, faulty experimental design, major flaws in the interpretation of results, extremely poor writing, and duplicated or plagiarised work. Authors should use the editor's and reviewers' comments to improve their manuscripts and resubmit elsewhere. Common reasons for revision requests include minor faults in the methodology, minor inaccuracies in data, inconsistencies among different sections of the manuscript, faulty deductions, data that do not support the conclusions, excessive data or text, poor or excessive illustrations, and poor but salvageable writing. A request for revision should be viewed positively, as it means that there is a possibility that the manuscript may still be potentially publishable, provided that all the editor's and reviewers' comments are addressed.

  15. Helping Kids Deal with Bullies

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Helping Kids Deal With Bullies KidsHealth > For Parents > Helping Kids Deal With Bullies ... will be prepared if it does happen. Identifying Bullying Most kids have been teased by a sibling ...

  16. Dealing with Addiction (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Addiction Print A ... is even harder. What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction? The difference between substance abuse and addiction is ...

  17. Dealing with Addiction (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Addiction A A ... is even harder. What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction? The difference between substance abuse and addiction is ...

  18. How to Deal with Hemophilia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting an X-ray How to Deal With Hemophilia KidsHealth > For Kids > How to Deal With Hemophilia ... mild case of hemophilia. Why Do Kids Get Hemophilia? Hemophilia almost always affects boys. Why? Because the ...

  19. Dealing with spatial heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsily, Gh.; Delay, F.; Gonçalvès, J.; Renard, Ph.; Teles, V.; Violette, S.

    2005-03-01

    Heterogeneity can be dealt with by defining homogeneous equivalent properties, known as averaging, or by trying to describe the spatial variability of the rock properties from geologic observations and local measurements. The techniques available for these descriptions are mostly continuous Geostatistical models, or discontinuous facies models such as the Boolean, Indicator or Gaussian-Threshold models and the Markov chain model. These facies models are better suited to treating issues of rock strata connectivity, e.g. buried high permeability channels or low permeability barriers, which greatly affect flow and, above all, transport in aquifers. Genetic models provide new ways to incorporate more geology into the facies description, an approach that has been well developed in the oil industry, but not enough in hydrogeology. The conclusion is that future work should be focused on improving the facies models, comparing them, and designing new in situ testing procedures (including geophysics) that would help identify the facies geometry and properties. A world-wide catalog of aquifer facies geometry and properties, which could combine site genesis and description with methods used to assess the system, would be of great value for practical applications. On peut aborder le problème de l'hétérogénéité en s'efforçant de définir une perméabilité équivalente homogène, par prise de moyenne, ou au contraire en décrivant la variation dans l'espace des propriétés des roches à partir des observations géologiques et des mesures locales. Les techniques disponibles pour une telle description sont soit continues, comme l'approche Géostatistique, soit discontinues, comme les modèles de faciès, Booléens, ou bien par Indicatrices ou Gaussiennes Seuillées, ou enfin Markoviens. Ces modèles de faciès sont mieux capables de prendre en compte la connectivité des strates géologiques, telles que les chenaux enfouis à forte perméabilité, ou au contraire les faci

  20. Dealing with Bullying (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Dealing With Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Bullying Print A ... Schools en español Cómo reaccionar ante la intimidación Bullying Is a Big Problem Every day thousands of ...

  1. Thirteen Secrets of the Deal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Whether one is on Wall Street, in Congress, or working in an IT shop on campus, negotiating a good deal is hard work. As higher education enters its purchasing season, "Campus Technology" talks to deal makers who have "been there and done that." This article presents their tips for getting the most value from vendors the next time one buys…

  2. Thirteen Secrets of the Deal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Whether one is on Wall Street, in Congress, or working in an IT shop on campus, negotiating a good deal is hard work. As higher education enters its purchasing season, "Campus Technology" talks to deal makers who have "been there and done that." This article presents their tips for getting the most value from vendors the next time one buys…

  3. Dealing with Omitted and Not-Reached Items in Competence Tests: Evaluating Approaches Accounting for Missing Responses in Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi; Gräfe, Linda; Rose, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Data from competence tests usually show a number of missing responses on test items due to both omitted and not-reached items. Different approaches for dealing with missing responses exist, and there are no clear guidelines on which of those to use. While classical approaches rely on an ignorable missing data mechanism, the most recently developed…

  4. University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA) Academic Department Chairs' Self-Perceived Utilization of Bolman and Deal's Four-Frame Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sonya L.; Lindahl, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the Bolman and Deal leadership orientation preferred by academic department chairs (ADCs) of Educational Leadership or Administration programs at member colleges and universities of the University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA). A secondary purpose of the study was to examine how the preferred frame of the chairs…

  5. University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA) Academic Department Chairs' Self-Perceived Utilization of Bolman and Deal's Four-Frame Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sonya L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Bolman and Deal leadership orientation preferred by academic department chairs (ADCs) of Educational Leadership or Administration programs at member colleges and universities of the University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA). A secondary purpose of the study was to examine how the…

  6. Individual deals within teams: Investigating the role of relative i-deals for employee performance.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Singh, Satvir; Erdogan, Berrin; Chaudhry, Anjali; Posthuma, Richard; Anand, Smriti

    2016-11-01

    The authors extend i-deals theory to an individual-within-a-team context. Drawing upon social comparison theory, they contend that individuals will react to their own i-deals within the context of group members' i-deals. Therefore, they examine the role of relative i-deals (an individual's i-deals relative to the team's average) in relation to employee performance. Furthermore, integrating social comparison theory with social identity theory the authors assert that the behavioral outcomes of relative i-deals are influenced by the team's social and structural attributes of team orientation and task interdependence. Finally, they contend that the perceptions of one's relative standing with the leader, or leader-member exchange social comparison (LMXSC), mediate the i-deals-outcome relationship in groups with low team orientation and task interdependence. Results of multilevel modeling using time-lagged data from 321 employees nested in 46 teams demonstrated that the positive relationship between relative i-deals and employee performance was stronger in groups with low team orientation and task interdependence, and the mediation effect of LMXSC was stronger in teams with low rather than high team orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Dealing with a Health Condition

    MedlinePlus

    ... stop feeling like such a big deal. Over time, managing diabetes will become second nature and the steps involved will seem like just another way to care for one's body, in much the same way that daily teeth ...

  8. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  9. The New Deal: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes the New Deal as "the single most important twentieth-century episode in the creation of the modern American state." Discusses the astonishing range of legislative activity enacted to respond to the Great Depression and the ensuing political opposition. Frankly evaluates those programs that failed. (MJP)

  10. Interventions for Dealing with Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Dorinda J.

    Basic intervention strategies for dealing with client resistance include psychoanalytic, learning/behavioral, and hypnotic/paradoxical. Psychoanalytic theory views resistance as a way to avoid the anxiety aroused by increasing awareness of unconscious materials and vulnerable areas in the person's life. Resistance is dealt with after it has…

  11. The New Deal: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes the New Deal as "the single most important twentieth-century episode in the creation of the modern American state." Discusses the astonishing range of legislative activity enacted to respond to the Great Depression and the ensuing political opposition. Frankly evaluates those programs that failed. (MJP)

  12. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  13. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  14. A North Dakota New Deal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Rachel Yarnell

    1996-01-01

    Recalls the experiences of two North Dakota men who worked in New Deal jobs programs during the depression. Provides a personal look at the achievements and the administration of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). Includes classroom suggestions for teachers. (MJP)

  15. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  16. Dealing with Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest roadblocks to addressing instructional rigor in schools is the resistance to change that is displayed by teachers, students, parents, and other building and district leaders. Every person deals differently with change. Some are more accepting, others more resistant. No change is successful if the people being asked to change…

  17. Communicating the new benefits deal.

    PubMed

    Patten, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Communication is critical to changing employees' attitudes toward increased responsibility for benefit decisions and health and wellness. As employers shift responsibility, they not only must provide the right decision-making tools; employers must also maintain a safety net for those who don't want the responsibility. This article discusses the experience of four organizations that implemented the "new deal" of increased employee responsibility while also balancing employee needs.

  18. Dealing with uncertainties - communication between disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overbeek, Bernadet; Bessembinder, Janette

    2013-04-01

    Climate adaptation research inevitably involves uncertainty issues - whether people are building a model, using climate scenarios, or evaluating policy processes. However, do they know which uncertainties are relevant in their field of work? And which uncertainties exist in the data from other disciplines that they use (e.g. climate data, land use, hydrological data) and how they propagate? From experiences in Dutch research programmes on climate change in the Netherlands we know that disciplines often deal differently with uncertainties. This complicates communication between disciplines and also with the various users of data and information on climate change and its impacts. In October 2012 an autumn school was organized within the Knowledge for Climate Research Programme in the Netherlands with as central theme dealing with and communicating about uncertainties, in climate- and socio-economic scenarios, in impact models and in the decision making process. The lectures and discussions contributed to the development of a common frame of reference (CFR) for dealing with uncertainties. The common frame contains the following: 1. Common definitions (typology of uncertainties, robustness); 2. Common understanding (why do we consider it important to take uncertainties into account) and aspects on which we disagree (how far should scientists go in communication?); 3. Documents that are considered important by all participants; 4. Do's and don'ts in dealing with uncertainties and communicating about uncertainties (e.g. know your audience, check how your figures are interpreted); 5. Recommendations for further actions (e.g. need for a platform to exchange experiences). The CFR is meant to help researchers in climate adaptation to work together and communicate together on climate change (better interaction between disciplines). It is also meant to help researchers to explain to others (e.g. decision makers) why and when researchers agree and when and why they disagree

  19. Behavior Management: Preventing and Dealing with Problem Behavior. A Series for Caregivers of Infants and Toddlers. Model for Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps: MITCH Module 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe County School District, Key West, FL.

    Intended for use in Florida training programs for caregivers of infants and toddlers with disabilities, this guide presents an overview of the Model of Interdisciplinary Training for Children with Handicaps (MITCH); offers a user's guide to the series; and provides specific information for presenting Module 7, which focuses on ways of preventing…

  20. DEALING WITH DENTAL IMPLANT FAILURES

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Liran

    2008-01-01

    An implant-supported restoration offers a predictable treatment for tooth replacement. Reported success rates for dental implants are high. Nevertheless, failures that mandate immediate implant removal do occur. The consequences of implant removal jeopardize the clinician's efforts to accomplish satisfactory function and esthetics. For the patient, this usually involves further cost and additional procedures. The aim of this paper is to describe different methods and treatment modalities to deal with dental implant failure. The main topics for discussion include identifying the failing implant, implants replacing failed implants at the exact site, and the use of other restorative options. When an implant fails, a tailor made treatment plan should be provided to each patient according to all relevant variables. Patients should be informed regarding all possible treatment modalities following implant failure and give their consent to the most appropriate treatment option for them. PMID:19089213

  1. Dealing with dental implant failures.

    PubMed

    Levin, L

    2010-01-01

    An implant-supported restoration offers a predictable treatment for tooth replacement. Reported success rates for dental implants are high. Nevertheless, failures that mandate immediate implant removal do occur. The consequences of implant removal jeopardize the clinician's efforts to accomplish satisfactory function and esthetics. For the patient, this usually involves further cost and additional procedures. The aim of this paper is to describe different methods and treatment modalities to deal with dental implant failure. The main topics for discussion include identifying the failing implant, implants replacing failed implants at the exact site, and the use of other restorative options. When an implant fails, a tailor made treatment plan should be provided to each patient according to all relevant variables. Patients should be informed regarding all possible treatment modalities following implant failure and give their consent to the most appropriate treatment option for them.

  2. Dealing with dental implant failures.

    PubMed

    Levin, Liran

    2008-01-01

    An implant-supported restoration offers a predictable treatment for tooth replacement. Reported success rates for dental implants are high. Nevertheless, failures that mandate immediate implant removal do occur. The consequences of implant removal jeopardize the clinician's efforts to accomplish satisfactory function and esthetics. For the patient, this usually involves further cost and additional procedures. The aim of this paper is to describe different methods and treatment modalities to deal with dental implant failure. The main topics for discussion include identifying the failing implant, implants replacing failed implants at the exact site, and the use of other restorative options.When an implant fails, a tailor made treatment plan should be provided to each patient according to all relevant variables. Patients should be informed regarding all possible treatment modalities following implant failure and give their consent to the most appropriate treatment option for them.

  3. Dealing with dental implant failures.

    PubMed

    Levin, L

    2010-07-01

    An implant-supported restoration offers a predictable treatment for tooth replacement. Reported success rates for dental implants are high. Nevertheless, failures that mandate immediate implant removal do occur. The consequences of implant removal jeopardize the clinician's efforts to accomplish satisfactory function and esthetics. For the patient, this usually involves further cost and additional procedures. The aim of this paper is to describe different methods and treatment modalities to deal with dental implant failure. The main topics for discussion include identifying the failing implant, implants replacing failed implants at the exact site, and the use of other restorative options. When an implant fails, a tailor made treatment plan should be provided to each patient according to all relevant variables. Patients should be informed regarding all possible treatment modalities following implant failure and give their consent to the most appropriate treatment option for them.

  4. A practical alternating PSM modeling and OPC approach to deal with 3D mask effects for the 65nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapeau, Martin; van Adrichem, Paul J. M.; van Look, Lieve; Kasprowicz, Bryan S.

    2005-11-01

    Alternating PSM (Alt-PSM) has been recognized as a logical Resolution Enhancement Technique (RET) candidate for the 65nm technology node. One of the key properties this technique has to offer is high Depth of Focus (DOF) and lower Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF). The so-called image imbalance is an Alt-PSM specific property which, if not dealt with correctly, constrains the added DOF. Because of mask topography, intensity differences caused by light scattering become evident between π (180°) and zero degree phase shifters. This causes a line shift that is inversely proportional to the pitch. The traditional solution of applying a fixed trench bias increases the width if the π phase shifter to level out intensities and thus minimize image imbalance. This technique may no longer be sufficient at the 65nm technology node. With the requirement to print even smaller pitches together with a tighter Critical Dimension (CD) budget, intensity imbalance is a larger concern. It may be necessary to apply a pitch dependent or variable trench bias. In this paper, we present a practical OPC modeling approach that accounts for image imbalance. The 2D modeling approach uses boundary layers to represent the 3D effect of light scattering. We demonstrate that with the boundary layer model, it is possible to predict image imbalance caused by mask 3D effects. The model can then be used either to determine the nominal trench bias or can be integrated into the OPC engine to apply a variable trench bias. Results are compared to rigorous Electro Magnetic Field (EMF) simulations and experimental exposures using an ArF scanner, targeting pitches of 130nm and above.

  5. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

    2013-12-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

  6. The new deal at the top.

    PubMed

    Doz, Yves L; Kosonen, Mikko

    2007-06-01

    What makes a company strategically agile--able to alter its strategies and business models rapidly in response to major changes in its market space, and to do so repeatedly without major trauma? Three years of in-depth case research on a dozen large companies worldwide showed the authors that one key factor is a new leadership model at the top. Senior executives at agile companies assume collective rather than individual responsibility for results. They build interdependencies among units and divisions, motivating themselves to engage with one another, and carefully manage their dealings to promote collaboration that is frequent, intense, informal, open, and focused on shared issues and the long term. Challenges to conventional thinking are encouraged. This is the new deal, and it's not easy to strike, because it requires executives to act in ways that are far from comfortable. After all, the corporate ladder at most firms favors independent types with a deep need for power and autonomy. At executive meetings, disagreement is suppressed or expressed passive-aggressively, eroding any real sense of belonging to a team. Switching to the new deal almost always requires a huge shift in the company's culture, values, and norms of interaction. The authors describe three approaches to making the shift: Executives can be given formal responsibility not for a business unit but for different stages in the company's value chain. This worked well for SAP, which has a relatively focused business portfolio. When a company's portfolio is less uniform, like Nokia's, business and functional units can be organized to crisscross on a matrix. And when a company is widely diverse, like easyGroup, it can emphasize the learning opportunities that units with common business models may share.

  7. Dealing With Missing Behavioral Endpoints in Health Promotion Research by Modeling Cognitive Parameters in Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Behavioral Interventions: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Feenstra, Talitha L; Smit, Eline S; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M A A; van der Palen, Job

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of incorporating cognitive parameters of behavior change in CEAs. The CEA from a randomized controlled trial on smoking cessation was reanalyzed. First, relevant cognitive antecedents of behavior change in this dataset were identified. Then, transition probabilities between combined states of smoking and cognitions at 6 weeks and corresponding 6 months smoking status were obtained from the dataset. These rates were extrapolated to the period from 6 to 12 months in a decision analytic model. Simulated results were compared with the 12 months' observed cost-effectiveness results. Self-efficacy was the strongest time-varying predictor of smoking cessation. Twelve months' observed CEA results for the multiple tailoring intervention versus usual care showed € 3188 had to be paid for each additional quitter versus € 10,600 in the simulated model. The simulated CEA showed largely similar but somewhat more conservative results. Using self-efficacy to enhance the estimation of the true behavioral outcome seems a feasible and valid way to estimate future cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Revised LHC deal quiets congress

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, A.

    1997-05-23

    The roughest part of the ride may be over for U.S. physicists who want to participate in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the $5 billion accelerator planned for CERN in Geneva. They have found themselves on a political roller coaster for the past few months. This week, U.S. and European negotiators were putting the final touches on a revamped agreement that should pave the way for the United States to help pay for construction of the accelerator and its two main detectors, and guarantee U.S. scientists a role in research on the machine. The trouble began in March, when Representative Joe Barton (R-TX) declared war on a proposed $530 million U.S. contribution to the new facility, slated for completion in 2005. Barton and many other members of Congress were still smarting from what they said was a lack of European support for the canceled Superconducting Super Collider that was being built in Barton`s backyard. Representative James Sensenbrenner (R-WI), who chairs the House Science Committee, led the charge to alter a draft agreement initialed this winter by Department of Energy (DOE) and CERN officials that spelled out the details of U.S. participation. After hurried negotiations, both sides have sharpened the agreement to address the lawmakers` concerns. The new deal, says Energy Secretary Federico Pena, {open_quotes}has made that project even better.{close_quotes}

  9. Dealing with a Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Pack, Allan I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies by insurance companies with respect to mandating home sleep apnea testing rather than in-laboratory studies have a large impact on the financial viability of clinical sleep centers. Coping with this disruptive change requires forward planning. First, it is important to be well positioned with respect to facilities so that these can be quickly downsized to control costs. There is also a need to develop, in advance, an accredited home sleep study program so that centers can respond to the rapidly changing environment. Following the change there is a need to control costs by rapidly downsizing the technology workforce. Technologists can be retrained for other essential roles. Centralizing the precertification process with knowledgeable, well-trained staff and a robust auditing process is an essential component. The approach taken at the University of Pennsylvania to this change is described as is how one can ensure continued financial viability of a comprehensive sleep center program in a major academic medical center. Citation: Pack AI. Dealing with a paradigm shift. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):925–929. PMID:26094918

  10. Dealing with Sex Roles in Groups: A Developmental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Clarke G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A model of individual developments is described and a framework is presented for developing group environments that match the developmental levels of women and men who are dealing with sex role issues. (Author/KS)

  11. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Judging Big Deals: Challenges, Outcomes, and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of five Big Deal electronic journal packages to which Hofstra University's Axinn Library subscribes. COUNTER usage reports were used to judge the value of each Big Deal. Limitations of usage statistics are also discussed. In the end, the author concludes that four of the five Big Deals are good deals…

  13. Judging Big Deals: Challenges, Outcomes, and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of five Big Deal electronic journal packages to which Hofstra University's Axinn Library subscribes. COUNTER usage reports were used to judge the value of each Big Deal. Limitations of usage statistics are also discussed. In the end, the author concludes that four of the five Big Deals are good deals…

  14. Dealing with the Biological Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Emeric

    1996-05-01

    The bio-technological revolution presents a real challenge to the chemical education community. This challenge is two-fold: 1) the necessity of teaching students the underlying chemical principles and other skills necessary for sucess in the expanding biotechnological workplace and 2) ensuring and enhancing respect from the biological community for the first two years of the chemistry curriculum. In the opinion of the author, we are not doing a particularly good job of meeting this challenge, although progress is being made. As the "doing" of chemistry becomes easier for biologists, there is the real danger that the knowledge of a significant portion of the underlying chemistry will increasingly be viewed as less valuable, and perhaps even superfluous. The three "Trojan Horses" are: synthetic, analytical, and "process" kits; instrumentation coupled with computer "interpretation"; and molecular modeling. The author believes that in order to address the biological challenge head on, we should give serious consideration to the following: 1) reversing the "learning arrow"; 2) embedding molecular and other modeling; 3) incorporating instrumental analysis and chemistry-by-kit. Reversing the learning arrow approaches the chemistry curriculum by starting with large biomolecules first and working toward smaller fundamental units. The author believes that this approach and a more proactive stance on establishing what is in the domain of chemistry is the means by which the biological challenge, spawned by the bio-technological revolution, can most forcefully be addressed.

  15. Dissecting monoclonal antibody mega-deals

    PubMed Central

    Villiger, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) deals notable in size have made headlines recently. While deals with over US$ 1 bio in milestones were highly unusual in the past, even preclinical agreements, including some with very attractive co-promotion or profit-sharing clauses for the licensor, now reach this mark. This article presents an analysis of the structure of high-value mAb deals and the impact of increasingly sophisticated terms. Strategies of licensees and the impact of strategy on a deal's size and structure are also examined. PMID:20061828

  16. Psychosocial Correlates of Adolescent Drug Dealing in the Inner City

    PubMed Central

    Little, Michelle; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a model of the simultaneous and interactive influence of social context, psychosocial attitudes, and individual maturity on the prediction of urban adolescent drug dealing. Five factors were found to significantly increase adolescents’ opportunity for drug selling: low parental monitoring, poor neighborhood conditions, low neighborhood job opportunity, parental substance use or abuse, and high levels of peer group deviance. The relation between drug-selling opportunity and adolescents’ frequency of drug selling was partially mediated by adolescents’ alienation from conventional goals and from commitment to school. With the effect of drug-dealing opportunity controlled, adolescents’ temperance was associated with a lower frequency of drug selling. Youths with greater resistance to peer influence reported a higher frequency of nonmarijuana drug dealing. Adolescent autonomy also predicted adolescents’ nonmarijuana dealing in conditions of low drug-selling opportunity. The results are discussed with respect to the social service needs of serious juvenile offenders. PMID:20011229

  17. Dealing with the Impact Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, D.; Harris, A. W.; Sommer, G.; Chapman, C. R.; Carusi, A.

    2002-03-01

    The small fraction of asteroids with Earth-crossing or Earth-approaching orbits is of special interest to us because many will eventually impact our planet. The time-averaged impact flux as a function of projectile energy can be derived from lunar-cratering statistics, although we have little information on the possible variability of this flux over time. Alternatively, we can use current observations of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) to derive the size distribution and flux of impactors. The effects of impacts of various energies can be modeled, using data from historic impacts (such as the K/T impactor 65 m.y. ago) and the observed 1994 bombardment of Jupiter by fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. Such models confirm that the terrestrial biosphere is highly vulnerable to severe perturbation from impacts, so that even such a small event as the K/T impact (by a projectile 10-15 km in diameter) can lead to a mass extinction. Combining the impact flux with estimates of environmental and ecological effects reveals that the greatest contemporary hazard is associated with impactors near 1,000,000 MT energy. The current impact hazard is significant relative to other natural hazards, and arguments can be developed to illuminate a variety of public-policy issues. These include the relative risk of different impact scenarios and the associated costs and probabilities of success of countermeasures. It is generally agreed that the first step is to survey and catalog the larger NEAs. To that end, we review the status of the Spaceguard Survey, which has already discovered more than half of the NEAs larger than 1-km diameter, out of a total population estimated to be between 1000 and 1200. We compare the efficiency of survey approaches and consider the challenges of international coordination and the problems and opportunities associated with communicating the results with the press and the public. It is also important to reflect on how the impact hazard might be dealt with by

  18. Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…

  19. Uncovering the Deal in Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.; Hudder, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A teacher educator and a former student, now a classroom teacher, have a 14-year conversation about the deep dynamics of classroom management, which is more complicated than it first appears. The teacher educator introduces the classroom teacher to The Deal, an idea that can guide early-career teachers as well as veteran teachers. The Deal is, in…

  20. Helping Your Child Deal with Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old Helping Your Child Deal With Death KidsHealth > For Parents > Helping Your Child Deal With Death A A A en español Cómo ayudar a ... has lost a loved one: When talking about death, use simple, clear words. To break the news ...

  1. Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…

  2. Uncovering the Deal in Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.; Hudder, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A teacher educator and a former student, now a classroom teacher, have a 14-year conversation about the deep dynamics of classroom management, which is more complicated than it first appears. The teacher educator introduces the classroom teacher to The Deal, an idea that can guide early-career teachers as well as veteran teachers. The Deal is, in…

  3. Clarification of the confusion concerning the crystal-field quantities vs the zero-field splitting quantities in magnetism studies: Part II—Survey of literature dealing with model studies of spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudowicz, C.

    2008-07-01

    For respective quantities, i.e., Hamiltonians, parameters, and energy level splittings, related to two physically distinct notions X and Y, various cases of confused terminology have been identified in literature. Referring to a quantity related actually to the notion Y using incorrectly the name of another well-defined notion X constitutes, what may be defined for short as, the type X=Y confusion. An ongoing survey of magnetism literature indicates that quantities related to zero-field splitting (ZFS) or equivalently fine structure (FS) are most often confused with those related to crystal-field (CF) or equivalently ligand field (LF). In this review the CF=ZFS confusion cases, i.e., labelling actual ZFS/FS quantities as purportedly ‘ CF/LF’ ones, appearing in magnetism studies are surveyed and clarified. Part I covers the cases occurring in literature dealing with specific compounds. In this part model studies of spin systems are surveyed. The cases of terminology mixing up actual ZFS/FS quantities with purported CF/LF ones are identified and presented comprehensively in tabular form. To facilitate discussion, problems pertinent for the CF=ZFS confusion are categorized into several groups, including origin of the two notions, physical consequences, usage of specific numerical values, invoking real magnetic spin systems, and properties of spin S={1}/{2} systems. Physical implications of this confusion for interpretation of model results are also considered. Overall implications of incorrect terminology go beyond simple semantic issues and concern possible misinterpretation of data describing various physical properties of models studied. Such terminology contributes also to misleading keyword classifications of papers in journals and scientific databases. Other types of confusion identified in survey of magnetism literature will be discussed in separate reviews.

  4. Idiosyncratic Deals: Testing Propositions on Timing, Content, and the Employment Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Denise M.; Hornung, Severin; Kim, Tai Gyu

    2009-01-01

    This study tests propositions regarding idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) in a sample of N = 265 hospital employees using structural equation modeling. Timing and content of idiosyncratic employment arrangements are postulated to have differential consequences for the nature of the employment relationship. Results confirm that i-deals made after hire…

  5. Dealing with Uncertainty in Chemical Risk Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    0 * (OF 41 C-DEALING WITH UNCERTAINTY IN - CHEMICAL RISK ANALYSIS THESIS David S. Clement Captain, USAF AFIT/GOR/MA/8CD-2 DT[C. ~ELECTEf 2 9 MAR 18...AFIT/GOR/MA/88D-2 DEALING WITH UNCERTAINTY IN CHEMICAL RISK ANALYSIS THESIS David S. Clement Captain, USAF AFIT/GOR/MA/88D-2 DTIC V ~ 27989 Approved...for public release; distribution unlimited S . AFIT/GOR/KA/88D-2 DEALING WITH UNCERTAINTY IN CHEMICAL RISK ANALYSIS THESIS Presented to the Faculty

  6. Dealing with Persistent Pain in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Topics Arthritis Cancer COPD Diabetes Joint Problems Pain Management Related Documents PDF Dealing with Persistent Pain in ... provider may also refer you to a special pain management center. Some persistent pain problems are very complex ...

  7. How to stop smoking: Dealing with cravings

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000854.htm How to stop smoking: Dealing with cravings To use the sharing features ... quit. What Causes Cravings When you first quit smoking , your body will go through nicotine withdrawal . You ...

  8. Dealing with Diagnosis of Cancer in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... When Your Child Has Cancer Children Diagnosed With Cancer: Dealing With Diagnosis When a child or teen is diagnosed with ... How do parents usually react to a child’s cancer diagnosis? Ways to improve coping How can parents be ...

  9. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  10. Elements of a pragmatic approach for dealing with bias and uncertainty in experiments through predictions : experiment design and data conditioning; %22real space%22 model validation and conditioning; hierarchical modeling and extrapolative prediction.

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Vicente Jose

    2011-11-01

    This report explores some important considerations in devising a practical and consistent framework and methodology for utilizing experiments and experimental data to support modeling and prediction. A pragmatic and versatile 'Real Space' approach is outlined for confronting experimental and modeling bias and uncertainty to mitigate risk in modeling and prediction. The elements of experiment design and data analysis, data conditioning, model conditioning, model validation, hierarchical modeling, and extrapolative prediction under uncertainty are examined. An appreciation can be gained for the constraints and difficulties at play in devising a viable end-to-end methodology. Rationale is given for the various choices underlying the Real Space end-to-end approach. The approach adopts and refines some elements and constructs from the literature and adds pivotal new elements and constructs. Crucially, the approach reflects a pragmatism and versatility derived from working many industrial-scale problems involving complex physics and constitutive models, steady-state and time-varying nonlinear behavior and boundary conditions, and various types of uncertainty in experiments and models. The framework benefits from a broad exposure to integrated experimental and modeling activities in the areas of heat transfer, solid and structural mechanics, irradiated electronics, and combustion in fluids and solids.

  11. When to walk away from a deal.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Geoffrey; Le Roux, Jean-Marc; Weddigen, Rolf-Magnus

    2004-04-01

    Deal making is glamorous; due diligence is not. That simple statement goes a long way toward explaining why so many companies have made so many acquisitions that have produced so little value. The momentum of a transaction is hard to resist once senior management has the target in its sights. Companies contract "deal fever," and due diligence all too often becomes an exercise in verifying the target's financial statements rather than conducting a fair analysis of the deal's strategic logic and the acquirer's ability to realize value from it. Seldom does the process lead managers to kill potential acquisitions, even when the deals are deeply flawed. In a recent Bain & Company survey of 250 international executives with M&A responsibilities, only 30% of them were satisfied with the rigor of their due diligence. And fully a third admitted they hadn't walked away from deals they had nagging doubts about. In this article, the authors, all Bain consultants, emphasize the importance of comprehensive due diligence practices and suggest ways companies can improve their capabilities in this area. They provide rich real-world examples of companies that have had varying levels of success with their due diligence processes, including Safeway, Odeon, American Sea-foods, and Kellogg's. Effective due diligence requires answering four basic questions: What are we really buying? What is the target's stand-alone value? Where are the synergies--and the skeletons? And what's our walk-away price? Each of these questions will prompt an even deeper level of querying that puts the broader, strategic rationale for acquisitions under a microscope. Successful acquirers pay close heed to the results of such in-depth investigations and analyses--to the extent that they are prepared to walk away from a deal, even in the very late stages of negotiations.

  12. Dealing with anger and preventing workplace violence.

    PubMed

    Lussier, Robert N

    2004-01-01

    Human resources managers have reported increased violence (1) stating it can happen anywhere (2). One million workers are assaulted each year (3), and in some years more than 1,000 workers have been killed (4). Almost 25% of workplace violence incidences occur in the health-care industry (5). Women commit nearly one fourth of all threats or attacks (6). Have you ever gotten angry at work? Have you ever had to deal with an angry patient or coworker? Has there been any violence where you work? The key to preventing workplace violence is to deal with anger and recognize and handle suspicious behavior before it turns violent.

  13. Theoretical Approaches to Dealing with Somalia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    always 1938, no matter whether dealing with Saddam Hussein, Slobodan Milosevic, or “ Baby Doc” Duvalier. 11 The word appeasement immediately spells...report to the United Nations Security Council, Secretary General Ban Ki- moon confirmed that piracy is a symptom of weak governance in Somalia. 27

  14. Dealing with Budget Cuts. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Virtually every school district in the country is dealing with the need to reduce their budget. The process used to make those decisions varies from state to state but almost always includes a combination of short and long-term approaches. In many school districts the emphasis is on reducing individual budget line items and not filling vacant…

  15. "Dealing with Racial Conflicts in Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Ben

    In dealing with racial tension and conflict, the principal is not limited to a wing and a prayer and benign neglect. The roots of conflict can be identified. Conflict can be planned for and utilized constructively. For 10 years, in approximately 2,000 instances, conciliators and mediators of the Community Relations Service have stood side-by-side…

  16. Equip Kids to Deal with Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.; Coleman, Melba F.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how teachers can equip students to deal with disaster, focusing on coping with earthquakes. The article suggests watching for symptoms, encouraging expression, providing concrete information, helping soothe parents, developing emergency plans, holding emergency drills, and developing a communication strategy. Tips for before and after…

  17. Optimal Strategies for Dealing with Store Discounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croucher, John S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the assurances of store employees, whenever a deal is on offer it always pays to apply a little logic (and mathematics) to see just how to use it most effectively. In this article, the author displays how to employ this technique by using the example of a shoe store that advertised "second pair half price" (with the fine print stating that…

  18. School Helping Students Deal with Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of a natural disaster, schools may need to plan to address the suffering and loss of many. These Guidance Notes discuss five areas in which schools can help students cope with loss: (1) Fostering Resiliency; (2) Facilitating and Fostering Social Ties and Resources; (3) Stages of Grieving; (4) Helping Students Deal with Loss; and…

  19. How profitable is methamphetamine dealing in Australia?

    PubMed

    Gong, Wendy; Ritter, Alison; Bright, David; Doran, Chris

    2012-05-01

    The illicit drug trade is the largest in value among global illicit commodities, at some $320 billion US dollars, according to the UN World Drug Report. Endeavours to control such a large illicit market would be enhanced by improved understanding of the economics of the trade. However, due to its illicit nature many aspects of the illicit drug market are largely unknown. This study explored one economic aspect of illicit drug dealing, profitability, with the aim of developing a better picture of the financial gains from illicit drug dealing. Data were obtained from judges sentencing remarks, key informants from law enforcement, and other published reports which detail the prices paid for methamphetamine in Australia. The financial margins attained from non-crystal methamphetamine dealing in Australia were calculated by examining the best fit for the relationship between prices and quantities: in this case a power law. If it is assumed that a single deal is divided ("cut") between 4 times and 20 times before selling to the next customer, the mark-ups can range from 24% to 59%. The mark-ups appear low compared with those found in US research, but similar to those found in UK research. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to analyse profitability of methamphetamine dealing in Australia. The findings of this study will help in understanding the motivations and decisions of drug dealers, and potentially assist drug law enforcement agencies to design better strategies to dismantle supply chain linkages which generate excessive profits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dealing with the problematic partner or associate.

    PubMed

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2007-08-01

    Problematic physicians can sap the morale of practice members and rend the very fabric of the group. When problems are ignored, the physicians who cause them become emboldened; their bad behavior persists, and the entire practice suffers. An appropriate employment contract must be structured; this provides a mechanism for the group to take action against a practice member. The development and implementation of practice policies that are in place before they are needed are key to dealing with a spectrum of practice issues. Failure to have prospective policies in place mandates that a practice reacts to a specific concern, and the action taken is usually either too punitive or too permissive. To be effective, policies must have meaningful consequences for breach. Finally, the practice president must confront and deal with the problematic radiologist in the appropriate manner specified by the group-adopted policy.

  1. Dealing with deficient and missing data.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, Ian R

    2015-11-01

    Disease control decisions require two types of data: data describing the disease frequency (incidence and prevalence) along with characteristics of the population and environment in which the disease occurs (hereafter called "descriptive data"); and, data for analytical studies (hereafter called "analytical data") documenting the effects of risk factors for the disease. Both may be either deficient or missing. Descriptive data may be completely missing if the disease is a new and unknown entity with no diagnostic procedures or if there has been no surveillance activity in the population of interest. Methods for dealing with this complete absence of data are limited, but the possible use of surrogate measures of disease will be discussed. More often, data are deficient because of limitations in diagnostic capabilities (imperfect sensitivity and specificity). Developments in methods for dealing with this form of information bias make this a more tractable problem. Deficiencies in analytical data leading to biased estimates of effects of risk factors are a common problem, and one which is increasingly being recognized, but options for correction of known or suspected biases are still limited. Data about risk factors may be completely missing if studies of risk factors have not been carried out. Alternatively, data for evaluation of risk factors may be available but have "item missingness" where some (or many) observations have some pieces of information missing. There has been tremendous development in the methods to deal with this problem of "item missingness" over the past decade, with multiple imputation being the most prominent method. The use of multiple imputation to deal with the problem of item missing data will be compared to the use of complete-case analysis, and limitations to the applicability of imputation will be presented.

  2. IRANIAN FOREIGN POLICY AFTER THE NUCLEAR DEAL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    Force Base, Alabama. iv Abstract The nuclear agreement between the (P5+1) countries and Iran is a recognition by the international community to...put Iran back as before the 1979 revolution. However, the infinite political complexities that are intertwined today in the whole Middle East will...determining what Iran foreign policy would be after the nuclear deal. The paper will present an argument about the possible actions that Iran can

  3. Dealing with the effects of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Lynda

    2011-07-01

    Domestic violence has a lasting and damaging effect on the lives of thousands of women, men and children in Ireland and the UK. Yet, healthcare services are il equipped to deal with the victims of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse, many of whom present to emergency departments because they need help and support. As this article discusses, healthcare staff have a responsibility of care for such people. They must be able to recognise and respond to the signs of domestic abuse, and refer people who experience it to the appropriate organisations.

  4. Multiple imputation: dealing with missing data.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; van Diepen, Merel; Jager, Kitty J; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine; Dekker, Friedo W

    2013-10-01

    In many fields, including the field of nephrology, missing data are unfortunately an unavoidable problem in clinical/epidemiological research. The most common methods for dealing with missing data are complete case analysis-excluding patients with missing data--mean substitution--replacing missing values of a variable with the average of known values for that variable-and last observation carried forward. However, these methods have severe drawbacks potentially resulting in biased estimates and/or standard errors. In recent years, a new method has arisen for dealing with missing data called multiple imputation. This method predicts missing values based on other data present in the same patient. This procedure is repeated several times, resulting in multiple imputed data sets. Thereafter, estimates and standard errors are calculated in each imputation set and pooled into one overall estimate and standard error. The main advantage of this method is that missing data uncertainty is taken into account. Another advantage is that the method of multiple imputation gives unbiased results when data are missing at random, which is the most common type of missing data in clinical practice, whereas conventional methods do not. However, the method of multiple imputation has scarcely been used in medical literature. We, therefore, encourage authors to do so in the future when possible.

  5. [Dealing with diagnostic uncertainty in general practice].

    PubMed

    Wübken, Magdalena; Oswald, Jana; Schneider, Antonius

    2013-01-01

    In general, the prevalence of diseases is low in primary care. Therefore, the positive predictive value of diagnostic tests is lower than in hospitals where patients are highly selected. In addition, the patients present with milder forms of disease; and many diseases might hide behind the initial symptom(s). These facts lead to diagnostic uncertainty which is somewhat inherent to general practice. This narrative review discusses different sources of and reasons for uncertainty and strategies to deal with it in the context of the current literature. Fear of uncertainty correlates with higher diagnostic activities. The attitude towards uncertainty correlates with the choice of medical speciality by vocational trainees or medical students. An intolerance of uncertainty, which still increases as medicine is making steady progress, might partly explain the growing shortage of general practitioners. The bio-psycho-social context appears to be important to diagnostic decision-making. The effect of intuition and heuristics are investigated by cognitive psychologists. It is still unclear whether these aspects are prone to bias or useful, which might depend on the context of medical decisions. Good communication is of great importance to share uncertainty with the patients in a transparent way and to alleviate shared decision-making. Dealing with uncertainty should be seen as an important core component of general practice and needs to be investigated in more detail to improve the respective medical decisions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Dealing with Reflection Invariance in Bayesian Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Erosheva, Elena A; Curtis, S McKay

    2017-03-13

    This paper considers the reflection unidentifiability problem in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the associated implications for Bayesian estimation. We note a direct analogy between the multimodality in CFA models that is due to all possible column sign changes in the matrix of loadings and the multimodality in finite mixture models that is due to all possible relabelings of the mixture components. Drawing on this analogy, we derive and present a simple approach for dealing with reflection in variance in Bayesian factor analysis. We recommend fitting Bayesian factor analysis models without rotational constraints on the loadings-allowing Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms to explore the full posterior distribution-and then using a relabeling algorithm to pick a factor solution that corresponds to one mode. We demonstrate our approach on the case of a bifactor model; however, the relabeling algorithm is straightforward to generalize for handling multimodalities due to sign invariance in the likelihood in other factor analysis models.

  7. Dealing with Uncertainties in Initial Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armellin, Roberto; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    A method to deal with uncertainties in initial orbit determination (IOD) is presented. This is based on the use of Taylor differential algebra (DA) to nonlinearly map the observation uncertainties from the observation space to the state space. When a minimum set of observations is available DA is used to expand the solution of the IOD problem in Taylor series with respect to measurement errors. When more observations are available high order inversion tools are exploited to obtain full state pseudo-observations at a common epoch. The mean and covariance of these pseudo-observations are nonlinearly computed by evaluating the expectation of high order Taylor polynomials. Finally, a linear scheme is employed to update the current knowledge of the orbit. Angles-only observations are considered and simplified Keplerian dynamics adopted to ease the explanation. Three test cases of orbit determination of artificial satellites in different orbital regimes are presented to discuss the feature and performances of the proposed methodology.

  8. The Public Health Responsibility Deal: brokering a deal for public health, but on whose terms?

    PubMed

    Panjwani, Clare; Caraher, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Coalitions of multinational food and drink businesses have pledged to reformulate their products and to market them responsibly. Largely business-led and self-regulated, the integrity of these voluntary initiatives has been questioned. The Public Health Responsibility Deal in England is an example of a voluntary initiative that is government-led. Does this approach provide evidence that with public leadership there is potential for voluntary actions to deliver meaningful results for public health? The subject of the research is the calorie reduction initiative of the Responsibility Deal. Source material was obtained primarily through a series of UK Freedom of Information requests and comprises previously unpublished Department of Health documentation relating to relevant meetings held during 2011 and 2012. The Responsibility Deal approach to calorie reduction deliberately involves the food industry in the specification of the measures it is to implement (reformulation and portion control). Finding the common ground between private and public interests has resulted in the deflection of public health objectives and the preclusion of adequate monitoring and evaluation. The Responsibility Deal approach is fundamentally flawed in its expectation that industry will take voluntary actions that prioritise public health interests above its own. Being government-led counts for little in the absence of sanctions to drive compliance. Instead the initiative affords private interests the opportunity to influence in their favour the public health policies and strategies that affect their products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deal or No Deal: using games to improve student learning, retention and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Alan F.; Woodford, Kelly C.; Maes, Jeanne

    2011-03-01

    Student understanding and retention can be enhanced and improved by providing alternative learning activities and environments. Education theory recognizes the value of incorporating alternative activities (games, exercises and simulations) to stimulate student interest in the educational environment, enhance transfer of knowledge and improve learned retention with meaningful repetition. In this case study, we investigate using an online version of the television game show, 'Deal or No Deal', to enhance student understanding and retention by playing the game to learn expected value in an introductory statistics course, and to foster development of critical thinking skills necessary to succeed in the modern business environment. Enhancing the thinking process of problem solving using repetitive games should also improve a student's ability to follow non-mathematical problem-solving processes, which should improve the overall ability to process information and make logical decisions. Learning and retention are measured to evaluate the success of the students' performance.

  10. 17 CFR 23.433 - Communications-fair dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Communications-fair dealing... Participants Dealing With Counterparties, Including Special Entities § 23.433 Communications—fair dealing. With... swap dealer or major swap participant shall communicate in a fair and balanced manner based on...

  11. 17 CFR 23.433 - Communications-fair dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Communications-fair dealing... Participants Dealing With Counterparties, Including Special Entities § 23.433 Communications—fair dealing. With... swap dealer or major swap participant shall communicate in a fair and balanced manner based on...

  12. 17 CFR 23.433 - Communications-fair dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Communications-fair dealing... Participants Dealing With Counterparties, Including Special Entities § 23.433 Communications—fair dealing. With... swap dealer or major swap participant shall communicate in a fair and balanced manner based on...

  13. A backtracking algorithm that deals with particle filter degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baarsma, Rein; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Particle filters are an excellent way to deal with stochastic models incorporating Bayesian data assimilation. While they are computationally demanding, the particle filter has no problem with nonlinearity and it accepts non-Gaussian observational data. In the geoscientific field it is this computational demand that creates a problem, since dynamic grid-based models are often already quite computationally demanding. As such it is of the utmost importance to keep the amount of samples in the filter as small as possible. Small sample populations often lead to filter degeneracy however, especially in models with high stochastic forcing. Filter degeneracy renders the sample population useless, as the population is no longer statistically informative. We have created an algorithm in an existing data assimilation framework that reacts to and deals with filter degeneracy based on Spiller et al. [2008]. During the Bayesian updating step of the standard particle filter, the algorithm tests the sample population for filter degeneracy. If filter degeneracy has occurred, the algorithm resets to the last time the filter did work correctly and recalculates the failed timespan of the filter with an increased sample population. The sample population is then reduced to its original size and the particle filter continues as normal. This algorithm was created in the PCRaster Python framework, an open source tool that enables spatio-temporal forward modelling in Python [Karssenberg et al., 2010] . The framework already contains several data assimilation algorithms, including a standard particle filter and a Kalman filter. The backtracking particle filter algorithm has been added to the framework, which will make it easy to implement in other research. The performance of the backtracking particle filter is tested against a standard particle filter using two models. The first is a simple nonlinear point model, and the second is a more complex geophysical model. The main testing

  14. Dealing with hierarchical data in periodontal research.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Peter

    2009-09-01

    Site-specific clinical periodontal data are usually plentiful, typically hierarchical, and generally valuable information. Summarizing these data on a subject level for easy application of standard statistical tests leads to loss of most of the information. In addition, well-known fallacies may make interpretation difficult if not impossible. In this study, an attempt is made to apply, in a non-technical way and as a tutorial, a rather complex multilevel model of gingival thickness, which provides unbiased estimates of fixed effects and a variance/covariance matrix with considerable information as regards data structure. When applying multilevel modeling, random effects should generally be reported in a proper way, since they might reveal new insights into subject and tooth variation, correlations between covariates, and even problems with the chosen model.

  15. Review of inverse probability weighting for dealing with missing data.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Shaun R; White, Ian R

    2013-06-01

    The simplest approach to dealing with missing data is to restrict the analysis to complete cases, i.e. individuals with no missing values. This can induce bias, however. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) is a commonly used method to correct this bias. It is also used to adjust for unequal sampling fractions in sample surveys. This article is a review of the use of IPW in epidemiological research. We describe how the bias in the complete-case analysis arises and how IPW can remove it. IPW is compared with multiple imputation (MI) and we explain why, despite MI generally being more efficient, IPW may sometimes be preferred. We discuss the choice of missingness model and methods such as weight truncation, weight stabilisation and augmented IPW. The use of IPW is illustrated on data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort.

  16. Dealing Bandwidth to Mobile Clients Using Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofokleous, Anastasis A.; Angelides, Marios C.

    This chapter exploits a gaming approach to bandwidth sharing in a network of non-cooperative clients whose aim is to satisfy their selfish objectives and be served in the shortest time and who share limited knowledge of one another. The chapter models this problem as a game in which players consume the bandwidth of a video streaming server. The rest of this chapter is organized in four sections: the proceeding section presents resource allocation taxonomies, following that is a section on game theory, where our approach is sourced from, and its application to resource allocation. The penultimate section presents our gaming approach to resource allocation. The final section concludes.

  17. Dealing with the Asteroid Impact Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    2001-01-01

    The small fraction of the asteroids with Earth-crossing or Earth-approaching orbits is of special interest to us because many will eventually impact our planet. The time-averaged impact flux as a function of projectile energy can be derived from lunar cratering statistics, although we have little information on the possible variability of this flux over time. The effects of impacts of various energies can be modeled, using data from historic impacts (such as the KT impactor 65 million years ago), nuclear explosive testing, and the observed 1994 bombardment of Jupiter by fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. It is of particular interest to find from such models that the terrestrial environment is highly vulnerable to perturbation from impacts, so that even such a small event as the KT impact (by a projectile roughly 15 km in diameter) can lead to a mass extinction. Combining the impact flux with estimates of environmental and ecological effects reveals that the greatest contemporary hazard is associated with impactors near one million megatons energy. The current impact hazard is significant relative to other natural hazards, and arguments can be developed to illuminate a variety of public policy issues. These include the relative risk of different impact scenarios and the associated costs and probability of success of countermeasures. It is generally agreed that the first step is to survey and catalogue the thousand-or-so Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and we review the status of the Spaceguard NEA Survey. We compare the efficiency of various ground and space-based approaches and consider the challenges of international coordination and the problems and opportunities associated with communicating the results with the press and the public. It is also important to reflect on how the impact hazard might be dealt with by both national governments and international decision-making bodies, and to anticipate ways of mitigating the danger if a NEA were located on an apparent

  18. Dealing with the Asteroid Impact Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    2001-01-01

    The small fraction of the asteroids with Earth-crossing or Earth-approaching orbits is of special interest to us because many will eventually impact our planet. The time-averaged impact flux as a function of projectile energy can be derived from lunar cratering statistics, although we have little information on the possible variability of this flux over time. The effects of impacts of various energies can be modeled, using data from historic impacts (such as the KT impactor 65 million years ago), nuclear explosive testing, and the observed 1994 bombardment of Jupiter by fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. It is of particular interest to find from such models that the terrestrial environment is highly vulnerable to perturbation from impacts, so that even such a small event as the KT impact (by a projectile roughly 15 km in diameter) can lead to a mass extinction. Combining the impact flux with estimates of environmental and ecological effects reveals that the greatest contemporary hazard is associated with impactors near one million megatons energy. The current impact hazard is significant relative to other natural hazards, and arguments can be developed to illuminate a variety of public policy issues. These include the relative risk of different impact scenarios and the associated costs and probability of success of countermeasures. It is generally agreed that the first step is to survey and catalogue the thousand-or-so Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and we review the status of the Spaceguard NEA Survey. We compare the efficiency of various ground and space-based approaches and consider the challenges of international coordination and the problems and opportunities associated with communicating the results with the press and the public. It is also important to reflect on how the impact hazard might be dealt with by both national governments and international decision-making bodies, and to anticipate ways of mitigating the danger if a NEA were located on an apparent

  19. Dealing with teen-age pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, P L

    1991-01-01

    The author finds that teenage pregnancy is more complicated than access to contraception or abortion. At risk teenagers are not identifiable, only at risk factors such as isolation, lack of perception of future opportunities, lack of self esteem, lack of self worth, poor performance in school, poor role models or lack of role models at home or in the community. There is indictment of parents who are just as much in need. The focus on teen pregnancy as one dimensional belies the reality that health, family, work, social and cultural experience affect people's decisions and sexual behavior. The recommendation is for a holistic approach, regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background. Adolescents need education and jobs as well as preventive health, body image, and nutrition in conjunction with contraceptives. Where success is defined by motherhood or fatherhood, birth control pills sit in drawers at home. Teenagers need to be convinced that there is some benefit in being connected to mainstream society. Support services need to help teenagers answer the question of what's in it for me? Why? Teenagers need assistance in attaining educational success, job success, the ability to handle anger, and leadership opportunities. A holistic approach is not only realistic but also is the most practical with the longest term benefit. With resources for teen pregnancy superseded by the problems of AIDs and crack gangs, there is a constantly changing political agenda for resource allocation. In fact, teenage pregnancy is reflective of social ills in an urban society simultaneous with drug abuse, school dropouts, juvenile crime and gang activity. The common denominator is that teens all need good educational opportunities, good health, and good housing. Parent involvement is needed, and it is presumptuous to believe that a couple of hours of contact a week can change lives. Parents need respect and understanding for their important role; they need information and a role

  20. Dealing with uncertainty in water scarcity footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity adversely affects ecosystems, human well-being and the economy. It can be described by water scarcity indices (WSIs) which we calculated globally for the decades 1981-1990 and 2001-2010. Based on a model ensemble, we calculated the WSI for both decades including uncertainties. While there is a slight tendency of increased water scarcity in 2001-2010, the likelihood of the increase is rather low (53%). Climate change played only a minor role, but increased water consumption is more decisive. In the last decade, a large share of the global population already lived under highly water scarce conditions with a global average monthly WSI of 0.51 (on a scale from 0 to 1). Considering that globally there are enough water resources to satisfy all our needs, this highlights the need for regional optimization of water consumption. In addition, crop choices within a food group can help reduce humanity’s water scarcity footprint without reducing its nutritional value.

  1. Developing Good Practice in New Deal in Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Michael; Atkinson, John; Burgess, Carol; Cartner, Nadine

    This document explains how further education colleges, employment services, and other providers can develop the delivery of full-time education and training (FTET) within the United Kingdom's New Deal programs for 18- to 24-year-olds. The document identifies principles of good practice related to the following aspects of New Deal FTET: (1)…

  2. Debt Deal's Likely Fruit: Cuts to K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Education advocates brace for cuts in the fallout from the hard-fought deal to avert a U.S. default. The hard-fought deal places 10-year caps on federal spending, including a $7 billion overall reduction from current levels in the fiscal year that starts Oct. 1. It creates a new bipartisan congressional committee charged with finding $1.5 trillion…

  3. University Deals with Drug Companies Raise Concerns over Autonomy, Secrecy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1993-01-01

    The large, exclusive research deal the Scripps Research Institute (California) made with one drug company has drawn criticism for conflict of interest. Critics fear researchers will focus more on marketing than on pure science and will protect corporate interests. Much of the deal-making is with foreign companies, sending profits overseas. (MSE)

  4. Dealing with Brownout: Environmental, Mechanical, and Training Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-08

    3 Continuous sand bombardment can cause serious damage to helicopter dynamic components. The fiberglass rotor blades are subject to erosion as...Dealing With Brownout : Environmental, Mechanical, and Training Solutions EWS 2005 Subject Area Training...CONTEMPORARY ISSUES PAPER Dealing With Brownout : Environmental, Mechanical, and Training Solutions Submitted by Captain JC Luttmann To Major KB

  5. What's the Big Deal? Collection Evaluation at the National Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurczyk, Eva; Jacobs, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a project undertaken to assess the journals in a Big Deal package by applying a weighted value algorithm measuring quality, utility, and value of individual titles. Carried out by a national library consortium in Canada, the project confirmed the value of the Big Deal package while providing a quantitative approach for…

  6. What's the Big Deal? Collection Evaluation at the National Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurczyk, Eva; Jacobs, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a project undertaken to assess the journals in a Big Deal package by applying a weighted value algorithm measuring quality, utility, and value of individual titles. Carried out by a national library consortium in Canada, the project confirmed the value of the Big Deal package while providing a quantitative approach for…

  7. Insider Deals Are Common among Nonprofit Boards, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panepento, Peter; Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Almost half of large nonprofit groups make insider deals with board members, and one-third of those deals occur without the prior approval of other board members, according to a new study by the Urban Institute. The study, which is described in a report released on Monday, "Nonprofit Governance in the United States: Findings on Performance…

  8. The Oregon Shootings: Dealing with the Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Saylor; Godbold, Jim; Carter, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Presents three short articles dealing with ethical issues facing the Thornton High School (Oregon) newspaper staff as they dealt with the aftermath of an incident in which an armed student allegedly entered the school cafeteria and began shooting. Discusses how the local newspaper covered the tragedy, and policies on dealing with reporting of…

  9. Learning to Labour: An Exploratory Analysis of the "New Deal."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jason J.; McKinlay, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with 15 participants in New Deal, a British training program for unemployed 18-24 year-olds, revealed overall skepticism about government training programs, distrust and disillusionment, little support for what the government identified as different about New Deal, and low expectations of long-term employment outcomes of the program.…

  10. Debt Deal's Likely Fruit: Cuts to K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Education advocates brace for cuts in the fallout from the hard-fought deal to avert a U.S. default. The hard-fought deal places 10-year caps on federal spending, including a $7 billion overall reduction from current levels in the fiscal year that starts Oct. 1. It creates a new bipartisan congressional committee charged with finding $1.5 trillion…

  11. Dealing with troubled conscience in municipal care of older people.

    PubMed

    Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Strandberg, Gunilla

    2013-05-01

    Troubled conscience may jeopardize the health of healthcare personnel and, hence, the quality of care provided. Learning more about how personnel deal with their troubled conscience therefore seems important. The aim of this study was to describe personnel's experiences of how they deal with troubled conscience generated in their daily work in municipal care of older people. Interviews were conducted with 20 care providers and analysed with a thematic content analysis. The findings show that in order to deal with troubled conscience, personnel dialogued with themselves and with others. They took measures in a direction they perceived to be correct, and they expressed a need for distancing and re-energizing. It is of importance to share situations that generate troubled conscience in order to find ways to deal with them. Reconsidering one's ways of dealing with troubled conscience may give care providers an opportunity to reach consensus within themselves.

  12. Making the deal real: how GE Capital integrates acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Ashkenas, R N; DeMonaco, L J; Francis, S C

    1998-01-01

    Most companies view acquisitions and mergers as onetime events managed with heroic effort--anxiety-producing experiences that often result in lost jobs, restructured responsibilities, derailed careers, and diminished power. Little wonder, then, that most managers think about how to get them over with--not how to do them better. But even as the number of mergers and acquisitions rises in the United States, studies show the performance of the resulting companies falls below industry averages more often than not. To improve these statistics, executives need to view acquisition integration as a manageable process, not a unique event. One company that has done exactly that is GE Capital Services, which has assimilated more than 100 acquisitions in the past five years alone and, in the process, has developed a formal model for melding new acquisitions into the corporate fold. Drawing on their experiences working with the company to develop the model, consultants Ron Ashkenas and Suzanne Francis, together with GE Capital's Lawrence DeMonaco, offer four lessons from the company's successful run. First, begin the integration process before the deal is signed. Second, dedicate a full-time individual to managing the integration process. Third, implement any necessary restructuring sooner rather than later. And fourth, integrate not only the business operations but also the corporate cultures. These guidelines won't erase all of the discomfort that accompanies many mergers, but they can make the process more transparent and predictable for those involved.

  13. Strategies for dealing with fraud in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Herson, Jay

    2016-02-01

    Research misconduct and fraud in clinical research is an increasing problem facing the scientific community. This problem is expected to increase due to discoveries in central statistical monitoring and with the increase in first-time clinical trial investigators in the increasingly global reach of oncology clinical trials. This paper explores the most common forms of fraud in clinical trials in order to develop offensive and defensive strategies to deal with fraud. The offensive strategies are used when fraud is detected during a trial and the defensive strategies are those design strategies that seek to minimize or eliminate the effect of fraud. This leads to a proposed fraud recovery plan (FRP) that would be specified before the start of a clinical trial and would indicate actions to be taken upon detecting fraud of different types. Statistical/regulatory issues related to fraud include: dropping all patients from a site that committed fraud, or just the fraudulent data (perhaps replacing the latter through imputation); the role of intent-to-treat analysis; effect on a planned interim analysis; effect on stratified analyses and model adjustment when fraud is detected in covariates; effect on trial-wide randomization, etc. The details of a typical defensive strategy are also presented. It is concluded that it is best to follow a defensive strategy and to have an FRP in place to follow if fraud is detected during the trial.

  14. Dealing with Depression | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Depression Dealing with Depression Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of Contents Michael ... recently spoken out about challenges you faced with depression. Can you tell us about that? Very few ...

  15. How to stop smoking: Dealing with a slip up

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000855.htm How to stop smoking: Dealing with a slip up To use the ... cigarettes, you may slip up after you quit smoking . A slip is different than a total relapse. ...

  16. End of Life: Dealing with Grief and Confronting Painful Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... will experience that dagger in the heart called grief. Dealing with grief is a challenge like no other. How can ... challenging and devastating the raw, intense emotions of grief can be, because it's happened to me. Nearly ...

  17. Dealing with ADHD: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dealing with ADHD: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity) back to top Diagnosing ADHD Studies show that the number of children being ...

  18. Books to Help Kids Deal with Difficult Times, I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Norma

    1987-01-01

    An author of books for young adults discusses the need for realism in adolescent literature as a means of helping teenagers to cope with real problems and describes her most recent book, which deals with euthanasia. (CLB)

  19. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain types of cancer treatments can cause hot flashes and night sweats. Hot ...

  20. Books to Help Kids Deal with Difficult Times, I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Norma

    1987-01-01

    An author of books for young adults discusses the need for realism in adolescent literature as a means of helping teenagers to cope with real problems and describes her most recent book, which deals with euthanasia. (CLB)

  1. How a Woman Scientist Deals Professionally with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Meuron-Landolt, Monique

    1975-01-01

    Deals with the significant roles sex sometimes plays in the so-called sexless, objective world of handling scientific and technical information. Author describes how she meets different challenges in this field and disposes of them. (BR)

  2. [Dealing with uncertainty--the hypermodernity of general practice].

    PubMed

    Barth, Niklas; Nassehi, Armin; Schneider, Antonius

    2014-01-01

    The general practitioner is fundamentally dealing with uncertainty. On the one hand, we want to demonstrate that uncertainty cannot simply be stipulated as a matter of fact. Instead, we will show that this uncertainty is a performative effect of the primary care setting. On the other hand, we want to point out that the general practitioner's ability to bear uncertainty is a genuinely hypermodern way of productively dealing with uncertainty.

  3. Dealing with a Porcelain Aorta during Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Adesanya, T. M. Ayodele

    2014-01-01

    We report a complex case of multivessel CAD in a patient with a porcelain aorta and high-grade left subclavian artery stenosis. Utilizing a staged left subclavian artery stent placement with a next-day plan for a four-vessel, on-pump CABG and ascending aortic replacement, this case highlights an organized approach to diagnosing and dealing with a heavily calcified aorta while describing a stepwise algorithm to deal with aortic calcifications prior to initiating cardiac surgery. PMID:25610695

  4. The art of the deal. Interview by Joe Flower.

    PubMed

    Neale, M

    1997-04-05

    Health care today is a maelstrom of deals-massive contracts, joint ventures, mergers, strategic alliances. Margaret Neale, a professor of organizational behavior at Stanford University's Graduate School of Business, has studied deal-making for most of her professional life. As she tells freelance writer Joe Flower, the focus shouldn't be on power tactics or how to be tough, but on what we can do to make negotiations work better-for all sides.

  5. Dealing with colon cancer: one woman's emotional journey.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candice T; Fletcher, Paula C

    2002-11-01

    Although death is inevitable, it continues to remain a taboo issue for society. A failure to discuss the unavoidable may represent a safeguard to avoid dealing with mortality and related fears. Many patients who are terminally ill spend their days feeling alone, misunderstood, and afraid. Kubler-Ross attempted to strip death of its negative connotations and to provide a venue for the terminally ill to have a voice. Using information from more than 200 clinical interviews, Kubler-Ross revealed a trend in emotions over time in most, but not all, of her patients, which enabled her to formulate a model of coping with death that included 5 interdependent emotional stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. This model has become the most widely accepted and popularized model on death and dying, often cited as the Five Stages of Grief." However, given the lack of research concerning Kubler-Ross's model, completing work in this area seems warranted. The purpose of this case study was to examine one individual's emotional journey after being diagnosed with terminal colon cancer. More specifically, the goals were twofold: (1) to provide the participant with a voice and to allow her story to be told by examining the major external events (ie,surgery, chemotherapy) occurring since the diagnosis that affected her emotional and physical well-being and (2) to determine whether the participant's emotional journey paralleled Kubler-Ross's model, to what extent, and whether new emotions or stages occurred. The participant, a 50-year-old female, was diagnosed with stage 4 Duke Stage D colon cancer. Qualitative information was collected in face-to-face interviews, newspaper articles about the participant, and e-mail correspondence (as form letters to a group of friends and supporters) and subsequently analyzed for trends. The overall results revealed clear existence of the 5 stages of grief as outlined in the Kubler-Ross model. Analyses also revealed that the

  6. Dealing with typical values via Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmidt, Eulalia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2010-07-01

    This paper is an improved and extended version of our previous work2 on typicality in terms of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets (to be called A-IFSs, for short)3. We follow the line of reasoning known from psychological and cognitive sciences, in particular from linguistic experiments, and verify how those results work in the case of classification - a typical problem in computer science, decision sciences, etc. Our considerations concentrate on a typical example discussed in cognitive sciences - we investigate to which extent a linguistic representation in a psychological space (we start from nominal data - names are assigned to objects as labels) succeeds in predicting categories via A-IFSs. First, we consider a model of categories with a geometrical centroid model in which the similarity is defined in terms of a distance to centroids. Next, we verify if the extreme ideals, which are important in cognitive processes when categories are learnt in the presence of the alternative (contrast) category, give comparative results. Finally, we discuss if the 'reachable extreme ideals' and 'dominating frequency centres' give comparative results. We show that A-IFSs make it possible to reflect a positive and negative information via the concept of membership and non-membership. Although the paper presents ongoing research, the results obtained are promising and point out the usefulness and strength of A-IFSs as a tool to account for more aspects of vague data and information. Based on 'On Some Typical Values for A-IFS', by E. Szmidt and J. Kacprzyk which appeared in the Proceedings of the 4th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Systems IS'08, pp. 13-2-13-7. There is currently a discussion on the appropriateness of the name IFS introduced by Dubois et al. (2005), and also Atanassov's (2005) response. This is, however, beyond the scope of this paper which will not be dealing with this issue.

  7. The Place of the Poetic in Dealing with Death and Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Nicholas

    2001-01-01

    Offers an overview of the R. E. S. (receptive/expressive/symbolic) model of poetry therapy as it relates to narrative therapy and family practice. Examines this relationship through a case study of a single-parent family dealing with death and loss. (SR)

  8. REDD+ emissions estimation and reporting: dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Johanne; Martin, Davy; Potvin, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defined the technical and financial modalities of policy approaches and incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+). Substantial technical challenges hinder precise and accurate estimation of forest-related emissions and removals, as well as the setting and assessment of reference levels. These challenges could limit country participation in REDD+, especially if REDD+ emission reductions were to meet quality standards required to serve as compliance grade offsets for developed countries’ emissions. Using Panama as a case study, we tested the matrix approach proposed by Bucki et al (2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 024005) to perform sensitivity and uncertainty analysis distinguishing between ‘modelling sources’ of uncertainty, which refers to model-specific parameters and assumptions, and ‘recurring sources’ of uncertainty, which refers to random and systematic errors in emission factors and activity data. The sensitivity analysis estimated differences in the resulting fluxes ranging from 4.2% to 262.2% of the reference emission level. The classification of fallows and the carbon stock increment or carbon accumulation of intact forest lands were the two key parameters showing the largest sensitivity. The highest error propagated using Monte Carlo simulations was caused by modelling sources of uncertainty, which calls for special attention to ensure consistency in REDD+ reporting which is essential for securing environmental integrity. Due to the role of these modelling sources of uncertainty, the adoption of strict rules for estimation and reporting would favour comparability of emission reductions between countries. We believe that a reduction of the bias in emission factors will arise, among other things, from a globally concerted effort to improve allometric equations for tropical forests. Public access to datasets and methodology

  9. Does stigma predict a belief in dealing with depression alone?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Crisp, Dimity A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen

    2011-08-01

    Community surveys indicate that many people with depressive disorders do not obtain professional help and that a preference for self-reliance is an important factor in this treatment gap. The current study sought to investigate whether stigmatising attitudes predict a belief in the helpfulness of dealing with depression without external assistance. Data were collected as part of a national household survey of 2000 Australian adults aged 18 years and above. Participants were presented with either a vignette depicting depression (n=1001) or a vignette depicting depression with suicidal ideation (n=999) and asked if it would be helpful or harmful to deal alone with the problem. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine if belief in dealing with depression alone was predicted by personal stigma, perceived stigma or sociodemographic characteristics. Higher levels of personal stigma independently predicted a belief in the helpfulness of dealing alone with both depression and depression with suicidal ideation. By contrast, lower levels of perceived stigma were associated with a belief in the helpfulness of dealing alone with depression without suicidal ideation. Personal stigma is associated with a belief in the helpfulness of self-reliance in coping with depression. Public health programs should consider the possibility that a belief in self-reliance is partly attributable to stigma. The findings also point to the potential importance of providing evidence-based self-help programs for those who believe in self-care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dealing with dietary measurement error in nutritional cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Laurence S; Schatzkin, Arthur; Midthune, Douglas; Kipnis, Victor

    2011-07-20

    Dietary measurement error creates serious challenges to reliably discovering new diet-disease associations in nutritional cohort studies. Such error causes substantial underestimation of relative risks and reduction of statistical power for detecting associations. On the basis of data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study, we recommend the following approaches to deal with these problems. Regarding data analysis of cohort studies using food-frequency questionnaires, we recommend 1) using energy adjustment for relative risk estimation; 2) reporting estimates adjusted for measurement error along with the usual relative risk estimates, whenever possible (this requires data from a relevant, preferably internal, validation study in which participants report intakes using both the main instrument and a more detailed reference instrument such as a 24-hour recall or multiple-day food record); 3) performing statistical adjustment of relative risks, based on such validation data, if they exist, using univariate (only for energy-adjusted intakes such as densities or residuals) or multivariate regression calibration. We note that whereas unadjusted relative risk estimates are biased toward the null value, statistical significance tests of unadjusted relative risk estimates are approximately valid. Regarding study design, we recommend increasing the sample size to remedy loss of power; however, it is important to understand that this will often be an incomplete solution because the attenuated signal may be too small to distinguish from unmeasured confounding in the model relating disease to reported intake. Future work should be devoted to alleviating the problem of signal attenuation, possibly through the use of improved self-report instruments or by combining dietary biomarkers with self-report instruments.

  11. Individualisation of Lean Concept in Companies Dealing with Mass Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednár, Roman

    2012-12-01

    The methods of lean manufacturing primarily designed for businesses dealing with serial production, are also used in other types of production. However the concept of lean production was not designed for these types of businesses, they are utilized only partially. Paper focuses on applying methods of lean concept in companies which are dealing with mass production and their options of exchange for other methods in the event of disagreement. Basis of the article is a list of lean methods with its description and its utilization in practice. The questionnaire was utilized to identify information from the practice. Based on this survey were identified the critical methods that are no longer appropriate for companies dealing with mass production. However, there are alternative methods of describing the problem. It is possible to say that companies are trying to get closer to their goal by modification of the basic concepts. And the concept of Lean Enterprise serves as a standard.

  12. A dynamic model of plant growth with interactions between development and functional mechanisms to study plant structural plasticity related to trophic competition

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, A.; Cournède, P. H.; Letort, V.; Barthélémy, D.; de Reffye, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The strong influence of environment and functioning on plant organogenesis has been well documented by botanists but is poorly reproduced in most functional–structural models. In this context, a model of interactions is proposed between plant organogenesis and plant functional mechanisms. Methods The GreenLab model derived from AMAP models was used. Organogenetic rules give the plant architecture, which defines an interconnected network of organs. The plant is considered as a collection of interacting ‘sinks’ that compete for the allocation of photosynthates coming from ‘sources’. A single variable characteristic of the balance between sources and sinks during plant growth controls different events in plant development, such as the number of branches or the fruit load. Key Results Variations in the environmental parameters related to light and density induce changes in plant morphogenesis. Architecture appears as the dynamic result of this balance, and plant plasticity expresses itself very simply at different levels: appearance of branches and reiteration, number of organs, fructification and adaptation of ecophysiological characteristics. Conclusions The modelling framework serves as a tool for theoretical botany to explore the emergence of specific morphological and architectural patterns and can help to understand plant phenotypic plasticity and its strategy in response to environmental changes. PMID:19297366

  13. Initiation of drug dealing among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Kirk; Barker, Brittany; Nguyen, Paul; Dong, Huiru; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2016-09-01

    Street-involved youth who use drugs may have limited income-generation options and are known to commonly become immersed in illicit drug markets to generate funds. However, little attention has been given to factors that may drive drug dealing initiation among this vulnerable population. This longitudinal study examines drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study from September 2005 to November 2014; a prospective cohort of 194 street-involved youth who use drugs aged 14-26, in Vancouver, Canada. Extended Cox model was used to identify factors independently associated with time to first drug dealing. Among street-involved youth who had never dealt drugs at baseline, 56 (29%) individuals initiated drug dealing during the study period for an incidence density of 13.0 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.9-17.2). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, male gender (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.06-3.42), homelessness (AHR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.05-3.35), crystal methamphetamine use (AHR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.47-4.20), and crack cocaine use (AHR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.38-4.00) were positively and independently associated with initiating drug dealing. Homelessness and stimulant drug use were key risk factors for drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. Findings indicate that evidence-based and innovative interventions, including youth-centric supportive housing, low threshold employment programs, and stimulant addiction treatment should be implemented and evaluated as strategies to help prevent this vulnerable population from engaging in risky illegal income generation practices.

  14. Dealing with uncertainty in general practice: an essential skill for the general practitioner.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, Margaret; Dahinden, André; Aktürk, Zekeriya; Ortiz, José Miguel Bueno; Dağdeviren, Nezih; Elwyn, Glyn; Micallef, Adrian; Murtonen, Mikko; Samuelson, Marianne; Struk, Per; Tayar, Danny; Thesen, Janecke

    2011-01-01

    Many patients attending general practice do not have an obvious diagnosis at presentation. Skills to deal with uncertainty are particularly important in general practice as undifferentiated and unorganised problems are a common challenge for general practitioners (GPs). This paper describes the management of uncertainty as an essential skill which should be included in educational programmes for both trainee and established GPs. Philosophers, psychologists and sociologists use different approaches to the conceptualisation of managing uncertainty. The literature on dealing with uncertainty focuses largely on identifying relevant evidence and decision making. Existing models of the consultation should be improved in order to understand consultations involving uncertainty. An alternative approach focusing on shared decision making and understanding the consultation from the patient's perspective is suggested. A good doctor-patient relationship is vital, creating trust and mutual respect, developed over time with good communication skills. Evidence-based medicine should be used, including discussion of probabilities where available. Trainers need to be aware of their own use of heuristics as they act as role models for trainees. Expression of feelings by trainees should be encouraged and acknowledged by trainers as a useful tool in dealing with uncertainty. Skills to deal with uncertainty should be regarded as quality improvement tools and included in educational programmes involving both trainee and established GPs.

  15. Deal or no deal: can incentives encourage widespread adoption of intelligent speed adaptation devices?

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Hess, Stephane; Jamson, Samantha; Wardman, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Given the burden of injury, economic, environmental and social consequences associated with speeding, reducing road traffic speed remains a major priority. Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) is a promising but controversial new in-vehicle system that provides drivers with support on the speed-control task. In order to model potential system uptake, this paper explores drivers' preferences for two different types of ISA given a number of alternative fiscal incentives and non-fiscal measures, using a stated preference approach. As would be expected with such a contentious issue, the analysis revealed the presence of significant variations in sensitivities and preferences in the sample. While a non-negligible part of the sample population has such strong opposition to ISA that no reasonable discounts or incentives would lead to them buying or accepting such a system, there is also a large part of the population that, if given the right incentives, would be willing or even keen to equip their vehicle with an ISA device.

  16. Dealing with Screaming. Caring for the Little Ones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Young children scream throughout their days and for different reasons. They may be hurt, frustrated or simply tired; caregivers can detect the cause of the scream. Several strategies are available for dealing with screamers; the most important approach is respecting the child by acknowledging the emotions behind the scream and helping the child…

  17. Education Dept. May Ban Exclusive Deals between Colleges and Lenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses exclusive deals between colleges and student-loan providers and the U.S. Education Department's initial move to solve the conflict. The Higher Education Act, which governs most federal student-aid programs, prohibits colleges from requiring their students to borrow from a specific bank or student-loan company. The law does…

  18. Dealing with Hitting and Aggression in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saifer, Steffen

    1996-01-01

    Notes that while hitting-aggressive behavior is probably the greatest single behavior concern of teachers, children can be taught appropriate behavior for the classroom. Offers tips for dealing with: roughhousing; existing problems; grabbing toys; and war games, guns, or violent play. Suggests allowing children the choice of an alternative…

  19. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  20. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  1. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  2. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  3. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  4. Dealing with Quantifier Scope Ambiguity in Natural Language Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafezi Manshadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Quantifier scope disambiguation (QSD) is one of the most challenging problems in deep natural language understanding (NLU) systems. The most popular approach for dealing with QSD is to simply leave the semantic representation (scope-) underspecified and to incrementally add constraints to filter out unwanted readings. Scope underspecification has…

  5. The New Deal Network. http://newdeal.marist.edu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    Briefly describes a World Wide Web site developed in conjunction with the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and IBM. The New Deal Network is seen as being more than an online photographic archive. It will include online essays, discussion groups, and teaching guides. The Web site is http://newdeal.marist.edu. (MJP)

  6. Fair Dealing. CAUT Intellectual Property Advisory. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Fair Dealing is the right, within limits, to reproduce a substantial amount of a copyrighted work without permission from, or payment to, the copyright owner. Its purpose is to facilitate creativity and free expression by ensuring reasonable access to existing knowledge while at the same time protecting the interests of copyright owners. It is…

  7. School Nurses' Experiences in Dealing with Bullying Situations among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Jones Bartoli, Alice

    2016-01-01

    School nurses have an important role in helping students to deal with bullying. However, most of the previously undertaken studies do not have nurses as the subjects, considering their experiences around this theme. This study used a qualitative approach through in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses (SNs). The thematic analysis was employed…

  8. Dealing with Malfunction: Locus of Control in Web-Conferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how students deal with malfunctions that occur during the use of web conferencing systems in learning arrangements. In a survey among participants in online courses that make use of a web-conferencing system (N = 129), the relationship between a preference for internal or external locus of control and the perception of…

  9. Guide to Reference Sources Dealing with North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindler, Luke

    This is an annotated bibliography of reference sources dealing with North American Indians and includes selected unpublished resources in the Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota. Among the resources presented are encyclopedias, biographical dictionaries, handbooks, general indexes, government publications, theses, and dissertations.…

  10. Understanding and Dealing with Separation Issues in Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Becky

    One of the major challenges to early childhood professionals is to effectively deal with separation anxiety and assist children in the transfer from home to other environments. This article summarizes, from a psychoanalytic perspective, the developmental stages of psychological separation, and describes techniques for practitioners for dealing…

  11. How Is Educational Measurement Supposed to Deal with Test Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    At the outset of his thoughtful and thought-provoking article, Haertel (this issue) clearly identifies the issue with which he will be dealing: The disjunct, or gap, in current approaches to evaluating the merits of a given test, between the intended uses of that test and the validity of its score-based interpretations. The author thinks that…

  12. The New Deal: Government and the Economy. Public Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.

    This booklet is part of a series designed to help students take and defend a position on public issues. This unit on the New Deal era raises the following issues: (1) How responsible should the government be for the economic well being of citizens? To what extent should this responsibility outweigh traditional ideas of property rights? (2) What…

  13. School Nurses' Experiences in Dealing with Bullying Situations among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Jones Bartoli, Alice

    2016-01-01

    School nurses have an important role in helping students to deal with bullying. However, most of the previously undertaken studies do not have nurses as the subjects, considering their experiences around this theme. This study used a qualitative approach through in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses (SNs). The thematic analysis was employed…

  14. [Intervention Programs Dealing with the Farm and Rural Crisis].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blundell, Joan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes five creative/innovative human service programs currently dealing with the farm/rural crisis: Northwest Iowa Community Mental Health Center (Spencer), Lutheran Social Services in southwest Minnesota, Farm Counseling Service, Inc. (Memphis, Missouri), Missouri Financial Advisory and Resource Management Support (Columbia), and Missouri…

  15. Learning To Say Goodbye: Dealing with Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rosalie; Stefanics, Charlotte

    This book is intended to help the counselor learn to work with terminal patients. The first part presents historical and cultural attitudes toward death and dying. Fear of death, the role of religion, and common myths about terminal cancer patients are discussed. The second part deals with care and treatment of terminal patients. The significance…

  16. How Geography Teachers Deal with the Curriculum Changes in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The changes in Turkish geography curriculum in 2005 have placed geography teachers to adopt completely different approaches from what they were used to throughout their careers. This study attempts to explore to what extent teachers of geography have adopted the new curriculum and how they are dealing with the recent curricular changes in Turkey.…

  17. Learning To Say Goodbye: Dealing with Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rosalie; Stefanics, Charlotte

    This book is intended to help the counselor learn to work with terminal patients. The first part presents historical and cultural attitudes toward death and dying. Fear of death, the role of religion, and common myths about terminal cancer patients are discussed. The second part deals with care and treatment of terminal patients. The significance…

  18. Academic Freedom and Holocaust Denial Literature: Dealing with Infamy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleberzon, William

    1984-01-01

    Some Jewish students at the University of Toronto protested its library's inclusion of certain books (which the students felt were anti-Semitic and not historically based) in its collection of Holocaust literature. The questions of academic freedom, and various ways to deal with the problem, are discussed. (CJB)

  19. How To Deal with Community Criticism of School Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledel, Marjorie; Arnsparger, Arleen

    Strategies for administrators who deal with community criticism of school change are provided in this handbook. Chapter 1 explains the need for a comprehensive communications strategy and a communications team. Chapter 2 describes ways to build support with various constituencies, including how to gather information about different groups'…

  20. Fair Dealing. CAUT Intellectual Property Advisory. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Fair Dealing is the right, within limits, to reproduce a substantial amount of a copyrighted work without permission from, or payment to, the copyright owner. Its purpose is to facilitate creativity and free expression by ensuring reasonable access to existing knowledge while at the same time protecting the interests of copyright owners. It is…

  1. An Educator's Guide to the Literature Dealing with Teenage Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, John

    This report was written to provide educators with information on their role in dealing with the problem of adolescent suicide. A review of current literature was conducted to give educators accurate teenage suicide information, and an annotated bibliography of relevant citations from that review is included. Thirty entries are organized in the…

  2. Understanding and Dealing with Separation Issues in Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Becky

    One of the major challenges to early childhood professionals is to effectively deal with separation anxiety and assist children in the transfer from home to other environments. This article summarizes, from a psychoanalytic perspective, the developmental stages of psychological separation, and describes techniques for practitioners for dealing…

  3. Dealing with Quantifier Scope Ambiguity in Natural Language Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafezi Manshadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Quantifier scope disambiguation (QSD) is one of the most challenging problems in deep natural language understanding (NLU) systems. The most popular approach for dealing with QSD is to simply leave the semantic representation (scope-) underspecified and to incrementally add constraints to filter out unwanted readings. Scope underspecification has…

  4. When Leaders Are Challenged: Dealing with Involuntary Members in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Christine J.; Jacobs, E.

    2011-01-01

    Leading groups can be challenging and difficult. Leading groups in which members are involuntary and negative increases the level of difficulty and creates new dynamics in the group leading process. This article proposes specific skills and strategies for dealing with three specific issues related to involuntary members in groups: groups where all…

  5. How Stanford and Yamaha Cut an Unusual Technological Deal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1998-01-01

    Stanford University (California) and the Yamaha Corporation have agreed to pool over 400 patents and patent applications, most involving sound synthesis, and to license them as a package along with rights to the trademark, and share the royalties. The deal builds on a 23-year relationship between Stanford and Yamaha, one which is both fruitful and…

  6. A Triangulation Method to Dismantling a Disciplinary "Big Deal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Diane

    2015-01-01

    In late 2012, it appeared that the University Library, University of Saskatchewan would likely no longer be able to afford to subscribe to the entire American Chemical Society "Big Deal" of 36 journals. Difficult choices would need to be made regarding which titles to retain as individual subscriptions. In an effort to arrive at the most…

  7. A Triangulation Method to Dismantling a Disciplinary "Big Deal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Diane

    2015-01-01

    In late 2012, it appeared that the University Library, University of Saskatchewan would likely no longer be able to afford to subscribe to the entire American Chemical Society "Big Deal" of 36 journals. Difficult choices would need to be made regarding which titles to retain as individual subscriptions. In an effort to arrive at the most…

  8. The Art of a Deal: A Kyoto Protocol Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowlishaw, Richard; Hunter, Charles; Coy, Jason; Tessmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, groups of students represent countries as they negotiate an agreement to limit greenhouse-gas emissions. While initially developed for and used in an environmental-science course for first-year college students, the case could be applicable to other courses dealing with conflict resolution such as public policy, international…

  9. The Art of a Deal: A Kyoto Protocol Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowlishaw, Richard; Hunter, Charles; Coy, Jason; Tessmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, groups of students represent countries as they negotiate an agreement to limit greenhouse-gas emissions. While initially developed for and used in an environmental-science course for first-year college students, the case could be applicable to other courses dealing with conflict resolution such as public policy, international…

  10. The New Deal: Government and the Economy. Public Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.

    This booklet is part of a series designed to help students take and defend a position on public issues. This unit on the New Deal era raises the following issues: (1) How responsible should the government be for the economic well being of citizens? To what extent should this responsibility outweigh traditional ideas of property rights? (2) What…

  11. Education Dept. May Ban Exclusive Deals between Colleges and Lenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses exclusive deals between colleges and student-loan providers and the U.S. Education Department's initial move to solve the conflict. The Higher Education Act, which governs most federal student-aid programs, prohibits colleges from requiring their students to borrow from a specific bank or student-loan company. The law does…

  12. How the Courts Deal with Bullying in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    School officials have a difficult time dealing with cases of bullying. Often, it is one student's word against another. Also, many victims of bullying are reluctant to report instances for fear of retribution. As in sexual harassment cases, school officials need to be seen doing something about the problem. Courts view indifference to these…

  13. Disruption, Disaster, and Death: Helping Students Deal with Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.; And Others

    This book provides strategies for helping atypical students deal with the crises of disruption, disaster, and death. The importance of collaborative networks between school and community agencies in addressing crises is stressed throughout the book. Chapter 1 notes the relationship between crises and special education and the need to utilize a…

  14. Dealing with Crisis: Teachable Moments in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, George B.

    2002-01-01

    September 11, 2001 is a day that will live in the hearts and minds of Americans for a long time. During the classes following the events, some teachers were asked by students about the events. Although some teachers may not have been specifically trained to deal with individual or societal crises, many were skilled at taking advantage of the…

  15. [Intervention Programs Dealing with the Farm and Rural Crisis].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blundell, Joan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes five creative/innovative human service programs currently dealing with the farm/rural crisis: Northwest Iowa Community Mental Health Center (Spencer), Lutheran Social Services in southwest Minnesota, Farm Counseling Service, Inc. (Memphis, Missouri), Missouri Financial Advisory and Resource Management Support (Columbia), and Missouri…

  16. How Teachers Deal with Bullying: Best Practices for Identifying and Dealing with Bullying Behaviors among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Today's youth are in a social environment where being the brunt of jokes and harassment of their peers is an accepted and encouraged norm. It is not exactly clear what teachers do to deal with bullying in their classrooms. Much of the research on bullying has focused on elementary and middle school level students. Little is known about bullying at…

  17. From New Deal to No Deal: No Child Left Behind and the Devolution of Responsibility for Equal Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Harvey; Lowe, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Harvey Kantor and Robert Lowe explore the progression of American social policy and its relation to educational reform from President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal to President George W. Bush's No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). The authors assert that this progression has been marked by the federal government's gradual…

  18. From New Deal to No Deal: No Child Left Behind and the Devolution of Responsibility for Equal Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Harvey; Lowe, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Harvey Kantor and Robert Lowe explore the progression of American social policy and its relation to educational reform from President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal to President George W. Bush's No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). The authors assert that this progression has been marked by the federal government's gradual…

  19. Helping children and families deal with divorce and separation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, George J

    2002-11-01

    More than 1 million children each year experience their parents' divorce. For these children and their parents, this process can be emotionally traumatic from the beginning of parental disagreement and rancor, through the divorce, and often for many years thereafter. Pediatricians are encouraged to be aware of behavioral changes in their patients that might be signals of family dysfunction so they can help parents and children understand and deal more positively with the issue. Age-appropriate explanation and counseling is important so children realize that they are not the cause of, and cannot be the cure for, the divorce. Pediatricians can offer families guidance in dealing with their children through the troubled time as well as appropriate lists of reading material and, if indicated, can refer them to professionals with expertise in the emotional, social, and legal aspects of divorce and its aftermath.

  20. Dealing with scientific integrity issues: the Spanish experience.

    PubMed

    Puigdomènech, Pere

    2014-02-01

    Integrity has been an important matter of concern for the scientific community as it affects the basis of its activities. Most countries having a significant scientific activity have dealt with this problem by different means, including drafting specific legal or soft law regulations and the appointment of stable or ad hoc committees that take care of these questions. This has also been the case in Spain. After the period of transition between dictatorship to a democratic regime, and, particularly, after the entrance in the European Union, scientific activity has increased in the country. As it could be expected, problems of misconduct have appeared and different institutions have been dealing with these matters. One of the best examples is that of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), the largest institution devoted to scientific research belonging to the Spanish Government. The experience of the CSIC’s Ethics Committee in dealing with conflicts related to scientific practices is discussed here.

  1. International land deals, local people's livelihood, and environment nexus (How to create win-win land deals in Ethiopia?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklemariam Gebremeskel, Dereje; Witlox, Frank; Azadi, Hossein; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Following the global raise in demand for food and biofuel production, transnational companies are acquiring large scale agricultural land in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Considering land as one of the factors to be outsourced for development, the government of Ethiopia is supplying millions of hectares of land to transnational companies in the form of longterm lease. Many of the companies which engage in large scale land acquisition are of Indian, Chinese, Ethiopian diaspora, German, Malaysian, Italian, British, Dutch, Turkish, and Saudi-Arabian origin. The boom in the acquisition of farm land in the country has sparked an all-rounded debate among civil society groups, international institutions, nongovernmental organizations and independent development experts. The common reflections concerning the land deals in Ethiopia and elsewhere contain much rhetoric and hype which lack analysis of the real situation "on the ground" giving different connotations such as 'land grabbing', 'agricultural outsourcing', 'neo-colonialism', 'agrarian colonialism', and 'land underdevelopment'. However, deforestation, soil degradation, marginalization of local indigenous communities, and minimally unfair gains from investment by the host country are among the real points of concern arising out of the long term land lease contracts. Scientific evidence is lacking concerning the pragmatic impacts of large scale agricultural land acquisitions by transnational companies upon the natural environment (forest and land), local peoples' livelihood, and the contacting parties (the host country and the companies). The major objective of this study is to investigate the impacts in the context of Ethiopia, orienting to reinvent win-win land use models which constitute sustainable land use, local peoples' livelihood and the company-host country interests. To achieve this overall objective, the study employs a number of methods and methodologies constituting both qualitative and

  2. Dealing with tattoos in plastic surgery. Tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Malca, N; Boulart, L; Noel, W; de Runz, A; Chaouat, M; Mimoun, M; Boccara, D

    2017-04-01

    Not only has tattooing been socially performed for thousands of years, but it has also been part and parcel of medical practice since antiquity. In our day and age, plastic surgeons are ever more frequently compelled to deal with tattooing - and with tattoo removal procedures, as well. While the process itself may appear harmless, it is not without risk and necessitates use of suitable tools and management by expert hands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Dealing with the unsafe student in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, J M; Care, W D; Gessler, S

    2001-01-01

    How do social justice issues affect the clinical evaluation of students? An emotionally charged issue, clinical evaluation can become a mine field when it becomes entangled with issues of social justice. The authors discuss the issues of justice and fairness in relation to situations that arise when a student repeatedly fails to meet minimum expectations for clinical performance. They discuss policies developed to deal with such situations and describe the application of these policies in a case study.

  4. Strategies for dealing with the national coding shortage.

    PubMed

    Schwieters, Jill

    2010-04-01

    Steps providers should consider to deal with a national coding shortage and implementation of ICD-10 include the following: Concentrate on employee retention (consider retention bonuses; upgrade pay scales; and offer flex-time and flexible work schedules). Begin a training program for ICD-10. Target other healthcare professionals and current employees to transition into coding positions. Collaborate with colleges, high schools, and middle schools to draw prospective students to this career path and your organization.

  5. Legal considerations for periodontists in dealing with managed care organizations.

    PubMed

    Bierig, J R

    1998-02-01

    For well over a decade, increasing numbers of medical patients have transferred from traditional indemnity insurance to managed care organizations (MCOs). Increasingly, MCOs are enrolling dental patients as well. Consequently, it is important for periodontists to understand issues in negotiating with MCOs. This article attempts to advise periodontists regarding what they can and cannot do collectively about managed care and what considerations they should take into account in individually negotiating and dealing with managed care plans.

  6. Deal making 2.0: a guide to complex negotiations.

    PubMed

    Lax, David A; Sebenius, James K

    2012-11-01

    Most big deals--megamergers, major sales, infrastructure projects--are built on a series of smaller ones. Each component deal presents a tactical challenge, but sequencing the parts in a way that achieves the target outcome is a strategic challenge that can unfold over months or years. This process, which the authors call a negotiation campaign, must generally be conducted on several fronts, each involving multiple parties. A multifront campaign can be much more effective than direct negotiation. After failed talks between Longshoremen and the Pacific Maritime Association--a group of shippers and port operators--the PMA's president turned away from the bargaining table and embarked on a campaign to align member-firms, the business community, the U.S. government, and the public around his target outcome: the deployment of new information technologies to help unclog busy ports. The result was an agreement that was ultimately mutually beneficial. Designing and executing a negotiation campaign involves identifying the relevant parties, grouping them into fronts according to shared interests, determining whether to combine fronts (if, for instance, doing so would unite your allies), and deciding which fronts to approach early on and which to engage only after you've made progress elsewhere. The deal between the PMA and the Longshoremen involved high stakes, but many small-scale deals--such as gaining approval for a new product--also play out on multiple fronts. Going straight to a key decision maker often makes sense, but in many cases a multifront campaign is the only way.

  7. Dealing with patients and employees who seek significance through illness.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R

    2000-12-01

    Some people whom the health care manager encounters--employees as well as patients--seem to find their significance in being ill, partaking of the supposed benefits of being sick. For a variety of reasons, even the attention garnered in this manner may not be enough to meet an individual's needs so the behavior continues and intensifies. There are, however, several reasonable strategies available for dealing with persons who pursue illness for the underlying purpose of gaining attention.

  8. A Dynamic, Architectural Plant Model Simulating Resource‐dependent Growth

    PubMed Central

    YAN, HONG‐PING; KANG, MENG ZHEN; DE REFFYE, PHILIPPE; DINGKUHN, MICHAEL

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Physiological and architectural plant models have originally been developed for different purposes and therefore have little in common, thus making combined applications difficult. There is, however, an increasing demand for crop models that simulate the genetic and resource‐dependent variability of plant geometry and architecture, because man is increasingly able to transform plant production systems through combined genetic and environmental engineering. • Model GREENLAB is presented, a mathematical plant model that simulates interactions between plant structure and function. Dual‐scale automaton is used to simulate plant organogenesis from germination to maturity on the basis of organogenetic growth cycles that have constant thermal time. Plant fresh biomass production is computed from transpiration, assuming transpiration efficiency to be constant and atmospheric demand to be the driving force, under non‐limiting water supply. The fresh biomass is then distributed among expanding organs according to their relative demand. Demand for organ growth is estimated from allometric relationships (e.g. leaf surface to weight ratios) and kinetics of potential growth rate for each organ type. These are obtained through parameter optimization against empirical, morphological data sets by running the model in inverted mode. Potential growth rates are then used as estimates of relative sink strength in the model. These and other ‘hidden’ plant parameters are calibrated using the non‐linear, least‐square method. • Key Results and Conclusions The model reproduced accurately the dynamics of plant growth, architecture and geometry of various annual and woody plants, enabling 3D visualization. It was also able to simulate the variability of leaf size on the plant and compensatory growth following pruning, as a result of internal competition for resources. The potential of the model’s underlying concepts to predict the plant

  9. [Procedures for dealing with the taboo of death].

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Carlos

    2013-09-01

    The more death is studied, the more it remains a mystery. Dealing with death is no easy matter and for that reason it is so frightening. All the fears of human beings are fundamentally related to the fear of death. This is because it is a mystery about which we know little or nothing, although it is natural to die. In view of this, religions give this topic a primary focus. Therefore, in this article an attempt is made to deal with the taboo surrounding death and reflect on issues associated with it. These themes are present in people's lives, especially when they have the experience of losing someone in their family or circle of friends. Among these subjects, the aspects of the Anointing of the Sick, the Funeral Mass, the Seventh Day Mass and the tradition of praying for the dead are all touched upon. These are all themes that help to deal with the taboo of death or losing a loved one.

  10. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  11. Benefits of dealing with uncertainty in greenhouse gas inventories: introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, Matthias; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Marland, Gregg; White, Thomas; Nahorski, Zbigniew; Bun, Rostyslav

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of greenhouse gases emitted to and removed from the atmosphere is high on the international political and scientific agendas. Growing international concern and cooperation regarding the climate change problem have increased the need for policy-oriented solutions to the issue of uncertainty in, and related to, inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The approaches to addressing uncertainty discussed in this Special Issue reflect attempts to improve national inventories, not only for their own sake but also from a wider, systems analytical perspective-a perspective that seeks to strengthen the usefulness of national inventories under a compliance and/or global monitoring and reporting framework. These approaches demonstrate the benefits of including inventory uncertainty in policy analyses. The authors of the contributed papers show that considering uncertainty helps avoid situations that can, for example, create a false sense of certainty or lead to invalid views of subsystems. This may eventually prevent related errors from showing up in analyses. However, considering uncertainty does not come for free. Proper treatment of uncertainty is costly and demanding because it forces us to make the step from 'simple to complex' and only then to discuss potential simplifications. Finally, comprehensive treatment of uncertainty does not offer policymakers quick and easy solutions. The authors of the papers in this Special Issue do, however, agree that uncertainty analysis must be a key component of national GHG inventory analysis. Uncertainty analysis helps to provide a greater understanding and better science helps us to reduce and deal with uncertainty. By recognizing the importance of identifying and quantifying uncertainties, great strides can be made in ongoing discussions regarding GHG inventories and accounting for climate change. The 17 papers in this Special Issue deal with many aspects of analyzing and dealing with uncertainty in emissions

  12. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-03-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dealing with the difficult student in emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dealing with a student who is perceived as difficult to work with or teach is inevitable in any academic physician's career. This paper will outline the basic categories of these difficulties pertinent to Emergency Medicine rotations in order to facilitate appropriate identification of problems. Strategies for evaluation and reporting of the difficult student are presented. Remediation, based on the type of difficulty, is addressed. Timeliness of reporting, evaluation, and feedback are invaluable to allow for appropriate assessment of the outcome of the remediation plan. PMID:21714855

  14. Bullying in nursing and ways of dealing with it.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Ludwig F

    As with many other professions, nursing has its share of bullies who discredit the profession, while other nurses work with dedicated efficiency and good will. Bullying has an impact on the workplace environment and nurses in general; it can cause low morale and in some cases can make nurses seek employment elsewhere or even leave the profession. This article considers recent research into bullying in the workplace, including its prevalence within the profession, causes and identification, as well as different types of bullying and its impact on victims. It also highlights research into combating, preventing and dealing with the problem.

  15. A ``New Deal`` for utility industry engineers and their bosses

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.H.

    1997-09-01

    Most utility industry engineers are experiencing significant job security anxiety brought on by unprecedented industry changes such as impending industry re-regulation, diminished domestic new generation projects, utility restructuring, and re-engineering. Observations of leading utilities, A/Es, and major manufacturers show that many challenging opportunities for engineers are emerging from these changes but these jobs often require early planning and investments in broadened skills, improved business perspective and competitive flexibility to capture and maintain them. There is a growing corporate expectation that engineers can become comfortable with competition, business accountabilities, frequent job change, offshore assignments, and lifelong learning. This article is written to help utility industry engineers, their managers and executives better understand these changes and to hopefully create a broader acceptance of a New Deal. This New Deal focuses on visioning industry change impacts on future job content, co-planning and co-investments in skill and business perspective broadening, early identification and winning of challenging opportunities and, most importantly, strong personal commitments to staying on top of the new utility game which is competition, competition, and competition.

  16. BioDEAL: community generation of biological annotations

    PubMed Central

    Breimyer, Paul; Green, Nathan; Kumar, Vinay; Samatova, Nagiza F

    2009-01-01

    Background Publication databases in biomedicine (e.g., PubMed, MEDLINE) are growing rapidly in size every year, as are public databases of experimental biological data and annotations derived from the data. Publications often contain evidence that confirm or disprove annotations, such as putative protein functions, however, it is increasingly difficult for biologists to identify and process published evidence due to the volume of papers and the lack of a systematic approach to associate published evidence with experimental data and annotations. Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools can help address the growing divide by providing automatic high-throughput detection of simple terms in publication text. However, NLP tools are not mature enough to identify complex terms, relationships, or events. Results In this paper we present and extend BioDEAL, a community evidence annotation system that introduces a feedback loop into the database-publication cycle to allow scientists to connect data-driven biological concepts to publications. Conclusion BioDEAL may change the way biologists relate published evidence with experimental data. Instead of biologists or research groups searching and managing evidence independently, the community can collectively build and share this knowledge. PMID:19891799

  17. Energy Security: From Deal Killers to Game Changers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Charlie

    2010-03-01

    Five energy security ``deal killers" are identified: 1) Global warming and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion; 2) Intermittent energy sources (wind, solar) and the presence and stability of the grid; 3) Penetration of plant defenses to produce transportation fuels from biomass; 4) Mimicking nature: artificial photosynthesis for solar energy to fuels; and 5) Spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. Transformational basic research is required to successfully change the ground rules, to transform these ``deal killers" into ``game changers." T hey are: 1) Offsetting carbon capture and storage costs through enhanced oil recovery and methane generation from high temperature geothermal saline aquifers; 2) Electrical energy storage, through batteries and super-capacitors; 3) Genetic modification of plant cell walls, and catalytic methods for transforming plant sugars into fuels; 4) Separation of solar-induced electrons from holes, and catalysis to produce fuels; and 5) Closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Basic research can revolutionize our approach to carbon-free energy by enhancing nature to achieve energy security.

  18. Evaluating western Siberian oil, gas opportunities--deals

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander-Krug, K. ); Krug, J.A. )

    1993-02-22

    This article deals with various aspects of creation of Russian joint ventures. The main subject areas are (1) the choices for business structure arrangements between a subcontractor (production share) or license, (2) the procedure for licensing, (3) the alternatives for structuring and the registration requirements for creating a business enterprise, and (4) other considerations for negotiating and forming a venture. The preceding four parts of this five-part series dealt with the technical and economic evaluations of oil and gas ventures in western Siberia. This article is based on the laws at the time of writing. The status of Russian laws should always be checked for changes prior to entering into any agreement.

  19. School Nurses' Experiences in Dealing With Bullying Situations Among Students.

    PubMed

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Jones Bartoli, Alice

    2016-06-01

    School nurses have an important role in helping students to deal with bullying. However, most of the previously undertaken studies do not have nurses as the subjects, considering their experiences around this theme. This study used a qualitative approach through in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses (SNs). The thematic analysis was employed and supported by NVivo 10 software. Five main themes arose from the analysis: (1) understanding about bullying, (2) how they identified bullying, (3) strategies, (4) support at the workplace, and (5) SNs' role. SNs have a reasonable knowledge about this issue and are capable of helping students through dialogue. However, there is a need to be trained and have more time to be able to give proper help to the students, also using other different strategies. SNs must work more actively on this issue with schools and be supported in terms of staff numbers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Dealing with uncertainties in angles-only initial orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armellin, Roberto; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-08-01

    A method to deal with uncertainties in initial orbit determination (IOD) is presented. This is based on the use of Taylor differential algebra (DA) to nonlinearly map uncertainties from the observation space to the state space. When a minimum set of observations is available, DA is used to expand the solution of the IOD problem in Taylor series with respect to measurement errors. When more observations are available, high order inversion tools are exploited to obtain full state pseudo-observations at a common epoch. The mean and covariance of these pseudo-observations are nonlinearly computed by evaluating the expectation of high order Taylor polynomials. Finally, a linear scheme is employed to update the current knowledge of the orbit. Angles-only observations are considered and simplified Keplerian dynamics adopted to ease the explanation. Three test cases of orbit determination of artificial satellites in different orbital regimes are presented to discuss the feature and performances of the proposed methodology.

  1. Bioethics for clinicians: 16. Dealing with demands for inappropriate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Weijer, C; Singer, P A; Dickens, B M; Workman, S

    1998-01-01

    Demands by Patients or their Families for treatment thought to be inappropriate by health care providers constitute an important set of moral problems in clinical practice. A variety of approaches to such cases have been described in the literature, including medical futility, standard of care and negotiation. Medical futility fails because it confounds morally distinct cases: demand for an ineffective treatment and demand for an effective treatment that supports a controversial end (e.g., permanent unconsciousness). Medical futility is not necessary in the first case and is harmful in the second. Ineffective treatment falls outside the standard of care, and thus health care workers have no obligation to provide it. Demands for treatment that supports controversial ends are difficult cases best addressed through open communication, negotiation and the use of conflict-resolution techniques. Institutions should ensure that fair and unambiguous procedures for dealing with such cases are laid out in policy statements. PMID:9805031

  2. Staff confidence in dealing with aggressive patients: a benchmarking exercise.

    PubMed

    McGowan, S; Wynaden, D; Harding, N; Yassine, A; Parker, J

    1999-09-01

    Interacting with potentially aggressive patients is a common occurrence for nurses working in psychiatric intensive care units. Although the literature highlights the need to educate staff in the prevention and management of aggression, often little, or no, training is provided by employers. This article describes a benchmarking exercise conducted in psychiatric intensive care units at two Western Australian hospitals to assess staff confidence in coping with patient aggression. Results demonstrated that staff in the hospital where regular training was undertaken were significantly more confident in dealing with aggression. Following the completion of a safe physical restraint module at the other hospital staff reported a significant increase in their level of confidence that either matched or bettered the results of their benchmark colleagues.

  3. Energy Security: From Deal Killers to Game Changers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbach, Raymond L.

    2010-03-01

    Five ``deal killers'' for achieving energy security will be addressed: 1) Global warming and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, 2) Intermittent energy sources (wind, solar) and the presence and stability of the grid, 3) Penetration of plant defenses to produce transportation fuels from biomass, 4) Mimicking nature: artificial photosynthesis for solar energy-to-fuels, and 5) Spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. Basic research can lead to ``game changers'' for these five fields: 1) Carbon capture and storage through enhanced oil and gas recovery, 2) Electrical energy storage for base-load electricity through batteries and supercapacitors, 3) Genetic modification of the plant cell wall, and catalytic methods for conversion of plant sugars to fuels, 4) Separation of solar-induced electrons from holes, and catalysis to produce fuels, and 5) Closing the nuclear fuel cycle. The present state for each of these game changers will be summarized, and future research opportunities discussed.

  4. Psychosocial Correlates of Adolescent Drug Dealing in the Inner City: Potential Roles of Opportunity, Conventional Commitments, and Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Michelle; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a model of the simultaneous and interactive influence of social context, psychosocial attitudes, and individual maturity on the prediction of urban adolescent drug dealing. Five factors were found to significantly increase adolescents' opportunity for drug selling: low parental monitoring, poor neighborhood conditions, low…

  5. Psychosocial Correlates of Adolescent Drug Dealing in the Inner City: Potential Roles of Opportunity, Conventional Commitments, and Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Michelle; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a model of the simultaneous and interactive influence of social context, psychosocial attitudes, and individual maturity on the prediction of urban adolescent drug dealing. Five factors were found to significantly increase adolescents' opportunity for drug selling: low parental monitoring, poor neighborhood conditions, low…

  6. Dealing with Processing Chapter 10 Files from Multiple Vendors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudtson, Kevin Mark

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses the experiences of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's (DFRC) Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) in dealing with the problems encountered while performing post flight data processing using the WATR's data collection/processing system on Chapter 10 files from different Chapter 10 recorders. The transition to Chapter 10 recorders has brought Vvith it an assortment of issues that must be addressed: the ambiguities of language in the Chapter 10 standard, the unrealistic near-term expectations of the Chapter 10 standard, the incompatibility of data products generated from Chapter 10 recorders, and the unavailability of mature Chapter 10 applications. Some of these issues properly belong to the users of Chapter 10 recorders, some to the manufacturers, and some to the flight test community at large. The goal of this presentation is to share the WATR's lesson learned in processing data products from various Chapter 10 recorder vendors. The WATR could benefit greatly in the open forum Vvith lessons learned discussions with other members of the flight test community.

  7. Prescription Drug Labeling Medication Errors: A Big Deal for Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Jeetu, G; Girish, T

    2010-01-01

    Today, in the health care profession, all types of medication errors including missed dose, wrong dosage forms, wrong time interval, wrong route, etc., are a big deal for better patient care. Today, problems related to medications are common in the healthcare profession, and are responsible for significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Several recent studies have demonstrated that patients frequently have difficulty in reading and understanding medication labels. According to the Institute of Medicine report, “Preventing Medication Errors”, cited poor labeling as a central cause for medication errors in the USA. Evidence suggests that specific content and format of prescription drug labels facilitate communication with and comprehension by patients. Efforts to improve the labels should be guided by such evidence, although an additional study assessing the influence of label design on medication-taking behavior and health outcomes is needed. Several policy options exist to require minimal standards to optimize medical therapy, particularly in light of the new Medicare prescription drug benefit. PMID:21331202

  8. General approach for dealing with dynamical systems with spatiotemporal periodicities.

    PubMed

    Casado-Pascual, Jesús; Cuesta, José A; Quintero, Niurka R; Alvarez-Nodarse, Renato

    2015-02-01

    Dynamical systems often contain oscillatory forces or depend on periodic potentials. Time or space periodicity is reflected in the properties of these systems through a dependence on the parameters of their periodic terms. In this paper we provide a general theoretical framework for dealing with these kinds of systems, regardless of whether they are classical or quantum, stochastic or deterministic, dissipative or nondissipative, linear or nonlinear, etc. In particular, we are able to show that simple symmetry considerations determine, to a large extent, how their properties depend functionally on some of the parameters of the periodic terms. For the sake of illustration, we apply this formalism to find the functional dependence of the expectation value of the momentum of a Bose-Einstein condensate, described by the Gross-Pitaewskii equation, when it is exposed to a sawtooth potential whose amplitude is periodically modulated in time. We show that, by using this formalism, a small set of measurements is enough to obtain the functional form for a wide range of parameters. This can be very helpful when characterizing experimentally the response of systems for which performing measurements is costly or difficult.

  9. Dealing with death: medical students' experiences with patient loss.

    PubMed

    Pessagno, Regina; Foote, Carrie E; Aponte, Robert

    This article explores medical students' experiences and coping strategies when confronting patient loss in their 3rd and 4th years of their programs. Much of the literature on the impact of patient losses focuses on physicians. This article joins a handful of works aimed at how medical students experience and cope with patient loss. In-depth interviews with 20 medical students provided rich descriptions of their varying experiences coping with death. Consistent with previous work, students experience substantial emotional stress coping with patient deaths, though some were more difficult to bear than others, such as when the dying patient was a child or when treatment errors could have contributed to deaths. Common coping mechanisms included talking through their emotions, thrusting themselves into continuing their rounds, crying, participating in infant death rituals, and turning to religion. When deaths occurred, senior personnel who exhibited empathy toward the deceased and tolerance toward the students' emotional responses were lauded and made the process easier. Also emotionally daunting, in many instances, was dealing with the families of dying patients. Most of the students did not view death as a failure, contrary to much earlier literature, except in instances in which human error or decision making may have played a part in causing the death of a patient.

  10. How to deal with negative surface heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, W.

    2015-03-01

    Negative surface heat capacities are observed for many liquids, at least in certain temperature regimes. Since thermodynamic stability of a system requires positive heat capacities, it is usually argued that the surface must not be considered as an autonomous system. This, however, is not possible when the energy balance of the surface plays the role of a boundary condition for the field equations, e.g. the heat diffusion equation. A heat pulse supplied to the surface of a liquid and the stretching of a liquid film provide two examples to demonstrate that negative surface heat capacities may lead to unbounded and unconfined growth of the temperature disturbances in the liquid. To deal with the instabilities associated with negative surface heat capacities it is proposed to introduce a surface layer of small, but finite, thickness that is defined solely in terms of macroscopic thermodynamic quantities. By considering the energy balance of the surface layer, which is an open system, it is shown that the isobaric heat capacity of the liquid contained in the surface layer is to be added to the (possibly negative) surface heat capacity to obtain a positive total heat capacity of the surface layer.

  11. The law relating to dealing with dead bodies.

    PubMed

    White, S

    2000-01-01

    Since March 1999 there have been three inquiries concerned either in whole or in part with the removal of human tissue from bodies during post-mortem examinations and its retention thereafter. Two of these at least have had to consider the law relating to the matter, and a commissioned paper and a submission about it to one, the Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry, have been mounted on the Inquiry's Web site. The main part of this article consists of the slightly revised text of a submission to the Inquiry by way of comment on these. Among the major points made in this submission are that (a) insufficient consideration has been given to the present status of the common law right of a person arranging a funeral to have the body of the deceased given Christian burial in the burial ground of the parish in which he or she died or of which he or she was a parishoner; (b) insufficient account has been taken of the scope of permissible modes of dealing with a dead body; and that (c) the implications this has for the common law offence of preventing Christian (or decent) burial have not been fully explored.

  12. Dealing with Multipacting in Fundamental Power Couplers for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Mircea Stirbet

    2005-03-19

    Multipacting events are well known and bothersome discharge phenomena specific to vacuum and RF exposed surfaces. Left uncontrolled, these events could affect normal machine operation, limiting performance or inducing irreversible damage of critical components such as ceramic windows. Numerical simulations have been developed and their predictions fit fairly well with real multipacting events in coaxial lines or waveguide-type fundamental power couplers. Controlling multipacting must be considered from the design stage, as well as during manufacture of subassemblies or preparation of the coupler for cavity assembly. All fundamental power couplers must be conditioned using a high power RF source, and during this process, restricting multipacting by adequate instrumentation should be considered. After RF conditioning, during beam acceleration, control of multipacting is achieved with field perturbation methods. This paper summarizes our experience in dealing with multipacting in CW or pulsed fundamental power couplers (LEP, LHC, SNS and RIA) for SRF cavities. The SNS fundamental power coupler is used as an example for controlling multipacting during high power RF conditioning.

  13. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Modernized Techniques for Dealing with Quality Data and Derived Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiswender, C.; Miller, S. P.; Clark, D.

    2008-12-01

    strategies to deal with data, Scripps Institution of Oceanography is able to produce and distribute well-formed, and quality-tested derived products, which aid research, understanding, and education.

  15. Dealing with hidden issues: trafficked women in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Poudel, M; Shrestha, A

    1996-11-01

    This article discusses approaches to dealing with prostitution in Nepal and exportation of women prostitutes to Asia and the Middle East. It is estimated that over 200,000 Nepalese women are in Indian brothels, and tens of thousands are exported each year to other countries and forced either into prostitution or other oppressive conditions. In Nepal, women prostitutes are rejected as wives or daughters, regardless of the reasons involved. Women Acting Together for Change (WATCH) organized a national public hearing in June 1995 on these issues. During the hearing, 11 women and one man shared their views about being forced into prostitution, the ineffectiveness of the law, and social rejection. Participants at this forum questioned the legal practice of human rights and decided that law was a hindrance. Government representatives on the "listening bench" responded defensively and argued that prostitutes were unwilling to use the law, but agreed that the government should punish traffickers and commit politically to ending the trafficking in women. Roundtable discussions among concerned people after a day of hearings decided to initiate a nationwide coalition against the trafficking in women. The alliance would consist of 17 people and include nongovernmental representatives, lawyers, women who testified, representatives of the National Planning Council, and representatives from women's groups. The sex trade is viewed as a part of the national economy and a very profitable enterprise. Extreme poverty and few employment options are strong incentives for the continuation of prostitution. Patriarchal norms reinforce the view of women as born for the sexual pleasure of men. Nepal's national economy and policies have contributed to family poverty and to migration to other countries where women are exploited. The forum revealed schisms in the government commitment to Article 20 of the constitution.

  16. [Dealing with victims of domestic violence. Suggestions for daily practice].

    PubMed

    Graß, Hildegard Lilly; Gahr, Britta; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of victims of violence and their treatment in medical facilities is a subject which has been covered for several years in a number of ways. In medicine and in other disciplines, the focus of research, publication, and practical work has been on the quality of care provided. Guidelines for the treatment of victims of violence have been developed and needs have been assessed. These examples show there is an abundance of knowledge on the subject. Nevertheless, the transfer of this knowledge into the everyday practice of medicine at hospitals and doctors' offices is clearly still not functioning in an optimal way and faces a wide range of hurdles and stumbling blocks. Based on the experience gained in a pilot project involving the medical intervention in doctors' offices against violence perpetuated against women (Project MIGG, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Family, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ)), approaches for the optimal treatment of victims of violence in outpatient medical facilities are presented. The key steps to achieving the goal of optimal treatment are: (i) the entire practice team commits to establishing a victim-centered approach to care and (ii) the necessary processes and structures are implemented (i.e., adequate documentation in patient records, patient information is made available in the doctor's office, information on post-treatment services and sources of support in the region are provided, contact is maintained with such institutions, and programs of further education are offered). This paper provides a catalogue of keywords with an overview illustrating how to optimize practice management to deal with cases of domestic violence. In addition, various areas of work are described, such the special requirements involving the collection of evidence.

  17. The dilemma of foraging herbivores: dealing with food and fear.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Clare; Banks, Peter B; Boonstra, Rudy; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen

    2014-11-01

    For foraging herbivores, both food quality and predation risk vary across the landscape. Animals should avoid low-quality food patches in favour of high-quality ones, and seek safe patches while avoiding risky ones. Herbivores often face the foraging dilemma, however, of choosing between high-quality food in risky places or low-quality food in safe places. Here, we explore how and why the interaction between food quality and predation risk affects foraging decisions of mammalian herbivores, focusing on browsers confronting plant toxins in a landscape of fear. We draw together themes of plant-herbivore and predator-prey interactions, and the roles of animal ecophysiology, behaviour and personality. The response of herbivores to the dual costs of food and fear depends on the interplay of physiology and behaviour. We discuss detoxification physiology in dealing with plant toxins, and stress physiology associated with perceived predation risk. We argue that behaviour is the interface enabling herbivores to stay or quit food patches in response to their physiological tolerance to these risks. We hypothesise that generalist and specialist herbivores perceive the relative costs of plant defence and predation risk differently and intra-specifically, individuals with different personalities and physiologies should do so too, creating individualised landscapes of food and fear. We explore the ecological significance and emergent impacts of these individual-based foraging outcomes on populations and communities, and offer predictions that can be clearly tested. In doing so, we provide an integrated platform advancing herbivore foraging theory with food quality and predation risk at its core.

  18. Dealing with the identification of protein species in ancient amphorae.

    PubMed

    Dallongeville, Sophie; Garnier, Nicolas; Casasola, Dario Bernal; Bonifay, Michel; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2011-03-01

    This manuscript deals with the identification of protein residues in amphorae, including particularly identification of protein species. The work described was performed on fishes, the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and bonito (Sarda sarda) species frequently found in the Mediterranean area. Based on proteomic techniques, the analytical strategy was adapted to analysis of protein residues from tiny ceramic fragments. The major difficulty was to extract proteins and limit their hydrolysis during the sample preparation; consequently, multiple soft extraction techniques were evaluated. The most valuable results were obtained using a solution containing high amounts of denaturing agents, urea and thiourea, reducing agent, dithiothreitol, and detergent, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. The analysis using nano liquid chromatography-nano electrospray ionization double quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of up to 200 proteins for the anchovy and bonito species, among which 73 peptides were found to be fish-specific. Because bonito and anchovy species are not documented and fully sequenced in genomic databases, the preliminary protein identification was realized via sequence homology to other fish sequenced species. Amino acid substitutions of peptides were assigned on the basis of the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry spectra using de novo sequencing; these peptides, not reported up to now in databases, constitute species-specific markers. The method developed was finally applied to an archaeological sample replica impregnated with a mixture of fish tissue from both species; this experiment successfully led to the identification of 17 fish proteins, including 33 fish-specific peptides. This work shows that the analytical method developed has great potential for the identification of protein species in complex archaeological samples.

  19. Inner City Youth and Drug Dealing: A Review of the Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers, Nathan L.; Weist, Mark D.

    1998-01-01

    Existing literature on drug dealing and inner-city adolescents was reviewed. Around one in six urban adolescents has had some involvement with drug dealing, with rates higher for African-American males males over age 16. For inner-city teenagers, there are many problems associated with drug dealing, and few efforts to prevent it. (SLD)

  20. 26 CFR 1.61-6 - Gains derived from dealings in property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gains derived from dealings in property. 1.61-6... Taxable Income § 1.61-6 Gains derived from dealings in property. (a) In general. Gain realized on the sale..., relating to capital gains and losses, certain gains derived from dealings in property are treated...

  1. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  2. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation.

  3. Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Kai D.

    2007-07-01

    During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF{sub 6} is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete

  4. GNSS Reference Station Provider - How to deal with ITRF updates ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Robert; Umnig, Elke; Hinterberger, Fabian; Thaler, Gottfried

    2015-04-01

    In 2015 a new ITRS Realization (most likely ITRF2013) will be issued. Regular ITRF updates are required for instance to integrate recently established reference stations to the ITRF and to improve site velocity estimates of already long time existing stations. Discussions how to optimally account for sudden coordinate shifts (e.g. caused by earthquakes) or periodical site motions (e.g. due to ground water flow, …) are always ongoing. Regional GNSS reference services usually tie their reference site coordinates to an almost recent ITRF at a fixed epoch or to a continental frame aligned to a tectonic plate (in Europe ETRFxx (ETRS89)). Therefore, the coordinates established in difference mode by users of such a service refer to this providers frame. In general a new ITRF update does not require any urgent action by the reference station provider as users are mostly interested in stable global coordinates and fixed relations to the national datum. On the other hand, currently upcoming un-differenced GNSS precise positioning techniques allow for dm or even sub-dm accuracy in post-processing, via RT-correction streams or via SIS. These coordinates are referred to the frame of the precise orbit and satellite information, which is the most current ITRF at the epoch of date. Therefore PPP coordinates established in 2014 differ for example from ETRF-coordinates by about 60cm or by at least 30cm from ITRF coordinates which refer to epoch 2000,0. This poster presentation aims to discuss how a GNSS reference station provider has to deal with an ITRF update in order to ensure on the one hand consistency of the user coordinates established in difference or PPP mode and to allow the user to obtain coordinates in the desired reference frame (most recent ITRF, ETRF, national datum). The required suite of actions includes changes of the reference site coordinates, the provision of transformation tools for post-processing users and the delivery of Real-Time RTCM corrections streams

  5. Notable deals in the pharmaceutical industry in the fourth quarter of 2016.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, P

    2017-01-01

    During the fourth quarter of 2016, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence had 889 new deals added as part of its ongoing coverage of pharmaceutical licensing activity. This was an increase on both the last quarter (865) but a decrease from the same quarter for the previous year (915). This article will focus on highlighting a number of the most valuable and notable deals forged during the quarter, as well as a selection of deals from some of the most prolific deal makers. An update on milestones, options and terminated deals of significance will also be presented, along with an early outlook on the next quarter's pharmaceutical licensing activity. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  6. Notable deals in the pharmaceutical industry in the second quarter of 2016.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, P

    2016-08-01

    During the second quarter of 2016, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence had 1,014 new deals added as part of its ongoing coverage of pharmaceutical licensing activity. This was on par with the last quarter (1,011) and a substantial increase on the same quarter for the previous 1 year (659). This article will focus on highlighting a number of the most valuable and notable deals forged during the quarter, as well as a selection of deals from some of the most prolific deal makers. An update on milestone, options and terminated deals of significance will also be presented, along with an early outlook on the next quarter's pharmaceutical licensing activity.

  7. Large Spatial and Temporal Separations of Cause and Effect in Policy Making - Dealing with Non-linear Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaskill, John

    There can be large spatial and temporal separation of cause and effect in policy making. Determining the correct linkage between policy inputs and outcomes can be highly impractical in the complex environments faced by policy makers. In attempting to see and plan for the probable outcomes, standard linear models often overlook, ignore, or are unable to predict catastrophic events that only seem improbable due to the issue of multiple feedback loops. There are several issues with the makeup and behaviors of complex systems that explain the difficulty many mathematical models (factor analysis/structural equation modeling) have in dealing with non-linear effects in complex systems. This chapter highlights those problem issues and offers insights to the usefulness of ABM in dealing with non-linear effects in complex policy making environments.

  8. Past, Present and Future: Urgency of Dealing with Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper gives an historic perspective on 10 critical phases and actions in advancing an understanding of climate change and taking appropriate domestic and international action. Credit goes to atmospheric scientists for their committed efforts to understand, model and measure ...

  9. Past, Present and Future: Urgency of Dealing with Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper gives an historic perspective on 10 critical phases and actions in advancing an understanding of climate change and taking appropriate domestic and international action. Credit goes to atmospheric scientists for their committed efforts to understand, model and measure ...

  10. Vocational Indecision: How Do We Understand and Deal With It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the relative merits of vocational indecision, as seen from the student's perspective, and presents several models of vocational indecision. Four categories of reasons for indecision are given with ideas on how to remedy each category. (BL)

  11. Practical methods for dealing with 'not applicable' item responses in the AMC Linear Disability Score project

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Rebecca; Glas, Cees AW; Lindeboom, Robert; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; de Haan, Rob J

    2004-01-01

    Background Whenever questionnaires are used to collect data on constructs, such as functional status or health related quality of life, it is unlikely that all respondents will respond to all items. This paper examines ways of dealing with responses in a 'not applicable' category to items included in the AMC Linear Disability Score (ALDS) project item bank. Methods The data examined in this paper come from the responses of 392 respondents to 32 items and form part of the calibration sample for the ALDS item bank. The data are analysed using the one-parameter logistic item response theory model. The four practical strategies for dealing with this type of response are: cold deck imputation; hot deck imputation; treating the missing responses as if these items had never been offered to those individual patients; and using a model which takes account of the 'tendency to respond to items'. Results The item and respondent population parameter estimates were very similar for the strategies involving hot deck imputation; treating the missing responses as if these items had never been offered to those individual patients; and using a model which takes account of the 'tendency to respond to items'. The estimates obtained using the cold deck imputation method were substantially different. Conclusions The cold deck imputation method was not considered suitable for use in the ALDS item bank. The other three methods described can be usefully implemented in the ALDS item bank, depending on the purpose of the data analysis to be carried out. These three methods may be useful for other data sets examining similar constructs, when item response theory based methods are used. PMID:15200681

  12. Leaf Segmentation and Tracking in Arabidopsis thaliana Combined to an Organ-Scale Plant Model for Genotypic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Viaud, Gautier; Loudet, Olivier; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2017-01-01

    A promising method for characterizing the phenotype of a plant as an interaction between its genotype and its environment is to use refined organ-scale plant growth models that use the observation of architectural traits, such as leaf area, containing a lot of information on the whole history of the functioning of the plant. The Phenoscope, a high-throughput automated platform, allowed the acquisition of zenithal images of Arabidopsis thaliana over twenty one days for 4 different genotypes. A novel image processing algorithm involving both segmentation and tracking of the plant leaves allows to extract areas of the latter. First, all the images in the series are segmented independently using a watershed-based approach. A second step based on ellipsoid-shaped leaves is then applied on the segments found to refine the segmentation. Taking into account all the segments at every time, the whole history of each leaf is reconstructed by choosing recursively through time the most probable segment achieving the best score, computed using some characteristics of the segment such as its orientation, its distance to the plant mass center and its area. These results are compared to manually extracted segments, showing a very good accordance in leaf rank and that they therefore provide low-biased data in large quantity for leaf areas. Such data can therefore be exploited to design an organ-scale plant model adapted from the existing GreenLab model for A. thaliana and subsequently parameterize it. This calibration of the model parameters should pave the way for differentiation between the Arabidopsis genotypes. PMID:28123392

  13. Dealing with Unseen Obstacles to Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Valerie J. H.; Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zomp, Christopher; Johnson, Randall S.; Miller, Phillip; Powell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper updates the efforts to educate blind students in higher education in the digital age and describes how to support the development of mental models in learning through tactile learning and 3D-printing technology. It cites research documenting a drop in Braille literacy along with the growth in use of digital technologies by blind…

  14. A Multimodal Approach in Dealing with Older Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikel, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that older persons underuse community-based and outpatient mental health services, yet are overrepresented in inpatient facilities. Argues for increased programing targeted for elderly client. Advocates use of multimodal model as efficient method of service delivery and provides sample case study using BASIC ID (Behavior, Affect, Sensation,…

  15. Dealing with target uncertainty in a reaching control interface.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Elaine A; Körding, Konrad P; Perreault, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic devices need to be controlled by their users, typically using physiological signals. People tend to look at objects before reaching for them and we have shown that combining eye movements with other continuous physiological signal sources enhances control. This approach suffers when subjects also look at non-targets, a problem we addressed with a probabilistic mixture over targets where subject gaze information is used to identify target candidates. However, this approach would be ineffective if a user wanted to move towards targets that have not been foveated. Here we evaluated how the accuracy of prior target information influenced decoding accuracy, as the availability of neural control signals was varied. We also considered a mixture model where we assumed that the target may be foveated or, alternatively, that the target may not be foveated. We tested the accuracy of the models at decoding natural reaching data, and also in a closed-loop robot-assisted reaching task. The mixture model worked well in the face of high target uncertainty. Furthermore, errors due to inaccurate target information were reduced by including a generic model that relied on neural signals only.

  16. A new web-based course: dealing with glaciers and permafrost hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, S.; Kaeaeb, A.; Haeberli, W.

    2003-04-01

    The intensive human use of high mountains intersects more and more with the hazard zones of such environments. Because of the complexity of such processes and impacts, dealing with such risks requires a broad education in many sub-domains of the earth sciences and the socio-economic field. Inter- and trans-disciplinary training and education of professionals is therefore essential. Thus the goal of the Swiss Virtual Campus project "Dealing with Natural Hazards" is to provide such a course program covering the basics of dealing with natural hazards, including technical, environmental and social aspects. In the field of natural hazards and risk management, education at the Swiss universities is mostly structured in narrow sectors. Using the advantages of the internet, the Virtual Campus provides teachers and students an interdisciplinary discussion platform on the integral approach and the handling with natural hazards. The course content is organised in 5 modules: 1 basic knowledge and tools, 2 hydrological / meteorological hazards, 3 geological hazards, 4 vulnerability of property and of socio-economic systems and 5 integral natural risk management. To ensure a national and international access the courses are designed in English and published on the internet. Within the scope of this project we are developing lessons in the subject area of natural hazards related to glaciers and permafrost. These are ice avalanches, glacier floods, glacier length variations and permafrost. The content is divided into chapters, which are consistent over the entire module: (1) processes: characterisation of the different processes, (2) triggering: initiating events, (3) data acquisition, mapping and monitoring: appropriate methods, (4) estimation models: application of the adequate model, (5) combinations and interactions: interrelation and impacts of different hazards, (6) long-term effects: global change effects, (7) integral hazard recognition and assessment: integral proceedings

  17. Dealing with uncertainties in fusion power plant conceptual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, R.; Lux, H.; Kovari, M.; Morris, J.; Wenninger, R.; Zohm, H.; Biel, W.; Federici, G.

    2017-04-01

    Although the ultimate goal of most current fusion research is to build an economically attractive power plant, the present status of physics and technology does not provide the performance necessary to achieve this goal. Therefore, in order to model how such plants may operate and what their output might be, extrapolations must be made from existing experimental data and technology. However, the expected performance of a plant built to the operating point specifications can only ever be a ‘best guess’. Extrapolations far beyond the current operating regimes are necessarily uncertain, and some important interactions, for example the coupling of conducted power from the scape-off layer to the divertor surface, lack reliable predictive models. This means both that the demands on plant systems at the target operating point can vary significantly from the nominal value, and that the overall plant performance may potentially fall short of design targets. In this contribution we discuss tools and techniques that have been developed to assess the robustness of the operating points for the EU-DEMO tokamak-based demonstration power plant, and the consequences for its design. The aim is to make explicit the design choices and areas where improved modelling and DEMO-relevant experiments will have the greatest impact on confidence in a successful DEMO design.

  18. Dealing with substantial heterogeneity in Cochrane reviews. Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dealing with heterogeneity in meta-analyses is often tricky, and there is only limited advice for authors on what to do. We investigated how authors addressed different degrees of heterogeneity, in particular whether they used a fixed effect model, which assumes that all the included studies are estimating the same true effect, or a random effects model where this is not assumed. Methods We sampled randomly 60 Cochrane reviews from 2008, which presented a result in its first meta-analysis with substantial heterogeneity (I2 greater than 50%, i.e. more than 50% of the variation is due to heterogeneity rather than chance). We extracted information on choice of statistical model, how the authors had handled the heterogeneity, and assessed the methodological quality of the reviews in relation to this. Results The distribution of heterogeneity was rather uniform in the whole I2 interval, 50-100%. A fixed effect model was used in 33 reviews (55%), but there was no correlation between I2 and choice of model (P = 0.79). We considered that 20 reviews (33%), 16 of which had used a fixed effect model, had major problems. The most common problems were: use of a fixed effect model and lack of rationale for choice of that model, lack of comment on even severe heterogeneity and of reservations and explanations of its likely causes. The problematic reviews had significantly fewer included trials than other reviews (4.3 vs. 8.0, P = 0.024). The problems became less pronounced with time, as those reviews that were most recently updated more often used a random effects model. Conclusion One-third of Cochrane reviews with substantial heterogeneity had major problems in relation to their handling of heterogeneity. More attention is needed to this issue, as the problems we identified can be essential for the conclusions of the reviews. PMID:21349195

  19. Notable deals in the pharmaceutical industry in the first quarter of 2017.

    PubMed

    Cruces, E

    2017-06-01

    During the first quarter of 2017, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence had 1,073 new deals added as part of its ongoing coverage of pharmaceutical licensing activity. This meant a slight increase on the last quarter (1,022) and a similar volume on the same quarter for the previous 1 year (1,141). However, this quarter showed a significant augment in deals worth more than USD 0.5 billion on the last quarter (17 vs. 12). This article will focus on highlighting a number of the most valuable and notable deals forged during the quarter, as well as a selection of deals from some of the most prolific deal makers. An update on milestone, options and terminated deals of significance will also be presented, along with an early outlook on the next quarter's pharmaceutical licensing activity.

  20. Notable deals in the pharmaceutical industry in the third quarter of 2016.

    PubMed

    Cruces, E

    2016-10-01

    During the third quarter of 2016, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence had 865 new deals added as part of its ongoing coverage of pharmaceutical licensing activity. This figure shows similar deal activity compared with the same quarter of 2015 (934), and 21% less than the previous quarter, although they had similar disclosed financial sizes in comparison with the first half of 2016. This article will focus on a number of the most valuable and notable deals forged during the quarter, as well as a selection of deals from some of the most prolific deal makers. An update on milestones, options and terminated deals of significance will also be presented, along with an early outlook on the last quarter of 2016's pharmaceutical licensing activity.

  1. Life cycle assessment of fuel cell vehicles: Dealing with uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadini, Jose Fernando

    Life cycle assessment (LCA), or "well to wheels" in transportation terms, involves some subjectivity and uncertainty, especially with new technologies and future scenarios. To analyze lifecycle impacts of future fuel cell vehicles and fuels, I developed the Fuel Upstream Energy and Emission Model (FUEEM). The FUEEM project pioneered two specific new ways to incorporate and propagate uncertainty within an LCA analysis. First, the model uses probabilistic curves generated by experts as inputs and then employs Monte Carlo simulation techniques to propagate these uncertainties throughout the full chain of fuel production and use. Second, the FUEEM process explicitly involves the interested parties in the entire analysis process, not only in the critical final review phase. To demonstrate the FUEEM process, an analysis has been made for the use of three different fuel cell vehicle technologies (direct hydrogen, indirect methanol, and indirect hydrocarbon) in 2010 within the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) of California (Los Angeles). The analysis covered topics such as the requirement of non-renewable energy sources, emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and emissions of several criteria pollutants generated within SCAB and within other regions. The results obtained from this example show that the hydrogen option has the potential to have the most efficient energy life cycle for the SCAB, followed by the methanol and finally by the Fisher-Tropsch naphtha option. A similar pattern is observed for the greenhouse gas emissions. The results showing criteria pollutants emitted within SCAB highlight the importance of having a flexible model that is responsive to local considerations. This dissertation demonstrates that explicit recognition and quantitative analysis of the inherent uncertainty in the LCA process generates richer information, explains many of the discrepancies between results of previous studies, and enhances the robustness and credibility of LCA analyses.

  2. Diverse dealings of the Werner helicase/nuclease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2003-08-06

    The human Werner syndrome is a model for the process of aging. The protein that is mutated in Werner syndrome, WRN, exhibits three catalytic activities: a 3'-to-5' helicase, a 3'-to-5' exonuclease, and an adenosine triphosphatase activity. WRN interacts with a variety of proteins and has been implicated in many aspects of DNA metabolism. A recent paper by Chen et al. published in the August 2003 issue of Aging Cell sheds some light on the multifunctional nature of WRN. It suggests that WRN may be considered as a structural protein, providing a plausible conceptual basis for the many WRN protein-protein interactions.

  3. Complications - A surgeon's perspective and humanities' methods for personally dealing with them: The "4 R's".

    PubMed

    Bunni, J

    2017-03-30

    Herein the author includes his philosophical take on how surgeons' deal with complications. He explains how often Mortality and Morbidity meetings miss a fundamental point of how the surgeon him/herself deals with complications. The author proposes a classification of the 4 commonest coping strategies used by mankind to deal with the doubt and uncertainty that a career in surgery, a real marathon, entails. This is explored in an honest, easy to read and amusing way with some real truths within.

  4. How to deal with subsidence in the Dutch delta?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouthamer, Esther; Erkens, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    societal issue that should be tackled, and (3) it requires an integrated approach involving technical knowledge on contributors to subsidence, water management, governance arrangements, the legislative framework, socio-economic developments and spatial planning. To develop a sustainable solution to subsidence, we propose an approach including: (1) monitoring of surface elevation and drivers of subsidence, (2) scenario studies using coupled state-of-the-art 3D geological, hydrological and subsidence numerical models , and (3) a national database and model infrastructure. The next step is to carry out (4) a societal cost-benefit analysis and (5) to optimize governance arrangements and the legislative framework enabling the (6) implementation of measures. The realization of these requirements and the implementation of the resulting management strategies requires a joint effort of the national research institutes, including universities, and the involved local, and regional governmental organizations controlled by the national government. The research institutes should be responsible for developing monitoring strategies, generating the data and databases and developing the numerical models, governance arrangements and the legislative framework. The governmental organizations have the important responsibility for putting subsidence on their agendas, facilitating the research institutes and the implementation of governance arrangements and legislative framework enabling the implementation of effective measures.

  5. Dealing with the exponential wall in electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulde, Peter; Stoll, Hermann

    2017-05-01

    An alternative to the density functional theory is the use of wavefunction based electronic structure calculations for solids. In order to perform them, the Exponential Wall (EW) problem has to be resolved. It is caused by an exponential increase of the number of configurations with increasing electron number N. There are different routes one may follow. One is to characterize a many-electron wavefunction by a vector in Liouville space with a cumulant metric rather than in Hilbert space. This removes the EW problem. Another is to model the solid by an impurity or fragment embedded in a bath which is treated at a much lower level than the former. This is the case in the Density Matrix Embedding Theory (DMET) or the Density Embedding Theory (DET). The latter two are closely related to a Schmidt decomposition of a system and to the determination of the associated entanglement. We show here the connection between the two approaches. It turns out that the DMET (or DET) has an identical active space as a previously used Local Ansatz, based on a projection and partitioning approach. Yet, the EW problem is resolved differently in the two cases. By studying a H10 ring, these differences are analyzed with the help of the method of increments.

  6. Dealing with the family: CD147 interactions with cyclophilins

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Constant, Stephanie; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2006-01-01

    CD147 is a widely expressed plasma membrane protein that has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological activities. It is best known for its ability to function as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (hence the other name for this protein, EMMPRIN), but has also been shown to regulate lymphocyte responsiveness, monocarboxylate transporter expression and spermatogenesis. These functions reflect multiple interacting partners of CD147. Recently, interaction of CD147 with proteins of the cyclophilin family has been demonstrated and activity of CD147 as a signalling receptor to extarcellular cyclophilins A and B has been shown. Given that extracellular cyclophilins are potent chemotactic agents for various immune cells, further studies of the role of cyclophilin–CD147 interaction in inflammation followed. They demonstrated that agents targeting CD147 or cyclophilin had a significant anti-inflammatory effect in animal models of acute or chronic lung diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we review the current knowledge about interactions between CD147 and cyclophilins. PMID:16476049

  7. Dealing with the family: CD147 interactions with cyclophilins.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Constant, Stephanie; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2006-03-01

    CD147 is a widely expressed plasma membrane protein that has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological activities. It is best known for its ability to function as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (hence the other name for this protein, EMMPRIN), but has also been shown to regulate lymphocyte responsiveness, monocarboxylate transporter expression and spermatogenesis. These functions reflect multiple interacting partners of CD147. Recently, interaction of CD147 with proteins of the cyclophilin family has been demonstrated and activity of CD147 as a signalling receptor to extracellular cyclophilins A and B has been shown. Given that extracellular cyclophilins are potent chemotactic agents for various immune cells, further studies of the role of cyclophilin-CD147 interaction in inflammation followed. They demonstrated that agents targeting CD147 or cyclophilin had a significant anti-inflammatory effect in animal models of acute or chronic lung diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we review the current knowledge about interactions between CD147 and cyclophilins.

  8. Comparison of statistical approaches dealing with time-dependent confounding in drug effectiveness studies.

    PubMed

    Karim, Mohammad Ehsanul; Petkau, John; Gustafson, Paul; Platt, Robert W; Tremlett, Helen

    2016-09-21

    In longitudinal studies, if the time-dependent covariates are affected by the past treatment, time-dependent confounding may be present. For a time-to-event response, marginal structural Cox models are frequently used to deal with such confounding. To avoid some of the problems of fitting marginal structural Cox model, the sequential Cox approach has been suggested as an alternative. Although the estimation mechanisms are different, both approaches claim to estimate the causal effect of treatment by appropriately adjusting for time-dependent confounding. We carry out simulation studies to assess the suitability of the sequential Cox approach for analyzing time-to-event data in the presence of a time-dependent covariate that may or may not be a time-dependent confounder. Results from these simulations revealed that the sequential Cox approach is not as effective as marginal structural Cox model in addressing the time-dependent confounding. The sequential Cox approach was also found to be inadequate in the presence of a time-dependent covariate. We propose a modified version of the sequential Cox approach that correctly estimates the treatment effect in both of the above scenarios. All approaches are applied to investigate the impact of beta-interferon treatment in delaying disability progression in the British Columbia Multiple Sclerosis cohort (1995-2008).

  9. How to deal with cost differences at baseline.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Mastrigt, Ghislaine A P G; Dirksen, Carmen D; Arntz, Arnoud; Severens, Johan L; Kessels, Alfons G H

    2009-01-01

    To our knowledge, adjustment for baseline imbalances in costs has never been performed in trial-based cost-effectiveness analyses. We used data from a clinical trial performed in the Netherlands comparing two outpatient psychotherapies: schema-focused therapy (SFT) versus transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP). Costs were assessed with a cost interview. Outcome was the proportion of recovered patients measured with the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index (BPDSI-IV). We used three methods to adjust the costs for baseline differences: (i) mean difference adjustment, calculating total costs after baseline by adjusting the difference between groups with the difference of the mean baseline costs; (ii) delta adjustment, calculating the individual differences between patient baseline and the subsequent measurements (concerning incremental costs, this is the same as mean difference adjustment); and (iii) regression-based adjustment, adjusting total costs with a regression model, with total costs as the dependent variable and baseline costs as the independent variable. Mean baseline costs were 3339 euros for SFT and 4238 euros for TFP, a mean difference of 899 euros. Total unadjusted follow-up costs were 30822 euros for SFT and 36812 euros for TFP. The fraction of recovered patients was 45% for SFT and 24% for TFP. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves show that mean difference and delta adjustments are different from the regression-based methods. Although the routine starting point of an analysis should always be an unadjusted analysis of the cost effectiveness, a baseline difference between treatment groups should be adjusted for. This should be done by reported patient characteristics or, when these are not sufficiently present, by baseline costs as a substitute. This adjustment should be carried out most preferably with a regression-based method.

  10. Least squares in calibration: dealing with uncertainty in x.

    PubMed

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2010-08-01

    The least-squares (LS) analysis of data with error in x and y is generally thought to yield best results when carried out by minimizing the "total variance" (TV), defined as the sum of the properly weighted squared residuals in x and y. Alternative "effective variance" (EV) methods project the uncertainty in x into an effective contribution to that in y, and though easier to employ are considered to be less reliable. In the case of a linear response function with both sigma(x) and sigma(y) constant, the EV solutions are identically those from ordinary LS; and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations reveal that they can actually yield smaller root-mean-square errors than the TV method. Furthermore, the biases can be predicted from theory based on inverse regression--x upon y when x is error-free and y is uncertain--which yields a bias factor proportional to the ratio sigma(x)(2)/sigma(xm)(2) of the random-error variance in x to the model variance. The MC simulations confirm that the biases are essentially independent of the error in y, hence correctable. With such bias corrections, the better performance of the EV method in estimating the parameters translates into better performance in estimating the unknown (x(0)) from measurements (y(0)) of its response. The predictability of the EV parameter biases extends also to heteroscedastic y data as long as sigma(x) remains constant, but the estimation of x(0) is not as good in this case. When both x and y are heteroscedastic, there is no known way to predict the biases. However, the MC simulations suggest that for proportional error in x, a geometric x-structure leads to small bias and comparable performance for the EV and TV methods.

  11. Effective Strategies for Dealing with People You Can't Stand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Jerry; Leonard, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    One may be in a situation where he/she feels frustrated and confused by certain behaviors that make his/her life difficult. Fortunately, in their international bestseller, "Dealing with People You Can't Stand: How to Bring Out the Best in People at Their Worst," Dr. Rick Brinksman and Dr. Rick Kirschner provide a strategy for dealing with ten of…

  12. 5 CFR 3201.105 - Prohibition on dealings with former employers, associates, and clients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on dealings with former employers, associates, and clients. 3201.105 Section 3201.105 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL DEPOSIT... INSURANCE CORPORATION § 3201.105 Prohibition on dealings with former employers, associates, and clients. (a...

  13. How Teachers Need to Deal with the Seen, the Unseen, the Improbable, and the Nearly Imponderable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    In addition to dealing with the more or less obvious variables that affect classroom dynamics, teachers need to learn how to deal with the far more difficult issues related to learning, identity, selfhood, and autonomy. In this article, the author first discusses classroom issues that are most visible and vivid for teachers. Next, the author…

  14. 49 CFR 1103.27 - Candor and fairness in dealing with other litigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Candor and fairness in dealing with other... § 1103.27 Candor and fairness in dealing with other litigants. (a) The conduct of practitioners before the Board and with other practitioners should be characterized by candor and fairness. The...

  15. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section 4951...

  16. A New Equity Deal for Schools: A Case Study of Policy-Making in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Parlo; Taylor, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we draw on concepts from policy sociology to analyse the new equity deal for schools in Queensland, Australia. We examine this "new deal" through an analysis of the language of "inclusion" and "educational risk" in key policy documents associated with a major reform of public education in Queensland. In…

  17. The Great Depression and the New Deal on Long Island, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupinskie-Huvane, Lorraine; Singer, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Presents information adapted from the introduction to "The Great Depression and the New Deal on Long Island: A Local History Curriculum Guide." Finds that even though people in Long Island, New York, were active participants in New Deal programs, there was still anti-Roosevelt opposition during the 1932 and 1936 presidential elections.…

  18. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section...

  19. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section...

  20. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section...

  1. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section...

  2. How Teachers Need to Deal with the Seen, the Unseen, the Improbable, and the Nearly Imponderable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    In addition to dealing with the more or less obvious variables that affect classroom dynamics, teachers need to learn how to deal with the far more difficult issues related to learning, identity, selfhood, and autonomy. In this article, the author first discusses classroom issues that are most visible and vivid for teachers. Next, the author…

  3. Dealing with Missing Data: How To Write an SPSS Syntax File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, LuAnn Sherbeck

    Dealing with missing data is frequently necessary in social sciences research. There are many statistical methods for dealing with missing data. This paper focuses on four of the more basic methods: (1) listwise deletion; (2) pairwise deletion; (3) total mean substitution; and (4) variable mean substitution. Each of the methods is discussed, and…

  4. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject to...

  5. Dealing with the Multidimensionality of Sustainability through the Use of Multiple Perspectives--A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lönngren, Johanna; Svanström, Magdalena; Ingerman, Åke; Holmberg, John

    2016-01-01

    The concept of perspectives is important in discussions about the multidimensionality of sustainability problems and the need to consider many different aspects when dealing with them. This paper aims to facilitate discussions among both educators and researchers about didactical approaches to developing students' abilities to deal with the…

  6. Notes on a Theatre Commons: Common Wealth's "The Deal versus the People" (2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    "The Deal Versus the People" was a theatrical response created by people in Bradford (UK) to the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). A controversial trade deal between the European Union and United States being negotiated at the time of the production, TTIP threatened to deepen trade liberalisation, with potentially…

  7. Dealing with the Multidimensionality of Sustainability through the Use of Multiple Perspectives--A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lönngren, Johanna; Svanström, Magdalena; Ingerman, Åke; Holmberg, John

    2016-01-01

    The concept of perspectives is important in discussions about the multidimensionality of sustainability problems and the need to consider many different aspects when dealing with them. This paper aims to facilitate discussions among both educators and researchers about didactical approaches to developing students' abilities to deal with the…

  8. 26 CFR 143.5 - Taxes on self-dealing; indirect transactions by a private foundation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxes on self-dealing; indirect transactions by... THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1969 § 143.5 Taxes on self-dealing; indirect transactions by a private... 101(b) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 500) provides that the term “self-dealing” includes any...

  9. Notable deals in the pharmaceutical industry in the first quarter of 2016.

    PubMed

    Cruces, E

    2016-08-01

    During the first quarter of 2016, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence had 1,011 new deals added as part of its ongoing coverage of pharmaceutical licensing activity. This was a slight decrease on the last quarter (Q4 2015: 1,075) but a significant increase on the same quarter for the previous year (Q1 2015: 826). This article will focus on highlighting a number of the most valuable and notable deals forged during the quarter, as well as a selection of deals from some of the most prolific deal makers. An update on milestone, options and terminated deals of significance will also be presented, along with an early outlook on the next quarter's pharmaceutical licensing activity.

  10. How to deal with climate change uncertainty in the planning of engineering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackova, Olga; Dittes, Beatrice; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The effect of extreme events such as floods on the infrastructure and built environment is associated with significant uncertainties: These include the uncertain effect of climate change, uncertainty on extreme event frequency estimation due to limited historic data and imperfect models, and, not least, uncertainty on future socio-economic developments, which determine the damage potential. One option for dealing with these uncertainties is the use of adaptable (flexible) infrastructure that can easily be adjusted in the future without excessive costs. The challenge is in quantifying the value of adaptability and in finding the optimal sequence of decision. Is it worth to build a (potentially more expensive) adaptable system that can be adjusted in the future depending on the future conditions? Or is it more cost-effective to make a conservative design without counting with the possible future changes to the system? What is the optimal timing of the decision to build/adjust the system? We develop a quantitative decision-support framework for evaluation of alternative infrastructure designs under uncertainties, which: • probabilistically models the uncertain future (trough a Bayesian approach) • includes the adaptability of the systems (the costs of future changes) • takes into account the fact that future decisions will be made under uncertainty as well (using pre-posterior decision analysis) • allows to identify the optimal capacity and optimal timing to build/adjust the infrastructure. Application of the decision framework will be demonstrated on an example of flood mitigation planning in Bavaria.

  11. Package Deal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This article features the Higher Education Recruitment Consortium, or HERC, website, which lists all positions such as custodians, administrators, and other faculty positions at colleges, universities, and research institutions throughout the country. HERC, based in Ben Lomond, California, uses its "dual career" hiring services to help…

  12. Package Deal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This article features the Higher Education Recruitment Consortium, or HERC, website, which lists all positions such as custodians, administrators, and other faculty positions at colleges, universities, and research institutions throughout the country. HERC, based in Ben Lomond, California, uses its "dual career" hiring services to help…

  13. Setting up an off-site emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a DVI incident: disaster victim management (DVM).

    PubMed

    Eitzen, David; Zimmermann, Alex

    2012-06-01

    Forensic mortuaries in all Australian jurisdictions are dealing with increasing workloads, with routine cases regularly occupying greater than 50%, and often as much as 85%, of existing cold room body storage capacity, particularly over long weekends and during seasonal increases in respiratory infections. Hence the need to deal with a sudden influx of deceased persons or multiple body parts in a mass fatality incident would overwhelm most Australian forensic mortuaries, thereby requiring other means of body storage and processing. Exercise "Construct" was a joint South Australian Police (SAPol) and Forensic Science South Australia exercise designed to practice the establishment and construction of an emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a mass fatality incident and the subsequent disaster victim identification process. The aims of the exercise were to test preparedness, activation and construction processes relative to the establishment of an EMF. The exercise provided the opportunity to identify gaps in the capacity to successfully complete the tasks within the allotted time frames. The exercise reinforced the need to have a comprehensive and clearly documented process which must include a current list of suppliers who can deliver goods and services in a timely manner. The aim of this paper is to report on the exercise findings and share the experience with other jurisdictions. It will also provide other jurisdictions with the opportunity to consider whether the South Australian model will be useful to them in improving their own response when confronted with a mass fatality incident that may overwhelm existing local mortuary capacities and capabilities.

  14. Dealing with School Violence: The Effect of School Violence Prevention Training on Teachers' Perceived Self-Efficacy in Dealing with Violent Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sela-Shayovitz, Revital

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between school violence prevention training and teachers' perceived self-efficacy in handling violent events. Three indicators were used to examine teachers' self-efficacy: personal teaching efficacy (PTE), teachers' efficacy in the school as an organisation (TESO), and teachers' outcome efficacy (TOE). Data…

  15. Dealing with School Violence: The Effect of School Violence Prevention Training on Teachers' Perceived Self-Efficacy in Dealing with Violent Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sela-Shayovitz, Revital

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between school violence prevention training and teachers' perceived self-efficacy in handling violent events. Three indicators were used to examine teachers' self-efficacy: personal teaching efficacy (PTE), teachers' efficacy in the school as an organisation (TESO), and teachers' outcome efficacy (TOE). Data…

  16. Assessing methods for dealing with treatment switching in randomised controlled trials: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigate methods used to analyse the results of clinical trials with survival outcomes in which some patients switch from their allocated treatment to another trial treatment. These included simple methods which are commonly used in medical literature and may be subject to selection bias if patients switching are not typical of the population as a whole. Methods which attempt to adjust the estimated treatment effect, either through adjustment to the hazard ratio or via accelerated failure time models, were also considered. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of each method in a number of different scenarios. Results 16 different scenarios were identified which differed by the proportion of patients switching, underlying prognosis of switchers and the size of true treatment effect. 1000 datasets were simulated for each of these and all methods applied. Selection bias was observed in simple methods when the difference in survival between switchers and non-switchers were large. A number of methods, particularly the AFT method of Branson and Whitehead were found to give less biased estimates of the true treatment effect in these situations. Conclusions Simple methods are often not appropriate to deal with treatment switching. Alternative approaches such as the Branson & Whitehead method to adjust for switching should be considered. PMID:21223539

  17. Dealing with difficult deformations: construction of a knowledge-based deformation atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorup, S. S.; Darvann, T. A.; Hermann, N. V.; Larsen, P.; Ólafsdóttir, H.; Paulsen, R. R.; Kane, A. A.; Govier, D.; Lo, L.-J.; Kreiborg, S.; Larsen, R.

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-three Taiwanese infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were CT-scanned before lip repair at the age of 3 months, and again after lip repair at the age of 12 months. In order to evaluate the surgical result, detailed point correspondence between pre- and post-surgical images was needed. We have previously demonstrated that non-rigid registration using B-splines is able to provide automated determination of point correspondences in populations of infants without cleft lip. However, this type of registration fails when applied to the task of determining the complex deformation from before to after lip closure in infants with UCLP. The purpose of the present work was to show that use of prior information about typical deformations due to lip closure, through the construction of a knowledge-based atlas of deformations, could overcome the problem. Initially, mean volumes (atlases) for the pre- and post-surgical populations, respectively, were automatically constructed by non-rigid registration. An expert placed corresponding landmarks in the cleft area in the two atlases; this provided prior information used to build a knowledge-based deformation atlas. We model the change from pre- to post-surgery using thin-plate spline warping. The registration results are convincing and represent a first move towards an automatic registration method for dealing with difficult deformations due to this type of surgery.

  18. Fossils out of sequence: Computer simulations and strategies for dealing with stratigraphic disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, A.H.; Flessa, K.W. )

    1990-06-01

    Microstratigraphic resolution is limited by vertical mixing and reworking of fossils. Stratigraphic disorder is the degree to which fossils within a stratigraphic sequence are not in proper chronological order. Stratigraphic disorder arises through in situ vertical mixing of fossils and reworking of older fossils into younger deposits. The authors simulated the effects of mixing and reworking by simple computer models, and measured stratigraphic disorder using rank correlation between age and stratigraphic position (Spearman and Kendall coefficients). Mixing was simulated by randomly transposing pairs of adjacent fossils in a sequence. Reworking was simulated by randomly inserting older fossils into a younger sequence. Mixing is an inefficient means of producing disorder; after 500 mixing steps stratigraphic order is still significant at the 99% to 95% level, depending on the coefficient used. Reworking disorders sequences very efficiently: significant order begins to be lost when reworked shells make up 35% of the sequence. Thus a sequence can be dominated by undisturbed, autochthonous shells and still be disordered. The effects of mixing-produced disorder can be minimized by increasing sample size at each horizon. Increased spacing between samples is of limited utility in dealing with disordered sequences: while widely separated samples are more likely to be stratigraphically ordered, the smaller number of samples makes the detection of trends problematic.

  19. The Public Health Responsibility Deal: how should such a complex public health policy be evaluated?

    PubMed

    Petticrew, Mark; Eastmure, Elizabeth; Mays, Nicholas; Knai, Cecile; Durand, Mary Alison; Nolte, Ellen

    2013-12-01

    The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England was launched in 2011 as a public-private partnership which aims to 'tap into the potential for businesses and other influential organisations to make a significant contribution to improving public health by helping us to create this environment'. It has come under criticism from public health advocates and others, who have suggested that it will be ineffective or perhaps even harmful. Like many public health policies, there have also been demands to know whether it 'works'. We conducted a scoping review and used this, supplemented with interviews with stakeholders, to develop a detailed logic model of the RD (presented here) to help understand its likely outcomes and the pathways by which these may be achieved as a basis for planning an evaluation. Evaluations of complex interventions require not just assessment of effects (including outcomes), but also a clear conceptualization of the intervention and its processes. The way the RD and the pledges made by participant organizations has been presented makes it difficult at this stage to evaluate whether the RD 'works' in terms of improving health. Instead, any evaluation needs to put together a jigsaw of evidence about processes, mechanisms and potential future health and non-health impacts, in part using the current scientific evidence. This task is ongoing.

  20. Helping Children Deal with Trauma and Terrorism. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes selected ERIC documents, journal articles, and World Wide Web resources that discuss ways to help children deal with traumatic events, both natural and human-caused, including the effects of terrorism. (DLH)

  1. Dealing with Behavioral Problems: Rules of Comportment in the Science Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druger, Marvin

    2001-01-01

    Highlights some ways that instructors of large lecture classes can effectively deal with such issues as inappropriate talking; tardiness; leaving early; sleeping, eating, or drinking during class; listening to music; or simply being discourteous. (SAH)

  2. Dealing with Behavioral Problems: Rules of Comportment in the Science Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druger, Marvin

    2001-01-01

    Highlights some ways that instructors of large lecture classes can effectively deal with such issues as inappropriate talking; tardiness; leaving early; sleeping, eating, or drinking during class; listening to music; or simply being discourteous. (SAH)

  3. Helping Children Deal with Trauma and Terrorism. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes selected ERIC documents, journal articles, and World Wide Web resources that discuss ways to help children deal with traumatic events, both natural and human-caused, including the effects of terrorism. (DLH)

  4. PTSD in Primary Care: A Physician’s Guide to Dealing with War-Induced PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    circumstances. Traumatic bereavement can lead to anhedonia and depression and PTSD in Primary Care : A Physician’s Guide to Dealing with War-Induced...7 PTSD in Primary Care : A Physician’s Guide to Dealing with War-Induced PTSD Jeffrey S. Yarvis1 and Grace D. Landers2 1Department of Psychiatry...soldiers in combat yet it is often misunderstood even by frontline primary care providers. Diagnosis of PTSD requires exposure to a traumatic event that

  5. Posing Problems Without an Alliance: China-Iran Relations after the Nuclear Deal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-25

    Iran’s nuclear program has led to bullish predictions about the future of Sino-Iranian rela- tions. Under the deal, Iran is expected to limit its uranium...enrichment and make other changes to its nuclear program in exchange for the removal of internation- al sanctions.1 China is expected to be a prime...Alliance: China-Iran Relations after the Nuclear Deal by Joel Wuthnow STRATEGIC FORUM National Defense University About the Author Dr. Joel Wuthnow is a

  6. Dealing with stress, burnout, and grief in the practice of oncology.

    PubMed

    Lyckholm, L

    2001-12-01

    There is a substantial amount of published work describing how to help patients and families deal with stress, grief, and loss, but there is much less advice available for clinicians dealing with similar issues. Working as an oncologist is inherently difficult, and racked by emotional and psychological traumas. However, it can also be tremendously rewarding. In this review, I discuss the extent of stress and burnout in the practice of oncology, its causes and manifestations, and strategies for overcoming it.

  7. [Caring for newborns in a NICU: dealing with the fragility of living/surviving in the light of complexity].

    PubMed

    Klock, Patrícia; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the meaning of being a nurse and providing care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of a general hospital in Southern Brazil, developing an explanatory theoretical model. The Grounded Theory and the Complexity Paradigm were used to develop the Theoretical Model: Caring for newborns in the NICU: Dealing with the fragility of living/surviving in the light of complexity. Data was collected from 11 subjects through an open interview, and organized using NVIVO software. A central category was identified: Dealing with the fragility of living/surviving: a care that is highly complex, sensitive, unique and shared. Care in the NICU, valuing the everyday interrelationships, aims to address all domains of complex health care, integrating and applying scientific knowledge. It is necessary to practice the strengths already inherent to nursing professionals, in addition to pursuing new strengths, an invitation to new models of care for newborns, their family, and the members of this complex system.

  8. Methods of Sparse Modeling and Dimensionality Reduction to Deal with Big Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    AUTHOR(S) Tu Bao Ho 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Japan ...Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1292 1-2 Japan 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

  9. A New Service Curve Model to Deal with Non-FIFO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Jens B.; Gollan, Nicos; Martinovic, Ivan

    In this paper, delay bounds in data flow systems with non-FIFO service disciplines are explored. It is shown that conventional network calculus definitions of a service curve are not satisfying under the assumption of non-FIFO service. Either the definition is too strict to allow for a concatenation and consequent beneficial end-to-end analysis, or it is too loose and thus results in infinite delay bounds. Hence, a new definition is proposed and demonstrated to achieve both finite delay bounds and a concatenation of systems resulting in a favourable end-to-end analysis. In particular, we show that the celebrated pay bursts only once phenomenon is retained under non-FIFO service.

  10. CVN 68 Class Displacement Concerns; Dealing with the Differences between the Modeled and Actual Displacements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE September 2009 3. REPORT TYPE AND...CVN 68 class aircraft carriers are actually exceeding displacement limits based on NAVSEA projections . The NAVSEA projections are based on...values collected from all commissioned CVN 68 class aircraft carriers. Analysis reveals that the NAVSEA projections are predicting the carrier’s

  11. Dealing with Dependence (Part II): A Gentle Introduction to Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoach, D. Betsy

    2010-01-01

    In education, most naturally occurring data are clustered within contexts. Students are clustered within classrooms, classrooms are clustered within schools, and schools are clustered within districts. When people are clustered within naturally occurring organizational units such as schools, classrooms, or districts, the responses of people from…

  12. Dealing with uncertainty: an analysis of the severe weather events over Italy in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molini, L.; Parodi, A.; Siccardi, F.

    2009-11-01

    Forecast verification is a long-standing issue of the whole meteorologists' community. A common definition of a truly satisfying prediction skill has not been achieved so far. Even the definition of "event", due to its spatio-temporal discontinuity, is highly affected by uncertainty. Moreover, decision-making demands numerical weather prediction modellers to provide information about the "inner" uncertainty, i.e. the degree of uncertainty related to the choice of a specific setting of the model (microphysics, turbulence scheme, convective closure, etc.). Most European Mediterranean countries, due to dense development, steep coastal orography and short hydrological response time of the drainage basins, have to deal very frequently with flash floods and sudden shallow land sliding impacting on urban areas. Civil protection organizations are in place to issue early warnings in order to allow local authorities and population to take precautionary measures. To do so in Mediterranean catchments, hydrologists are required to use numerical rainfall predictions in place of rainfall observations on large European catchments. Estimating the measure of uncertainty is for this reason crucial. The goal of this work is to propose an objective evaluation of the performance of the currently operational weather prediction model COSMO-I7 over quite a long time period and to check forecast verification at different space-time scales by the comparison of predictions with observations. Due to large investments in the last years, in fact, Italy has built up one of the most dense hourly-reporting network of rain gauges. The network has a mean space density of about 1/100 km2, very similar to the horizontal resolution of currently operating limited area models. An objective procedure to identify and compare the extreme events of precipitation has been applied to the full set of rainfall observations and over the severe events forecast by COSMO-I7 and announced in official warnings by

  13. Health trajectories in regeneration areas in England: the impact of the New Deal for Communities intervention.

    PubMed

    Walthery, Pierre; Stafford, Mai; Nazroo, James; Whitehead, Margaret; Dibben, Christopher; Halliday, Emma; Povall, Sue; Popay, Jennie

    2015-08-01

    A large body of evidence documents the adverse relationship between concentrated deprivation and health. Among the evaluations of regeneration initiatives to tackle these spatial inequalities, few have traced the trajectories of individuals over time and fewer still have employed counterfactual comparison. We investigate the impact of one such initiative in England, the New Deal for Communities (NDC), which ran from 1999 to 2011, on socioeconomic inequalities in health trajectories. Latent Growth Curve modelling of within-person changes in self-rated health, mental health and life satisfaction between 2002 and 2008 of an analytical cohort of residents of 39 disadvantaged areas of England in which the NDC was implemented, compared with residents of comparator, non-intervention areas, focusing on: (1) whether differences over time in outcomes can be detected between NDC and comparator areas and (2) whether interventions may have altered socioeconomic differences in outcomes. No evidence was found for an overall improvement in the three outcomes, or for significant differences in changes in health between respondents in NDC versus comparator areas. However, we found a weakly significant gap in life satisfaction and mental health between high and low socioeconomic status individuals in comparator areas which widened over time to a greater extent than in NDC areas. Change over time in the three outcomes was non-linear: individual improvements among NDC residents were largest before 2006. There is limited evidence that the NDC moderated the impact of socioeconomic factors on mental health and life satisfaction trajectories. Furthermore, any NDC impact was strongest in the first 6 years of the programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Health trajectories in regeneration areas in England: the impact of the New Deal for Communities intervention

    PubMed Central

    Walthery, Pierre; Stafford, Mai; Nazroo, James; Whitehead, Margaret; Dibben, Christopher; Halliday, Emma; Povall, Sue; Popay, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence documents the adverse relationship between concentrated deprivation and health. Among the evaluations of regeneration initiatives to tackle these spatial inequalities, few have traced the trajectories of individuals over time and fewer still have employed counterfactual comparison. We investigate the impact of one such initiative in England, the New Deal for Communities (NDC), which ran from 1999 to 2011, on socioeconomic inequalities in health trajectories. Methods Latent Growth Curve modelling of within-person changes in self-rated health, mental health and life satisfaction between 2002 and 2008 of an analytical cohort of residents of 39 disadvantaged areas of England in which the NDC was implemented, compared with residents of comparator, non-intervention areas, focusing on: (1) whether differences over time in outcomes can be detected between NDC and comparator areas and (2) whether interventions may have altered socioeconomic differences in outcomes. Results No evidence was found for an overall improvement in the three outcomes, or for significant differences in changes in health between respondents in NDC versus comparator areas. However, we found a weakly significant gap in life satisfaction and mental health between high and low socioeconomic status individuals in comparator areas which widened over time to a greater extent than in NDC areas. Change over time in the three outcomes was non-linear: individual improvements among NDC residents were largest before 2006. Conclusions There is limited evidence that the NDC moderated the impact of socioeconomic factors on mental health and life satisfaction trajectories. Furthermore, any NDC impact was strongest in the first 6 years of the programmes. PMID:26085649

  15. Evaluation of performance of some enrichment designs dealing with high placebo response in psychiatric clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeh-Fong; Yang, Yang; Hung, H M James; Wang, Sue-Jane

    2011-07-01

    Dealing with high placebo response remains a big challenge to conventional clinical trials for psychiatric disorders. A widely-used design strategy is to implement a placebo lead-in phase prior to randomization. The sequentially parallel design (SPD) proposed by Fava et al., which contains two consecutive double-blind treatment stages, has recently been promoted to reduce both the high placebo response and the required sample size in clinical trials for psychiatric disorders. Our work aims to study these two design strategies and evaluate the relevant statistical approaches for continuous measures under SPD in the presence of missing data. Based on the FDA archived database, we found that a longer placebo lead-in period seemed to help in identifying more placebo responders and thus increase the chance to detect a drug-placebo difference on continuous efficacy endpoint. Using a simple weighted ordinary least square test statistic Z(OLS), we analytically showed that, under the SPD with re-randomization of placebo non-responders at the second stage (SPD-ReR), Z(OLS) can be used as a viable alternative to the weighted test statistic based on seemingly unrelated regression estimate Z(SUR) proposed by Tamura and Huang to assess treatment efficacy. Results from simulation study comparing three imputation methods (last-observation-carried-forward approach, multiple imputation, and mixed-effects model for repeated measures (MMRM)) demonstrate that, when data are missing-at-random under SPD-ReR and the dropout rate is moderate, the weighted test statistic based on MMRM estimates appears to be the most robust test statistic for SPD-ReR in terms of type I error control, power performance, and estimation accuracy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. In search of the best DFT functional for dealing with organic anionic species.

    PubMed

    Borioni, José L; Puiatti, Marcelo; Vera, D Mariano A; Pierini, Adriana B

    2017-03-29

    Quantum chemical computational methods are thought to have problems in dealing with unstable organic anions. This work assesses the ability of different Density Functional Theory (DFT) functionals to reproduce the electron affinity and reduction potential of organic compounds. The performance of 23 DFT functionals was evaluated by computing the negative electron affinities (from 0 eV to -3.0 eV) and reduction potentials in acetonitrile (from 0 to -2.7 V). In general, most of the hybrid GGA functionals work fine in the prediction of electron affinities, BPW91, B3PW91 and M06 being the best in each class of functionals (pure, hybrid and meta-GGA functionals, respectively). On the other hand, the ab initio post-Hartree-Fock methods, MP2 and coupled-cluster (CCSD(T)), as well as the double hybrid functionals, B2PLYP and mPW2PLYP, usually fail. For compounds with EAs lower than -1.75 eV, a method for stabilizing the anion, based on solvation with the IEFPCM model, was employed. In this case, BPW91, PBE0 and M06-HF could be the recommended option for the pure, hybrid and meta-GGA functionals, respectively. The situation improves for the evaluation and prediction of redox potentials. In this case the performance of the DFT functionals is better, in part because the solvent assists in the stabilization of the anions. Nevertheless, there is a systematic bias in the calculation of absolute redox potentials, which could be corrected by using a redox partner that helps by the cancellation of errors. In this case, the hybrid and meta-GGA functionals B3PW91, PBE0, TPSSh and M06 are also among the best for computing redox potentials with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) lower than 0.13 V.

  17. Dealing with the safety paradox of delta-branches closure; a geomorphology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloff, C.; Tromp, R.; Sieben, A.

    2013-12-01

    Closing off estuaries by dams is a conventional solution to reduce flood risks and salt intrusion in river deltas. However, if not all branches are closed, residual tidal currents develop or increase in connecting channels between the closed and open branches. These channels start to erode, causing bank instability and possible failure of levees. Hence, paradoxically, the intended increase in safety by this closure creates a new threat with increased flood risks. We illustrate this for existing channel erosion and dike stability problems in the Dutch Rhine River delta in the Netherlands, as well as for proposed future closure works in the Mekong River in Vietnam. Crucial for assessing and dealing with the erosion problems, is a proper prediction of flow conditions and of bed erodibility. The channels incise ancient deltaic deposits, consisting of diverse sections and layers of sand, clay and peat with diverse states of compaction. In the presented studies we show how we applied Delft3D to model the full delta, with all relevant dynamics and complex interactions between tidal flow and river discharges. For the Dutch situation, we simulated the long-term fate of the eroding interconnecting channels, applying a detailed description of subsurface heterogeneous erodibility (space and depth varying). Since these rivers are incising slowly in clay and peat beds covering highly-erodible sand layers, alternate sections occur of undersupplied ';fixed' beds, and of very deep scour holes. For the Vietnam case, we show how the location of a barrier and operation of gates, can be used to control both the salinity intrusion and channel erosion for the Mekong delta. Although the morphology studies for the Dutch delta with high-density data availability obviously justify a detailed Delft3D approach, it is shown that even in the Mekong delta with poor data quality, a coarse-grid large-scale Delft3D model can provide the answers necessary for planning the closure works and potential

  18. [Proposal of an index for government measures to deal with domestic violence against children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Suely; Mendes, Corina Helena Figueira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

    2015-08-01

    The article discusses the development of the Index for Dealing with Family Violence to assess municipal strategies related to this violation of children's and adolescents' rights. Development of the index involved a preliminary analysis of indicators from previous studies and a technical expert group. Four indicators were selected: the existence of a municipal plan for dealing with violence against children and adolescents; the existence of an inter-sector flow for treating and following up on children and adolescents in situations of family violence; number of guardianship councils in relation to the municipality's population; and the existence of standardized instruments in municipal school, social work, and health systems for reporting situations of violence against children and adolescents. The databank from a previous study was used in an exercise to apply the indicator in four Brazilian state capitals. The indicator can serve as a tool for monitoring and mobilizing efforts to implement measures for dealing with family violence.

  19. Developing a national system for dealing with adverse events following immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, U.; Milstien, J. B.; Duclos, P.; Folb, P. I.

    2000-01-01

    Although vaccines are among the safest of pharmaceuticals, the occasional severe adverse event or cluster of adverse events associated with their use may rapidly become a serious threat to public health. It is essential that national monitoring and reporting systems for vaccine safety are efficient and adequately coordinated with those that conventionally deal with non-vaccine pharmaceuticals. Equally important is the need for an enlightened and informed national system to be in place to deal with public concerns and rapid evaluation of the risk to public safety when adverse events occur. Described in this article is the outcome of efforts by the WHO Global Training Network to describe a simple national system for dealing with vaccine safety and with emergencies as they arise. The goals of a training programme designed to help develop such a system are also outlined. PMID:10743281

  20. Current issues in developing a strategy for dealing with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fauci, A S

    1986-01-01

    A number of current issues exist that must be taken into account in the development of a strategy for dealing with the problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States and throughout the world. Given the complexity of the problem and the fact that the epidemic is still in its evolving stages, such issues must be considered individually and as a group. The present discussion focuses on several of these critical issues and outlines approaches that might be useful in the formulation of basic scientific and public health strategies for dealing with the currently appreciated and projected problems in AIDS. PMID:3467307

  1. Endophytes and their Potential to Deal with Co-contamination of Organic Contaminants (Toluene) and Toxic Metals (Nickel) during Phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Truyens, S.; Saenen, E.; Boulet, J.; Dupae, J.; Taghavi, S.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2011-01-15

    The aim was to investigate if engineered endophytes that are capable of degrading organic contaminants, and deal with or ideally improve uptake and translocation of toxic metals, can improve phytoremediation of mixed organic-metal pollution. As a model system, yellow lupine was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468 possessing (a) the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid, coding for constitutive toluene/TCE degradation, and (b) the chromosomally inserted ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system. As controls, plants were inoculated with B. vietnamiensis BU61 (pTOM-Bu61) and B. cepacia BU72 (containing the ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system). Plants were exposed to mixes of toluene and Ni. Only inoculation with B. cepacia VM1468 resulted in decreased Ni and toluene phytotoxicity, as measured by a protective effect on plant growth and decreased activities of enzymes involved in antioxidative defence (catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) in the roots. Besides, plants inoculated with B. cepacia VM1468 and B. vietnamiensis BU61 released less toluene through the leaves than non-inoculated plants and those inoculated with B. cepacia BU72. Ni-uptake in roots was slightly increased for B. cepacia BU72 inoculated plants. These results indicate that engineered endophytes have the potential to assist their host plant to deal with co-contamination of toxic metals and organic contaminants during phytoremediation.

  2. Dealing with Creationist Challenges. What European Biology Teachers Might Expect in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blancke, Stefaan; Boudry, Maarten; Braeckman, Johan; De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Creationists are becoming more active in Europe. We expect that European biology teachers will be more frequently challenged by students who introduce creationist misconceptions of evolutionary theory into the classroom. Moreover, research suggests that not all teachers are equally prepared to deal with them. To make biology teachers aware of what…

  3. Common Elements for Success: What Makes the Deal Work at Contaminated Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008 regarding Common Elements for Success - What makes the Deal Work at Contaminated Sites.

  4. Cognitive and Emotional Evaluation of Two Educational Outdoor Programs Dealing with Non-Native Bird Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Michael; Buyer, Regine; Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    "Non-native organisms are a major threat to biodiversity". This statement is often made by biologists, but general conclusions cannot be drawn easily because of contradictory evidence. To introduce pupils aged 11-14 years to this topic, we employed an educational program dealing with non-native animals in Central Europe. The pupils took…

  5. Death and Grief: A Plan for Principals to Deal with Tragedy Affecting the School Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Harry L.

    1987-01-01

    Spurred by the "Challenger" space shuttle tragedy, this article provides principals with guidelines for informing individual students about family deaths and dealing with grief affecting the entire school community. Thorough preparation can reduce intensity and misconceived actions associated with grief and demonstrate administrative leadership.…

  6. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  7. Rebels without a Clause: Towards an Institutional Framework for Dealing with Plagiarism by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores why an institutional framework for dealing with plagiarism by students is necessary and it outlines the main ingredients of such a framework that has been developed at Lancaster University. It defines plagiarism as a form of academic malpractice and frames it as a breach of academic integrity. The framework places a strong…

  8. When Ads Enter the Classroom, It's a Deal with El Diablo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debolt, David

    2008-01-01

    In a tough economy, a professor breaches the rules on sponsorship for one of his classes. Kyle G. Volk, one of the professors in the history department at the University of Montana at Missoula, cut a deal with El Diablo, a locally owned taqueria, to sponsor his course, "The Americans: Conquest to Capitalism." In exchange for $250, Mr. Volk…

  9. The Practices of Dealing with Children with Special Needs in School: A Norwegian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Peder

    2014-01-01

    The article has two parts. Part one deals with some historical developments in the field of special education in Norway. There has been a change in formulated policy from a clearly segregated system, then integration and mainstreaming and now intentions about inclusion as an ideal. The second part is about children with behavioural difficulties…

  10. Depression: What It Is and How to Deal With It: A Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartigan, Kevin J.; Weiskott, Gerald N.

    This manual is designed to help counseling personnel understand and deal with depression. It begins by defining depression (the "common cold of psychopathology") and listing a number of typical symptoms, giving mild, moderate and severe manifestations. It then offers seven different treatment approaches or theories. Directly or indirectly, these…

  11. Appropriate Educational Means of Dealing with the Phenomenon of Smoking among Zarqa University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    hatamleh, habes Moh'd; al Khaza'leh, Mohammed Salman

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the (appropriate educational means of dealing with the phenomenon of smoking among Zarqa University students), and to achieve this goal, the descriptive approach has been used, also used a questionnaire submitted to (800) students of the sample, and a couple of open questions has been submitted to 70 members of the…

  12. Teens' Self-Efficacy to Deal with Dating Violence as Victim, Perpetrator or Bystander.

    PubMed

    Van Camp, Tinneke; Hébert, Martine; Guidi, Elisa; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that adolescent dating violence is highly prevalent and associated with internalizing and externalizing problems. A number of prevention initiatives are being implemented in North-American high schools. Such initiatives do not only aim to raise awareness among potential victims and offenders but also among peer bystanders. Since teenagers mainly reach out to their peers when experiencing adversity, it is important to address adolescents' efficiency to deal with witnessing dating violence or with friends disclosing dating abuse, in addition to increasing ability to deal with experienced dating violence victimization or perpetration. The aim of this study is to explore adolescents' self-efficacy to deal with dating violence victimization and perpetration in their relationships and those of their peers. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was completed by 259 14-18 years olds in Quebec, Canada. The data allows building insight into adolescents' confidence to reach out for help or to help others in a situation of dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also considered the impact of gender and dating victimization history. Results suggest that dating violence prevention can build on teens' self-efficacy to deal with dating violence and offer them tools to do so efficiently.

  13. Labor's New Deal for Journalism--The Newspaper Guild in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Dale Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    The Depression and the New Deal brought together a variety of conditions and social forces that set up a formative clash over the institution of professional journalism. At the heart of that fight was the rise of the American Newspaper Guild and its battle for control over the trusteeship of the freedom of the press. The experience in the news…

  14. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  15. Teens’ Self-Efficacy to Deal with Dating Violence as Victim, Perpetrator or Bystander

    PubMed Central

    Van Camp, Tinneke; Hébert, Martine; Guidi, Elisa; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that adolescent dating violence is highly prevalent and associated with internalizing and externalizing problems. A number of prevention initiatives are being implemented in North-American high schools. Such initiatives do not only aim to raise awareness among potential victims and offenders but also among peer bystanders. Since teenagers mainly reach out to their peers when experiencing adversity, it is important to address adolescents’ efficiency to deal with witnessing dating violence or with friends disclosing dating abuse, in addition to increasing ability to deal with experienced dating violence victimization or perpetration. The aim of this study is to explore adolescents’ self-efficacy to deal with dating violence victimization and perpetration in their relationships and those of their peers. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was completed by 259 14–18 years olds in Quebec, Canada. The data allows building insight into adolescents’ confidence to reach out for help or to help others in a situation of dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also considered the impact of gender and dating victimization history. Results suggest that dating violence prevention can build on teens’ self-efficacy to deal with dating violence and offer them tools to do so efficiently. PMID:26807554

  16. Dealing with Stress. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 16. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on dealing with stress on the job and in daily life in the United States. Topics covered include the following: analyzing one's schedule and listing stressful times; applying four…

  17. Dealing with Law Enforcement Authorities. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 22. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses dealing with law enforcement authorities. It is designed to teach immigrants the following: understand laws and consequences of breaking them; how the law enforcement agencies…

  18. The Role of Health Educators in Dealing with Biological Threats in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Miguel A.; Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Sowby, Sherman

    2002-01-01

    Health educators play a key role in assisting the nation deal with and be prepared for potential biological attacks. This article summarizes information found in the literature about likely bioterrorist threats to the U.S. population and discusses the responsibilities of health educators in regard to these threats. Among the important roles health…

  19. Dealing with fear - from the perspective of adolescent girls with cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Sörlie, Venke; Kihlgren, Annica

    2012-07-01

    Previously fears in adolescents with cancer has been identified in relation to medical procedures, death, altered appearance and as having an overall influence on life, but to our knowledge young people's perspectives on dealing with fear have not been previously investigated. To examine adolescents' perspectives on dealing with cancer related fear. Six girls participated in qualitative interviews focussing on their fear and and how they dealt with it. Data were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. The results revealed two perspectives. First, the adolescents' own personal battle with fear. Second, they reported that they were not alone with their fear, as they shared it with significant others. An environment characterized by emotional presence helped them to deal with their fear, as well as prevented it from occurring. There is a need for staff and parents to be vigilant to the adolescents' need to feel cared for and allow them the opportunity to deal with their own fear, as at times they want to manage in their own way. Young patients have resources to cope with their fears and therefore should not be viewed as victims, but as young people with a great amount of competence, who benefit from a supportive environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  5. Internet as a Source of Help in Dealing with School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov Boaz

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined possible advantages of the Internet as a medium for help and support for victims of school violence in Israel. Students in sixth, eighth, and tenth grades were asked about their willingness to seek help on the Internet for dealing with various forms of school violence, and the underlying force-driving processes of such…

  6. Advertising and Regulation during the New Deal Era, 1933-1941.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranco, Leonard W.

    As the "New Deal" era of the "Great Depression" promised relief from the publicly perceived failures of business and industry, a corresponding attitude of consumerism arose, aimed at "Big Business's" accomplice, advertising. Across the nation, national and local consumer protection organizations arose, and nonconsumer…

  7. Quantitative Authorship Attribution of Users of Mexican Drug Dealing Related Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rico Sulayes, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    As the violence in the Mexican drug war escalates, a proliferation of social media sites about drug trafficking in Mexico was followed by the murder of some of their users, and the eventual disappearance of many of those sites. Despite these events, there still exist a number of drug-dealing related social media outlets in this country with a…

  8. Beyond Tolerance: A Considered Approach for Dealing Directly with Religious Belief in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The word "religion" sends shudders down the spine of superintendents, as conflict over religious values can be one of the most unpredictable and emotional issues arising today in public schools. Dealing with religious belief in public schools need not be full of emotion and conflict. In this article, the author shares his strategies for…

  9. Activities Contributing a Great Deal to the Students' Interactive Skills in Foreign Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asatryan, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    While teaching speaking it is desired to provide a rich environment in class for meaningful communication to take place. With this aim, various speaking activities can contribute a great deal to students in developing their interactive skills necessary for life. These activities make students active in the learning process and at the same time…

  10. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-1 - Definition of self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immaterial whether the transaction results in a benefit or a detriment to the private foundation. The term “self-dealing” does not, however, include a transaction between a private foundation and a disqualified... bargain sale of property to a private foundation is not a direct act of self-dealing if the seller...

  11. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-1 - Definition of self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immaterial whether the transaction results in a benefit or a detriment to the private foundation. The term “self-dealing” does not, however, include a transaction between a private foundation and a disqualified... bargain sale of property to a private foundation is not a direct act of self-dealing if the seller...

  12. Teaching about, and Dealing with, Sensitive Issues in Schools: How Confident Are Pre-Service Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynagh, Marita; Gilligan, Connor; Handley, Tonelle

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are developing an increasingly active role in the education of students in areas of sensitivity, including issues such as sexuality, mental health, grief and loss and child protection. There is a growing expectation for teachers to become competent not only in educating students in these areas but also in recognising and dealing with such…

  13. Forrester Blanchard Washington and His Advocacy for African Americans in the New Deal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Frederica H.

    2007-01-01

    Forrester Blanchard Washington (1887-1963) was an African American social work pioneer recruited to the first New Deal administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt as director of Negro Work in the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. This role gave Washington a platform from which to object strenuously to the development of social policies that…

  14. Dealing with Disadvantage: Resilience and the Social Capital of Young People's Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottrell, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes how peer and extended networks provide young people with support and resources for dealing with disadvantage. Centering girls' accounts of growing up in the Glebe public housing estate, the difficulties they face, their critiques and aspirations are interpreted as resilience, supported by the social capital of their networks.…

  15. Priorities in Dealing with Nutrition Problems in Indonesia. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 1 (1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soekirman

    A study of the literature dealing with past and present food and nutrition problems in Indonesia reveals that the problems remain serious. The major nutrition problems are: (1) Protein-Calorie Malnutrition; (2) Vitamin A Deficiency; (3) Nutritional Anemia; and (4) Goitre. These nutrition problems afflict people of all ages, males and females.…

  16. Teachers' Choice of Teaching Strategies for Dealing with Socio-Moral Dilemmas in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslovaty, Nava

    2000-01-01

    Examines elementary school teachers' (n=480) strategies for coping with socio-moral conflicts that arise in the classroom. Focuses on seven teaching strategies. Reports that teachers felt responsibility for dealing with socio-moral conflicts; while strategy choice varied according to the dilemma, teachers' belief system, and teaching contexts.…

  17. 12 CFR 1.3 - Limitations on dealing in, underwriting, and purchase and sale of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on dealing in, underwriting, and... purchase or to sell in addition to the bank's existing holdings. (c) Type III securities. A national bank... surplus. (f) Type V securities. A national bank may purchase and sell Type V securities for its...

  18. 12 CFR 1.3 - Limitations on dealing in, underwriting, and purchase and sale of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on dealing in, underwriting, and... purchase or to sell in addition to the bank's existing holdings. (c) Type III securities. A national bank... Exchange Act of 1934, 15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(53)(A), of any one issuer with an aggregate par value not...

  19. Internet as a Source of Help in Dealing with School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov Boaz

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined possible advantages of the Internet as a medium for help and support for victims of school violence in Israel. Students in sixth, eighth, and tenth grades were asked about their willingness to seek help on the Internet for dealing with various forms of school violence, and the underlying force-driving processes of such…

  20. Depression: What It Is and How to Deal With It: A Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartigan, Kevin J.; Weiskott, Gerald N.

    This manual is designed to help counseling personnel understand and deal with depression. It begins by defining depression (the "common cold of psychopathology") and listing a number of typical symptoms, giving mild, moderate and severe manifestations. It then offers seven different treatment approaches or theories. Directly or indirectly, these…

  1. Matching Youth and Jobs? Gender Dynamics in New Deal Job Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werum, Regina

    2002-01-01

    A study examined whether federal New Deal policy goals matched local policy outcomes in Mississippi, Georgia, and North Carolina. Data from 337 counties indicate that policy outcomes matched goals in that women's access to vocational training remained narrowly constrained. Additional funds mostly benefitted men's programs. Contrary to…

  2. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-2 - Specific acts of self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... directly or indirectly to a disqualified person. (3) Certain leases of office space. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1979, the leasing of office space by a disqualified person to a private foundation shall not be an act of self-dealing if: (i) The leased space is in a building in which there are...

  3. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-2 - Specific acts of self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... directly or indirectly to a disqualified person. (3) Certain leases of office space. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1979, the leasing of office space by a disqualified person to a private foundation shall not be an act of self-dealing if: (i) The leased space is in a building in which there are...

  4. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-2 - Specific acts of self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... directly or indirectly to a disqualified person. (3) Certain leases of office space. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1979, the leasing of office space by a disqualified person to a private foundation shall not be an act of self-dealing if: (i) The leased space is in a building in which there are...

  5. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Problem-Solving: Focusing on Problems Dealing with Conservation of Matter in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2011-01-01

    The students' performance in various types of problems dealing with the conservation of matter during chemical reactions has been investigated at different levels of schooling. The participants were 499 ninth grade (ages 14, 15 years) and 624 eleventh grade (ages 16, 17 years) Greek students. Data was collected using a written questionnaire…

  6. Structuring the Multimedia Deal: Legal Issues--Part II. Licensing in the Multimedia Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersh, David L.; Jeffry, Sherry

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the issues involved in structuring multimedia deals and negotiating licenses for distribution rights. Impact of the U.S. Copyright Act, territory of distribution and language, term of the rights, delivery requirements, royalties and royalty statements, sales practices, foreign distribution, and insurance are among the topics covered.…

  7. The Practices of Dealing with Children with Special Needs in School: A Norwegian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Peder

    2014-01-01

    The article has two parts. Part one deals with some historical developments in the field of special education in Norway. There has been a change in formulated policy from a clearly segregated system, then integration and mainstreaming and now intentions about inclusion as an ideal. The second part is about children with behavioural difficulties…

  8. How to Deal with the Subject of Death with Students in Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Bonnie Elam

    The relatively new field of thanatology provides a rich supply of resources for teachers to use in developing an understanding of death and in preparing to deal with the subject with children. This review of the literature was completed with the primary purpose of providing teachers with a summary of effective teaching methods and resources to use…

  9. Dealing with Flexibility in Assessments for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities. Synthesis Report 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Brian; Marion, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Dealing with flexibility--or its converse, the extent of standardization--is fundamental to alignment, assessment design, and interpretation of results in fully inclusive assessment systems. Highly standardized tests make it easier to compare (performances, students, and schools) across time and to common standards because certain conditions are…

  10. Death and Grief: A Plan for Principals to Deal with Tragedy Affecting the School Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Harry L.

    1987-01-01

    Spurred by the "Challenger" space shuttle tragedy, this article provides principals with guidelines for informing individual students about family deaths and dealing with grief affecting the entire school community. Thorough preparation can reduce intensity and misconceived actions associated with grief and demonstrate administrative leadership.…

  11. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Problem-Solving: Focusing on Problems Dealing with Conservation of Matter in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2011-01-01

    The students' performance in various types of problems dealing with the conservation of matter during chemical reactions has been investigated at different levels of schooling. The participants were 499 ninth grade (ages 14, 15 years) and 624 eleventh grade (ages 16, 17 years) Greek students. Data was collected using a written questionnaire…

  12. Belief, Knowledge and Understanding: How to Deal with the Relations between Different Cultural Perspectives in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to…

  13. How to Deal with the Subject of Death with Students in Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Bonnie Elam

    The relatively new field of thanatology provides a rich supply of resources for teachers to use in developing an understanding of death and in preparing to deal with the subject with children. This review of the literature was completed with the primary purpose of providing teachers with a summary of effective teaching methods and resources to use…

  14. Promoting Good Campus Relations: Dealing with Hate Crimes and Intolerance. Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This guidance has been produced to help higher education institutions (HEIs) deal with hate crimes and intolerance. Aiming to replace the previous Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals' guidance on extremism and intolerance, this publication provides an overview of the ways in which HEIs can encourage tolerance and respect and ensure that…

  15. Building Social Networks with Computer Networks: A New Deal for Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer technology and Web sites in expanding social networks. Focuses on the New Deal Network using two examples: (1) uniting a Julia C. Lathrop Housing (Chicago, Illinois) resident with a university professor; and (2) saving the Hugo Gellert art murals at the Seward Park Coop Apartments (New York). (CMK)

  16. Beyond Tolerance: A Considered Approach for Dealing Directly with Religious Belief in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The word "religion" sends shudders down the spine of superintendents, as conflict over religious values can be one of the most unpredictable and emotional issues arising today in public schools. Dealing with religious belief in public schools need not be full of emotion and conflict. In this article, the author shares his strategies for…

  17. Dealing with chemotherapy-related symptoms at home: a qualitative study in adult patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Coolbrandt, A; Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Wildiers, H; Aertgeerts, B; Van der Elst, E; van Achterberg, T; Milisen, K

    2016-01-01

    Given that chemotherapy treatments are done mostly in an outpatient setting, patients with cancer must deal with treatment-related symptoms mainly at home. Evidence suggests that they often feel left alone or unprepared to do so. This qualitative study explores how patients deal with chemotherapy-related symptoms in their home, which factors and ideas influence their self-management and what role professional caregivers play. One-off, semi-structured interviews were held with 28 adult patients with cancer being treated with chemotherapy. Using a Grounded Theory approach, we cyclically collected and analysed data to come to a thorough understanding of the major conceptual themes and their interconnections. Dealing with chemotherapy-related symptoms involves a process of experiencing and learning how side effects unfold over time and how to deal with them. Patients express very personal symptom experiences and symptom-management styles, which are shaped by personal factors (e.g. coping with cancer and cancer treatment, perceived level of control) and environmental factors (e.g. professionals' attitude, information resources). Improving symptom self-management support requires active exploration of the personal symptom experience and symptom-management style. Professional care should be tailored to the patient's perspective and should address personal and environmental determinants of their behaviour.

  18. A Checklist of Novels Dealing with the Southern Appalachian Area for Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Shonna Sue

    Designed to help librarians identify Appalachian novels in an existing school library collection (grades 5-12), the 291 books included in this checklist have been chosen from 7 commonly available bibliographic tools, were published between 1902 and 1979, and contain subject matter dealing with the area of southern Appalachia which encompasses…

  19. Promoting Good Campus Relations: Dealing with Hate Crimes and Intolerance. Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This guidance has been produced to help higher education institutions (HEIs) deal with hate crimes and intolerance. Aiming to replace the previous Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals' guidance on extremism and intolerance, this publication provides an overview of the ways in which HEIs can encourage tolerance and respect and ensure that…

  20. Dealing with Creationist Challenges. What European Biology Teachers Might Expect in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blancke, Stefaan; Boudry, Maarten; Braeckman, Johan; De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Creationists are becoming more active in Europe. We expect that European biology teachers will be more frequently challenged by students who introduce creationist misconceptions of evolutionary theory into the classroom. Moreover, research suggests that not all teachers are equally prepared to deal with them. To make biology teachers aware of what…

  1. Creationism in the Classroom: How to Deal With It: A Mutant View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Edward W.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests instructional strategies for biology teachers confronted with creationism in the classroom and ways of dealing with the literal view of the public regarding the Bible. Supporting documentation (such as Christian ideas supporting scientific spirit and inquiry and definitions of the earth) is included in appendices. (JN)

  2. Dealing with Differences. Classroom Practices in Teaching English, 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.

    The twenty-four articles in this collection focus on the problems presented by the increasing numbers of exceptional students with whom the English classroom teacher must deal: physically, emotionally, and mentally handicapped; nonnative speakers of English; nontraditional students; speakers of nonstandard dialects; the gifted and talented; and…

  3. Labor's New Deal for Journalism--The Newspaper Guild in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Dale Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    The Depression and the New Deal brought together a variety of conditions and social forces that set up a formative clash over the institution of professional journalism. At the heart of that fight was the rise of the American Newspaper Guild and its battle for control over the trusteeship of the freedom of the press. The experience in the news…

  4. Teaching about, and Dealing with, Sensitive Issues in Schools: How Confident Are Pre-Service Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynagh, Marita; Gilligan, Connor; Handley, Tonelle

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are developing an increasingly active role in the education of students in areas of sensitivity, including issues such as sexuality, mental health, grief and loss and child protection. There is a growing expectation for teachers to become competent not only in educating students in these areas but also in recognising and dealing with such…

  5. Creationism in the Classroom: How to Deal With It: A Mutant View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Edward W.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests instructional strategies for biology teachers confronted with creationism in the classroom and ways of dealing with the literal view of the public regarding the Bible. Supporting documentation (such as Christian ideas supporting scientific spirit and inquiry and definitions of the earth) is included in appendices. (JN)

  6. Priorities in Dealing with Nutrition Problems in Indonesia. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 1 (1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soekirman

    A study of the literature dealing with past and present food and nutrition problems in Indonesia reveals that the problems remain serious. The major nutrition problems are: (1) Protein-Calorie Malnutrition; (2) Vitamin A Deficiency; (3) Nutritional Anemia; and (4) Goitre. These nutrition problems afflict people of all ages, males and females.…

  7. What Did the Teacher Say Today? State Religious Kindergarten Teachers Deal with Complex Torah Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achituv, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the way in which kindergarten teachers in state religious kindergartens in Israel tell the Torah stories to children. It examines the influence of the teachers' identity, being part of the religious Zionist society, on the way in which she tells the stories. These kindergarten teachers function at a crossroads of identities.…

  8. Dealing with Conflict and Aggression in Classrooms through Cooperative Learning Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Demographic and socioeconomic shifts in nation's population and changes in the family structure have placed increasing demands on the schools. There is a pressing need to understand the factors that give rise to and maintain aggressive behaviours across adolescence and also suggest techniques for dealing with the increased incidence of aggression…

  9. When Ads Enter the Classroom, It's a Deal with El Diablo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debolt, David

    2008-01-01

    In a tough economy, a professor breaches the rules on sponsorship for one of his classes. Kyle G. Volk, one of the professors in the history department at the University of Montana at Missoula, cut a deal with El Diablo, a locally owned taqueria, to sponsor his course, "The Americans: Conquest to Capitalism." In exchange for $250, Mr. Volk…

  10. ESD and the Current Crisis of Capitalism: Teaching beyond Green New Deals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckle, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author argues for a more critical form of education for sustainable development (ESD) linked to global citizenship education. He does so by reference to the limitations of the "green new deals" being carried out as part of fiscal stimulus packages, the alternatives proposed by ecosocialists, and the partly conflicting and…

  11. Skills and Employability in the Limelight: Exploring the Public Presentation of the New Deal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2000-01-01

    The British Labour Government's New Deal, a welfare-to-work initiative, has received widespread media attention. Content analysis of press releases illustrates how the government has tried to shape media messages and public perceptions of welfare reform in its presentation of this program. (SK)

  12. Quantitative Authorship Attribution of Users of Mexican Drug Dealing Related Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rico Sulayes, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    As the violence in the Mexican drug war escalates, a proliferation of social media sites about drug trafficking in Mexico was followed by the murder of some of their users, and the eventual disappearance of many of those sites. Despite these events, there still exist a number of drug-dealing related social media outlets in this country with a…

  13. Dealing with Bullying in Schools: A Training Manual for Teachers, Parents and Other Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Moore, Mona; Minton, Stephen James

    2004-01-01

    This book is an attempt to pinpoint constructive ways to deal with bullying, and to support people in their endeavours to undertake effective anti-bullying work in school communities. The overall aim of this book is to provide school communities with the practical support and key to resources that they need in preventing and countering bullying…

  14. 12 CFR 9.12 - Self-dealing and conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS Regulations § 9.12 Self-dealing and conflicts of interest. (a) Investments for... of a fiduciary account for which a national bank has investment discretion in the stock or... with whom there exists an interest that might affect the exercise of the best judgment of the bank. (2...

  15. 12 CFR 9.12 - Self-dealing and conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS Regulations § 9.12 Self-dealing and conflicts of interest. (a) Investments for... of a fiduciary account for which a national bank has investment discretion in the stock or... with whom there exists an interest that might affect the exercise of the best judgment of the bank. (2...

  16. 12 CFR 9.12 - Self-dealing and conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS Regulations § 9.12 Self-dealing and conflicts of interest. (a) Investments for... of a fiduciary account for which a national bank has investment discretion in the stock or... with whom there exists an interest that might affect the exercise of the best judgment of the bank. (2...

  17. Dealing with ethical challenges: a focus group study with professionals in mental health care.

    PubMed

    Molewijk, Bert; Hem, Marit Helene; Pedersen, Reidar

    2015-01-16

    Little is known about how health care professionals deal with ethical challenges in mental health care, especially when not making use of a formal ethics support service. Understanding this is important in order to be able to support the professionals, to improve the quality of care, and to know in which way future ethics support services might be helpful. Within a project on ethics, coercion and psychiatry, we executed a focus group interview study at seven departments with 65 health care professionals and managers. We performed a systematic and open qualitative analysis focusing on the question: 'How do health care professionals deal with ethical challenges?' We deliberately did not present a fixed definition or theory of ethical challenge. We categorized relevant topics into three subthemes: 1) Identification and presence of ethical challenges; 2) What do the participants actually do when dealing with an ethical challenge?; and 3) The significance of facing ethical challenges. Results varied from dealing with ethical challenges every day and appreciating it as a positive part of working in mental health care, to experiencing ethical challenges as paralyzing burdens that cause a lot of stress and hinder constructive team cooperation. Some participants reported that they do not have the time and that they lack a specific methodology. Quite often, informal and retrospective ad-hoc meetings in small teams were organized. Participants struggled with what makes a challenge an ethical challenge and whether it differs from a professional challenge. When dealing with ethical challenges, a number of participants experienced difficulties handling disagreement in a constructive way. Furthermore, some participants plead for more attention for underlying intentions and justifications of treatment decisions. The interviewed health care professionals dealt with ethical challenges in many different ways, often in an informal, implicit and reactive manner. This study revealed

  18. Dealing with palliative care patients' incomplete music therapy legacies: reflexive group supervision research.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Petering, Helen; Thomas, Amy; Crappsley, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Legacies encompass treasured memories and items such as wills, publications, and songs, which help to validate lives. Legacy creation is encouraged by palliative care staff to help patients deal with loss and find personal meaning; the legacy works may also support the bereaved. Within the literature, however, there is no consideration of how staff deal with patients' incomplete legacies when patients relocate, deteriorate, or die. Our research focuses on this question: What experiences did four music therapists have with palliative care patients' incomplete tangible music therapy legacies? Data included transcripts from the therapists' discussions about patients' incomplete legacies in three reflexive group supervision sessions and further reflections written during transcript verification. Inductive thematic analysis yielded five themes: the nature of incomplete music therapy legacies; reasons for and feelings about these legacies; factors determining what music therapists do with them; considerations about their future "life"; and the ways therapists' shared reflections can support their future legacy work.

  19. Is Dealing with Climate Change a Corporation’s Responsibility? A Social Contract Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Kerrie L.; Russell, Sally V.; Davis, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that individuals – as members of society – play an important role in the expectations of whether or not companies are responsible for addressing environmental issues, and whether or not governments should regulate them. From this perspective of corporate social responsibility as a social contract we report the results of a survey of 1066 individuals. The aim of the survey was to assess participants’ belief in anthropogenic climate change, free-market ideology, and beliefs around who is responsible for dealing with climate change. Results showed that both climate change views and free market ideology have a strong effect on beliefs that companies are responsible for dealing with climate change and on support for regulatory policy to that end. Furthermore, we found that free market ideology is a barrier in the support of corporate regulatory policy. The implications of these findings for research, policy, and practice are discussed. PMID:27588009

  20. Nanomanufacturing concerns about measurements made in the SEM Part V: dealing with noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András. E.

    2016-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopes (SEM) are used extensively in research and advanced manufacturing for materials characterization, metrology and process control. Unfortunately, noise can limit the specimen-specific detail and the information that can be acquired in any SEM micrograph, or measurement made from those data. The majority of SEM measurements are done at low primary electron beam currents and fast imaging mode resulting in rather noisy signals - often too noisy. The amount and the type of the noise and the steps taken to deal with it are critical to the quality and amount of the information gathered. This fifth presentation, in this series of SEM dimensional metrology tutorial papers, discusses some of the various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments specifically dealing with signal-to-noise (SNR) and its contribution to measurement imprecision.

  1. Preparedness of Hospitals in North of Iran to Deal With Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad; Chaman, Reza; Raei, Mehdi; Nasrollahpour Shirvani, Seiyed Davoud; Afkar, Abolhasan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Preparedness of hospital has a major impact on their optimal and satisfactory performance. This study aimed to investigate the preparedness of the hospitals to deal with disasters. Case Presentation This cross-sectional study was carried in 2011 and all of the hospitals which were located in the northern areas of Iran were investigated through the census method. The data collection instruments were self-administered Managers’ Awareness Questionnaire (40 items) and a 141-item checklist. The mean percentage score of hospitals in management of the unanticipated disasters program in the hospital was good. The mean score of managers’ awareness of the hospital status was moderate. With the increase in managers’ awareness, the preparedness of the hospitals significantly increased (r = 0.73, P < 0.001). Conclusions The findings showed the moderate preparedness of the hospitals in the Northern provinces to deal with disasters. PMID:24349752

  2. Infrared image gray adaptive adjusting enhancement algorithm based on gray redundancy histogram-dealing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zi-long; Liu, Yong; Chen, Ruo-wang

    2016-11-01

    In view of the histogram equalizing algorithm to enhance image in digital image processing, an Infrared Image Gray adaptive adjusting Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gray Redundancy Histogram-dealing Technique is proposed. The algorithm is based on the determination of the entire image gray value, enhanced or lowered the image's overall gray value by increasing appropriate gray points, and then use gray-level redundancy HE method to compress the gray-scale of the image. The algorithm can enhance image detail information. Through MATLAB simulation, this paper compares the algorithm with the histogram equalization method and the algorithm based on gray redundancy histogram-dealing technique , and verifies the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  3. Is Dealing with Climate Change a Corporation's Responsibility? A Social Contract Perspective.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Kerrie L; Russell, Sally V; Davis, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that individuals - as members of society - play an important role in the expectations of whether or not companies are responsible for addressing environmental issues, and whether or not governments should regulate them. From this perspective of corporate social responsibility as a social contract we report the results of a survey of 1066 individuals. The aim of the survey was to assess participants' belief in anthropogenic climate change, free-market ideology, and beliefs around who is responsible for dealing with climate change. Results showed that both climate change views and free market ideology have a strong effect on beliefs that companies are responsible for dealing with climate change and on support for regulatory policy to that end. Furthermore, we found that free market ideology is a barrier in the support of corporate regulatory policy. The implications of these findings for research, policy, and practice are discussed.

  4. Dealing with the multidimensionality of sustainability through the use of multiple perspectives - a theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Svanström, Magdalena; Ingerman, Åke; Holmberg, John

    2016-05-01

    The concept of perspectives is important in discussions about the multidimensionality of sustainability problems and the need to consider many different aspects when dealing with them. This paper aims to facilitate discussions among both educators and researchers about didactical approaches to developing students' abilities to deal with the multidimensionality of sustainability challenges through the use of multiple perspectives. For this purpose, a theoretical framework was developed that describes perspectives in terms of a set of general characteristics, as well as a number of ways in which students can develop and reflect on perspectives. Development of the framework was supported by a qualitative content analysis of transcripts from interviews with undergraduate engineering students in Sweden.

  5. Mapping the experience of drug dealing risk environments: an ethnographic case study.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, John Lawrence

    2009-05-01

    The traditional approach to understanding the economic dimensions of risk environments is to examine the forces that determine the activities of social actors. Drug dealing poses a particular problem for risk environments as dealing and drug dealers are often thought to be out of the scope of harm reduction interventions. However, local level drug dealing can be an important feature of local economies in marginalized communities, and the sharp distinctions between users and dealers may not always hold. Ethnographic evidence is used to describe how two drug dealers experience risk. Two domestic spaces, the house of a heroin and amphetamine dealer respectively, are used to illustrate the relationships between structural forces, experience and physical space. One key mechanism through which risk environments mediate the relations between structural forces and individuals is through the modification of every day space. Rather than simply being a container for action, space is made through experience. This case study illustrates how two drug dealers orient themselves in space in relation to a complex amalgam of sensations, memories, inscriptions and intentions. Rather than simply being effects of structural oppression, these drug dealers are active participants in the local drug economy. The risk environment and associated economic processes become embodied into the dealers' and their physical environments. Drug dealers shape, and are shaped by, their risk environments. A 'determinants' approach to understanding the economic dimension to drug use risk environments needs to be refined. Community resilience policies such "neighbourhood renewal" need to take into account the embodied aspects of economic structures in the experience of drug use and drug dealing. The economic relations, the processes that disable the transformation of different forms of capital, the memories and the practices that make drug users, are embodied. Community resilience policies need to bring

  6. Maternal and child health nurses' self-perceived confidence in dealing with child behaviour problems.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi, A; Gulenc, A; Hiscock, H

    2015-03-01

    Addressing behaviour problems in children is increasingly becoming part of routine care. The question therefore arises as to which workforce members are best suited to deliver structured interventions and what skill sets they might need apart from knowledge of the specific parenting programme offered. To assess maternal and child health (MCH) nurses' self-perceived confidence in dealing with child behaviour problems. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Data collection occurred prior to cluster randomization in the Families in Mind trial. MCH clinics in nine local government areas in greater Melbourne, in 2010. All MCH nurses in the nine areas were invited to participate, 153 (79%) completed the survey. Nurses' comfort, competency, attitudes and perceived difficulties in dealing with child behaviour problems. The majority of nurses (63%) viewed it as their role to deal with, rather than refer, child behaviour problems and felt that the task was rewarding (86%). They believed that parenting advice should be offered universally, rather than only to families with severe problems (94%). Nurses felt rather comfortable and competent to broach and discuss child behaviour problems without need for prior parental request, but somewhat less comfortable and competent to manage child behaviour problems or to make a difference. Experienced nurses (>10 years in practice) felt more comfortable and competent. Nurses described that the major challenge in their dealing with child behaviour problems was parental denial or resistance (60%). MCH nurses are at the frontline of preventive medical services for families with young children where behaviour problems are a common concern. Because managing young children's behaviour problems primarily occurs through adult behaviour change, techniques addressing parent denial and non-compliance, such as motivational interviewing and empowerment should be a part of MCH nurses' skill sets. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dealing with uncertainties in the nanotech workplace practice: making the precautionary approach operational.

    PubMed

    van Broekhuizen, Pieter

    2011-02-01

    If the risk management for the professional use of dispersive nanomaterials is hampered by a lack of reliable information, the reliable manager and the policy makers have to chose to make the precautionary principle operational for nanotech workplace. This study presents some tools that can be useful for the health & safety manager and for nanotech workers to deal with uncertainties in the nano-workplace.

  8. End-of-life issues: difficult decisions and dealing with grief.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Beth

    2009-06-01

    People face many challenging psychosocial and spiritual issues as they approach the end of their lives, and caregivers need advice on how to help them. Choosing among treatment options, handling grief, addressing unfinished business, and coping with loss of self-sufficiency are difficult for the dying person, and caregivers must deal with surrogate decision making, raw emotions in the patient and in family members, and the caregivers' own grief. Listening and coping skills are discussed.

  9. How to deal with petabytes of data: the LHC Grid project.

    PubMed

    Britton, D; Lloyd, S L

    2014-06-01

    We review the Grid computing system developed by the international community to deal with the petabytes of data coming from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva with particular emphasis on the ATLAS experiment and the UK Grid project, GridPP. Although these developments were started over a decade ago, this article explains their continued relevance as part of the 'Big Data' problem and how the Grid has been forerunner of today's cloud computing.

  10. GPs' experiences of dealing with parents bereaved by suicide: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Foggin, Emily; McDonnell, Sharon; Cordingley, Lis; Kapur, Navneet; Shaw, Jenny; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide prevention is an NHS priority in England. Bereavement by suicide is a risk factor for suicide, but the needs of those bereaved by suicide have not been addressed, and little is known about how GPs support these patients, and how they deal with this aspect of their work. This study explores the experiences of GPs dealing with parents bereaved by suicide. Qualitative study using interviews with 13 GPs in the UK. Parents, whose adult offspring had died by suicide between 2002 and 2012, were recruited and gave the name of their GP to be invited for interview. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The topic guide explored experiences of dealing with suicide and bereavement. Data were analysed thematically using constant comparison techniques. GPs described mental health as 'part and parcel' of primary care, but disclosed low confidence in dealing with suicide and an unpreparedness to face parents bereaved by suicide. Some GPs described guilt surrounding the suicide, and a reluctance to initiate contact with the bereaved parents. GPs talked of their duty to care for the bereaved patients, but admitted difficulties in knowing what to do, particularly in the perceived absence of other services. GPs reflected on the impact of the suicide on themselves and described a lack of support or supervision. GPs need to feel confident and competent to support parents bereaved by suicide. Although this may be facilitated through training initiatives, and accessible services to refer parents to, GPs also require formal support and supervision, particularly around significant events such as suicide. Results from this qualitative study have informed the development of evidence-based suicide bereavement training for health professionals. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  11. How Pediatricians Can Deal with Children Who Have Been Sexually Abused by Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses children who have been the victims of sexual abuse in their own family. It focuses on the special role of pediatricians and medical staff in identifying such children and providing them with initial assistance by reporting the situation to the authorities. The first part of the paper surveys the short- and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse, including the physical and emotional impact of sexual exploitation and severe neglect. This section discusses the symptoms shown by abused children, and how they express and deal with their trauma. It is extremely important for pediatricians to be sensitive to the possibility of patients being abused at home, as this is an area still largely regarded as a societal taboo. Also included in this section a discussion of the effects that are manifested when the victim has grown to adulthood, such as personality disorders. The second part of the paper deals with how pediatricians must act when they encounter such a situation in which they suspect sexual abuse in the family. They should strive to identify the problem and bring it to the attention of the authorities. Discovery of the problem is the most vital part of the path to the victim's recovery. The paper also discusses the aspect of treatment, advising doctors who encounter this problem on ways of dealing with it. PMID:22389771

  12. Parenting Strategies to Deal with Children's Anxiety: Do Parents Do What They Say They Do?

    PubMed

    Beato, Ana; Pereira, Ana Isabel; Barros, Luísa

    2016-08-02

    Parents' perceptions about their strategies to deal with children's anxiety have been minimally explored. Based on a mixed-method approach, the current study compared the strategies that parents said they use more frequently to deal with their child's anxious behaviors and the strategies they actually used during two mildly anxiogenic interactions with their child. Forty-two parents of children with anxiety disorders, aged 9-12 years, participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were administered to identify parental perceptions about their strategies to deal with their children's anxiety. Subsequently dyadic interactions were observed and coded by two independent coders. We found discrepancies relating to four strategies. Significantly more parents used strategies based on overinvolvement and anxious behavior during the interactions than had been reported by them in the interviews. In contrast, reassurance and reinforcement of avoidance/dependence were used in interactions by fewer parents than would be expected, according to the interviews. Relevant implications for assessment and intervention with families of anxious children are suggested.

  13. Value-based HR practices, i-deals and clinical error control with CSR as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Luu, Tuan; Rowley, Chris; Siengthai, Sununta; Thanh Thao, Vo

    2017-05-08

    Purpose Notwithstanding the rising magnitude of system factors in patient safety improvement, "human factors" such as idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) which also contribute to the adjustment of system deficiencies should not be neglected. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of value-based HR practices in catalyzing i-deals, which then influence clinical error control. The research further examines the moderating role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the effect of value-based HR practices on i-deals. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected from middle-level clinicians from hospitals in the Vietnam context. Findings The research results confirmed the effect chain from value-based HR practices through i-deals to clinical error control with CSR as a moderator. Originality/value The HRM literature is expanded through enlisting i-deals and clinical error control as the outcomes of HR practices.

  14. Satisfaction with sex life in sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with breast cancer: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; dePont Christensen, René; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Frisch, Morten; Nicolaisen, Anne; Kroman, Niels; Flyger, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer

    2017-02-01

    A breast cancer (BC) diagnosis can profoundly affect the sex life of patient and partner within a couple. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether individual and partner sexual functioning, affectionate behavior, emotional closeness and depressive symptoms are associated with change over time in satisfaction with sex life of sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with BC and to explore whether the associations differ between patients and partners after adjustment for basic sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity and BC treatment. Women with BC and their male partners participated in a longitudinal study (Time 1, ≤4 months after surgery; Time 2, 5 months later). Participants completed items from the PROMIS(®) Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure (version 1.0), two items measuring affectionate behavior, a single item measuring emotional closeness and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Registers provided sociodemographic and medical information. Multilevel models were used, which take the interdependency of couples' scores into account. A total of 287 sexually active couples were included in the analyses. Less vaginal discomfort and more vaginal lubrication were associated with increases in patients' satisfaction with sex life. Patients' and partners' satisfaction increased with higher ratings of their own orgasm ability and of partners' timing of ejaculation. Patients' reports of affectionate behavior were positively associated with their partners' satisfaction, and vice versa for partners. Patients' satisfaction increased the more emotional closeness their partner experienced. Partners' depressive symptoms were negatively associated with their satisfaction. Sociodemographic factors and BC treatment were not significantly associated with change in satisfaction. Satisfaction with sex life in sexually active couples dealing with BC needs to be seen as a couple issue. Health professionals should take the partner into

  15. Are clinical trials dealing with severe infection fitting routine practices? Insights from a large registry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Guidelines dealing with severe sepsis and septic shock mostly rely on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to ensure the best standards of care for patients. However, patients included in high-quality studies may differ from the routine population and alter external validity of recommendations. We aimed to determine to what extent non-inclusion criteria of RCTs dealing with severe sepsis and septic shock may affect application of their conclusions in routine care. Methods In a first step, the MEDLINE database was searched for RCTs treating severe sepsis and septic shock patients between 1992 and 2008, and non-inclusion criteria for these studies were abstracted. Two reviewers independently evaluated the articles, which were checked by a third reviewer. We extracted data on the study design, main intervention, primary endpoint, criteria for inclusion, and criteria for non-inclusion. In a second step, the distribution of the non-inclusion criteria was observed in a prospective multicenter cohort of severe sepsis and septic shock patients (Cub-Rea network, 1992 to 2008). Results We identified 96 articles out of 7,012 citations that met the screening criteria. Congestive heart failure (35%) and cancer (30%) were frequent exclusion criteria in selected studies, as well as other frequent disorders such as gastrointestinal and liver diseases and all causes of immune suppression. Of the 67,717 patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the Cub-Rea database, 40,325 (60%) experienced at least one of the main exclusion criteria, including 11% of congestive heart failure patients and 11% of cancer patients. In addition, we observed a significant trend for increasing number of patients with these criteria along time. Conclusion Current exclusion criteria for RCTs dealing with severe sepsis and septic shock excluded most patients encountered in daily practice and limit external validity of the results of high-quality studies. PMID:23705948

  16. Dealing with chaos and complexity: the reality of interviewing children and families in their own homes.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Kath; Greggans, Alison

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to share our experiences of dealing with chaos and complexity in interview situations in the home with children and young people. We highlight dilemmas relevant to dealing with multiple interruptions, building a rapport, consent and confidentiality. Furthermore, we discuss issues regarding the locus of power and control and offer some solutions based on our experiences. Creating a safe environment is essential for qualitative research. Participants are more likely to open up and communicate if they feel safe, comfortable and relaxed. We conclude that interviewing parents and their children with cystic fibrosis in their own homes, is chaotic and appears to threaten the rigour of data collection processes. Limited attention or print space is paid to this issue, with published articles frequently sanitising the messiness of real world qualitative research. Position paper. In this position paper, we use two case studies to illustrate ethical and pragmatic challenges of interviewing out in the field. These case studies, typical of families we encountered, help emphasise the concerns we had in balancing researcher-participant rapport with the quality of the research process. Dealing with perceived chaos is hard in reality, but capturing it is part of the complexity of qualitative enquiry. The context is interdependent with children's perceived reality, because they communicate with others through their environment. This paper gives researchers an insight into the tensions of operating out in the field and helps raise the importance of the environmental 'chaos' in revealing significant issues relevant to peoples daily lives. Knowing that unexpected chaos is part and parcel of qualitative research, will equip researchers with skills fundamental for balancing the well being of all those involved with the quality of the research process.

  17. The role of domain expertise and judgment in dealing with unexpected events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochan, Janeen Adrion

    Unexpected events, particularly those creating surprise, interrupt ongoing mental and behavioral processes, creating an increased potential for unwanted outcomes to the situation. Human reactions to unexpected events vary. One can hypothesize a number of reasons for this variation, including level of domain expertise, previous experience with similar events, emotional connotation, and the contextual surround of the event. Whereas interrupting ongoing activities and focusing attention temporarily on a surprising event may be a useful evolutionary response to a threatening situation, the same process may be maladaptive in today's highly dynamic world. The purpose of this study was to investigate how different aspects of expertise affected one's ability to detect and react to an unexpected event. It was hypothesized that there were two general types of expertise, domain expertise and judgment (Hammond, 2000), which influenced one's performance on dealing with an unexpected event. The goal of the research was to parse out the relative contribution of domain expertise, so the role of judgment could be revealed. The research questions for this study were: (a) Can we identify specific knowledges and skills which enhance one's ability to deal with unexpected events? (b) Are these skills "automatically" included in domain expertise? (c) How does domain expertise improve or deter one's reaction and response to unexpected events? (d) What role does judgment play in responding to surprise? The general hypothesis was that good judgment would influence the process of surprise at different stages and in different ways than would domain expertise. The conclusions from this research indicated that good judgment had a significant positive effect in helping pilots deal with unexpected events. This was most pronounced when domain expertise was low.

  18. Dealing with waterborne disease in Canada: challenges in the delivery of safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Maal-Bared, R; Bartlett, K H; Bowie, W R

    2008-01-01

    Protecting the public from waterborne diseases is an environmental health responsibility that every government worldwide must deal with. Canada's recent experience with waterborne outbreaks has brought the effectiveness of its water-monitoring and treatment systems under scrutiny. This paper focuses on microbial waterborne diseases and the shortcomings of drinking-water systems, dividing them into source control, monitoring, treatment, and operation, epidemiologic, and risk communication issues. Whereas some of these issues are often addressed, others, such as risk communication issues, are less frequently included in drinking water-management plans. Lessons can be learned from the Canadian experience, as these issues are applicable worldwide and especially in the developed world.

  19. Helping parents deal with children's acute disciplinary problems without escalation: the principle of nonviolent resistance.

    PubMed

    Omer, H

    2001-01-01

    There are two kinds of escalation between parents and children with acute discipline problems: (a) complementary escalation, in which parental giving-in leads to a progressive increase in the child's demands, and (b) reciprocal escalation, in which hostility begets hostility. Extant programs for helping parents deal with children with such problems focus mainly on one kind of escalation to the neglect of the other. The systematic use of Gandhi's principle of "nonviolent resistance" allows for a parental attitude that counters both kinds of escalation. An intervention is described, which allows parents to put this principle into practice.

  20. Dealing with the time-varying parameter problem of robot manipulators performing path tracking tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. D.; Middleton, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    Many robotic applications involve time-varying payloads during the operation of the robot. It is therefore of interest to consider control schemes that deal with time-varying parameters. Using the properties of the element by element (or Hadarmad) product of matrices, we obtain the robot dynamics in parameter-isolated form, from which a new control scheme is developed. The controller proposed yields zero asymptotic tracking errors when applied to robotic systems with time-varying parameters by using a switching type control law. The results obtained are global in the initial state of the robot, and can be applied to rapidly varying systems.

  1. The art of the deal: health policy making on the fly.

    PubMed

    Pelrine, A

    1992-01-01

    In September 1991 the Health Care Financing Administration touched off a two-month scramble by issuing regulations sharply curtailing states' use of voluntary donations and provider taxes to raise money for Medicaid. Days and nights of intrigue and dealmaking followed. Finally, on the day before Thanksgiving, Congress, the Administration, and the nation's governors agreed to a deal that may resolve the matter. During the course of those talks, all sides honed their negotiating skills and, in the process, uncovered basic flaws in the U.S. health care system.

  2. Dealing with uncertainty in the assessment of human exposure to radioactivity in food and the environment.

    PubMed

    Ould-Dada, Zitouni

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the approach used to assess radiation dose and risk to members of the public from radioactivity in food and the environment. It describes uncertainties in the process and suggests ways of dealing with them to improve the risk assessment process. It also explains how uncertainty in the assessed dose/risk can be communicated to non-expert audiences such as members of the public. The issues covered in this paper apply to risk assessment of any contaminant and not only radioactivity.

  3. THE DEAL WITH IRAN IS THE BEST-CASE SCENARIO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY COULD ACHIEVE IN THE CURRENT GEOPOLITICAL ENVIRONMENT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    alternatives of the nuclear deal do not provide solid and reliable results. Thus, the deal provides the international community the toolset to limit the...and if so for how long? The effectiveness of the available instruments, the alternative strategies, the global security challenges, the political...seriously against the realistic alternatives . Examining the Alternatives Maintaining the Sanctions 10 Sanctions and inducements are instruments

  4. TVOntario's Substance Abuse Series: Dealing with Drugs and Chemical Solutions. A Summative Evaluation. Report No. 19-1991-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filson, Gerald W.

    A summative evaluation of the two TVOntario series, Dealing with Drugs and Chemical Solutions was carried out in the April-to-June 1991 period. Classes (N=23) were recruited for the intermediate and senior grade level study, which included more than 550 students. The intermediate series, Dealing with Drugs, designed for grade 7 and 8 students,…

  5. 29 CFR 2570.46 - Hearings in opposition to exemptions from restrictions on fiduciary self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fiduciary self-dealing. 2570.46 Section 2570.46 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE... Hearings in opposition to exemptions from restrictions on fiduciary self-dealing. (a) Any interested person... and the manner in which the person would be adversely affected by the exemption; and (3) A...

  6. The Development of Strategies for Dealing with the Information Needs of Urban Residents: Phase II--Information Practitioner Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervin, Brenda; And Others

    This study constitutes the second phase of a three-phase project whose purpose is to develop strategies for dealing with the information needs of urban residents. The focus is on how the information practitioner can effectively deal with individual citizens. From Phase I (IR 003 729), an approach, called the client-in-situation approach, was…

  7. The Development of Strategies for Dealing with the Information Needs of Urban Residents: Phase II--Information Practitioner Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervin, Brenda; And Others

    This study constitutes the second phase of a three-phase project whose purpose is to develop strategies for dealing with the information needs of urban residents. The focus is on how the information practitioner can effectively deal with individual citizens. From Phase I (IR 003 729), an approach, called the client-in-situation approach, was…

  8. Dealing with the financial burden of cancer: perspectives of older breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Pisu, Maria; Martin, Michelle Y.; Shewchuk, Richard; Meneses, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Financial burden among cancer survivors is often overlooked in survivorship care planning. Cancer survivors with limited incomes may be particularly affected. Yet, little data are available to address financial issues among them. Eliciting the survivors’ perspectives on how to deal with this financial burden is a first crucial step to identifying the means to provide this supportive care. Methods In this pilot study, three Nominal Group Technique (NGT) sessions were conducted with a convenience sample of 23 older breast cancer survivors (age 52 to 83) recruited from a county safety net hospital and a Comprehensive Cancer Center. One single NGT question was posed in these sessions, namely “What could help women deal with the financial burden that cancer brings to them and their families?” Survivors responded in an iterative fashion and then ranked the most relevant responses. Results The most relevant responses addressed the: (1) need for affordable insurance; (2) need to have prompt information on treatment costs patients will face, insurance coverage, and agencies or programs that provide needed products and services; and (3) need to access social workers, navigators, support groups, or others knowledgeable about available resources. Survivors also suggested that physicians become aware of cancer costs and financial issues faced by patients, and consider costs in their treatment plans. Conclusions Older survivors face financial challenges for which there are few available resources. They suggested several avenues to address cancer-related financial issues that may be considered in developing supportive interventions. PMID:24912858

  9. Recommendations for dealing with asphaltene or wax problems in offshore production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J.

    1996-09-01

    Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Asphaltene and wax problems are seriously threatening the economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore production facilities are especially susceptible to asphaltene or wax deposition for a number of reasons. One indispensable requirement for dealing with these problems, that offshore production facilities usually lack, is extra storage capacity for temporarily storing asphaltene or wax cuttings and washings away from inflicted equipment. The cuttings and washings, even if temporary storage were available, need to be dealt with nearly on a daily basis. Providing equipment to process the slop offshore is expensive and messy (environmentally). Hence, the cuttings and washings, in many cases, must be carried away to onshore slop processing facilities. The above discussion assumes, of course, that the operator has already found the best technology (e.g., tools, chemicals, etc.) for removing the deposits from the offshore equipment, which in itself is another challenge that precedes the disposal problem. All of the above considerations underscore the fact that the best way of dealing with the asphaltene and wax problems is to prevent them, where possible. This paper presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the asphaltene problems encountered, the field has been successfully produced for over 14 years with minimum environmental impact.

  10. Dealing with the news media: effective communication strategies for medical examiners.

    PubMed

    Kelly, C C

    1998-06-01

    Medical examiners have responsibilities that often result in news media coverage that can bring unwanted attention. Dealing with the news media is always a learning process, but various resources exist to help in maintaining credibility. Local offices should consider establishing proactive community relations and media relations programs. Appropriate steps should be taken to manage media relations, including the appointment of an official spokesperson and regular use of the prepared statement. This article also explores the benefits of being prepared for media interviews, offers advice for responding to the media following a mass disaster, and examines options for dealing with a media investigation. Medical examiners, coroners, investigators, and other forensic experts have responsibilities that frequently bring them in contact with the news media. Today, a crime scene investigation is not complete without media attention. We now live in an era of "CNN journalism," in which local investigations may be propelled into the national spotlight. Unfortunately, the result can be unwanted attention. What resources can medical examiners rely on to better manage the news media? What can you do to maintain credibility? There are a number of options available, all of which can easily put into practice.

  11. Shortcomings in dealing with psychological effects of natural disasters in iran.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Ali; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Pourhosseini, Samira Sadat

    2014-08-01

    Natural disasters result in numerous economic, social, psychological and cultural consequences. Of them, psychological consequences of disasters will affect the lives of people long after the critical conditions finish. Thus, concerning the importance of psychological support in disasters, this study has identified problems and weaknesses in dealing with the psychological effects of the disasters occurred in Iran. This qualitative study was carried out using semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus groups. Sample volume consisted of 26 experts in the field of disaster management. Content analysis was used to analyze data. Nine major problems were identified as weaknesses in handling the psychological effects of the disaster. These weaknesses include: rescuers' unfamiliarity with the basic principles of psychosocial support, shortage of relevant experts and inadequate training, paying no attention to the needs of specific groups, weaknesses in organizational communications, discontinuation of psychological support after disaster, unfamiliarity with native language and culture of the disaster area, little attention paid by media to psychological principles in broadcasting news, people's long-term dependence on governmental aid. Disaster management has various aspects; in Iran, less attention has been paid to psychological support in disasters. Increasing education at all levels, establishing responsible structures and programming seem necessary in dealing with the psychological effects of disasters.

  12. Dealing with device-dependency of color for device-independent color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhongjie T.

    1993-08-01

    Many people believe that in the future of high fidelity color reproduction, a Device- Independent Color Space (DICS) will be used to represent color image information. Discussions of DICS have focused on what CIE color space is most appropriate as a standard, how to calibrate input devices, and how to characterize output devices. However, the definition of Device-Independent Color has aroused a great deal of confusion in the literature. Does it mean a device-independent definition of color measurement? Does it mean a standardized color space such as a CIE space? Does it mean a method of color transformation such as EFI Color? Does it mean automated (no operator intervention) color matching? Does it mean open system architecture? Does a DICS truly represent color appearance? Does a DICS guarantee device-independency of color? In other words, is the device-dependency of color related only to the color coordinates that are used? If not, where does device-dependency come from? And how does one deal with device-dependency of color in DICS? In this paper, I will address all these issues.

  13. The hidden practices and experiences of healthcare practitioners dealing with fuel poverty.

    PubMed

    Mc Conalogue, D; Kierans, C; Moran, A

    2016-06-01

    Fuel poverty negatively impacts a population's health affecting life chances along the life course. Moreover, it represents a substantial inequality in the UK. Healthcare practitioners (HCPs) have a key role in identifying and supporting patients who are fuel poor. A qualitative inquiry with District Nurses and General Practitioners, to explore their understanding and experiences of dealing with patients living in fuel poverty. Participants recognize fuel poverty by observing material cues. They perceive their relationship with the patient as pivotal to recognizing the fuel poor. Practitioners' sense of responsibility for their patients' social concerns is determined by their knowledge about the link to health outcomes. The services that they sign-post to are motivated by their experience dealing with the service, or their patients' experiences of the service. Participants' reliance on temporary material cues resulted in few experiences of recognition of the fuel poor. HCPs' perceptions of patient pride and the lack of personal relationship between doctor and patient presented barriers to identifying fuel poor patients. A limitation of this study is the small sample size of nine participants. These came from two professional groups, which afforded more depth of exploration, but may limit applicability to other professionals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Polluted online information? Surfing Italian websites dealing with the topic of waste and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orizio, G.; Locatelli, M. K.; Caimi, L.; Gelatti, U.

    2011-10-01

    In the field of health communication, a particularly critical issue is communication to the public of environmental risks, especially on topics for which there is still a high degree of scientific uncertainty regarding risk estimates. One such topic is undoubtedly the impact of waste on people's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and characteristics of Italian websites dealing with the topic of waste and health. The keywords 'waste' and 'health' were entered in 2010 in the three most commonly used search engines, and the first five pages were analysed. The selected websites were coded according to the content analysis method. For websites of interest we evaluated the 'page rank'. Out of the 150 occurrences analysed, the number of websites found to deal with this subject was only 19, four of which were of an institutional nature. The majority of websites gave a message of increased health risk associated with the three kinds of waste disposal tackled. As regards visibility, only one of the four institutional websites maintained its position on the first page of the three search engines. We found that institutional health websites have low visibility, despite extensive media coverage of waste and health issues in Italy as a result of the Naples case, which was debated globally. This indicates that public health institutions' web strategies are basically unable to meet people's health information requirements, which could strengthen rival health information providers.

  15. How do primary health care professionals deal with pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence?

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora Mariela; Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Macedo, Vanessa Dias; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine how Family Health Strategy professionals recognize and deal with domestic violence in pregnant women. Method qualitative study based on the Theory of Praxis Intervention in Collective Health Nursing (TIPESC). Fourteen professionals at a Basic Health Unit in the east side of Sao Paulo/Brazil were interviewed. Empirical data were categorized and discussed in thematic groups. For data analysis was used the technique of Discourse Analysis. Results we identified low number of reported cases of domestic violence; lack of education and training of health care professionals; failure in the identification and intervention process due to bias on their personal problems, moral attitudes and prejudice against these women. In addition, the study showed that their labor process was based entirely on the biological aspects of the women and to overcome this, they need of proper rapport between health care professionals and pregnant women to deal with of domestic violence. Conclusion professionals should develop skills to intervene in violence against pregnant women and also modify labor processes considering women in their totality and part of society. PMID:25029056

  16. Neural control hierarchy of the heart has not evolved to deal with myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kember, G; Armour, J A; Zamir, M

    2013-08-01

    The consequences of myocardial ischemia are examined from the standpoint of the neural control system of the heart, a hierarchy of three neuronal centers residing in central command, intrathoracic ganglia, and intrinsic cardiac ganglia. The basis of the investigation is the premise that while this hierarchical control system has evolved to deal with "normal" physiological circumstances, its response in the event of myocardial ischemia is unpredictable because the singular circumstances of this event are as yet not part of its evolutionary repertoire. The results indicate that the harmonious relationship between the three levels of control breaks down, because of a conflict between the priorities that they have evolved to deal with. Essentially, while the main priority in central command is blood demand, the priority at the intrathoracic and cardiac levels is heart rate. As a result of this breakdown, heart rate becomes less predictable and therefore less reliable as a diagnostic guide as to the traumatic state of the heart, which it is commonly used as such following an ischemic event. On the basis of these results it is proposed that under the singular conditions of myocardial ischemia a determination of neural control indexes in addition to cardiovascular indexes has the potential of enhancing clinical outcome.

  17. Leaders' strategies for dealing with own and their subordinates' stress in public human service organisations.

    PubMed

    Skagert, Katrin; Dellve, Lotta; Eklöf, Mats; Pousette, Anders; Ahlborg, Gunnar

    2008-11-01

    Despite the acknowledged key role of leaders for psychosocial work environment, few studies focus on how leaders can decrease work-related stress. To gain deeper knowledge of leaders' perceptions and strategies for dealing with their own and their subordinates' stress in public human service organisations (HSO), qualitative interviews were made with leaders from hospitals and regional social insurance offices (n=21), and analysed in line with grounded theory method. The leaders handled subordinates' stress and perceived leadership demands by acting as shock absorber (core category) and used strategies characterised as leading in continuous change whilst maintaining trustworthiness. To cope with their own stress from perceived leadership demands, they tried to sustain their own integrity (core category) by either identifying with or distancing themselves from the leader role. The strategies for dealing with leaders' own and subordinates' exposures to stressors was pervaded by perceived leadership demands and are probably influencing each other. Supportive structures and improved communication about everyday dilemmas seem to be needed in order, not just to prevent stress reactions, but to improve the basic conditions for practicing leadership in HSO.

  18. Dealing with the financial burden of cancer: perspectives of older breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Pisu, Maria; Martin, Michelle Y; Shewchuk, Richard; Meneses, Karen

    2014-11-01

    Financial burden among cancer survivors is often overlooked in survivorship care planning. Cancer survivors with limited incomes may be particularly affected. Yet, little data are available to address financial issues among them. Eliciting the survivors' perspectives on how to deal with this financial burden is a first crucial step to identifying the means to provide this supportive care. In this pilot study, three nominal group technique (NGT) sessions were conducted with a convenience sample of 23 older breast cancer survivors (age 52 to 83) recruited from a county safety net hospital and a Comprehensive Cancer Center. One single NGT question was posed in these sessions, namely "What could help women deal with the financial burden that cancer brings to them and their families?" Survivors responded in an iterative fashion and then ranked the most relevant responses. The most relevant responses addressed the (1) need for affordable insurance; (2) need to have prompt information on treatment costs patients will face, insurance coverage, and agencies or programs that provide needed products and services; and (3) need to access social workers, navigators, support groups, or others knowledgeable about available resources. Survivors also suggested that physicians become aware of cancer costs and financial issues faced by patients and consider costs in their treatment plans. Older survivors face financial challenges for which there are few available resources. They suggested several avenues to address cancer-related financial issues that may be considered in developing supportive interventions.

  19. A balanced approach to dealing with violence and aggression at work.

    PubMed

    Rew, Maggie; Ferns, Terry

    The Government has introduced tough measures in dealing with violence and aggression in the workplace. Employers have a duty to provide adequate safety measures and training to reduce risks and ensure, where possible, the health, safety and welfare of their employees. This article highlights the responsibilities of employers and the pressures in both hospital and community environments on staff at risk from violent or abusive incidents. The patient's perspective is discussed, suggesting that more understanding between patients and staff is needed. The article looks at the "NHS Zero Tolerance Zone Campaign" and whether this can be enhanced by introducing training of an empathetic nature along with other practical environmental issues. It suggests that there are alternative and more effective, techniques in dealing with violence and aggression that can be used to defuse a situation before it ever becomes a physical altercation. The philosophies of eastern martial arts can teach us a lot about personal self-esteem and confidence which are two key elements in managing conflict situations.

  20. Shortcomings in Dealing with Psychological Effects of Natural Disasters in Iran

    PubMed Central

    RABIEI, Ali; NAKHAEE, Nouzar; POURHOSSEINI, Samira Sadat

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Natural disasters result in numerous economic, social, psychological and cultural consequences. Of them, psychological consequences of disasters will affect the lives of people long after the critical conditions finish. Thus, concerning the importance of psychological support in disasters, this study has identified problems and weaknesses in dealing with the psychological effects of the disasters occurred in Iran. Methods This qualitative study was carried out using semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus groups. Sample volume consisted of 26 experts in the field of disaster management. Content analysis was used to analyze data. Results Nine major problems were identified as weaknesses in handling the psychological effects of the disaster. These weaknesses include: rescuers’ unfamiliarity with the basic principles of psychosocial support, shortage of relevant experts and inadequate training, paying no attention to the needs of specific groups, weaknesses in organizational communications, discontinuation of psychological support after disaster, unfamiliarity with native language and culture of the disaster area, little attention paid by media to psychological principles in broadcasting news, people’s long-term dependence on governmental aid. Conclusions Disaster management has various aspects; in Iran, less attention has been paid to psychological support in disasters. Increasing education at all levels, establishing responsible structures and programming seem necessary in dealing with the psychological effects of disasters. PMID:25927043

  1. Injection drug users’ involvement in drug dealing in the downtown eastside of Vancouver: Social organization and systemic violence

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Lawlor, Jeff; Wood, Evan; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Illicit drug markets are a key component of the risk environment surrounding injection drug use. However, relatively few studies have explored how injection drug users’ (IDUs) involvement in drug dealing shapes their experiences of drug market-related harm. This exploratory qualitative study aims to understand IDUs’ dealing activities and roles, as well as the perceived benefits and risks related to participation in illicit drug markets, including experiences of drug market violence. Methods Ten IDUs with extensive involvement in drug dealing activities were recruited from the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study (VIDUS) and participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, which elicited discussion of experiences dealing drugs, perceived benefits and hazards related to dealing, and understandings of drug market violence. Results Participant's involvement in drug market activities included corporate sales, freelance or independent sales, and opportunistic sales termed “middling” as well as drug market-related hustles entailing selling bogus drugs and robbing dealers. Participants primarily dealt drugs to support their own illicit drug use, and we found that arrest and criminal justice involvement, hazards stemming from drug debts, and drug market-related violence were key risks related to dealing activities. Conclusion The challenges of managing personal consumption while selling drugs exacerbates the hazards associated with drug dealing. Efforts to address drug dealing among IDUs should consider both drug dependency and the material conditions that propel drug users towards dealing activities. Interventions should explore the potential of combining enhanced drug treatment programs with low threshold employment and alternative income generation opportunities. PMID:23664788

  2. Induced pluripotent stem cells: how to deal with the developmental potential.

    PubMed

    Denker, Hans-Werner

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in research on embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells suggest that potentiality of cells should be a new focus in stem cell research ethics and policy. Successful reconstitution of viable embryos from induced pluripotent stem cells using tetraploid complementation has been reported and indicates a way for direct cloning of individuals from these cells. This together with recent observations on gastrulation and pattern formation processes in cultures of embryonic stem cells has considerable ethical relevance after the advent and worldwide spread of induced pluripotent stem cell technology. Available knowledge of the molecular basis of mammalian embryology now makes it possible to envisage ways to deal technically with the ethical dilemma of stem cell potentiality.

  3. Approaches to dealing with meteoroid and orbital debris protection on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on approaches to dealing with meteoroid and orbital debris protection on the space station are presented. The National Space Policy of February, 1988, included the following: 'All sectors will seek to minimize the creation of space debris. Design and operations of space tests, experiments, and systems will strive to minimize or reduce accumulation of space debris consistent with mission requirements and cost effectiveness.' The policy also tasked the National Security Council, which established an Interagency Group, which in turn produced an Interagency Report. NASA and DoD tasks to establish a joint plan to determine techniques to measure the environment, and techniques to reduce the environment are addressed. Topics covered include: orbital debris environment, meteoroids, orbital debris population, cataloged earth satellite population, USSPACECOM cataloged objects, and orbital debris radar program.

  4. [Socioeconomic reality: the context in which vocational and professional guidance have to deal with].

    PubMed

    Strucchi, E; González, J

    1995-12-01

    In this work we describe and analyze today's Latin American occupational reality, according to the world economical context we live in. We mention up-to-date data about employment and unemployment rates, from different countries of Latin America, Europe, and also from Japan. Besides that we have taken into account the technological development and the demographic growth, as essential variables in order to understand the labor phenomenon and its possible prospect, as well as the psychosociological consequences or unemployment. We also analyze the future of some professions. We think that all this information gathered from different sources, is essential to the professional who has to guide teen-agers at the time of the Ocupational-Vocational election. This is also necessary to all those who deal with Professional Guidance and with the Planning of Careers that have already been chosen.

  5. Statistical methods for dealing with publication bias in meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhi-Chao; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; He, Jia

    2015-01-30

    Publication bias is an inevitable problem in the systematic review and meta-analysis. It is also one of the main threats to the validity of meta-analysis. Although several statistical methods have been developed to detect and adjust for the publication bias since the beginning of 1980s, some of them are not well known and are not being used properly in both the statistical and clinical literature. In this paper, we provided a critical and extensive discussion on the methods for dealing with publication bias, including statistical principles, implementation, and software, as well as the advantages and limitations of these methods. We illustrated a practical application of these methods in a meta-analysis of continuous support for women during childbirth. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. rough deal: a gene required for proper mitotic segregation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We describe a genetic locus rough deal (rod) in Drosophila melanogaster, identified by mutations that interfere with the faithful transmission of chromosomes to daughter cells during mitosis. Five mutant alleles were isolated, each associated with a similar set of mitotic abnormalities in the dividing neuroblasts of homozygous mutant larvae: high frequencies of aneuploid cells and abnormal anaphase figures, in which chromatids may lag, form bridges, or completely fail to separate. Surviving homozygous adults are sterile, and show cuticular defects associated with cell death, i.e., roughened eyes, sparse abdominal bristles, and notched wing margins. The morphological process of spermatogenesis is largely unaffected and motile sperm are produced, but meiocyte aneuploidy is common. The nature of the observed abnormalities in mitotic cells suggests that the reduced fidelity of chromosome transmission to the daughter cells is due to a failure in a mechanism involved in assuring the proper release of sister chromatids. PMID:2512302

  7. Beyond upgrading typologies - In search of a better deal for honey value chains in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo Junior, Hugo S de; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; van der Lans, Ivo A; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2017-01-01

    Selection of value chain strategies by development practitioners and value chain participants themselves has been restricted to preset types of upgrading. This paper argues for an extension of the range of strategy solutions to value chains. An empirical application identifies successful strategies for honey value chains in Brazil for 2015-2020. Strategy and performance indicators were selected using the value chain Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) framework. Experts' opinion was elicited in a Delphi for business scenarios, and adaptive conjoint analysis was used to identify strategies for increasing production growth and local value-added. This study identifies important strategies beyond upgrading typologies, and finds that important strategies differ by performance goal and scenario. The value chain SCP allows searching for promising strategies towards performance-the "better deal"-in an integrated way.

  8. Psycho-social processes in dealing with legal innovation in the community: insights from biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Castro, Paula; Mouro, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Mitigation measures for tackling the consequences of a changing climate will involve efforts of various types including the conservation of affected ecosystems. For this, communities throughout the world will be called on to change habits of land and water use. Many of these changes will emerge from the multilevel governance tools now commonly used for environmental protection. In this article, some tenets of a social psychology of legal innovation are proposed for approaching the psycho-social processes involved in how individuals, groups and communities respond to multilevel governance. Next, how this approach can improve our understanding of community-based conservation driven by legal innovation is highlighted. For this, the macro and micro level processes involved in the implementation of the European Natura 2000 Network of Protected Sites are examined. Finally, some insights gained from this example of multilevel governance through legal innovation will be enumerated as a contribution for future policy making aimed at dealing with climate change consequences.

  9. Dealing with pollution from conflict: Analysis of discourses around the 2006 Lebanon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Takshe, Aseel A; Huby, Meg; Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jon C

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006 a war between Lebanon and Israel resulted in severe environmental damage in Lebanon from Israeli bombing raids. An attack on the Lebanese Jiyyeh Power Plant released 15,000 tons of heavy fuel oil into the Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably, a clean-up operation was effected despite a continued state of war and lack of capacity in the Lebanese government. Civil society environmentalists played a key role in dealing with the pollution and complying with pollution-control legislation. In this study we use Q-methodology to analyse discourses on the effectiveness of pollution legislation during times of conflict using the Jiyyeh oil spill as an example. We interviewed 35 people from eight different stakeholder groups involved in environmental issues. Five distinct discourses were generated covering compensation schemes, need for new legislation, role of stakeholders during wartime and strengthening government ministries.

  10. Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

  11. Science as a Matter of Honour: How Accused Scientists Deal with Scientific Fraud in Japan.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Pablo A

    2017-06-26

    Practices related to research misconduct seem to have been multiplied in recent years. Many cases of scientific fraud have been exposed publicly, and journals and academic institutions have deployed different measures worldwide in this regard. However, the influence of specific social and cultural environments on scientific fraud may vary from society to society. This article analyzes how scientists in Japan deal with accusations of scientific fraud. For such a purpose, a series of scientific fraud cases that took place in Japan has been reconstructed through diverse sources. Thus, by analyzing those cases, the social basis of scientific fraud and the most relevant aspects of Japanese cultural values and traditions, as well as the concept of honour which is deeply involved in the way Japanese scientists react when they are accused of and publicly exposed in scientific fraud situations is examined.

  12. Macro-Level Social Forces and Micro-Level Consequences: Poverty, Alternate Occupations, and Drug Dealing

    PubMed Central

    DUNLAP, ELOISE; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; KOTARBA, JOSEPH A.; FACKLER, JENNIFER L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an empirical examination of the ways in which macro-level social forces have had micro-level consequences in the New Orleans drug market. The article illustrates a clear connection between poverty and entrance into the drug market, as mitigated by race, lack of societal opportunity, lack of social capital, distressed families, and closed neighborhoods. Specifically, the research illustrates the mechanisms by which macro-level social forces intersect to legitimize drug dealing as a viable alternative method of acquiring money and social capital. These intersecting macro-level social forces, such as poverty, race, family structure, and neighborhood characteristics, ultimately constrain the life chances of those living in the inner city irrespective of personal traits, individual motivations, or private achievements. PMID:20509085

  13. Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

  14. Becoming forgetful: how elderly people deal with forgetfulness in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Lorenz; Wallhagen, Margaret I; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Monsch, Andreas U

    2006-01-01

    Studies show that complaints about being forgetful are weakly correlated with standardized measures of memory impairment. Little attention has been paid to those complaints in a healthy elderly population. Therefore, this qualitative, grounded-theory study investigated the experiences and consequences of becoming forgetful. In-depth interviews with 32 participants were conducted and analyzed. The findings show that forgetfulness became part of daily life through 3 strategies, conceptualized as doing forgetfulness: (1) reducing complexity; (2) creating and maintaining routines; and (3) dealing with feelings of embarrassment and shame. The well-being of people experiencing forgetfulness depended on how successfully they performed the strategies of doing forgetfulness. Gaining insight into this process allows health care professionals to assess the phenomenon early and to individualize counseling and further diagnostic procedures.

  15. When staff is underpaid: dealing with the individual coping strategies of health personnel.

    PubMed

    Van Lerberghe, Wim; Conceicao, Claudia; Van Damme, Wim; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Health sector workers respond to inadequate salaries and working conditions by developing various individual "coping strategies"--some, but not all, of which are of a predatory nature. The paper reviews what is known about these practices and their potential consequences (competition for time, brain drain and conflicts of interest). By and large, governments have rarely been proactive in dealing with such problems, mainly because of their reluctance to address the issue openly. The effectiveness of many of these piecemeal reactions, particularly attempts to prohibit personnel from developing individual coping strategies, has been disappointing. The paper argues that a more proactive approach is required. Governments will need to recognize the dimension of the phenomenon and systematically assess the consequences of policy initiatives on the situation and behaviour of the individuals that make up their workforce.

  16. [What you can do when dealing with emergencies in the dementia setting].

    PubMed

    Balmer, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Frequent emergencies in patients with dementia include aggressiveness, screaming, day/night reversal, other behavioral disorders, and falls. They are often caused by delirium, especially if there has been a rapid change in the patient's state of health. Hypoactive delirium in particular is difficult to recognize in the dementia setting. Acute somatic diseases bear a different meaning in dementia than in non-dementia patients, and priorities must be given to the impaired cerebral performance. In addition to medical decisions, ethical ones need to be made. Special attention should be paid to the resources of the caregiver network. This article describes both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment modalities when dealing with emergencies in dementia patients.

  17. Macro-level social forces and micro-level consequences: poverty, alternate occupations, and drug dealing.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D; Kotarba, Joseph A; Fackler, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    This article is an empirical examination of the ways in which macro-level social forces have had micro-level consequences in the New Orleans drug market. The article illustrates a clear connection between poverty and entrance into the drug market, as mitigated by race, lack of societal opportunity, lack of social capital, distressed families, and closed neighborhoods. Specifically, the research illustrates the mechanisms by which macro-level social forces intersect to legitimize drug dealing as a viable alternative method of acquiring money and social capital. These intersecting macro-level social forces, such as poverty, race, family structure, and neighborhood characteristics, ultimately constrain the life chances of those living in the inner city irrespective of personal traits, individual motivations, or private achievements.

  18. [Research of controlling condition for aeration stabilization pond dealing with sanitary waste of countryside].

    PubMed

    Li, Huai-Zheng; Yao, Shu-Jun; Xu, Zu-Xin; Chen, Wei-Bing

    2012-10-01

    According to research of some problems, such as the hydraulic detention time that aeration stabilization pond deals with sanitary waste of countryside, dissolved oxygen in pond during the process of aeration, the concentration distribution of sludge and different aeration periods affecting on the treatment efficiency, we can acquire good treatment efficiency and energy consumption of economy. The results indicate that under the aeration stabilization pond of this experiment, 4 d is the best hydraulic detention time with this aeration stabilization pond. Time of the discontinuous running aeration should be greater than 15 min. The concentration distribution of sludge can reach equilibrium at each point of aeration stabilization pond between 2 min and 10 min. The best aeration period of dislodging the pollutant is 0.5 h aeration/1.0 h cut-off.

  19. El Dorado Air Quality Management District's Approach to Dealing With Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in El Dorado County made headlines with the discovery significant amounts of tremolite/actinolite asbestos in areas where residents had built, or were in the process of building, homes and residences. The El Dorado Air Quality Management District has been involved in all aspects of dealing with NOA from the very beginning of its discovery, from overseeing the rehabilitation of school sites to expanding and rewriting fugitive dust rules at construction sites. A discussion of best management practices which have been developed will be given, as well as how the El Dorado Air Quality Management District has worked to educate members of the public, as well as workers in the field, about NOA to aid in maintaining the health and safety of the public.

  20. When staff is underpaid: dealing with the individual coping strategies of health personnel.

    PubMed Central

    Van Lerberghe, Wim; Conceicao, Claudia; Van Damme, Wim; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Health sector workers respond to inadequate salaries and working conditions by developing various individual "coping strategies"--some, but not all, of which are of a predatory nature. The paper reviews what is known about these practices and their potential consequences (competition for time, brain drain and conflicts of interest). By and large, governments have rarely been proactive in dealing with such problems, mainly because of their reluctance to address the issue openly. The effectiveness of many of these piecemeal reactions, particularly attempts to prohibit personnel from developing individual coping strategies, has been disappointing. The paper argues that a more proactive approach is required. Governments will need to recognize the dimension of the phenomenon and systematically assess the consequences of policy initiatives on the situation and behaviour of the individuals that make up their workforce. PMID:12163923