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Sample records for model greenlab deal

  1. Planting-Density Optimization Study Fortomato Fruit Set and Yield Based Onfunctional-Structural Model Greenlab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lili; Wang, Yiming; Dong, Qiaoxue

    Quantification of tomato's fruit-sets depends on the level of competition for assimilate in different environment, and this paper presented some results of fruit yield and quality (fruit size) in response to environment (mainly respect to and planting-density and light). Some experiments had been carried out to find the relationship between growth rules of tomato and plant densities A structural-functional model GREENLAB has been developed to simulate it. The results show that increasing plant density results in an increment of biomass production on a ground area but in a reduction of single plant fresh weight. To find rules between organ sink and source relationship, calibrations Environmental conditions were introduced into the model checking the influence on Q/D over plant growth period and fruit set ratio. It is found that changing the Q/D ratio in some critical periods can be used to optimize fruit set and yield of greenhouse tomato.

  2. Parameter Optimization and Field Validation of the Functional–Structural Model GREENLAB for Maize

    PubMed Central

    GUO, YAN; MA, YUNTAO; ZHAN, ZHIGANG; LI, BAOGUO; DINGKUHN, MICHAEL; LUQUET, DELPHINE; DE REFFYE, PHILIPPE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims There are three reasons for the increasing demand for crop models that build the plant on the basis of architectural principles and organogenetic processes: (1) realistic concepts for developing new crops need to be guided by such models; (2) there is an increasing interest in crop phenotypic plasticity, based on variable architecture and morphology; and (3) engineering of mechanized cropping systems requires information on crop architecture. The functional–structural model GREENLAB was recently presented that simulates resource-dependent plasticity of plant architecture. This study introduces a new methodology for crop parameter optimization against measured data called multi-fitting, validates the calibrated model for maize with independent field data, and describes a technique for 3D visualization of outputs. • Methods Maize was grown near Beijing during the 2000, 2001 and 2003 (two sowing dates) summer seasons in a block design with four to five replications. Detailed morphological and topological observations were made on the plant architecture throughout the development of the four crops. Data obtained in 2000 was used to establish target files for parameter optimization using the generalized least square method, and parameter accuracy was evaluated by coefficient of variance. In situ plant digitization was used to establish 3D symbol files for organs that were then used to translate model outputs directly into 3D representations for each time step of model execution. •Key Results and Conclusions Multi-fitting against several target files obtained at different growth stages gave better parameter accuracy than single fitting at maturity only, and permitted extracting generic organ expansion kinetics from the static observations. The 2000 model gave excellent predictions of plant architecture and vegetative growth for the other three seasons having different temperature regimes, but predictions of inter-seasonal variability of

  3. Parameter Optimization and Field Validation of the Functional–Structural Model GREENLAB for Maize at Different Population Densities

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuntao; Wen, Meiping; Guo, Yan; Li, Baoguo; Cournède, Paul-Henry; de Reffye, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant population density (PPD) influences plant growth greatly. Functional–structural plant models such as GREENLAB can be used to simulate plant development and growth and PPD effects on plant functioning and architectural behaviour can be investigated. This study aims to evaluate the ability of GREENLAB to predict maize growth and development at different PPDs. Methods Two field experiments were conducted on irrigated fields in the North China Plain with a block design of four replications. Each experiment included three PPDs: 2·8, 5·6 and 11·1 plants m−2. Detailed observations were made on the dimensions and fresh biomass of above-ground plant organs for each phytomer throughout the seasons. Growth stage-specific target files (a description of plant organ weight and dimension according to plant topological structure) were established from the measured data required for GREENLAB parameterization. Parameter optimization was conducted using a generalized least square method for the entire growth cycles for all PPDs and years. Data from in situ plant digitization were used to establish geometrical symbol files for organs that were then applied to translate model output directly into 3-D representation for each time step of the model execution. Key Results The analysis indicated that the parameter values of organ sink variation function, and the values of most of the relative sink strength parameters varied little among years and PPDs, but the biomass production parameter, computed plant projection surface and internode relative sink strength varied with PPD. Simulations of maize plant growth based on the fitted parameters were reasonably good as indicated by the linearity and slopes similar to unity for the comparison of simulated and observed values. Based on the parameter values fitted from different PPDs, shoot (including vegetative and reproductive parts of the plant) and cob fresh biomass for other PPDs were simulated. Three

  4. Parameter Stability of the Functional–Structural Plant Model GREENLAB as Affected by Variation within Populations, among Seasons and among Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuntao; Li, Baoguo; Zhan, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Luquet, Delphine; de Reffye, Philippe; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims It is increasingly accepted that crop models, if they are to simulate genotype-specific behaviour accurately, should simulate the morphogenetic process generating plant architecture. A functional–structural plant model, GREENLAB, was previously presented and validated for maize. The model is based on a recursive mathematical process, with parameters whose values cannot be measured directly and need to be optimized statistically. This study aims at evaluating the stability of GREENLAB parameters in response to three types of phenotype variability: (1) among individuals from a common population; (2) among populations subjected to different environments (seasons); and (3) among different development stages of the same plants. Methods Five field experiments were conducted in the course of 4 years on irrigated fields near Beijing, China. Detailed observations were conducted throughout the seasons on the dimensions and fresh biomass of all above-ground plant organs for each metamer. Growth stage-specific target files were assembled from the data for GREENLAB parameter optimization. Optimization was conducted for specific developmental stages or the entire growth cycle, for individual plants (replicates), and for different seasons. Parameter stability was evaluated by comparing their CV with that of phenotype observation for the different sources of variability. A reduced data set was developed for easier model parameterization using one season, and validated for the four other seasons. Key Results and Conclusions The analysis of parameter stability among plants sharing the same environment and among populations grown in different environments indicated that the model explains some of the inter-seasonal variability of phenotype (parameters varied less than the phenotype itself), but not inter-plant variability (parameter and phenotype variability were similar). Parameter variability among developmental stages was small, indicating that parameter

  5. Dealing with Diversity in Computational Cancer Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David; McKeever, Steve; Stamatakos, Georgios; Dionysiou, Dimitra; Graf, Norbert; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Marias, Konstantinos; Wang, Zhihui; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for interconnecting computational cancer models from different sources and scales within clinically relevant scenarios to increase the accuracy of the models and speed up their clinical adaptation, validation, and eventual translation. We briefly review current interoperability efforts drawing upon our experiences with the development of in silico models for predictive oncology within a number of European Commission Virtual Physiological Human initiative projects on cancer. A clinically relevant scenario, addressing brain tumor modeling that illustrates the need for coupling models from different sources and levels of complexity, is described. General approaches to enabling interoperability using XML-based markup languages for biological modeling are reviewed, concluding with a discussion on efforts towards developing cancer-specific XML markup to couple multiple component models for predictive in silico oncology. PMID:23700360

  6. NASA's GreenLab Research Facility: A Guide for a Self-Sustainable Renewable Energy Ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bomani, B. M. McDowell; Hendricks, R. C.; Elbuluk, Malik; Okon, Monica; Lee, Eric; Gigante, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The sustainability of humanity, as we know it, directly depends on the ability to secure affordable fuel, food, and freshwater. NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has initiated a laboratory pilot study on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as utilizing wind and solar technology as alternative renewable energy resources. The GreenLab Research Facility focuses on optimizing biomass feedstock using algae and halophytes as the next generation of renewable aviation fuels. The unique approach in this facility helps achieve optimal biomass feedstock through climatic adaptation of balanced ecosystems that do not use freshwater, compete with food crops, or use arable land. In addition, the GreenLab Research Facility is powered, in part, by alternative and renewable energy sources, reducing the major environmental impact of present electricity sources. The ultimate goal is to have a 100 percent clean energy laboratory that, when combined with biomass feedstock research, has the framework in place for a self-sustainable renewable energy ecosystem that can be duplicated anywhere in the world and can potentially be used to mitigate the shortage of food, fuel, and water. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility at Glenn and its power and energy sources, and provides recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the facility s concept.

  7. Dealing with uncertainty in modeling intermittent water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieb, A. M.; Rycroft, C.; Wilkening, J.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittency in urban water supply affects hundreds of millions of people in cities around the world, impacting water quality and infrastructure. Building on previous work to dynamically model the transient flows in water distribution networks undergoing frequent filling and emptying, we now consider the hydraulic implications of uncertain input data. Water distribution networks undergoing intermittent supply are often poorly mapped, and household metering frequently ranges from patchy to nonexistent. In the face of uncertain pipe material, pipe slope, network connectivity, and outflow, we investigate how uncertainty affects dynamical modeling results. We furthermore identify which parameters exert the greatest influence on uncertainty, helping to prioritize data collection.

  8. Dealing with Multiple Solutions in Structural Vector Autoregressive Models.

    PubMed

    Beltz, Adriene M; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2016-01-01

    Structural vector autoregressive models (VARs) hold great potential for psychological science, particularly for time series data analysis. They capture the magnitude, direction of influence, and temporal (lagged and contemporaneous) nature of relations among variables. Unified structural equation modeling (uSEM) is an optimal structural VAR instantiation, according to large-scale simulation studies, and it is implemented within an SEM framework. However, little is known about the uniqueness of uSEM results. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate whether multiple solutions result from uSEM analysis and, if so, to demonstrate ways to select an optimal solution. This was accomplished with two simulated data sets, an empirical data set concerning children's dyadic play, and modifications to the group iterative multiple model estimation (GIMME) program, which implements uSEMs with group- and individual-level relations in a data-driven manner. Results revealed multiple solutions when there were large contemporaneous relations among variables. Results also verified several ways to select the correct solution when the complete solution set was generated, such as the use of cross-validation, maximum standardized residuals, and information criteria. This work has immediate and direct implications for the analysis of time series data and for the inferences drawn from those data concerning human behavior.

  9. The GreenLab Research Facility: A Micro-Grid Integrating Production, Consumption and Storage of Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell Bomani, Bilal Mark; Elbuluk, Malik; Fain, Henry; Kankam, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has initiated a laboratory-pilot study that concentrates on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as, utilizing wind and solar technologies as alternative renewable energy resources, and in addition, the use of pumped water for storage of energy that can be retrieved through hydroelectric generation. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility and its power and energy sources with .recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the concept of such a facility

  10. Deal or No Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2006-01-01

    Education at a tribal college for non-Native students is "an awfully good deal for states," says Dr. Joseph F. McDonald (Salish/Kootenai), president of Salish Kootenai College on the Flathead reservation in Montana. It may come as a surprise to most Americans, but tribal colleges have been quietly providing higher education to a substantial number…

  11. Framing Librarianship in the Academy: An Analysis Using Bolman and Deal's Model of Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming-May, Rachel A.; Douglass, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Since the earliest days of the profession, academic librarians have attempted to reconcile their status within the academy. This project takes a new approach to this effort by using Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal's "Four Frames" model to analyze the issues. To more closely examine the dynamics, tensions, and implications associated with…

  12. Sustainable rangeland management using a multi-fuzzy model: how to deal with heterogeneous experts' knowledge.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Hossein; Shahvali, Mansour; van den Berg, Jan; Faghih, Nezamoddin

    2007-04-01

    While fuzzy specialists commonly use homogeneous experts' knowledge to construct fuzzy models, it is much more difficult to deal with knowledge elicited from a heterogeneous group of experts. This issue is exemplified in the area of sustainable rangeland management (SRM). One way to deal with the diversity of opinions is to develop a fuzzy system for all experts and to combine all these, the so-called primary systems, into one multi-fuzzy model. To derive each of the primary fuzzy systems, several semi-structured interviews were held in three different areas of the Fars province in Southwest Iran using the knowledge of a group of administrative experts. To obtain the final output of the multi-fuzzy model, we applied different 'voting' methods. The first method simply uses the arithmetic average of the primary outputs as the final output of the multi-fuzzy model. This final output represents an estimation of the right rate of stocking (RRS). We also propose other (un)supervised voting methods. Most importantly, by harmonising the primary outputs such that outliers get less emphasis, we introduce an unsupervised voting method for calculating a weighted estimate of the RRS. This harmonising method is expected to provide a new useful tool for policymakers dealing with heterogenity in experts' opinions: it is especially useful where limited field data are available and one is forced to rely on experts' knowledge only. By constructing the three fuzzy models based on the elicitation of heterogeneous experts' knowledge, our study shows the multidimensional vaguenesses that exist in SRM. Finally, by comparing the final RRS with its common values, this study strongly points to the existence of overgrazing in pastures in the three regions of the Fars province in Southwest Iran. PMID:16887257

  13. A Leasing Model to Deal with Partial Failures in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Boix, Elisa; van Cutsem, Tom; Vallejos, Jorge; de Meuter, Wolfgang; D'Hondt, Theo

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) many partial failures are the result of temporary network partitions due to the intermittent connectivity of mobile devices. Some of these failures will be permanent and require application-level failure handling. However, it is impossible to distinguish a permanent from a transient failure. Leasing provides a solution to this problem based on the temporal restriction of resources. But to date no leasing model has been designed specifically for MANETs. In this paper, we identify three characteristics required for a leasing model to be usable in a MANET, discuss the issues with existing leasing models and then propose the leased object references model, which integrates leasing with remote object references. In addition, we describe an implementation of the model in the programming language AmbientTalk. Leased object references provide an extensible framework that allows programmers to express their own leasing patterns and enables both lease holders (clients) and lease grantors (services) to deal with permanent failures.

  14. Dealing with uncertainty in landscape genetic resistance models: a case of three co-occurring marsupials.

    PubMed

    Dudaniec, Rachael Y; Worthington Wilmer, Jessica; Hanson, Jeffrey O; Warren, Matthew; Bell, Sarah; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetics lacks explicit methods for dealing with the uncertainty in landscape resistance estimation, which is particularly problematic when sample sizes of individuals are small. Unless uncertainty can be quantified, valuable but small data sets may be rendered unusable for conservation purposes. We offer a method to quantify uncertainty in landscape resistance estimates using multimodel inference as an improvement over single model-based inference. We illustrate the approach empirically using co-occurring, woodland-preferring Australian marsupials within a common study area: two arboreal gliders (Petaurus breviceps, and Petaurus norfolcensis) and one ground-dwelling antechinus (Antechinus flavipes). First, we use maximum-likelihood and a bootstrap procedure to identify the best-supported isolation-by-resistance model out of 56 models defined by linear and non-linear resistance functions. We then quantify uncertainty in resistance estimates by examining parameter selection probabilities from the bootstrapped data. The selection probabilities provide estimates of uncertainty in the parameters that drive the relationships between landscape features and resistance. We then validate our method for quantifying uncertainty using simulated genetic and landscape data showing that for most parameter combinations it provides sensible estimates of uncertainty. We conclude that small data sets can be informative in landscape genetic analyses provided uncertainty can be explicitly quantified. Being explicit about uncertainty in landscape genetic models will make results more interpretable and useful for conservation decision-making, where dealing with uncertainty is critical.

  15. Allocation Variable-Based Probabilistic Algorithm to Deal with Label Switching Problem in Bayesian Mixture Models

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jia-Chiun; Liu, Chih-Min; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Huang, Guan-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The label switching problem occurs as a result of the nonidentifiability of posterior distribution over various permutations of component labels when using Bayesian approach to estimate parameters in mixture models. In the cases where the number of components is fixed and known, we propose a relabelling algorithm, an allocation variable-based (denoted by AVP) probabilistic relabelling approach, to deal with label switching problem. We establish a model for the posterior distribution of allocation variables with label switching phenomenon. The AVP algorithm stochastically relabel the posterior samples according to the posterior probabilities of the established model. Some existing deterministic and other probabilistic algorithms are compared with AVP algorithm in simulation studies, and the success of the proposed approach is demonstrated in simulation studies and a real dataset. PMID:26458185

  16. Dealing with mentally ill domestic violence perpetrators: A therapeutic jurisprudence judicial model.

    PubMed

    Winick, Bruce J; Wiener, Richard; Castro, Anthony; Emmert, Aryn; Georges, Leah S

    2010-01-01

    People suffering from mental illness are increasingly referred to the domestic violence court. Yet the typical diversion programs available, including batterer's intervention programs, are inappropriate for those with serious mental illness. As a result, the Miami-Dade Domestic Violence Court has developed a new approach for dealing with this population that applies mental health court techniques in domestic violence court. This article will describe and discuss this pioneering model. It also will situate this model within the context of other problem-solving courts and discuss how the court uses principles and approaches of therapeutic jurisprudence. The paper presents some preliminary data that describe the social and legal characteristics of 20 defendants in the Domestic Violence Mental Health Court followed over a two year period between 2005 and 2007.

  17. Combining intermediate complexity models and seasonal palaeo records: how to deal with model and climate variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, H. J.; Dekker, S. C.; Wassen, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) are popular tools for palaeo climate simulations. Recent studies applied these models in comparison to terrestrial proxy records and aimed to reconstruct changes in seasonal climate forced by altered ocean circulation patterns. To strengthen this powerful methodology, we argue that the magnitude of the simulated atmospheric changes should be considered in relation to the internal variability of both the climate system and the intermediate complexity model. To attribute a shift in modelled climate to reality, this ‘signal' should be detectable above the ‘noise' related to the internal variability of the climate system and the internal variability of the model. Both noise and climate signals vary over the globe and change with the seasons. We therefore argue that spatial explicit fields of noise should be considered in relation to the strengths of the simulated signals at a seasonal timescale. We approximated total noise on terrestrial temperature and precipitation from a 29 member simulation with the EMIC PUMA-2 and global temperature and precipitation datasets. To illustrate this approach, we calculate Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNRs) in terrestrial temperature and precipitation on simulations of an El Niño warm event, a phase change in Atlantic Meridional Oscillation (AMO) and a Heinrich cooling event. The results of the El Niño and AMO simulations indicate that the chance to accurately detect a climate signal increases with increasing SNRs. Considering the regions and seasons with highest SNRs, the simulated El Niño anomalies show good agreement with observations (r² = 0.8 and 0.6 for temperature and precipitation at SNRs > 4). The AMO signals rarely surpass the noise levels and remain mostly undetected. The simulation of a Heinrich event predicts highest SNRs for temperature (up to 10) over Arabia and Russia during Boreal winter and spring. Highest SNRs for precipitation (up to 12) are predicted over

  18. Dealing with Cultural Diversity: The Endorsement of Societal Models among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2007-01-01

    The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in favor of the mosaic model and less in favor of…

  19. Deal or No Deal? Evaluating Big Deals and Their Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.; Fiscella, Joan B.; Bahnmaier-Blaszczak, Sara; Lowery, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents methods to develop metrics that compare Big Deal journal packages and the journals within those packages. Deal-level metrics guide selection of a Big Deal for termination. Journal-level metrics guide selection of individual subscriptions from journals previously provided by a terminated deal. The paper argues that, while the…

  20. Dealing with uncertainty in ecosystem models: The paradox of use for living marine resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, J. S.; Ihde, T. F.; Harvey, C. J.; Gaichas, S. K.; Field, J. C.; Brodziak, J. K. T.; Townsend, H. M.; Peterman, R. M.

    2012-09-01

    To better manage living marine resources (LMRs), it has become clear that ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) is a desired approach. To do EBFM, one of the key tools will be to use ecosystem models. To fully use ecosystem models and have their outputs adopted, there is an increasingly recognized need to address uncertainty associated with such modeling activities. Here we characterize uncertainty as applied to ecosystem models into six major factors, including: natural variability; observation error; inadequate communication among scientists, decision-makers and stakeholders; the structural complexity of the model(s) used; outcome uncertainty; and unclear management objectives. We then describe best practices to address each of these uncertainties as they particularly apply to ecosystem models being used in a LMR management context. We also present case studies to highlight examples of how these best practices have been implemented. Although we acknowledge that this work was compiled by ecosystem modelers in an LMR management context primarily for other ecosystem modelers, the principles and practices described herein are also germane for managers, stakeholders and other natural resource management communities. We conclude by emphasizing not only the need to address uncertainty in ecosystem models, but also the feasibility and benefits of doing so.

  1. Model bending: Towards dealing with model inadequacies in data assimilation and forecasting using a single model structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.

    2003-04-01

    Information about the ways in which models are in error can be inferred by dynamically altering model parameters using a data assimilation framework to ``bend'' the model attractor onto the system attractor. Instead of (or in addition to) altering model states to minimize a model-data misfit, one alters model parameters throughout the assimilation window in order to minimize the model-data misfit. The manner in which the model parameters can be altered (spatio-temporal smoothness constraints, statistical relationship between parameterization an physical process, etc.) should be governed more by physical reasoning than by methods that prove best at minimizing model/data misfit; we take steps to insure that model parameters are altered in physically consistent ways. This reduces the risk of over-fitting, and provides a mechanism by which parameters can be altered during the forecast phase. During the forecast phase, model parameters can be altered by applying a parametric forecast 4d-Var. Using model output statistics (MOS), raw model forecasts are improved through statistical post-processing, and these future "observations" of the system state are used in a parametric 4d-Var process to find improved model initial conditions and parameter values. Information about the way parameters had to be varried to match the MOS states is extrapolated over lead times beyond the forecast assimilation window.

  2. A toy model to deal with zero rainfall in a Universal Multifractal framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    High resolution rainfall fields contain numerous zeros (i.e pixels or time steps with no rain) which are either real or spurious that is to say associated with the limit of detection of the rainfall measurement device. The Universal multifractal (UM) framework, which is commonly used to analyse and simulate geophysical fields exhibiting extreme variability over wide range of scales with the help of reduced number of parameters, does not enable to properly represent theses zeros. It has been shown that not taking them into account can worsen the quality of the scaling and lead to severe bias in the estimates of UM parameters. In the literature, there are mainly two models suggested for representing the zeros of the rainfall. First the so-called beta-model option, which basically consists in multiplying a multifractal field by an independent binary support (the portion of the field where there actually is some rain) generated with the help of a beta-model (i.e. a cascade model leading to a set exhibiting a pre-defined fractal dimension). Second the threshold option where the field is simply truncated at the maximum resolution. There are serious limitations with both options. For example the independence assumption in the beta-model option is not realistic and in the threshold option there is no "real" (i.e. associated with physical processes) zeros or small values. In this paper we propose a new toy model which basically consists in merging both models. It is a UM discrete cascade process, where at each step if the simulated intensity is below a given level (defined in a scale invariant manner), it only has a predetermined probability to survive and is otherwise set to zero. It would represent a physical limit to rainfall processes. A threshold can then be implemented at the maximum resolution to model the limit of detection of the rainfall measurement device. With the help of theoretical considerations and numerical simulations, we show that this simple toy model

  3. Dealing with the Stress of College: A Model for Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler Giancola, Jennifer; Grawitch, Matthew J.; Borchert, Dana

    2009-01-01

    With an increase in nontraditional students attending college, there is a need to understand how work/school/life stress affects adult students. The purpose of this study is to test a comprehensive stress model that posits appraisal (cognitive evaluation) and coping as mediators between stressors/interrole conflict and psychosocial outcomes. The…

  4. A Review of Applied Aspects of Dealing with Gut Microbiota Impact on Rodent Models.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) affects numerous human diseases, as well as rodent models for these. We will review this impact and summarize ways to handle this challenge in animal research. The GM is complex, with the largest fractions being the gram-positive phylum Firmicutes and the gram-negative phylum Bacteroidetes. Other important phyla are the gram-negative phyla Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, and the gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria. GM members influence models for diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, allergies, autoimmunity, cancer, and neuropsychiatric diseases. GM characterization of all individual animals and incorporation of their GM composition in data evaluation may therefore be considered in future protocols. Germfree isolator-housed rodents or rodents made virtually germ free by antibiotic cocktails can be used to study diverse microbial influences on disease expression. Through subsequent inoculation with selected strains or cocktails of microbes, new "defined flora" models can yield valuable knowledge on the impact of the GM, and of specific GM members and their interactions, on important disease phenotypes and mechanisms. Rodent husbandry and microbial quality assurance practices will be important to ensure and confirm appropriate and research relevant GM. PMID:26323634

  5. Dealing with unquantifiable uncertainties in landslide modelling for urban risk reduction in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Susana; Holcombe, Liz; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Landslides have many negative economic and societal impacts, including the potential for significant loss of life and damage to infrastructure. Slope stability assessment can be used to guide decisions about the management of landslide risk, but its usefulness can be challenged by high levels of uncertainty in predicting landslide occurrence. Prediction uncertainty may be associated with the choice of model that is used to assess slope stability, the quality of the available input data, or a lack of knowledge of how future climatic and socio-economic changes may affect future landslide risk. While some of these uncertainties can be characterised by relatively well-defined probability distributions, for other uncertainties, such as those linked to climate change, no probability distribution is available to characterise them. This latter type of uncertainty, often referred to as deep uncertainty, means that robust policies need to be developed that are expected to perform acceptably well over a wide range of future conditions. In our study the impact of deep uncertainty on slope stability predictions is assessed in a quantitative and structured manner using Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model (CHASM). In particular, we use several GSA methods including the Method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis and Classification and Regression Trees (CART), as well as advanced visualization tools, to assess the combination of conditions that may lead to slope failure. Our example application is a slope in the Caribbean, an area that is naturally susceptible to landslides due to a combination of high rainfall rates during the hurricane season, steep slopes, and highly weathered residual soils. Rapid unplanned urbanisation and changing climate may further exacerbate landslide risk in the future. Our example shows how we can gain useful information in the presence of deep uncertainty by combining physically based models with GSA in

  6. Dealing with electronic waste: modeling the costs and environmental benefits of computer monitor disposal.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Molly; Palmer, Karen; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2003-05-01

    The importance of information technology to the world economy has brought about a surge in demand for electronic equipment. With rapid technological change, a growing fraction of the increasing stock of many types of electronics becomes obsolete each year. We model the costs and benefits of policies to manage 'e-waste' by focusing on a large component of the electronic waste stream-computer monitors-and the environmental concerns associated with disposal of the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We find that the benefits of avoiding health effects associated with CRT disposal appear far outweighed by the costs for a wide range of policies. For the stock of monitors disposed of in the United States in 1998, we find that policies restricting or banning some popular disposal options would increase disposal costs from about US dollar 1 per monitor to between US dollars 3 and US dollars 20 per monitor. Policies to promote a modest amount of recycling of monitor parts, including lead, can be less expensive. In all cases, however, the costs of the policies exceed the value of the avoided health effects of CRT disposal.

  7. Mathematical Decision Models Applied for Qualifying and Planning Areas Considering Natural Hazards and Human Dealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Jose M.; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Elena; Andina, Diego

    2014-05-01

    The authors were involved in the use of some Mathematical Decision Models, MDM, to improve knowledge and planning about some large natural or administrative areas for which natural soils, climate, and agro and forest uses where main factors, but human resources and results were important, natural hazards being relevant. In one line they have contributed about qualification of lands of the Community of Madrid, CM, administrative area in centre of Spain containing at North a band of mountains, in centre part of Iberian plateau and river terraces, and also Madrid metropolis, from an official study of UPM for CM qualifying lands using a FAO model from requiring minimums of a whole set of Soil Science criteria. The authors set first from these criteria a complementary additive qualification, and tried later an intermediate qualification from both using fuzzy logic. The authors were also involved, together with colleagues from Argentina et al. that are in relation with local planners, for the consideration of regions and of election of management entities for them. At these general levels they have adopted multi-criteria MDM, used a weighted PROMETHEE, and also an ELECTRE-I with the same elicited weights for the criteria and data, and at side AHP using Expert Choice from parallel comparisons among similar criteria structured in two levels. The alternatives depend on the case study, and these areas with monsoon climates have natural hazards that are decisive for their election and qualification with an initial matrix used for ELECTRE and PROMETHEE. For the natural area of Arroyos Menores at South of Rio Cuarto town, with at North the subarea of La Colacha, the loess lands are rich but suffer now from water erosions forming regressive ditches that are spoiling them, and use of soils alternatives must consider Soil Conservation and Hydraulic Management actions. The use of soils may be in diverse non compatible ways, as autochthonous forest, high value forest, traditional

  8. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Dealing With Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Peer Pressure ... Let's talk about how to handle it. Defining Peer Pressure Peers influence your life, even if you ...

  9. Algebraic tools for dealing with the atomic shell model. I. Wavefunctions and integrals for hydrogen-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhykov, Andrey; Koval, Peter; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    of the hydrogen-like ions, however, the underlying 'mathematics' is not always that easy to deal with. Apart from the well-known level structure of these ions as obtained from either the Schrödinger or Dirac equation, namely, a great deal of other properties are often needed. These properties are related to the interaction of bound electron(s) with external particles and fields and, hence, require to evaluate transition amplitudes, including wavefunctions and (transition) operators of quite different complexity. Although various special functions, such as the Laguerre polynomials, spherical harmonics, Whittaker functions, or the hypergeometric functions of various kinds can be used in most cases in order to express these amplitudes in a concise form, their derivation is time consuming and prone for making errors. In addition to their complexity, moreover, there exist a large number of mathematical relations among these functions which are difficult to remember in detail and which have often hampered quantitative studies in the past. Method of solution: A set of MAPLE procedures is developed which provides both the nonrelativistic and relativistic (analytical) solutions of the 'hydrogen atom model' and which facilitates the symbolic evaluation of various transition amplitudes. Restrictions onto the complexity of the problem: Over the past decades, a large number of representations have been worked out for the hydrogenic wave and Green's functions, using different variables and coordinates [2]. From these, the position-space representation in spherical coordinates is certainly of most practical interest and has been used as the basis of the present implementation. No attempt has been made by us so far to provide the wave and Green's functions also in momentum space, for which the relativistic momentum functions would have to be constructed numerically. Although the DIRAC program supports both symbolic and numerical computations, the latter one are based on MAPLE

  10. Dealing with Bullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Dealing With Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Bullying Print A ... Schools en español Cómo reaccionar ante la intimidación Bullying Is a Big Problem Every day thousands of ...

  11. A novel model-based adaptive control strategy for step-feed SBRs dealing with influent fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Yang, Min; Han, Jingyi; Sun, Peide

    2014-09-01

    A novel model-based adaptive control strategy for step-feed sequence batch reactors (SBRs) was developed and compared with traditional fixed-parameters control strategy and statically optimal parameters control strategy under influent fluctuation period. The SBR was operated with automatic alteration of the operating parameters based on the numerical calculation results of fully coupled activated sludge model (FCASM). Since the influent fluctuated from one cycle to another, model-based adaptive control strategy was applied to optimize the operating parameters of the SBR accordingly. By using the model-based adaptive control strategy, the average removal efficiencies for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) achieved in fluctuation tests were over 84% and 98%, respectively. Compared to traditional fixed-parameters strategy, the TN removal efficiency was improved by 25.11%.

  12. Dealing with Dwindling Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, S. V.

    Factors contributing to the struggle for survival faced by postsecondary institutions and ways to deal with dwindling resources, in particular by regionalism and regionalization, are considered. Among the contributing factors are the leveling off of the college-age population (18-21-year-olds), the declining status of advanced learning in American…

  13. Dealing with "The Bomb"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Every superintendent eventually has to deal with "The Bomb." This refers to a loaded question from a board member dropped at an inopportune moment in a public meeting when the superintendent has been given no time to prepare an informed response. The superintendent's typical reactions include the "deer in the headlights" look, a big gulp or even a…

  14. Dealing with Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delude, Rita

    1996-01-01

    Crisis management teams in a rural New York State school district include 6 to 10 members. Each group must go through three days of intensive training that prepares them to deal with the media, legal issues, students, parents, and peers, while maintaining as much academic normalcy as possible in crisis situations. Lists crisis team…

  15. Dealing with Feeling: A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Strategies Derived from the Process Model of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas L.; Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal

    2012-01-01

    The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER)…

  16. Dealing with the devil in the detail - some thoughts about the next model of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Arbuthnott, Gordon; Garcia-Munoz, Marianela

    2009-12-01

    Any simplified description of a brain system that survives 20 years is bound to have some problems. Twenty years of research should have added details that were not known when the now classical description of the basal ganglia circuitry was new. Some examples of such new information about the parts of the original model include: All of these details make it difficult to cling to the model as it was presented, but which of the new information will support a new synthesis? Do we have a coherent replacement for those powerfully heuristic ideas put forward by Albin Young and Penny in 1989? Perhaps in the quantitative anatomical detail there is a plan that may support a new theory. If all of the cortex is not accessible to every striatal cell. If dopamine influences many spines rather than the one it contacts. If we stop looking for a mechanical control system for movement in the basal ganglia and begin to investigate the predictive properties of 'reinforcement learning'. Then maybe a new functional model will emerge that is less tied to anatomical and physiological simplification, but perhaps will still allow us to engineer therapeutic strategies to help patients with movement disorders.

  17. Dealing with correlated choices: how a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies.

    PubMed

    Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks. PMID:25375448

  18. Dealing with correlated choices: How a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.

  19. Dealing with correlated choices: how a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies.

    PubMed

    Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.

  20. Empowering Latino church leaders to deal with the HIV-AIDS crisis: a strengths-oriented service model.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Johnson, Johnny; Díaz, Héctor Luis; Feldman, Janis B; Ramírez-Jorge, Johnny

    2013-06-01

    Ideology and attitudes of Latino church leaders in the United States toward HIV/AIDS are explored. A qualitative approach utilized with emergent categories including: a desire within the Latino church for greater acceptance of HIV/AIDS sufferers, the supposed contaminating influence of HIV/AIDS individuals over other church members, and the feelings of helplessness many church members experience in relation to the HIV/AIDS crisis. Understanding ideological resistance that prevents engagement is here identified and a strategy of empowerment of church leaders is recommended to overcome it including: adopting a strengths-oriented service model that focuses on resources religious denominations already have, as opposed to a financially driven, medically oriented service model that highlights what churches often do not have; church leaders educating health care agencies on how to use religious beliefs to motivate church members to work on behalf of HIV/AIDS patients; the power of doctrinal ideology in affecting church and civil society's response to HIV/AIDS.

  1. Dealing with difficult people.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    The number ofpeople security officers deal with and the number of challenges they present, are increasing every day, the author reports. Developing verbal skills to handle those challenges is not easy, but is essential in helping them and the facility you work for, he says. A veteran of 400 plus hours in training healthcare workers in crisis prevention, he provides in this article a number of effective ways to achieve tension reduction. PMID:26647509

  2. Deals without delusions.

    PubMed

    Lovallo, Dan; Viguerie, Patrick; Uhlaner, Robert; Horn, John

    2007-12-01

    Pursuing a merger or acquisition is inherently difficult. Things get even harder when executives are blind to their own faulty assumptions, say Lovallo--a professor at the University of Western Australia Business School and a senior adviser to McKinsey--and three of his McKinsey colleagues. The authors identify biases that can surface at each step of the M&A process and provide practical tips for rising above them--an approach they call targeted debiasing. During the preliminary due-diligence stage, biases abound. To overcome the confirmation bias, aggressively seek evidence that challenges your initial hypothesis about a deal. The best medicine for overconfidence in identifying revenue and cost synergies is to learn from precedents at your firm and others. Avoiding underestimation of cultural differences between your company and the target requires understanding the differences in the ways people interact at each organization. Misjudging the time and resources you need is at the core of the planning fallacy, which you can elude by formally identifying best practices and continually revisiting them. Finally, dilute conflict of interest by soliciting dispassionate external expertise. The bidding phase is vulnerable to the winner's curse, a phenomenon common in auctions. To avoid paying too much for a target, actively generate alternatives to the deal under consideration and develop a set of bidding cutoff rules. After offering an initial bid, deal makers are susceptible to anchoring, whereby they remain attached to their original price estimate, and to the sunk cost fallacy that they've invested too much to stop now. The secret to overcoming both: Use your newly available access to the target's books to better assess the investment case--and change your tune accordingly.

  3. Dealing with LOFAR interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, André

    2011-07-01

    LOFAR is a new radio telescope built in and around the Netherlands that will probe the universe between 10 and 200 MHz. Most of LOFAR's hardware has been installed and the next step is writing the required algorithms to process LOFAR's data. One such algorithm is the detection of interference. Since LOFAR is built in a populated environment, care has to be taken to deal with interference from terrestrial origin. A detection pipeline was written that removes interference in an automated way. This pipeline is now in use and the radio environment around LOFAR is being analyzed. Results show a relatively benign radio environment with a loss of data of a few per cent due to interference.

  4. What's the Deal with Dialysis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... White House Lunch Recipes What's the Deal With Dialysis? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's the Deal With Dialysis? ... in the blood is too low What Is Dialysis? When someone's kidneys can no longer do their ...

  5. Quantitative Genetics and Functional–Structural Plant Growth Models: Simulation of Quantitative Trait Loci Detection for Model Parameters and Application to Potential Yield Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Letort, Véronique; Mahe, Paul; Cournède, Paul-Henry; de Reffye, Philippe; Courtois, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Prediction of phenotypic traits from new genotypes under untested environmental conditions is crucial to build simulations of breeding strategies to improve target traits. Although the plant response to environmental stresses is characterized by both architectural and functional plasticity, recent attempts to integrate biological knowledge into genetics models have mainly concerned specific physiological processes or crop models without architecture, and thus may prove limited when studying genotype × environment interactions. Consequently, this paper presents a simulation study introducing genetics into a functional–structural growth model, which gives access to more fundamental traits for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection and thus to promising tools for yield optimization. Methods The GREENLAB model was selected as a reasonable choice to link growth model parameters to QTL. Virtual genes and virtual chromosomes were defined to build a simple genetic model that drove the settings of the species-specific parameters of the model. The QTL Cartographer software was used to study QTL detection of simulated plant traits. A genetic algorithm was implemented to define the ideotype for yield maximization based on the model parameters and the associated allelic combination. Key Results and Conclusions By keeping the environmental factors constant and using a virtual population with a large number of individuals generated by a Mendelian genetic model, results for an ideal case could be simulated. Virtual QTL detection was compared in the case of phenotypic traits – such as cob weight – and when traits were model parameters, and was found to be more accurate in the latter case. The practical interest of this approach is illustrated by calculating the parameters (and the corresponding genotype) associated with yield optimization of a GREENLAB maize model. The paper discusses the potentials of GREENLAB to represent environment × genotype

  6. Dealing with spatial heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsily, Gh.; Delay, F.; Gonçalvès, J.; Renard, Ph.; Teles, V.; Violette, S.

    2005-03-01

    Heterogeneity can be dealt with by defining homogeneous equivalent properties, known as averaging, or by trying to describe the spatial variability of the rock properties from geologic observations and local measurements. The techniques available for these descriptions are mostly continuous Geostatistical models, or discontinuous facies models such as the Boolean, Indicator or Gaussian-Threshold models and the Markov chain model. These facies models are better suited to treating issues of rock strata connectivity, e.g. buried high permeability channels or low permeability barriers, which greatly affect flow and, above all, transport in aquifers. Genetic models provide new ways to incorporate more geology into the facies description, an approach that has been well developed in the oil industry, but not enough in hydrogeology. The conclusion is that future work should be focused on improving the facies models, comparing them, and designing new in situ testing procedures (including geophysics) that would help identify the facies geometry and properties. A world-wide catalog of aquifer facies geometry and properties, which could combine site genesis and description with methods used to assess the system, would be of great value for practical applications. On peut aborder le problème de l'hétérogénéité en s'efforçant de définir une perméabilité équivalente homogène, par prise de moyenne, ou au contraire en décrivant la variation dans l'espace des propriétés des roches à partir des observations géologiques et des mesures locales. Les techniques disponibles pour une telle description sont soit continues, comme l'approche Géostatistique, soit discontinues, comme les modèles de faciès, Booléens, ou bien par Indicatrices ou Gaussiennes Seuillées, ou enfin Markoviens. Ces modèles de faciès sont mieux capables de prendre en compte la connectivité des strates géologiques, telles que les chenaux enfouis à forte perméabilité, ou au contraire les faci

  7. Dealing with spatial heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsily, Gh.; Delay, F.; Gonçalvès, J.; Renard, Ph.; Teles, V.; Violette, S.

    2005-03-01

    Heterogeneity can be dealt with by defining homogeneous equivalent properties, known as averaging, or by trying to describe the spatial variability of the rock properties from geologic observations and local measurements. The techniques available for these descriptions are mostly continuous Geostatistical models, or discontinuous facies models such as the Boolean, Indicator or Gaussian-Threshold models and the Markov chain model. These facies models are better suited to treating issues of rock strata connectivity, e.g. buried high permeability channels or low permeability barriers, which greatly affect flow and, above all, transport in aquifers. Genetic models provide new ways to incorporate more geology into the facies description, an approach that has been well developed in the oil industry, but not enough in hydrogeology. The conclusion is that future work should be focused on improving the facies models, comparing them, and designing new in situ testing procedures (including geophysics) that would help identify the facies geometry and properties. A world-wide catalog of aquifer facies geometry and properties, which could combine site genesis and description with methods used to assess the system, would be of great value for practical applications. On peut aborder le problème de l'hétérogénéité en s'efforçant de définir une perméabilité équivalente homogène, par prise de moyenne, ou au contraire en décrivant la variation dans l'espace des propriétés des roches à partir des observations géologiques et des mesures locales. Les techniques disponibles pour une telle description sont soit continues, comme l'approche Géostatistique, soit discontinues, comme les modèles de faciès, Booléens, ou bien par Indicatrices ou Gaussiennes Seuillées, ou enfin Markoviens. Ces modèles de faciès sont mieux capables de prendre en compte la connectivité des strates géologiques, telles que les chenaux enfouis à forte perméabilité, ou au contraire les faci

  8. University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA) Academic Department Chairs' Self-Perceived Utilization of Bolman and Deal's Four-Frame Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sonya L.; Lindahl, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the Bolman and Deal leadership orientation preferred by academic department chairs (ADCs) of Educational Leadership or Administration programs at member colleges and universities of the University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA). A secondary purpose of the study was to examine how the preferred frame of the chairs…

  9. University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA) Academic Department Chairs' Self-Perceived Utilization of Bolman and Deal's Four-Frame Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sonya L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Bolman and Deal leadership orientation preferred by academic department chairs (ADCs) of Educational Leadership or Administration programs at member colleges and universities of the University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA). A secondary purpose of the study was to examine how the…

  10. Thirteen Secrets of the Deal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Whether one is on Wall Street, in Congress, or working in an IT shop on campus, negotiating a good deal is hard work. As higher education enters its purchasing season, "Campus Technology" talks to deal makers who have "been there and done that." This article presents their tips for getting the most value from vendors the next time one buys…

  11. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding.

  12. [Dealing with competing events in survival analysis].

    PubMed

    Béchade, Clémence; Lobbedez, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Survival analyses focus on the occurrences of an event of interest, in order to determine risk factors and estimate a risk. Competing events prevent from observing the event of interest. If there are competing events, it can lead to a bias in the risk's estimation. The aim of this article is to explain why Cox model is not appropriate when there are competing events, and to present Fine and Gray model, which can help when dealing with competing risks.

  13. Dealing with Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest roadblocks to addressing instructional rigor in schools is the resistance to change that is displayed by teachers, students, parents, and other building and district leaders. Every person deals differently with change. Some are more accepting, others more resistant. No change is successful if the people being asked to change…

  14. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  15. Interventions for Dealing with Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Dorinda J.

    Basic intervention strategies for dealing with client resistance include psychoanalytic, learning/behavioral, and hypnotic/paradoxical. Psychoanalytic theory views resistance as a way to avoid the anxiety aroused by increasing awareness of unconscious materials and vulnerable areas in the person's life. Resistance is dealt with after it has…

  16. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  17. Dealing with death and dying.

    PubMed

    McFarland, K F; Rollins, E C; Gonzalez, M F; Rhoades, D R

    1994-03-01

    We instituted two thanatology seminars for medical students and residents which emphasized feelings more than objective data. The seminars began with students filling out a death certificate on themselves. Eighty-four per cent predicted that their own probable cause of death would be from an acute illness. Discussion and reflection on this experience helped them realize how difficult it would be to deal with a chronic illness. By answering a question about what they were most grateful for, they became aware that they valued family and friends most highly. We believe that this experience legitimized feelings which form the basis of empathy.

  18. Dealing with uncertainties - communication between disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overbeek, Bernadet; Bessembinder, Janette

    2013-04-01

    Climate adaptation research inevitably involves uncertainty issues - whether people are building a model, using climate scenarios, or evaluating policy processes. However, do they know which uncertainties are relevant in their field of work? And which uncertainties exist in the data from other disciplines that they use (e.g. climate data, land use, hydrological data) and how they propagate? From experiences in Dutch research programmes on climate change in the Netherlands we know that disciplines often deal differently with uncertainties. This complicates communication between disciplines and also with the various users of data and information on climate change and its impacts. In October 2012 an autumn school was organized within the Knowledge for Climate Research Programme in the Netherlands with as central theme dealing with and communicating about uncertainties, in climate- and socio-economic scenarios, in impact models and in the decision making process. The lectures and discussions contributed to the development of a common frame of reference (CFR) for dealing with uncertainties. The common frame contains the following: 1. Common definitions (typology of uncertainties, robustness); 2. Common understanding (why do we consider it important to take uncertainties into account) and aspects on which we disagree (how far should scientists go in communication?); 3. Documents that are considered important by all participants; 4. Do's and don'ts in dealing with uncertainties and communicating about uncertainties (e.g. know your audience, check how your figures are interpreted); 5. Recommendations for further actions (e.g. need for a platform to exchange experiences). The CFR is meant to help researchers in climate adaptation to work together and communicate together on climate change (better interaction between disciplines). It is also meant to help researchers to explain to others (e.g. decision makers) why and when researchers agree and when and why they disagree

  19. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk - Roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, Alberto; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Brandimarte, Luigia; Kuil, Linda; Carr, Gemma; Salinas, José Luis; Scolobig, Anna; Blöschl, Günter

    2014-10-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in the development of urban floodplains. In this paper we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep risk awareness high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk the community is collectively willing to be exposed to; and (iii) trust of the community in risk reduction measures. To this end, we use a dynamic model that represents the feedback between the hydrological and social system components. Model results indicate that, on the one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-taking attitude, community development is severely limited because of high damages caused by flooding. On the other hand, overestimation of risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many scenarios of favourable development resulting from a trade-off between collective memory and trust in risk reduction measures combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to community growth or recession.

  20. [Dealing with errors in medicine].

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, R A; Perruchoud, A P

    1998-12-24

    Iatrogenic disease is probably more commonly than assumed the consequence of errors and mistakes committed by physicians and other medical personnel. Traditionally, strategies to prevent errors in medicine focus on inspection and rely on the professional ethos of health care personnel. The increasingly complex nature of medical practise and the multitude of interventions that each patient receives increases the likelihood of error. More efficient approaches to deal with errors have been developed. The methods include routine identification of errors (critical incidence report), systematic monitoring of multiple-step processes in medical practice, system analysis, and system redesign. A search for underlying causes of errors (rather than distal causes) will enable organizations to collectively learn without denying the inevitable occurrence of human error. Errors and mistakes may become precious chances to increase the quality of medical care.

  1. Dealing with Y2K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 17 months, the ball drops in New York's Times Square to usher in a new millennium and new year ending in the digits 00. However, internal clocks in computers around the world may recognize the date as 1900 rather than 2000 if governments and businesses drop the ball in dealing with a simple computer design flaw that has ballooned into a complex management issue of correcting billions of lines of computer code worldwide.In a speech at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C, in July, U.S. President Bill Clinton proposed new legislation to make it easier for the private sector to collaborate in solving this problem.

  2. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

    2013-12-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

  3. Dealing With Missing Behavioral Endpoints in Health Promotion Research by Modeling Cognitive Parameters in Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Behavioral Interventions: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Feenstra, Talitha L; Smit, Eline S; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M A A; van der Palen, Job

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of incorporating cognitive parameters of behavior change in CEAs. The CEA from a randomized controlled trial on smoking cessation was reanalyzed. First, relevant cognitive antecedents of behavior change in this dataset were identified. Then, transition probabilities between combined states of smoking and cognitions at 6 weeks and corresponding 6 months smoking status were obtained from the dataset. These rates were extrapolated to the period from 6 to 12 months in a decision analytic model. Simulated results were compared with the 12 months' observed cost-effectiveness results. Self-efficacy was the strongest time-varying predictor of smoking cessation. Twelve months' observed CEA results for the multiple tailoring intervention versus usual care showed € 3188 had to be paid for each additional quitter versus € 10,600 in the simulated model. The simulated CEA showed largely similar but somewhat more conservative results. Using self-efficacy to enhance the estimation of the true behavioral outcome seems a feasible and valid way to estimate future cost-effectiveness.

  4. The new deal at the top.

    PubMed

    Doz, Yves L; Kosonen, Mikko

    2007-06-01

    What makes a company strategically agile--able to alter its strategies and business models rapidly in response to major changes in its market space, and to do so repeatedly without major trauma? Three years of in-depth case research on a dozen large companies worldwide showed the authors that one key factor is a new leadership model at the top. Senior executives at agile companies assume collective rather than individual responsibility for results. They build interdependencies among units and divisions, motivating themselves to engage with one another, and carefully manage their dealings to promote collaboration that is frequent, intense, informal, open, and focused on shared issues and the long term. Challenges to conventional thinking are encouraged. This is the new deal, and it's not easy to strike, because it requires executives to act in ways that are far from comfortable. After all, the corporate ladder at most firms favors independent types with a deep need for power and autonomy. At executive meetings, disagreement is suppressed or expressed passive-aggressively, eroding any real sense of belonging to a team. Switching to the new deal almost always requires a huge shift in the company's culture, values, and norms of interaction. The authors describe three approaches to making the shift: Executives can be given formal responsibility not for a business unit but for different stages in the company's value chain. This worked well for SAP, which has a relatively focused business portfolio. When a company's portfolio is less uniform, like Nokia's, business and functional units can be organized to crisscross on a matrix. And when a company is widely diverse, like easyGroup, it can emphasize the learning opportunities that units with common business models may share. PMID:17580652

  5. The new deal at the top.

    PubMed

    Doz, Yves L; Kosonen, Mikko

    2007-06-01

    What makes a company strategically agile--able to alter its strategies and business models rapidly in response to major changes in its market space, and to do so repeatedly without major trauma? Three years of in-depth case research on a dozen large companies worldwide showed the authors that one key factor is a new leadership model at the top. Senior executives at agile companies assume collective rather than individual responsibility for results. They build interdependencies among units and divisions, motivating themselves to engage with one another, and carefully manage their dealings to promote collaboration that is frequent, intense, informal, open, and focused on shared issues and the long term. Challenges to conventional thinking are encouraged. This is the new deal, and it's not easy to strike, because it requires executives to act in ways that are far from comfortable. After all, the corporate ladder at most firms favors independent types with a deep need for power and autonomy. At executive meetings, disagreement is suppressed or expressed passive-aggressively, eroding any real sense of belonging to a team. Switching to the new deal almost always requires a huge shift in the company's culture, values, and norms of interaction. The authors describe three approaches to making the shift: Executives can be given formal responsibility not for a business unit but for different stages in the company's value chain. This worked well for SAP, which has a relatively focused business portfolio. When a company's portfolio is less uniform, like Nokia's, business and functional units can be organized to crisscross on a matrix. And when a company is widely diverse, like easyGroup, it can emphasize the learning opportunities that units with common business models may share.

  6. Dealing with a Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Pack, Allan I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies by insurance companies with respect to mandating home sleep apnea testing rather than in-laboratory studies have a large impact on the financial viability of clinical sleep centers. Coping with this disruptive change requires forward planning. First, it is important to be well positioned with respect to facilities so that these can be quickly downsized to control costs. There is also a need to develop, in advance, an accredited home sleep study program so that centers can respond to the rapidly changing environment. Following the change there is a need to control costs by rapidly downsizing the technology workforce. Technologists can be retrained for other essential roles. Centralizing the precertification process with knowledgeable, well-trained staff and a robust auditing process is an essential component. The approach taken at the University of Pennsylvania to this change is described as is how one can ensure continued financial viability of a comprehensive sleep center program in a major academic medical center. Citation: Pack AI. Dealing with a paradigm shift. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):925–929. PMID:26094918

  7. Dealing with Persistent Pain in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain Management Related Documents PDF Dealing with Persistent Pain in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Dealing with Persistent Pain in Older Adults Tools and Tips Printer-friendly ...

  8. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either.

  9. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either. PMID:18457493

  10. Judging Big Deals: Challenges, Outcomes, and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of five Big Deal electronic journal packages to which Hofstra University's Axinn Library subscribes. COUNTER usage reports were used to judge the value of each Big Deal. Limitations of usage statistics are also discussed. In the end, the author concludes that four of the five Big Deals are good…

  11. Diagnosing and dealing with multicollinearity.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M A

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this article was to increase nurse researchers' awareness of the effects of collinear data in developing theoretical models for nursing practice. Collinear data distort the true value of the estimates generated from ordinary least-squares analysis. Theoretical models developed to provide the underpinnings of nursing practice need not be abandoned, however, because they fail to produce consistent estimates over repeated applications. It is also important to realize that multicollinearity is a data problem, not a problem associated with misspecification of a theorectical model. An investigator must first be aware of the problem, and then it is possible to develop an educated solution based on the degree of multicollinearity, theoretical considerations, and sources of error associated with alternative, biased, least-square regression techniques. Decisions based on theoretical and statistical considerations will further the development of theory-based nursing practice.

  12. Dealing with the Biological Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Emeric

    1996-05-01

    The bio-technological revolution presents a real challenge to the chemical education community. This challenge is two-fold: 1) the necessity of teaching students the underlying chemical principles and other skills necessary for sucess in the expanding biotechnological workplace and 2) ensuring and enhancing respect from the biological community for the first two years of the chemistry curriculum. In the opinion of the author, we are not doing a particularly good job of meeting this challenge, although progress is being made. As the "doing" of chemistry becomes easier for biologists, there is the real danger that the knowledge of a significant portion of the underlying chemistry will increasingly be viewed as less valuable, and perhaps even superfluous. The three "Trojan Horses" are: synthetic, analytical, and "process" kits; instrumentation coupled with computer "interpretation"; and molecular modeling. The author believes that in order to address the biological challenge head on, we should give serious consideration to the following: 1) reversing the "learning arrow"; 2) embedding molecular and other modeling; 3) incorporating instrumental analysis and chemistry-by-kit. Reversing the learning arrow approaches the chemistry curriculum by starting with large biomolecules first and working toward smaller fundamental units. The author believes that this approach and a more proactive stance on establishing what is in the domain of chemistry is the means by which the biological challenge, spawned by the bio-technological revolution, can most forcefully be addressed.

  13. Uncovering the Deal in Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.; Hudder, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A teacher educator and a former student, now a classroom teacher, have a 14-year conversation about the deep dynamics of classroom management, which is more complicated than it first appears. The teacher educator introduces the classroom teacher to The Deal, an idea that can guide early-career teachers as well as veteran teachers. The Deal is, in…

  14. Dealing with Resistance: Strategies for Effective Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes strategies for dealing effectively with resistance in group therapy. Discusses resistant group members; reasons for resistance; group stages; and strategies for dealing with silence, laughter, excessive talking, monopolizing, and intellectualizing and generalizing. Includes discussion of experimental strategies to overcome group…

  15. Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…

  16. Dealing with World Issues in Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kujawa, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Discusses dealing with global issues in the camp setting in a way that broadens young people's world views. Topics include the educational advantages of the camp setting, desired outcomes for campers, guidelines for staff, and program ideas for dealing with issues such as environmental awareness, racism, and economic justice. (JHZ)

  17. How Can I Deal with My Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who Cuts? How Can I Deal With My Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Can I Deal With My Asthma? Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Tips en español ¿Cómo puedo afrontar mi asma? Asthma is more common these days than it used ...

  18. Clarification of the confusion concerning the crystal-field quantities vs the zero-field splitting quantities in magnetism studies: Part II—Survey of literature dealing with model studies of spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudowicz, C.

    2008-07-01

    For respective quantities, i.e., Hamiltonians, parameters, and energy level splittings, related to two physically distinct notions X and Y, various cases of confused terminology have been identified in literature. Referring to a quantity related actually to the notion Y using incorrectly the name of another well-defined notion X constitutes, what may be defined for short as, the type X=Y confusion. An ongoing survey of magnetism literature indicates that quantities related to zero-field splitting (ZFS) or equivalently fine structure (FS) are most often confused with those related to crystal-field (CF) or equivalently ligand field (LF). In this review the CF=ZFS confusion cases, i.e., labelling actual ZFS/FS quantities as purportedly ‘ CF/LF’ ones, appearing in magnetism studies are surveyed and clarified. Part I covers the cases occurring in literature dealing with specific compounds. In this part model studies of spin systems are surveyed. The cases of terminology mixing up actual ZFS/FS quantities with purported CF/LF ones are identified and presented comprehensively in tabular form. To facilitate discussion, problems pertinent for the CF=ZFS confusion are categorized into several groups, including origin of the two notions, physical consequences, usage of specific numerical values, invoking real magnetic spin systems, and properties of spin S={1}/{2} systems. Physical implications of this confusion for interpretation of model results are also considered. Overall implications of incorrect terminology go beyond simple semantic issues and concern possible misinterpretation of data describing various physical properties of models studied. Such terminology contributes also to misleading keyword classifications of papers in journals and scientific databases. Other types of confusion identified in survey of magnetism literature will be discussed in separate reviews.

  19. Idiosyncratic Deals: Testing Propositions on Timing, Content, and the Employment Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Denise M.; Hornung, Severin; Kim, Tai Gyu

    2009-01-01

    This study tests propositions regarding idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) in a sample of N = 265 hospital employees using structural equation modeling. Timing and content of idiosyncratic employment arrangements are postulated to have differential consequences for the nature of the employment relationship. Results confirm that i-deals made after hire…

  20. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  1. Idiosyncratic deals: coworkers as interested third parties.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lei; Rousseau, Denise M; Chang, Klarissa Ting Ting

    2009-03-01

    Idiosyncratic deals (i-deals for short) are personalized employment arrangements negotiated between individual workers and employers and intended to benefit them both (D. M. Rousseau, 2005). Coworkers' acceptance of another's i-deal can ultimately impact its overall effectiveness for the organization. By using a network approach to the study of work group dynamics, this research addresses the contributions coworker relationships with both the i-dealer and their employer make to coworker's willingness to accept a peer's i-deal. In a study of 65 employees in 20 research and development groups, coworker acceptance of i-deals is greater for group members who are their close personal friends than for members who are not. The coworkers' social exchange relationship with their employers is positively related to acceptance, while economic exchange is negatively related. Coworkers' belief in the likelihood of obtaining comparable future opportunity is positively related to their acceptance of another's i-deal. Results suggest that the relationship of both economic and social exchange with acceptance is likely to be mediated by beliefs regarding comparable future opportunity. Implications for both research and practice are discussed. PMID:19271808

  2. Elements of a pragmatic approach for dealing with bias and uncertainty in experiments through predictions : experiment design and data conditioning; %22real space%22 model validation and conditioning; hierarchical modeling and extrapolative prediction.

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Vicente Jose

    2011-11-01

    This report explores some important considerations in devising a practical and consistent framework and methodology for utilizing experiments and experimental data to support modeling and prediction. A pragmatic and versatile 'Real Space' approach is outlined for confronting experimental and modeling bias and uncertainty to mitigate risk in modeling and prediction. The elements of experiment design and data analysis, data conditioning, model conditioning, model validation, hierarchical modeling, and extrapolative prediction under uncertainty are examined. An appreciation can be gained for the constraints and difficulties at play in devising a viable end-to-end methodology. Rationale is given for the various choices underlying the Real Space end-to-end approach. The approach adopts and refines some elements and constructs from the literature and adds pivotal new elements and constructs. Crucially, the approach reflects a pragmatism and versatility derived from working many industrial-scale problems involving complex physics and constitutive models, steady-state and time-varying nonlinear behavior and boundary conditions, and various types of uncertainty in experiments and models. The framework benefits from a broad exposure to integrated experimental and modeling activities in the areas of heat transfer, solid and structural mechanics, irradiated electronics, and combustion in fluids and solids.

  3. When to walk away from a deal.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Geoffrey; Le Roux, Jean-Marc; Weddigen, Rolf-Magnus

    2004-04-01

    Deal making is glamorous; due diligence is not. That simple statement goes a long way toward explaining why so many companies have made so many acquisitions that have produced so little value. The momentum of a transaction is hard to resist once senior management has the target in its sights. Companies contract "deal fever," and due diligence all too often becomes an exercise in verifying the target's financial statements rather than conducting a fair analysis of the deal's strategic logic and the acquirer's ability to realize value from it. Seldom does the process lead managers to kill potential acquisitions, even when the deals are deeply flawed. In a recent Bain & Company survey of 250 international executives with M&A responsibilities, only 30% of them were satisfied with the rigor of their due diligence. And fully a third admitted they hadn't walked away from deals they had nagging doubts about. In this article, the authors, all Bain consultants, emphasize the importance of comprehensive due diligence practices and suggest ways companies can improve their capabilities in this area. They provide rich real-world examples of companies that have had varying levels of success with their due diligence processes, including Safeway, Odeon, American Sea-foods, and Kellogg's. Effective due diligence requires answering four basic questions: What are we really buying? What is the target's stand-alone value? Where are the synergies--and the skeletons? And what's our walk-away price? Each of these questions will prompt an even deeper level of querying that puts the broader, strategic rationale for acquisitions under a microscope. Successful acquirers pay close heed to the results of such in-depth investigations and analyses--to the extent that they are prepared to walk away from a deal, even in the very late stages of negotiations. PMID:15077370

  4. "Dealing with Racial Conflicts in Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Ben

    In dealing with racial tension and conflict, the principal is not limited to a wing and a prayer and benign neglect. The roots of conflict can be identified. Conflict can be planned for and utilized constructively. For 10 years, in approximately 2,000 instances, conciliators and mediators of the Community Relations Service have stood side-by-side…

  5. Guidelines help managers deal with ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Gould, G R; Younkins, E W

    1989-07-01

    While a great deal of effort has been devoted to improving financial management techniques in the healthcare industry, little attention has been paid to addressing the ethical issues facing financial managers. In the years ahead, the ability to evaluate the ethical aspects of alternative courses of action may be as important as technical and managerial skills.

  6. Equip Kids to Deal with Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.; Coleman, Melba F.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how teachers can equip students to deal with disaster, focusing on coping with earthquakes. The article suggests watching for symptoms, encouraging expression, providing concrete information, helping soothe parents, developing emergency plans, holding emergency drills, and developing a communication strategy. Tips for before and after…

  7. Dealing with Budget Cuts. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Virtually every school district in the country is dealing with the need to reduce their budget. The process used to make those decisions varies from state to state but almost always includes a combination of short and long-term approaches. In many school districts the emphasis is on reducing individual budget line items and not filling vacant…

  8. A Plan for Dealing with Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arin-Krupp, Judy

    1984-01-01

    The author describes her plan for dealing with life transitions. The plan has three steps. First, the individual in transition must accurately perceive the situation; second, respond to the situation, change, or transition; and third, reassess his or her perception of the transition. (CT)

  9. Dealing with Victims and Perpetrators: Role Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the issue of role confusion for medical professionals who must deal with both parent and child in cases of incest. Pediatricians generally act as child advocates and tend to believe the child's story if there is conflicting information, yet are expected to render a neutral expert opinion. Family physicians may become enmeshed in denial…

  10. Dealing Effectively with Non-Compliant Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Alan

    Guidelines are offered for dealing with noncompliant behavior in severely handicapped students. Eight steps in developing interventions for such behaviors are listed, and three are dealt with in detail: defining noncompliance, establishing causes for non compliance, and providing a number of interventions for each cause. Noncompliance is viewed…

  11. Understanding and Dealing with Bullying in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerger, William; Gehret, Cliff

    2011-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems that educators face today is dealing with bullying. This pervasive issue occurs in classrooms, lunch rooms, unsupervised areas, on playgrounds, and through electronic media. Based on the principles of protecting the child and establishing a safe environment for all students, this paper investigates the causes and…

  12. Teaching Prospect Theory with the "Deal or No Deal" Game Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ardith; Bittner, Teresa; Makrigeorgis, Christos; Johnson, Gloria; Haefner, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that decision makers are more sensitive to potential losses than gains. Loss aversion psychology has led behavioural economists to look beyond expected utility by developing "prospect theory." We demonstrate this theory using the "Deal or No Deal" game show.

  13. Industrial cogeneration dealing with power pricing changes

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1978, with the passage of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) and with increasing utility retail rates, cogeneration of electrical power by industry has become possible and economically attractive. The State of Florida undertook the task of implementing the intent of PURPA through a series of workshops, regulatory hearings, and orders starting in 1980 and continuing today. However, current and potential cogenerators face uncertainties about power pricing and backup power rates that make cogeneration, in many cases, too risky for the business climate of the 1980s. The industrial cogenerator must deal with a public utility concerning power pricing without any leverage, except Public Service Commission Rulings. Therefore, the cogenerator must be capable of adapting its operation to the changing pricing situation to optimize the value of the cogeneration. This paper provides insight into how USS Agri-Chemicals, an industrial cogenerator in the State of Florida, has adapted its cogeneration to the changing public utility power pricing.

  14. How to deal with vaccine hesitancy?

    PubMed

    Eskola, Juhani; Duclos, Philippe; Schuster, Melanie; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-08-14

    Based on the concerns about vaccine hesitancy and its impact on vaccine uptake rates and the performance of national immunization programmes, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy [1], carried out a review, and proposed a set of recommendations directed to the public health community, to WHO and its partners, and to the World Health Organization (WHO) member states. The final recommendations issued by SAGE in October 2014 fall into three categories: (1) those focused on the need to increase the understanding of vaccine hesitancy, its determinants and the rapidly changing challenges it entails; (2) those focused on dealing with the structures and organizational capacity to decrease hesitancy and increase acceptance of vaccines at the global, national and local levels; (3) and those focused on the sharing of lessons learnt and effective practices from various countries and settings as well as the development, validation and implementation of new tools to address hesitancy.

  15. Dealing with Uncertainties in Initial Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armellin, Roberto; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    A method to deal with uncertainties in initial orbit determination (IOD) is presented. This is based on the use of Taylor differential algebra (DA) to nonlinearly map the observation uncertainties from the observation space to the state space. When a minimum set of observations is available DA is used to expand the solution of the IOD problem in Taylor series with respect to measurement errors. When more observations are available high order inversion tools are exploited to obtain full state pseudo-observations at a common epoch. The mean and covariance of these pseudo-observations are nonlinearly computed by evaluating the expectation of high order Taylor polynomials. Finally, a linear scheme is employed to update the current knowledge of the orbit. Angles-only observations are considered and simplified Keplerian dynamics adopted to ease the explanation. Three test cases of orbit determination of artificial satellites in different orbital regimes are presented to discuss the feature and performances of the proposed methodology.

  16. Stealing and dealing: cocaine and property crimes.

    PubMed

    Hunt, D

    1991-01-01

    A common thread in all studies of this nature is the level of use of cocaine and/or the concomitant use of other drugs, suggesting that economic necessity plays a role in the decision to commit crimes to help defray the costs of use. While a truly causal link between use and crime activity in marginal income populations is apparent. Whether that association is driven primarily by economics or lifestyle considerations is not answered by simple examination of the numbers. Statistically, the use of cocaine is related to criminal activity as a function of the income level and prior criminal experience of the user. This relationship is better defined by looking at the threshold effect in marginal income groups, where use that goes beyond what the pocket can bear produces a significantly greater chance that illegal sources will be found. However, many occasional users or even regular users with resources are able to fund their use through routine sources and never resort to criminal activity or to unconventional financial resources. A large number of cocaine users probably fall into this middle ground: they are neither the "high rollers" that often make the media nor the traditional heroin/cocaine addicts. For them, criminal activity may surface when use exceeds funds or not at all. For still others, cocaine is part of a criminal lifestyle rather than a motivation for it. Statistically, all these cocaine users look the same, though the relationship between their use and their crime may be quite varied. The descriptions of three cases discussed in an earlier paper (Hunt et al. 1985) clarify this point. The first case was a 32-year-old white male former heroin addict and former drug dealer who reported cocaine use intravenously three to four times a month, smoked marijuana weekly, and used no other drugs. He was married, working, and had a small child. He also reported dealing in stolen merchandise and clothing that he got from someone else to sell. This pattern had been

  17. Asymmetric metric: An application to dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelov, R.; Mabula, M.

    2016-10-01

    The uncertainty in mathematical models is often represented via set-valued data, parameters or solutions. We propose a new approach for dealing with such uncertainty, which combines features of validated computing (wrapping the set via a set of computer representable type, e.g., intervals, zonotopes, ellipsoids) and point approximation accompanied by relevant error analysis. More precisely, we consider approximation by a set which is not necessarily an enclosure. The mathematical theory is based on the theory of asymmetric metric spaces, where the metric gives an estimation of the error, while the order induced by the metric provides means for estimating the size of the approximating set.

  18. [Dealing with patient dissatisfaction; a professional skill].

    PubMed

    Gravenhorst, J Bennebroek; Engberts, D P

    2002-11-01

    During the last century the patient-doctor relationship has changed considerably. This change becomes particularly visible when the relationship between the two parties is disturbed. this is usually caused by patient dissatisfaction with the doctor or other workers in the medical profession. Handling dissatisfaction should be part of a doctor's professional skills. The most important advice in dealing with dissatisfaction is to react fast. A doctor should have the good sense to raise the issue for discussion as soon as he/she senses signs of dissatisfaction. If this is not possible and the issue results in a written complaint, the plaintiff can lodge a complaint within the framework of a special law. The complaint is then handled by a complaints committee. Over the past years, mediation has been used increasingly. This procedure has a low threshold, works fast and often results in reconciliation of both parties. If the intervention of a complaints committee is not desired and mediation is not realistic or rejected, the case sometimes progresses to the disciplinary board or civil judge. This often leads to protracted procedures and is stressful to both parties. It is important to prevent these kinds of procedures as much as possible by reacting swiftly and appropriately to signs of dissatisfaction. PMID:12448961

  19. Dealing with future risks in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Tuyll, Maaike

    2013-09-01

    The national security strategy is the Dutch government's instrument for multihazard risk management and is intended to contribute to the prevention of societal disruption as a consequence of a (future) disaster or crisis in the Netherlands. It considers the likelihood that a certain incident will occur, the impact if it should occur, and what can be done to prevent the occurrence and/or reduce the impact. In other words, "which threats is the Netherlands faced with, how serious are they, and what can be done to mitigate the consequences?" By annually assessing the likelihood and impact of different scenarios, the government is able to continually improve its overview of risks and to determine priorities regarding the allocation of resources for the prevention of, preparation for, and response to threats. At the start of the annual cycle of the implementation of the national security strategy, possible scenarios are identified. These scenarios are then drawn up and assessed by the Network of Analysts for National Security, resulting in the national risk assessment (NRA). On the basis of this risk assessment, a capabilities analysis is performed. This capabilities analysis assesses whether the country (government, private sector, and civilians) has sufficient capabilities (people, material, knowledge, skills, and procedures) at its disposal to adequately deal with the threat, and it considers which capabilities should be strengthened or developed. Finally, a report is prepared for the council of ministers. On the basis of this report, the cabinet decides which capabilities will be strengthened. PMID:23971823

  20. Deal or No Deal: using games to improve student learning, retention and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Alan F.; Woodford, Kelly C.; Maes, Jeanne

    2011-03-01

    Student understanding and retention can be enhanced and improved by providing alternative learning activities and environments. Education theory recognizes the value of incorporating alternative activities (games, exercises and simulations) to stimulate student interest in the educational environment, enhance transfer of knowledge and improve learned retention with meaningful repetition. In this case study, we investigate using an online version of the television game show, 'Deal or No Deal', to enhance student understanding and retention by playing the game to learn expected value in an introductory statistics course, and to foster development of critical thinking skills necessary to succeed in the modern business environment. Enhancing the thinking process of problem solving using repetitive games should also improve a student's ability to follow non-mathematical problem-solving processes, which should improve the overall ability to process information and make logical decisions. Learning and retention are measured to evaluate the success of the students' performance.

  1. A backtracking algorithm that deals with particle filter degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baarsma, Rein; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Particle filters are an excellent way to deal with stochastic models incorporating Bayesian data assimilation. While they are computationally demanding, the particle filter has no problem with nonlinearity and it accepts non-Gaussian observational data. In the geoscientific field it is this computational demand that creates a problem, since dynamic grid-based models are often already quite computationally demanding. As such it is of the utmost importance to keep the amount of samples in the filter as small as possible. Small sample populations often lead to filter degeneracy however, especially in models with high stochastic forcing. Filter degeneracy renders the sample population useless, as the population is no longer statistically informative. We have created an algorithm in an existing data assimilation framework that reacts to and deals with filter degeneracy based on Spiller et al. [2008]. During the Bayesian updating step of the standard particle filter, the algorithm tests the sample population for filter degeneracy. If filter degeneracy has occurred, the algorithm resets to the last time the filter did work correctly and recalculates the failed timespan of the filter with an increased sample population. The sample population is then reduced to its original size and the particle filter continues as normal. This algorithm was created in the PCRaster Python framework, an open source tool that enables spatio-temporal forward modelling in Python [Karssenberg et al., 2010] . The framework already contains several data assimilation algorithms, including a standard particle filter and a Kalman filter. The backtracking particle filter algorithm has been added to the framework, which will make it easy to implement in other research. The performance of the backtracking particle filter is tested against a standard particle filter using two models. The first is a simple nonlinear point model, and the second is a more complex geophysical model. The main testing

  2. Dealing with the Asteroid Impact Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    2001-01-01

    The small fraction of the asteroids with Earth-crossing or Earth-approaching orbits is of special interest to us because many will eventually impact our planet. The time-averaged impact flux as a function of projectile energy can be derived from lunar cratering statistics, although we have little information on the possible variability of this flux over time. The effects of impacts of various energies can be modeled, using data from historic impacts (such as the KT impactor 65 million years ago), nuclear explosive testing, and the observed 1994 bombardment of Jupiter by fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. It is of particular interest to find from such models that the terrestrial environment is highly vulnerable to perturbation from impacts, so that even such a small event as the KT impact (by a projectile roughly 15 km in diameter) can lead to a mass extinction. Combining the impact flux with estimates of environmental and ecological effects reveals that the greatest contemporary hazard is associated with impactors near one million megatons energy. The current impact hazard is significant relative to other natural hazards, and arguments can be developed to illuminate a variety of public policy issues. These include the relative risk of different impact scenarios and the associated costs and probability of success of countermeasures. It is generally agreed that the first step is to survey and catalogue the thousand-or-so Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and we review the status of the Spaceguard NEA Survey. We compare the efficiency of various ground and space-based approaches and consider the challenges of international coordination and the problems and opportunities associated with communicating the results with the press and the public. It is also important to reflect on how the impact hazard might be dealt with by both national governments and international decision-making bodies, and to anticipate ways of mitigating the danger if a NEA were located on an apparent

  3. Dealing with uncertainty in water scarcity footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity adversely affects ecosystems, human well-being and the economy. It can be described by water scarcity indices (WSIs) which we calculated globally for the decades 1981-1990 and 2001-2010. Based on a model ensemble, we calculated the WSI for both decades including uncertainties. While there is a slight tendency of increased water scarcity in 2001-2010, the likelihood of the increase is rather low (53%). Climate change played only a minor role, but increased water consumption is more decisive. In the last decade, a large share of the global population already lived under highly water scarce conditions with a global average monthly WSI of 0.51 (on a scale from 0 to 1). Considering that globally there are enough water resources to satisfy all our needs, this highlights the need for regional optimization of water consumption. In addition, crop choices within a food group can help reduce humanity’s water scarcity footprint without reducing its nutritional value.

  4. Dealing with uncertainty in water scarcity footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity adversely affects ecosystems, human well-being and the economy. It can be described by water scarcity indices (WSIs) which we calculated globally for the decades 1981–1990 and 2001–2010. Based on a model ensemble, we calculated the WSI for both decades including uncertainties. While there is a slight tendency of increased water scarcity in 2001–2010, the likelihood of the increase is rather low (53%). Climate change played only a minor role, but increased water consumption is more decisive. In the last decade, a large share of the global population already lived under highly water scarce conditions with a global average monthly WSI of 0.51 (on a scale from 0 to 1). Considering that globally there are enough water resources to satisfy all our needs, this highlights the need for regional optimization of water consumption. In addition, crop choices within a food group can help reduce humanity’s water scarcity footprint without reducing its nutritional value.

  5. What opportunities have we missed, and what bad deals have we made?

    PubMed

    Magill, M K; Kane, W J

    2001-04-01

    In addition to its many accomplishments, family medicine has inevitably made some choices that have not worked out as well. Respectful consideration of where we may have done so can help inform future decision making. This paper suggests some decisions that in retrospect appear to be bad deals, good deals gone bad, or missed opportunities. Bad deals include the limiting effects of our specialty's name and of our go-it-alone philosophy. Good deals gone bad include our affinity for a permanent counterculture role, our persistent belief that big is better, and limited evolution of our residency family practice centers. We have missed opportunities to lead development of a new model of patient-responsive health care, to change the system of payment for care, to maximize the strength of our discipline by links between university and community family physicians, and to build a powerful program of family medicine research.

  6. Insider Deals Are Common among Nonprofit Boards, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panepento, Peter; Fain, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Almost half of large nonprofit groups make insider deals with board members, and one-third of those deals occur without the prior approval of other board members, according to a new study by the Urban Institute. The study, which is described in a report released on Monday, "Nonprofit Governance in the United States: Findings on Performance and…

  7. Debt Deal's Likely Fruit: Cuts to K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Education advocates brace for cuts in the fallout from the hard-fought deal to avert a U.S. default. The hard-fought deal places 10-year caps on federal spending, including a $7 billion overall reduction from current levels in the fiscal year that starts Oct. 1. It creates a new bipartisan congressional committee charged with finding $1.5 trillion…

  8. Making the deal real: how GE Capital integrates acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Ashkenas, R N; DeMonaco, L J; Francis, S C

    1998-01-01

    Most companies view acquisitions and mergers as onetime events managed with heroic effort--anxiety-producing experiences that often result in lost jobs, restructured responsibilities, derailed careers, and diminished power. Little wonder, then, that most managers think about how to get them over with--not how to do them better. But even as the number of mergers and acquisitions rises in the United States, studies show the performance of the resulting companies falls below industry averages more often than not. To improve these statistics, executives need to view acquisition integration as a manageable process, not a unique event. One company that has done exactly that is GE Capital Services, which has assimilated more than 100 acquisitions in the past five years alone and, in the process, has developed a formal model for melding new acquisitions into the corporate fold. Drawing on their experiences working with the company to develop the model, consultants Ron Ashkenas and Suzanne Francis, together with GE Capital's Lawrence DeMonaco, offer four lessons from the company's successful run. First, begin the integration process before the deal is signed. Second, dedicate a full-time individual to managing the integration process. Third, implement any necessary restructuring sooner rather than later. And fourth, integrate not only the business operations but also the corporate cultures. These guidelines won't erase all of the discomfort that accompanies many mergers, but they can make the process more transparent and predictable for those involved.

  9. Adolescent PTSD and developmental consequences of crack dealing.

    PubMed

    Weisman, G K

    1993-10-01

    The effect of crack dealing on emotionally disturbed adolescents in two African-American inner-city communities is examined and illustrated by case examples. Crack dealing was most often found to have dynamics and consequences separate from those of crack use. These include post-traumatic stress disorder and other significant emotional disturbances arising from the violence associated with crack dealing, and the shaping of adolescent identity by the associated culture of violence and guns. Implications for school drug abuse education are explored.

  10. Strategies for dealing with fraud in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Herson, Jay

    2016-02-01

    Research misconduct and fraud in clinical research is an increasing problem facing the scientific community. This problem is expected to increase due to discoveries in central statistical monitoring and with the increase in first-time clinical trial investigators in the increasingly global reach of oncology clinical trials. This paper explores the most common forms of fraud in clinical trials in order to develop offensive and defensive strategies to deal with fraud. The offensive strategies are used when fraud is detected during a trial and the defensive strategies are those design strategies that seek to minimize or eliminate the effect of fraud. This leads to a proposed fraud recovery plan (FRP) that would be specified before the start of a clinical trial and would indicate actions to be taken upon detecting fraud of different types. Statistical/regulatory issues related to fraud include: dropping all patients from a site that committed fraud, or just the fraudulent data (perhaps replacing the latter through imputation); the role of intent-to-treat analysis; effect on a planned interim analysis; effect on stratified analyses and model adjustment when fraud is detected in covariates; effect on trial-wide randomization, etc. The details of a typical defensive strategy are also presented. It is concluded that it is best to follow a defensive strategy and to have an FRP in place to follow if fraud is detected during the trial.

  11. Dealing with clouds from space-based ultraspectral IR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Smith, W.; Liu, X.; Larar, A.; Mango, S.; Huang, H.-L.

    Hyperspectral infrared sounders with nadir observations are limited by the cloud cover It is critical to detect the clouds in satellite measurements and to accurately retrieve the atmospheric and surface parameters with cloud contamination measurements An inversion scheme has been developed dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders to simultaneously retrieve surface atmospheric thermodynamic and cloud microphysical parameters A fast radiative transfer model which applies to the clouded atmosphere is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval A one-dimensional 1-d variational multi-variable inversion solution is used to iteratively improve the background state defined by an eigenvector-regression-retrieval The solution is iterated in order to account for non-linearity in the 1-d variational solution NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed -- Interferometer NAST-I retrievals are compared with coincident observations obtained from dropsondes and the nadir-pointing Cloud Physics Lidar CPL This work was motivated by the need to obtain solutions for atmospheric soundings from infrared radiances observed for every individual field of view regardless of cloud cover from future ultraspectral geostationary satellite sounding instruments such as the Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer GIFTS and the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite HES However this retrieval approach can also be applied to the ultraspectral sounding instruments to fly on polar satellites such

  12. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To use the sharing ... JavaScript. Certain types of cancer treatments can cause hot flashes and night sweats. Hot flashes are when ...

  13. Books to Help Kids Deal with Difficult Times, I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Norma

    1987-01-01

    An author of books for young adults discusses the need for realism in adolescent literature as a means of helping teenagers to cope with real problems and describes her most recent book, which deals with euthanasia. (CLB)

  14. [Dealing with uncertainty--the hypermodernity of general practice].

    PubMed

    Barth, Niklas; Nassehi, Armin; Schneider, Antonius

    2014-01-01

    The general practitioner is fundamentally dealing with uncertainty. On the one hand, we want to demonstrate that uncertainty cannot simply be stipulated as a matter of fact. Instead, we will show that this uncertainty is a performative effect of the primary care setting. On the other hand, we want to point out that the general practitioner's ability to bear uncertainty is a genuinely hypermodern way of productively dealing with uncertainty.

  15. Ageing Jewish Holocaust survivors: anxieties in dealing with health professionals.

    PubMed

    Joffe, H I; Joffe, C F; Brodaty, H

    1996-11-01

    Jewish Holocaust survivors who emigrated to Australia after World War II are ageing and having more frequent contact with health services. Health professionals often lack the knowledge, training, skill or personal assurance to deal with the effects of massive trauma. Increased awareness of and sensitivity to older Holocaust survivors can lessen their anxieties and, potentially, improve treatment outcome. Such experience may form a useful lesson for health professionals in dealing with refugees from other atrocities as they age.

  16. Dealing with typical values via Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmidt, Eulalia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2010-07-01

    This paper is an improved and extended version of our previous work2 on typicality in terms of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets (to be called A-IFSs, for short)3. We follow the line of reasoning known from psychological and cognitive sciences, in particular from linguistic experiments, and verify how those results work in the case of classification - a typical problem in computer science, decision sciences, etc. Our considerations concentrate on a typical example discussed in cognitive sciences - we investigate to which extent a linguistic representation in a psychological space (we start from nominal data - names are assigned to objects as labels) succeeds in predicting categories via A-IFSs. First, we consider a model of categories with a geometrical centroid model in which the similarity is defined in terms of a distance to centroids. Next, we verify if the extreme ideals, which are important in cognitive processes when categories are learnt in the presence of the alternative (contrast) category, give comparative results. Finally, we discuss if the 'reachable extreme ideals' and 'dominating frequency centres' give comparative results. We show that A-IFSs make it possible to reflect a positive and negative information via the concept of membership and non-membership. Although the paper presents ongoing research, the results obtained are promising and point out the usefulness and strength of A-IFSs as a tool to account for more aspects of vague data and information. Based on 'On Some Typical Values for A-IFS', by E. Szmidt and J. Kacprzyk which appeared in the Proceedings of the 4th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Systems IS'08, pp. 13-2-13-7. There is currently a discussion on the appropriateness of the name IFS introduced by Dubois et al. (2005), and also Atanassov's (2005) response. This is, however, beyond the scope of this paper which will not be dealing with this issue.

  17. REDD+ emissions estimation and reporting: dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Johanne; Martin, Davy; Potvin, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defined the technical and financial modalities of policy approaches and incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+). Substantial technical challenges hinder precise and accurate estimation of forest-related emissions and removals, as well as the setting and assessment of reference levels. These challenges could limit country participation in REDD+, especially if REDD+ emission reductions were to meet quality standards required to serve as compliance grade offsets for developed countries’ emissions. Using Panama as a case study, we tested the matrix approach proposed by Bucki et al (2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 024005) to perform sensitivity and uncertainty analysis distinguishing between ‘modelling sources’ of uncertainty, which refers to model-specific parameters and assumptions, and ‘recurring sources’ of uncertainty, which refers to random and systematic errors in emission factors and activity data. The sensitivity analysis estimated differences in the resulting fluxes ranging from 4.2% to 262.2% of the reference emission level. The classification of fallows and the carbon stock increment or carbon accumulation of intact forest lands were the two key parameters showing the largest sensitivity. The highest error propagated using Monte Carlo simulations was caused by modelling sources of uncertainty, which calls for special attention to ensure consistency in REDD+ reporting which is essential for securing environmental integrity. Due to the role of these modelling sources of uncertainty, the adoption of strict rules for estimation and reporting would favour comparability of emission reductions between countries. We believe that a reduction of the bias in emission factors will arise, among other things, from a globally concerted effort to improve allometric equations for tropical forests. Public access to datasets and methodology

  18. Rhythms and Alternating Patterns in Plants as Emergent Properties of a Model of Interaction between Development and Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Amélie; Cournède, Paul-Henry; Barthélémy, Daniel; de Reffye, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims To model plasticity of plants in their environment, a new version of the functional–structural model GREENLAB has been developed with full interactions between architecture and functioning. Emergent properties of this model were revealed by simulations, in particular the automatic generation of rhythms in plant development. Such behaviour can be observed in natural phenomena such as the appearance of fruit (cucumber or capsicum plants, for example) or branch formation in trees. Methods In the model, a single variable, the source–sink ratio controls different events in plant architecture. In particular, the number of fruits and branch formation are determined as increasing functions of this ratio. For some sets of well-chosen parameters of the model, the dynamical evolution of the ratio during plant growth generates rhythms. Key Results and Conclusions Cyclic patterns in branch formation or fruit appearance emerge without being forced by the model. The model is based on the theory of discrete dynamical systems. The mathematical formalism helps us to explain rhythm generation and to control the behaviour of the system. Rhythms can appear during both the exponential and stabilized phases of growth, but the causes are different as shown by an analytical study of the system. Simulated plant behaviours are very close to those observed on real plants. With a small number of parameters, the model gives very interesting results from a qualitative point of view. It will soon be subjected to experimental data to estimate the model parameters. PMID:17715304

  19. Individualisation of Lean Concept in Companies Dealing with Mass Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednár, Roman

    2012-12-01

    The methods of lean manufacturing primarily designed for businesses dealing with serial production, are also used in other types of production. However the concept of lean production was not designed for these types of businesses, they are utilized only partially. Paper focuses on applying methods of lean concept in companies which are dealing with mass production and their options of exchange for other methods in the event of disagreement. Basis of the article is a list of lean methods with its description and its utilization in practice. The questionnaire was utilized to identify information from the practice. Based on this survey were identified the critical methods that are no longer appropriate for companies dealing with mass production. However, there are alternative methods of describing the problem. It is possible to say that companies are trying to get closer to their goal by modification of the basic concepts. And the concept of Lean Enterprise serves as a standard.

  20. Deal or no deal: can incentives encourage widespread adoption of intelligent speed adaptation devices?

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Hess, Stephane; Jamson, Samantha; Wardman, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Given the burden of injury, economic, environmental and social consequences associated with speeding, reducing road traffic speed remains a major priority. Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) is a promising but controversial new in-vehicle system that provides drivers with support on the speed-control task. In order to model potential system uptake, this paper explores drivers' preferences for two different types of ISA given a number of alternative fiscal incentives and non-fiscal measures, using a stated preference approach. As would be expected with such a contentious issue, the analysis revealed the presence of significant variations in sensitivities and preferences in the sample. While a non-negligible part of the sample population has such strong opposition to ISA that no reasonable discounts or incentives would lead to them buying or accepting such a system, there is also a large part of the population that, if given the right incentives, would be willing or even keen to equip their vehicle with an ISA device.

  1. Deal or no deal: can incentives encourage widespread adoption of intelligent speed adaptation devices?

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Hess, Stephane; Jamson, Samantha; Wardman, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Given the burden of injury, economic, environmental and social consequences associated with speeding, reducing road traffic speed remains a major priority. Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) is a promising but controversial new in-vehicle system that provides drivers with support on the speed-control task. In order to model potential system uptake, this paper explores drivers' preferences for two different types of ISA given a number of alternative fiscal incentives and non-fiscal measures, using a stated preference approach. As would be expected with such a contentious issue, the analysis revealed the presence of significant variations in sensitivities and preferences in the sample. While a non-negligible part of the sample population has such strong opposition to ISA that no reasonable discounts or incentives would lead to them buying or accepting such a system, there is also a large part of the population that, if given the right incentives, would be willing or even keen to equip their vehicle with an ISA device. PMID:22664670

  2. How the Courts Deal with Bullying in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    School officials have a difficult time dealing with cases of bullying. Often, it is one student's word against another. Also, many victims of bullying are reluctant to report instances for fear of retribution. As in sexual harassment cases, school officials need to be seen doing something about the problem. Courts view indifference to these…

  3. Critiques of Studies Dealing With Music and Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuter-Dyson, Rosamund; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Critiques eight studies dealing with music and music education. Among the titles are "The Clarinet in Twentieth-Century Dutch Chamber Music,""The Effect of Movement-Based Instruction on the Aural Perception Skills of First and Third-Graders," and "Functional Performance Anxiety Modifications in Adult Pianists." (GEA)

  4. Dealing with Quantifier Scope Ambiguity in Natural Language Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafezi Manshadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Quantifier scope disambiguation (QSD) is one of the most challenging problems in deep natural language understanding (NLU) systems. The most popular approach for dealing with QSD is to simply leave the semantic representation (scope-) underspecified and to incrementally add constraints to filter out unwanted readings. Scope underspecification has…

  5. Education Dept. May Ban Exclusive Deals between Colleges and Lenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses exclusive deals between colleges and student-loan providers and the U.S. Education Department's initial move to solve the conflict. The Higher Education Act, which governs most federal student-aid programs, prohibits colleges from requiring their students to borrow from a specific bank or student-loan company. The law does…

  6. When Leaders Are Challenged: Dealing with Involuntary Members in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Christine J.; Jacobs, E.

    2011-01-01

    Leading groups can be challenging and difficult. Leading groups in which members are involuntary and negative increases the level of difficulty and creates new dynamics in the group leading process. This article proposes specific skills and strategies for dealing with three specific issues related to involuntary members in groups: groups where all…

  7. 10 Tips to Help Deal with Difficult Parents Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Barbara; Gruber, Sue

    2008-01-01

    It's natural for parents to want the best for their child. Unfortunately, almost every teacher is faced with an irate parent at some time. Dealing with an angry or unreasonable parent is upsetting and time consuming. It can be easy for them to make excuses and blame others for their child's troubles. This article offers tips to help teachers…

  8. Dealing with a Schoolyard Bully: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Peter Edward; Stenlund, Max Allan

    2005-01-01

    Most accounts of bullying and intervention programs against violence in school deal with aggregate prevalence estimates and outcome measures. Case studies are rare. Bullying occurs regularly within classrooms. Psychological aggression through teasing and harassment is more difficult to detect. Bullying and bullies are relatively persistent,…

  9. Learning To Say Goodbye: Dealing with Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rosalie; Stefanics, Charlotte

    This book is intended to help the counselor learn to work with terminal patients. The first part presents historical and cultural attitudes toward death and dying. Fear of death, the role of religion, and common myths about terminal cancer patients are discussed. The second part deals with care and treatment of terminal patients. The significance…

  10. School Nurses' Experiences in Dealing with Bullying Situations among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Jones Bartoli, Alice

    2016-01-01

    School nurses have an important role in helping students to deal with bullying. However, most of the previously undertaken studies do not have nurses as the subjects, considering their experiences around this theme. This study used a qualitative approach through in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses (SNs). The thematic analysis was employed…

  11. Dealing with Screaming. Caring for the Little Ones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Young children scream throughout their days and for different reasons. They may be hurt, frustrated or simply tired; caregivers can detect the cause of the scream. Several strategies are available for dealing with screamers; the most important approach is respecting the child by acknowledging the emotions behind the scream and helping the child…

  12. Conclusion: Developing a Process to Deal with Potential Faculty Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Homer C., Jr.; Hample, Stephen R.

    1981-01-01

    Lessons and strategies for the institutional researcher dealing with faculty reduction are reviewed: developing a database; defining circumstances necessary for retrenchment; developing policies regarding participation and program discontinuance; examining alternatives; reviewing role and mission statements, legal standards and procedures;…

  13. Help Yourself: A Manual for Dealing with Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrato, Mary T., Ed.

    This manual provides an overview of sexual harassment and what can be done about it. Although it deals with laws in California, its general sections and sections of federal laws could be used by persons in any state. The guide contains 12 chapters. Chapter 1 includes a discussion of what sexual harassment is and how it affects society and the…

  14. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  15. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  16. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  17. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  18. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  19. Dealing with the Complexity of Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke-Stewart, Alison

    This paper presents arguments for greater use of sophisticated research strategies and statistical analyses of data in dealing with the real-life complexity of social interaction. Three possible procedures are proposed and illustrated in a study of interactions between mothers and their 8- to 18-month-old children. The first strategy is to…

  20. Dealing With Resistance to Thought-Stopping: A Transcript

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolpe, Joseph

    1971-01-01

    A woman who had from childhood suffered from neurotic anxieties of an interpersonal kind had for 10 years been plagued with insistent and fruitless negative thoughts about herself. This transcript deals mainly with her objections to the technique of thought stopping and the efforts that were made to overcome them. (Author)

  1. Collaborative Learning across Borders: Dealing with Student Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinger, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Describes application of collaborative learning in a German business school, focusing on use of self-managed learning and examining the cultural implications for student-directed pedagogies. Strategies for dealing with student resistance are offered, including not taking students' resistant behavior personally, designing many process options,…

  2. Games Counselor Trainees Play: Dealing with Trainee Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, William F.

    1972-01-01

    Fear of personal change makes many beginning counselors resist the help and guidance offered them in the practicum setting, often leaving their supervisors perplexed and frustrated. Types of resistance used by counselors are examined in this article. Methods and techniques available to supervisors in dealing with such resistance are discussed.…

  3. Dealing with Malfunction: Locus of Control in Web-Conferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how students deal with malfunctions that occur during the use of web conferencing systems in learning arrangements. In a survey among participants in online courses that make use of a web-conferencing system (N = 129), the relationship between a preference for internal or external locus of control and the perception of…

  4. Academic Freedom and Holocaust Denial Literature: Dealing with Infamy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleberzon, William

    1984-01-01

    Some Jewish students at the University of Toronto protested its library's inclusion of certain books (which the students felt were anti-Semitic and not historically based) in its collection of Holocaust literature. The questions of academic freedom, and various ways to deal with the problem, are discussed. (CJB)

  5. How Geography Teachers Deal with the Curriculum Changes in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The changes in Turkish geography curriculum in 2005 have placed geography teachers to adopt completely different approaches from what they were used to throughout their careers. This study attempts to explore to what extent teachers of geography have adopted the new curriculum and how they are dealing with the recent curricular changes in Turkey.…

  6. The Art of a Deal: A Kyoto Protocol Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowlishaw, Richard; Hunter, Charles; Coy, Jason; Tessmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, groups of students represent countries as they negotiate an agreement to limit greenhouse-gas emissions. While initially developed for and used in an environmental-science course for first-year college students, the case could be applicable to other courses dealing with conflict resolution such as public policy, international…

  7. The New Deal: Government and the Economy. Public Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.

    This booklet is part of a series designed to help students take and defend a position on public issues. This unit on the New Deal era raises the following issues: (1) How responsible should the government be for the economic well being of citizens? To what extent should this responsibility outweigh traditional ideas of property rights? (2) What…

  8. A Triangulation Method to Dismantling a Disciplinary "Big Deal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Diane

    2015-01-01

    In late 2012, it appeared that the University Library, University of Saskatchewan would likely no longer be able to afford to subscribe to the entire American Chemical Society "Big Deal" of 36 journals. Difficult choices would need to be made regarding which titles to retain as individual subscriptions. In an effort to arrive at the most…

  9. Fair Dealing. CAUT Intellectual Property Advisory. Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Fair Dealing is the right, within limits, to reproduce a substantial amount of a copyrighted work without permission from, or payment to, the copyright owner. Its purpose is to facilitate creativity and free expression by ensuring reasonable access to existing knowledge while at the same time protecting the interests of copyright owners. It is…

  10. How Is Educational Measurement Supposed to Deal with Test Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    At the outset of his thoughtful and thought-provoking article, Haertel (this issue) clearly identifies the issue with which he will be dealing: The disjunct, or gap, in current approaches to evaluating the merits of a given test, between the intended uses of that test and the validity of its score-based interpretations. The author thinks that…

  11. Children's Dealing with Accidental Gaps in the Lexicon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Emily W.

    In order to investigate the development of word-formation abilities, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-olds were asked to act out with toys, judge, and make up sentences containing instances of class extension. Some sample sentences are "Can you upside-down the clown?" and "Broom the spoon." Children dealt with such sentences in much the same way they deal with…

  12. How Teachers Deal with Bullying: Best Practices for Identifying and Dealing with Bullying Behaviors among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Today's youth are in a social environment where being the brunt of jokes and harassment of their peers is an accepted and encouraged norm. It is not exactly clear what teachers do to deal with bullying in their classrooms. Much of the research on bullying has focused on elementary and middle school level students. Little is known about bullying at…

  13. From New Deal to No Deal: No Child Left Behind and the Devolution of Responsibility for Equal Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Harvey; Lowe, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Harvey Kantor and Robert Lowe explore the progression of American social policy and its relation to educational reform from President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal to President George W. Bush's No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). The authors assert that this progression has been marked by the federal government's gradual…

  14. International land deals, local people's livelihood, and environment nexus (How to create win-win land deals in Ethiopia?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklemariam Gebremeskel, Dereje; Witlox, Frank; Azadi, Hossein; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Following the global raise in demand for food and biofuel production, transnational companies are acquiring large scale agricultural land in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Considering land as one of the factors to be outsourced for development, the government of Ethiopia is supplying millions of hectares of land to transnational companies in the form of longterm lease. Many of the companies which engage in large scale land acquisition are of Indian, Chinese, Ethiopian diaspora, German, Malaysian, Italian, British, Dutch, Turkish, and Saudi-Arabian origin. The boom in the acquisition of farm land in the country has sparked an all-rounded debate among civil society groups, international institutions, nongovernmental organizations and independent development experts. The common reflections concerning the land deals in Ethiopia and elsewhere contain much rhetoric and hype which lack analysis of the real situation "on the ground" giving different connotations such as 'land grabbing', 'agricultural outsourcing', 'neo-colonialism', 'agrarian colonialism', and 'land underdevelopment'. However, deforestation, soil degradation, marginalization of local indigenous communities, and minimally unfair gains from investment by the host country are among the real points of concern arising out of the long term land lease contracts. Scientific evidence is lacking concerning the pragmatic impacts of large scale agricultural land acquisitions by transnational companies upon the natural environment (forest and land), local peoples' livelihood, and the contacting parties (the host country and the companies). The major objective of this study is to investigate the impacts in the context of Ethiopia, orienting to reinvent win-win land use models which constitute sustainable land use, local peoples' livelihood and the company-host country interests. To achieve this overall objective, the study employs a number of methods and methodologies constituting both qualitative and

  15. Dealing with scientific integrity issues: the Spanish experience.

    PubMed

    Puigdomènech, Pere

    2014-02-01

    Integrity has been an important matter of concern for the scientific community as it affects the basis of its activities. Most countries having a significant scientific activity have dealt with this problem by different means, including drafting specific legal or soft law regulations and the appointment of stable or ad hoc committees that take care of these questions. This has also been the case in Spain. After the period of transition between dictatorship to a democratic regime, and, particularly, after the entrance in the European Union, scientific activity has increased in the country. As it could be expected, problems of misconduct have appeared and different institutions have been dealing with these matters. One of the best examples is that of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), the largest institution devoted to scientific research belonging to the Spanish Government. The experience of the CSIC’s Ethics Committee in dealing with conflicts related to scientific practices is discussed here.

  16. Deal making 2.0: a guide to complex negotiations.

    PubMed

    Lax, David A; Sebenius, James K

    2012-11-01

    Most big deals--megamergers, major sales, infrastructure projects--are built on a series of smaller ones. Each component deal presents a tactical challenge, but sequencing the parts in a way that achieves the target outcome is a strategic challenge that can unfold over months or years. This process, which the authors call a negotiation campaign, must generally be conducted on several fronts, each involving multiple parties. A multifront campaign can be much more effective than direct negotiation. After failed talks between Longshoremen and the Pacific Maritime Association--a group of shippers and port operators--the PMA's president turned away from the bargaining table and embarked on a campaign to align member-firms, the business community, the U.S. government, and the public around his target outcome: the deployment of new information technologies to help unclog busy ports. The result was an agreement that was ultimately mutually beneficial. Designing and executing a negotiation campaign involves identifying the relevant parties, grouping them into fronts according to shared interests, determining whether to combine fronts (if, for instance, doing so would unite your allies), and deciding which fronts to approach early on and which to engage only after you've made progress elsewhere. The deal between the PMA and the Longshoremen involved high stakes, but many small-scale deals--such as gaining approval for a new product--also play out on multiple fronts. Going straight to a key decision maker often makes sense, but in many cases a multifront campaign is the only way.

  17. Strategies for dealing with the national coding shortage.

    PubMed

    Schwieters, Jill

    2010-04-01

    Steps providers should consider to deal with a national coding shortage and implementation of ICD-10 include the following: Concentrate on employee retention (consider retention bonuses; upgrade pay scales; and offer flex-time and flexible work schedules). Begin a training program for ICD-10. Target other healthcare professionals and current employees to transition into coding positions. Collaborate with colleges, high schools, and middle schools to draw prospective students to this career path and your organization.

  18. [Procedures for dealing with the taboo of death].

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Carlos

    2013-09-01

    The more death is studied, the more it remains a mystery. Dealing with death is no easy matter and for that reason it is so frightening. All the fears of human beings are fundamentally related to the fear of death. This is because it is a mystery about which we know little or nothing, although it is natural to die. In view of this, religions give this topic a primary focus. Therefore, in this article an attempt is made to deal with the taboo surrounding death and reflect on issues associated with it. These themes are present in people's lives, especially when they have the experience of losing someone in their family or circle of friends. Among these subjects, the aspects of the Anointing of the Sick, the Funeral Mass, the Seventh Day Mass and the tradition of praying for the dead are all touched upon. These are all themes that help to deal with the taboo of death or losing a loved one.

  19. [Procedures for dealing with the taboo of death].

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Carlos

    2013-09-01

    The more death is studied, the more it remains a mystery. Dealing with death is no easy matter and for that reason it is so frightening. All the fears of human beings are fundamentally related to the fear of death. This is because it is a mystery about which we know little or nothing, although it is natural to die. In view of this, religions give this topic a primary focus. Therefore, in this article an attempt is made to deal with the taboo surrounding death and reflect on issues associated with it. These themes are present in people's lives, especially when they have the experience of losing someone in their family or circle of friends. Among these subjects, the aspects of the Anointing of the Sick, the Funeral Mass, the Seventh Day Mass and the tradition of praying for the dead are all touched upon. These are all themes that help to deal with the taboo of death or losing a loved one. PMID:23989577

  20. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  1. A dynamic model of plant growth with interactions between development and functional mechanisms to study plant structural plasticity related to trophic competition

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, A.; Cournède, P. H.; Letort, V.; Barthélémy, D.; de Reffye, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The strong influence of environment and functioning on plant organogenesis has been well documented by botanists but is poorly reproduced in most functional–structural models. In this context, a model of interactions is proposed between plant organogenesis and plant functional mechanisms. Methods The GreenLab model derived from AMAP models was used. Organogenetic rules give the plant architecture, which defines an interconnected network of organs. The plant is considered as a collection of interacting ‘sinks’ that compete for the allocation of photosynthates coming from ‘sources’. A single variable characteristic of the balance between sources and sinks during plant growth controls different events in plant development, such as the number of branches or the fruit load. Key Results Variations in the environmental parameters related to light and density induce changes in plant morphogenesis. Architecture appears as the dynamic result of this balance, and plant plasticity expresses itself very simply at different levels: appearance of branches and reiteration, number of organs, fructification and adaptation of ecophysiological characteristics. Conclusions The modelling framework serves as a tool for theoretical botany to explore the emergence of specific morphological and architectural patterns and can help to understand plant phenotypic plasticity and its strategy in response to environmental changes. PMID:19297366

  2. ECONOMICS NOBEL: Dealing With Biases and Discrete Choices.

    PubMed

    Seife, C

    2000-10-20

    This year's Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences, given in honor of Alfred Nobel, goes to two researchers who gave the field of microeconomics--the study of individuals' economic behavior--new tools to help draw conclusions from imperfect data. James Heckman of the University of Chicago wins half of this year's prize for coming up with ways to deal with selection biases. Daniel McFadden of the University of California, Berkeley, tackled a different conundrum: how to quantify discrete choices rather than continuous ones. PMID:17844279

  3. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-03-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. PMID:22269530

  4. Dealing with mild cognitive impairment: help for patients and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Donald L

    2013-11-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a unique entity in the spectrum of syndromes of cognitive loss. Many patients referred for evaluation of memory loss come with an assumption that they already have dementia. When patients are diagnosed with MCI, they and their caregivers have to deal with the challenge of uncertainties. Patient and family education must stress the uncertainty of whether the deficits will progress. This article aims to guide the clinician who has reached a diagnosis of MCI and is working with the patient and family on coping with the uncertainties of MCI.

  5. Energy Security: From Deal Killers to Game Changers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Charlie

    2010-03-01

    Five energy security ``deal killers" are identified: 1) Global warming and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion; 2) Intermittent energy sources (wind, solar) and the presence and stability of the grid; 3) Penetration of plant defenses to produce transportation fuels from biomass; 4) Mimicking nature: artificial photosynthesis for solar energy to fuels; and 5) Spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. Transformational basic research is required to successfully change the ground rules, to transform these ``deal killers" into ``game changers." T hey are: 1) Offsetting carbon capture and storage costs through enhanced oil recovery and methane generation from high temperature geothermal saline aquifers; 2) Electrical energy storage, through batteries and super-capacitors; 3) Genetic modification of plant cell walls, and catalytic methods for transforming plant sugars into fuels; 4) Separation of solar-induced electrons from holes, and catalysis to produce fuels; and 5) Closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Basic research can revolutionize our approach to carbon-free energy by enhancing nature to achieve energy security.

  6. A ``New Deal`` for utility industry engineers and their bosses

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.H.

    1997-09-01

    Most utility industry engineers are experiencing significant job security anxiety brought on by unprecedented industry changes such as impending industry re-regulation, diminished domestic new generation projects, utility restructuring, and re-engineering. Observations of leading utilities, A/Es, and major manufacturers show that many challenging opportunities for engineers are emerging from these changes but these jobs often require early planning and investments in broadened skills, improved business perspective and competitive flexibility to capture and maintain them. There is a growing corporate expectation that engineers can become comfortable with competition, business accountabilities, frequent job change, offshore assignments, and lifelong learning. This article is written to help utility industry engineers, their managers and executives better understand these changes and to hopefully create a broader acceptance of a New Deal. This New Deal focuses on visioning industry change impacts on future job content, co-planning and co-investments in skill and business perspective broadening, early identification and winning of challenging opportunities and, most importantly, strong personal commitments to staying on top of the new utility game which is competition, competition, and competition.

  7. Energy Security: From Deal Killers to Game Changers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbach, Raymond L.

    2010-03-01

    Five ``deal killers'' for achieving energy security will be addressed: 1) Global warming and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, 2) Intermittent energy sources (wind, solar) and the presence and stability of the grid, 3) Penetration of plant defenses to produce transportation fuels from biomass, 4) Mimicking nature: artificial photosynthesis for solar energy-to-fuels, and 5) Spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. Basic research can lead to ``game changers'' for these five fields: 1) Carbon capture and storage through enhanced oil and gas recovery, 2) Electrical energy storage for base-load electricity through batteries and supercapacitors, 3) Genetic modification of the plant cell wall, and catalytic methods for conversion of plant sugars to fuels, 4) Separation of solar-induced electrons from holes, and catalysis to produce fuels, and 5) Closing the nuclear fuel cycle. The present state for each of these game changers will be summarized, and future research opportunities discussed.

  8. Bioethics for clinicians: 16. Dealing with demands for inappropriate treatment.

    PubMed

    Weijer, C; Singer, P A; Dickens, B M; Workman, S

    1998-10-01

    Demands by Patients or their Families for treatment thought to be inappropriate by health care providers constitute an important set of moral problems in clinical practice. A variety of approaches to such cases have been described in the literature, including medical futility, standard of care and negotiation. Medical futility fails because it confounds morally distinct cases: demand for an ineffective treatment and demand for an effective treatment that supports a controversial end (e.g., permanent unconsciousness). Medical futility is not necessary in the first case and is harmful in the second. Ineffective treatment falls outside the standard of care, and thus health care workers have no obligation to provide it. Demands for treatment that supports controversial ends are difficult cases best addressed through open communication, negotiation and the use of conflict-resolution techniques. Institutions should ensure that fair and unambiguous procedures for dealing with such cases are laid out in policy statements. PMID:9805031

  9. Evaluating western Siberian oil, gas opportunities--deals

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander-Krug, K. ); Krug, J.A. )

    1993-02-22

    This article deals with various aspects of creation of Russian joint ventures. The main subject areas are (1) the choices for business structure arrangements between a subcontractor (production share) or license, (2) the procedure for licensing, (3) the alternatives for structuring and the registration requirements for creating a business enterprise, and (4) other considerations for negotiating and forming a venture. The preceding four parts of this five-part series dealt with the technical and economic evaluations of oil and gas ventures in western Siberia. This article is based on the laws at the time of writing. The status of Russian laws should always be checked for changes prior to entering into any agreement.

  10. School Nurses' Experiences in Dealing With Bullying Situations Among Students.

    PubMed

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Jones Bartoli, Alice

    2016-06-01

    School nurses have an important role in helping students to deal with bullying. However, most of the previously undertaken studies do not have nurses as the subjects, considering their experiences around this theme. This study used a qualitative approach through in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses (SNs). The thematic analysis was employed and supported by NVivo 10 software. Five main themes arose from the analysis: (1) understanding about bullying, (2) how they identified bullying, (3) strategies, (4) support at the workplace, and (5) SNs' role. SNs have a reasonable knowledge about this issue and are capable of helping students through dialogue. However, there is a need to be trained and have more time to be able to give proper help to the students, also using other different strategies. SNs must work more actively on this issue with schools and be supported in terms of staff numbers. PMID:26502929

  11. Occupational identity crisis of professionals dealing with difficult adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saint-André, S; Planche, P; Gourbil, A; Botbol, M

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis of vulnerability in health and social care professionals dealing with difficult adolescents. This vulnerability appears to be underpinned by an occupational identity crisis that seems to diminish the ability of these professionals to recognize the suffering of these adolescents. A questionnaire was developed and then distributed during a network day bringing together members of various institutions and bodies working with difficult adolescents. Ninety-three professionals responded. Occupational identity weaknesses were identified: inadequate basic training, experiences of solitude, feelings of powerlessness and exposure, inadequate personal and institutional resources. Actors involved express their need for inter-institutional and inter-sectoral network but find it uneasy to implement. Some changes can be recommended to reduce this occupational identity crisis: increased efforts towards continuing training, development of possibilities of reflection within institutions, and more structured partnerships and actions. PMID:27110882

  12. Dealing with the increased radon concentration in thermally retrofitted buildings.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, M; Kačmaříková, V

    2014-07-01

    The influence of energy-saving measures on indoor radon concentration has been studied on the basis of a family house made of clinker concrete wall panels containing from 1000 up to 4000 Bq kg(-1) of 226Ra. Thermal retrofitting based on installing external thermal insulation composite system on the building envelope and replacing existing windows by new ones decreased the annual energy need for heating 2.8 times, but also reduced the ventilation rate to values<0.1 h(-1). As a consequence, the 1-y average indoor radon concentration values increased 3.4 times from 337 to 1117 Bq m(-3). The additional risk of lung cancer in the thermally retrofitted house increased to a value that is 125 % higher than before conversion. Methods for dealing with this enhanced risk by increasing the ventilation rate are discussed. Recovery of investments and the energy consequences of increased ventilation are studied in a long-term perspective.

  13. Dealing with uncertainties in angles-only initial orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armellin, Roberto; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-08-01

    A method to deal with uncertainties in initial orbit determination (IOD) is presented. This is based on the use of Taylor differential algebra (DA) to nonlinearly map uncertainties from the observation space to the state space. When a minimum set of observations is available, DA is used to expand the solution of the IOD problem in Taylor series with respect to measurement errors. When more observations are available, high order inversion tools are exploited to obtain full state pseudo-observations at a common epoch. The mean and covariance of these pseudo-observations are nonlinearly computed by evaluating the expectation of high order Taylor polynomials. Finally, a linear scheme is employed to update the current knowledge of the orbit. Angles-only observations are considered and simplified Keplerian dynamics adopted to ease the explanation. Three test cases of orbit determination of artificial satellites in different orbital regimes are presented to discuss the feature and performances of the proposed methodology.

  14. Health literacy in patients dealing with gout: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    van Onna, Marloes; Hinsenveld, Elke; de Vries, Hein; Boonen, Annelies

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the health literacy of patients dealing with gout and to understand perceptions that might account for non-adherence to urate-lowering therapy (ULT). Semi-structured interviews involving patients with gout were conducted. The transcripts of the interviews were scored by two readers and a coding system to categorize the data was developed. Fifteen patients (14 men, mean age 63 years, mean disease duration 11 years) were interviewed; ten patients were recruited from secondary care and five from primary care. Six patients had gout tophi and 12 patients used ULT. Less than half of the patients were sufficiently aware of the pathophysiological processes that cause gout. Twelve patients indicated that treatment of gout only encompasses treatment of the acute attack. Patients were unaware of long-term treatment goals. Six patients admitted medication non-adherence at some point in time. Several reasons for non-adherence, such as healthcare professionals providing conflicting messages about medication, can be considered preventable. Half of the patients expressed that they, especially at the time of diagnosis, wanted to know more about the cause of gout, treatment goals and long-term consequences. In conclusion, the health literacy of patients dealing with gout was low in our study, especially with regard to medication. Yet, patients often recognized these knowledge gaps. Our data suggest that improving knowledge and addressing common misperceptions in training programmes, may ultimately contribute to adherence to ULT and an optimized outcome in patients with gout. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed in future research.

  15. General approach for dealing with dynamical systems with spatiotemporal periodicities.

    PubMed

    Casado-Pascual, Jesús; Cuesta, José A; Quintero, Niurka R; Alvarez-Nodarse, Renato

    2015-02-01

    Dynamical systems often contain oscillatory forces or depend on periodic potentials. Time or space periodicity is reflected in the properties of these systems through a dependence on the parameters of their periodic terms. In this paper we provide a general theoretical framework for dealing with these kinds of systems, regardless of whether they are classical or quantum, stochastic or deterministic, dissipative or nondissipative, linear or nonlinear, etc. In particular, we are able to show that simple symmetry considerations determine, to a large extent, how their properties depend functionally on some of the parameters of the periodic terms. For the sake of illustration, we apply this formalism to find the functional dependence of the expectation value of the momentum of a Bose-Einstein condensate, described by the Gross-Pitaewskii equation, when it is exposed to a sawtooth potential whose amplitude is periodically modulated in time. We show that, by using this formalism, a small set of measurements is enough to obtain the functional form for a wide range of parameters. This can be very helpful when characterizing experimentally the response of systems for which performing measurements is costly or difficult.

  16. Dealing with Multipacting in Fundamental Power Couplers for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Mircea Stirbet

    2005-03-19

    Multipacting events are well known and bothersome discharge phenomena specific to vacuum and RF exposed surfaces. Left uncontrolled, these events could affect normal machine operation, limiting performance or inducing irreversible damage of critical components such as ceramic windows. Numerical simulations have been developed and their predictions fit fairly well with real multipacting events in coaxial lines or waveguide-type fundamental power couplers. Controlling multipacting must be considered from the design stage, as well as during manufacture of subassemblies or preparation of the coupler for cavity assembly. All fundamental power couplers must be conditioned using a high power RF source, and during this process, restricting multipacting by adequate instrumentation should be considered. After RF conditioning, during beam acceleration, control of multipacting is achieved with field perturbation methods. This paper summarizes our experience in dealing with multipacting in CW or pulsed fundamental power couplers (LEP, LHC, SNS and RIA) for SRF cavities. The SNS fundamental power coupler is used as an example for controlling multipacting during high power RF conditioning.

  17. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. PMID:25572078

  18. Dealing with Processing Chapter 10 Files from Multiple Vendors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudtson, Kevin Mark

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses the experiences of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's (DFRC) Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) in dealing with the problems encountered while performing post flight data processing using the WATR's data collection/processing system on Chapter 10 files from different Chapter 10 recorders. The transition to Chapter 10 recorders has brought Vvith it an assortment of issues that must be addressed: the ambiguities of language in the Chapter 10 standard, the unrealistic near-term expectations of the Chapter 10 standard, the incompatibility of data products generated from Chapter 10 recorders, and the unavailability of mature Chapter 10 applications. Some of these issues properly belong to the users of Chapter 10 recorders, some to the manufacturers, and some to the flight test community at large. The goal of this presentation is to share the WATR's lesson learned in processing data products from various Chapter 10 recorder vendors. The WATR could benefit greatly in the open forum Vvith lessons learned discussions with other members of the flight test community.

  19. Dealing with office emergencies. Stepwise approach for family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Sempowski, Ian P.; Brison, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple stepwise approach to initial management of emergencies in family physicians' offices; to review how to prepare health care teams and equipment; and to illustrate a general approach to three of the most common office emergencies. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1980 to December 2001. Articles were selected based on their clinical relevance, quality of evidence, and date of publication. We reviewed American family medicine, pediatric, dental, and dermatologic articles, but found that the area has not been well studied from a Canadian family medicine perspective. Consensus statements by specialty professional groups were used to identify accepted emergency medical treatments. MAIN MESSAGE: Family medicine offices are frequently poorly equipped and inadequately prepared to deal with emergencies. Straightforward emergency response plans can be designed and tailored to an office's risk profile. A systematic team approach and effective use of skills, support staff, and equipment is important. The general approach can be modified for specific patients or conditions. CONCLUSION: Family physicians can plan ahead and use a team approach to develop a simple stepwise response to emergency situations in the office. PMID:12371305

  20. Psychosocial Correlates of Adolescent Drug Dealing in the Inner City: Potential Roles of Opportunity, Conventional Commitments, and Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Michelle; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a model of the simultaneous and interactive influence of social context, psychosocial attitudes, and individual maturity on the prediction of urban adolescent drug dealing. Five factors were found to significantly increase adolescents' opportunity for drug selling: low parental monitoring, poor neighborhood conditions, low…

  1. Dealing with hidden issues: trafficked women in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Poudel, M; Shrestha, A

    1996-11-01

    This article discusses approaches to dealing with prostitution in Nepal and exportation of women prostitutes to Asia and the Middle East. It is estimated that over 200,000 Nepalese women are in Indian brothels, and tens of thousands are exported each year to other countries and forced either into prostitution or other oppressive conditions. In Nepal, women prostitutes are rejected as wives or daughters, regardless of the reasons involved. Women Acting Together for Change (WATCH) organized a national public hearing in June 1995 on these issues. During the hearing, 11 women and one man shared their views about being forced into prostitution, the ineffectiveness of the law, and social rejection. Participants at this forum questioned the legal practice of human rights and decided that law was a hindrance. Government representatives on the "listening bench" responded defensively and argued that prostitutes were unwilling to use the law, but agreed that the government should punish traffickers and commit politically to ending the trafficking in women. Roundtable discussions among concerned people after a day of hearings decided to initiate a nationwide coalition against the trafficking in women. The alliance would consist of 17 people and include nongovernmental representatives, lawyers, women who testified, representatives of the National Planning Council, and representatives from women's groups. The sex trade is viewed as a part of the national economy and a very profitable enterprise. Extreme poverty and few employment options are strong incentives for the continuation of prostitution. Patriarchal norms reinforce the view of women as born for the sexual pleasure of men. Nepal's national economy and policies have contributed to family poverty and to migration to other countries where women are exploited. The forum revealed schisms in the government commitment to Article 20 of the constitution. PMID:12291818

  2. [Dealing with victims of domestic violence. Suggestions for daily practice].

    PubMed

    Graß, Hildegard Lilly; Gahr, Britta; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of victims of violence and their treatment in medical facilities is a subject which has been covered for several years in a number of ways. In medicine and in other disciplines, the focus of research, publication, and practical work has been on the quality of care provided. Guidelines for the treatment of victims of violence have been developed and needs have been assessed. These examples show there is an abundance of knowledge on the subject. Nevertheless, the transfer of this knowledge into the everyday practice of medicine at hospitals and doctors' offices is clearly still not functioning in an optimal way and faces a wide range of hurdles and stumbling blocks. Based on the experience gained in a pilot project involving the medical intervention in doctors' offices against violence perpetuated against women (Project MIGG, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Family, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ)), approaches for the optimal treatment of victims of violence in outpatient medical facilities are presented. The key steps to achieving the goal of optimal treatment are: (i) the entire practice team commits to establishing a victim-centered approach to care and (ii) the necessary processes and structures are implemented (i.e., adequate documentation in patient records, patient information is made available in the doctor's office, information on post-treatment services and sources of support in the region are provided, contact is maintained with such institutions, and programs of further education are offered). This paper provides a catalogue of keywords with an overview illustrating how to optimize practice management to deal with cases of domestic violence. In addition, various areas of work are described, such the special requirements involving the collection of evidence. PMID:26519330

  3. The dilemma of foraging herbivores: dealing with food and fear.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Clare; Banks, Peter B; Boonstra, Rudy; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen

    2014-11-01

    For foraging herbivores, both food quality and predation risk vary across the landscape. Animals should avoid low-quality food patches in favour of high-quality ones, and seek safe patches while avoiding risky ones. Herbivores often face the foraging dilemma, however, of choosing between high-quality food in risky places or low-quality food in safe places. Here, we explore how and why the interaction between food quality and predation risk affects foraging decisions of mammalian herbivores, focusing on browsers confronting plant toxins in a landscape of fear. We draw together themes of plant-herbivore and predator-prey interactions, and the roles of animal ecophysiology, behaviour and personality. The response of herbivores to the dual costs of food and fear depends on the interplay of physiology and behaviour. We discuss detoxification physiology in dealing with plant toxins, and stress physiology associated with perceived predation risk. We argue that behaviour is the interface enabling herbivores to stay or quit food patches in response to their physiological tolerance to these risks. We hypothesise that generalist and specialist herbivores perceive the relative costs of plant defence and predation risk differently and intra-specifically, individuals with different personalities and physiologies should do so too, creating individualised landscapes of food and fear. We explore the ecological significance and emergent impacts of these individual-based foraging outcomes on populations and communities, and offer predictions that can be clearly tested. In doing so, we provide an integrated platform advancing herbivore foraging theory with food quality and predation risk at its core.

  4. Modernized Techniques for Dealing with Quality Data and Derived Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiswender, C.; Miller, S. P.; Clark, D.

    2008-12-01

    strategies to deal with data, Scripps Institution of Oceanography is able to produce and distribute well-formed, and quality-tested derived products, which aid research, understanding, and education.

  5. Dealing with the identification of protein species in ancient amphorae.

    PubMed

    Dallongeville, Sophie; Garnier, Nicolas; Casasola, Dario Bernal; Bonifay, Michel; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2011-03-01

    This manuscript deals with the identification of protein residues in amphorae, including particularly identification of protein species. The work described was performed on fishes, the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and bonito (Sarda sarda) species frequently found in the Mediterranean area. Based on proteomic techniques, the analytical strategy was adapted to analysis of protein residues from tiny ceramic fragments. The major difficulty was to extract proteins and limit their hydrolysis during the sample preparation; consequently, multiple soft extraction techniques were evaluated. The most valuable results were obtained using a solution containing high amounts of denaturing agents, urea and thiourea, reducing agent, dithiothreitol, and detergent, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. The analysis using nano liquid chromatography-nano electrospray ionization double quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of up to 200 proteins for the anchovy and bonito species, among which 73 peptides were found to be fish-specific. Because bonito and anchovy species are not documented and fully sequenced in genomic databases, the preliminary protein identification was realized via sequence homology to other fish sequenced species. Amino acid substitutions of peptides were assigned on the basis of the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry spectra using de novo sequencing; these peptides, not reported up to now in databases, constitute species-specific markers. The method developed was finally applied to an archaeological sample replica impregnated with a mixture of fish tissue from both species; this experiment successfully led to the identification of 17 fish proteins, including 33 fish-specific peptides. This work shows that the analytical method developed has great potential for the identification of protein species in complex archaeological samples. PMID:20890751

  6. GNSS Reference Station Provider - How to deal with ITRF updates ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Robert; Umnig, Elke; Hinterberger, Fabian; Thaler, Gottfried

    2015-04-01

    In 2015 a new ITRS Realization (most likely ITRF2013) will be issued. Regular ITRF updates are required for instance to integrate recently established reference stations to the ITRF and to improve site velocity estimates of already long time existing stations. Discussions how to optimally account for sudden coordinate shifts (e.g. caused by earthquakes) or periodical site motions (e.g. due to ground water flow, …) are always ongoing. Regional GNSS reference services usually tie their reference site coordinates to an almost recent ITRF at a fixed epoch or to a continental frame aligned to a tectonic plate (in Europe ETRFxx (ETRS89)). Therefore, the coordinates established in difference mode by users of such a service refer to this providers frame. In general a new ITRF update does not require any urgent action by the reference station provider as users are mostly interested in stable global coordinates and fixed relations to the national datum. On the other hand, currently upcoming un-differenced GNSS precise positioning techniques allow for dm or even sub-dm accuracy in post-processing, via RT-correction streams or via SIS. These coordinates are referred to the frame of the precise orbit and satellite information, which is the most current ITRF at the epoch of date. Therefore PPP coordinates established in 2014 differ for example from ETRF-coordinates by about 60cm or by at least 30cm from ITRF coordinates which refer to epoch 2000,0. This poster presentation aims to discuss how a GNSS reference station provider has to deal with an ITRF update in order to ensure on the one hand consistency of the user coordinates established in difference or PPP mode and to allow the user to obtain coordinates in the desired reference frame (most recent ITRF, ETRF, national datum). The required suite of actions includes changes of the reference site coordinates, the provision of transformation tools for post-processing users and the delivery of Real-Time RTCM corrections streams

  7. 12 CFR 1.3 - Limitations on dealing in, underwriting, and purchase and sale of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sale of securities. (a) Type I securities. A national bank may deal in, underwrite, purchase, and sell Type I securities for its own account. The amount of Type I securities that the bank may deal in...) Type II securities. A national bank may deal in, underwrite, purchase, and sell Type II securities...

  8. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-3 - Exceptions to self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exceptions to self-dealing. 53.4941(d)-3...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(d)-3 Exceptions to self-dealing. (a) General rule. In general, a transaction described in section 4941(d)(2)...

  9. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation.

  10. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. PMID:26998602

  11. Past, Present and Future: Urgency of Dealing with Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper gives an historic perspective on 10 critical phases and actions in advancing an understanding of climate change and taking appropriate domestic and international action. Credit goes to atmospheric scientists for their committed efforts to understand, model and measure ...

  12. Can the Simple View Deal with the Complexities of Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.; Savage, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    We review the Simple View of Reading (SVR) model and examine its nature, applicability and validity. We describe the SVR as an abstract framework for understanding the relationship between global linguistic comprehension and word-reading abilities in reading comprehension (RC). We argue that the SVR is neither a full theory of reading nor a…

  13. A Multimodal Approach in Dealing with Older Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikel, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that older persons underuse community-based and outpatient mental health services, yet are overrepresented in inpatient facilities. Argues for increased programing targeted for elderly client. Advocates use of multimodal model as efficient method of service delivery and provides sample case study using BASIC ID (Behavior, Affect, Sensation,…

  14. Dealing with Unseen Obstacles to Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Valerie J. H.; Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zomp, Christopher; Johnson, Randall S.; Miller, Phillip; Powell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper updates the efforts to educate blind students in higher education in the digital age and describes how to support the development of mental models in learning through tactile learning and 3D-printing technology. It cites research documenting a drop in Braille literacy along with the growth in use of digital technologies by blind…

  15. Financing for Quality: A New Deal in Spanish Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Jose-Gines; Villareal, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    The financial component of Spain's effort to reform higher education is outlined, particularly as it is designed to accomplish changes in program design and manage educational quality. Proposals for financing public universities include a new financial structure for universities, a new resource allocation model, and a program of student grants and…

  16. Using Analogical Reasoning to Deal with "Deep" Misconceptions in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, John; Brown, David

    In this paper examples of the role of analogical reasoning in expert problem solving are presented. These are intended to show that using an analogy can change an expert's understanding of a problem situation by changing the conceptual model he or she uses to think about the situation. This suggests that using a good analogy may allow students to…

  17. Dealing with target uncertainty in a reaching control interface.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Elaine A; Körding, Konrad P; Perreault, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic devices need to be controlled by their users, typically using physiological signals. People tend to look at objects before reaching for them and we have shown that combining eye movements with other continuous physiological signal sources enhances control. This approach suffers when subjects also look at non-targets, a problem we addressed with a probabilistic mixture over targets where subject gaze information is used to identify target candidates. However, this approach would be ineffective if a user wanted to move towards targets that have not been foveated. Here we evaluated how the accuracy of prior target information influenced decoding accuracy, as the availability of neural control signals was varied. We also considered a mixture model where we assumed that the target may be foveated or, alternatively, that the target may not be foveated. We tested the accuracy of the models at decoding natural reaching data, and also in a closed-loop robot-assisted reaching task. The mixture model worked well in the face of high target uncertainty. Furthermore, errors due to inaccurate target information were reduced by including a generic model that relied on neural signals only. PMID:24489788

  18. Life cycle assessment of fuel cell vehicles: Dealing with uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadini, Jose Fernando

    Life cycle assessment (LCA), or "well to wheels" in transportation terms, involves some subjectivity and uncertainty, especially with new technologies and future scenarios. To analyze lifecycle impacts of future fuel cell vehicles and fuels, I developed the Fuel Upstream Energy and Emission Model (FUEEM). The FUEEM project pioneered two specific new ways to incorporate and propagate uncertainty within an LCA analysis. First, the model uses probabilistic curves generated by experts as inputs and then employs Monte Carlo simulation techniques to propagate these uncertainties throughout the full chain of fuel production and use. Second, the FUEEM process explicitly involves the interested parties in the entire analysis process, not only in the critical final review phase. To demonstrate the FUEEM process, an analysis has been made for the use of three different fuel cell vehicle technologies (direct hydrogen, indirect methanol, and indirect hydrocarbon) in 2010 within the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) of California (Los Angeles). The analysis covered topics such as the requirement of non-renewable energy sources, emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and emissions of several criteria pollutants generated within SCAB and within other regions. The results obtained from this example show that the hydrogen option has the potential to have the most efficient energy life cycle for the SCAB, followed by the methanol and finally by the Fisher-Tropsch naphtha option. A similar pattern is observed for the greenhouse gas emissions. The results showing criteria pollutants emitted within SCAB highlight the importance of having a flexible model that is responsive to local considerations. This dissertation demonstrates that explicit recognition and quantitative analysis of the inherent uncertainty in the LCA process generates richer information, explains many of the discrepancies between results of previous studies, and enhances the robustness and credibility of LCA analyses.

  19. A new web-based course: dealing with glaciers and permafrost hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, S.; Kaeaeb, A.; Haeberli, W.

    2003-04-01

    The intensive human use of high mountains intersects more and more with the hazard zones of such environments. Because of the complexity of such processes and impacts, dealing with such risks requires a broad education in many sub-domains of the earth sciences and the socio-economic field. Inter- and trans-disciplinary training and education of professionals is therefore essential. Thus the goal of the Swiss Virtual Campus project "Dealing with Natural Hazards" is to provide such a course program covering the basics of dealing with natural hazards, including technical, environmental and social aspects. In the field of natural hazards and risk management, education at the Swiss universities is mostly structured in narrow sectors. Using the advantages of the internet, the Virtual Campus provides teachers and students an interdisciplinary discussion platform on the integral approach and the handling with natural hazards. The course content is organised in 5 modules: 1 basic knowledge and tools, 2 hydrological / meteorological hazards, 3 geological hazards, 4 vulnerability of property and of socio-economic systems and 5 integral natural risk management. To ensure a national and international access the courses are designed in English and published on the internet. Within the scope of this project we are developing lessons in the subject area of natural hazards related to glaciers and permafrost. These are ice avalanches, glacier floods, glacier length variations and permafrost. The content is divided into chapters, which are consistent over the entire module: (1) processes: characterisation of the different processes, (2) triggering: initiating events, (3) data acquisition, mapping and monitoring: appropriate methods, (4) estimation models: application of the adequate model, (5) combinations and interactions: interrelation and impacts of different hazards, (6) long-term effects: global change effects, (7) integral hazard recognition and assessment: integral proceedings

  20. Diverse dealings of the Werner helicase/nuclease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2003-08-06

    The human Werner syndrome is a model for the process of aging. The protein that is mutated in Werner syndrome, WRN, exhibits three catalytic activities: a 3'-to-5' helicase, a 3'-to-5' exonuclease, and an adenosine triphosphatase activity. WRN interacts with a variety of proteins and has been implicated in many aspects of DNA metabolism. A recent paper by Chen et al. published in the August 2003 issue of Aging Cell sheds some light on the multifunctional nature of WRN. It suggests that WRN may be considered as a structural protein, providing a plausible conceptual basis for the many WRN protein-protein interactions.

  1. Introduction to multiple imputation for dealing with missing data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Katherine J; Simpson, Julie A

    2014-02-01

    Missing data are common in both observational and experimental studies. Multiple imputation (MI) is a two-stage approach where missing values are imputed a number of times using a statistical model based on the available data and then inference is combined across the completed datasets. This approach is becoming increasingly popular for handling missing data. In this paper, we introduce the method of MI, as well as a discussion surrounding when MI can be a useful method for handling missing data and the drawbacks of this approach. We illustrate MI when exploring the association between current asthma status and forced expiratory volume in 1 s after adjustment for potential confounders using data from a population-based longitudinal cohort study.

  2. Nix Nought Nothing: Fairy Tale or Real Deal

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Gerald W

    2010-01-01

    Nix was first described in the heart as the protein product of a differentially expressed mRNA detected by hybridiztion to a partial cDNA sequence tag on an RNA expression array. Over the subsequent 8 years Nix has become the prototypical transcriptionally-regulated cardiac myocyte “suicide” gene and has been used as a model to interrogate mechanisms of programmed cardiomyocyte death in hypertrophy and heart failure. Nix stimulates conventional apoptosis mediated via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, but emerging evidence indicates that Nix also controls programmed necrosis dependent upon sarcoplasmic reticular-mitochondrial tethering, calcium cross-talk, and the mitochondrial permeability transition. Recent studies have also described Nix labeling of senescent cardiomyocyte mitochondria for autophagic elimination, elucidated a physiological mitochondrial quality control Nix function; so-called “mitochondrial pruning. PMID:20858501

  3. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-2 - Specific acts of self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific acts of self-dealing. 53.4941(d)-2...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(d)-2 Specific acts of self-dealing. Except as provided in § 53.4941(d)-3 or § 53.4941(d)-4: (a) Sale or...

  4. A functional and structural Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) model integrating architecture, biomass and effects of precipitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  5. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  6. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-2 - Specific acts of self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(d)-2... of property—(1) In general. The sale or exchange of property between a private foundation and a... disqualified person to a private foundation shall be an act of self-dealing regardless of the amount paid...

  7. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-2 - Specific acts of self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(d)-2... of property—(1) In general. The sale or exchange of property between a private foundation and a... disqualified person to a private foundation shall be an act of self-dealing regardless of the amount paid...

  8. A New Equity Deal for Schools: A Case Study of Policy-Making in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Parlo; Taylor, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we draw on concepts from policy sociology to analyse the new equity deal for schools in Queensland, Australia. We examine this "new deal" through an analysis of the language of "inclusion" and "educational risk" in key policy documents associated with a major reform of public education in Queensland. In addition, we analyse the…

  9. Dealing with the Multidimensionality of Sustainability through the Use of Multiple Perspectives--A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lönngren, Johanna; Svanström, Magdalena; Ingerman, Åke; Holmberg, John

    2016-01-01

    The concept of perspectives is important in discussions about the multidimensionality of sustainability problems and the need to consider many different aspects when dealing with them. This paper aims to facilitate discussions among both educators and researchers about didactical approaches to developing students' abilities to deal with the…

  10. The Great Depression and the New Deal on Long Island, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupinskie-Huvane, Lorraine; Singer, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Presents information adapted from the introduction to "The Great Depression and the New Deal on Long Island: A Local History Curriculum Guide." Finds that even though people in Long Island, New York, were active participants in New Deal programs, there was still anti-Roosevelt opposition during the 1932 and 1936 presidential elections. (CMK)

  11. 26 CFR 143.5 - Taxes on self-dealing; indirect transactions by a private foundation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxes on self-dealing; indirect transactions by... THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1969 § 143.5 Taxes on self-dealing; indirect transactions by a private... 101(b) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 500) provides that the term “self-dealing” includes...

  12. What's the Big Deal? Collection Evaluation at the National Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurczyk, Eva; Jacobs, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a project undertaken to assess the journals in a Big Deal package by applying a weighted value algorithm measuring quality, utility, and value of individual titles. Carried out by a national library consortium in Canada, the project confirmed the value of the Big Deal package while providing a quantitative approach for…

  13. Counseling Older Adults with Dementia Who Are Dealing with Death: Innovative Interventions for Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary Miller; Trzinski, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    As individuals age, they deal with an increasing number of emotional, physical, and environmental losses. One loss older adults encounter is their own and others' deaths. Older adults with dementia may face greater difficulty in understanding and dealing with death-related issues because of cognitive and memory changes. Little literature exists to…

  14. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  15. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  16. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  17. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  18. 31 CFR 515.410 - Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dealing abroad in Cuban origin... Interpretations § 515.410 Dealing abroad in Cuban origin commodities. Section 515.204 prohibits, unless licensed, the importation of commodities of Cuban origin. It also prohibits, unless licensed, persons subject...

  19. An Evaluation of the "New Deal" in Further Education Colleges in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sai; Lucas, Norman

    2004-01-01

    The article starts by providing a brief historical context for the introduction of the New Deal and then describes the aims and structure of the New Deal in FE (Further Education) colleges. Based on a small-scale research project on FE colleges in London and south-east England, the article analyses issues and challenges arising from the experience…

  20. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section...

  1. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section...

  2. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section...

  3. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section...

  4. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section...

  5. Children of Victims of Terrorist Activities: A Family Approach to Dealing with Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreman, Solly B.; Cohen, Esther C.

    1982-01-01

    Deals with the treatment of families of victims of terrorist activities. Discusses specific issues common to families affected by terrorism. Describes therapy concentrated on promoting family strengths and coping and deemphasizing individual pathology. Suggests family therapy is an effective treatment modality for dealing with tragic loss. (Author)

  6. Effective Strategies for Dealing with People You Can't Stand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Jerry; Leonard, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    One may be in a situation where he/she feels frustrated and confused by certain behaviors that make his/her life difficult. Fortunately, in their international bestseller, "Dealing with People You Can't Stand: How to Bring Out the Best in People at Their Worst," Dr. Rick Brinksman and Dr. Rick Kirschner provide a strategy for dealing with ten of…

  7. How to deal with climate change uncertainty in the planning of engineering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackova, Olga; Dittes, Beatrice; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The effect of extreme events such as floods on the infrastructure and built environment is associated with significant uncertainties: These include the uncertain effect of climate change, uncertainty on extreme event frequency estimation due to limited historic data and imperfect models, and, not least, uncertainty on future socio-economic developments, which determine the damage potential. One option for dealing with these uncertainties is the use of adaptable (flexible) infrastructure that can easily be adjusted in the future without excessive costs. The challenge is in quantifying the value of adaptability and in finding the optimal sequence of decision. Is it worth to build a (potentially more expensive) adaptable system that can be adjusted in the future depending on the future conditions? Or is it more cost-effective to make a conservative design without counting with the possible future changes to the system? What is the optimal timing of the decision to build/adjust the system? We develop a quantitative decision-support framework for evaluation of alternative infrastructure designs under uncertainties, which: • probabilistically models the uncertain future (trough a Bayesian approach) • includes the adaptability of the systems (the costs of future changes) • takes into account the fact that future decisions will be made under uncertainty as well (using pre-posterior decision analysis) • allows to identify the optimal capacity and optimal timing to build/adjust the infrastructure. Application of the decision framework will be demonstrated on an example of flood mitigation planning in Bavaria.

  8. Package Deal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This article features the Higher Education Recruitment Consortium, or HERC, website, which lists all positions such as custodians, administrators, and other faculty positions at colleges, universities, and research institutions throughout the country. HERC, based in Ben Lomond, California, uses its "dual career" hiring services to help couples…

  9. Dealing with School Violence: The Effect of School Violence Prevention Training on Teachers' Perceived Self-Efficacy in Dealing with Violent Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sela-Shayovitz, Revital

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between school violence prevention training and teachers' perceived self-efficacy in handling violent events. Three indicators were used to examine teachers' self-efficacy: personal teaching efficacy (PTE), teachers' efficacy in the school as an organisation (TESO), and teachers' outcome efficacy (TOE). Data…

  10. Setting up an off-site emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a DVI incident: disaster victim management (DVM).

    PubMed

    Eitzen, David; Zimmermann, Alex

    2012-06-01

    Forensic mortuaries in all Australian jurisdictions are dealing with increasing workloads, with routine cases regularly occupying greater than 50%, and often as much as 85%, of existing cold room body storage capacity, particularly over long weekends and during seasonal increases in respiratory infections. Hence the need to deal with a sudden influx of deceased persons or multiple body parts in a mass fatality incident would overwhelm most Australian forensic mortuaries, thereby requiring other means of body storage and processing. Exercise "Construct" was a joint South Australian Police (SAPol) and Forensic Science South Australia exercise designed to practice the establishment and construction of an emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a mass fatality incident and the subsequent disaster victim identification process. The aims of the exercise were to test preparedness, activation and construction processes relative to the establishment of an EMF. The exercise provided the opportunity to identify gaps in the capacity to successfully complete the tasks within the allotted time frames. The exercise reinforced the need to have a comprehensive and clearly documented process which must include a current list of suppliers who can deliver goods and services in a timely manner. The aim of this paper is to report on the exercise findings and share the experience with other jurisdictions. It will also provide other jurisdictions with the opportunity to consider whether the South Australian model will be useful to them in improving their own response when confronted with a mass fatality incident that may overwhelm existing local mortuary capacities and capabilities.

  11. Dealing with difficult deformations: construction of a knowledge-based deformation atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorup, S. S.; Darvann, T. A.; Hermann, N. V.; Larsen, P.; Ólafsdóttir, H.; Paulsen, R. R.; Kane, A. A.; Govier, D.; Lo, L.-J.; Kreiborg, S.; Larsen, R.

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-three Taiwanese infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were CT-scanned before lip repair at the age of 3 months, and again after lip repair at the age of 12 months. In order to evaluate the surgical result, detailed point correspondence between pre- and post-surgical images was needed. We have previously demonstrated that non-rigid registration using B-splines is able to provide automated determination of point correspondences in populations of infants without cleft lip. However, this type of registration fails when applied to the task of determining the complex deformation from before to after lip closure in infants with UCLP. The purpose of the present work was to show that use of prior information about typical deformations due to lip closure, through the construction of a knowledge-based atlas of deformations, could overcome the problem. Initially, mean volumes (atlases) for the pre- and post-surgical populations, respectively, were automatically constructed by non-rigid registration. An expert placed corresponding landmarks in the cleft area in the two atlases; this provided prior information used to build a knowledge-based deformation atlas. We model the change from pre- to post-surgery using thin-plate spline warping. The registration results are convincing and represent a first move towards an automatic registration method for dealing with difficult deformations due to this type of surgery.

  12. Improving the efficiency of case-based reasoning to deal with activated sludge solids separation problems.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M; Mérida-Campos, C; Sánchez-Marré, M; Comas, J; Rodríguez-Roda, I

    2006-06-01

    The potential of Case-Based Reasoning to use the knowledge gained from past experiences to solve problematic situations has made this Artificial Intelligence technique a useful decision support tool in different environmental domains such as wastewater treatment. Case-Based Reasoning tools automatically identify similarities between present and previous situations (cases) and reuse the experiences gained from the previous situations to solve current problems. Case retrieval can be considered to be the most important step in the process of Case-Based Reasoning. In the present study we propose incorporating a relevance network in order to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of case retrieval. The result is a context-sensitive feature-weighting methodology capable of defining the model of relationships between the different attributes or features that define the context in which Case-Based Reasoning is applied. These features affect the retrieval procedure directly. The feature's degree of relevance in the network is easily translated into a set of simple rules and applied during case retrieval, specifically during the similarity calculation. The results obtained in the present study show significant improvements in the accuracy of case retrieval. With the approach presented here experts considered more than 90% of the retrieved cases to be completely relevant according to the knowledge these cases provided for dealing with solids separation problems.

  13. Employee-oriented leadership and quality of working life: mediating roles of idiosyncratic deals.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Severin; Glaser, Jürgen; Rousseau, Denise M; Angerer, Peter; Weigl, Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Leader consideration has long been suggested to be conducive to quality of working life experienced by employees. The present study links this classic leadership dimension with more recent research on idiosyncratic deals, referring to personalized conditions workers negotiate in their employment relationships. A two-wave survey study (N = 159/142) among German hospital physicians suggests that authorizing idiosyncratic deals is a manifestation of employee-oriented leader behavior. Consideration had consistent positive effects on idiosyncratic deals regarding both professional development and working time flexibility. These two types had differential effects on two indicators of the quality of working life. Development related positively to work engagement, flexibility related negatively to work-family conflict. Cross-lagged correlations supported the proposed direction of influence between consideration and idiosyncratic deals in a subsample of repeating responders (n=91). The relation between development and engagement appeared to be reciprocal. Longitudinal results for the association between flexibility and work-family conflict were inconclusive.

  14. Dealing with Behavioral Problems: Rules of Comportment in the Science Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druger, Marvin

    2001-01-01

    Highlights some ways that instructors of large lecture classes can effectively deal with such issues as inappropriate talking; tardiness; leaving early; sleeping, eating, or drinking during class; listening to music; or simply being discourteous. (SAH)

  15. Boiler suppliers ask for investigation of secret, illegal foreign financing deals

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1982-01-01

    The boiler industry has asked the US Department of Commerce to protect it from what it claims may be secret illegal financing deals by foreign suppliers. Complaints by the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA) cite two cases involving French and Swedish suppliers and warn of South American deals under consideration. ABMA suggests that foreign governments may be subsidizing commercial financing to encourage exports in violation of US tariff laws. Those purchasing the impartial boilers deny that anything improper or illegal was done. (DCK)

  16. Health trajectories in regeneration areas in England: the impact of the New Deal for Communities intervention

    PubMed Central

    Walthery, Pierre; Stafford, Mai; Nazroo, James; Whitehead, Margaret; Dibben, Christopher; Halliday, Emma; Povall, Sue; Popay, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence documents the adverse relationship between concentrated deprivation and health. Among the evaluations of regeneration initiatives to tackle these spatial inequalities, few have traced the trajectories of individuals over time and fewer still have employed counterfactual comparison. We investigate the impact of one such initiative in England, the New Deal for Communities (NDC), which ran from 1999 to 2011, on socioeconomic inequalities in health trajectories. Methods Latent Growth Curve modelling of within-person changes in self-rated health, mental health and life satisfaction between 2002 and 2008 of an analytical cohort of residents of 39 disadvantaged areas of England in which the NDC was implemented, compared with residents of comparator, non-intervention areas, focusing on: (1) whether differences over time in outcomes can be detected between NDC and comparator areas and (2) whether interventions may have altered socioeconomic differences in outcomes. Results No evidence was found for an overall improvement in the three outcomes, or for significant differences in changes in health between respondents in NDC versus comparator areas. However, we found a weakly significant gap in life satisfaction and mental health between high and low socioeconomic status individuals in comparator areas which widened over time to a greater extent than in NDC areas. Change over time in the three outcomes was non-linear: individual improvements among NDC residents were largest before 2006. Conclusions There is limited evidence that the NDC moderated the impact of socioeconomic factors on mental health and life satisfaction trajectories. Furthermore, any NDC impact was strongest in the first 6 years of the programmes. PMID:26085649

  17. Dealing with the safety paradox of delta-branches closure; a geomorphology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloff, C.; Tromp, R.; Sieben, A.

    2013-12-01

    Closing off estuaries by dams is a conventional solution to reduce flood risks and salt intrusion in river deltas. However, if not all branches are closed, residual tidal currents develop or increase in connecting channels between the closed and open branches. These channels start to erode, causing bank instability and possible failure of levees. Hence, paradoxically, the intended increase in safety by this closure creates a new threat with increased flood risks. We illustrate this for existing channel erosion and dike stability problems in the Dutch Rhine River delta in the Netherlands, as well as for proposed future closure works in the Mekong River in Vietnam. Crucial for assessing and dealing with the erosion problems, is a proper prediction of flow conditions and of bed erodibility. The channels incise ancient deltaic deposits, consisting of diverse sections and layers of sand, clay and peat with diverse states of compaction. In the presented studies we show how we applied Delft3D to model the full delta, with all relevant dynamics and complex interactions between tidal flow and river discharges. For the Dutch situation, we simulated the long-term fate of the eroding interconnecting channels, applying a detailed description of subsurface heterogeneous erodibility (space and depth varying). Since these rivers are incising slowly in clay and peat beds covering highly-erodible sand layers, alternate sections occur of undersupplied ';fixed' beds, and of very deep scour holes. For the Vietnam case, we show how the location of a barrier and operation of gates, can be used to control both the salinity intrusion and channel erosion for the Mekong delta. Although the morphology studies for the Dutch delta with high-density data availability obviously justify a detailed Delft3D approach, it is shown that even in the Mekong delta with poor data quality, a coarse-grid large-scale Delft3D model can provide the answers necessary for planning the closure works and potential

  18. [Proposal of an index for government measures to deal with domestic violence against children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Suely; Mendes, Corina Helena Figueira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

    2015-08-01

    The article discusses the development of the Index for Dealing with Family Violence to assess municipal strategies related to this violation of children's and adolescents' rights. Development of the index involved a preliminary analysis of indicators from previous studies and a technical expert group. Four indicators were selected: the existence of a municipal plan for dealing with violence against children and adolescents; the existence of an inter-sector flow for treating and following up on children and adolescents in situations of family violence; number of guardianship councils in relation to the municipality's population; and the existence of standardized instruments in municipal school, social work, and health systems for reporting situations of violence against children and adolescents. The databank from a previous study was used in an exercise to apply the indicator in four Brazilian state capitals. The indicator can serve as a tool for monitoring and mobilizing efforts to implement measures for dealing with family violence. PMID:26375649

  19. Developing a national system for dealing with adverse events following immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, U.; Milstien, J. B.; Duclos, P.; Folb, P. I.

    2000-01-01

    Although vaccines are among the safest of pharmaceuticals, the occasional severe adverse event or cluster of adverse events associated with their use may rapidly become a serious threat to public health. It is essential that national monitoring and reporting systems for vaccine safety are efficient and adequately coordinated with those that conventionally deal with non-vaccine pharmaceuticals. Equally important is the need for an enlightened and informed national system to be in place to deal with public concerns and rapid evaluation of the risk to public safety when adverse events occur. Described in this article is the outcome of efforts by the WHO Global Training Network to describe a simple national system for dealing with vaccine safety and with emergencies as they arise. The goals of a training programme designed to help develop such a system are also outlined. PMID:10743281

  20. [Proposal of an index for government measures to deal with domestic violence against children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Suely; Mendes, Corina Helena Figueira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

    2015-08-01

    The article discusses the development of the Index for Dealing with Family Violence to assess municipal strategies related to this violation of children's and adolescents' rights. Development of the index involved a preliminary analysis of indicators from previous studies and a technical expert group. Four indicators were selected: the existence of a municipal plan for dealing with violence against children and adolescents; the existence of an inter-sector flow for treating and following up on children and adolescents in situations of family violence; number of guardianship councils in relation to the municipality's population; and the existence of standardized instruments in municipal school, social work, and health systems for reporting situations of violence against children and adolescents. The databank from a previous study was used in an exercise to apply the indicator in four Brazilian state capitals. The indicator can serve as a tool for monitoring and mobilizing efforts to implement measures for dealing with family violence.

  1. Dealing with AIDS and fear: would you accept cookies from an AIDS patient?

    PubMed

    Thompson, L M

    1987-02-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has engendered a crisis of fear among the public and health professionals alike. In addition to the myriad anxieties that generally accompany dying and death, AIDS patients must deal with numerous additional fears. In rushing to treat the physiologic aspects of AIDS, health professionals have generally failed to provide adequate support systems to deal with the emotional needs of dying AIDS patients. Health professionals must now move rapidly to develop support systems based on a realistic understanding of the fears and the other powerful emotions confronted by AIDS victims. Such systems must permit AIDS patients to give meaning to their adversity.

  2. [How to deal with blast injuries. 15 tips for healthcare providers].

    PubMed

    Haerkens, Marck H T M; Tan, Edward C T H; Bleeker, Chris; van der Hoeven, Johannes H

    2016-01-01

    The recent terror attacks in Paris and Brussels have made the subject of injuries caused by explosives, also known as 'blast injuries', a very current one. The Netherlands has limited experience with terrorist attacks. This means that Dutch medical care providers possibly do not have sufficient knowledge about dealing with blast injuries. After explaining the mechanisms of explosions and the effects that these have on the human body, we go on to provide 15 tips on the main principles of treating blast injuries. These tips will help healthcare providers to deal with the complex requirements of victims of terror. PMID:27096485

  3. Children's Literature Dealing with Disabilities: A Bibliography for the Inclusive Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulen, Linda; Hoffbauer, Diane; Prenn, Maureen

    1998-01-01

    Presents a 71-item annotated bibliography of selected children's books (published between 1992 and 1996) dealing with disabilities, along with a brief description of criteria used to evaluate the books. Includes sections on AIDS, asthma, autism, blindness, deafness, dyslexia, mental disabilities, and physical disabilities. (RS)

  4. 5 CFR 3201.105 - Prohibition on dealings with former employers, associates, and clients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... employers, associates, and clients. 3201.105 Section 3201.105 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION § 3201.105 Prohibition on dealings with former employers, associates, and clients....

  5. A Bibliography of Books Dealing With the Problems of Older Children (Grades 3-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacco, Margaret

    Books for children that deal with the real problems of children in grades 3 to 12 are listed in this bibliography. The books are concerned with many social problems such as racial inequality, poverty, adult hypocrisy, desertion, broken homes, drugs, alcohol, sex, mental illness, and death. The entries are listed alphabetically by author. Each…

  6. Promoting Good Campus Relations: Dealing with Hate Crimes and Intolerance. Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This guidance has been produced to help higher education institutions (HEIs) deal with hate crimes and intolerance. Aiming to replace the previous Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals' guidance on extremism and intolerance, this publication provides an overview of the ways in which HEIs can encourage tolerance and respect and ensure that…

  7. Dealing with Law Enforcement Authorities. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 22. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses dealing with law enforcement authorities. It is designed to teach immigrants the following: understand laws and consequences of breaking them; how the law enforcement agencies…

  8. Dealing with Bullying in Schools: A Training Manual for Teachers, Parents and Other Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Moore, Mona; Minton, Stephen James

    2004-01-01

    This book is an attempt to pinpoint constructive ways to deal with bullying, and to support people in their endeavours to undertake effective anti-bullying work in school communities. The overall aim of this book is to provide school communities with the practical support and key to resources that they need in preventing and countering bullying…

  9. What Did the Teacher Say Today? State Religious Kindergarten Teachers Deal with Complex Torah Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achituv, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the way in which kindergarten teachers in state religious kindergartens in Israel tell the Torah stories to children. It examines the influence of the teachers' identity, being part of the religious Zionist society, on the way in which she tells the stories. These kindergarten teachers function at a crossroads of…

  10. Copyright Law in Australia--Fair Dealing for Research or Study Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar (Andy); Hancock, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Explores several issues involving provisions of the Australian copyright law that allow for "fair dealing for the purpose of research and study" in the use of copyrighted materials. Discusses liability of libraries for improper oversight of illegal photocopying of books and other copyrighted materials. Reviews recent efforts to improve protection…

  11. Labor's New Deal for Journalism--The Newspaper Guild in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Dale Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    The Depression and the New Deal brought together a variety of conditions and social forces that set up a formative clash over the institution of professional journalism. At the heart of that fight was the rise of the American Newspaper Guild and its battle for control over the trusteeship of the freedom of the press. The experience in the news…

  12. Teaching about, and Dealing with, Sensitive Issues in Schools: How Confident Are Pre-Service Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynagh, Marita; Gilligan, Connor; Handley, Tonelle

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are developing an increasingly active role in the education of students in areas of sensitivity, including issues such as sexuality, mental health, grief and loss and child protection. There is a growing expectation for teachers to become competent not only in educating students in these areas but also in recognising and dealing with such…

  13. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-2 - Specific acts of self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... directly or indirectly to a disqualified person. (3) Certain leases of office space. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1979, the leasing of office space by a disqualified person to a private foundation shall not be an act of self-dealing if: (i) The leased space is in a building in which there...

  14. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-2 - Specific acts of self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... directly or indirectly to a disqualified person. (3) Certain leases of office space. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1979, the leasing of office space by a disqualified person to a private foundation shall not be an act of self-dealing if: (i) The leased space is in a building in which there...

  15. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-3 - Exceptions to self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to the general public. Similarly, the sale of a book or magazine by a private foundation to disqualified persons shall not be an act of self-dealing if the publication of such book or magazine is functionally related to a charitable or educational activity of the foundation and the book or magazine is...

  16. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-3 - Exceptions to self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to the general public. Similarly, the sale of a book or magazine by a private foundation to disqualified persons shall not be an act of self-dealing if the publication of such book or magazine is functionally related to a charitable or educational activity of the foundation and the book or magazine is...

  17. 26 CFR 53.4941(d)-3 - Exceptions to self-dealing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to the general public. Similarly, the sale of a book or magazine by a private foundation to disqualified persons shall not be an act of self-dealing if the publication of such book or magazine is functionally related to a charitable or educational activity of the foundation and the book or magazine is...

  18. Preventive Therapy: Helping Teachers in Training Deal With Future Stress in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Malcolm E.; Belt, Jacquelyn F.

    One of the best ways to deal with the conditions that promote stress in the teaching profession would be to include information about stress and ways of coping with it in a teacher preparation program. If prospective teachers have opportunities to examine the nature of stress and of situations that seem to contribute to tension, they would be…

  19. How to Deal with the Subject of Death with Students in Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Bonnie Elam

    The relatively new field of thanatology provides a rich supply of resources for teachers to use in developing an understanding of death and in preparing to deal with the subject with children. This review of the literature was completed with the primary purpose of providing teachers with a summary of effective teaching methods and resources to use…

  20. Advertising and Regulation during the New Deal Era, 1933-1941.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranco, Leonard W.

    As the "New Deal" era of the "Great Depression" promised relief from the publicly perceived failures of business and industry, a corresponding attitude of consumerism arose, aimed at "Big Business's" accomplice, advertising. Across the nation, national and local consumer protection organizations arose, and nonconsumer related organizations adopted…

  1. The evolution of legal methods for dealing with mind-state in crimes.

    PubMed

    Watson, A S

    1992-01-01

    From its very beginnings, British and American common law have attempted to deal with the mind-state of perpetrators of crime. This has taken various procedural and statutory forms that have often been characterized by confusion and contradictions in purpose. Clarification of the psychological and legal issues may assist in bringing the criminal treatment process to a more rational basis.

  2. An Annotated Bibliography of Literature Dealing with Handwriting Instruction and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherson, Patricia P.; DuVall, Charles R.

    The 25 entries in this annotated bibliography deal with the art of handwriting and with current practices in the teaching of handwriting. Among the topics covered in the citations are: factors to consider in assessing readiness for formal handwriting instruction; the effects of teaching cursive writing to first grade children; achievement…

  3. Beyond Tolerance: A Considered Approach for Dealing Directly with Religious Belief in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The word "religion" sends shudders down the spine of superintendents, as conflict over religious values can be one of the most unpredictable and emotional issues arising today in public schools. Dealing with religious belief in public schools need not be full of emotion and conflict. In this article, the author shares his strategies for creating a…

  4. Priorities in Dealing with Nutrition Problems in Indonesia. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 1 (1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soekirman

    A study of the literature dealing with past and present food and nutrition problems in Indonesia reveals that the problems remain serious. The major nutrition problems are: (1) Protein-Calorie Malnutrition; (2) Vitamin A Deficiency; (3) Nutritional Anemia; and (4) Goitre. These nutrition problems afflict people of all ages, males and females.…

  5. The Role of Health Educators in Dealing with Biological Threats in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Miguel A.; Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Sowby, Sherman

    2002-01-01

    Health educators play a key role in assisting the nation deal with and be prepared for potential biological attacks. This article summarizes information found in the literature about likely bioterrorist threats to the U.S. population and discusses the responsibilities of health educators in regard to these threats. Among the important roles health…

  6. Rebels without a Clause: Towards an Institutional Framework for Dealing with Plagiarism by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores why an institutional framework for dealing with plagiarism by students is necessary and it outlines the main ingredients of such a framework that has been developed at Lancaster University. It defines plagiarism as a form of academic malpractice and frames it as a breach of academic integrity. The framework places a strong…

  7. Internet as a Source of Help in Dealing with School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov Boaz

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined possible advantages of the Internet as a medium for help and support for victims of school violence in Israel. Students in sixth, eighth, and tenth grades were asked about their willingness to seek help on the Internet for dealing with various forms of school violence, and the underlying force-driving processes of such…

  8. Skills and Employability in the Limelight: Exploring the Public Presentation of the New Deal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2000-01-01

    The British Labour Government's New Deal, a welfare-to-work initiative, has received widespread media attention. Content analysis of press releases illustrates how the government has tried to shape media messages and public perceptions of welfare reform in its presentation of this program. (SK)

  9. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Problem-Solving: Focusing on Problems Dealing with Conservation of Matter in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2011-01-01

    The students' performance in various types of problems dealing with the conservation of matter during chemical reactions has been investigated at different levels of schooling. The participants were 499 ninth grade (ages 14, 15 years) and 624 eleventh grade (ages 16, 17 years) Greek students. Data was collected using a written questionnaire…

  10. Building Social Networks with Computer Networks: A New Deal for Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer technology and Web sites in expanding social networks. Focuses on the New Deal Network using two examples: (1) uniting a Julia C. Lathrop Housing (Chicago, Illinois) resident with a university professor; and (2) saving the Hugo Gellert art murals at the Seward Park Coop Apartments (New York). (CMK)

  11. Employee-oriented leadership and quality of working life: mediating roles of idiosyncratic deals.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Severin; Glaser, Jürgen; Rousseau, Denise M; Angerer, Peter; Weigl, Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Leader consideration has long been suggested to be conducive to quality of working life experienced by employees. The present study links this classic leadership dimension with more recent research on idiosyncratic deals, referring to personalized conditions workers negotiate in their employment relationships. A two-wave survey study (N = 159/142) among German hospital physicians suggests that authorizing idiosyncratic deals is a manifestation of employee-oriented leader behavior. Consideration had consistent positive effects on idiosyncratic deals regarding both professional development and working time flexibility. These two types had differential effects on two indicators of the quality of working life. Development related positively to work engagement, flexibility related negatively to work-family conflict. Cross-lagged correlations supported the proposed direction of influence between consideration and idiosyncratic deals in a subsample of repeating responders (n=91). The relation between development and engagement appeared to be reciprocal. Longitudinal results for the association between flexibility and work-family conflict were inconclusive. PMID:21526592

  12. Teacher Skill Guide for Combatting Sexism. Module 3: Dealing with Resistance to Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulkin, Sunny; And Others

    This workshop module is designed to increase teachers' understanding of the resistance they are likely to encounter from their students when introducing emotionally laden content (e.g., issues of stereotyping and sex bias), and to provide them with strategies for preventing, dealing with, and reacting to student resistance. A booklet for use in…

  13. The Practices of Dealing with Children with Special Needs in School: A Norwegian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Peder

    2014-01-01

    The article has two parts. Part one deals with some historical developments in the field of special education in Norway. There has been a change in formulated policy from a clearly segregated system, then integration and mainstreaming and now intentions about inclusion as an ideal. The second part is about children with behavioural difficulties…

  14. A Strategy of Professional Development for Dealing with Individual Differences in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer-Hayon, Lya; Ben-Peretz, Miriam

    1985-01-01

    This article relates to two problems: how to deal with individual differences in heterogeneous classes and how to plan and implement professional development programs in this area. The planning and implementation of such a program through a process of collaboration between researchers and teachers is reported in the study. (Author)

  15. Quantitative Authorship Attribution of Users of Mexican Drug Dealing Related Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rico Sulayes, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    As the violence in the Mexican drug war escalates, a proliferation of social media sites about drug trafficking in Mexico was followed by the murder of some of their users, and the eventual disappearance of many of those sites. Despite these events, there still exist a number of drug-dealing related social media outlets in this country with a…

  16. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  20. Forrester Blanchard Washington and His Advocacy for African Americans in the New Deal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Frederica H.

    2007-01-01

    Forrester Blanchard Washington (1887-1963) was an African American social work pioneer recruited to the first New Deal administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt as director of Negro Work in the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. This role gave Washington a platform from which to object strenuously to the development of social policies that…

  1. Depression: What It Is and How to Deal With It: A Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartigan, Kevin J.; Weiskott, Gerald N.

    This manual is designed to help counseling personnel understand and deal with depression. It begins by defining depression (the "common cold of psychopathology") and listing a number of typical symptoms, giving mild, moderate and severe manifestations. It then offers seven different treatment approaches or theories. Directly or indirectly, these…

  2. Teens’ Self-Efficacy to Deal with Dating Violence as Victim, Perpetrator or Bystander

    PubMed Central

    Van Camp, Tinneke; Hébert, Martine; Guidi, Elisa; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that adolescent dating violence is highly prevalent and associated with internalizing and externalizing problems. A number of prevention initiatives are being implemented in North-American high schools. Such initiatives do not only aim to raise awareness among potential victims and offenders but also among peer bystanders. Since teenagers mainly reach out to their peers when experiencing adversity, it is important to address adolescents’ efficiency to deal with witnessing dating violence or with friends disclosing dating abuse, in addition to increasing ability to deal with experienced dating violence victimization or perpetration. The aim of this study is to explore adolescents’ self-efficacy to deal with dating violence victimization and perpetration in their relationships and those of their peers. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was completed by 259 14–18 years olds in Quebec, Canada. The data allows building insight into adolescents’ confidence to reach out for help or to help others in a situation of dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also considered the impact of gender and dating victimization history. Results suggest that dating violence prevention can build on teens’ self-efficacy to deal with dating violence and offer them tools to do so efficiently. PMID:26807554

  3. ESD and the Current Crisis of Capitalism: Teaching beyond Green New Deals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckle, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author argues for a more critical form of education for sustainable development (ESD) linked to global citizenship education. He does so by reference to the limitations of the "green new deals" being carried out as part of fiscal stimulus packages, the alternatives proposed by ecosocialists, and the partly conflicting and…

  4. Activities Contributing a Great Deal to the Students' Interactive Skills in Foreign Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asatryan, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    While teaching speaking it is desired to provide a rich environment in class for meaningful communication to take place. With this aim, various speaking activities can contribute a great deal to students in developing their interactive skills necessary for life. These activities make students active in the learning process and at the same time…

  5. 12 CFR 1.3 - Limitations on dealing in, underwriting, and purchase and sale of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on dealing in, underwriting, and purchase and sale of securities. 1.3 Section 1.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT... that it holds, as a part of its banking business. The amount of securitized loans and obligations...

  6. How To Deal with Parents Who Are Angry, Troubled, Afraid, or Just Plain Crazy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Elaine K.

    Few school principals receive training on how to handle problems with parents. Strategies that principals can use for dealing with such problems are presented in this book. Chapter 1 describes the parents of today's children and discusses the critical issues that cause misunderstandings in schools. Next, strategies for defusing parents who are…

  7. Cognitive and Emotional Evaluation of Two Educational Outdoor Programs Dealing with Non-Native Bird Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Michael; Buyer, Regine; Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    "Non-native organisms are a major threat to biodiversity". This statement is often made by biologists, but general conclusions cannot be drawn easily because of contradictory evidence. To introduce pupils aged 11-14 years to this topic, we employed an educational program dealing with non-native animals in Central Europe. The pupils took part in a…

  8. 12 CFR 1.3 - Limitations on dealing in, underwriting, and purchase and sale of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on dealing in, underwriting, and purchase and sale of securities. 1.3 Section 1.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT... and sell assets that it holds, as a part of its banking business. The amount of securitized loans...

  9. Dealing with Flexibility in Assessments for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities. Synthesis Report 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Brian; Marion, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Dealing with flexibility--or its converse, the extent of standardization--is fundamental to alignment, assessment design, and interpretation of results in fully inclusive assessment systems. Highly standardized tests make it easier to compare (performances, students, and schools) across time and to common standards because certain conditions are…

  10. Endophytes and their Potential to Deal with Co-contamination of Organic Contaminants (Toluene) and Toxic Metals (Nickel) during Phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Truyens, S.; Saenen, E.; Boulet, J.; Dupae, J.; Taghavi, S.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2011-01-15

    The aim was to investigate if engineered endophytes that are capable of degrading organic contaminants, and deal with or ideally improve uptake and translocation of toxic metals, can improve phytoremediation of mixed organic-metal pollution. As a model system, yellow lupine was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468 possessing (a) the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid, coding for constitutive toluene/TCE degradation, and (b) the chromosomally inserted ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system. As controls, plants were inoculated with B. vietnamiensis BU61 (pTOM-Bu61) and B. cepacia BU72 (containing the ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system). Plants were exposed to mixes of toluene and Ni. Only inoculation with B. cepacia VM1468 resulted in decreased Ni and toluene phytotoxicity, as measured by a protective effect on plant growth and decreased activities of enzymes involved in antioxidative defence (catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) in the roots. Besides, plants inoculated with B. cepacia VM1468 and B. vietnamiensis BU61 released less toluene through the leaves than non-inoculated plants and those inoculated with B. cepacia BU72. Ni-uptake in roots was slightly increased for B. cepacia BU72 inoculated plants. These results indicate that engineered endophytes have the potential to assist their host plant to deal with co-contamination of toxic metals and organic contaminants during phytoremediation.

  11. Is Dealing with Climate Change a Corporation's Responsibility? A Social Contract Perspective.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Kerrie L; Russell, Sally V; Davis, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that individuals - as members of society - play an important role in the expectations of whether or not companies are responsible for addressing environmental issues, and whether or not governments should regulate them. From this perspective of corporate social responsibility as a social contract we report the results of a survey of 1066 individuals. The aim of the survey was to assess participants' belief in anthropogenic climate change, free-market ideology, and beliefs around who is responsible for dealing with climate change. Results showed that both climate change views and free market ideology have a strong effect on beliefs that companies are responsible for dealing with climate change and on support for regulatory policy to that end. Furthermore, we found that free market ideology is a barrier in the support of corporate regulatory policy. The implications of these findings for research, policy, and practice are discussed. PMID:27588009

  12. Dealing with the multidimensionality of sustainability through the use of multiple perspectives - a theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönngren, Johanna; Svanström, Magdalena; Ingerman, Åke; Holmberg, John

    2016-05-01

    The concept of perspectives is important in discussions about the multidimensionality of sustainability problems and the need to consider many different aspects when dealing with them. This paper aims to facilitate discussions among both educators and researchers about didactical approaches to developing students' abilities to deal with the multidimensionality of sustainability challenges through the use of multiple perspectives. For this purpose, a theoretical framework was developed that describes perspectives in terms of a set of general characteristics, as well as a number of ways in which students can develop and reflect on perspectives. Development of the framework was supported by a qualitative content analysis of transcripts from interviews with undergraduate engineering students in Sweden.

  13. Is Dealing with Climate Change a Corporation's Responsibility? A Social Contract Perspective.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Kerrie L; Russell, Sally V; Davis, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that individuals - as members of society - play an important role in the expectations of whether or not companies are responsible for addressing environmental issues, and whether or not governments should regulate them. From this perspective of corporate social responsibility as a social contract we report the results of a survey of 1066 individuals. The aim of the survey was to assess participants' belief in anthropogenic climate change, free-market ideology, and beliefs around who is responsible for dealing with climate change. Results showed that both climate change views and free market ideology have a strong effect on beliefs that companies are responsible for dealing with climate change and on support for regulatory policy to that end. Furthermore, we found that free market ideology is a barrier in the support of corporate regulatory policy. The implications of these findings for research, policy, and practice are discussed.

  14. Is Dealing with Climate Change a Corporation’s Responsibility? A Social Contract Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Kerrie L.; Russell, Sally V.; Davis, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that individuals – as members of society – play an important role in the expectations of whether or not companies are responsible for addressing environmental issues, and whether or not governments should regulate them. From this perspective of corporate social responsibility as a social contract we report the results of a survey of 1066 individuals. The aim of the survey was to assess participants’ belief in anthropogenic climate change, free-market ideology, and beliefs around who is responsible for dealing with climate change. Results showed that both climate change views and free market ideology have a strong effect on beliefs that companies are responsible for dealing with climate change and on support for regulatory policy to that end. Furthermore, we found that free market ideology is a barrier in the support of corporate regulatory policy. The implications of these findings for research, policy, and practice are discussed. PMID:27588009

  15. How to deal with petabytes of data: the LHC Grid project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, D.; Lloyd, S. L.

    2014-06-01

    We review the Grid computing system developed by the international community to deal with the petabytes of data coming from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva with particular emphasis on the ATLAS experiment and the UK Grid project, GridPP. Although these developments were started over a decade ago, this article explains their continued relevance as part of the ‘Big Data’ problem and how the Grid has been forerunner of today's cloud computing.

  16. How to deal with petabytes of data: the LHC Grid project.

    PubMed

    Britton, D; Lloyd, S L

    2014-06-01

    We review the Grid computing system developed by the international community to deal with the petabytes of data coming from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva with particular emphasis on the ATLAS experiment and the UK Grid project, GridPP. Although these developments were started over a decade ago, this article explains their continued relevance as part of the 'Big Data' problem and how the Grid has been forerunner of today's cloud computing.

  17. End-of-life issues: difficult decisions and dealing with grief.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Beth

    2009-06-01

    People face many challenging psychosocial and spiritual issues as they approach the end of their lives, and caregivers need advice on how to help them. Choosing among treatment options, handling grief, addressing unfinished business, and coping with loss of self-sufficiency are difficult for the dying person, and caregivers must deal with surrogate decision making, raw emotions in the patient and in family members, and the caregivers' own grief. Listening and coping skills are discussed. PMID:19463678

  18. Characterization, Method Development and Dealing with Old Radioactive Sludge Stored at the Research Station in Studsvik

    SciTech Connect

    Chyssler, J.; Ekenborg, F.

    2006-07-01

    During the years 1965-1985 liquid radioactive waste was collected in silos at the research station in Studsvik. Preparations started at the end of the 1980's for dealing with liquids that contained particulate material (ion exchange resin, sludge, sediment). Only parts of the documentation on what had been brought into the silo in question had been kept, which meant that comprehensive characterization work had to be carried out. The characterization included the relationship between bead ion exchange resin, sludge and clear liquid and the distribution of activity between them. The occurrence of chelates was also of interest to investigate. During the characterization phase three forms of treatment (drying, pyrolysis and immobilization in cement) were considered for the radioactive waste. The final choice was solidification, using concrete, in steel moulds with a 1.2 m side. The characterization of the waste material and the method development resulted in an estimate that 60-70 steel moulds should be produced with an activity content of totally 1.2 x 10{sup 10} Bq {alpha} and 1.86 x 10{sup 12} Bq {beta}-{gamma}. At the beginning of 2005 all waste from the silo was processed. 104 steel moulds were produced, with a total activity of 1.28 x 10{sup 10} Bq {alpha} (107 % of estimated activity) and 6.05 x 10{sup 11} Bq {beta}-{gamma} (33% of estimated activity). The experiences from the project show that older waste with insufficient documentation requires a great deal of work to characterize the material. The choice of method of dealing with the waste and the form of final-storage pack are largely governed by already existing methods. The waste material accumulated over a 20-year period, and the time spent dealing with this waste was nearly as long. (authors)

  19. How pediatricians can deal with children who have been sexually abused by family members.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses children who have been the victims of sexual abuse in their own family. It focuses on the special role of pediatricians and medical staff in identifying such children and providing them with initial assistance by reporting the situation to the authorities. The first part of the paper surveys the short- and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse, including the physical and emotional impact of sexual exploitation and severe neglect. This section discusses the symptoms shown by abused children, and how they express and deal with their trauma. It is extremely important for pediatricians to be sensitive to the possibility of patients being abused at home, as this is an area still largely regarded as a societal taboo. Also included in this section a discussion of the effects that are manifested when the victim has grown to adulthood, such as personality disorders. The second part of the paper deals with how pediatricians must act when they encounter such a situation in which they suspect sexual abuse in the family. They should strive to identify the problem and bring it to the attention of the authorities. Discovery of the problem is the most vital part of the path to the victim's recovery. The paper also discusses the aspect of treatment, advising doctors who encounter this problem on ways of dealing with it. PMID:22389771

  20. The role of domain expertise and judgment in dealing with unexpected events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochan, Janeen Adrion

    Unexpected events, particularly those creating surprise, interrupt ongoing mental and behavioral processes, creating an increased potential for unwanted outcomes to the situation. Human reactions to unexpected events vary. One can hypothesize a number of reasons for this variation, including level of domain expertise, previous experience with similar events, emotional connotation, and the contextual surround of the event. Whereas interrupting ongoing activities and focusing attention temporarily on a surprising event may be a useful evolutionary response to a threatening situation, the same process may be maladaptive in today's highly dynamic world. The purpose of this study was to investigate how different aspects of expertise affected one's ability to detect and react to an unexpected event. It was hypothesized that there were two general types of expertise, domain expertise and judgment (Hammond, 2000), which influenced one's performance on dealing with an unexpected event. The goal of the research was to parse out the relative contribution of domain expertise, so the role of judgment could be revealed. The research questions for this study were: (a) Can we identify specific knowledges and skills which enhance one's ability to deal with unexpected events? (b) Are these skills "automatically" included in domain expertise? (c) How does domain expertise improve or deter one's reaction and response to unexpected events? (d) What role does judgment play in responding to surprise? The general hypothesis was that good judgment would influence the process of surprise at different stages and in different ways than would domain expertise. The conclusions from this research indicated that good judgment had a significant positive effect in helping pilots deal with unexpected events. This was most pronounced when domain expertise was low.

  1. An overview of techniques for dealing with large numbers of independent variables in epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, I R; Ducrot, C; Fourichon, C; Donald, A; Hurnik, D

    1997-01-01

    Many studies of health and production problems in livestock involve the simultaneous evaluation of large numbers of risk factors. These analyses may be complicated by a number of problems including: multicollinearity (which arises because many of the risk factors may be related (correlated) to each other), confounding, interaction, problems related to sample size (and hence the power of the study), and the fact that many associations are evaluated from a single dataset. This paper focuses primarily on the problem of multicollinearity and discusses a number of techniques for dealing with this problem. However, some of the techniques discussed may also help to deal with the other problems identified above. The first general approach to dealing with multicollinearity involves reducing the number of independent variables prior to investigating associations with the disease. Techniques to accomplish this include: (1) excluding variables after screening for associations among independent variables; (2) creating indices or scores which combine data from multiple factors into a single variable; (3) creating a smaller set of independent variables through the use of multivariable techniques such as principal components analysis or factor analysis. The second general approach is to use appropriate steps and statistical techniques to investigate associations between the independent variables and the dependent variable. A preliminary screening of these associations may be performed using simple statistical tests. Subsequently, multivariable techniques such as linear or logistic regression or correspondence analysis can be used to identify important associations. The strengths and limitations of these techniques are discussed and the techniques are demonstrated using a dataset from a recent study of risk factors for pneumonia in swine. Emphasis is placed on comparing correspondence analysis with other techniques as it has been used less in the epidemiology literature.

  2. Barriers Facing Primary Health Care Physicians When Dealing with Emergency Cases in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aloufi, Majed A.; Bakarman, Marwan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of emergency cases reporting to Primary Health Care centers (PHC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to explore the barriers facing PHC physicians when dealing with such emergency cases. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study, where all physicians working in the PHC of the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Jeddah; were invited to participate (n=247). The study period was from July 2013 till December 2013. Data were collected through two sources. 1- A self-administered questionnaire used to determine the physicians’ perceived competence when dealing with emergency cases. 2- A structured observation sheet used to evaluate availability of equipment, drugs, ambulances and other supporting facilities required to deal with emergency cases. Results: The response rate was 83.4%. The physicians’ age ranged between 25 and 60 years with a mean ±SD of 34.4±7.5 years. Majority of them (83.5%) did not attend ATLS courses at all whereas 60.7% never attended ACLS courses. The majority (97.1%) had however attended BLS courses. Physicians in the age group 36-45 years, non-Saudi, those who had SBFM, those who reported experience in working in emergency departments and physicians who reported more working years in PHCCs (>5 years) had a significant higher score of perceived level of competence in performing emergency skill scale than others (P<0.05). The prevalence of emergency cases attending PHC in Jeddah (2013) was 5.2%. Conclusion: Emergency services at PHC in Jeddah are functioning reasonably well, but require fine tuning of services and an upgrade in their quality. PMID:27045411

  3. The Development of a Rural Team to Deal With Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdson, E.; Jones, K.

    1982-01-01

    In the last ten years teams for dealing with child abuse have become established in many urban centres. More recently rural communities have started similar programs; such a team was established in rural Manitoba in 1976. A series of events since then has improved the operation of the team. Cooperation with an urban team has enhanced the functioning of the rural team. A broad base of community support for this work has been essential. A review of cases seen in the last 18 months indicates 12 cases are physical abuse, nine are sexual, six neglect, and one emotional abuse. PMID:21286178

  4. Dealing with waterborne disease in Canada: challenges in the delivery of safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Maal-Bared, R; Bartlett, K H; Bowie, W R

    2008-01-01

    Protecting the public from waterborne diseases is an environmental health responsibility that every government worldwide must deal with. Canada's recent experience with waterborne outbreaks has brought the effectiveness of its water-monitoring and treatment systems under scrutiny. This paper focuses on microbial waterborne diseases and the shortcomings of drinking-water systems, dividing them into source control, monitoring, treatment, and operation, epidemiologic, and risk communication issues. Whereas some of these issues are often addressed, others, such as risk communication issues, are less frequently included in drinking water-management plans. Lessons can be learned from the Canadian experience, as these issues are applicable worldwide and especially in the developed world.

  5. Dealing with the time-varying parameter problem of robot manipulators performing path tracking tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. D.; Middleton, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    Many robotic applications involve time-varying payloads during the operation of the robot. It is therefore of interest to consider control schemes that deal with time-varying parameters. Using the properties of the element by element (or Hadarmad) product of matrices, we obtain the robot dynamics in parameter-isolated form, from which a new control scheme is developed. The controller proposed yields zero asymptotic tracking errors when applied to robotic systems with time-varying parameters by using a switching type control law. The results obtained are global in the initial state of the robot, and can be applied to rapidly varying systems.

  6. TVOntario's Substance Abuse Series: Dealing with Drugs and Chemical Solutions. A Summative Evaluation. Report No. 19-1991-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filson, Gerald W.

    A summative evaluation of the two TVOntario series, Dealing with Drugs and Chemical Solutions was carried out in the April-to-June 1991 period. Classes (N=23) were recruited for the intermediate and senior grade level study, which included more than 550 students. The intermediate series, Dealing with Drugs, designed for grade 7 and 8 students,…

  7. Recommendations for dealing with asphaltene or wax problems in offshore production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J.

    1996-09-01

    Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Asphaltene and wax problems are seriously threatening the economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore production facilities are especially susceptible to asphaltene or wax deposition for a number of reasons. One indispensable requirement for dealing with these problems, that offshore production facilities usually lack, is extra storage capacity for temporarily storing asphaltene or wax cuttings and washings away from inflicted equipment. The cuttings and washings, even if temporary storage were available, need to be dealt with nearly on a daily basis. Providing equipment to process the slop offshore is expensive and messy (environmentally). Hence, the cuttings and washings, in many cases, must be carried away to onshore slop processing facilities. The above discussion assumes, of course, that the operator has already found the best technology (e.g., tools, chemicals, etc.) for removing the deposits from the offshore equipment, which in itself is another challenge that precedes the disposal problem. All of the above considerations underscore the fact that the best way of dealing with the asphaltene and wax problems is to prevent them, where possible. This paper presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the asphaltene problems encountered, the field has been successfully produced for over 14 years with minimum environmental impact.

  8. How do primary health care professionals deal with pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence?

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora Mariela; Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Macedo, Vanessa Dias; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine how Family Health Strategy professionals recognize and deal with domestic violence in pregnant women. Method qualitative study based on the Theory of Praxis Intervention in Collective Health Nursing (TIPESC). Fourteen professionals at a Basic Health Unit in the east side of Sao Paulo/Brazil were interviewed. Empirical data were categorized and discussed in thematic groups. For data analysis was used the technique of Discourse Analysis. Results we identified low number of reported cases of domestic violence; lack of education and training of health care professionals; failure in the identification and intervention process due to bias on their personal problems, moral attitudes and prejudice against these women. In addition, the study showed that their labor process was based entirely on the biological aspects of the women and to overcome this, they need of proper rapport between health care professionals and pregnant women to deal with of domestic violence. Conclusion professionals should develop skills to intervene in violence against pregnant women and also modify labor processes considering women in their totality and part of society. PMID:25029056

  9. Macro-Level Social Forces and Micro-Level Consequences: Poverty, Alternate Occupations, and Drug Dealing

    PubMed Central

    DUNLAP, ELOISE; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; KOTARBA, JOSEPH A.; FACKLER, JENNIFER L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an empirical examination of the ways in which macro-level social forces have had micro-level consequences in the New Orleans drug market. The article illustrates a clear connection between poverty and entrance into the drug market, as mitigated by race, lack of societal opportunity, lack of social capital, distressed families, and closed neighborhoods. Specifically, the research illustrates the mechanisms by which macro-level social forces intersect to legitimize drug dealing as a viable alternative method of acquiring money and social capital. These intersecting macro-level social forces, such as poverty, race, family structure, and neighborhood characteristics, ultimately constrain the life chances of those living in the inner city irrespective of personal traits, individual motivations, or private achievements. PMID:20509085

  10. Dealing with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a general overview.

    PubMed

    Azermai, Majda

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is often complex. Given the controversy with regard to antipsychotics for behavioral problems in people with dementia, there has been a renewed emphasis on nonpharmacological interventions, with progress in the design of the relevant studies. Potential nonpharmacological interventions for BPSD are: cognitive training/stimulation, rehabilitative care, activities of daily living, music therapy, massage/touch, physical activity, education/training of professionals, and education and psychosocial support of informal caregivers. Use of antipsychotics in the management of BPSD is controversial due to limited efficacy and the risk of serious adverse effects, but credible alternatives remain scarce. The problem of chronic use of antipsychotics in nursing homes should be tackled. Discontinuation of antipsychotic medication in older individuals with BPSD appears to be feasible. Discontinuation efforts are needed to differentiate between patients for whom antipsychotics have no added value and patients for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. PMID:26170729

  11. Large space-based systems for dealing with global environment change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Increased concern over the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer has resulted in support for the Global Change Research Program and the Mission to Planet Earth. Research to understand Earth system processes is critical, but it falls short of providing ways of mitigating the effects of change. Geoengineering options and alternatives to interactively manage change need to be developed. Space-based concepts for dealing with changes to the environment should be considered in addition to Earth-based actions. 'Mission for Planet Earth' describes those space-based geoengineering solutions that may combine with an international global change program to stabilize the Global environment. Large space systems that may be needed for this response challenge guidance and control engineering and technology. Definition, analysis, demonstration, and preparation of geoengineering technology will provide a basis for policy response if global change consequences are severe.

  12. Dealing with pollution from conflict: Analysis of discourses around the 2006 Lebanon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Takshe, Aseel A; Huby, Meg; Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jon C

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006 a war between Lebanon and Israel resulted in severe environmental damage in Lebanon from Israeli bombing raids. An attack on the Lebanese Jiyyeh Power Plant released 15,000 tons of heavy fuel oil into the Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably, a clean-up operation was effected despite a continued state of war and lack of capacity in the Lebanese government. Civil society environmentalists played a key role in dealing with the pollution and complying with pollution-control legislation. In this study we use Q-methodology to analyse discourses on the effectiveness of pollution legislation during times of conflict using the Jiyyeh oil spill as an example. We interviewed 35 people from eight different stakeholder groups involved in environmental issues. Five distinct discourses were generated covering compensation schemes, need for new legislation, role of stakeholders during wartime and strengthening government ministries.

  13. [Present-day hygienic aspects of dealing with industrial and consumption waste].

    PubMed

    Gil'denskiol'd, R S; Kur'ianova, I S

    2005-01-01

    The article covers scientific hygienic positions in forming and solving the acute scientific and technical problem of dealing with waste. The given problem is topical due to growing amount and diversity of waste and relatively small knowledge of ecological, medical and biological aspects of the problem. The paper covers the entire "life cycle" of waste, chiefly industrial and communal, as the most diverse and potentially dangerous to the environment. Special attention is paid to neutralization and recycling of waste for its application as secondary material in various branches of national economy. Having critically analized the results of complex studies, the authors conclude the article with outlining the prospective tasks of research for scientific and practical institutions of sanitary surveillance of Russian Federation Ministry of Health. PMID:15852717

  14. [Research of controlling condition for aeration stabilization pond dealing with sanitary waste of countryside].

    PubMed

    Li, Huai-Zheng; Yao, Shu-Jun; Xu, Zu-Xin; Chen, Wei-Bing

    2012-10-01

    According to research of some problems, such as the hydraulic detention time that aeration stabilization pond deals with sanitary waste of countryside, dissolved oxygen in pond during the process of aeration, the concentration distribution of sludge and different aeration periods affecting on the treatment efficiency, we can acquire good treatment efficiency and energy consumption of economy. The results indicate that under the aeration stabilization pond of this experiment, 4 d is the best hydraulic detention time with this aeration stabilization pond. Time of the discontinuous running aeration should be greater than 15 min. The concentration distribution of sludge can reach equilibrium at each point of aeration stabilization pond between 2 min and 10 min. The best aeration period of dislodging the pollutant is 0.5 h aeration/1.0 h cut-off.

  15. U-turn Our Complacency in Dealing With the Potency of Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that we need to reverse our complacency in dealing with alcohol, a drug that kills at least 2.7 million people worldwide annually. Ecological studies suggest that humans have evolved to be active and functional in relation to alcohol use; the present problem is that alcohol is too easily available in too potent a form. Toxicological analyses indicate that European adults consume, on average, 1,000 times the dose of alcohol that would normally be set for voluntary exposure to a consumed carcinogen. Political analyses find that a predominant driver of alcohol-related harm is the potency of business influence on policy making. Complacency would be reversed by compulsory warning labels that alcohol causes cancer; by holding producers accountable for the harm that their products cause; and, by governments moving toward a global legally binding agreement for alcohol.

  16. Dealing with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a general overview

    PubMed Central

    Azermai, Majda

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is often complex. Given the controversy with regard to antipsychotics for behavioral problems in people with dementia, there has been a renewed emphasis on nonpharmacological interventions, with progress in the design of the relevant studies. Potential nonpharmacological interventions for BPSD are: cognitive training/stimulation, rehabilitative care, activities of daily living, music therapy, massage/touch, physical activity, education/training of professionals, and education and psychosocial support of informal caregivers. Use of antipsychotics in the management of BPSD is controversial due to limited efficacy and the risk of serious adverse effects, but credible alternatives remain scarce. The problem of chronic use of antipsychotics in nursing homes should be tackled. Discontinuation of antipsychotic medication in older individuals with BPSD appears to be feasible. Discontinuation efforts are needed to differentiate between patients for whom antipsychotics have no added value and patients for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. PMID:26170729

  17. When staff is underpaid: dealing with the individual coping strategies of health personnel.

    PubMed Central

    Van Lerberghe, Wim; Conceicao, Claudia; Van Damme, Wim; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Health sector workers respond to inadequate salaries and working conditions by developing various individual "coping strategies"--some, but not all, of which are of a predatory nature. The paper reviews what is known about these practices and their potential consequences (competition for time, brain drain and conflicts of interest). By and large, governments have rarely been proactive in dealing with such problems, mainly because of their reluctance to address the issue openly. The effectiveness of many of these piecemeal reactions, particularly attempts to prohibit personnel from developing individual coping strategies, has been disappointing. The paper argues that a more proactive approach is required. Governments will need to recognize the dimension of the phenomenon and systematically assess the consequences of policy initiatives on the situation and behaviour of the individuals that make up their workforce. PMID:12163923

  18. Dealing with pollution from conflict: Analysis of discourses around the 2006 Lebanon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Takshe, Aseel A; Huby, Meg; Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jon C

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006 a war between Lebanon and Israel resulted in severe environmental damage in Lebanon from Israeli bombing raids. An attack on the Lebanese Jiyyeh Power Plant released 15,000 tons of heavy fuel oil into the Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably, a clean-up operation was effected despite a continued state of war and lack of capacity in the Lebanese government. Civil society environmentalists played a key role in dealing with the pollution and complying with pollution-control legislation. In this study we use Q-methodology to analyse discourses on the effectiveness of pollution legislation during times of conflict using the Jiyyeh oil spill as an example. We interviewed 35 people from eight different stakeholder groups involved in environmental issues. Five distinct discourses were generated covering compensation schemes, need for new legislation, role of stakeholders during wartime and strengthening government ministries. PMID:20018427

  19. [Socioeconomic reality: the context in which vocational and professional guidance have to deal with].

    PubMed

    Strucchi, E; González, J

    1995-12-01

    In this work we describe and analyze today's Latin American occupational reality, according to the world economical context we live in. We mention up-to-date data about employment and unemployment rates, from different countries of Latin America, Europe, and also from Japan. Besides that we have taken into account the technological development and the demographic growth, as essential variables in order to understand the labor phenomenon and its possible prospect, as well as the psychosociological consequences or unemployment. We also analyze the future of some professions. We think that all this information gathered from different sources, is essential to the professional who has to guide teen-agers at the time of the Ocupational-Vocational election. This is also necessary to all those who deal with Professional Guidance and with the Planning of Careers that have already been chosen.

  20. El Dorado Air Quality Management District's Approach to Dealing With Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in El Dorado County made headlines with the discovery significant amounts of tremolite/actinolite asbestos in areas where residents had built, or were in the process of building, homes and residences. The El Dorado Air Quality Management District has been involved in all aspects of dealing with NOA from the very beginning of its discovery, from overseeing the rehabilitation of school sites to expanding and rewriting fugitive dust rules at construction sites. A discussion of best management practices which have been developed will be given, as well as how the El Dorado Air Quality Management District has worked to educate members of the public, as well as workers in the field, about NOA to aid in maintaining the health and safety of the public.

  1. Injection drug users’ involvement in drug dealing in the downtown eastside of Vancouver: Social organization and systemic violence

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Lawlor, Jeff; Wood, Evan; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Illicit drug markets are a key component of the risk environment surrounding injection drug use. However, relatively few studies have explored how injection drug users’ (IDUs) involvement in drug dealing shapes their experiences of drug market-related harm. This exploratory qualitative study aims to understand IDUs’ dealing activities and roles, as well as the perceived benefits and risks related to participation in illicit drug markets, including experiences of drug market violence. Methods Ten IDUs with extensive involvement in drug dealing activities were recruited from the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study (VIDUS) and participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, which elicited discussion of experiences dealing drugs, perceived benefits and hazards related to dealing, and understandings of drug market violence. Results Participant's involvement in drug market activities included corporate sales, freelance or independent sales, and opportunistic sales termed “middling” as well as drug market-related hustles entailing selling bogus drugs and robbing dealers. Participants primarily dealt drugs to support their own illicit drug use, and we found that arrest and criminal justice involvement, hazards stemming from drug debts, and drug market-related violence were key risks related to dealing activities. Conclusion The challenges of managing personal consumption while selling drugs exacerbates the hazards associated with drug dealing. Efforts to address drug dealing among IDUs should consider both drug dependency and the material conditions that propel drug users towards dealing activities. Interventions should explore the potential of combining enhanced drug treatment programs with low threshold employment and alternative income generation opportunities. PMID:23664788

  2. How Trypanosoma cruzi deals with oxidative stress: Antioxidant defence and DNA repair pathways.

    PubMed

    Machado-Silva, Alice; Cerqueira, Paula Gonçalves; Grazielle-Silva, Viviane; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos; Peloso, Eduardo de Figueiredo; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Machado, Carlos Renato

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is an obligatory intracellular parasite with a digenetic life cycle. Due to the variety of host environments, it faces several sources of oxidative stress. In addition to reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by its own metabolism, T. cruzi must deal with high ROS levels generated as part of the host's immune responses. Hence, the conclusion that T. cruzi has limited ability to deal with ROS (based on the lack of a few enzymes involved with oxidative stress responses) seems somewhat paradoxical. Actually, to withstand such variable sources of oxidative stress, T. cruzi has developed complex defence mechanisms. This includes ROS detoxification pathways that are distinct from the ones in the mammalian host, DNA repair pathways and specialized polymerases, which not only protect its genome from the resulting oxidative damage but also contribute to the generation of genetic diversity within the parasite population. Recent studies on T. cruzi's DNA repair pathways as mismatch repair (MMR) and GO system suggested that, besides a role associated with DNA repair, some proteins of these pathways may also be involved in signalling oxidative damage. Recent data also suggested that an oxidative environment might be beneficial for parasite survival within the host cell as it contributes to iron mobilization from the host's intracellular storages. Besides contributing to the understanding of basic aspects of T. cruzi biology, these studies are highly relevant since oxidative stress pathways are part of the poorly understood mechanisms behind the mode of action of drugs currently used against this parasite. By unveiling new peculiar aspects of T. cruzi biology, emerging data on DNA repair pathways and other antioxidant defences from this parasite have revealed potential new targets for a much needed boost in drug development efforts towards a better treatment for Chagas disease. PMID:27036062

  3. Dealing with locally-driven degradation: A quick start option under REDD+

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of challenges associated with reducing degradation and its related emissions through national approaches to REDD+ under UNFCCC policy. It proposes that in many countries, it may in the short run be easier to deal with the kinds of degradation that result from locally driven community over-exploitation of forest for livelihoods, than from selective logging or fire control. Such degradation is low-level, but chronic, and is experienced over very large forest areas. Community forest management programmes tend to result not only in reduced degradation, but also in forest enhancement; moreover they are often popular, and do not require major political shifts. In principle these approaches therefore offer a quick start option for REDD+. Developing reference emissions levels for low-level locally driven degradation is difficult however given that stock losses and gains are too small to be identified and measured using remote sensing, and that in most countries there is little or no forest inventory data available. We therefore propose that forest management initiatives at the local level, such as those promoted by community forest management programmes, should monitor, and be credited for, only the net increase in carbon stock over the implementation period, as assessed by ground level surveys at the start and end of the period. This would also resolve the problem of nesting (ensuring that all credits are accounted for against the national reference emission level), since communities and others at the local level would be rewarded only for increased sequestration, while the national reference emission level would deal only with reductions in emissions from deforestation and degradation. PMID:22204698

  4. Dealing with locally-driven degradation: A quick start option under REDD+.

    PubMed

    Skutsch, Margaret M; Torres, Arturo Balderas; Mwampamba, Tuyeni H; Ghilardi, Adrian; Herold, Martin

    2011-12-28

    The paper reviews a number of challenges associated with reducing degradation and its related emissions through national approaches to REDD+ under UNFCCC policy. It proposes that in many countries, it may in the short run be easier to deal with the kinds of degradation that result from locally driven community over-exploitation of forest for livelihoods, than from selective logging or fire control. Such degradation is low-level, but chronic, and is experienced over very large forest areas. Community forest management programmes tend to result not only in reduced degradation, but also in forest enhancement; moreover they are often popular, and do not require major political shifts. In principle these approaches therefore offer a quick start option for REDD+. Developing reference emissions levels for low-level locally driven degradation is difficult however given that stock losses and gains are too small to be identified and measured using remote sensing, and that in most countries there is little or no forest inventory data available. We therefore propose that forest management initiatives at the local level, such as those promoted by community forest management programmes, should monitor, and be credited for, only the net increase in carbon stock over the implementation period, as assessed by ground level surveys at the start and end of the period. This would also resolve the problem of nesting (ensuring that all credits are accounted for against the national reference emission level), since communities and others at the local level would be rewarded only for increased sequestration, while the national reference emission level would deal only with reductions in emissions from deforestation and degradation.

  5. Dealing with locally-driven degradation: A quick start option under REDD+.

    PubMed

    Skutsch, Margaret M; Torres, Arturo Balderas; Mwampamba, Tuyeni H; Ghilardi, Adrian; Herold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of challenges associated with reducing degradation and its related emissions through national approaches to REDD+ under UNFCCC policy. It proposes that in many countries, it may in the short run be easier to deal with the kinds of degradation that result from locally driven community over-exploitation of forest for livelihoods, than from selective logging or fire control. Such degradation is low-level, but chronic, and is experienced over very large forest areas. Community forest management programmes tend to result not only in reduced degradation, but also in forest enhancement; moreover they are often popular, and do not require major political shifts. In principle these approaches therefore offer a quick start option for REDD+. Developing reference emissions levels for low-level locally driven degradation is difficult however given that stock losses and gains are too small to be identified and measured using remote sensing, and that in most countries there is little or no forest inventory data available. We therefore propose that forest management initiatives at the local level, such as those promoted by community forest management programmes, should monitor, and be credited for, only the net increase in carbon stock over the implementation period, as assessed by ground level surveys at the start and end of the period. This would also resolve the problem of nesting (ensuring that all credits are accounted for against the national reference emission level), since communities and others at the local level would be rewarded only for increased sequestration, while the national reference emission level would deal only with reductions in emissions from deforestation and degradation. PMID:22204698

  6. Incremental Gaussian Discriminant Analysis based on Graybill and Deal weighted combination of estimators for brain tumour diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Salvador; Fuster-Garcia, Elies; Vicente, Javier; Wesseling, Pieter; Howe, Franklyn A; Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Candiota, Ana-Paula; Monleón, Daniel; Moreno-Torres, Angel; Pujol, Jesús; Griffiths, John R; Wright, Alan; Peet, Andrew C; Martínez-Bisbal, M Carmen; Celda, Bernardo; Arús, Carles; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

    2011-08-01

    In the last decade, machine learning (ML) techniques have been used for developing classifiers for automatic brain tumour diagnosis. However, the development of these ML models rely on a unique training set and learning stops once this set has been processed. Training these classifiers requires a representative amount of data, but the gathering, preprocess, and validation of samples is expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, for a classical, non-incremental approach to ML, it is necessary to wait long enough to collect all the required data. In contrast, an incremental learning approach may allow us to build an initial classifier with a smaller number of samples and update it incrementally when new data are collected. In this study, an incremental learning algorithm for Gaussian Discriminant Analysis (iGDA) based on the Graybill and Deal weighted combination of estimators is introduced. Each time a new set of data becomes available, a new estimation is carried out and a combination with a previous estimation is performed. iGDA does not require access to the previously used data and is able to include new classes that were not in the original analysis, thus allowing the customization of the models to the distribution of data at a particular clinical center. An evaluation using five benchmark databases has been used to evaluate the behaviour of the iGDA algorithm in terms of stability-plasticity, class inclusion and order effect. Finally, the iGDA algorithm has been applied to automatic brain tumour classification with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and compared with two state-of-the-art incremental algorithms. The empirical results obtained show the ability of the algorithm to learn in an incremental fashion, improving the performance of the models when new information is available, and converging in the course of time. Furthermore, the algorithm shows a negligible instance and concept order effect, avoiding the bias that such effects could introduce. PMID

  7. Fast NJ-like algorithms to deal with incomplete distance matrices

    PubMed Central

    Criscuolo, Alexis; Gascuel, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Background Distance-based phylogeny inference methods first estimate evolutionary distances between every pair of taxa, then build a tree from the so-obtained distance matrix. These methods are fast and fairly accurate. However, they hardly deal with incomplete distance matrices. Such matrices are frequent with recent multi-gene studies, when two species do not share any gene in analyzed data. The few existing algorithms to infer trees with satisfying accuracy from incomplete distance matrices have time complexity in O(n4) or more, where n is the number of taxa, which precludes large scale studies. Agglomerative distance algorithms (e.g. NJ [1,2]) are much faster, with time complexity in O(n3) which allows huge datasets and heavy bootstrap analyses to be dealt with. These algorithms proceed in three steps: (a) search for the taxon pair to be agglomerated, (b) estimate the lengths of the two so-created branches, (c) reduce the distance matrix and return to (a) until the tree is fully resolved. But available agglomerative algorithms cannot deal with incomplete matrices. Results We propose an adaptation to incomplete matrices of three agglomerative algorithms, namely NJ, BIONJ [3] and MVR [4]. Our adaptation generalizes to incomplete matrices the taxon pair selection criterion of NJ (also used by BIONJ and MVR), and combines this generalized criterion with that of ADDTREE [5]. Steps (b) and (c) are also modified, but O(n3) time complexity is kept. The performance of these new algorithms is studied with large scale simulations, which mimic multi-gene phylogenomic datasets. Our new algorithms – named NJ*, BIONJ* and MVR* – infer phylogenetic trees that are as least as accurate as those inferred by other available methods, but with much faster running times. MVR* presents the best overall performance. This algorithm accounts for the variance of the pairwise evolutionary distance estimates, and is well suited for multi-gene studies where some distances are accurately

  8. BUCKLE: A Model of Unobserved Cause Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Dealing with alternative causes is necessary to avoid making inaccurate causal inferences from covariation data. However, information about alternative causes is frequently unavailable, rendering them unobserved. The current article reviews the way in which current learning models deal, or could deal, with unobserved causes. A new model of causal…

  9. Personal Prayer in Patients Dealing with Chronic Illness: A Review of the Research Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jors, Karin; Baumann, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prayer is commonly used among patients for health purposes. Therefore, this review focused on three main questions: (1) why do people turn to prayer in times of illness?, (2) what are the main topics of their prayers?, and (3) how do they pray? Method. We undertook a systematic review of the literature by searching the databases PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) participants in the study were patients dealing with an illness, (2) the study examined the use of private rather than intercessory prayer, and (3) the content and purpose of prayer rather than its effects were investigated. Results. 16 articles were included in the final review. Participants suffered from a variety of chronic diseases, mostly cancer. Five main categories for the reasons and topics of prayer were found: (1) disease-centered prayer, (2) assurance-centered prayer, (3) God-centered prayer, (4) others-centered prayer, and (5) lamentations. Among these, disease-centered prayer was most common. Conclusions. Although most patients with chronic diseases do pray for relief from their physical and mental suffering, the intention of their prayers is not only for healing. Rather, prayer can be a resource that allows patients to positively transform the experience of their illness. PMID:25815041

  10. Strategies of oncogenic microbes to deal with WW domain-containing oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yu-Yan; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Chang, Nan-Shan

    2015-01-01

    WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a well-documented tumor suppressor protein that controls growth, survival, and metastasis of malignant cells. To counteract WWOX’s suppressive effects, cancer cells have developed many strategies either to downregulate WWOX expression or to functionally inactivate WWOX. Relatively unknown is, in the context of those cancers associated with certain viruses or bacteria, how the oncogenic pathogens deal with WWOX. Here we review recent studies showing different strategies utilized by three cancer-associated pathogens. Helicobactor pylori reduces WWOX expression through promoter hypermethylation, an epigenetic mechanism also occurring in many other cancer cells. WWOX has a potential to block canonical NF-κB activation and tumorigenesis induced by Tax, an oncoprotein of human T-cell leukemia virus. Tax successfully overcomes the blockage by inhibiting WWOX expression through activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway. On the other hand, latent membrane protein 2A of Epstein–Barr virus physically interacts with WWOX and redirects its function to trigger a signaling pathway that upregulates matrix metalloproteinase 9 and cancer cell invasion. These reports may be just “the tip of the iceberg” regarding multiple interactions between WWOX and oncogenic microbes. Further studies in this direction should expand our understanding of infection-driven oncogenesis. PMID:25488911

  11. Forrester Blanchard Washington and his advocacy for African Americans in the new deal.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Frederica H

    2007-07-01

    Forrester Blanchard Washington (1887-1963) was an African American social work pioneer recruited to the first New Deal administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt as director of Negro Work in the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. This role gave Washington a platform from which to object strenuously to the development of social policies that were predisposing African Americans to chronic dependence on welfare programs instead of creating equal opportunities for employment. Washington's policy analysis and recommendations represent social work's advocacy for equal employment opportunity long before the related civil rights legislation in the 1960s. An analysis is offered to explain Washington's decision to abort his federal career when the political agenda of the Roosevelt administration began to conflict with his values and professional goals. His actions are exemplary of resignation in protest--an aspect of advocacy more often discussed than used. This article is based on Washington's writings and materials found in the National Archives and Records Administration at College Park, Maryland. PMID:17850028

  12. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with altered anatomy: How to deal with the challenges?

    PubMed Central

    Moreels, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered anatomy is challenging. Several operative interventions of both the gastrointestinal tract and the biliary and/or pancreatic system lead to altered anatomy, rendering ERCP more difficult or even impossible with a conventional side-viewing duodenoscope. Adapted endoscopes are available to reach the biliopancreatic system and to perform ERCP in patients with altered anatomy. However, both technical difficulties and complications determine the procedure’s success. Different technical approaches have been described and are highly dependent on local expertise and endoscopic equipment. Standardized practical guidelines are currently unavailable. This review focuses on the challenges encountered during ERCP in patients with altered anatomy and how to deal with them. The first challenge is reaching the papilla or the bilioenteric/pancreatoenteric anastomosis in the patient with postoperative altered anatomy. The second challenge is the cannulation of the biliopancreatic system and performing all conventional ERCP interventions and the third challenge is the control of possible complications. The available literature data on this topic is reviewed and illustrated with clinical cases. PMID:25132917

  13. Knowledge and Attitude of Iranian Red Crescent Society Volunteers in Dealing with Bioterrorist attacks

    PubMed Central

    Bahreini Moghadam, Seyed Ali; Hamzeh pour, Siavash; Toorchi, Mahmoud; Sefidi Heris, Youssof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bioterrorism is a worldwide problem and has been the focus of attention during recent decades. There is no precise information on the knowledge, attitude, and preparedness of Iranian Red Crescent volunteers in dealing with bioterrorism. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the above-mentioned parameters in Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the knowledge of 120 volunteers was evaluated and rated as poor, moderate, and good. In addition, attitude of the volunteers and preparedness of Mahabad Red Crescent Society was rated as inappropriate and appropriate using a questionnaire. Results: The mean age of volunteers was 32.0 ± 8.2 years (62.5% male). 2 (1.7%) volunteers had good knowledge while 94 (78.3%) had no knowledge regarding bioterrorist attack management. Only 1 (0.8%) volunteer had appropriate attitude and 6 (5.0%) stated their preparedness for being sent out to the crisis zone. 116 volunteers (96.7%) indicated that Mahabad Red Crescent Society has an inappropriate level of preparedness to encounter bioterrorist attacks. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed poor knowledge and inappropriate attitude of Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers in encountering probable bioterrorist attacks. Furthermore, the Red Crescent Society of this town had an inappropriate level of preparedness in the field of bioterrorism from the viewpoint of the studied volunteers. PMID:26862544

  14. Ways of dealing with science learning: a study based on Swedish early childhood education practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Laila; Jonsson, Agneta; Ljung-Djärf, Agneta; Thulin, Susanne

    2016-07-01

    The Swedish school system offers curriculum-based early childhood education (ECE) organised as preschool (for 0-5-year-olds) and preschool class (for 6-year-olds). The intention to create a playful and educational environment based on children's perspectives, interests, and questions is strongly based on historical and cultural traditions. This article develops knowledge of ECE teachers' approaches to science-learning situations. The study applies a phenomenographic approach. The analysis is based on approximately 9.5 hours of video documentation of teacher-led and child-initiated Swedish ECE science activities. We identified two descriptive categories and four subcategories dealing with science-learning situations: (A) making anything visible, containing the three subcategories (Aa) addressing everyone, (Ab) addressing everything, and (Ac) addressing play and fantasy; and (B) creating a shared space for learning (Ba) addressing common content. These categories are related to how efforts to take advantage of children's perspectives are interpreted and addressed in educational practice. The article discusses and exemplifies the use of various categories and their potential implications for ECE learning practice.

  15. Can institutional videos contribute towards the debate on how to deal with domestic violence against children?

    PubMed

    So, Karen Namie Sakata; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Apostólico, Maíra Rosa; Wazima, Cinthya Midori

    2016-08-01

    Violence is increasing worldwide mainly among the most socially vulnerable groups such as women, elderly people, children and adolescents. In addition to the justice sector, many other areas and workers are involved and they are becoming even more important for addressing violence. One such area is the health sector. This article aims to identify the creative potential of videos that aim to tackle issues involving domestic violence against children which are categorized based on generation (age) and gender. A search was conducted between 2013 and 2014 on official sites and video channels of institutions that deal with child-related topics. We used the webQDA software to conduct our analysis and for reference purposes we used "Generation" and "Gender" as categories. We collected 40 video campaigns, of which ten were analyzed qualitatively. Upon analyzing complete scenes and parts of scenes we were able to see both inter/intra -generational and inter/intra-gender violence and its consequences for children. The videos allowed for critical reflections to be made on the educational processes and training used to combat violence against children in the context of "Generations" and "Genders".

  16. Dealing with consumer differences in liking during repeated exposure to food; typical dynamics in rating behavior.

    PubMed

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Nanetti, Luca; Renken, Remco J; de Wijk, René A; Ter Horst, Gert J

    2014-01-01

    Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in consumers; averaging will mix and hide possible subgroups of consumer behaviors, leading to a misinterpretation of the results. To deal with the variability in consumer liking, we propose to use clustering on data from consumer-product combinations to investigate the nature of the behavioral differences within the complete dataset. The resulting behavioral clusters can then be used to describe product acceptance. To test this approach we used two independent data sets in which young adults were repeatedly exposed to drinks and snacks, respectively. We found that five typical consumer behaviors existed in both datasets. These behaviors differed both in the average level of liking as well as its temporal dynamics. By investigating the distribution of a single product across typical consumer behaviors, we provide more precise insight in how consumers divide in subgroups based on their product liking (i.e. product modality). This work shows that taking into account and using interindividual differences can unveil information about product acceptance that would otherwise be ignored.

  17. What’s the Big Deal? Responder Experiences of Large Animal Rescue in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bradley; Thompson, Kirrilly; Taylor, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The management of large animals during disasters and emergencies creates difficult operational environments for responders. The aims of this study were to identify the exact challenges faced by Australian emergency response personnel in their interactions with large animals and their owners, and to determine the readiness for large animal rescue (LAR) in Australia. Methods: A survey tool collected the views and experiences of a broad cross section of emergency services personnel operating across Australia and across all hazards. Data were collected from 156 responders including Australian emergency services personnel, emergency managers such as federal agricultural departments, and local government. Results: Overall, many of the respondents had serious concerns, and felt that there were significant issues in relation to LAR in Australia. These included the coordination of emergency care for animals, physical management of large animals, inter-agency coordination, and dealing with animal owners. Very few respondents had received any formal training in LAR, with an overwhelming majority indicating they would attend formal training if it were made available. Discussion: Results help to guide the development of evidence-informed support tools to assist operational response and community engagement, and the production of professional development resources. PMID:25685637

  18. Dealing with conflict in caring for the seriously ill: "it was just out of the question".

    PubMed

    Back, Anthony L; Arnold, Robert M

    2005-03-16

    Physicians often assume that conflict is undesirable and destructive, yet conflict handled well can be productive, and the clarity that results can lead to clearer decision making and greater family, patient, and clinician satisfaction. We review the course of Mrs B, an 84-year-old woman with advanced dementia and an advance directive stating no artificial hydration or nutrition. Over the course of her illness, her family and physicians had conflicting opinions about the use of short-term tube feeding and intravenous hydration in her care. We describe the conflicts that arose between her physicians and family and a typology of conflicts common in care of patients who are seriously ill (family vs team, team member vs team member). Drawing from the business, psychology, and mediation literature, we describe useful communication tools and common pitfalls. We outline a step-wise approach that physicians can use to deal with conflicts and the use of treatment trials as a strategy to address conflicts about the use of life-sustaining medical interventions.

  19. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy-How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    PubMed

    de Kruijff, Robin M; Wolterbeek, Hubert T; Denkova, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET). Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium), 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium) can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue. PMID:26066613

  20. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy—How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    PubMed Central

    de Kruijff, Robin M.; Wolterbeek, Hubert T.; Denkova, Antonia G.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET). Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium), 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium) can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue. PMID:26066613

  1. Project management - challenges in dealing with academic and non-academic partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Daniela; Eisenhauer, Anton; Drossou-Berendes, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Modern research projects on national, European and international level are challenged by an increasing requirement of inter and trans-disciplinarily, societal relevance and educational outreach as well as market oriented applications. In particular, to be successful in European research in the frame of HORIZON 2020, the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, it is crucial that relatively large international research consortia involve academic and non-academic partners, NGOs, private and non-private institutions as well as industrial companies. For the management and organisation of such consortia coordinators have to deal with significant differences between multi-national and multi-sectorial administrations and research environments, in order to secure a successful implementation of the project. This often costs research and non-academic partners tremendous efforts, not to say excessive demands. Based on the experiences made in the frame of an Innovative Training Network (ITN) project within the HORIZON 2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, this presentation identifies organisational pitfalls and major challenges of the project management for European funded research involving multi-national academic and non-academic research partners. Possible strategies are discussed to circumvent and avoid conflicts already at the beginning of the project.

  2. Death or declaw: dealing with moral ambiguity in a veterinary hospital.

    PubMed

    Atwood-Harvey, Dana

    2005-01-01

    The medical practice of declawing has received much political debate over the past few years. Yet, empirical and theoretical research on how this practice is maintained and the ethical positions of those who actually participate in this work is lacking. Drawing from 9 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a feline-specific veterinary hospital and open-ended interviews with veterinarians and staff, this study examines veterinary staff members' attitudes toward, and strategies for, dealing with the medical practice of declawing. Specifically, findings show that a number of staff felt uncomfortable with their participation in onychectomy (declawing) and relied heavily on organizational support structures to cope both with these feelings and the moral ambiguity about the practice. Relying on these structures, the veterinarians and their staff are able simultaneously to define felines as subjects worthy of respect for their quality of life, protect their own self-identity as people who work toward the best interest of animals, and paradoxically support action toward felines that they find morally objectionable. PMID:16363088

  3. Dealing with Disbelieving Students on Issues of Evolutionary Processes and Long Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowsky, Matthew

    Sooner or later, the Astronomy 101 or astrobiology instructor encounters a student who disbelieves, or is at least skeptical of, factual information presented about the age of the Earth, the age of the universe, astrobiology, or biological evolution. Understanding the evidence and current state of our scientific knowledge about these subjects is important for the Astro 101 instructor faced with individual skeptical students. This understanding is also vitally important for those Astro 101 students who are future teachers and have preconceptions that could have a major impact on the thinking of large numbers of future students. This article contains a summary of different types of pseudoscientific beliefs that students have and suggests ways to approach these subjects so that skeptical learners are more likely to consider the facts presented in the astronomy class. Also included are some useful approaches for dealing with the more recent creationist ideas and tactics, such as "irreducible complexity" and "intelligent design"-- especially now that President George W. Bush has expressed support for intelligent design. An appendix catalogs the different forms of creationism and lists some typical questions that their proponents might ask in class, along with suggested answers.

  4. Dealing with Disbelieving Students on Issues of Evolutionary Processes and Long Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowsky, Matthew

    Sooner or later, the Astronomy 101 or astrobiology instructor encounters a student who disbelieves, or is at least skeptical of, factual information presented about the age of the Earth, the age of the universe, astrobiology, or biological evolution. Understanding the evidence and current state of our scientific knowledge about these subjects is important for the Astro 101 instructor faced with individual skeptical students. This understanding is also vitally important for those Astro 101 students who are future teachers and have preconceptions that could have a major impact on the thinking of large numbers of future students. This article contains a summary of different types of pseudoscientific beliefs that students have and suggests ways to approach these subjects so that skeptical learners are more likely to consider the facts presented in the astronomy class. Also included are some useful approaches for dealing with the more recent creationist ideas and tactics, such as "irreducible complexity" and "intelligent design"--especially now that President George W. Bush has expressed support for intelligent design. An appendix catalogs the different forms of creationism and lists some typical questions that their proponents might ask in class, along with suggested answers.

  5. Can institutional videos contribute towards the debate on how to deal with domestic violence against children?

    PubMed

    So, Karen Namie Sakata; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Apostólico, Maíra Rosa; Wazima, Cinthya Midori

    2016-08-01

    Violence is increasing worldwide mainly among the most socially vulnerable groups such as women, elderly people, children and adolescents. In addition to the justice sector, many other areas and workers are involved and they are becoming even more important for addressing violence. One such area is the health sector. This article aims to identify the creative potential of videos that aim to tackle issues involving domestic violence against children which are categorized based on generation (age) and gender. A search was conducted between 2013 and 2014 on official sites and video channels of institutions that deal with child-related topics. We used the webQDA software to conduct our analysis and for reference purposes we used "Generation" and "Gender" as categories. We collected 40 video campaigns, of which ten were analyzed qualitatively. Upon analyzing complete scenes and parts of scenes we were able to see both inter/intra -generational and inter/intra-gender violence and its consequences for children. The videos allowed for critical reflections to be made on the educational processes and training used to combat violence against children in the context of "Generations" and "Genders". PMID:27557008

  6. Personal prayer in patients dealing with chronic illness: a review of the research literature.

    PubMed

    Jors, Karin; Büssing, Arndt; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Baumann, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prayer is commonly used among patients for health purposes. Therefore, this review focused on three main questions: (1) why do people turn to prayer in times of illness?, (2) what are the main topics of their prayers?, and (3) how do they pray? Method. We undertook a systematic review of the literature by searching the databases PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) participants in the study were patients dealing with an illness, (2) the study examined the use of private rather than intercessory prayer, and (3) the content and purpose of prayer rather than its effects were investigated. Results. 16 articles were included in the final review. Participants suffered from a variety of chronic diseases, mostly cancer. Five main categories for the reasons and topics of prayer were found: (1) disease-centered prayer, (2) assurance-centered prayer, (3) God-centered prayer, (4) others-centered prayer, and (5) lamentations. Among these, disease-centered prayer was most common. Conclusions. Although most patients with chronic diseases do pray for relief from their physical and mental suffering, the intention of their prayers is not only for healing. Rather, prayer can be a resource that allows patients to positively transform the experience of their illness. PMID:25815041

  7. A maternal effect rough deal mutation suggests that multiple pathways regulate Drosophila RZZ kinetochore recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Défachelles, Lénaïg; Hainline, Sarah G.; Menant, Alexandra; Lee, Laura A.; Karess, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proper kinetochore recruitment and regulation of dynein and the Mad1–Mad2 complex requires the Rod–Zw10–Zwilch (RZZ) complex. Here, we describe rodZ3, a maternal-effect Drosophila mutation changing a single residue in the Rough Deal (Rod) subunit of RZZ. Although the RZZ complex containing this altered subunit (denoted RZ3ZZ) is present in early syncytial stage embryos laid by homozygous rodZ3 mothers, it is not recruited to kinetochores. Consequently, the embryos have no spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), and syncytial mitoses are profoundly perturbed. The polar body (residual meiotic products) cannot remain in its SAC-dependent metaphase-like state, and decondenses into chromatin. In neuroblasts of homozygous rodZ3 larvae, RZ3ZZ recruitment is only partially reduced, the SAC is functional and mitosis is relatively normal. RZ3ZZ nevertheless behaves abnormally: it does not further accumulate on kinetochores when microtubules are depolymerized; it reduces the rate of Mad1 recruitment; and it dominantly interferes with the dynein-mediated streaming of RZZ from attached kinetochores. These results suggest that the mutated residue of rodZ3 is required for normal RZZ kinetochore recruitment and function and, moreover, that the RZZ recruitment pathway might differ in syncytial stage embryos and post-embryonic somatic cells. PMID:25616898

  8. A maternal effect rough deal mutation suggests that multiple pathways regulate Drosophila RZZ kinetochore recruitment.

    PubMed

    Défachelles, Lénaïg; Hainline, Sarah G; Menant, Alexandra; Lee, Laura A; Karess, Roger E

    2015-03-15

    Proper kinetochore recruitment and regulation of dynein and the Mad1-Mad2 complex requires the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch (RZZ) complex. Here, we describe rod(Z3), a maternal-effect Drosophila mutation changing a single residue in the Rough Deal (Rod) subunit of RZZ. Although the RZZ complex containing this altered subunit (denoted R(Z3)ZZ) is present in early syncytial stage embryos laid by homozygous rod(Z3) mothers, it is not recruited to kinetochores. Consequently, the embryos have no spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), and syncytial mitoses are profoundly perturbed. The polar body (residual meiotic products) cannot remain in its SAC-dependent metaphase-like state, and decondenses into chromatin. In neuroblasts of homozygous rod(Z3) larvae, R(Z3)ZZ recruitment is only partially reduced, the SAC is functional and mitosis is relatively normal. R(Z3)ZZ nevertheless behaves abnormally: it does not further accumulate on kinetochores when microtubules are depolymerized; it reduces the rate of Mad1 recruitment; and it dominantly interferes with the dynein-mediated streaming of RZZ from attached kinetochores. These results suggest that the mutated residue of rod(Z3) is required for normal RZZ kinetochore recruitment and function and, moreover, that the RZZ recruitment pathway might differ in syncytial stage embryos and post-embryonic somatic cells.

  9. Heal thyself: Dealing with trauma work--Gaza 2008/2009.

    PubMed

    Chaufan, Claudia; Isa, Khaleel

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a Palestinian American psychologist trained to work with psychologically traumatized patients, who consulted with one World Health Organization mental health practitioner assisting the people of Gaza during the Israeli invasion of December 2008. We describe the unresolved tension experienced by the consulting provider, between feelings of helplessness and horror associated with the attack and the drive to assist a client, in this case a colleague, a drive that characterizes the helping professions generally, and discuss ways to improve healthcare providers' abilities to deal with trauma work. Our goal is to call attention to one overlooked health effect of the continuing military occupation of the Palestinian territories (oPT), that is, its impact on healthcare providers, by giving voice to these providers, and to elaborate on the limitations of existing categories and theoretical frameworks to conceptualize and address trauma work in the oPT and similar settings. This article is part of a broader project examining the implications of the ongoing military occupation of the Palestinian territories for health inequalities, health services, and public health infrastructure. PMID:21212112

  10. Spooning and basketing: children's dealing with accidental gaps in the lexicon.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, E W; Maratsos, M P

    1984-06-01

    The abilities of 2-, 5-, and 7-year-old children to interpret, judge the acceptability of, and produce class extensions were assessed. Class extensions are linguistic constructions in which a word that normally functions as a member of one syntactic category is used as a member of another, as in the sentence He is pianoing Christmas songs. Subjects in each age group understood sentences containing class extensions to some extent. However, the 2-year-olds' performance was depressed relative to the near-maximal performance of the older subjects, because they were generally insensitive to word-order cues in the stimulus sentences. Only the 7-year-olds consistently judged sentences containing class extensions to be deviant; the 5-year-olds confused syntax and semantics in making their judgments. The 7-year-olds were also able to produce class-extension phrases "on demand" more frequently than the 5-year-olds. It is concluded that the increasing ability with age to deal appropriately with class extensions is primarily due to general advances in language acquisition rather than to any development unique to the class-extension word-formation process. It is noted that the pattern of results reported, as well as observations that children's use of class extensions in spontaneous speech declines with age, may both be accounted for if word-formation rules are assumed to be "nonproductive, general rules," with a generative component and a later-acquired inhibitory component.

  11. Burning-issue politics: How incinerator operators deal with fired-up communities

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.

    1993-10-01

    If TSDFs are the most controversial elements of hazardous waste regulation, then dealing with a host community is the most delicate issue in facility siting. In the last 20 years, public perception of hazardous waste treatment facilities, especially incinerators, has turned from naivete about waste management technologies to a general distrust of incinerator operators and government regulators. The political and emotional clout wielded by citizens and environmental activists can derail any incinerator developer's plans, even when industry and regulators support the project. Public resistance results from anxiety about the environment, low confidence in science and government, and a feeling of powerlessness over local events. Both RCRA and Superfund initially contained provisions for public comment but provided few statutory toeholds for citizens to obtain legal redress of grievances in court. Congress strengthened public participation opportunities when RCRA and Superfund were reauthorized in the 1980s. Since then, the public has become major player in the waste treatment business. Citizens group, often in combination with environmental organizations have waged aggressive public relations campaigns and used legal actions to defeat incinerator-siting proposals.

  12. IMASIS computer-based medical record project: dealing with the human factor.

    PubMed

    Martín-Baranera, M; Planas, I; Palau, J; Sanz, F

    1995-01-01

    The Institut Municipal d'Assistència Sanitària (IMAS) is a health care organization in Barcelona, comprising two general hospitals, a psychiatric hospital, a surgical clinic, a geriatric center, some primary care clinics, and a research institute. Since 1984, IMAS has been engaged in creating a multicenter integrated hospital information system (IMASIS). Currently, IMASIS offers the possibility to manage administrative data, laboratory results, pathology and cytology reports, radiology reports, and pharmacy inpatient orders; it also shares this information on-line among IMAS centers. IMASIS users may also work with a word processor, a spreadsheet, a database, or a statistical package and have access to MEDLINE. A second phase of IMASIS development began in December 1993 focused on clinical information management. The goal was to move towards an integrated multimedia medical record [1]. As a first step, the implementation experiences of the most advanced hospital information systems around the world were studied. Some of these experiences detected behavioral, cultural, and organizational factors [2] as the main sources of delay, or even failure, in HIS projects. A preliminary analysis to define such factors, assess their potential impact, and introduce adequate measures to deal with them seemed unavoidable before structuring of the project. In our approach to physician attitudes analysis, two survey techniques were applied. First, every hospital service head was contacted to schedule an interview, with either a service representative or a group of staff physicians and residents. The aim was to provide detailed information about project objectives and collect personal opinions, problems encountered in the current HIS, and specific needs of every medical and surgical specialty (including imaging needs). Every service head was asked to distribute a questionnaire among all clinicians, which assessed frequency of use of IMASIS current applications, user's satisfaction

  13. IMASIS computer-based medical record project: dealing with the human factor.

    PubMed

    Martín-Baranera, M; Planas, I; Palau, J; Sanz, F

    1995-01-01

    The Institut Municipal d'Assistència Sanitària (IMAS) is a health care organization in Barcelona, comprising two general hospitals, a psychiatric hospital, a surgical clinic, a geriatric center, some primary care clinics, and a research institute. Since 1984, IMAS has been engaged in creating a multicenter integrated hospital information system (IMASIS). Currently, IMASIS offers the possibility to manage administrative data, laboratory results, pathology and cytology reports, radiology reports, and pharmacy inpatient orders; it also shares this information on-line among IMAS centers. IMASIS users may also work with a word processor, a spreadsheet, a database, or a statistical package and have access to MEDLINE. A second phase of IMASIS development began in December 1993 focused on clinical information management. The goal was to move towards an integrated multimedia medical record [1]. As a first step, the implementation experiences of the most advanced hospital information systems around the world were studied. Some of these experiences detected behavioral, cultural, and organizational factors [2] as the main sources of delay, or even failure, in HIS projects. A preliminary analysis to define such factors, assess their potential impact, and introduce adequate measures to deal with them seemed unavoidable before structuring of the project. In our approach to physician attitudes analysis, two survey techniques were applied. First, every hospital service head was contacted to schedule an interview, with either a service representative or a group of staff physicians and residents. The aim was to provide detailed information about project objectives and collect personal opinions, problems encountered in the current HIS, and specific needs of every medical and surgical specialty (including imaging needs). Every service head was asked to distribute a questionnaire among all clinicians, which assessed frequency of use of IMASIS current applications, user's satisfaction

  14. The Naked Mole-Rat Response to Oxidative Stress: Just Deal with It

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Andziak, Blazej; Yang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most widely accepted theory of aging providing insights into why we age and die for over 50 years, despite mounting evidence from a multitude of species indicating that there is no direct relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and longevity. Here we explore how different species, including the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, have defied the most predominant aging theory. Recent Advances: In the case of extremely long-lived naked mole-rat, levels of ROS production are found to be similar to mice, antioxidant defenses unexceptional, and even under constitutive conditions, naked mole-rats combine a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu with high, steady state levels of oxidative damage. Clearly, naked mole-rats can tolerate this level of oxidative stress and must have mechanisms in place to prevent its translation into potentially lethal diseases. Critical Issues: In addition to the naked mole-rat, other species from across the phylogenetic spectrum and even certain mouse strains do not support this theory. Moreover, overexpressing or knocking down antioxidant levels alters levels of oxidative damage and even cancer incidence, but does not modulate lifespan. Future Directions: Perhaps, it is not oxidative stress that modulates healthspan and longevity, but other cytoprotective mechanisms that allow animals to deal with high levels of oxidative damage and stress, and nevertheless live long, relatively healthy lifespans. Studying these mechanisms in uniquely long-lived species, like the naked mole-rat, may help us tease out the key contributors to aging and longevity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1388–1399. PMID:23025341

  15. [Closing forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy: a new deal for mental health care?].

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Malavolta, Maurizio; Bianchini, Valeria; Giusti, Laura; Di Michele, Vittorio; Giosuè, Patricia; Ruggeri, Mirella; Biondi, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The date of March 31, 2015, following the Law 81/2014, has marked a historical transition with the final closure of the six forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy. This law identifies a new pathway of care that involves small-scale high therapeutic profile facilities (Residenze per la Esecuzione della Misura di Sicurezza, REMS) instead of the old forensic psychiatric hospitals. The Law promotes a new recovery-oriented rehabilitation approach for the persons with mental disorders who committed a criminal offence, but lack criminal responsibility and deemed as socially dangerous. After a brief description of what happens abroad, this article highlights the positive aspects of the law that, as a whole, has to be considered innovative and unavoidable. The main debated problems are also reviewed, including the lack of changes to the Criminal Code; the improper equation between insanity and mental illness and social dangerousness; the evaluation of "socially dangerousness", based solely on "subjective qualities" of the person, assessed out of his/her context, without paying attention to family and social conditions suitable for discharge; the expensive implementation of the REMS, mainly based on security policies and less on care and rehabilitation, the delay in their construction, and the search for residential alternatives structures; the uncertain boundaries of professional responsibility. Finally, several actions are suggested that can support the implementation of the law: information programs addressed to the general population; training activities for mental health professionals; systematic monitoring and evaluation of the outcomes of the care provided to the forensic psychiatric population; implementation of Agreement Protocols and a better cooperation with the judiciary. Scientific societies dealing with psychosocial rehabilitation need to be involved in such issues relating to the identification of the best care and rehabilitation pathways, which should be

  16. A multivariate copula-based framework for dealing with hazard scenarios and failure probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, G.; Durante, F.; De Michele, C.; Bernardi, M.; Petrella, L.

    2016-05-01

    This paper is of methodological nature, and deals with the foundations of Risk Assessment. Several international guidelines have recently recommended to select appropriate/relevant Hazard Scenarios in order to tame the consequences of (extreme) natural phenomena. In particular, the scenarios should be multivariate, i.e., they should take into account the fact that several variables, generally not independent, may be of interest. In this work, it is shown how a Hazard Scenario can be identified in terms of (i) a specific geometry and (ii) a suitable probability level. Several scenarios, as well as a Structural approach, are presented, and due comparisons are carried out. In addition, it is shown how the Hazard Scenario approach illustrated here is well suited to cope with the notion of Failure Probability, a tool traditionally used for design and risk assessment in engineering practice. All the results outlined throughout the work are based on the Copula Theory, which turns out to be a fundamental theoretical apparatus for doing multivariate risk assessment: formulas for the calculation of the probability of Hazard Scenarios in the general multidimensional case (d≥2) are derived, and worthy analytical relationships among the probabilities of occurrence of Hazard Scenarios are presented. In addition, the Extreme Value and Archimedean special cases are dealt with, relationships between dependence ordering and scenario levels are studied, and a counter-example concerning Tail Dependence is shown. Suitable indications for the practical application of the techniques outlined in the work are given, and two case studies illustrate the procedures discussed in the paper.

  17. [Closing forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy: a new deal for mental health care?].

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Malavolta, Maurizio; Bianchini, Valeria; Giusti, Laura; Di Michele, Vittorio; Giosuè, Patricia; Ruggeri, Mirella; Biondi, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The date of March 31, 2015, following the Law 81/2014, has marked a historical transition with the final closure of the six forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy. This law identifies a new pathway of care that involves small-scale high therapeutic profile facilities (Residenze per la Esecuzione della Misura di Sicurezza, REMS) instead of the old forensic psychiatric hospitals. The Law promotes a new recovery-oriented rehabilitation approach for the persons with mental disorders who committed a criminal offence, but lack criminal responsibility and deemed as socially dangerous. After a brief description of what happens abroad, this article highlights the positive aspects of the law that, as a whole, has to be considered innovative and unavoidable. The main debated problems are also reviewed, including the lack of changes to the Criminal Code; the improper equation between insanity and mental illness and social dangerousness; the evaluation of "socially dangerousness", based solely on "subjective qualities" of the person, assessed out of his/her context, without paying attention to family and social conditions suitable for discharge; the expensive implementation of the REMS, mainly based on security policies and less on care and rehabilitation, the delay in their construction, and the search for residential alternatives structures; the uncertain boundaries of professional responsibility. Finally, several actions are suggested that can support the implementation of the law: information programs addressed to the general population; training activities for mental health professionals; systematic monitoring and evaluation of the outcomes of the care provided to the forensic psychiatric population; implementation of Agreement Protocols and a better cooperation with the judiciary. Scientific societies dealing with psychosocial rehabilitation need to be involved in such issues relating to the identification of the best care and rehabilitation pathways, which should be

  18. [Cancer on the big screen. How and when movies deal with oncological diseases].

    PubMed

    De Fiore, Luciano; Costantini, Anna; Di Maio, Massimo; Gori, Stefania; Lorusso, Domenica; Rosti, Giovanni; Pinto, Carmine

    2014-05-01

    Films that feature characters with cancer have become a familiar sight for movie-goers. 148 movies treating tumors were selected, produced all over the world since the Thirties, in which cancer had "prompt", "relevant", or "plot" character. In order to clearly understand each film's peculiar message about cancer, we recollected data such as genealogy, year and country of production, main characters' age and gender, and kind of tumor. Movies deal with cancer through very relevant questions, as well as themes and contexts that have great influence on oncologist's mind and consciousness. Specially in recent years, films have tackled some of the most important issues around cancer, such as his epidemiology and environmental causes; the economic implications of therapies; the management of symptoms and side effects; the psychological dynamics; the care toward the ending of life. The most frequent treatment mentioned in the movies was chemotherapy followed by antalgic therapy. Very often the ill person on the screen doesn't get over the disease and his death is somehow useful to the plot's outcome. This pattern is so strongly standardized that it persists in spite of real progress of treatments. Movies use disease, and other tragedies, as a dramatic device, and since drama is what we expect of the medium, should we be concerned that there is a gap between fiction and reality? Movies represent an essential step of educational process, but their potential has been fully exploited only in recent times. By watching movies on cancer, oncologists could become more conscious of problems they are already facing in the therapeutic setting: cancer and sexuality, the relationship between the ill person and the medical staff, side effects of therapies. Some films simply make us reflect upon the meaning of life and death. This is useful for the sharing of cancer care, from personal or familiar problems to issues of collective relevance.

  19. Dealing with missing values in large-scale studies: microarray data imputation and beyond.

    PubMed

    Aittokallio, Tero

    2010-03-01

    High-throughput biotechnologies, such as gene expression microarrays or mass-spectrometry-based proteomic assays, suffer from frequent missing values due to various experimental reasons. Since the missing data points can hinder downstream analyses, there exists a wide variety of ways in which to deal with missing values in large-scale data sets. Nowadays, it has become routine to estimate (or impute) the missing values prior to the actual data analysis. After nearly a decade since the publication of the first missing value imputation methods for gene expression microarray data, new imputation approaches are still being developed at an increasing rate. However, what is lagging behind is a systematic and objective evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches when faced with different types of data sets and experimental questions. In this review, the present strategies for missing value imputation and the measures for evaluating their performance are described. The imputation methods are first reviewed in the context of gene expression microarray data, since most of the methods have been developed for estimating gene expression levels; then, we turn to other large-scale data sets that also suffer from the problems posed by missing values, together with pointers to possible imputation approaches in these settings. Along with a description of the basic principles behind the different imputation approaches, the review tries to provide practical guidance for the users of high-throughput technologies on how to choose the imputation tool for their data and questions, and some additional research directions for the developers of imputation methodologies. PMID:19965979

  20. [Cancer on the big screen. How and when movies deal with oncological diseases].

    PubMed

    De Fiore, Luciano; Costantini, Anna; Di Maio, Massimo; Gori, Stefania; Lorusso, Domenica; Rosti, Giovanni; Pinto, Carmine

    2014-05-01

    Films that feature characters with cancer have become a familiar sight for movie-goers. 148 movies treating tumors were selected, produced all over the world since the Thirties, in which cancer had "prompt", "relevant", or "plot" character. In order to clearly understand each film's peculiar message about cancer, we recollected data such as genealogy, year and country of production, main characters' age and gender, and kind of tumor. Movies deal with cancer through very relevant questions, as well as themes and contexts that have great influence on oncologist's mind and consciousness. Specially in recent years, films have tackled some of the most important issues around cancer, such as his epidemiology and environmental causes; the economic implications of therapies; the management of symptoms and side effects; the psychological dynamics; the care toward the ending of life. The most frequent treatment mentioned in the movies was chemotherapy followed by antalgic therapy. Very often the ill person on the screen doesn't get over the disease and his death is somehow useful to the plot's outcome. This pattern is so strongly standardized that it persists in spite of real progress of treatments. Movies use disease, and other tragedies, as a dramatic device, and since drama is what we expect of the medium, should we be concerned that there is a gap between fiction and reality? Movies represent an essential step of educational process, but their potential has been fully exploited only in recent times. By watching movies on cancer, oncologists could become more conscious of problems they are already facing in the therapeutic setting: cancer and sexuality, the relationship between the ill person and the medical staff, side effects of therapies. Some films simply make us reflect upon the meaning of life and death. This is useful for the sharing of cancer care, from personal or familiar problems to issues of collective relevance. PMID:24873943

  1. Hebbian Learning of Cognitive Control: Dealing with Specific and Nonspecific Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verguts, Tom; Notebaert, Wim

    2008-01-01

    The conflict monitoring model of M. M. Botvinick, T. S. Braver, D. M. Barch, C. S. Carter, and J. D. Cohen (2001) triggered several research programs investigating various aspects of cognitive control. One problematic aspect of the Botvinick et al. model is that there is no clear account of how the cognitive system knows where to intervene when…

  2. Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Deal with Canada's Nuclear Legacy Liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter; Metcalfe, Douglas; Blanchette, Marcia; Dolinar, George; Halpenny, Steven; Purdy, Chris; Smith, David; Kupferschmidt, William

    2008-01-15

    The Government of Canada nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development (R and D) carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are largely located at AECL research sites, and consist of shutdown research buildings (including several prototype and research reactors), a wide variety of buried and stored wastes, and contaminated lands. The shutdown buildings and contaminated lands need to be safely decommissioned to meet federal regulatory requirements, and long-term solutions need to be developed and implemented for management of the wastes. More than half of the liabilities are the result of Cold War activities during the 1940's, 50's and early 60's. The remaining liabilities stem from R and D for medical isotopes and nuclear reactor technology, as well as national science programs. About 70 percent of the liabilities are located at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in Ontario, and a further 20 percent are located at AECL's shutdown Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba. The remaining 10 percent relate largely to three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec, which were key to the developmental stage of Canada's CANDU reactor technology. The inventory of legacy waste includes spent fuel, high-level, intermediate-level and low-level solid and liquid radioactive waste, and wastes (largely contaminated soils) from site clean-up work across Canada. Most of the wastes are in raw, unconditioned form, and limited characterization information is available for the wastes generated in past decades. In many cases unique and potentially costly solutions will be required to recover, handle and process the wastes. In conclusion: the Government of Canada has initiated a program to deal with nuclear legacy liabilities dating back to the Cold War and the birth of nuclear technologies and medicine in Canada. The 5

  3. Dealing with Activism in Canada: An Ideal Cultural Fit for the Two-Way Symmetrical Public Relations Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiniven, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that disputes are seen as much less confrontational, much less zero-sum games in Canada than in the United States. Interviews 15 communications and public relations practitioners and professors with experiences on both sides of the 49th parallel and reviews relevant literature. Concludes that the greater acceptance of two-way symmetrical…

  4. Dealing with Power Games in a Companion Modelling Process: Lessons from Community Water Management in Thailand Highlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaud, Cecile; van Paassen, Annemarie; Trebuil, Guy; Promburom, Tanya; Bousquet, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Although stakeholder participation is expected to promote equitable and sustainable natural resource management, lessons from the past tell us that more careful attention needs to be paid to achieving equitable impacts. Now the question is how to address social inequities and power asymmetries. Some authors emphasize the need for more dialogue,…

  5. Transparency--"Deal or no deal"?

    PubMed

    Lutz, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, transparency is becoming an ideal worthy of Mom and apple pie, like quality in healthcare. Physicians, payers, hospitals, business associations, and organizations representing patients have all chimed in expressing support. At the local, state, and national levels a variety of transparency initiatives are under way. How will transparency affect the healthcare industry? Transparency could profoundly change today's balance of power, for it is about information, and information is power. As employers push more cost sharing to workers, hospitals and health systems will have to construct a pricing structure that is meaningful to consumers. What are providers to do? To be successful with this new demand, providers should make sure they are making quality information as well as pricing information available to consumers. They will have to know the market, know what their own prices mean, consider the customer, and reengineer business processes around the patient rather than around the billing side of business. PMID:17405388

  6. 31 CFR 542.209 - Prohibited transactions or dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.209 Section 542.209 Money and... dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. Except as otherwise authorized... petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin is prohibited....

  7. Violence, Kids, Crisis. What You Can Do. Speaking Out When Crisis Strikes. Dealing with the Public and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Explains how local PTAs can help with school crisis intervention, focusing on dealing with the public and the media; spreading the word about the National PTA's programs and positions via public relations programs; what to do during a crisis; and how to prepare for press conferences and prepare necessary materials. Finally, the paper discusses the…

  8. A Small-Scale Study on Student Teachers' Perceptions of Classroom Management and Methods for Dealing with Misbehaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atici, Meral

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify student teachers' perceptions of classroom management and methods for dealing with misbehaviour. In-depth interviews with nine student teachers at Cukurova University (CU) in Turkey have been conducted twice, prior to and at the end of their teaching practice. Instructional management, behaviour management,…

  9. How Research Physicists and High-School Physics Teachers Deal with the Scientific Explanation of a Physical Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, Judith R.; Barufaldi, James P.

    There is a need to integrate the segregated perspective underlying research on scientific conceptions. Insights from scientists can provide information about the essential components of ideal knowledge. The purpose of this study was to investigate how researchers and teachers deal with scientific explanation. Three research physicists and five…

  10. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  11. 31 CFR 560.534 - Importation into the United States of, and dealings in, certain foodstuffs and carpets authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Iranian-origin is authorized: (1) Foodstuffs intended for human consumption that are classified... Iranian-origin goods described in paragraph (a) of this section, provided that the transaction or dealing... sell an Iranian-origin carpet, as long as the sale is not to Iran or the Government of Iran. (2)...

  12. Dealing with Conflicting or Consistent Medical Information on the Web: When Expert Information Breeds Laypersons' Doubts about Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienhues, Dorothe; Stadtler, Marc; Bromme, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated how dealing with conflicting versus consistent medical information on the Web impacts on topic-specific and medicine-related epistemic beliefs as well as aspects of health decision making. One hundred mostly female university students were randomly assigned to three groups. Two intervention groups searched the Web…

  13. Writing for Publication: An Analysis of 591 Articles in Five Journals Dealing with Information Technology in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axtell, Kulwadee; Chaffin, Amy J.; Aberasturi, Suzanne; Paone, Tina; Maddux, Cleborne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about all articles published over three years in five different journals dealing with information technology in education. The researchers collected all 591 articles from these well-known journals. All articles were analyzed using a researcher-made matrix. Information gathered included descriptive information…

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.340 - What other types of assistance may GSA provide agencies in dealing with regulatory bodies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... assistance may GSA provide agencies in dealing with regulatory bodies? 102-117.340 Section 102-117.340 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Representation Before Regulatory Body... bodies? (a) GSA has oversight of all public utilities used by the Federal Government...

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.340 - What other types of assistance may GSA provide agencies in dealing with regulatory bodies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assistance may GSA provide agencies in dealing with regulatory bodies? 102-117.340 Section 102-117.340 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Representation Before Regulatory Body... bodies? (a) GSA has oversight of all public utilities used by the Federal Government...

  16. A Director's Lot Is Not a Happy One--Using Peer Support To Deal with Role Ambiguity and Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Henry M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses using peer support to deal with role ambiguity and role conflict for early care and education directors. Examines causes of role conflict development. Suggests developing a support system with other incumbents of boundary jobs that provides for sharing, communicating, listening, letting off steam, and joining together to initiate…

  17. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Oriented Psycho Education Program on Dealing with Loneliness: An Online Psychological Counseling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlilioglu, Kasim

    2013-01-01

    Loneliness is a very common problem which incorporates many disorders. The inadequacy of services to treat this problem makes it necessary to develop new treatment methods. For this purpose, it was aimed to test the effect of online psychological counseling on dealing with loneliness problem in this research. The research includes the study with…

  18. "Dulling the Edges": Young Men's Use of Alcohol to Deal With Grief Following the Death of a Male Friend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John; Matthews, Jennifer; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: The death of a male friend can be challenging for men because expressions of grief can be governed and restrained by dominant ideals of masculinity. It is common for young men to engage in health risk practices, such as alcohol overuse, to deal with feelings of sadness. Objective: This qualitative study investigated the ways that young…

  19. Living in Chaos and Striving for Control: How Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Deal with Their Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Michele; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Houghton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a Grounded Theory of "Living in Chaos and Striving for Control" developed in response to the central research question of how adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) deal with their disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 males diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood. "Chaos" emerged…

  20. Harcourt Sale Would Spawn Big 3 of Texts: Deal May Make Houghton Leader in K-12 Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew; Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    Reed Elsevier's recently announced plans to spin off its Harcourt educational publishing divisions to the Houghton Mifflin Co. would complete a consolidation of most K-12 publishing in the United States into a new Big Three. If federal regulators allow the deal to go through, school districts that annually buy textbooks from the three…

  1. An Annotated Bibliography of Literature Dealing with the Impact of Television Viewing on the Behavioral Patterns of the Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lineback, Nancy

    This annotated bibliography cites 36 articles dealing with the influence of television viewing on the attitudes and values of the young child. Articles are listed in three categories--negative, ambivalent, and positive. The material contained in the "negative" approach indicates that television has increased unfavorable reactions among young…

  2. Preservice Teachers' Use of Spatio-Visual Elements and their Level of Justification Dealing with a Geometrical Construction Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapan, Menekse Seden; Arslan, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to determine to what extent preservice teachers use visual elements and mathematical properties when they are dealing with a geometrical construction activity. The axiomatic structure of the Euclidian geometry forms a coherent field of objects and relations of a theoretical nature; and thus it constitutes a…

  3. "Dealing With" Unexpected Learner Contributions in Whole Group Activities: An Examination of Novice Language Teacher Discursive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Drew S.

    2012-01-01

    The current paper examines the discursive practices of one novice English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher "dealing with" learners' unexpected contributions in whole group classroom interactions during teacher- and learner-initiated sequences-of-talk. The study draws from two fields of research: classroom discourse studies…

  4. Making a Difference: Library and Teaching Faculty Working Together to Develop Strategies in Dealing with Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciammarella, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Student plagiarism is a problem affecting all colleges. Various strategies have been developed to deal with this situation. But, the collaborative efforts of subject faculty and librarians in creating a team approach towards plagiarism can produce positive results. Research shows that these relationships can provide structure to assignments…

  5. A deal that's hard to refuse. Physicians use clout to win joint ventures with hospitals despite fiscal perils.

    PubMed

    Jaklevic, M C

    2001-12-01

    Just as many hospitals rid themselves of unprofitable medical practices, a risky new strategy to win physician loyalty is gaining popularity: hospital-physician joint ventures. Some analysts say the deals could backfire, as the dangers for hospital balance sheets outweigh the benefits.

  6. 26 CFR 143.2 - Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants by private foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fellowship grants by private foundations. 143.2 Section 143.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1969 § 143.2 Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants... person of the income or assets of a private foundation. (b) Scholarship and fellowship grants....

  7. 26 CFR 143.2 - Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants by private foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fellowship grants by private foundations. 143.2 Section 143.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1969 § 143.2 Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants... person of the income or assets of a private foundation. (b) Scholarship and fellowship grants....

  8. 26 CFR 143.2 - Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants by private foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fellowship grants by private foundations. 143.2 Section 143.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1969 § 143.2 Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants... person of the income or assets of a private foundation. (b) Scholarship and fellowship grants....

  9. 26 CFR 143.2 - Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants by private foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fellowship grants by private foundations. 143.2 Section 143.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1969 § 143.2 Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants... person of the income or assets of a private foundation. (b) Scholarship and fellowship grants....

  10. 26 CFR 143.2 - Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants by private foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fellowship grants by private foundations. 143.2 Section 143.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1969 § 143.2 Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants... person of the income or assets of a private foundation. (b) Scholarship and fellowship grants....

  11. Dealing with the Archetypes Development Process for a Regional EHR System

    PubMed Central

    Santos, M.R.; Bax, M.P.; Kalra, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This paper aims to present the archetype modelling process used for the Health Department of Minas Gerais State, Brazil (SES/MG), to support building its regional EHR system, and the lessons learned during this process. Methods This study was undertaken within the Minas Gerais project. The EHR system architecture was built assuming the reference model from the ISO 13606 norm. The whole archetype development process took about ten months, coordinated by a clinical team co-ordinated by three health professionals and one systems analyst from the SES/MG. They were supported by around 30 health professionals from the internal SES/MG areas, and 5 systems analysts from the PRODEMGE. Based on a bottom-up approach, the project team used technical interviews and brainstorming sessions to conduct the modelling process. Results The main steps of the archetype modelling process were identified and described, and 20 archetypes were created. Lessons learned: –The set of principles established during the selection of PCS elements helped the clinical team to keep the focus in their objectives;–The initial focus on the archetype structural organization aspects was important;–The data elements identified were subjected to a rigorous analysis aimed at determining the most suitable clinical domain;–Levelling the concepts to accommodate them within the hierarchical levels in the reference model was definitely no easy task, and the use of a mind mapping tool facilitated the modelling process;–Part of the difficulty experienced by the clinical team was related to a view focused on the original forms previously used;–The use of worksheets facilitated the modelling process by health professionals;–It was important to have a health professional that knew about the domain tables and health classifications from the Brazilian Federal Government as member in the clinical team. Conclusion The archetypes (referencing terminology, domain tables and term lists) provided a

  12. The crossing statistic: dealing with unknown errors in the dispersion of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafieloo, Arman; Clifton, Timothy; Ferreira, Pedro

    2011-08-01

    We propose a new statistic that has been designed to be used in situations where the intrinsic dispersion of a data set is not well known: The Crossing Statistic. This statistic is in general less sensitive than χ2 to the intrinsic dispersion of the data, and hence allows us to make progress in distinguishing between different models using goodness of fit to the data even when the errors involved are poorly understood. The proposed statistic makes use of the shape and trends of a model's predictions in a quantifiable manner. It is applicable to a variety of circumstances, although we consider it to be especially well suited to the task of distinguishing between different cosmological models using type Ia supernovae. We show that this statistic can easily distinguish between different models in cases where the χ2 statistic fails. We also show that the last mode of the Crossing Statistic is identical to χ2, so that it can be considered as a generalization of χ2.

  13. The crossing statistic: dealing with unknown errors in the dispersion of Type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shafieloo, Arman; Clifton, Timothy; Ferreira, Pedro E-mail: tclifton@astro.ox.ac.uk

    2011-08-01

    We propose a new statistic that has been designed to be used in situations where the intrinsic dispersion of a data set is not well known: The Crossing Statistic. This statistic is in general less sensitive than χ{sup 2} to the intrinsic dispersion of the data, and hence allows us to make progress in distinguishing between different models using goodness of fit to the data even when the errors involved are poorly understood. The proposed statistic makes use of the shape and trends of a model's predictions in a quantifiable manner. It is applicable to a variety of circumstances, although we consider it to be especially well suited to the task of distinguishing between different cosmological models using type Ia supernovae. We show that this statistic can easily distinguish between different models in cases where the χ{sup 2} statistic fails. We also show that the last mode of the Crossing Statistic is identical to χ{sup 2}, so that it can be considered as a generalization of χ{sup 2}.

  14. The method of belief scales as a means for dealing with uncertainty in tough regulatory decisions.

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, Martin M.

    2005-10-01

    Modeling and simulation is playing an increasing role in supporting tough regulatory decisions, which are typically characterized by variabilities and uncertainties in the scenarios, input conditions, failure criteria, model parameters, and even model form. Variability exists when there is a statistically significant database that is fully relevant to the application. Uncertainty, on the other hand, is characterized by some degree of ignorance. A simple algebraic problem was used to illustrate how various risk methodologies address variability and uncertainty in a regulatory context. These traditional risk methodologies include probabilistic methods (including frequensic and Bayesian perspectives) and second-order methods where variabilities and uncertainties are treated separately. Representing uncertainties with (subjective) probability distributions and using probabilistic methods to propagate subjective distributions can lead to results that are not logically consistent with available knowledge and that may not be conservative. The Method of Belief Scales (MBS) is developed as a means to logically aggregate uncertain input information and to propagate that information through the model to a set of results that are scrutable, easily interpretable by the nonexpert, and logically consistent with the available input information. The MBS, particularly in conjunction with sensitivity analyses, has the potential to be more computationally efficient than other risk methodologies. The regulatory language must be tailored to the specific risk methodology if ambiguity and conflict are to be avoided.

  15. D+E+S+C=How to Deal with Difficult People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broe, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Notes problems that center directors can face in everyday encounters and proposes a technique that can facilitate and help preserve fairness in difficult situations. Details the four components of the model: describe, express, specify, and consequences. Suggests that this strategy combines emotion and logic into a short message with clear…

  16. Dealing with homosexuality in a homophobic culture: a self-organization approach.

    PubMed

    Iborra, Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    The psychological basis of homophobia (Madureira, Integr Psych Behav, 2007, doi:10.1007/s12124-007-9024-9) analyzes the relationships between sexuality, gender, culture and power as they relate to the phenomena of homophobia. Two theoretical models, the Semiotic Regulatory System and the two processes of Heimweh and Fernweh, are employed to demonstrate the embodiment of homophobic prejudices internalized through affective meaning making processes. These models are integrated in a self-organizational approach to describe in more detail top-to-bottom and bottom-to-top processes, which embody homophobic prejudices with sexual orientations and a sense of identity. The same case proposed by Madureira is chosen to be reinterpreted, and clarify the new distinctions that could be part of strategies of intervention against homophobia.

  17. How to deal with oxygen radicals stemming from mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Speijer, D.; Manjeri, G. R.; Szklarczyk, R.

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen radical formation in mitochondria is an incompletely understood attribute of eukaryotic cells. Recently, a kinetic model was proposed, in which the ratio between electrons entering the respiratory chain via FADH2 or NADH determines radical formation. During glucose breakdown, the ratio is low; during fatty acid breakdown, the ratio is high (the ratio increasing—asymptotically—with fatty acid length to 0.5, when compared with 0.2 for glucose). Thus, fatty acid oxidation would generate higher levels of radical formation. As a result, breakdown of fatty acids, performed without generation of extra FADH2 in mitochondria, could be beneficial for the cell, especially in the case of long and very long chained ones. This possibly has been a major factor in the evolution of peroxisomes. Increased radical formation, as proposed by the model, can also shed light on the lack of neuronal fatty acid oxidation and tells us about hurdles during early eukaryotic evolution. We specifically focus on extending and discussing the model in light of recent publications and findings. PMID:24864314

  18. Tailoring point counts for inference about avian density: dealing with nondetection and availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Castellón, Traci D.; Martin, Julien; Garcia, Jay O.; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Point counts are commonly used for bird surveys, but interpretation is ambiguous unless there is an accounting for the imperfect detection of individuals. We show how repeated point counts, supplemented by observation distances, can account for two aspects of the counting process: (1) detection of birds conditional on being available for observation and (2) the availability of birds for detection given presence. We propose a hierarchical model that permits the radius in which birds are available for detection to vary with forest stand age (or other relevant habitat features), so that the number of birds available at each location is described by a Poisson-gamma mixture. Conditional on availability, the number of birds detected at each location is modeled by a beta-binomial distribution. We fit this model to repeated point count data of Florida scrub-jays and found evidence that the area in which birds were available for detection decreased with increasing stand age. Estimated density was 0.083 (95%CI: 0.060–0.113) scrub-jays/ha. Point counts of birds have a number of appealing features. Based on our findings, however, an accounting for both components of the counting process may be necessary to ensure that abundance estimates are comparable across time and space. Our approach could easily be adapted to other species and habitats.

  19. Structured decision making as a proactive approach to dealing with sea level rise in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, J.; Fackler, P.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Lubow, B.C.; Eaton, M.J.; Runge, M.C.; Stith, B.M.; Langtimm, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) projections along the coast of Florida present an enormous challenge for management and conservation over the long term. Decision makers need to recognize and adopt strategies to adapt to the potentially detrimental effects of SLR. Structured decision making (SDM) provides a rigorous framework for the management of natural resources. The aim of SDM is to identify decisions that are optimal with respect to management objectives and knowledge of the system. Most applications of SDM have assumed that the managed systems are governed by stationary processes. However, in the context of SLR it may be necessary to acknowledge that the processes underlying managed systems may be non-stationary, such that systems will be continuously changing. Therefore, SLR brings some unique considerations to the application of decision theory for natural resource management. In particular, SLR is expected to affect each of the components of SDM. For instance, management objectives may have to be reconsidered more frequently than under more stable conditions. The set of potential actions may also have to be adapted over time as conditions change. Models have to account for the non-stationarity of the modeled system processes. Each of the important sources of uncertainty in decision processes is expected to be exacerbated by SLR. We illustrate our ideas about adaptation of natural resource management to SLR by modeling a non-stationary system using a numerical example. We provide additional examples of an SDM approach for managing species that may be affected by SLR, with a focus on the endangered Florida manatee. ?? 2011 U.S. Government.

  20. Structured decision making as a proactive approach to dealing with sea level rise in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Fackler, Paul L.; Nichols, James D.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Runge, Michael C.; Stith, Bradley M.; Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) projections along the coast of Florida present an enormous challenge for management and conservation over the long term. Decision makers need to recognize and adopt strategies to adapt to the potentially detrimental effects of SLR. Structured decision making (SDM) provides a rigorous framework for the management of natural resources. The aim of SDM is to identify decisions that are optimal with respect to management objectives and knowledge of the system. Most applications of SDM have assumed that the managed systems are governed by stationary processes. However, in the context of SLR it may be necessary to acknowledge that the processes underlying managed systems may be non-stationary, such that systems will be continuously changing. Therefore, SLR brings some unique considerations to the application of decision theory for natural resource management. In particular, SLR is expected to affect each of the components of SDM. For instance, management objectives may have to be reconsidered more frequently than under more stable conditions. The set of potential actions may also have to be adapted over time as conditions change. Models have to account for the non-stationarity of the modeled system processes. Each of the important sources of uncertainty in decision processes is expected to be exacerbated by SLR. We illustrate our ideas about adaptation of natural resource management to SLR by modeling a non-stationary system using a numerical example. We provide additional examples of an SDM approach for managing species that may be affected by SLR, with a focus on the endangered Florida manatee.

  1. Space Station: Delays in dealing with space debris may reduce safety and increase costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    The majority of NASA's current designs for protecting the space station and crew from debris are outdated and its overall debris protection strategy is insufficient. NASA's contractors have designed the station using a 1984 model of the space environment that is obsolete, significantly underestimating the increasing amount of debris that the station will encounter during its 30-year lifetime. In February 1992, NASA directed its space centers to incorporate an updated 1991 model into their designs. However, the agency has not yet made critical decisions on how to implement this change. Preliminary evaluations show that incorporating the 1991 model using currently established safety criteria could entail a major redesign of some components, with significant cost impact and schedule delays. NASA's overall protection strategy for space debris is insufficient. While NASA has concentrated its protection on shielding the space station from small debris and plans to augment this initial shielding in orbit, it has not yet developed designs or studied the cost and operational impact of augmenting its protection with additional shielding. Further, current designs do not provide the capability of warning or protecting the crew from imminent collision with mid-size debris. Finally, although some capabilities exist for maneuvering the station away from large debris, the agency lacks collision-avoidance plans and debris-tracking equipment. In developing a comprehensive strategy to protect the station from the more severe debris environment, NASA cannot avoid some difficult decisions. These decisions involve tradeoffs between how much the agency is willing to pay to protect the station, the schedule delays it may incur, and the risk to station safety it is willing to accept. It is important that these decisions be made before NASA completes its critical design reviews in early 1993. At that time key designs will be made final and manufacturing will begin. Without a comprehensive

  2. Environmental dilemma game to establish a sustainable society dealing with an emergent value system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2005-01-01

    To induce whether we can obtain a sustainable society by shifting our paradigm from the materialistic to the eco-conscientious, we established a multi-agent simulation model. The model primarily featured a dilemma structure encouraged by a conflict between each agent's private desire to earn more and the need for environmental conservation. Another important feature is that the model has two evolutionary layers. The subordinate layer is a learning system comprised of a finite state machine (FSM) and a genetic algorithm (GA) primarily, which is carried with each individual agent to determine his/her next behavior and how much he/she must earn to maximize an individual fitness function. The supra layer is the so-called value system, the gene pool of which is shared within the society. The value system stipulates an agent's fitness function, which in turn affects the agent's behavior. The value system of each agent was set up to be entirely ego-oriented at the beginning of the simulation episode. A numerical experiment based on the model reveals a scene in which, under a certain condition related to assumptions of the value system, a group of agents undergoes a paradigm shift from the ego-oriented materialism to the eco-conscious sustainable society. The key condition is a latent existence of several values that ultimately lead to sustainability, even though they do not work at all at the beginning of the episode. In terms of the evolutionary game theory, this implies that changing game structure on the way of a simulation episode by transforming the fitness function seems to be much powerful measures for the emergent collective cooperation among the agents than ordinal options to support cooperation. In addition, we made a detailed analysis on how assumed agents have obtained a sustainable value system. Each agent has an individual decision-making process based on the input with a learning mechanism. We focus here on two types of learning system, the finite state

  3. Sport in the trenches: the new deal for masculinity in France.

    PubMed

    Waquet, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    During the First World War, the life of a soldier was not just reduced to the trenches. In daily military life behind the lines, soldiers had recreational activities, some of which were seen as a test of virility, such as visiting brothels, and also, as we want to show in this paper, sport practices. For most of the French citizen-soldiers, who were working class and mainly from the countryside, the contact with allied soldiers has to be understood as a significant step in the social construction of gender. Educated in gymnastics, shooting and military exercises, French infantrymen (Poilus) and civilians saw allied sports and soldier-sportsmen as models of a modern masculinity. In a descriptive study of the development of football in the French army, our article tries to demonstrate firstly, that football learnt in the army by workers and the French rural society extended the influence of sport and its part in the construction of masculinity in France. Secondly, we show that the official recognition of sport in 1917 by the French army led to the definition of a modern French masculinity and to the recognition of the sportsmen-soldier as the model of hegemonic masculinity.

  4. Efficiency in milk production on Reunion Island: dealing with land scarcity.

    PubMed

    D'Haese, M; Speelman, S; Alary, V; Tillard, E; D'Haese, L

    2009-08-01

    This paper aims to analyze efficiency on dairy farms in Reunion Island, a French overseas district located in the Indian Ocean. On this island, dairy farming is promoted with financial and technical support from the European Union, with the French and local governments aiming at reducing dependency on imports of milk powder and dairy products and creating employment. A critical factor for increasing the local milk production is the limited availability of arable land because of the small size and the volcanic nature of the island. In this paper, we study the efficiency levels of dairy production on 34 farms by using a data envelopment analysis approach. The average technical efficiency score of farms, assuming constant returns to scale, was 0.927, with 19 out of 34 farms not being efficient. The technical efficiency with a variable returns to scale specification was 0.951. The efficiency with which farmers used their land (subvector efficiencies) was estimated in a second model. The average subvector efficiencies calculated with constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale models were lower than the technical efficiencies. The farmers on the efficiency frontier had a relatively higher milk production, milk production per cow, and land surface than those who were less efficient. A policy promoting better use of the land on inefficient farms should increase the milk production-to-land ratio. Possible on-farm strategies are improved feeding systems, farms having their own heifer breeding, and improved genetics.

  5. Comparison of Statistical Approaches for Dealing With Immortal Time Bias in Drug Effectiveness Studies.

    PubMed

    Karim, Mohammad Ehsanul; Gustafson, Paul; Petkau, John; Tremlett, Helen

    2016-08-15

    In time-to-event analyses of observational studies of drug effectiveness, incorrect handling of the period between cohort entry and first treatment exposure during follow-up may result in immortal time bias. This bias can be eliminated by acknowledging a change in treatment exposure status with time-dependent analyses, such as fitting a time-dependent Cox model. The prescription time-distribution matching (PTDM) method has been proposed as a simpler approach for controlling immortal time bias. Using simulation studies and theoretical quantification of bias, we compared the performance of the PTDM approach with that of the time-dependent Cox model in the presence of immortal time. Both assessments revealed that the PTDM approach did not adequately address immortal time bias. Based on our simulation results, another recently proposed observational data analysis technique, the sequential Cox approach, was found to be more useful than the PTDM approach (Cox: bias = -0.002, mean squared error = 0.025; PTDM: bias = -1.411, mean squared error = 2.011). We applied these approaches to investigate the association of β-interferon treatment with delaying disability progression in a multiple sclerosis cohort in British Columbia, Canada (Long-Term Benefits and Adverse Effects of Beta-Interferon for Multiple Sclerosis (BeAMS) Study, 1995-2008). PMID:27455963

  6. 12 CFR 347.111 - Underwriting and dealing limits applicable to foreign organizations held by insured state...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equity securities of the entity held under the authority of §§ 347.105 through 347.109 or 12 CFR 211.10... underwriting commitments by any affiliate of the bank under the authority of 12 CFR 211.10(b), may not exceed... securities held for distribution or dealing by any affiliate of the bank under the authority of 12 CFR...

  7. 12 CFR 347.111 - Underwriting and dealing limits applicable to foreign organizations held by insured state...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... equity securities of the entity held under the authority of §§ 347.105 through 347.109 or 12 CFR 211.10... underwriting commitments by any affiliate of the bank under the authority of 12 CFR 211.10(b), may not exceed... securities held for distribution or dealing by any affiliate of the bank under the authority of 12 CFR...

  8. 12 CFR 347.111 - Underwriting and dealing limits applicable to foreign organizations held by insured state...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equity securities of the entity held under the authority of §§ 347.105 through 347.109 or 12 CFR 211.10... underwriting commitments by any affiliate of the bank under the authority of 12 CFR 211.10(b), may not exceed... securities held for distribution or dealing by any affiliate of the bank under the authority of 12 CFR...

  9. 12 CFR 347.111 - Underwriting and dealing limits applicable to foreign organizations held by insured state...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... underwriting commitments by any affiliate of the bank under the authority of 12 CFR 211.10(b), may not exceed... securities held for distribution or dealing by any affiliate of the bank under the authority of 12 CFR 211.10... equity securities of the entity held under the authority of §§ 347.105 through 347.109 or 12 CFR...

  10. Laparoscopic heminephrectomy in nonfunctioning right moiety of a horseshoe kidney: Technical challenges and method to deal with.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Santosh Kumar; Chipde, Saurabh Sudhir; Agrawal, Pallavi

    2014-07-01

    Laparoscopic heminephrectomy in patients with horseshoe kidney is technically challenging procedure and only few cases have been reported in the literature. Various approaches have been described for handling the isthmus. We report the management of a case of symptomatic nonfunctioning right moiety of a horseshoe kidney secondary to ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction using Ligasure™ for vessel sealing and division of isthmus. We discuss here the various challenges during laparoscopic heminephrectomy and ways and tricks to deal with.

  11. 12 CFR 347.111 - Underwriting and dealing limits applicable to foreign organizations held by insured state...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... underwriting commitments by any affiliate of the bank under the authority of 12 CFR 211.10(b), may not exceed... securities held for distribution or dealing by any affiliate of the bank under the authority of 12 CFR 211.10... equity securities of the entity held under the authority of §§ 347.105 through 347.109 or 12 CFR...

  12. Culturally Based Intervention Development: The Case of Latino Families Dealing With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Concepción; Yamada, Ann-Marie

    2010-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article describes the process of developing a culturally based family intervention for Spanish-speaking Latino families with a relative diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHOD: Our iterative intervention development process was guided by a cultural exchange framework and based on findings from an ethnographic study. We piloted this multifamily group 16-session intervention with 59 Latino families in a randomized control trial. Data were collected on family- and client-level outcomes, and poststudy focus groups were conducted with intervention participants. RESULTS: Preliminary evidence indicates that the intervention is effective by increasing illness knowledge and reducing family burden. CONCLUSIONS: This work can provide a model for how to integrate cultural factors into psychosocial services and enhance interventions in real-world settings for culturally diverse populations.

  13. Culturally Based Intervention Development: The Case of Latino Families Dealing With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, Concepción; Yamada, Ann-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This article describes the process of developing a culturally based family intervention for Spanish-speaking Latino families with a relative diagnosed with schizophrenia. Method Our iterative intervention development process was guided by a cultural exchange framework and based on findings from an ethnographic study. We piloted this multifamily group 16-session intervention with 59 Latino families in a randomized control trial. Data were collected on family- and client-level outcomes, and poststudy focus groups were conducted with intervention participants. Results Preliminary evidence indicates that the intervention is effective by increasing illness knowledge and reducing family burden. Conclusions This work can provide a model for how to integrate cultural factors into psychosocial services and enhance interventions in real-world settings for culturally diverse populations. PMID:22121328

  14. Dealing With Uncertainty: Testing Risk- and Ambiguity-Attitude Across Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Blankenstein, Neeltje E; Crone, Eveline A; van den Bos, Wouter; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes to risk (known probabilities) and attitudes to ambiguity (unknown probabilities) are separate constructs that influence decision making, but their development across adolescence remains elusive. We administered a choice task to a wide adolescent age-range (N = 157, 10-25 years) to disentangle risk- and ambiguity-attitudes using a model-based approach. Additionally, this task was played in a social context, presenting choices from a high risk-taking peer. We observed age-related changes in ambiguity-attitude, but not risk-attitude. Also, ambiguity-aversion was negatively related to real-life risk taking. Finally, the social context influenced only risk-attitudes. These results highlight the importance of disentangling risk- and ambiguity-attitudes in adolescent risk taking.

  15. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts.

    PubMed

    Araszkiewicz, Michał; Łopatkiewicz, Agata; Zienkiewicz, Adam; Zurek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS) to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan) for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains.

  16. Dealing With Uncertainty: Testing Risk- and Ambiguity-Attitude Across Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Blankenstein, Neeltje E; Crone, Eveline A; van den Bos, Wouter; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes to risk (known probabilities) and attitudes to ambiguity (unknown probabilities) are separate constructs that influence decision making, but their development across adolescence remains elusive. We administered a choice task to a wide adolescent age-range (N = 157, 10-25 years) to disentangle risk- and ambiguity-attitudes using a model-based approach. Additionally, this task was played in a social context, presenting choices from a high risk-taking peer. We observed age-related changes in ambiguity-attitude, but not risk-attitude. Also, ambiguity-aversion was negatively related to real-life risk taking. Finally, the social context influenced only risk-attitudes. These results highlight the importance of disentangling risk- and ambiguity-attitudes in adolescent risk taking. PMID:27028162

  17. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts.

    PubMed

    Araszkiewicz, Michał; Łopatkiewicz, Agata; Zienkiewicz, Adam; Zurek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS) to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan) for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains. PMID:26495435

  18. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Araszkiewicz, Michał; Łopatkiewicz, Agata; Zienkiewicz, Adam; Zurek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS) to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan) for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains. PMID:26495435

  19. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    PubMed

    de Borst, Aline W; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations. PMID:26029133

  20. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    PubMed

    de Borst, Aline W; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  1. Dealing with trade-offs in destructive sampling designs for occupancy surveys.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Stefano; Heard, Geoffrey W; Robertson, Peter; Sluiter, Ian R K

    2015-01-01

    Occupancy surveys should be designed to minimise false absences. This is commonly achieved by increasing replication or increasing the efficiency of surveys. In the case of destructive sampling designs, in which searches of individual microhabitats represent the repeat surveys, minimising false absences leads to an inherent trade-off. Surveyors can sample more low quality microhabitats, bearing the resultant financial costs and producing wider-spread impacts, or they can target high quality microhabitats were the focal species is more likely to be found and risk more severe impacts on local habitat quality. We show how this trade-off can be solved with a decision-theoretic approach, using the Millewa Skink Hemiergis millewae from southern Australia as a case study. Hemiergis millewae is an endangered reptile that is best detected using destructive sampling of grass hummocks. Within sites that were known to be occupied by H. millewae, logistic regression modelling revealed that lizards were more frequently detected in large hummocks. If this model is an accurate representation of the detection process, searching large hummocks is more efficient and requires less replication, but this strategy also entails destruction of the best microhabitats for the species. We developed an optimisation tool to calculate the minimum combination of the number and size of hummocks to search to achieve a given cumulative probability of detecting the species at a site, incorporating weights to reflect the sensitivity of the results to a surveyor's priorities. The optimisation showed that placing high weight on minimising volume necessitates impractical replication, whereas placing high weight on minimising replication requires searching very large hummocks which are less common and may be vital for H. millewae. While destructive sampling methods are sometimes necessary, surveyors must be conscious of the ecological impacts of these methods. This study provides a simple tool for

  2. Dealing with the evolutionary downside of CRISPR immunity: bacteria and beneficial plasmids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenyan; Maniv, Inbal; Arain, Fawaz; Wang, Yaying; Levin, Bruce R; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2013-01-01

    The immune systems that protect organisms from infectious agents invariably have a cost for the host. In bacteria and archaea CRISPR-Cas loci can serve as adaptive immune systems that protect these microbes from infectiously transmitted DNAs. When those DNAs are borne by lytic viruses (phages), this protection can provide a considerable advantage. CRISPR-Cas immunity can also prevent cells from acquiring plasmids and free DNA bearing genes that increase their fitness. Here, we use a combination of experiments and mathematical-computer simulation models to explore this downside of CRISPR-Cas immunity and its implications for the maintenance of CRISPR-Cas loci in microbial populations. We analyzed the conjugational transfer of the staphylococcal plasmid pG0400 into Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62a recipients that bear a CRISPR-Cas locus targeting this plasmid. Contrary to what is anticipated for lytic phages, which evade CRISPR by mutations in the target region, the evasion of CRISPR immunity by plasmids occurs at the level of the host through loss of functional CRISPR-Cas immunity. The results of our experiments and models indicate that more than 10(-4) of the cells in CRISPR-Cas positive populations are defective or deleted for the CRISPR-Cas region and thereby able to receive and carry the plasmid. Most intriguingly, the loss of CRISPR function even by large deletions can have little or no fitness cost in vitro. These theoretical and experimental results can account for the considerable variation in the existence, number and function of CRISPR-Cas loci within and between bacterial species. We postulate that as a consequence of the opposing positive and negative selection for immunity, CRISPR-Cas systems are in a continuous state of flux. They are lost when they bear immunity to laterally transferred beneficial genes, re-acquired by horizontal gene transfer, and ascend in environments where phage are a major source of mortality.

  3. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective

    PubMed Central

    de Borst, Aline W.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations. PMID:26029133

  4. Dealing with death: first encounters for first-year nursing students.

    PubMed

    Terry, Louise M; Carroll, Jo

    End-of-life care, particularly for older people, is often sub-optimal in England, and the Government has introduced several initiatives to improve this care. The authors believe the twin frameworks of emotional labour and ethics of non-abandonment underpin the provision of high-quality care. This article discusses a research project that investigated first-year nursing students' encounters with patient deaths. The research found that, to the student, every death in clinical practice is a learning experience and potentially a source of emotional distress; some students reported experiencing flashbacks afterwards and were developing avoidance behaviours. Students sometimes felt unsupported by mentors and also felt that sometimes dying patients and families were inadequately cared for. The theme of abandonment was evident in the students' stories. The authors conclude that there is still room for improvement in end-of-life care. Good role modelling and pastoral care by mentors is vital to student development. Link lecturers and mentors need to be alert to student distress.

  5. [Strategy on dealing with noisy NIRS data: implications on functional neuroimaging on swallowing].

    PubMed

    Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Dan, Haruka; Watanabe, Eiju

    2012-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) may be suited for functional monitoring during swallowing as it is comparatively immune to body movement. However, still fNIRS measurement on swallowing poses a technical problem that it may often involve motion artifacts. Although there is no single way to solve this problem, technical insights have been available form related studies in the past. Here we introduce two examples for analyzing data rich in motion artifacts putting emphasis on temporal structures of the data. The first is about fNIRS assessment of language function during overt naming tasks. Since data were temporally continuous, we adopted a general linear model with regression to a canonical hemodynamic response function to extract cortical activations related to overt naming tasks. The second example is about fNIRS assessment on go/no-go task performance with or without methylphenidate administration in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) children. Since data were disrupted by unexpected motion artifacts, we simplified temporal data structures by averaging to extract only robust signals. Thus, we indicated that the optimum analytical strategy varies depending on the temporal structures of the data. PMID:23196558

  6. Dealing with the effects of sensor displacement in wearable activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Banos, Oresti; Toth, Mate Attila; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2014-06-06

    Most wearable activity recognition systems assume a predefined sensor deployment that remains unchanged during runtime. However, this assumption does not reflect real-life conditions. During the normal use of such systems, users may place the sensors in a position different from the predefined sensor placement. Also, sensors may move from their original location to a different one, due to a loose attachment. Activity recognition systems trained on activity patterns characteristic of a given sensor deployment may likely fail due to sensor displacements. In this work, we innovatively explore the effects of sensor displacement induced by both the intentional misplacement of sensors and self-placement by the user. The effects of sensor displacement are analyzed for standard activity recognition techniques, as well as for an alternate robust sensor fusion method proposed in a previous work. While classical recognition models show little tolerance to sensor displacement, the proposed method is proven to have notable capabilities to assimilate the changes introduced in the sensor position due to self-placement and provides considerable improvements for large misplacements.

  7. Dealing with the Effects of Sensor Displacement in Wearable Activity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Banos, Oresti; Toth, Mate Attila; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Most wearable activity recognition systems assume a predefined sensor deployment that remains unchanged during runtime. However, this assumption does not reflect real-life conditions. During the normal use of such systems, users may place the sensors in a position different from the predefined sensor placement. Also, sensors may move from their original location to a different one, due to a loose attachment. Activity recognition systems trained on activity patterns characteristic of a given sensor deployment may likely fail due to sensor displacements. In this work, we innovatively explore the effects of sensor displacement induced by both the intentional misplacement of sensors and self-placement by the user. The effects of sensor displacement are analyzed for standard activity recognition techniques, as well as for an alternate robust sensor fusion method proposed in a previous work. While classical recognition models show little tolerance to sensor displacement, the proposed method is proven to have notable capabilities to assimilate the changes introduced in the sensor position due to self-placement and provides considerable improvements for large misplacements. PMID:24915181

  8. Dealing with Stigma: Experiences of Persons Affected by Disabilities and Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Zweekhorst, Marjolein B. M.; Miranda-Galarza, Beatriz; Peters, Ruth M. H.; Cummings, Sarah; Seda, Francisia S. S. E.; Bunders, Joske F. G.; Irwanto

    2015-01-01

    Persons affected by leprosy or by disabilities face forms of stigma that have an impact on their lives. This study seeks to establish whether their experiences of stigma are similar, with a view to enabling the two groups of people to learn from each other. Accounts of experiences of the impact of stigma were obtained using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion with people affected by leprosy and by disabilities not related to leprosy. The analysis shows that there are a lot of similarities in impact of stigma in terms of emotions, thoughts, behaviour, and relationships between the two groups. The main difference is that those affected by leprosy tended to frame their situation in medical terms, while those living with disabilities described their situation from a more social perspective. In conclusion, the similarities offer opportunities for interventions and the positive attitudes and behaviours can be modelled in the sense that both groups can learn and benefit. Research that tackles different aspects of stigmatization faced by both groups could lead to inclusive initiatives that help individuals to come to terms with the stigma and to advocate against exclusion and discrimination. PMID:25961008

  9. Dealing with stigma: experiences of persons affected by disabilities and leprosy.

    PubMed

    Lusli, Mimi; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Miranda-Galarza, Beatriz; Peters, Ruth M H; Cummings, Sarah; Seda, Francisia S S E; Bunders, Joske F G; Irwanto

    2015-01-01

    Persons affected by leprosy or by disabilities face forms of stigma that have an impact on their lives. This study seeks to establish whether their experiences of stigma are similar, with a view to enabling the two groups of people to learn from each other. Accounts of experiences of the impact of stigma were obtained using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion with people affected by leprosy and by disabilities not related to leprosy. The analysis shows that there are a lot of similarities in impact of stigma in terms of emotions, thoughts, behaviour, and relationships between the two groups. The main difference is that those affected by leprosy tended to frame their situation in medical terms, while those living with disabilities described their situation from a more social perspective. In conclusion, the similarities offer opportunities for interventions and the positive attitudes and behaviours can be modelled in the sense that both groups can learn and benefit. Research that tackles different aspects of stigmatization faced by both groups could lead to inclusive initiatives that help individuals to come to terms with the stigma and to advocate against exclusion and discrimination.

  10. Phenotypic Variability in Synthetic Biology Applications: Dealing with Noise in Microbial Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Lucia; Furini, Simone; Giordano, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The stochasticity due to the infrequent collisions among low copy-number molecules within the crowded cellular compartment is a feature of living systems. Single cell variability in gene expression within an isogenic population (i.e., biological noise) is usually described as the sum of two independent components: intrinsic and extrinsic stochasticity. Intrinsic stochasticity arises from the random occurrence of events inherent to the gene expression process (e.g., the burst-like synthesis of mRNA and protein molecules). Extrinsic fluctuations reflect the state of the biological system and its interaction with the intra and extracellular environments (e.g., concentration of available polymerases, ribosomes, metabolites, and micro-environmental conditions). A better understanding of cellular noise would help synthetic biologists design gene circuits with well-defined functional properties. In silico modeling has already revealed several aspects of the network topology’s impact on noise properties; this information could drive the selection of biological parts and the design of reliably engineered pathways. Importantly, while optimizing artificial gene circuitry for industrial applications, synthetic biology could also elucidate the natural mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic variability. In this review, we briefly summarize the functional roles of noise in unicellular organisms and address their relevance to synthetic network design. We will also consider how noise might influence the selection of network topologies supporting reliable functions, and how the variability of cellular events might be exploited when designing innovative biotechnology applications. PMID:27092132

  11. Observing plants dealing with soil water stress: Daily soil moisture fluctuations derived from polymer tensiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Periods of soil water deficit often occur within a plant's life cycle, even in temperate deciduous and rain forests (Wilson et al. 2001, Grace 1999). Various experiments have shown that roots are able to sense the distribution of water in the soil, and produce signals that trigger changes in leaf expansion rate and stomatal conductance (Blackman and Davies 1985, Gollan et al. 1986, Gowing et al. 1990 Davies and Zhang 1991, Mansfield and De Silva 1994, Sadras and Milroy 1996). Partitioning of water and air in the soil, solute distribution in soil water, water flow through the soil, and water availability for plants can be determined according to the distribution of the soil water potential (e.g. Schröder et al. 2013, Kool et al. 2014). Understanding plant water uptake under dry conditions has been compromised by hydrological instrumentation with low accuracy in dry soils due to signal attenuation, or a compromised measurement range (Whalley et al. 2013). Development of polymer tensiometers makes it possible to study the soil water potential over a range meaningful for studying plant responses to water stress (Bakker et al. 2007, Van der Ploeg et al. 2008, 2010). Polymer tensiometer data obtained from a lysimeter experiment (Van der Ploeg et al. 2008) were used to analyse day-night fluctuations of soil moisture in the vicinity of maize roots. To do so, three polymer tensiometers placed in the middle of the lysimeter from a control, dry and very dry treatment (one lysimeter per treatment) were used to calculate water content changes over 12 hours. These 12 hours corresponded with the operation of the growing light. Soil water potential measurements in the hour before the growing light was turned on or off were averaged. The averaged value was used as input for the van Genuchten (1980) model. Parameters for the model were obtained from laboratory determination of water retention, with a separate model parameterization for each lysimeter setup. Results show daily

  12. Observing plants dealing with soil water stress: Daily soil moisture fluctuations derived from polymer tensiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Periods of soil water deficit often occur within a plant's life cycle, even in temperate deciduous and rain forests (Wilson et al. 2001, Grace 1999). Various experiments have shown that roots are able to sense the distribution of water in the soil, and produce signals that trigger changes in leaf expansion rate and stomatal conductance (Blackman and Davies 1985, Gollan et al. 1986, Gowing et al. 1990 Davies and Zhang 1991, Mansfield and De Silva 1994, Sadras and Milroy 1996). Partitioning of water and air in the soil, solute distribution in soil water, water flow through the soil, and water availability for plants can be determined according to the distribution of the soil water potential (e.g. Schröder et al. 2013, Kool et al. 2014). Understanding plant water uptake under dry conditions has been compromised by hydrological instrumentation with low accuracy in dry soils due to signal attenuation, or a compromised measurement range (Whalley et al. 2013). Development of polymer tensiometers makes it possible to study the soil water potential over a range meaningful for studying plant responses to water stress (Bakker et al. 2007, Van der Ploeg et al. 2008, 2010). Polymer tensiometer data obtained from a lysimeter experiment (Van der Ploeg et al. 2008) were used to analyse day-night fluctuations of soil moisture in the vicinity of maize roots. To do so, three polymer tensiometers placed in the middle of the lysimeter from a control, dry and very dry treatment (one lysimeter per treatment) were used to calculate water content changes over 12 hours. These 12 hours corresponded with the operation of the growing light. Soil water potential measurements in the hour before the growing light was turned on or off were averaged. The averaged value was used as input for the van Genuchten (1980) model. Parameters for the model were obtained from laboratory determination of water retention, with a separate model parameterization for each lysimeter setup. Results show daily

  13. Dealing with completeness, structural hierarchy, and seismic coupling issues: three major challenges for #Fault2SHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valensise, Gianluca; Barba, Salvatore; Basili, Roberto; Bonini, Lorenzo; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Carafa, Michele; Kastelic, Vanja; Fracassi, Umberto; Maesano, Francesco Emanuele; Tarabusi, Gabriele; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Vannoli, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of active faulting studies are performed at the scale of individual, presumably seismogenic faults or fault strands. Most SHA approaches and models, however, require homogeneus information on potential earthquake sources over the entire tectonic domain encompassing the site(s) of interest. Although it is out of question that accurate SHA must rely on robust investigations of individual potential earthquake sources, it is only by gathering this information in regionally extensive databases that one can address some of the most outstanding issues in the use of #Fault2SHA. We will briefly recall three issues that are particularly relevant in the investigation of seismogenic faulting in southern Europe. A fundamental challenge is the completeness of the geologic record of active faulting. In most tectonic environments many potential seismogenic faults are blind or hidden, or deform the lower crust without leaving a discernible signal at the surface, or occur offshore, or slip so slowly that nontectonic erosional-depositional processes easily outpace their surface effects. Investigating only well-expressed faults is scientifically rewarding but also potentially misleading as it draws attention on the least insidious faults, leading to a potential underestimation of the regional earthquake potential. A further issue concerns the hierarchy of fault systems. Most active faults do not comprise seismogenic sources per se but are part of larger systems, and slip only in conjunction with the master fault of each system. In the most insidious cases, only secondary faults are expressed at the surface while the master fault lies hidden beneath them. This may result in an overestimation of the true number of seismogenic sources that occur in each region and in a biased identification of the characteristics of the main player in each system. Recent investigations of geologic and geodetic vs earthquake release budgets have shown that the "seismic coupling", which

  14. Usage of a Reward System for Dealing with Pediatric Dental Fear

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong-Hua; Song, Yi-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediatric dental fear, if left unchecked, can persist for a lifetime and adversely impact the physical and psychological health of a patient. In this study, a feasible nonmedical method for relieving pediatric dental fear was investigated. Methods: A randomized, single-blind, controlled trial model was applied. The juvenile patients experiencing dental fear, whose parents or guardian had signed an informed consent form, were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (n = 50) was the control group, while Group B (n = 50) was the reward group. Participants in Group A accepted routine treatment. Participants in Group B were told that they would obtain a gift as a reward for their good behavior if they were compliant during their dental treatments. The Chinese version of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) was used to evaluate the level of dental fear of each patient both before and after each treatment. A contrast analysis and a correlation analysis of the results were used to assess the efficacy of the reward mechanism. Results: All participants in Group B, were obedient during the dental treatment, and they also successfully chose the present they wanted at the end of their dental treatment. Children at different ages showed different reward preferences. Significant difference in the fear scores of the participants in Group B before the treatment and after receiving the reward was found (independent samples t-test, t = 14.72, P < 0.001). In Group A, 86% children's fear score did not undergo a noticeable change. Conclusions: A reward system is proved feasible to relieve pediatric dental fear, and the form of reward should meet the demand of patients. PMID:27503018

  15. A programme of mental health for political refugees: dealing with the invisible pain of political exile.

    PubMed

    Barudy, J

    1989-01-01

    Political persecution, state terrorism, torture, political assassinations, kidnapping and forced exile have become common occurrences in many parts of the world. Several researchers have tried to determine the impact of these situations on the mental health of those affected. At the same time, different types of aid programmes have been developed to prevent and treat the effects of violence on mental health. In this article we present clinical materials collected for 10 years by the Latin American Collective of Psychosocial Work [Colectivo Latinamericano de Trabajo Psicosocial (Colat)], a medical-psychosocial assistance programme for political refugees. The programme was under the academic supervision of the Catholic Universities of Leuven (KUL, ULC), Belgium. The concept of identity is the central theme of a model which tries to understand and explain the suffering of exiles. We try to identify and expose the mechanisms of political violence that have traumatized an individual's self-esteem and disordered his familial and social bonds. In the second part of this article, the central ideas which support the medical-psychosocial practice of the programme are presented. This programme seeks to heal the damage caused by repression and exile through the active participation of those affected. Only in a context of communal action is it possible to develop a therapy to promote an individual recovery. It is in this sense that the strategic goal of the programme is to permit elaboration of the suffering at an individual, familial and group level, and to facilitate group dynamics which can trigger the potential of the exiles to transform the conditions of violence that originated and maintain their pain. PMID:2652324

  16. A programme of mental health for political refugees: dealing with the invisible pain of political exile.

    PubMed

    Barudy, J

    1989-01-01

    Political persecution, state terrorism, torture, political assassinations, kidnapping and forced exile have become common occurrences in many parts of the world. Several researchers have tried to determine the impact of these situations on the mental health of those affected. At the same time, different types of aid programmes have been developed to prevent and treat the effects of violence on mental health. In this article we present clinical materials collected for 10 years by the Latin American Collective of Psychosocial Work [Colectivo Latinamericano de Trabajo Psicosocial (Colat)], a medical-psychosocial assistance programme for political refugees. The programme was under the academic supervision of the Catholic Universities of Leuven (KUL, ULC), Belgium. The concept of identity is the central theme of a model which tries to understand and explain the suffering of exiles. We try to identify and expose the mechanisms of political violence that have traumatized an individual's self-esteem and disordered his familial and social bonds. In the second part of this article, the central ideas which support the medical-psychosocial practice of the programme are presented. This programme seeks to heal the damage caused by repression and exile through the active participation of those affected. Only in a context of communal action is it possible to develop a therapy to promote an individual recovery. It is in this sense that the strategic goal of the programme is to permit elaboration of the suffering at an individual, familial and group level, and to facilitate group dynamics which can trigger the potential of the exiles to transform the conditions of violence that originated and maintain their pain.

  17. Dealing with the clandestine nature of wildlife-trade market surveys.

    PubMed

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M

    2010-08-01

    Illegal international trade in wildlife (excluding fisheries and timber) has been valued at more than US$20 billion. A more precise figure has not been determined in part because of the clandestine nature of the trade, and for this same reason even regional and local levels of wildlife trade are difficult to assess. The application of recent developments in wildlife field-survey methods (e.g., occupancy) now allows for a more-accurate estimation of wildlife trade occurrence, including its hidden components at a variety of scales (e.g., regional, local) and periods (e.g., single season, 1 year, multiple years). Occupancy models have been applied in wildlife field studies to address the problem of false absences when conducting presence-absence surveys. Occupancy surveys differ from traditional presence-absence surveys because they incorporate repeat surveys, allowing for the likelihood of detecting a species (the probability of detection) to be estimated explicitly (in contrast to traditional surveys that often incorrectly treat this probability as close to one to allow for estimation of presence). Occupancy methods can be applied to a variety of wildlife-trade surveys, including, for example, single-species availability, links between two illegally traded species (i.e., co-occurrence), and disease occurrence in live trade. In addition, free user-friendly software (i.e., PRESENCE) allows even nonstatisticians to adequately address this issue. I simulated a hypothetical wildlife-trade market survey that resulted in an apparent 20% decline in naïve occupancy (proportion of surveyed towns engaged in the trade) over 2 years, but when I accounted for change in probability of detection over the years the difference in occupancy was not statistically significant. As more sophisticated methods, such as occupancy, are applied to wildlife-trade market surveys, results will be more robust and defensible and therefore, theoretically, more powerful when presented to

  18. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing

    PubMed Central

    Dijamco, Cheri; Kiefer, Amy K.; Eriksson, Nicholas; Moiseff, Bianca; Tung, Joyce Y.; Mountain, Joanna L.

    2013-01-01

    appreciated learning their BRCA mutation status. Conclusions. Direct access to BRCA mutation tests, considered a model for high-risk actionable genetic tests of proven clinical utility, provided clear benefits to participants. The unexpected information demonstrated a cascade effect as relatives of newly identified carriers also sought testing and more mutation carriers were identified. Given the absence of evidence for serious emotional distress or inappropriate actions in this subset of mutation-positive customers who agreed to be interviewed for this study, broader screening of Ashkenazi Jewish women for these three BRCA mutations should be considered. PMID:23638402

  19. Applying Advanced and Existing Sensors in Dealing with Potential Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2006-01-01

    As an integrated observing strategy, the concept of sensorweb for Earth observations is appealing in many aspects. For instance, by increasing the spatial and temporal coverage of observations from space and other vantage points, one can eventually aid in increasing the accuracy of the atmospheric models which are precursor to hurricane track prediction, volcanic eruption forecast, and trajectory path of transcontinental transport of dust, harmful nuclear and chemical plumes. In reality, there is little analysis available in terms of benefits, costs and optimized set of sensors needed to make these necessary observations. This is a complex problem that must be carefully studied and balanced over many boundaries such as science, defense, early warning, security, and surveillance. Simplistically, the sensorweb concept from the technological point of view alone has a great appeal in the defense, early warning and security applications. In fact, it can be relatively less expensive in per unit cost as opposed to building and deploying it for the scientific use. However, overall observing approach should not be singled out and aligned somewhat orthogonally to serve a particular need. On the other hand, the sensorweb should be designed and deployed to serve multiple subject areas and customers simultaneously; and can behave as directed measuring systems for both science and operational entities. Sensorweb can be designed to act as expert systems, and/or also provide a dedicated integrated surveillance network. Today, there is no system in the world that is fully integrated in terms of reporting timely multiple hazards warnings, computing the loss of life and property damage estimates, and is also designed to cater to everyone s needs. It is not an easier problem to undertake and more so is not practically solvable. At this time due to some recent events in the world, the scientific community, social scientists, and operational agencies are more cognizant and getting

  20. Klamath River Reconstruction: Strategies for Dealing with Uncertainty in Calibration Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, C. A.; Malevich, S. B.; Meko, D. M.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2013-12-01

    The upper Klamath Basin has been the center of conflict over competing water uses and values in recent years, exacerbated by drought conditions. Currently, water needs for irrigation, fish, and riparian environments are being addressed and plans for sharing limited water resources are being negotiated. In a number of major river basins in the western US, extended records of streamflow from tree rings have been found useful for planning by placing recent droughts in a long term context and characterizing the long-term hydrologic variability over past centuries. The focus of this research is the first reconstruction of the upper Klamath River and its potential use for management. One challenge in the reconstruction of Klamath River streamflow is the availability of high quality streamflow data for reconstruction model calibration. In the Klamath basin, a long history of diversions for irrigation along with complex wetland hydrology has made the accurate estimation of natural flows difficult. A number of sources of hydrology are available, but all show differences in magnitudes of high and low flows. While the uncertainties in the calibration streamflow data can be described and quantified, they cannot be overcome, and thus impart uncertainty to the resulting reconstruction. Thus, it is important to develop analysis strategies that highlight the most certain aspects of the reconstruction. In the case of the Klamath River records, the most robust information concerns the sequences of flow, and duration and frequency of wet and dry intervals. In the reconstruction, which extends from 1493-2010, analyses of frequency and distribution of extreme low flow years, runs of consecutive years of low flows, and the probability of transitions between wet and dry years all document long-term natural hydrologic variability, over which the impacts of climate change will be imposed. While not a perfect record of past flow, the Klamath reconstruction provides information that can be

  1. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing.

    PubMed

    Francke, Uta; Dijamco, Cheri; Kiefer, Amy K; Eriksson, Nicholas; Moiseff, Bianca; Tung, Joyce Y; Mountain, Joanna L

    2013-01-01

    appreciated learning their BRCA mutation status. Conclusions. Direct access to BRCA mutation tests, considered a model for high-risk actionable genetic tests of proven clinical utility, provided clear benefits to participants. The unexpected information demonstrated a cascade effect as relatives of newly identified carriers also sought testing and more mutation carriers were identified. Given the absence of evidence for serious emotional distress or inappropriate actions in this subset of mutation-positive customers who agreed to be interviewed for this study, broader screening of Ashkenazi Jewish women for these three BRCA mutations should be considered. PMID:23638402

  2. Climate change and the EU Water Framework Directive: how to deal with indirect effects of changes in hydrology on water quality and ecology?

    PubMed

    Heerdt, G N J Ter; Schep, S A; Janse, J H; Ouboter, M

    2007-01-01

    In order to set ecological goals and determine measures for the European Water Framework Directive, the effects of climate change on lake ecosystems should be estimated. It is thought that the complexity of lake ecosystems makes this effect inherently unpredictable. However, models that deal with this complexity are available and well calibrated and tested. In this study we use the ecosystem model PCLake to demonstrate how climate change might affect the ecological status of a shallow peaty lake in 2050. With the model PCLake, combined with a long-term water and nutrient balance, it is possible to describe adequately the present status of the lake. Simulations of future scenarios with increasing precipitation, evaporation and temperature, showed that climate change will lead to higher nutrient loadings. At the same time, it will lead to lower critical loadings. Together this might cause the lake to shift easier from a clear water to a turbid state. The amount of algae, expressed as the concentration Chl-a, will increase, as a consequence turbidity will increase. The outcome of this study; increasing stability of the turbid state of the lake, and thus the need for more drastic measures, is consistent with some earlier studies.

  3. Climate change and the EU Water Framework Directive: how to deal with indirect effects of changes in hydrology on water quality and ecology?

    PubMed

    Heerdt, G N J Ter; Schep, S A; Janse, J H; Ouboter, M

    2007-01-01

    In order to set ecological goals and determine measures for the European Water Framework Directive, the effects of climate change on lake ecosystems should be estimated. It is thought that the complexity of lake ecosystems makes this effect inherently unpredictable. However, models that deal with this complexity are available and well calibrated and tested. In this study we use the ecosystem model PCLake to demonstrate how climate change might affect the ecological status of a shallow peaty lake in 2050. With the model PCLake, combined with a long-term water and nutrient balance, it is possible to describe adequately the present status of the lake. Simulations of future scenarios with increasing precipitation, evaporation and temperature, showed that climate change will lead to higher nutrient loadings. At the same time, it will lead to lower critical loadings. Together this might cause the lake to shift easier from a clear water to a turbid state. The amount of algae, expressed as the concentration Chl-a, will increase, as a consequence turbidity will increase. The outcome of this study; increasing stability of the turbid state of the lake, and thus the need for more drastic measures, is consistent with some earlier studies. PMID:17851201

  4. Procedures for dealing with certain types of noise and systematic errors common to many Hadamard transform optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, M.

    1977-01-01

    Sources of noise and error correcting procedures characteristic of Hadamard transform optical systems were investigated. Reduction of spectral noise due to noise spikes in the data, the effect of random errors, the relative performance of Fourier and Hadamard transform spectrometers operated under identical detector-noise-limited conditions, and systematic means for dealing with mask defects are among the topics discussed. The distortion in Hadamard transform optical instruments caused by moving Masks, incorrect mask alignment, missing measurements, and diffraction is analyzed and techniques for reducing or eliminating this distortion are described.

  5. Reviewing Frankl's Will to meaning and its implications for psychotherapy dealing with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Chung, M C

    1995-01-01

    Recent research has shown that people who have gone through war experiences in one way or the other tend to manifest reactions classified as post-traumatic stress disorder. Viktor Frankl, the founder of logotherapy, manifested PTSD reactions when he was in a concentration camp. This paper attempts to sketch how he lived through his traumatic experiences by relying on the principle of Will to Meaning as his survival mechanism. Two implications will be outlined derived from this principle for psychotherapies dealing with disaster survivors.

  6. “High On My Own Supply”: Correlates of Drug Dealing among Heterosexually-identified Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Volkmann, Tyson; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Although rates of methamphetamine use continue to increase throughout the United States, little is known about the individuals who sell methamphetamine at the street level. This exploratory study examined the prevalence and correlates of drug-dealing behavior in a sample of 404 heterosexually-identified methamphetamine users who were participants in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, CA. Twenty-nine percent of participants (N = 116) reported “dealing” methamphetamine in the past two months. In a multivariate logistic regression, methamphetamine dealing was associated with being male (OR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.16 – 3.39), younger age (OR = 1.87 per year; 95% CI 1.10 – 3.17), more frequent use of methamphetamine (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.59 – 4.57), injecting methamphetamine (OR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.79 – 5.37), and higher hostility scores (OR = 1.07 per unit increase; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.13). These characteristics, particularly intensity of drug use and hostility, may be associated with greater resistance to drug treatment and lower success in treatment programs. PMID:21999496

  7. "Sometimes I walk and walk, hoping to get some peace." Dealing with hearing voices and sounds nobody else hears.

    PubMed

    Kalhovde, Anne Martha; Elstad, Ingunn; Talseth, Anne-Grethe

    2014-01-01

    Our objective in this article is to add to the understanding of how people with mental illness experience dealing with hearing troublesome voices and sounds in everyday life. Fourteen people contributed through in-depth interviews and we analysed these using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. We found that the participants (a) tried to block out the voices and sounds, (b) navigated the health care services, and (c) struggled to come to terms with limitations. Our overall understanding of how the participants dealt with hearing voices is that they sought to be independent and lead ordinary lives despite being troubled by voices. The participants fought desperately to find relief and avoid being overcome by the voices and sounds in intense phases. In less intense phases, they developed ways of getting along with daily life in spite of these experiences. We reflect on the implications of these findings and emphasize the need for care providers to attempt to understand and engage in collaborative explorations with service users in search of the most helpful ways of dealing with hearing troublesome voices and sounds in everyday life. PMID:24674764

  8. Dealing with Altruism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald

    2013-01-01

    At a time when schools are focusing heavily on high tech and engineering, general education is more important than ever. Wilson's book furnishes good ideas on how to bring about a curricular fusion between human studies and the sciences.

  9. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ... or other tobacco products around you. If outdoor air pollution is a problem, running the air conditioner or ...

  10. Dealing Out Sequentiality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugane, John

    2001-01-01

    Looks at the elaboration and exploration of content in the Swahili learning site SALAMA. Identifies within SALAMA design and implementation methods that ardently and perennially seek to lead learners to evolve learning habits of their own beyond formal instruction and textbooks. (Author/VWL)

  11. Deal with Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... on meats high in fat (like burgers and hot dogs), greasy fried foods, and sweets, and drink ...

  12. A Fare Deal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hoyun

    2016-01-01

    This brief "Math for Real" article introduces Ohanna, a seventh grader who lives in New York City and regularly takes the bus to get around the city. Ohanna pays $2.50 per bus ride when using her MetroCard. She earns a 5% bonus when she refills the card with a minimum of $5.00. For example, if she adds $10.00 on her MetroCard, her…

  13. Dealing with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... most important things you can do to stay healthy. For people who've been diagnosed with cancer, getting proper ... your specific needs. Exercise can also help a person stay healthy during recovery. If you're being treated for ...

  14. Dealing with CATV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journalism Educator, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Includes "Cable, Commercial TV Enable Students to Do News in Color" (Dennis A. Harp and Clay Kistler), "Separate Courses, Sequences Not Needed for Cable Television" (Peter B. Orlik), and "Cable Television Professionals Help Students Gain Perspective" (David Eshelman). (KS)

  15. Dealing with Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1987-01-01

    This issue examines the causes and effects of stress among parents of handicapped children and offers guidance for reducing and/or avoiding stress. The factors contributing to parental stress are identified, including unfounded guilt feelings, prolonged dependency of the handicapped child, extended care requirements, marital discord and family…

  16. Dealing with Oppositional Behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... ways to manage oppositional behaviors is a daily reality for many people who know FTD first hand. ... been heard. Adjust creatively and laugh Watching a television program I enjoy can be a challenge to ...

  17. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... acute injuries, even though they might not seem serious at first. If they're not treated, they usually get worse. What To Do If you think you've been injured, pull yourself out the game or stop doing your activity or workout. Let ...

  18. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  19. Dealing with Divestment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coons, Christopher A.

    1986-01-01

    Policy standards and actions that U.S. colleges and universities can follow concerning South Africa-related investment are discussed, based on a survey of 175 colleges. Investment policy standards include: not investing in companies unless they provide information to shareholders about their business activities in South Africa, not investing in…

  20. Dealing with megawatt beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The next generation of accelerators for MegaWatt proton, electron and heavy-ion beams puts unprecedented requirements on the accuracy of particle production predictions, the capability and reliability of the codes used in planning new accelerator facilities and experiments, the design of machine, target and collimation systems, detectors and radiation shielding and minimization of their impact on environment. Recent advances in code developments are described for the critical modules related to these challenges. Examples are given for the most demanding areas: targets, collimators, beam absorbers, radiation shielding, induced radioactivity and radiation damage.

  1. Locomotion: Dealing with friction

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, V.

    1998-01-01

    To move on land, in water, or in the air, even at constant speed and at the same level, always requires an expenditure of energy. The resistance to motion that has to be overcome is of many different kinds depending on size, speed, and the characteristics of the medium, and is a fascinating subject in itself. Even more interesting are nature’s stratagems and solutions toward minimizing the effort involved in the locomotion of different types of living creatures, and humans’ imitations and inventions in an attempt to do at least as well. PMID:9576902

  2. Dealing with extracontractual referrals.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, J D

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the mechanism established by Richmond, Twickenham, and Roehampton Health Authority to manage extracontractual referral requests made on behalf of its resident population and to examine its working in the first three months of the new arrangements. DESIGN--Description of the procedures for managing extracontractual referrals and the decisions made on requests submitted to the district health authority between 1 April and 30 June 1991. RESULTS--235 requests were submitted, 79 for emergency care. 156 requests were clearly for elective treatments and, of these, 61 were ultimately refused, 20 because the district health authority was not liable to pay. Of the remaining 41, 17 were appealed successfully and three unsuccessfullly. More than half of the elective extracontractual referrals correctly submitted were to either orthopaedics, general surgery, oral surgery, gynaecology, or plastic surgery. Overall, the district health authority approved three quarters of the requests for which it would be financially liable; this was the predicted workload for the period. CONCLUSIONS--The management of extracontractual referral requests is complex and time consuming for clinicians and managers alike. Patient choice is clearly being limited to some extent, but this is necessary if the number of requests is not to exceed the levels on which funding is based. PMID:1912860

  3. Dealing with Bugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Strategies for warding off insects during outdoor activities include wearing thick, densely woven clothing in light brown or green colors; wearing clothing with tight cuffs to restrict access; and avoiding soaps, lotions, and other products with strong odors that attract insects. Repellents should be considered when skin must be exposed. (LP)

  4. Dealing with Donor Anger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Techniques that reduce donors' resistance to college fund-raising requests, either direct mail or telephone solicitations, are offered. These include: respecting the prospects' concerns about privacy; offering nonintrusive giving options; honesty and clarity of communication; reinforcing donor sense of control; connecting with prospects'…

  5. Dealing with the Elephant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The teacher comes to the classroom after a long medical leave taken for getting his legs amputated for having developed gangrene and follows his normal plan of teaching thus ignoring the various questions that his students may have about his physical disability. He realizes his mistake and in the next class uses his condition to explain a version…

  6. Dealing With Obsolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Jeffrey A.; Zepeda, Sally J.

    1998-01-01

    Emerging technology changes to obsolete technology in a short time. Formal policies need to be adopted as technology becomes a more fundamental element of school administrative and instructional programs. A survey of 17 unified school districts in 2 midwestern states revealed that only 2 districts had a formal written obsolescence policy. (MLF)

  7. Dealing with oil shortages

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.

    1981-03-13

    Policy debates over government intervention when oil supplies are interrupted are now concerned with what should trigger a standby allocation mechanism, not with whether it is needed. The free-market approach taken by National Petroleum Council (NPC) committee members would grant only minor government intervention in even a severe situation. The committee suggests that refiners adopt a crude-oil-sharing program, backed up with simple state-allocation guidelines and profit limits. NPC considered three levels of crisis ranging from a cut in imports of one, two, and in excess of three million barrels per day. Market forces reinforced with public-information programs would handle the first case. Limited government participation would be introduced as the situation worsens, but no price controls would be imposed. Some reserves could be drawn from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in an extreme situation. Trade groups in the industry are protesting the concept of rationing by price. (DCK)

  8. Dealing with Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... more addictive than others: Drugs like crack or heroin are so addictive that they might only be used once or twice before the user loses control. Addiction means a person has no control over whether ...

  9. Keeping the Deal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Michael

    2002-01-01

    On the 4th of July 1997, I lay on a blanket with my family at a fireworks display near our home in Los Angeles, California. The pyrotechnics, they tell me, were dazzling. I wouldn't know. My attention was fixed on a tiny orange dot in the sky - Mars. A month earlier, NASA had released an Announcement of Opportunity for a supplementary payload on the Mars Surveyor Lander mission scheduled for launch in 2001. The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) organization had been authorized to make the most preliminary of investigations into the feasibility of sending humans to Mars. Among the requested investigations was an opportunity to study the dust and soil of the Red Planet, emphasizing possible hazards to human explorers. I spent that summer of '97 working on a proposal for the project I would eventually lead, the Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA). MECA was selected in February of '98. We promised to deliver four new instruments by April 2000 with a modest budget of $5M. This is a story about some of the people who created MECA.

  10. Such a Deal!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1994-01-01

    The most recent tax law creates stiffer rules forcing donors to document their charitable gifts in exchange for offering charities relief from the 1986 Alternative Minimum Tax law. For colleges and universities, who already follow relatively stringent receipt rules, the new regulation is a free and valuable benefit. (MSE)

  11. Dealing with Divorce

    MedlinePlus

    ... other or that the burden of one parent's happiness is on your shoulders. When parents find it ... pain divorce may have created, to find personal happiness, and to lift any burdens from their kids. ...

  12. Dealing with doomsday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-04-01

    There is a classic episode of the US political-satire TV programme The Daily Show about the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the US. The show was filmed in June 2000, just as scientists were firing up the collider to smash gold nuclei into each other for the first time. The quest of the machine was to recreate the hot, dense soup of free quarks, antiquarks and gluons - the "quark-gluon plasma" - that had previously only ever existed in the first few microseconds after the Big Bang. What had attracted the attention of the programme-makers, however, was not the science but rumours that RHIC would create a world-destroying black hole.

  13. Dealing with Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an NIH-supported Alzheimer’s disease center at the University of Wisconsin. “Symptoms of dementia can include problems with memory, thinking, and language, along with impairments to social skills and some behavioral symptoms.” Several factors can raise your risk for developing dementia. These ...

  14. Dealing with Your Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... at your usual times. Stay away from alcohol (beer, wine, wine coolers and liquor) and caffeine (in coffee, tea, soda and chocolate). ... at your usual times. Stay away from alcohol (beer, wine, wine coolers and liquor) and caffeine (in ...

  15. Dealing with Bullies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb ... go to school. It's hard to keep your mind on schoolwork when you're worried about how ...

  16. Some of the challenges of teaching multilevel classes and suggestions for how to deal with the situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarcsek, R.; Todea, L.

    2016-08-01

    Teaching English to Engineering or Business students has always been a challenge. One of the major reasons which makes this task particularly challenging is the fact that, being graduates of various high schools, they join the university having very different levels of English. Some may have started English in kindergarten, while others only in high school. Some speak it fluently; others may barely be able to introduce themselves despite having studied it for a similar number of years as the former. This paper takes a look at the major challenges teachers of English in university are faced with when teaching multilevel classes, and attempts to offer some suggestions as to how to deal with this situation while at the same time keeping the quality of the teaching-learning process.

  17. Dealing with negative stereotypes in sports: the role of cognitive anxiety when multiple identities are activated in sensorimotor tasks.

    PubMed

    Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth J; Martiny-Huenger, Torsten; Froehlich, Laura; Harter, Anna Lena; Roth, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    Based on research on stereotype threat and multiple identities, this work explores the beneficial effects of activating a positive social identity when a negative identity is salient on women's performance in sports. Further, in line with research on the effects of anxiety in sports, we investigate whether the activation of a positive social identity buffers performance from cognitive anxiety associated with a negative stereotype. Two experiments tested these predictions in field settings. Experiment 1 (N = 83) shows that the simultaneous activation of a positive (i.e., member of a soccer team) and a negative social identity (i.e., woman) led to better performance than the activation of only a negative social identity for female soccer players. Experiment 2 (N = 46) demonstrates that identity condition moderated the effect of cognitive anxiety on performance for female basketball players. Results are discussed concerning multiple identities' potential for dealing with stressful situations.

  18. A hardware and software architecture to deal with multimodal and collaborative interactions in multiuser virtual reality environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Tseu, A.; Férey, N.; Touraine, D.; Bourdot, P.

    2014-02-01

    Most advanced immersive devices provide collaborative environment within several users have their distinct head-tracked stereoscopic point of view. Combining with common used interactive features such as voice and gesture recognition, 3D mouse, haptic feedback, and spatialized audio rendering, these environments should faithfully reproduce a real context. However, even if many studies have been carried out on multimodal systems, we are far to definitively solve the issue of multimodal fusion, which consists in merging multimodal events coming from users and devices, into interpretable commands performed by the application. Multimodality and collaboration was often studied separately, despite of the fact that these two aspects share interesting similarities. We discuss how we address this problem, thought the design and implementation of a supervisor that is able to deal with both multimodal fusion and collaborative aspects. The aim of this supervisor is to ensure the merge of user's input from virtual reality devices in order to control immersive multi-user applications. We deal with this problem according to a practical point of view, because the main requirements of this supervisor was defined according to a industrial task proposed by our automotive partner, that as to be performed with multimodal and collaborative interactions in a co-located multi-user environment. In this task, two co-located workers of a virtual assembly chain has to cooperate to insert a seat into the bodywork of a car, using haptic devices to feel collision and to manipulate objects, combining speech recognition and two hands gesture recognition as multimodal instructions. Besides the architectural aspect of this supervisor, we described how we ensure the modularity of our solution that could apply on different virtual reality platforms, interactive contexts and virtual contents. A virtual context observer included in this supervisor in was especially designed to be independent to the

  19. Reporting of allocation method and statistical analyses that deal with bilaterally affected wrists in clinical trials for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Page, Matthew J; O'Connor, Denise A; Pitt, Veronica; Massy-Westropp, Nicola

    2013-11-01

    The authors aimed to describe how often the allocation method and the statistical analyses that deal with bilateral involvement are reported in clinical trials for carpal tunnel syndrome and to determine whether reporting has improved over time. Forty-two trials identified from recently published systematic reviews were assessed. Information about allocation method and statistical analyses was obtained from published reports and trialists. Only 15 trialists (36%) reported the method of random sequence generation used, and 6 trialists (14%) reported the method of allocation concealment used. Of 25 trials including participants with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, 17 (68%) reported the method used to allocate the wrists, whereas only 1 (4%) reported using a statistical analysis that appropriately dealt with bilateral involvement. There was no clear trend of improved reporting over time. Interventions are needed to improve reporting quality and statistical analyses of these trials so that these can provide more reliable evidence to inform clinical practice.

  20. Insanity, philanthropy and emigration: dealing with insane children in late-nineteenth-century north-west England.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven J

    2014-05-19

    The historiography of asylums and insanity is dense, and some topics have received much scholarly attention but others, such as insanity among children, have been largely neglected. Children by no means formed the majority of asylum populations, but they still suffered from mental impairment and were admitted to these institutions in significant numbers. Identifying the various experiences of insane children is the central goal of this research, but the asylum will not be the sole emphasis. The focus is to place child mental deficiency within a broader context of extramural care. By examining workhouses, the role of family, and philanthropic attempts to deal with insane children, this article will move beyond current historical thinking on the topic; traditional views of childhood, insanity and charity will be challenged, and will show that a much wider world than the locality was accessible to the insane child.

  1. An alternative approach to deal with geometric uncertainties in computer analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, K; Seefeldt, I; Hoffmann, F; Schultz, C; Wenk, C; Regitz-Zagrosek, V; Oswald, H; Fleck, E

    2000-07-01

    With the growing importance of proteomics in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences a need has emerged for computing tools that are capable of digitally visualizing and analyzing protein spot patterns within two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel. Matching programs need to meet requirements such as interlaboratory comparison and the comparison of samples from different origins. For such research purposes, we have developed the CAROL system that implements new algorithms for spot detection and matching, which enable researchers to take a different approach to protein spot identification and comparison. The present short communication discusses how the system deals with uncertain geometric spot information that arises from streaks and complex spot regions and how this can be amplified for the matching procedure.

  2. Insanity, philanthropy and emigration: dealing with insane children in late-nineteenth-century north-west England.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven J

    2014-05-19

    The historiography of asylums and insanity is dense, and some topics have received much scholarly attention but others, such as insanity among children, have been largely neglected. Children by no means formed the majority of asylum populations, but they still suffered from mental impairment and were admitted to these institutions in significant numbers. Identifying the various experiences of insane children is the central goal of this research, but the asylum will not be the sole emphasis. The focus is to place child mental deficiency within a broader context of extramural care. By examining workhouses, the role of family, and philanthropic attempts to deal with insane children, this article will move beyond current historical thinking on the topic; traditional views of childhood, insanity and charity will be challenged, and will show that a much wider world than the locality was accessible to the insane child. PMID:24840219

  3. Training in Decision-making Strategies: An approach to enhance students' competence to deal with socio-scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresch, Helge; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    Dealing with socio-scientific issues in science classes enables students to participate productively in controversial discussions concerning ethical topics, such as sustainable development. In this respect, well-structured decision-making processes are essential for elaborate reasoning. To foster decision-making competence, a computer-based programme was developed that trains secondary school students (grades 11-13) in decision-making strategies. The main research question is: does training students to use these strategies foster decision-making competence? In addition, the influence of meta-decision aids was examined. Students conducted a task analysis to select an appropriate strategy prior to the decision-making process. Hence, the second research question is: does combining decision-making training with a task analysis enhance decision-making competence at a higher rate? To answer these questions, 386 students were tested in a pre-post-follow-up control-group design that included two training groups (decision-making strategies/decision-making strategies combined with a task analysis) and a control group (decision-making with additional ecological information instead of strategic training). An open-ended questionnaire was used to assess decision-making competence in situations related to sustainable development. The decision-making training led to a significant improvement in the post-test and the follow-up, which was administered three months after the training. Long-term effects on the quality of the students' decisions were evident for both training groups. Gains in competence when reflecting upon the decision-making processes of others were found, to a lesser extent, in the training group that received the additional meta-decision training. In conclusion, training in decision-making strategies is a promising approach to deal with socio-scientific issues related to sustainable development.

  4. Generalized Vibrational Perturbation Theory for Rotovibrational Energies of Linear, Symmetric and Asymmetric Tops: Theory, Approximations, and Automated Approaches to Deal with Medium-to-Large Molecular Systems

    PubMed Central

    Piccardo, Matteo; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Models going beyond the rigid-rotor and the harmonic oscillator levels are mandatory for providing accurate theoretical predictions for several spectroscopic properties. Different strategies have been devised for this purpose. Among them, the treatment by perturbation theory of the molecular Hamiltonian after its expansion in power series of products of vibrational and rotational operators, also referred to as vibrational perturbation theory (VPT), is particularly appealing for its computational efficiency to treat medium-to-large systems. Moreover, generalized (GVPT) strategies combining the use of perturbative and variational formalisms can be adopted to further improve the accuracy of the results, with the first approach used for weakly coupled terms, and the second one to handle tightly coupled ones. In this context, the GVPT formulation for asymmetric, symmetric, and linear tops is revisited and fully generalized to both minima and first-order saddle points of the molecular potential energy surface. The computational strategies and approximations that can be adopted in dealing with GVPT computations are pointed out, with a particular attention devoted to the treatment of symmetry and degeneracies. A number of tests and applications are discussed, to show the possibilities of the developments, as regards both the variety of treatable systems and eligible methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26345131

  5. Recording Cultural Heritage Using Terrestrial Laserscanning - Dealing with the System, the Huge Datasets they Create and Ways to Extract the Necessary Deliverables you can Work with

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofori, E.; Bierwagen, J.

    2013-07-01

    Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS) Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany"), the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D - Animations) as well as the

  6. A Study of Black Colleges to Determine Their Capability to Deal With the Problems of Unemployment, Underemployment and Job Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    B and C Associates, Inc., High Point, NC.

    This study analyzes the capabilities of a selected sample of black colleges to deal with the problems of unemployment, underemployment, and job training. It further analyzes the existing and potential levels of interrelations between minority colleges, business, and industry. (NTIS)

  7. Teacher Consultation Model: An Operant Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfacre, John; Welch, Frances

    1973-01-01

    This article describes a model for changing teacher behavior in dealing with problem students. The model reflects the incorporation of learning theory techniques (pinpointing behavior, reinforcement, shaping, etc.). A step-by-step account of how a psychologist deals with a teacher concerned about a boy's cursing is given. The teacher is encouraged…

  8. Summary of Meta-Analyses Dealing with Single-Row versus Double-Row Repair Techniques for Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Spiegl, U.J.; Euler, S.A.; Millett, P.J.; Hepp, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials have been performed to analyze whether double-row (DR) rotator cuff repair (RCR) provides superior clinical outcomes and structural healing compared to single-row (SR) repair. The purpose of this study was to sum up the results of meta-analysis comparing SR and DR repair with respect on clinical outcomes and re-tear rates. Methods: A literature search was undertaken to identify all meta-analyses dealing with randomized controlled trials comparing clinical und structural outcomes after SR versus DR RCR. Results: Eight meta-analyses met the eligibility criteria: two including Level I studies only, five including both Level I and Level II studies, and one including additional Level III studies. Four meta-analyses found no differences between SR and DR RCR for patient outcomes, whereas four favored DR RCR for tears greater than 3 cm. Two meta-analyses found no structural healing differences between SR and DR RCR, whereas six found DR repair to be superior for tears greater than 3 cm tears. Conclusion: No clinical differences are seen between single-row and double-row repair for small and medium rotator cuff tears after a short-term follow-up period with a higher re-tear rate following single-row repairs. There seems to be a trend to superior results with double-row repair in large to massive tear sizes. PMID:27708735

  9. [Ethical problems experienced by dentists: dealing with bioethics to wide the view on the daily professional practice].

    PubMed

    Amorim, Adriana Gomes; Souza, Elizabethe Cristina Fagundes de

    2010-05-01

    Bioethics strives for humanization in health services along with promoting the rights of patients. In view of the lack of dental research dealing with this topic, the present study was undertaken to identify, from the viewpoint of dental surgeons, ethical problems experienced in dental practice. It is a descriptive exploratory investigation within a qualitative approach. Empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews performed with 15 dental surgeons in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The results indicate that many of the ethical problems coincide with infringements of the norms and rules of the Dental Code of Ethics, confirming a dental ethic acquired during professional formation and therefore, inadequate for solving the problems that emerge in professional practice. We concluded that the ethical problems identified in professional practice need to be understood beyond the dental dimension, towards a human approach. It is therefore necessary to incorporate health care management technologies into health practices which imply recognizing the different dimensions that surround individuals and their health needs.

  10. Attributions of blame to battered women when they are perceived as feminists or as "difficult to deal with".

    PubMed

    Vidal-Fernández, Ana; Megías, Jesús L

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of victim-related and observer-related factors in victim blaming of battered women. Two hundred and forty six college students participated. They were asked to read a scenario describing a hypothetical case of physical violence perpetrated by a man against his partner. Depending on the experimental condition, the victim was described either as a feminist and/or as exhibiting difficulties in her relationship with others or not. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed with victim blaming as dependent variable. Participants' hostile sexism positively predicted victim blaming when the victim was described as a feminist and as a "difficult to deal with" woman (p < .001). In addition, men, but not women, high in hostile sexist attitudes placed more blame on the victim when she was presented as a feminist woman (p < .001). These results underscore the importance of victim-related and observer-related factors, and of their interaction, in blaming the victim of gender-based violence. PMID:25011491

  11. Young driver risk factors: successful and unsuccessful approaches for dealing with them and an agenda for the future.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F

    2006-06-01

    The extent to which various interventions to deal with the young driver crash problem have worked are discussed, and promising interventions that should be tried are identified. Traditional forms of driver licensing and driver education have not worked. Graduated licensing reduces the problem and existing laws need to be strengthened. Programs involving parents and police have shown some potential to increase compliance with graduated licensing restrictions. Insurer discount programs also have potential. In other public health areas, comprehensive programs have worked better than those based on single components. There are continuing efforts to develop new driver education and training programs and methods of delivery that can combine with graduated licensing and contribute to reductions in the young driver problem. The most promising intervention strategy is likely to be a coordinated community based program in states with strong graduated licensing laws as a foundation, involving modern education and training techniques, insurance discount programs, and well publicized enforcement and education programs featuring parents and police in combination, with as much input and participation as possible from the target group of young drivers. PMID:16788111

  12. An Extension of XACML to Improve the Performance of Decision Making Processes When Dealing with Stable Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborde, Romain; Desprats, Thierry

    XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) is an XML-based language for access control that has been standardized by OASIS. In this language, any entities involved in access control (i.e. users, resources, actions and environment) are specified by a set of attributes. This specification also includes the description of an architecture that explains how the policy decision point (PDP) retrieves the needed attributes values when it evaluates the policy to take its authorization decision. In this paper, we show that retrieving attributes values using a synchronous method as it is stated in XACML specification can be a bottleneck to the performance of the authorization decision making process. Especially, it is true when getting an attribute value is long and when the changing of this value doesn’t impact the policy result frequently. Thus, we propose an improvement of the XACML architecture. It uses an asynchronous approach that accelerates the decision making process when PDP deals with expressions that include such attributes. Experimental results prove the performance is improved.

  13. Dealing with Disobedience: An Evaluation of a Brief Parenting Intervention for Young Children Showing Noncompliant Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Keown, Louise J; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-02-01

    The study was a randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a brief and preventatively-focused parenting discussion group for dealing with disobedient behavior in preschool-aged children. Eighty-five parents with children aged between 3 and 5 years who were concerned about the noncompliant behavior of their child were recruited from Auckland, New Zealand and Brisbane, Australia. Compared to the waitlist control group (n = 40), parents in the intervention group (n = 45) reported greater improvements in disruptive child behavior, ineffective parenting practices and parenting confidence, as well as clinically significant improvements in child behavior and parenting. All of these effects were maintained at 6-month follow up. No group differences were found for parental wellbeing, inter-parental conflict and general relationship quality, although intervention parents reported improvements in parental wellbeing and inter-parental conflict at 6-month follow-up. The findings are discussed in terms of the implications for making brief and effective parenting support available to parents.

  14. Knowledge about persons with disability act (1995) among health care professionals dealing with persons affected by disabilities.

    PubMed

    Berry, B S; Devapitchai, K S; Raju, M S

    2009-01-01

    To assess the level of awareness about the different provisions of the persons with Disability Act (1995) among the health care professionals, 201 health care professionals dealing with the disabled persons from different parts of India were interviewed using structured interview checklist. The data were analysed through statistical package of social sciences software. Chi-square test were applied on the variables and the Pvalues were ascertained. The results show that 48.3% knew about administration hierarchy, 53.7% of respondents were aware of the free education available for the disabled, 68.5% were aware of the employment scheme, 62.7% about poverty alleviation schemes, 59.2% know about the traveling benefits, 56.2% of professionals were aware of the benefits for people with low vision. Only 29.9% of respondents knew about provisions to overcome architectural barriers. 43.8% of them knew about the least disability percentage whereas only 28.4% were aware of research and manpower schemes. Regarding affirmative action, 32.17% told correctly and 52.7% of the professionals responded correctly with respectto non- discrimination schemes. The level of awareness among the professionals working in rural regions is lower with regard to administration hierarchy and poverty alleviation schemes. Informations regarding disabled friendly environments and research and manpower development were found to be low among respondents of all professions which need to be effectively intervened. Gender did not show any influence with respect to the components of the act. The study showed that there is an ample need for educational interventions among the health care professionals in all socio-demography. Inclusion of PWD Act in the curriculum of medical schools as a topic in conferences and workshops for health care professionals are suggested. PMID:20329362

  15. SecurePhone: a mobile phone with biometric authentication and e-signature support for dealing secure transactions on the fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, R.; Chollet, G.; Crispino, M. V.; Jassim, S.; Koreman, J.; Olivar-Dimas, M.; Garcia-Salicetti, S.; Soria-Rodriguez, P.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the SecurePhone project, with an account of the first results obtained. SecurePhone's primary aim is to realise a mobile phone prototype - the 'SecurePhone' - in which biometrical authentication enables users to deal secure, dependable transactions over a mobile network. The SecurePhone is based on a commercial PDA-phone, supplemented with specific software modules and a customised SIM card. It integrates in a single environment a number of advanced features: access to cryptographic keys through strong multimodal biometric authentication; appending and verification of digital signatures; real-time exchange and interactive modification of (esigned) documents and voice recordings. SecurePhone's 'biometric recogniser' is based on original research. A fused combination of three different biometric methods - speaker, face and handwritten signature verification - is exploited, with no need for dedicated hardware components. The adoption of non-intrusive, psychologically neutral biometric techniques is expected to mitigate rejection problems that often inhibit the social use of biometrics, and speed up the spread of e-signature technology. Successful biometric authentication grants access to SecurePhone's built-in esignature services through a user-friendly interface. Special emphasis is accorded to the definition of a trustworthy security chain model covering all aspects of system operation. The SecurePhone is expected to boost m-commerce and open new scenarios for m-business and m-work, by changing the way people interact and by improving trust and confidence in information technologies, often considered intimidating and difficult to use. Exploitation plans will also explore other application domains (physical and logical access control, securised mobile communications).

  16. Idiosyncratic deals and employee outcomes: the mediating roles of social exchange and self-enhancement and the moderating role of individualism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Lee, Cynthia; Hui, Chun; Kwan, Ho Kwong; Wu, Long-Zeng

    2013-09-01

    The majority of studies on idiosyncratic employment arrangements ("i-deals") are based on social exchange theory. The authors suggest that self-enhancement theory, in addition to social exchange, can be used to explain the effects of i-deals. Using a multisource sample including 230 employees and 102 supervisors from 2 Chinese companies, the authors adopt a 3-wave lagged design to examine the mediating roles of social exchange and self-enhancement and the moderating role of individualism in the relationships between i-deals and employee outcomes, as indicated by proactive behaviors and affective commitment. The results of bootstrapping analyses confirm the mediating effects of social exchange and self-enhancement. In addition, employees with high levels of individualism are more receptive to self-enhancement effects; in contrast, employees with low levels of individualism are more receptive to social exchange effects. PMID:23544480

  17. Teaching Expatriate Adaptation While Dealing with Reality: The Impact of a Tragedy on the Study-Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Kenneth J.; Levine, Sally L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of the accepted U-shaped models of expatriate adaptation to students engaged in an international educational experience when they are faced with a tragedy. In this study-abroad course, an examination of the existing adaptation models and how they provide a set of expectations for the process of cultural adjustment…

  18. Show what you know and deal with stress yourself: a qualitative interview study of medical interns’ perceptions of stress and gender

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians’ perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model explains stress as coming from a discrepancy between job demands, job control, and perceived work potential. Gendered differences in stress are reported, but not much is known about medical interns’ perceptions of how gender plays in relation to stress. The aim of this study is to explore how medical interns experience and cope with stress, as well as how they reflect on the gendered aspects of stress. Methods In order to do this, we have performed a qualitative study. In 2010–2011, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen medical interns across all three years of the Masters programme (6 male, 11 female) at a Dutch medical school. The interview guide is based on gender theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and empirical literature. Transcribed interviews have been analyzed thematically. Results First, stress mainly evolves from having to prove one’s self and show off competencies and motivation (“Show What You Know…”). Second, interns seek own solutions for handling stress because it is not open for discussion (… “And Deal With Stress Yourself”). Patient encounters are a source of pride and satisfaction rather than a source of stress. But interns report having to present themselves as ‘professional and self-confident’, remaining silent about experiencing stress. Female students are perceived to have more stress and to study harder in order to live up to expectations. Conclusions The implicit message interns hear is to remain silent about insecurities and stress, and, in particular, female students might face disadvantages. Students who feel less able to manifest the ‘masculine protest’ may benefit from a culture that

  19. Evaluating Causal Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.

    Pointing out that linear causal models can organize the interrelationships of a large number of variables, this paper contends that such models are particularly useful to mass communication research, which must by necessity deal with complex systems of variables. The paper first outlines briefly the philosophical requirements for establishing a…

  20. Shuffling the Deck To Ensure Fairness in Dealing: A Commentary on Some Issues of Equity and Mathematics Education from the Perspective of the QUASAR Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Edward A.

    This paper is a reaction to a plenary address, "Fairness in Dealing: Diversity, Psychology, and Mathematics Education" by Suzanne Damarin (SE 057 179). The issues of intentionality, institutional and instructional practices, identity development, and assessment are addressed in regard to the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student…