Modeling of particle interactions in magnetorheological elastomers
Biller, A. M. Stolbov, O. V. Raikher, Yu. L.
2014-09-21
The interaction between two particles made of an isotropic linearly polarizable magnetic material and embedded in an elastomer matrix is studied. In this case, when an external field is imposed, the magnetic attraction of the particles, contrary to point dipoles, is almost wraparound. The exact solution of the magnetic problem in the linear polarization case, although existing, is not practical; to circumvent its use, an interpolation formula is proposed. One more interpolation expression is developed for the resistance of the elastic matrix to the field-induced particle displacements. Minimization of the total energy of the pair reveals its configurational bistability in a certain field range. One of the possible equilibrium states corresponds to the particles dwelling at a distance, the other—to their collapse in a tight dimer. This mesoscopic bistability causes magnetomechanical hysteresis which has important implications for the macroscopic behavior of magnetorheological elastomers.
Shock Particle Interaction - Fully Resolved Simulations and Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, Yash; Neal, Chris; Jackson, Thomas L.; Balachandar, S. "Bala"; Thakur, Siddharth
2016-11-01
Currently there is a substantial lack of fully resolved data for shock interacting with multiple particles. In this talk we will fill this gap by presenting results of shock interaction with 1-D array and 3-D structured arrays of particles. Objectives of performing fully resolved simulations of shock propagation through packs of multiple particles are twofold, 1) To understand the complicated physical phenomena occurring during shock particle interaction, and 2) To translate the knowledge from microscale simulations in building next generation point-particle models for macroscale simulations that can better predict the motion (forces) and heat transfer for particles. We compare results from multiple particle simulations against the single particle simulations and make relevant observations. The drag history and flow field for multiple particle simulations are markedly different from those of single particle simluations, highlighting the effect of neighboring particles. We propose new models which capture this effect of neighboring particles. These models are called Pair-wise Interaction Extended Point Particle models (PIEP). Effect of multiple neighboring particles is broken down into pair-wise interactions, and these pair-wise interactions are superimposed to get the final model U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Theory and modeling of particles with DNA-mediated interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Licata, Nicholas A.
2008-05-01
In recent years significant attention has been attracted to proposals which utilize DNA for nanotechnological applications. Potential applications of these ideas range from the programmable self-assembly of colloidal crystals, to biosensors and nanoparticle based drug delivery platforms. In Chapter I we introduce the system, which generically consists of colloidal particles functionalized with specially designed DNA markers. The sequence of bases on the DNA markers determines the particle type. Due to the hybridization between complementary single-stranded DNA, specific, type-dependent interactions can be introduced between particles by choosing the appropriate DNA marker sequences. In Chapter II we develop a statistical mechanical description of the aggregation and melting behavior of particles with DNA-mediated interactions. In Chapter III a model is proposed to describe the dynamical departure and diffusion of particles which form reversible key-lock connections. In Chapter IV we propose a method to self-assemble nanoparticle clusters using DNA scaffolds. A natural extension is discussed in Chapter V, the programmable self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters where the desired cluster geometry is encoded using DNA-mediated interactions. In Chapter VI we consider a nanoparticle based drug delivery platform for targeted, cell specific chemotherapy. In Chapter VII we present prospects for future research: the connection between DNA-mediated colloidal crystallization and jamming, and the inverse problem in self-assembly.
Interactive computational models of particle dynamics using virtual reality
Canfield, T.; Diachin, D.; Freitag, L.; Heath, D.; Herzog, J.; Michels, W.
1996-12-31
An increasing number of industrial applications rely on computational models to reduce costs in product design, development, and testing cycles. Here, the authors discuss an interactive environment for the visualization, analysis, and modification of computational models used in industrial settings. In particular, they focus on interactively placing massless, massed, and evaporating particulate matter in computational fluid dynamics applications.they discuss the numerical model used to compute the particle pathlines in the fluid flow for display and analysis. They briefly describe the toolkits developed for vector and scalar field visualization, interactive particulate source placement, and a three-dimensional GUI interface. This system is currently used in two industrial applications, and they present the tools in the context of these applications. They summarize the current state of the project and offer directions for future research.
How to model the interaction of charged Janus particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hieronimus, Reint; Raschke, Simon; Heuer, Andreas
2016-08-01
We analyze the interaction of charged Janus particles including screening effects. The explicit interaction is mapped via a least square method on a variable number n of systematically generated tensors that reflect the angular dependence of the potential. For n = 2 we show that the interaction is equivalent to a model previously described by Erdmann, Kröger, and Hess (EKH). Interestingly, this mapping is for n = 2 not able to capture the subtleties of the interaction for small screening lengths. Rather, a larger number of tensors has to be used. We find that the characteristics of the Janus type interaction plays an important role for the aggregation behavior. We obtained cluster structures up to the size of 13 particles for n = 2 and 36 and screening lengths κ-1 = 0.1 and 1.0 via Monte Carlo simulations. The influence of the screening length is analyzed and the structures are compared to results for an electrostatic-type potential and for the multipole-expanded Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. We find that a dipole-like potential (EKH or dipole DLVO approximation) is not able to sufficiently reproduce the anisotropy effects of the potential. Instead, a higher order expansion has to be used to obtain cluster structures that are compatible with experimental observations. The resulting minimum-energy clusters are compared to those of sticky hard sphere systems. Janus particles with a short-range screened interaction resemble sticky hard sphere clusters for all considered particle numbers, whereas for long-range screening even very small clusters are structurally different.
A study on the validity of the point-particle model for particle-turbulence interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhongzhen; Prosperetti, Andrea
2002-11-01
The point-particle model, widely used in simulations of particle-turbulence interaction, is justified when the particle size is smaller than or comparable to the Kolmogorov scale. The precise limits of validity of the approximation and the manner in which errors accrue when the particle size increases are not well known. In the present work, direct simulations are conducted for a single finite-size particle suspended in a decaying homogeneous turbulent flow generated with a spectral code as an intial condition. The simulations are conducted by means of the PHYSALIS method. The trajectories of finite-size and point particles are compared as the particle radius is increased above the Kolmogorov scale for different Stokes numbers.
Interactive data exploration and particle tracking for general circulation models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenbaum, R. I.; Peskin, R. L.; Walther, S. S.; Zinn, H. P.
1995-01-01
The SCENE environment for interactive visualization of complex data sets is discussed. This environment is used to create tools for graphical exploration of atmospheric flow models. These tools may be extended by the user in a seamless manner, so that no programming is required. A module for accurately tracing field lines and particle trajectories in SCENE is presented. This is used to examine the flowfield qualitatively with streamlines and pathlines and to identify critical points in the velocity field. The paper also describes a visualization tool for general circulation models on which the primary features of the environment are demonstrated.
Multi-particle interaction in a model of the hydrophobic interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedeaux, D.; Koper, G. J. M.; Ispolatov, S.; Widom, B.
2001-03-01
The multi-particle potential of mean force between interstitial solute molecules in Ben-Naim's one-dimensional, many-state lattice model is calculated. The solution is a direct extension of an earlier calculation of the two-particle interaction by Kolomeisky and Widom (Faraday Dis. 112 (1999) 81). It is found that the many-particle interaction potential is a sum of pair potentials between neighboring particles only. An exact equation of state, expressing the activity in the temperature and the pressure, is derived. The resulting solubility of a gaseous hydrophobe, which is defined osmotically, is calculated and found to increase considerably with the gas density.
Reduced quasilinear models for energetic particles interaction with Alfvenic eigenmodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghantous, Katy
The Line Broadened Quasilinear (LBQ) and the 1.5D reduced models are able to predict the effect of Alfvenic eigenmodes' interaction with energetic particles in burning plasmas. This interaction can result in energetic-particle losses that can damage the first wall, deteriorate the plasma performance, and even prevent ignition. The 1.5D model assumes a broad spectrum of overlapping modes and, based on analytic expressions for the growth and damping rates, calculates the pressure profiles that the energetic particles relax to upon interacting with the modes. 1.5D is validated with DIII-D experiments and predicted neutron losses consistent with observation. The model is employed to predict alpha-particle fusion-product losses in a large-scale operational parameter-space for burning plasmas. The LBQ model captures the interaction both in the regime of isolated modes as well as in the conventional regime of overlapping modes. Rules were established that allow quasilinear equations to replicate the expected steady-state saturation levels of isolated modes. The fitting formula is improved and the model is benchmarked with a Vlasov code, BOT. The saturation levels are accurately predicted and the mode evolution is well-replicated in the case of steady-state evolution where the collisions are high enough that coherent structures do not form. When the collisionality is low, oscillatory behavior can occur. LBQ can also exhibit non-steady behavior, but the onset of oscillations occurs for much higher collisional rates in BOT than in LBQ. For certain parameters of low collisionality, hole-clump creation and frequency chirping can occur which are not captured by the LBQ model. Also, there are cases of non-steady evolution without chirping which is possible for LBQ to study. However the results are inconclusive since the periods and amplitudes of the oscillations in the mode evolution are not well-replicated. If multiple modes exist, they can grow to the point of overlap which
Model-independent analyses of dark-matter particle interactions
Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.
2015-03-24
A model-independent treatment of dark-matter particle elastic scattering has been developed, yielding the most general interaction for WIMP-nucleon low-energy scattering, and the resulting amplitude has been embedded into the nucleus, taking into account the selection rules imposed by parity and time-reversal. One finds that, in contrast to the usual spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation, the resulting cross section contains six independent nuclear response functions, three of which are associated with possible velocity-dependent interactions. We find that current experiments are four orders of magnitude more sensitive to derivative couplings than is apparent in the standard SI/SD treatment, which necessarily associated such interactions with cross sections proportional to v^{2}_{T} ~ 10⁻⁶, where v_{T} is the WIMP velocity relative to the center of mass of the nuclear target.
Model-independent analyses of dark-matter particle interactions
Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.
2015-03-24
A model-independent treatment of dark-matter particle elastic scattering has been developed, yielding the most general interaction for WIMP-nucleon low-energy scattering, and the resulting amplitude has been embedded into the nucleus, taking into account the selection rules imposed by parity and time-reversal. One finds that, in contrast to the usual spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation, the resulting cross section contains six independent nuclear response functions, three of which are associated with possible velocity-dependent interactions. We find that current experiments are four orders of magnitude more sensitive to derivative couplings than is apparent in the standard SI/SD treatment, which necessarily associated such interactions withmore » cross sections proportional to v2T ~ 10⁻⁶, where vT is the WIMP velocity relative to the center of mass of the nuclear target.« less
Triviality of a model of particles with point interactions in the thermodynamic limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moser, Thomas; Seiringer, Robert
2016-11-01
We consider a model of fermions interacting via point interactions, defined via a certain weighted Dirichlet form. While for two particles the interaction corresponds to infinite scattering length, the presence of further particles effectively decreases the interaction strength. We show that the model becomes trivial in the thermodynamic limit, in the sense that the free energy density at any given particle density and temperature agrees with the corresponding expression for non-interacting particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thakur, Siddharth; Neal, Chris; Mehta, Yash; Sridharan, Prasanth; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, S.
2017-01-01
Micrsoscale simulations are being conducted for developing point-particle and other related models that are needed for the mesoscale and macroscale simulations of explosive dispersal of particles. These particle models are required to compute (a) instantaneous aerodynamic force on the particle and (b) instantaneous net heat transfer between the particle and the surrounding. A strategy for a sequence of microscale simulations has been devised that allows systematic development of the hybrid surrogate models that are applicable at conditions representative of the explosive dispersal application. The ongoing microscale simulations seek to examine particle force dependence on: (a) Mach number, (b) Reynolds number, and (c) volume fraction (different particle arrangements such as cubic, face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC) and random). Future plans include investigation of sequences of fully-resolved microscale simulations consisting of an array of particles subjected to more realistic time-dependent flows that progressively better approximate the actual problem of explosive dispersal. Additionally, effects of particle shape, size, and number in simulation as well as the transient particle deformation dependence on various parameters including: (a) particle material, (b) medium material, (c) multiple particles, (d) incoming shock pressure and speed, (e) medium to particle impedance ratio, (f) particle shape and orientation to shock, etc. are being investigated.
Towards a Revised Monte Carlo Neutral Particle Surface Interaction Model
D.P. Stotler
2005-06-09
The components of the neutral- and plasma-surface interaction model used in the Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS 2 are reviewed. The idealized surfaces and processes handled by that model are inadequate for accurately simulating neutral transport behavior in present day and future fusion devices. We identify some of the physical processes missing from the model, such as mixed materials and implanted hydrogen, and make some suggestions for improving the model.
Lieb-Thirring inequality for a model of particles with point interactions
Frank, Rupert L.; Seiringer, Robert
2012-09-15
We consider a model of quantum-mechanical particles interacting via point interactions of infinite scattering length. In the case of fermions we prove a Lieb-Thirring inequality for the energy, i.e., we show that the energy is bounded from below by a constant times the integral of the particle density to the power (5/3).
Chaotic delocalization of two interacting particles in the classical Harper model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2016-06-01
We study the problem of two interacting particles in the classical Harper model in the regime when one-particle motion is absolutely bounded inside one cell of periodic potential. The interaction between particles breaks integrability of classical motion leading to emergence of Hamiltonian dynamical chaos. At moderate interactions and certain energies above the mobility edge this chaos leads to a chaotic propulsion of two particles with their diffusive spreading over the whole space both in one and two dimensions. At the same time the distance between particles remains bounded by one or two periodic cells demonstrating appearance of new composite quasi-particles called chaons. The effect of chaotic delocalization of chaons is shown to be rather general being present for Coulomb and short range interactions. It is argued that such delocalized chaons can be observed in experiments with cold atoms and ions in optical lattices.
Microbial interactions lead to rapid micro-scale successions on model marine particles
Datta, Manoshi S.; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Gore, Jeff; Polz, Martin F.; Cordero, Otto X.
2016-01-01
In the ocean, organic particles harbour diverse bacterial communities, which collectively digest and recycle essential nutrients. Traits like motility and exo-enzyme production allow individual taxa to colonize and exploit particle resources, but it remains unclear how community dynamics emerge from these individual traits. Here we track the taxon and trait dynamics of bacteria attached to model marine particles and demonstrate that particle-attached communities undergo rapid, reproducible successions driven by ecological interactions. Motile, particle-degrading taxa are selected for during early successional stages. However, this selective pressure is later relaxed when secondary consumers invade, which are unable to use the particle resource but, instead, rely on carbon from primary degraders. This creates a trophic chain that shifts community metabolism away from the particle substrate. These results suggest that primary successions may shape particle-attached bacterial communities in the ocean and that rapid community-wide metabolic shifts could limit rates of marine particle degradation. PMID:27311813
Microbial interactions lead to rapid micro-scale successions on model marine particles.
Datta, Manoshi S; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Gore, Jeff; Polz, Martin F; Cordero, Otto X
2016-06-17
In the ocean, organic particles harbour diverse bacterial communities, which collectively digest and recycle essential nutrients. Traits like motility and exo-enzyme production allow individual taxa to colonize and exploit particle resources, but it remains unclear how community dynamics emerge from these individual traits. Here we track the taxon and trait dynamics of bacteria attached to model marine particles and demonstrate that particle-attached communities undergo rapid, reproducible successions driven by ecological interactions. Motile, particle-degrading taxa are selected for during early successional stages. However, this selective pressure is later relaxed when secondary consumers invade, which are unable to use the particle resource but, instead, rely on carbon from primary degraders. This creates a trophic chain that shifts community metabolism away from the particle substrate. These results suggest that primary successions may shape particle-attached bacterial communities in the ocean and that rapid community-wide metabolic shifts could limit rates of marine particle degradation.
Delocalization of two interacting particles in the 2D Harper model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2016-01-01
We study the problem of two interacting particles in a two-dimensional quasiperiodic potential of the Harper model. We consider an amplitude of the quasiperiodic potential such that in absence of interactions all eigenstates are exponentially localized while the two interacting particles are delocalized showing anomalous subdiffusive spreading over the lattice with the spreading exponent b ≈ 0.5 instead of a usual diffusion with b = 1. This spreading is stronger than in the case of a correlated disorder potential with a one particle localization length as for the quasiperiodic potential. At the same time we do not find signatures of ballistic pairs existing for two interacting particles in the localized phase of the one-dimensional Harper model.
Pairwise Interaction Extended Point Particle (PIEP) Model for a Random Array of Spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akiki, Georges; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, Sivaramakrishnan; CenterCompressible Multiphase Turbulence Team
2016-11-01
This study investigates a flow past random array of spherical particles. The understanding of the governing forces within these arrays is crucial for obtaining accurate models used in particle-laden simulations. These models have to faithfully reflect the sub-grid interactions between the particles and the continuous phase. The models being used today assumes an average force on all particles within the array based on the mean volume fraction and Reynolds number. Here, we develop a model which can compute the drag and lateral forces on each particle by accounting for the precise location of few surrounding neighbors. A pairwise interaction is assumed where the perturbation flow induced by each neighbor is considered separately, then the effect of all neighbors are linearly superposed to obtain the total perturbation. Faxén correction is used to quantify the force perturbation due to the presence of the neighbors. The single neighbor perturbations are mapped in the vicinity of a reference sphere and stored as libraries. We test the Pairwise Interaction Extended Point-Particle (PIEP) model for random arrays at two different volume fractions of ϕ = 0 . 1 and 0.21 and Reynolds number in the range 16 <= Re <= 170 . The PIEP model predictions are compared against drag and lift forces obtained from fully-resolved DNS performed using immersed boundary method. We observe the PIEP model prediction to correlate much better with the DNS results than the classical mean drag model prediction.
A Simple Model of Bose-Einstein Condensation of Interacting Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poluektov, Yu. M.
2017-03-01
A simple model of Bose-Einstein condensation of interacting particles is proposed. It is shown that in the condensate state the dependence of thermodynamic quantities on the interaction constant does not allow an expansion in powers of the coupling constant. Therefore, it is impossible to pass to the Einstein model of condensation in an ideal Bose gas by means of a limiting passage, setting the interaction constant to zero. The account for the interaction between particles eliminates difficulties in the description of condensation available in the model of an ideal gas, which are connected with the fulfillment of thermodynamic relations and an infinite value of the particle number fluctuation in the condensate phase.
Jin, Chao; Ren, Carolyn L; Emelko, Monica B
2016-04-19
It is widely believed that media surface roughness enhances particle deposition-numerous, but inconsistent, examples of this effect have been reported. Here, a new mathematical framework describing the effects of hydrodynamics and interaction forces on particle deposition on rough spherical collectors in absence of an energy barrier was developed and validated. In addition to quantifying DLVO force, the model includes improved descriptions of flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation functions. This work demonstrates that hydrodynamic effects can significantly alter particle deposition relative to expectations when only the DLVO force is considered. Moreover, the combined effects of hydrodynamics and interaction forces on particle deposition on rough, spherical media are not additive, but synergistic. Notably, the developed model's particle deposition predictions are in closer agreement with experimental observations than those from current models, demonstrating the importance of inclusion of roughness impacts in particle deposition description/simulation. Consideration of hydrodynamic contributions to particle deposition may help to explain discrepancies between model-based expectations and experimental outcomes and improve descriptions of particle deposition during physicochemical filtration in systems with nonsmooth collector surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albella, P.; Moreno, F.; Saiz, J. M.; González, F.
2007-07-01
An interaction model developed in previous research [de la Peña JL, González F, Saiz JM, Moreno F, Valle PJ. Sizing particles on substrates. A general method for oblique incidence. J Appl Phys 1999; 85:432] is extended to the study of two-scaled systems consisting of particles located on larger structures. Far-field scattering patterns produced by these systems can be obtained by coherent addition of different electromagnetic contributions, each one obtained from an independent isolated particle calculation. Results are performed on a 2D scheme, where they can be easily compared with those given by an exact method. This analysis shows some features of the scattering patterns that can be obtained with high reliability. Research on this kind of systems can be applied to 3D situations like particle substrate contamination and particle particle contamination.
Euler-Lagrange Modeling of Vortex Interaction with a Particle-Laden Turbulent Boundary Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, Fernando
Rotorcraft operation in austere environments can result in difficult operating conditions, particularly in the vicinity of sandy areas. The uplift of sediment by rotorcraft downwash, a phenomenon known as brownout, hinders pilot visual cues and may result in a potentially dangerous situation. Brownout is a complex multiphase flow problem that is not unique and depends on both the characteristics of the rotorcraft and the sediment. The lack of fundamental understanding constrains models and limits development of technologies that could mitigate the adverse effects of brownout. This provides the over-arching motivation of the current work focusing on models of particle-laden sediment beds. The particular focus of the current investigations is numerical modeling of near-surface fluid-particle interactions in turbulent boundary layers with and without coherent vortices superimposed on the background flow, that model rotorcraft downwash. The simulations are performed with two groups of particles having different densities both of which display strong vortex-particle interaction close to the source location. The simulations include cases with inter-particle collisions and gravitational settling. Particle effects on the fluid are ignored. The numerical simulations are performed using an Euler- Lagrange method in which a fractional-step approach is used for the fluid and with the particulate phase advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The objectives are to gain insight into the fluid-particle dynamics that influence transport near the bed by analyzing the competing effects of the vortices, inter-particle collisions, and gravity. Following the introduction of coherent vortices into the domain, the structures convect downstream, dissipate, and then recover to an equilibrium state with the boundary layer. The particle phase displays an analogous return to an equilibrium state as the vortices dissipate and the boundary layer recovers, though this recovery is slower than
Ibergay, Cyrille; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J
2009-12-08
We report mesoscopic simulations of bulk electrolytes and polyelectrolyte brushes using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method. The calculation of the electrostatic interactions is carried out using both the Ewald summation method and the particle-particle particle-mesh technique with charges distributed over the particles. The local components of the pressure tensor are calculated using the Irving and Kirkwood, and the method of planes and mechanical equilibrium is demonstrated. The profiles of the normal component of the pressure tensor are shown to be similar for both the Ewald and particle-particle particle-mesh methods for a single polyelectrolyte brush. We show that the PPPM method with the MOP technique is the appropriate choice for simulations of this type. The mesoscale modeling of a strongly stretched polylectrolyte brush formed by strong charged polymer chains at a high grafting density shows that the polyelectrolyte follows the nonlinear osmotic regime, as expected from the calculation of the Gouy-Chapman length and the dimensionless Manning ratio.
Microfluidic devices for modeling cell-cell and particle-cell interactions in the microvasculature
Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Shen, Ming-Che; Pant, Kapil; Kiani, Mohammad F.
2011-01-01
Cell-fluid and cell-cell interactions are critical components of many physiological and pathological conditions in the microvasculature. Similarly, particle-cell interactions play an important role in targeted delivery of therapeutics to tissue. Development of in vitro fluidic devices to mimic these microcirculatory processes has been a critical step forward in our understanding of the inflammatory process, development of nano-particulate drug carriers, and developing realistic in vitro models of the microvasculature and its surrounding tissue. However, widely used parallel plate flow based devices and assays have a number of important limitations for studying the physiological conditions in vivo. In addition, these devices are resource hungry and time consuming for performing various assays. Recently developed, more realistic, microfluidic based devices have been able to overcome many of these limitations. In this review, an overview of the fluidic devices and their use in studying the effects of shear forces on cell-cell and cell-particle interactions is presented. In addition, use of mathematical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based models for interpreting the complex flow patterns in the microvasculature are highlighted. Finally, the potential of 3D microfluidic devices and imaging for better representing in vivo conditions under which cell-cell and cell-particle interactions take place are discussed. PMID:21763328
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, L. Y.
2016-06-01
The particle-hole symmetry (equivalence) of the full shell-model Hilbert space is straightforward and routinely used in practical calculations. In this work I show that this symmetry is preserved in the subspace truncated up to a certain generalized seniority and give the explicit transformation between the states in the two types (particle and hole) of representations. Based on the results, I study particle-hole symmetry in popular theories that could be regarded as further truncations on top of the generalized seniority, including the microscopic interacting boson (fermion) model, the nucleon-pair approximation, and other models.
Elementary particle interactions
Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.
1990-10-01
This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to {mu}{sup +} and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics. (LSP)
Deriving reaction-diffusion models in ecology from interacting particle systems.
Cantrell, R S; Cosner, C
2004-02-01
We use a scaling procedure based on averaging Poisson distributed random variables to derive population level models from local models of interactions between individuals. The procedure is suggested by using the idea of hydrodynamic limits to derive reaction-diffusion models for population interactions from interacting particle systems. The scaling procedure is formal in the sense that we do not address the issue of proving that it converges; instead we focus on methods for computing the results of the scaling or deriving properties of rescaled systems. To that end we treat the scaling procedure as a transform, in analogy with the Laplace or Fourier transform, and derive operational formulas to aid in the computation of rescaled systems or the derivation of their properties. Since the limiting procedure is adapted from work by Durrett and Levin, we refer to the transform as the Durrett-Levin transform. We examine the effects of rescaling in various standard models, including Lotka-Volterra models, Holling type predator-prey models, and ratio-dependent models. The effects of scaling are mostly quantitative in models with smooth interaction terms, but ratio-dependent models are profoundly affected by the scaling. The scaling transforms ratio-dependent terms that are singular at the origin into smooth terms. Removing the singularity at the origin eliminates some of the unique dynamics that can arise in ratio-dependent models.
Interactive Terascale Particle Visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellsworth, David; Green, Bryan; Moran, Patrick
2004-01-01
This paper describes the methods used to produce an interactive visualization of a 2 TB computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data set using particle tracing (streaklines). We use the method introduced by Bruckschen et al. [2001] that pre-computes a large number of particles, stores them on disk using a space-filling curve ordering that minimizes seeks, and then retrieves and displays the particles according to the user's command. We describe how the particle computation can be performed using a PC cluster, how the algorithm can be adapted to work with a multi-block curvilinear mesh, and how the out-of-core visualization can be scaled to 296 billion particles while still achieving interactive performance on PG hardware. Compared to the earlier work, our data set size and total number of particles are an order of magnitude larger. We also describe a new compression technique that allows the lossless compression of the particles by 41% and speeds the particle retrieval by about 30%.
Rubber particle proteins, HbREF and HbSRPP, show different interactions with model membranes.
Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Zhendre, Vanessa; Henry, Sarah; Thévenot, Julie; Dufourc, Erick J; Alves, Isabel D; Peruch, Frédéric
2014-01-01
The biomembrane surrounding rubber particles from the hevea latex is well known for its content of numerous allergen proteins. HbREF (Hevb1) and HbSRPP (Hevb3) are major components, linked on rubber particles, and they have been shown to be involved in rubber synthesis or quality (mass regulation), but their exact function is still to be determined. In this study we highlighted the different modes of interactions of both recombinant proteins with various membrane models (lipid monolayers, liposomes or supported bilayers, and multilamellar vesicles) to mimic the latex particle membrane. We combined various biophysical methods (polarization-modulation-infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS)/ellipsometry, attenuated-total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR), fluorescence spectroscopy) to elucidate their interactions. Small rubber particle protein (SRPP) shows less affinity than rubber elongation factor (REF) for the membranes but displays a kind of "covering" effect on the lipid headgroups without disturbing the membrane integrity. Its structure is conserved in the presence of lipids. Contrarily, REF demonstrates higher membrane affinity with changes in its aggregation properties, the amyloid nature of REF, which we previously reported, is not favored in the presence of lipids. REF binds and inserts into membranes. The membrane integrity is highly perturbed, and we suspect that REF is even able to remove lipids from the membrane leading to the formation of mixed micelles. These two homologous proteins show affinity to all membrane models tested but neatly differ in their interacting features. This could imply differential roles on the surface of rubber particles.
ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS
EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN
2013-07-30
The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NOνA”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.
Peter J. Mucha
2007-08-30
Suspensions of solid particles in liquids appear in numerous applications, from environmental settings like river silt, to industrial systems of solids transport and water treatment, and biological flows such as blood flow. Despite their importance, much remains unexplained about these complicated systems. Mucha's research aims to improve understanding of basic properties of suspensions through a program of simulating model interacting particle systems with critical evaluation of proposed continuum equations, in close collaboration with experimentalists. Natural to this approach, the original proposal centered around collaboration with studies already conducted in various experimental groups. However, as was detailed in the 2004 progress report, following the first year of this award, a number of the questions from the original proposal were necessarily redirected towards other specific goals because of changes in the research programs of the proposed experimental collaborators. Nevertheless, the modified project goals and the results that followed from those goals maintain close alignment with the main themes of the original proposal, improving efficient simulation and macroscopic modeling of sedimenting and colloidal suspensions. In particular, the main investigations covered under this award have included: (1) Sedimentation instabilities, including the sedimentation analogue of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (for heavy, particle-laden fluid over lighter, clear fluid). (2) Ageing dynamics of colloidal suspensions at concentrations above the glass transition, using simplified interactions. (3) Stochastic reconstruction of velocity-field dependence for particle image velocimetry (PIV). (4) Stochastic modeling of the near-wall bias in 'nano-PIV'. (5) Distributed Lagrange multiplier simulation of the 'internal splash' of a particle falling through a stable stratified interface. (6) Fundamental study of velocity fluctuations in sedimentation. (7) Parallelization of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Catalina, A. V.; Mukherjee, S.; Stefanescu, D. M.
2000-01-01
Most models that describe the interaction of an insoluble particle with an advancing solid-liquid interface are based on the assumption of steady state. However, as demonstrated by experimental work, the process does not reach steady state until the particle is pushed for a while by the interface. In this work, a dynamic mathematical model was developed. The dynamic model demonstrates that this interaction is essentially non-steady state and that steady state eventually occurs only when solidification is conducted at sub-critical velocities. The model was tested for three systems: aluminum-zirconia particles, succinonitrilepolystyrene particles, and biphenyl-glass particles. The calculated values for critical velocity of the pushing/engulfment transition were in same range with the experimental ones.
A Penalty Method to Model Particle Interactions in DNA-laden Flows
Trebotich, D; Miller, G H; Bybee, M D
2006-10-06
We present a hybrid fluid-particle algorithm to simulate flow and transport of DNA-laden fluids in microdevices. Relevant length scales in microfluidic systems range from characteristic channel sizes of millimeters to micron scale geometric variation (e.g., post arrays) to 10 nanometers for the length of a single rod in a bead-rod polymer representation of a biological material such as DNA. The method is based on a previous fluid-particle algorithm in which long molecules are represented as a chain of connected rods, but in which the physically unrealistic behavior of rod crossing occurred. We have extended this algorithm to include screened Coulombic forces between particles by implementing a Debye-Hueckel potential acting between rods. In the method an unsteady incompressible Newtonian fluid is discretized with a second-order finite difference method in the interior of the Cartesian grid domain; an embedded boundary volume-of-fluid formulation is used near boundaries. The bead-rod polymer model is fully coupled to the solvent through body forces representing hydrodynamic drag and stochastic thermal fluctuations. While intrapolymer interactions are modeled by a soft potential, polymer-structure interactions are treated as perfectly elastic collisions. We demonstrate this method on flow and transport of a polymer through a post array microchannel in 2D where the polymer incorporates more realistic physical parameters of DNA, and compare to previous simulations where rods are allowed to cross. We also show that the method is capable of simulating 3D flow in a packed bed micro-column.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priye, Aashish; Marlow, William H.
2013-10-01
The phenomenon of particle resuspension plays a vital role in numerous fields. Among many aspects of particle resuspension dynamics, a dominant concern is the accurate description and formulation of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between the particle and substrate. Current models treat adhesion by incorporating a material-dependent Hamaker's constant which relies on the heuristic Hamaker's two-body interactions. However, this assumption of pairwise summation of interaction energies can lead to significant errors in condensed matter as it does not take into account the many-body interaction and retardation effects. To address these issues, an approach based on Lifshitz continuum theory of vdW interactions has been developed to calculate the principal many-body interactions between arbitrary geometries at all separation distances to a high degree of accuracy through Lifshitz's theory. We have applied this numerical implementation to calculate the many-body vdW interactions between spherical particles and surfaces with sinusoidally varying roughness profile and also to non-spherical particles (cubes, cylinders, tetrahedron etc) orientated differently with respect to the surface. Our calculations revealed that increasing the surface roughness amplitude decreases the adhesion force and non-spherical particles adhere to the surfaces more strongly when their flatter sides are oriented towards the surface. Such practical shapes and structures of particle-surface systems have not been previously considered in resuspension models and this rigorous treatment of vdW interactions provides more realistic adhesion forces between the particle and the surface which can then be coupled with computational fluid dynamics models to improve the predictive capabilities of particle resuspension dynamics.
Yigit, Cemil; Dzubiella, Joachim; Heyda, Jan
2015-08-14
We introduce a set of charged patchy particle models (CPPMs) in order to systematically study the influence of electrostatic charge patchiness and multipolarity on macromolecular interactions by means of implicit-solvent, explicit-ion Langevin dynamics simulations employing the Gromacs software. We consider well-defined zero-, one-, and two-patched spherical globules each of the same net charge and (nanometer) size which are composed of discrete atoms. The studied mono- and multipole moments of the CPPMs are comparable to those of globular proteins with similar size. We first characterize ion distributions and electrostatic potentials around a single CPPM. Although angle-resolved radial distribution functions reveal the expected local accumulation and depletion of counter- and co-ions around the patches, respectively, the orientation-averaged electrostatic potential shows only a small variation among the various CPPMs due to space charge cancellations. Furthermore, we study the orientation-averaged potential of mean force (PMF), the number of accumulated ions on the patches, as well as the CPPM orientations along the center-to-center distance of a pair of CPPMs. We compare the PMFs to the classical Derjaguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek theory and previously introduced orientation-averaged Debye-Hückel pair potentials including dipolar interactions. Our simulations confirm the adequacy of the theories in their respective regimes of validity, while low salt concentrations and large multipolar interactions remain a challenge for tractable theoretical descriptions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Zhangli; Li, Xuejin; Pivkin, Igor; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George
2013-11-01
We develop a two-component dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane by modeling the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton separately. By applying this model to simulate four different experiments on RBCs, including micropipette aspiration, membrane fluctuations, tank-treading motions in shear flow and bilayer tethering in a flow channel, we validated our model and studied the mechanical properties of the bilayer-cytoskeletal interaction in a systematic and controlled manner, such as its elastic stiffness, viscous friction and strength. In the same time, we also resolved several controversies in RBC mechanics, e.g., the dependence of tank-treading frequency on shear rates and the possibility of bilayer-cytoskeletal slip. Furthermore, to investigate RBC dynamics in the microcirculation, we simulated the passages of RBCs through narrow channels of the flow cytometer in vitro and their passages through the splenic inter-endothelial slits in vivo. The effects of RBC geometry and membrane stiffness on the critical pressure gradient of passage were studied, and the simulation results agree well with experimental measurements. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant R01HL094270 and the new Department of Energy Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gergianakis, I.; Meireles, M.; Bacchin, P.; Hallez, Y.
2015-11-01
Nano-particles in suspension often experience strong non-hydrodynamic interactions (NHIs) such as electrostatic repulsions. In this work, we present and justify a flow modeling strategy adapted to such systems. Earlier works on colloidal transport in simple flows, were based on the solution of a transport equation for the colloidal volume fraction with a known fluid velocity field and a volume-fraction-dependent diffusion coefficient accounting for mass fluxes due to NHIs. Extension of this modelling to complex flows requires the coupled resolution of a momentum transport equation for the suspension velocity field. We use the framework of the Suspension Balance Model to show that in the Pe << 1 regime relevant here, the average suspension velocity field is independent of NHIs between nanoparticles , while the average fluid phase and solid phase velocity fields both always depend of the NHIs. Lastly, we apply this modelling strategy to the problem of the drying of a colloidal suspension in a micro-evaporator [Merlin et al., 2012, Soft Matter]. The influence of the effective Peclet number on the 1D/2D character of the flow is evaluated and the possible colloidal film patterning due to defaults of substrate topography is commented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eslami, Ghiyam; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmaeil; Pérez, Alberto T.
2016-10-01
Up and down motion of a spherical conductive particle in dielectric viscous fluid driven by a DC electric field between two parallel electrodes was investigated. A nonlinear differential equation, governing the particle dynamics, was derived, based on Newton's second law of mechanics, and solved numerically. All the pertaining dimensionless groups were extracted. In contrast to similar previous works, hydrodynamic interaction between the particle and the electrodes, as well as image electric forces, has been taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of the microdischarge produced between the electrodes and the approaching particle on the particle dynamics has been included in the model. The model results were compared with experimental data available in the literature, as well as with some additional experimental data obtained through the present study showing very good agreement. The results indicate that the wall hydrodynamic effect and the dielectric liquid ionic conductivity are very dominant factors determining the particle trajectory. A lower bound is derived for the charge transferred to the particle while rebounding from an electrode. It is found that the time and length scales of the post-microdischarge motion of the particle can be as small as microsecond and micrometer, respectively. The model is able to predict the so called settling/dwelling time phenomenon for the first time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopp, Andreas; Wiengarten, Tobias; Fichtner, Horst; Effenberger, Frederic; Kühl, Patrick; Heber, Bernd; Raath, Jan-Louis; Potgieter, Marius S.
2017-03-01
The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the heliosphere is determined by the properties of the solar wind plasma. The heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric CR transport are structures such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which, due to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength and magnetic fluctuations within and due to the associated shocks as well as stream interfaces, do influence the CR diffusion and drift. In a three-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with the numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework Cronos (Wiengarten et al., referred as Paper I), and the results serve as input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (this paper). While, in Paper I, we presented results from 3D simulations with Cronos, the MHD output is now taken as an input to the CR transport modeling. We discuss the diffusion and drift behavior of Galactic cosmic rays using the example of different theories, and study the effects of CIRs on these transport processes. In particular, we point out the wide range of possible particle fluxes at a given point in space resulting from these different theories. The restriction of this variety by fitting the numerical results to spacecraft data will be the subject of the third paper of this series.
Numerical modeling of the early interaction of a planar shock with a dense particle field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regele, Jonathan; Blanquart, Guillaume
2011-11-01
Dense compressible multiphase flows are of interest for multiphase turbomachinary and energetic material detonations. Still, there is little understanding of the detailed interaction mechanisms between shock waves and dense (particle volume fraction αd > 0 . 001) particle fields. A recent experimental study [Wagner et al, AIAA Aero. Sci., Orlando, 2011-188] has focused on the impingement of a planar shock wave on a dense particle curtain. In the present work, numerical solutions of the Euler equations in one and two dimensions are performed for a planar shock wave impinging on a fixed particle curtain and are compared to the experimental data for early times. Comparison of the one- and two-dimensional results demonstrate that the one-dimensional description captures the large scale flow behavior, but is inadequate to capture all the details observed in the experiments. The two-dimensional solutions are shown to reproduce the experimentally observed flow structures and provide insight into how these details originate.
A Hamiltonian Model of Dissipative Wave-particle Interactions and the Negative-mass Effect
A. Zhmoginov
2011-02-07
The effect of radiation friction is included in the Hamiltonian treatment of wave-particle interactions with autoresonant phase-locking, yielding a generalized canonical approach to the problem of dissipative dynamics near a nonlinear resonance. As an example, the negativemass eff ect exhibited by a charged particle in a pump wave and a static magnetic field is studied in the presence of the friction force due to cyclotron radiation. Particles with negative parallel masses m! are shown to transfer their kinetic energy to the pump wave, thus amplifying it. Counterintuitively, such particles also undergo stable dynamics, decreasing their transverse energy monotonically due to cyclotron cooling, whereas some of those with positive m! undergo cyclotron heating instead, extracting energy from the pump wave.
Modeling aerosol surface chemistry and gas-particle interaction kinetics with K2-SURF: PAH oxidation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraiwa, M.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.
2009-04-01
Atmospheric aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. They have the ability to impact cloud properties, radiative balance and provide surfaces for heterogeneous reactions. The uptake of gaseous species on aerosol surfaces impacts both the aerosol particles and the atmospheric budget of trace gases. These subsequent changes to the aerosol can in turn impact the aerosol chemical and physical properties. However, this uptake, as well as the impact on the aerosol, is not fully understood. This uncertainty is due not only to limited measurement data, but also a dearth of comprehensive and applicable modeling formalizations used for the analysis, interpretation and description of these heterogeneous processes. Without a common model framework, comparing and extrapolating experimental data is difficult. In this study, a novel kinetic surface model (K2-SURF) [Ammann & Pöschl, 2007; Pöschl et al., 2007] was used to describe the oxidation of a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Integrated into this consistent and universally applicable kinetic and thermodynamic process model are the concepts, terminologies and mathematical formalizations essential to the description of atmospherically relevant physicochemical processes involving organic and mixed organic-inorganic aerosols. Within this process model framework, a detailed master mechanism, simplified mechanism and parameterizations of atmospheric aerosol chemistry are being developed and integrated in analogy to existing mechanisms and parameterizations of atmospheric gas-phase chemistry. One of the key aspects to this model is the defining of a clear distinction between various layers of the particle and surrounding gas phase. The processes occurring at each layer can be fully described using known fluxes and kinetic parameters. Using this system there is a clear separation of gas phase, gas-surface and surface bulk transport and reactions. The partitioning of compounds can be calculated using the flux
Eulerian formulation of the interacting particle representation model of homogeneous turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, Alejandro; Duraisamy, Karthik; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2016-10-01
The Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM) of homogeneous turbulence incorporates information about the morphology of turbulent structures within the confines of a one-point model. In the original formulation [Kassinos and Reynolds, Center for Turbulence Research: Annual Research Briefs, 31-51 (1996)], the IPRM was developed in a Lagrangian setting by evolving second moments of velocity conditional on a given gradient vector. In the present work, the IPRM is reformulated in an Eulerian framework, and evolution equations are developed for the marginal probability density functions (PDFs). Eulerian methods avoid the issues associated with statistical estimators used by Lagrangian approaches, such as slow convergence. A specific emphasis of this work is to use the IPRM to examine the long time evolution of homogeneous turbulence. We first describe the derivation of the marginal PDF in spherical coordinates, which reduces the number of independent variables and the cost associated with Eulerian simulations of PDF models. Next, a numerical method based on radial basis functions over a spherical domain is adapted to the IPRM. Finally, results obtained with the new Eulerian solution method are thoroughly analyzed. The sensitivity of the Eulerian simulations to parameters of the numerical scheme, such as the size of the time step and the shape parameter of the radial basis functions, is examined. A comparison between Eulerian and Lagrangian simulations is performed to discern the capabilities of each of the methods. Finally, a linear stability analysis based on the eigenvalues of the discrete differential operators is carried out for both the new Eulerian solution method and the original Lagrangian approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuji, Tetsuro; Iseki, Hirotaka; Hanasaki, Itsuo; Kawano, Satoyuki
2016-11-01
Thermophoresis of a nano particle in a fluid is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. In order to elucidate effective factors on the characteristics of thermophoresis, simple models for both the fluid and the nano particle are considered, namely, the surrounding fluid consists of Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles and the model nano particle is a cluster consisting of several tens of LJ particles. Interaction between the fluid particle and the model nano particle is described by the LJ interaction potential or repulsive interaction potential with the Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rule. As a preliminary result, the effect of mass on thermophoretic force acting on the model nano particle is investigated for both interaction potentials.
Durve, Mihir; Sayeed, Ahmed
2016-05-01
We have carried out a Monte Carlo simulation of a modified version of Vicsek model for the motion of self-propelled particles in two dimensions. In this model the neighborhood of interaction of a particle is a sector of the circle with the particle at the center (rather than the whole circle as in the original Vicsek model). The sector is centered along the direction of the velocity of the particle, and the half-opening angle of this sector is called the "view angle." We vary the view angle over its entire range and study the change in the nature of the collective motion of the particles. We find that ordered collective motion persists down to remarkably small view angles. And at a certain transition view angle the collective motion of the system undergoes a first-order phase transition to a disordered state. We also find that the reduction in the view angle can in fact increase the order in the system significantly. We show that the directionality of the interaction, and not only the radial range of the interaction, plays an important role in the determination of the nature of the above phase transition.
Modeling Plasma-Particle Interaction in Multi-Arc Plasma Spraying
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.
2017-02-01
The properties of plasma-sprayed coatings are controlled by the heat, momentum, and mass transfer between individual particles and the plasma jet. The particle behavior in conventional single-arc plasma spraying has been the subject of intensive numerical research, whereas multi-arc plasma spraying has not yet received the same attention. We propose herein a numerical model to serve as a scientific tool to investigate particle behavior in multi-arc plasma spraying. In the Lagrangian description of particles in the model, the mathematical formulations describing the heat, momentum, and mass transfer are of great importance for good predictive power, so such formulations proposed by different authors were compared critically, revealing that different mathematical formulations lead to significantly different results. The accuracy of the different formulations was evaluated based on theoretical considerations, and those found to be more accurate were implemented in the final model. Furthermore, a mathematical formulation is proposed to enable simplified calculation of partial particle melting and resolidification.
Modeling Plasma-Particle Interaction in Multi-Arc Plasma Spraying
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.
2017-01-01
The properties of plasma-sprayed coatings are controlled by the heat, momentum, and mass transfer between individual particles and the plasma jet. The particle behavior in conventional single-arc plasma spraying has been the subject of intensive numerical research, whereas multi-arc plasma spraying has not yet received the same attention. We propose herein a numerical model to serve as a scientific tool to investigate particle behavior in multi-arc plasma spraying. In the Lagrangian description of particles in the model, the mathematical formulations describing the heat, momentum, and mass transfer are of great importance for good predictive power, so such formulations proposed by different authors were compared critically, revealing that different mathematical formulations lead to significantly different results. The accuracy of the different formulations was evaluated based on theoretical considerations, and those found to be more accurate were implemented in the final model. Furthermore, a mathematical formulation is proposed to enable simplified calculation of partial particle melting and resolidification.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kottonau, Johannes
2011-01-01
Effectively teaching the concepts of osmosis to college-level students is a major obstacle in biological education. Therefore, a novel computer model is presented that allows students to observe the random nature of particle motion simultaneously with the seemingly directed net flow of water across a semipermeable membrane during osmotic…
Interaction of Burning Metal Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Hoffmann, Vern K.
1999-01-01
Physical characteristics of the combustion of metal particle groups have been addressed in this research. The combustion behavior and interaction effects of multiple metal particles has been studied using a microgravity environment, which presents a unique opportunity to create an "aerosol" consisting of relatively large particles, i.e., 50-300 m diameter. Combustion behavior of such an aerosol could be examined using methods adopted from well-developed single particle combustion research. The experiment included fluidizing relatively large (order of 100 m diameter) uniform metal particles under microgravity and igniting such an "aerosol" using a hot wire igniter. The flame propagation and details of individual particle combustion and particle interaction have been studied using a high speed movie and video-imaging with cameras coupled with microscope lenses to resolve individual particles. Interference filters were used to separate characteristic metal and metal oxide radiation bands from the thermal black body radiation. Recorded flame images were digitized and various image processing techniques including flame position tracking, color separation, and pixel by pixel image comparison were employed to understand the processes occurring in the burning aerosol. The development of individual particle flames, merging or separation, and extinguishment as well as induced particle motion have been analyzed to identify the mechanisms governing these processes. Size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of combustion products were characterized and used to link the observed in this project aerosol combustion phenomena with the recently expanded mechanism of single metal particle combustion.
Interaction of Burning Metal Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Hoffmann, Vern K.
1999-01-01
Physical characteristics of the combustion of metal particle groups have been addressed in this research. The combustion behavior and interaction effects of multiple metal particles has been studied using a microgravity environment, which presents a unique opportunity to create an "aerosol" consisting of relatively large particles, i.e., 50-300 micrometer diameter. Combustion behavior of such an aerosol could be examined using methods adopted from well-developed single particle combustion research. The experiment included fluidizing relatively large (order of 100 micrometer diameter) uniform metal particles under microgravity and igniting such an "aerosol" using a hot wire igniter. The flame propagation and details of individual particle combustion and particle interaction have been studied using a high speed movie and video-imaging with cameras coupled with microscope lenses to resolve individual particles. Interference filters were used to separate characteristic metal and metal oxide radiation bands form the thermal black body radiation. Recorded flame images were digitized and employed to understand the processes occurring in the burning aerosol. The development of individual particle flames, merging or separation, and extinguishing as well as induced particle motion have been analyzed to identify the mechanisms governing these processes. Size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of combustion products were characterized and used to link the observed in this project aerosol combustion phenomena with the recently expanded mechanism of single metal particle combustion.
Optimized sparse-particle aerosol representations for modeling cloud-aerosol interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fierce, Laura; McGraw, Robert
2016-04-01
Sparse representations of atmospheric aerosols are needed for efficient regional- and global-scale chemical transport models. Here we introduce a new framework for representing aerosol distributions, based on the method of moments. Given a set of moment constraints, we show how linear programming can be used to identify collections of sparse particles that approximately maximize distributional entropy. The collections of sparse particles derived from this approach reproduce CCN activity of the exact model aerosol distributions with high accuracy. Additionally, the linear programming techniques described in this study can be used to bound key aerosol properties, such as the number concentration of CCN. Unlike the commonly used sparse representations, such as modal and sectional schemes, the maximum-entropy moment-based approach is not constrained to pre-determined size bins or assumed distribution shapes. This study is a first step toward a new aerosol simulation scheme that will track multivariate aerosol distributions with sufficient computational efficiency for large-scale simulations.
Model for Thermal Relic Dark Matter of Strongly Interacting Massive Particles.
Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker, Jay G
2015-07-10
A recent proposal is that dark matter could be a thermal relic of 3→2 scatterings in a strongly coupled hidden sector. We present explicit classes of strongly coupled gauge theories that admit this behavior. These are QCD-like theories of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, where the pions play the role of dark matter. The number-changing 3→2 process, which sets the dark matter relic abundance, arises from the Wess-Zumino-Witten term. The theories give an explicit relationship between the 3→2 annihilation rate and the 2→2 self-scattering rate, which alters predictions for structure formation. This is a simple calculable realization of the strongly interacting massive-particle mechanism.
Comparing Particle-in-Cell QED Models for High-Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luedtke, Scott V.; Labun, Lance A.; Hegelich, Björn Manuel
2016-10-01
High-intensity lasers, such as the Texas Petawatt, are pushing into new regimes of laser-matter interaction, requiring continuing improvement and inclusion of new physics effects in computer simulations. Experiments at the Texas Petawatt are reaching intensity regimes where new physics-quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections to otherwise classical plasma dynamics-becomes important. We have two particle-in-cell (PIC) codes with different QED implementations. We review the theory of photon emission in QED-strong fields, and cover the differing PIC implementations. We show predictions from the two codes and compare with ongoing experiments. This work was supported by NNSA cooperative agreement DE-NA0002008, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's PULSE program (12-63-PULSE-FP014) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-14-1-0045). HPC resources provided by TACC.
Krott, Leandro B; Barbosa, Marcia C
2014-01-01
Molecular dynamic simulations were employed to study a waterlike model confined between hydrophobic and hydrophilic plates. The phase behavior of this system is obtained for different distances between the plates and particle-plate potentials. For both hydrophobic and hydrophilic walls, there are the formation of layers. Crystallization occurs at lower temperature at the contact layer than at the middle layer. In addition, the melting temperature decreases as the plates become more hydrophobic. Similarly, the temperatures of maximum density and extremum diffusivity decrease with hydrophobicity.
Rubio-del-Campo, Antonio; Coll-Marqués, José M; Yebra, María J; Buesa, Javier; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Monedero, Vicente; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús
2014-01-01
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the main etiologic agents of acute epidemic gastroenteritis and probiotic bacteria have been reported to exert a positive effect on viral diarrhea. The protruding (P) domain from NoVs VP1 capsid protein has the ability to assemble into the so-called P-particles, which retain the binding ability to host receptors. We purified the P-domains from NoVs genotypes GI.1 and GII.4 as 6X(His)-tagged proteins and determined that, similar to native domains, they were structured into P-particles that were functional in the recognition of the specific glycoconjugated receptors, as established by surface plasmon resonance experiments. We showed that several lactic acid bacteria (probiotic and non-probiotic) and a Gram-negative probiotic strain have the ability to bind P-particles on their surfaces irrespective of their probiotic status. The binding of P-particles (GI.1) to HT-29 cells in the presence of selected strains showed that bacteria can inhibit P-particle attachment in competitive exclusion experiments. However, pre-treatment of cells with bacteria or adding bacteria to cells with already attached P-particles enhanced the retention of the particles. Although direct viral binding and blocking of viral receptors have been postulated as mechanisms of protection against viral infection by probiotic bacteria, these results highlight the need for a careful evaluation of this hypothesis. The work presented here investigates for the first time the probiotic-NoVs-host interactions and points up the NoVs P-particles as useful tools to overcome the absence of in vitro cellular models to propagate these viruses.
1.5D Quasilinear Model for Alpha Particle-TAE Interaction in ARIES ACT-I
K. Ghantous, N.N. Gorelenkov, C. Kessel, F. Poli
2013-01-30
We study the TAE interaction with alpha particle fusion products in ARIES ACT-I using the 1.5D quasilinear model. 1.5D uses linear analytic expressions for growth and damping rates of TAE modes evaluated using TRANSP pro les to calculates the relaxation of pressure pro les. NOVA- K simulations are conducted to validate the analytic dependancies of the rates, and to normalize their absolute value. The low dimensionality of the model permits calculating loss diagrams in large parameter spaces.
Elementary Particles and Weak Interactions
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Lee, T. D.; Yang, C. N.
1957-01-01
Some general patterns of interactions between various elementary particles are reviewed and some general questions concerning the symmetry properties of these particles are studied. Topics are included on the theta-tau puzzle, experimental limits on the validity of parity conservation, some general discussions on the consequences due to possible non-invariance under P, C, and T, various possible experimental tests on invariance under P, C, and T, a two-component theory of the neutrino, a possible law of conservation of leptons and the universal Fermi interactions, and time reversal invariance and Mach's principle. (M.H.R.)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ya; Li, Lian; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin
2016-07-01
A one dimensional quantum-hydrodynamic/particle-in-cell (QHD/PIC) model is used to study the interaction process of an intense proton beam (injection density of 1017 cm-3) with a dense plasma (initial density of ~ 1021 cm-3), with the PIC method for simulating the beam particle dynamics and the QHD model for considering the quantum effects including the quantum statistical and quantum diffraction effects. By means of the QHD theory, the wake electron density and wakefields are calculated, while the proton beam density is calculated by the PIC method and compared to hydrodynamic results to justify that the PIC method is a more suitable way to simulate the beam particle dynamics. The calculation results show that the incident continuous proton beam when propagating in the plasma generates electron perturbations as well as wakefields oscillations with negative valleys and positive peaks where the proton beams are repelled by the positive wakefields and accelerated by the negative wakefields. Moreover, the quantum correction obviously hinders the electron perturbations as well as the wakefields. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the quantum effects in the interaction of a proton beam with cold dense plasmas, such as in the metal films. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405067, 11105057, 11275007)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Tomoaki; Nagata, Koji
2016-11-01
The mixing volume model (MVM), which is a mixing model for molecular diffusion in Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing problems, is proposed based on the interactions among spatially distributed particles in a finite volume. The mixing timescale in the MVM is derived by comparison between the model and the subgrid scale scalar variance equation. A-priori test of the MVM is conducted based on the direct numerical simulations of planar jets. The MVM is shown to predict well the mean effects of the molecular diffusion under various conditions. However, a predicted value of the molecular diffusion term is positively correlated to the exact value in the DNS only when the number of the mixing particles is larger than two. Furthermore, the MVM is tested in the hybrid implicit large-eddy-simulation/Lagrangian-particle-simulation (ILES/LPS). The ILES/LPS with the present mixing model predicts well the decay of the scalar variance in planar jets. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Nos. 25289030 and 16K18013. The numerical simulations presented in this manuscript were carried out on the high performance computing system (NEC SX-ACE) in the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology.
An interacting particle system modelling aggregation behavior: from individuals to populations.
Morale, Daniela; Capasso, Vincenzo; Oelschläger, Karl
2005-01-01
In this paper we investigate the stochastic modelling of a spatially structured biological population subject to social interaction. The biological motivation comes from the analysis of field experiments on a species of ants which exhibits a clear tendency to aggregate, still avoiding overcrowding. The model we propose here provides an explanation of this experimental behavior in terms of "long-ranged" aggregation and "short-ranged" repulsion mechanisms among individuals, in addition to an individual random dispersal described by a Brownian motion. Further, based on a "law of large numbers", we discuss the convergence, for large N, of a system of stochastic differential equations describing the evolution of N individuals (Lagrangian approach) to a deterministic integro-differential equation describing the evolution of the mean-field spatial density of the population (Eulerian approach).
Gallet, Basile; Nazarenko, Sergey; Dubrulle, Bérengère
2015-07-01
In field theory, particles are waves or excitations that propagate on the fundamental state. In experiments or cosmological models, one typically wants to compute the out-of-equilibrium evolution of a given initial distribution of such waves. Wave turbulence deals with out-of-equilibrium ensembles of weakly nonlinear waves, and is therefore well suited to address this problem. As an example, we consider the complex Klein-Gordon equation with a Mexican-hat potential. This simple equation displays two kinds of excitations around the fundamental state: massive particles and massless Goldstone bosons. The former are waves with a nonzero frequency for vanishing wave number, whereas the latter obey an acoustic dispersion relation. Using wave-turbulence theory, we derive wave kinetic equations that govern the coupled evolution of the spectra of massive and massless waves. We first consider the thermodynamic solutions to these equations and study the wave condensation transition, which is the classical equivalent of Bose-Einstein condensation. We then focus on nonlocal interactions in wave-number space: we study the decay of an ensemble of massive particles into massless ones. Under rather general conditions, these massless particles accumulate at low wave number. We study the dynamics of waves coexisting with such a strong condensate, and we compute rigorously a nonlocal Kolmogorov-Zakharov solution, where particles are transferred nonlocally to the condensate, while energy cascades towards large wave numbers through local interactions. This nonlocal cascading state constitutes the intermediate asymptotics between the initial distribution of waves and the thermodynamic state reached in the long-time limit.
Dielectrophoretic particle-particle interaction under AC electrohydrodynamic flow conditions.
Lee, Doh-Hyoung; Yu, Chengjie; Papazoglou, Elisabeth; Farouk, Bakhtier; Noh, Hongseok M
2011-09-01
We used the Maxwell stress tensor method to understand dielectrophoretic particle-particle interactions and applied the results to the interpretation of particle behaviors under alternating current (AC) electrohydrodynamic conditions such as AC electroosmosis (ACEO) and electrothermal flow (ETF). Distinct particle behaviors were observed under ACEO and ETF. Diverse particle-particle interactions observed in experiments such as particle clustering, particles keeping a certain distance from each other, chain and disc formation and their rotation, are explained based on the numerical simulation data. The improved understanding of particle behaviors in AC electrohydrodynamic flows presented here will enable researchers to design better particle manipulation strategies for lab-on-a-chip applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiśniowski, R.; Olchawa, W.; Frączek, D.; Piasecki, R.
2016-02-01
Recently, the effective medium approach (EMA) using 2×2 basic cluster of model lattice sites to predict the conductivity of interacting microemulsion droplets has been presented by Hattori et al. To make a step aside from pure applications, we studied earlier a multi-scale percolation, employing any k× k basic cluster for non-interacting particles. Here, with interactions included, we examine in what way they alter the percolation threshold for any cluster case. We found that at a fixed length scale k, the interaction reduces the range of shifts of the percolation threshold. To determine the critical concentrations, the simplified EMA-model is used. It diminishes the number of local conductivities into two main ones. In the presence of a dominance of the repulsive interaction over the thermal energy, the exact percolation thresholds at two small scales can be revealed from analytical formulas. Furthermore, at large scales, the highest possible value of the estimated threshold can be obtained.
The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory
Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W.; Brown, N.A.; Babcock, R.C.; Martono, H.; Carey, D.C. |
1997-02-01
The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is an educational software concept to aid students and professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab is being developed as a cross-platform application and includes four key elements. The first is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. The second is a knowledge database containing information on electric and magnetic optics transport elements. The knowledge database provides interactive tutorials on the fundamental physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware. The third element is a graphical construction kit that provides tools for students to interactively and visually construct optical beamlines. The final element is a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute trajectories, transport beam envelopes, fit parameters to optical constraints and carry out similar calculations for the student designed beamlines. The primary computational engine is provided by the third-order TRANSPORT code. Augmenting TRANSPORT is the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE and a first-order matrix program that includes a space charge model and support for calculating single particle trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. This paper describes progress on the development of the PBO Lab. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory
Gillespie, George H.; Hill, Barrey W.; Brown, Nathan A.; Babcock, R. Chris; Martono, Hendy; Carey, David C.
1997-02-01
The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is an educational software concept to aid students and professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab is being developed as a cross-platform application and includes four key elements. The first is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. The second is a knowledge database containing information on electric and magnetic optics transport elements. The knowledge database provides interactive tutorials on the fundamental physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware. The third element is a graphical construction kit that provides tools for students to interactively and visually construct optical beamlines. The final element is a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute trajectories, transport beam envelopes, fit parameters to optical constraints and carry out similar calculations for the student designed beamlines. The primary computational engine is provided by the third-order TRANSPORT code. Augmenting TRANSPORT is the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE and a first-order matrix program that includes a space charge model and support for calculating single particle trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. This paper describes progress on the development of the PBO Lab.
Detecting weakly interacting massive particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drukier, A. K.; Gelmini, G. B.
The growing synergy between astrophysics, particle physics, and low background experiments strengthens the possibility of detecting astrophysical non-baryonic matter. The idea of direct detection is that an incident, massive weakly interacting particle could collide with a nucleus and transfer an energy that could be measured. The present low levels of background achieved by the PNL/USC Ge detector represent a new technology which yields interesting bounds on Galactic cold dark matter and on light bosons emitted from the Sun. Further improvements require the development of cryogenic detectors. The authors analyse the practicality of such detectors, their optimalization and background suppression using the "annual modulation effect".
Matter and Interactions: A Particle Physics Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Organtini, Giovanni
2011-01-01
In classical mechanics, matter and fields are completely separated; matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case; both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this article we explain why particle physicists believe in…
Dissipative particle dynamics with attractive and repulsive particle-particle interactions
Paul Meakin; Moubin Liu; Hai Huang
2006-01-01
In molecular dynamics simulations, a combination of short-range repulsive and long-range attractive interactions allows the behavior of gases, liquids, solids, and multiphase systems to be simulated. We demonstrate that dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations with similar pairwise particle-particle interactions can also be used to simulate the dynamics of multiphase fluids. In these simulations, the positive, short-range, repulsive part of the interaction potentials were represented by polynomial spline functions such as those used as smoothing functions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and the negative long-range part of the interaction has the same form but a different range and amplitude. If a single spline function corresponding to a purely repulsive interaction is used, the DPD fluid is a gas, and we show that the Poiseuille flow of this gas can be described accurately by the Navier-Stokes equation at low Reynolds numbers. In a two-component system in which the purely repulsive interactions between different components are substantially larger than the purely repulsive intracomponent interactions, separation into two gas phases occurs, in agreement with results obtained using DPD simulations with standard repulsive particle-particle interactions. Finally, we show that a combination of short-range repulsive interactions and long-range attractive interactions can be used to simulate the behavior of liquid drops surrounded by a gas. Similar models can be used to simulate a wide range of processes such as multiphase fluid flow through fractures and porous media with complex geometries and wetting behaviors.
High energy interactions of cosmic ray particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, L. W.
1986-01-01
The highlights of seven sessions of the Conference dealing with high energy interactions of cosmic rays are discussed. High energy cross section measurements; particle production-models of experiments; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collision; searches for magnetic monopoles; and studies of nucleon decay are covered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christodoulidi, Helen; Bountis, Tassos; Tsallis, Constantino; Drossos, Lambros
2016-12-01
In the present work we study the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) β -model involving long-range interactions (LRI) in both the quadratic and quartic potentials, by introducing two independent exponents {α1} and {α2} respectively, which make the forces decay with distance r. Our results demonstrate that weak chaos, in the sense of decreasing Lyapunov exponents, and q-Gaussian probability density functions (pdfs) of sums of the momenta, occurs only when long-range interactions are included in the quartic part. More importantly, for 0≤slant {α2}<1 , we obtain extrapolated values for q\\equiv {{q}∞}>1 , as N\\to ∞ , suggesting that these pdfs persist in that limit. On the other hand, when long-range interactions are imposed only on the quadratic part, strong chaos and purely Gaussian pdfs are always obtained for the momenta. We have also focused on similar pdfs for the particle energies and have obtained q E -exponentials (with q E > 1) when the quartic-term interactions are long-ranged, otherwise we get the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs weight, with q = 1. The values of q E coincide, within small discrepancies, with the values of q obtained by the momentum distributions.
From interacting particles to equilibrium statistical ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilievski, Enej; Quinn, Eoin; Caux, Jean-Sébastien
2017-03-01
We argue that a particle language provides a conceptually simple framework for the description of anomalous equilibration in isolated quantum systems. We address this paradigm in the context of integrable models, which are those where particles scatter completely elastically and are stable against decay. In particular, we demonstrate that a complete description of equilibrium ensembles for interacting integrable models requires a formulation built from the mode occupation numbers of the underlying particle content, mirroring the case of noninteracting particles. This yields an intuitive physical interpretation of generalized Gibbs ensembles, and reconciles them with the microcanonical ensemble. We explain how previous attempts to identify an appropriate ensemble overlooked an essential piece of information, and provide explicit examples in the context of quantum quenches.
Dedenko, L. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F.
2015-10-15
An original method for calculating the spectrum of atmospheric muons with the aid of the CORSIKA 7.4 code package and numerical integration is proposed. The first step consists in calculating the energy distribution of muons for various fixed energies of primary-cosmic-ray particles and within several chosen hadron-interaction models included in the CORSIKA 7.4 code package. After that, the spectrum of atmospheric muons is calculated via integrating the resulting distribution densities with the chosen spectrum of primary-cosmic-ray particles. The atmospheric-muon fluxes that were calculated on the basis of the SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJET01, and QGSJET II-04 models exceed the predictions of the wellknown Gaisser approximation of this spectrum by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8 in the range of muon energies between about 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4} GeV.Under the assumption that, in the region of extremely highmuon energies, a dominant contribution to the muon flux comes from one to two generations of charged π{sup ±} and K{sup ±} mesons, the production rate calculated for these mesons is overestimated by a factor of 1.3 to 1.5. This conclusion is confirmed by the results of the LHCf and TOTEM experiments.
Depinning of interacting particles in random media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zapperi, Stefano; Andrade, José S., Jr.; Mendes Filho, Josué
2000-06-01
We study the overdamped motion of interacting particles in a random medium using the model introduced by Pla and Nori [Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 919 (1991)]. We investigate the associated depinning transition by numerical integration of the equation of motion and show evidence that the model is in the same universality class of a driven elastic chain on a rough substrate. We discuss the implications of these results for flux line motion in type-II superconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyake, Y.; Usui, H.
2016-12-01
The double-probe technique, commonly used for electric field measurements in magnetospheric plasmas, is susceptible to environmental perturbations caused by spacecraft-plasma interactions. To better model the interactions, we have extended the existing particle-in-cell simulation technique so that it accepts very small spacecraft structures, such as thin wire booms, by incorporating an accurate potential field solution calculated based on the boundary element method. This immersed boundary element approach is effective for quantifying the impact of geometrically small but electrically large spacecraft elements on the formation of sheaths or wakes. The developed model is applied to the wake environment near a Cluster satellite for three distinctive plasma conditions: the solar wind, the tail lobe, and just outside the plasmapause. The simulations predict the magnitudes and waveforms of wake-derived spurious electric fields, and these are in good agreement with in situ observations. The results also reveal the detailed structure of potential around the double probes. It shows that any probes hardly experience a negative wake potential in their orbit, and instead, they experience an unbalanced drop rate of a large potential hill that is created by the spacecraft and boom bodies. As a by-product of the simulations, we also found a photoelectron short-circuiting effect that is analogous to the well-known short-circuiting effect due to the booms of a double-probe instrument. The effect is sustained by asymmetric photoelectron distributions that cancel out the external electric field.
Impact of Interaction Laws and Particle Modeling in Discrete Element Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Hong-Phong; Renouf, Mathieu; Dubois, Frédéric
2009-06-01
To describe the evolution of divided media, Discrete Elements Methods (DEMs) appear as one of the most appropriate tools. Medium evolution is directly related to assumptions about local contact area, body deformations and contact interactions. In some circumstance such assumptions have a strong influence on the macroscopic behaviour of the media and consequently become questionable. Using the Contact Dynamics framework, the paper presents how classical assumptions could be extended to avoid numerical effects. A reflection is proposed taking into account both physical and numerical aspects. Static and dynamic configuration have been used to illustrate the paper purposes.
Interacting particle systems on graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sood, Vishal
In this dissertation, the dynamics of socially or biologically interacting populations are investigated. The individual members of the population are treated as particles that interact via links on a social or biological network represented as a graph. The effect of the structure of the graph on the properties of the interacting particle system is studied using statistical physics techniques. In the first chapter, the central concepts of graph theory and social and biological networks are presented. Next, interacting particle systems that are drawn from physics, mathematics and biology are discussed in the second chapter. In the third chapter, the random walk on a graph is studied. The mean time for a random walk to traverse between two arbitrary sites of a random graph is evaluated. Using an effective medium approximation it is found that the mean first-passage time between pairs of sites, as well as all moments of this first-passage time, are insensitive to the density of links in the graph. The inverse of the mean-first passage time varies non-monotonically with the density of links near the percolation transition of the random graph. Much of the behavior can be understood by simple heuristic arguments. Evolutionary dynamics, by which mutants overspread an otherwise uniform population on heterogeneous graphs, are studied in the fourth chapter. Such a process underlies' epidemic propagation, emergence of fads, social cooperation or invasion of an ecological niche by a new species. The first part of this chapter is devoted to neutral dynamics, in which the mutant genotype does not have a selective advantage over the resident genotype. The time to extinction of one of the two genotypes is derived. In the second part of this chapter, selective advantage or fitness is introduced such that the mutant genotype has a higher birth rate or a lower death rate. This selective advantage leads to a dynamical competition in which selection dominates for large populations
Zhang, Boning; Herbold, Eric B.; Homel, Michael A.; Regueiro, Richard A.
2015-12-01
An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseinzadeh-Nik, Zahra; Regele, Jonathan D.
2015-11-01
Dense compressible particle-laden flow, which has a complex nature, exists in various engineering applications. Shock waves impacting a particle cloud is a canonical problem to investigate this type of flow. It has been demonstrated that large flow unsteadiness is generated inside the particle cloud from the flow induced by the shock passage. It is desirable to develop models for the Reynolds stress to capture the energy contained in vortical structures so that volume-averaged models with point particles can be simulated accurately. However, the previous work used Euler equations, which makes the prediction of vorticity generation and propagation innacurate. In this work, a fully resolved two dimensional (2D) simulation using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with a volume penalization method to model the particles has been performed with the parallel adaptive wavelet-collocation method. The results still show large unsteadiness inside and downstream of the particle cloud. A 1D model is created for the unclosed terms based upon these 2D results. The 1D model uses a two-phase simple low dissipation AUSM scheme (TSLAU) developed by coupled with the compressible two phase kinetic energy equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir
2013-08-01
We have developed a unified scheme for studying noncommutative algebras based on generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and Snyder form in a relativistically covariant point particle Lagrangian (or symplectic) framework. Even though the GUP-based algebra and Snyder algebra are very distinct, the more involved latter algebra emerges from an approximation of the Lagrangian model of the former algebra. Deformed Poincaré generators for the systems that keep space-time symmetries of the relativistic particle models have been studied thoroughly. From a purely constrained dynamical analysis perspective the models studied here are very rich and provide insights on how to consistently construct approximate models from the exact ones when nonlinear constraints are present in the system. We also study dynamics of the GUP particle in presence of external electromagnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir
2013-10-01
We have developed a unified scheme for studying noncommutative algebras based on generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and Snyder form in a relativistically covariant point particle Lagrangian (or symplectic) framework. Even though the GUP-based algebra and Snyder algebra are very distinct, the more involved latter algebra emerges from an approximation of the Lagrangian model of the former algebra. Deformed Poincaré generators for the systems that keep space-time symmetries of the relativistic particle models have been studied thoroughly. From a purely constrained dynamical analysis perspective the models studied here are very rich and provide insights on how to consistently construct approximate models from the exact ones when nonlinear constraints are present in the system. We also study dynamics of the GUP particle in presence of external electromagnetic field.
Information propagation for interacting-particle systems
Schuch, Norbert; Harrison, Sarah K.; Osborne, Tobias J.; Eisert, Jens
2011-09-15
We study the speed at which information propagates through systems of interacting quantum particles moving on a regular lattice and show that for a certain class of initial conditions there exists a maximum speed of sound at which information can propagate. Our argument applies equally to quantum spins, bosons such as in the Bose-Hubbard model, fermions, anyons, and general mixtures thereof, on arbitrary lattices of any dimension. It also pertains to dissipative dynamics on the lattice, and generalizes to the continuum for quantum fields. Our result can be seen as an analog of the Lieb-Robinson bound for strongly correlated models.
Hydrodynamic particle focusing design using fluid-particle interaction.
Zhou, Teng; Liu, Zhenyu; Wu, Yihui; Deng, Yongbo; Liu, Yongshun; Liu, Geng
2013-01-01
For passive sheathless particles focusing in microfluidics, the equilibrium positions of particles are typically controlled by micro channels with a V-shaped obstacle array (VOA). The design of the obstacles is mainly based on the distribution of flow streamlines without considering the existence of particles. We report an experimentally verified particle trajectory simulation using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) fluid-particle interaction method. The particle trajectory which is strongly influenced by the interaction between the particle and channel wall is systematically analyzed. The numerical experiments show that the streamline is a good approximation of particle trajectory only when the particle locates on the center of the channel in depth. As the advantage of fluid-particle interaction method is achieved at a high computational cost and the streamline analysis is complex, a heuristic dimensionless design objective based on the Faxen's law is proposed to optimize the VOA devices. The optimized performance of particle focusing is verified via the experiments and ALE method.
Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter.
Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S
2016-03-11
The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian interacting massive particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than 0.01M_{p} is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the Kaluza-Klein graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark matter.
Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.
2016-03-01
The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian interacting massive particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than 0.01 Mp is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the Kaluza-Klein graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark matter.
Electrostatic interaction between colloidal particles trapped at an electrolyte interface.
Majee, Arghya; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S
2014-04-28
The electrostatic interaction between colloidal particles trapped at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions is studied in the limit of small inter-particle distances. Within an appropriate model analytic expressions for the electrostatic potential as well as for the surface and line interaction energies are obtained. They demonstrate that the widely used superposition approximation, which is commonly applied to large distances between the colloidal particles, fails qualitatively at small distances, and is quantitatively unreliable even at large distances. Our results contribute to an improved description of the interaction between colloidal particles trapped at fluid interfaces.
Interactions between Janus particles and membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Hong-Ming; Ma, Yu-Qiang
2012-02-01
Understanding how nanoparticles interact with cell membranes is of great importance in drug/gene delivery. In this paper, we investigate the interactions between Janus particles and membranes by using dissipative particle dynamics, and find that there exist two different modes (i.e., insertion and engulfment) in the Janus particle-membrane interactions. The initial orientation and properties of Janus particles have an important impact on the interactions. When the hydrophilic part of the particle is close to the membrane or the particle has a larger section area and higher hydrophilic coverage, the particle is more likely to be engulfed by the membrane. We also provide insights into the interactions between Janus particles and membranes containing lipid rafts, and find that a Janus particle could easily detach from a membrane after it is engulfed by the raft. The present study suggests a potential way to translocate Janus particles through membranes, which may give some significant suggestions on future nanoparticle design for drug delivery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Başaǧaoǧlu, Hakan; Succi, Sauro
2010-04-01
We propose and numerically investigate a new particle retention mechanism for particle entrapment in creeping flows in a constricted section of a saturated rough-walled narrow flow channel. We hypothesize that particles, whose size is smaller than channel width, can be temporarily or permanently immobilized in a flow channel away from channel walls due to particle-particle and particle-wall repulsive potentials, and, consequently, the flow field is clogged temporarily (coughing) or permanently (choking). Two mathematically simplified repulsive particle-particle and particle-wall interaction potentials are incorporated into a two-dimensional colloidal lattice-Boltzmann model. These potentials are two-body Lennard-Jones 12 and screened electrostatic repulsive potentials. Numerical simulations reveal that unlike in smooth-walled flow channels, particles are entrapped away from rough-walled channel walls and subsequently clog the flow field if fluid-drag and repulsive forces on particles are in balance. Off-balance forces, however, could result in temporary clogging if repulsive forces are stronger on the advancing edge of a particle than on its trailing edge. The new conceptualization and two-particle numerical simulations successfully captured (i) temporary entrapment of two particles (coughing), (ii) temporary entrapment of one of the particles with permanent entrapment of the other particle (coughing-choking), and (iii) permanent entrapment of both particles (choking) as a function of repulsive interaction strength.
Computation of Capillary Interactions among Many Particles at Free Surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, Masahiro; Koike, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Yukio
2013-03-01
We have developed a new computational method to efficiently estimate capillary interactions among many moving particles at a free surface. A novelty of the method is the immersed free surface (IFS) model that transforms the surface tension exerted on a three-phase contact line on a particle surface into the surface tension exerted on an artificially created virtual free surface in the particle. Using the IFS model along with a level set method and an immersed boundary method, we have reasonably simulated a capillary-force-induced self-assembly of particles that is common in coating-drying of particle suspension.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew
1993-01-01
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.
CFD Modeling of Particle Resuspension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degraw, Jason; Cimbala, John; Freihaut, James
2006-11-01
The phenomenon of resuspension plays a role in everyday life and is an important factor in indoor air quality. There are several models available for particle detachment, but the mechanisms by which particles are induced to lift off of a surface are not well explained in the literature. The lifting forces on a particle are generally too small to resuspend it, especially in the air flows generated by human activity (e.g., walking). We model the interaction of the aerodynamic disturbances and a thin layer of particles deposited on the surface. A standard CFD solver is used to compute the flow, and the particle transport model is one-way-coupled with the flow solution. Several time-dependent flows are considered, including an idealized footstep. The foot is represented using an immersed boundary technique, and is modeled as a disk that moves up and down with a trajectory patterned after experimental gait data. A jet and a radially moving vortex are generated as the foot approaches the floor. The strength of the jet is determined by the details of the foot movement near the surface. If the foot is slowed as it nears the floor, we find maximum velocities around 3 m/s, while the maximum velocity is more than doubled by a sudden stop. We have also computed a ``vacuum cleaner'' case to model the airflow generated by cleaning activities. In either case, the wall shear along the floor and the near-wall flow structure are used to examine the resuspension of particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Guoxin; Liu, Lie
2011-06-01
Based on Vaughan's empirical formula of secondary emission yield and the assumption of mutual exclusion of each type of secondary electron, a mathematically self-consistent secondary emission model is proposed. It identifies each generated secondary electron as either elastic reflected, rediffused, or true secondary, hence, it allows the use of distinct emission energy and angular distributions of each type of electron. Monte Carlo modeling of the developed model is presented, and second-order algorithms for particle collection and ejection at the secondary-emission wall are developed in order to incorporate the secondary electron emission process in the standard leap-frog integrator. The accuracy of these algorithms is analyzed for general fields and is confirmed by comparing the numerically computed values with the exact solution under a homogeneous magnetic field. In particular, the phenomenon of multipactor electron discharge on a dielectric is simulated to verify the usefulness of the model developed in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi-Ghaleni, Mahdi; Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Smith, Jeffrey D.; O'Malley, Ronald
2016-10-01
Melt flow patterns and turbulence inside a slide-gate throttled submerged entry nozzle (SEN) were studied using Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) model, which is a combination of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) models. The DES switching criterion between RANS and LES was investigated to closely reproduce the flow structures of low and high turbulence regions similar to RANS and LES simulations, respectively. The melt flow patterns inside the nozzle were determined by k- ɛ (a RANS model), LES, and DES turbulent models, and convergence studies were performed to ensure reliability of the results. Results showed that the DES model has significant advantages over the standard k- ɛ model in transient simulations and in regions containing flow separation from the nozzle surface. Moreover, due to applying a hybrid approach, DES uses a RANS model at wall boundaries which resolves the extremely fine mesh requirement of LES simulations, and therefore it is computationally more efficient. Investigation of particle distribution inside the nozzle and particle adhesion to the nozzle wall also reveals that the DES model simulations predict more particle-wall interactions compared to LES model.
Investigation of plasma particle interactions with variable particle sizes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell
2015-11-01
In dusty plasmas, the dust particles are subjected to many forces of different origins. Both the gas and plasma directly affect the dust particles through electric fields, neutral drag, ion drag and thermophoretic forces, while the particles themselves interact with one another through a screened coulomb potential, which can be influenced by flowing ions. Recently, micron sized particles have been used as probes to analyze the electric fields in the plasma directly. A proper analysis of the resulting data requires a full understanding of the manner in which these forces couple to the dust particles. In most cases each of the forces exhibit unique characteristics, many of which are partially dependent on the particle size. In this study, five different particle sizes are used to investigate the forces resident in the sheath above the lower electrode of a GEC RF reference cell. The particles are tracked using a high-speed camera, yielding two-dimensional force maps allowing the force on the particles to be described as a polynomial series. It will be shown that the data collected can be analyzed to reveal information about the origins of the various forces. Support from the NSF and the DOE (award numbers PHY-1262031 and PHY-1414523) is gratefully acknowledged.
Particle-Vortex Interaction in Superfluid Helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barenghi, Carlo F.
2008-11-01
The application of the classical Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique in liquid helium has opened the way to better visualization of superfluid turbulence. To interpret the data, it is necessary to understand the interaction between micron-size tracer particles and vortex lines. This talk summarizes current understanding of this interaction resulting from theoretical and numerical calculations. In collaboration with Yuri A. Sergeev, Newcastle University.
Thermoelectricity of interacting particles: a numerical approach.
Chen, Shunda; Wang, Jiao; Casati, Giulio; Benenti, Giuliano
2015-09-01
A method for computing the thermopower in interacting systems is proposed. This approach, which relies on Monte Carlo simulations, is illustrated first for a diatomic chain of hard-point elastically colliding particles and then in the case of a one-dimensional gas with (screened) Coulomb interparticle interaction. Numerical simulations up to N>10^{4} particles confirm the general theoretical arguments for momentum-conserving systems and show that the thermoelectric figure of merit increases linearly with the system size.
Dynamics of two interacting active Janus particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayati, Parvin; Najafi, Ali
2016-04-01
Starting from a microscopic model for a spherically symmetric active Janus particle, we study the interactions between two such active motors. The ambient fluid mediates a long range hydrodynamic interaction between two motors. This interaction has both direct and indirect hydrodynamic contributions. The direct contribution is due to the propagation of fluid flow that originated from a moving motor and affects the motion of the other motor. The indirect contribution emerges from the re-distribution of the ionic concentrations in the presence of both motors. Electric force exerted on the fluid from this ionic solution enhances the flow pattern and subsequently changes the motion of both motors. By formulating a perturbation method for very far separated motors, we derive analytic results for the translation and rotational dynamics of the motors. We show that the overall interaction at the leading order modifies the translational and rotational speeds of motors which scale as O (" separators=" [ 1 / D ] 3 ) and O (" separators=" [ 1 / D ] 4 ) with their separation, respectively. Our findings open up the way for studying the collective dynamics of synthetic micro-motors.
Algorithm for Computing Particle/Surface Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, David W.
2009-01-01
An algorithm has been devised for predicting the behaviors of sparsely spatially distributed particles impinging on a solid surface in a rarefied atmosphere. Under the stated conditions, prior particle-transport models in which (1) dense distributions of particles are treated as continuum fluids; or (2) sparse distributions of particles are considered to be suspended in and to diffuse through fluid streams are not valid.
Shock Interaction with Random Spherical Particle Beds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neal, Chris; Mehta, Yash; Salari, Kambiz; Jackson, Thomas L.; Balachandar, S. "Bala"; Thakur, Siddharth
2016-11-01
In this talk we present results on fully resolved simulations of shock interaction with randomly distributed bed of particles. Multiple simulations were carried out by varying the number of particles to isolate the effect of volume fraction. Major focus of these simulations was to understand 1) the effect of the shockwave and volume fraction on the forces experienced by the particles, 2) the effect of particles on the shock wave, and 3) fluid mediated particle-particle interactions. Peak drag force for particles at different volume fractions show a downward trend as the depth of the bed increased. This can be attributed to dissipation of energy as the shockwave travels through the bed of particles. One of the fascinating observations from these simulations was the fluctuations in different quantities due to presence of multiple particles and their random distribution. These are large simulations with hundreds of particles resulting in large amount of data. We present statistical analysis of the data and make relevant observations. Average pressure in the computational domain is computed to characterize the strengths of the reflected and transmitted waves. We also present flow field contour plots to support our observations. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Charged particle therapy: the physics of interaction.
Lomax, Antony J
2009-01-01
Particle therapy has a long and distinguished history with more than 50,000 patients having been treated, mainly with high-energy proton therapy. Particularly, for proton therapy, there is an increasing interest in exploiting the physical characteristics of charged particles for further improving the potential of radiation therapy. In this article, we review the most important interactions of charged particles with matter and describe the basic physical principles that underlie why particle beams behave the way they do and why such a behavior could bring many benefits in radiation therapy.
Exactly solvable interacting two-particle quantum graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolte, Jens; Garforth, George
2017-03-01
We construct models of exactly solvable two-particle quantum graphs with certain non-local two-particle interactions, establishing appropriate boundary conditions via suitable self-adjoint realisations of the two-particle Laplacian. Showing compatibility with the Bethe ansatz method, we calculate quantisation conditions in the form of secular equations from which the spectra can be deduced. We compare spectral statistics of some examples to well known results in random matrix theory, analysing the chaotic properties of their classical counterparts.
Ring particles - Collisional interactions and physical nature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weidenschilling, S. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.
1984-01-01
Attention is given to the properties of, and dynamical processes affecting individual particles of Saturn's rings. Because particles tend to be gravitationally bound when located on the surfaces of larger particles, and since net tidal stresses within the particles are small, particle collisions should produce accretion in Saturn's rings. Rapid accretionary processes within the rings are counterbalanced by tidal disruption of the larger accreted aggregates, which are presently designated 'dynamic ephemeral bodies'. The coefficient of restitution is probably very low, implying that the large particles containing most of the rings' mass are in a monolayer, although the small particles responsible for most of the rings' visible cross section form a layer many particles thick. Kinematic viscosity and interparticle erosive process models should incorporate these properties.
Spatiotemporal binary interaction and designer quasi-particle condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramaswamy, Radha; Pattu Sakthi, Vinayagam; Hyun Jong, Shin; Kuppuswamy, Porsezian
2014-03-01
We introduce a new integrable model to investigate the dynamics of two component quasi-particle condensates with spatiotemporal interaction strengths. We derive the associated Lax pair of the coupled Gross—Pitaevskii (GP) equation and construct matter wave solitons. We show that the spatiotemporal binary interaction strengths not only facilitate the stabilization of the condensates, but also enables one to fabricate condensates with desirable densities, geometries, and properties, leading to the so-called “designer quasi-particle condensates”.
Cochet, Olivier; Grasland-Mongrain, Erwan; Silberzan, Pascal; Hakim, Vincent
2013-01-01
Modelling the displacement of thousands of cells that move in a collective way is required for the simulation and the theoretical analysis of various biological processes. Here, we tackle this question in the controlled setting where the motion of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells in a confluent epithelium is triggered by the unmasking of free surface. We develop a simple model in which cells are described as point particles with a dynamic based on the two premises that, first, cells move in a stochastic manner and, second, tend to adapt their motion to that of their neighbors. Detailed comparison to experimental data show that the model provides a quantitatively accurate description of cell motion in the epithelium bulk at early times. In addition, inclusion of model “leader” cells with modified characteristics, accounts for the digitated shape of the interface which develops over the subsequent hours, providing that leader cells invade free surface more easily than other cells and coordinate their motion with their followers. The previously-described progression of the epithelium border is reproduced by the model and quantitatively explained. PMID:23505356
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebert, R. W.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; Li, G.; Mason, G. M.
2012-12-01
There is mounting evidence that the < 1 MeV nucleon-1 suprathermal ions associated with corotating interaction regions (CIRs) at 1 AU are accelerated locally at the compression region trailing edge in events with a reverse shock or a well-formed compression region boundary. This picture is somewhat at odds with the current interpretation that these energetic particle enhancements arise from ions accelerated at CIR-driven shocks well beyond Earth orbit that travel to 1 AU along the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). That being said, there are a significant number of CIRs with suprathermal ions that appear to originate from beyond 1 AU. In this study, we combine data analysis and modeling and attempt to constrain the source location for CIR-associated suprathermal ions that originate beyond 1 AU. Specifically, we examine a CIR and its associated energetic particles observed at STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and ACE between February 9 - 18, 2008. This CIR was first observed at STEREO-B at a time when its compression region was bounded by a reverse shock that was accelerating particles while ACE and STEREO-A observed energetic particles but no shock. We compare the time-intensity profiles and spectral properties of this CIR at each of the three longitudinally-separated spacecraft and model the acceleration and transport of the energetic particles in this event using a 2D model. We hypothesize that the energetic particles measured at ACE and STEREO-A are accelerated by the reverse shock observed at STEREO-B.
Interactive methods for exploring particle simulation data
Co, Christopher S.; Friedman, Alex; Grote, David P.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Bethel, E. Wes; Joy, Kenneth I.
2004-05-01
In this work, we visualize high-dimensional particle simulation data using a suite of scatter plot-based visualizations coupled with interactive selection tools. We use traditional 2D and 3D projection scatter plots as well as a novel oriented disk rendering style to convey various information about the data. Interactive selection tools allow physicists to manually classify ''interesting'' sets of particles that are highlighted across multiple, linked views of the data. The power of our application is the ability to correspond new visual representations of the simulation data with traditional, well understood visualizations. This approach supports the interactive exploration of the high-dimensional space while promoting discovery of new particle behavior.
Yanamala, Naveena; Kagan, Valerian E; Shvedova, Anna A
2013-12-01
Over the past two decades, nanotechnology has emerged as a key player in various disciplines of science and technology. Some of the most exciting applications are in the field of biomedicine - for theranostics (for combined diagnostic and therapeutic purposes) as well as for exploration of biological systems. A detailed understanding of the molecular interactions between nanoparticles and biological nano-machinery - macromolecules, membranes, and intracellular organelles - is crucial for obtaining adequate information on mechanisms of action of nanomaterials as well as a perspective on the long term effects of these materials and their possible toxicological outcomes. This review focuses on the use of structure-based computational molecular modeling as a tool to understand and to predict the interactions between nanomaterials and nano-biosystems. We review major approaches and provide examples of computational analysis of the structural principles behind such interactions. A rationale on how nanoparticles of different sizes, shape, structure and chemical properties can affect the organization and functions of nano-machinery of cells is also presented.
Irreversible aggregation of interacting particles in one dimension.
Sidi Ammi, Hachem; Chame, Anna; Touzani, M'hammed; Benyoussef, Abdelilah; Pierre-Louis, Olivier; Misbah, Chaouqi
2005-04-01
We present a study of the aggregation of interacting particles in one dimension. This situation, for example, applies to atoms trapped along linear defects at the surface of a crystal. Simulations are performed with two lattice models. In the first model, the borders of atoms and islands interact in a vectorial manner via force monopoles. In the second model, each atom carries a dipole. These two models lead to qualitatively similar but quantitatively different behaviors. In both cases, the final average island size S(f) does not depend on the interactions in the limits of very low and very high coverages. For intermediate coverages, S(f) exhibits an asymmetric behavior as a function of the interaction strength: while it saturates for attractive interactions, it decreases for repulsive interactions. A class of mean-field models is designed, which allows one to retrieve the interaction dependence on the coverage dependence of the average island size with a good accuracy.
Capillary interactions between anisotropic colloidal particles.
Loudet, J C; Alsayed, A M; Zhang, J; Yodh, A G
2005-01-14
We report on the behavior of micron-sized prolate ellipsoids trapped at an oil-water interface. The particles experience strong, anisotropic, and long-ranged attractive capillary interactions which greatly exceed the thermal energy k(B)T. Depending on surface chemistry, the particles aggregate into open structures or chains. Using video microscopy, we extract the pair interaction potential between ellipsoids and show it exhibits a power law behavior over the length scales probed. Our observations can be explained using recent calculations, if we describe the interfacial ellipsoids as capillary quadrupoles.
Probabilistic approach to nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artemyev, A. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Mourenas, D.
2017-02-01
In this paper we provide a theoretical model describing the evolution of the charged-particle distribution function in a system with nonlinear wave-particle interactions. Considering a system with strong electrostatic waves propagating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field, we demonstrate that individual particle motion can be characterized by the probability of trapping into the resonance with the wave and by the efficiency of scattering at resonance. These characteristics, being derived for a particular plasma system, can be used to construct a kinetic equation (or generalized Fokker-Planck equation) modeling the long-term evolution of the particle distribution. In this equation, effects of charged-particle trapping and transport in phase space are simulated with a nonlocal operator. We demonstrate that solutions of the derived kinetic equations agree with results of test-particle tracing. The applicability of the proposed approach for the description of space and laboratory plasma systems is also discussed.
Discrete Element Modeling of Triboelectrically Charged Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Weitzman, Peter S.; Curry, David R.
2008-01-01
Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carry out experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. While simple Coulombic force between two particles is well understood, its operation in an ensemble of particles is more complex. When the tribocharging of particles and surfaces due to frictional contact is also considered, it is necessary to consider longer range of interaction of particles in response to electrostatic charging. The standard DEM algorithm accounts for particle mechanical properties and inertia as a function of particle shape and mass. If fluid drag is neglected, then particle dynamics are governed by contact between particles, between particles and equipment surfaces and gravity forces. Consideration of particle charge and any tribocharging and
Internal waves interacting with particles in suspension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Micard, Diane
2016-04-01
Internal waves are produced as a consequence of the dynamic balance between buoy- ancy and gravity forces when a particle of fluid is vertically displaced in a stable stratified environment. Geophysical systems such as ocean and atmosphere are naturally stratified and therefore suitable for internal waves to propagate. Furthermore, these two environ- ments stock a vast amount of particles in suspension, which present a large spectrum of physical properties (size, density, shape), and can be organic, mineral or pollutant agents. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that internal waves will have an active effect over the dynamics of these particles. In order to study the interaction of internal waves and suspended particles, an ide- alized experimental setup has been implemented. A linear stratification is produced in a 80×40×17 cm3 tank, in which two dimensional plane waves are created thanks to the inno- vative wave generator GOAL. In addition, a particle injector has been developed to produce a vertical column of particles within the fluid, displaying the same two-dimensional sym- metry as the waves. The particle injector allows to control the volumic fraction of particles and the size of the column. The presence of internal waves passing through the column of particles allowed to observe two main effects: The column oscillates around an equilibrium position (which is observed in both, the contours an the interior of the column), and the column is displaced as a whole. The column is displaced depending on the characteristics of the column, the gradient of the density, and the intensity and frequency of the wave. When displaced, the particles within the column are sucked towards the source of waves. The direction of the displacement of the column is explained by computing the effect of the Lagrangian drift generated by the wave over the time the particles stay in the wave beam before settling.
Elementary Particle Interactions with CMS at LHC
Spanier, Stefan
2016-07-31
The High Energy Particle Physics group of the University of Tennessee participates in the search for new particles and forces in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. Since the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the search has intensified to find new generations of particles beyond the standard model using the higher collision energies and ever increasing luminosity, either directly or via deviations from standard model predictions such as the Higgs boson decays. As part of this effort, the UTK group has expanded the search for new particles in four-muon final states, and in final states with jets, has successfully helped and continues to help to implement and operate an instrument for improved measurements of the luminosity needed for all data analyses, and has continued to conduct research of new technologies for charged particle tracking at a high-luminosity LHC.
Kohno, M.; Fujiwara, Y.
2009-05-15
Localized single-particle potentials for all octet baryons, N, {lambda}, {sigma}, and {xi}, in finite nuclei, {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 28}Si, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 56}Fe, and {sup 90}Zr, are calculated using the quark-model baryon-baryon interactions. G matrices evaluated in symmetric nuclear matter in the lowest order Brueckner theory (LOBT) are applied to finite nuclei in local density approximation. Nonlocal potentials are localized by a zero-momentum Wigner transformation. Empirical single-particle properties of the nucleon and the {lambda} hyperon in a nuclear medium have been known to be explained semiquantitatively in the LOBT framework. Attention is focused in the present consideration on predictions for the {sigma} and {xi} hyperons. The unified description for the octet baryon-baryon interactions by the SU{sub 6} quark model enables us to obtain less ambiguous extrapolation to the S=-1 and S=-2 sectors based on the knowledge in the NN sector than other potential models. The {sigma} mean field is shown to be weakly attractive at the surface, but turns out to be repulsive inside, which is consistent with the experimental evidence. The {xi} hyperon s.p. potential is also attractive at the nuclear surface region, and inside it fluctuates around zero. Hence {xi} hypernuclear bound states are unlikely. We also evaluate energy shifts of the {sigma}{sup -} and {xi}{sup -} atomic levels in {sup 28}Si and {sup 56}Fe, using the calculated s.p. potentials.
Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors
Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch
2011-01-11
Wave-particle interactions in E×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.
Dissipative Particle Dynamics interaction parameters from ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepehr, Fatemeh; Paddison, Stephen J.
2016-02-01
Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is a commonly employed coarse-grained method to model complex systems. Presented here is a pragmatic approach to connect atomic-scale information to the meso-scale interactions defined between the DPD particles or beads. Specifically, electronic structure calculations were utilized for the calculation of the DPD pair-wise interaction parameters. An implicit treatment of the electrostatic interactions for charged beads is introduced. The method is successfully applied to derive the parameters for a hydrated perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer with absorbed vanadium cations.
Internal bremsstrahlung of strongly interacting charged particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurgalin, S. D.; Tchuvil'sky, Yu. M.; Churakova, T. A.
2016-11-01
A universal theoretical model intended for calculating internal-bremsstrahlung spectra is proposed. In this model, which can be applied to describing nuclear decays of various type (such as alpha decay, cluster decay, and proton emission), use is made of realistic nucleus-nucleus potentials. Theoretical internal-bremsstrahlung spectra were obtained for the alpha decay of the 214Po nucleus, as well as for the decay of the 222Ra nucleus via the emission of a 14C cluster and for the decay of the 113Cs nucleus via proton emission, and the properties of these spectra were studied. The contributions of various regions (internal, subbarrier, and external) to the internal-bremsstrahlung amplitude were analyzed in detail. It is shown that the contribution of the internal region to the amplitude for internal bremsstrahlung generated in nuclear decay via proton emission is quite large, but that this is not so for alpha decay and decay via cluster emission. Thus, a process in which strong interaction of nuclear particles affects the internal-bremsstrahlung spectrum if found.
Turbulence-radiation interactions in a particle-laden flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frankel, Ari; Pouransari, Hadi; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Mani, Ali
2014-11-01
Turbulent fluctuations in a radiatively participating medium can significantly alter the mean heat transfer characteristics in a manner that current RANS models cannot accurately capture. While turbulence-radiation interaction has been studied extensively in traditional combustion systems, such interactions have not yet been studied in the context of particle-laden flows. This work is motivated by applications in particle-based solar receivers in which external radiation is primarily absorbed by a dispersed phase and conductively exchanged with the carrier fluid. Direct numerical simulations of turbulence with Lagrangian particles subject to a collimated radiation source are performed with a flux-limited diffusion approximation to radiative transfer. The dependence of the turbulence-radiation interaction statistics on the particle Stokes number will be demonstrated. Supported by PSAAP II.
Polarizable water model for Dissipative Particle Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pivkin, Igor; Peter, Emanuel
2015-11-01
Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is an efficient particle-based method for modeling mesoscopic behavior of fluid systems. DPD forces conserve the momentum resulting in a correct description of hydrodynamic interactions. Polarizability has been introduced into some coarse-grained particle-based simulation methods; however it has not been done with DPD before. We developed a new polarizable coarse-grained water model for DPD, which employs long-range electrostatics and Drude oscillators. In this talk, we will present the model and its applications in simulations of membrane systems, where polarization effects play an essential role.
Forest canopy interactions with nucleation mode particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pryor, S. C.; Hornsby, K. E.; Novick, K. A.
2014-07-01
Forests play a key role in removal of particles from the atmosphere but may also significantly contribute to formation and growth of ultrafine particles. Ultrafine particle size distributions through a deciduous forest canopy indicate substantial capture of nucleation mode particles by the foliage. Concentrations decline with depth into the canopy, such that nucleation mode number concentrations at the bottom of the canopy are an average of 16% lower than those at the top. However, growth rates of nucleation mode particles (diameters 6-30 nm) are invariant with height within the canopy, which implies that the semi-volatile gases contributing to their growth are comparatively well-mixed through the canopy. Growth rates of nucleation mode particles during a meteorological drought year (2012) were substantially lower than during a meteorologically normal year with high soil water potential (2013). This may reflect suppression of actual BVOC emissions by drought and thus reduced production of condensable products (and thus particle growth) during the drought-affected vegetation season. This hypothesis is supported by evidence that growth rates during the normal year exhibit a positive correlation with emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) modeled based on observed forest composition, leaf area index, temperature and PAR, but particle growth rates during the drought-affected vegetation season are not correlated with modeled BVOC emissions. These data thus provide direct evidence for the importance of canopy capture in atmospheric particle budgets and indirect evidence that drought-stress in forests may reduce BVOC emissions and limit growth of nucleation mode particles to climate-relevant sizes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stevens, N. J.; Roche, J. C.; Mandell, M. J.
1979-01-01
The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP), an engineering tool capable of analyzing the impact of the charged particle environment on spacecraft surfaces and systems, is described. NASCAP is a quasi-static computational program which analyzes the charging of a 3-dimensional complex body as a function of time and system-generated voltages for given space environmental conditions. The material properties of the surfaces are taken into account; the surface potentials, low energy sheath, potential distribution in space and particle trajectories are calculated. An application of NASCAP to a simple space solar power station consisting of two 6 m by 18 m solar array wings surrounding a central body is presented. Each solar array wing is considered to be divided into three regions operating at 2000 volts. Results of NASCAP analysis of the system for a normal environment and a moderate geomagnetic substorm environment are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, Michael D.
The advent of surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization techniques has allowed a new class of hybrid polymer-grafted nanoparticles, known as eparticle brushes,f to be realized. By grafting polymers from the surface, interactions between particles can be tuned using the precise control over graft architecture (i.e. chain length, dispersity, particle size, and grafting density) afforded by controlled radical polymerizations. Previously, a transition from particle-like to polymer-like interactions in small particles with increasing graft length has been observed. In the limit of long graft lengths, the polymer chains impart new interactions between particles, such as entanglements. These results outline a rich, but largely unexplored parameter space. The present thesis further elucidates the extent to which polymer graft modification facilitates new interaction types between particles and the dependence of those interactions on chain conformation. Specifically, the mechanical properties, processability, phase separation, and vibrational modes of particle brushes are examined. A dependence of the mechanical properties of particle brush assemblies on particle size is accurately captured by accounting for differences in chain conformation between particles of different sizes using a simple scaling model. Further tailoring of mechanical characteristics in weak particle brush assemblies can be achieved using appropriate homopolymer additives to form two-component systems. Improved mechanical properties are accompanied by a significant enhancement in particle processability that allows application of previously unusable processing methods. Considering more complex systems, mesoscale phase separation of nanoparticles is demonstrated for the first time by blending of particle brushes with different graft polymers. Polymer graft modification is seen to not only strengthen and introduce new interactions, but also tune particle properties. Vibrational modes of
Simulation of Au particle interaction on graphene sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mcleod, A.; Vernon, K. C.; Rider, A. E.; Ostrikov, K.
2013-09-01
The interaction of Au particles with few layer graphene is of interest for the formation of the next generation of sensing devices 1. In this paper we investigate the coupling of single gold nanoparticles to a graphene sheet, and multiple gold nanoparticles with a graphene sheet using COMSOL Multiphysics. By using these simulations we are able to determine the electric field strength and associated hot-spots for various gold nanoparticle-graphene systems. The Au nanoparticles were modelled as 8 nm diameter spheres on 1.5 nm thick (5 layers) graphene, with properties of graphene obtained from the refractive index data of Weber 2 and the Au refractive index data from Palik 3. The field was incident along the plane of the sheet with polarisation tested for both s and p. The study showed strong localised interaction between the Au and graphene with limited spread; however the double particle case where the graphene sheet separated two Au nanoparticles showed distinct interaction between the particles and graphene. An offset was introduced (up to 4 nm) resulting in much reduced coupling between the opposed particles as the distance apart increased. Findings currently suggest that the graphene layer has limited interaction with incident fields with a single particle present whilst reducing the coupling region to a very fine area when opposing particles are involved. It is hoped that the results of this research will provide insight into graphene-plasmon interactions and spur the development of the next generation of sensing devices.
Lipkens, Bart; Ilinskii, Yurii A. Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.
2015-10-28
Ultrasonic standing waves are widely used for separation applications. In MEMS applications, a half wavelength standing wave field is generated perpendicular to a laminar flow. The acoustic radiation force exerted on the particle drives the particle to the center of the MEMS channel, where concentrated particles are harvested. In macro-scale applications, the ultrasonic standing wave spans multiple wavelengths. Examples of such applications are oil/water emulsion splitting [1], and blood/lipid separation [2]. In macro-scale applications, particles are typically trapped in the standing wave, resulting in clumping or coalescence of particles/droplets. Subsequent gravitational settling results in separation of the secondary phase. An often used expression for the radiation force on a particle is that derived by Gorkov [3]. The assumptions are that the particle size is small relative to the wavelength, and therefore, only monopole and dipole scattering contributions are used to calculate the radiation force. This framework seems satisfactory for MEMS scale applications where each particle is treated separately by the standing wave, and concentrations are typically low. In macro-scale applications, particle concentration is high, and particle clumping or droplet coalescence results in particle sizes not necessarily small relative to the wavelength. Ilinskii et al. developed a framework for calculation of the acoustic radiation force valid for any size particle [4]. However, this model does not take into account particle to particle effects, which can become important as particle concentration increases. It is known that an acoustic radiation force on a particle or a droplet is determined by the local field. An acoustic radiation force expression is developed that includes the effect of particle to particle interaction. The case of two neighboring particles is considered. The approach is based on sound scattering by the particles. The acoustic field at the location of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuiqing; Yang, Mengmeng; Marshall, Jeffrey
2014-11-01
A new mesoscopic particle-level approach is developed for the full dynamics simulation (FDS) of the settling of systems of aerosol micro-particles. The approach efficiently combines an adhesive discrete-element method for particle motions and an Oseen dynamics method for hydrodynamic interactions. Compared to conventional Stokeslet and Oseenlet simulations, the FDS not only accounts for the cloud-scale fluid inertia effect and the particle inertia effect, but also overcomes the singularity problem using a soft-sphere model of adhesive contact. The effect of hydrodynamic interactions is investigated based on FDS results. The particle inertia is found to reduce the mobility of particle clouds and to elongate the cloud on vertical direction. Meanwhile, the fluid inertia decreases the settling velocity by weakening the hydrodynamic interaction and tends to flatten the cloud, leading to breakup. Expressions for the settling velocity of particle cloud are proposed with consideration of fluid inertia effect and the cloud shape. Finally, the transformation in settling behavior from a finite particle cloud to an unbounded uniform suspension is explained. This work has been funded by the National Natural Science Funds of China (No. 50976058), and by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2013CB228506).
Forest canopy interactions with nucleation mode particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pryor, S. C.; Hornsby, K. E.; Novick, K. A.
2014-11-01
Ultrafine particle size distributions through a deciduous forest canopy indicate that nucleation mode particle concentrations decline with depth into the canopy, such that number concentrations at the bottom of the canopy are an average of 16% lower than those at the top. However, growth rates of nucleation mode particles (diameters 6-30 nm) are invariant with height within the canopy, which implies that the semi-volatile gases contributing to their growth are comparatively well-mixed through the canopy. Growth rates of nucleation mode particles during a meteorological drought year (2012) were substantially lower than during a meteorologically normal year with high soil water potential (2013). This may reflect suppression of actual biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by drought and thus a reduction in the production of condensable products during the drought-affected vegetation season. This hypothesis is supported by evidence that growth rates during the normal year exhibit a positive correlation with emissions of BVOC modeled on observed forest composition, leaf area index, temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), but particle growth rates during the drought-affected vegetation season are not correlated with modeled BVOC emissions. These data thus provide indirect evidence that drought stress in forests may reduce BVOC emissions and limit growth of nucleation mode particles to climate-relevant sizes.
(Research in elementary particles and interactions). [1992
Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.
1992-05-01
Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.
Interaction measurement of particles bound to a lipid membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarfati, Raphael; Dufresne, Eric
2015-03-01
The local shape and dynamics of the plasma membrane play important roles in many cellular processes. Local membrane deformations are often mediated by the adsorption of proteins (notably from the BAR family), and their subsequent self-assembly. The emerging hypothesis is that self-assembly arises from long-range interactions of individual proteins through the membrane's deformation field. We study these interactions in a model system of micron-sized colloidal particles adsorbed onto a lipid bilayer. We use fluorescent microscopy, optical tweezers and particle tracking to measure dissipative and conservative forces as a function of the separation between the particles. We find that particles are driven together with forces of order 100 fN and remain bound in a potential well with a stiffness of order 100 fN/micron.
Simulations of Shock Wave Interaction with a Particle Cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koneru, Rahul; Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.'Bala'
2016-11-01
Simulations of a shock wave interacting with a cloud of particles are performed in an attempt to understand similar phenomena observed in dispersal of solid particles under such extreme environment as an explosion. We conduct numerical experiments in which a particle curtain fills only 87% of the shock tube from bottom to top. As such, the particle curtain upon interaction with the shock wave is expected to experience Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. In this study, the initial volume fraction profile matches with that of Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments, and the shock Mach number is limited to M =1.66. In these simulations we use a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with state-of-the-art point-particle force and heat transfer models. Measurements of particle dispersion are made at different initial volume fractions of the particle cloud. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the particle curtain with respect to the initial conditions is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Asymmetric exclusion process in a system of interacting Brownian particles.
Eduardo de Oliveira Rodrigues, José; Dickman, Ronald
2010-06-01
We study a continuous-space version of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), consisting of interacting Brownian particles subject to a driving force in a periodic array of potential wells. Particles are inserted into the leftmost well at rate α, hop to the right at unit rate, and are removed at the rightmost well at rate β. Our study is motivated by recent experiments on colloidal particles in a periodic potential generated by an optical tweezers array. Particles spend most of the time near potential minima, approximating the situation on the lattice; a short-range repulsive interaction prevents two particles from occupying the same potential well. A constant driving force, representing Stokes drag on particles suspended in a moving fluid, leads to biased motion. Our results for the density profile and current, obtained via numerical integration of the Langevin equation and dynamic Monte Carlo simulations, indicate that the continuous-space model exhibits phase transitions analogous to those observed in the lattice TASEP. The correspondence is not exact, however, due to the lack of particle-hole symmetry in our model.
Interactions between phospholipids and titanium dioxide particles.
Le, Quoc-Chon; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Terrisse, Hélène; Humbert, Bernard
2014-11-01
A systematic study was carried out on monolayer films and lipid vesicles to elucidate the interactions between membrane lipids and commercial particles of titanium dioxide TiO2 (TiO2-P25). Pressure-area isotherms of lipids at various pH values were recorded on a Langmuir trough with or without TiO2-P25 and NaCl in the subphase. Electrophoretic mobilities of lipid vesicles and TiO2-P25 particles were measured to identify the pH range where attractive electrostatic interactions between lipids and TiO2-P25 could take place. The results show that (i) the surface of TiO2-P25 particles interacts only with some phospholipids, (ii) the driving forces are electrostatic and (iii) non-electrostatic interactions were also observed, depending on the molecular structure. More precisely, the phospholipids 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate monosodium salt (DMPA), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-1-glycerol (DMPG) and 1',3'-bis[1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho]-sn-glycerol (TMCL) interacted strongly with the TiO2-P25 surface through electrostatic interactions, providing they were oppositely charged, i.e. for pH between 2 and 6.6. For TMCL and DMPG, interactions with the surface of TiO2-P25 in non-favourable electrostatic conditions, suggested another kind of binding, probably through the hydroxyl groups of the terminal glycerol. Weaker attractive interactions were demonstrated for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DMPS) and the synthetic lipid dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP). For DMPS, the carboxylate group is involved in the adsorption onto TiO2. The other membrane lipids such as 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DMPE) and sphingomyelin (SM) did not interact with TiO2-P25 regardless of pH.
Noisy quantum walks of two indistinguishable interacting particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siloi, Ilaria; Benedetti, Claudia; Piccinini, Enrico; Piilo, Jyrki; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Bordone, Paolo
2017-02-01
We investigate the dynamics of continuous-time two-particle quantum walks on a one-dimensional noisy lattice. Depending on the initial condition, we show how the interplay between particle indistinguishability and interaction determines distinct propagation regimes. A realistic model for the environment is considered by introducing non-Gaussian noise as time-dependent fluctuations of the tunneling amplitudes between adjacent sites. We observe that the combined effect of particle interaction and fast noise (weak coupling with the environment) provides a faster propagation compared to the noiseless case. This effect can be understood in terms of the band structure of the Hubbard model, and a detailed analysis as a function of both noise and system parameters is presented.
The impact of surface properties on particle-interface interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Anna; Kaz, David; McGorty, Ryan; Manoharan, Vinothan N.
2013-03-01
The propensity for particles to bind to oil-water interfaces was first noted by Ramsden and Pickering over a century ago, and has been attributed to the huge reduction in surface energy when a particle breaches an oil-water interface and straddles it at its equilibrium height. Since then materials on a variety of length scales have been fabricated using particles at interfaces, from Pickering emulsions to Janus particles. In these applications, it is simply assumed that the particle sits at its hugely energetically favourable equilibrium position. However, it was recently shown that the relaxation of particles towards their equilibrium position is logarithmic in time and could take months, much longer than typical experiments. Here we investigate how surface charge and particle 'hairiness' impact the interaction between micron-sized particles and oil-water interfaces, and explore a molecular kinetic theory model to help understand these results. We use digital holographic microscopy to track micron-sized particles as they approach an oil-water interface with a resolution of 2 nm in all three dimensions at up to thousands of frames per second.
Effect of ion streaming on particle-particle interactions in a dusty plasma
Vyas, Vivek; Kushner, Mark J.
2005-02-15
Dust particles in low-temperature, low-pressure plasmas form Coulomb crystals and display collective behavior under select conditions. The trajectories of ions can be perturbed as they pass by negatively charged dust particles and, in some cases, will converge beyond the particle. This process, called ion streaming, produces a positive potential in the wakefield of the particle that can be large enough to perturb interparticle dynamics. In this paper, we discuss results from a three-dimensional model for dust particle transport in plasma processing reactors with which we investigated the effects of ion streaming on particle-particle interactions. When including the wakefield potential produced by ion streaming, dust particles can form vertically correlated pairs when trapped in electrical potential wells. The ion-streaming force was found to be significant only over a select range of pressures and for given combinations of particle sizes and mass densities. The formation of vertically correlated pairs critically depends on the shape of the potential well. Wakefield forces can also affect the order of multilayer lattices by producing vertical correlations between particles in adjacent layers.
Numerical investigation of fluid-particle interactions for embolic stroke
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Debanjan; Padilla, Jose; Shadden, Shawn C.
2016-04-01
Roughly one-third of all strokes are caused by an embolus traveling to a cerebral artery and blocking blood flow in the brain. The objective of this study is to gain a detailed understanding of the dynamics of embolic particles within arteries. Patient computed tomography image is used to construct a three-dimensional model of the carotid bifurcation. An idealized carotid bifurcation model of same vessel diameters was also constructed for comparison. Blood flow velocities and embolic particle trajectories are resolved using a coupled Euler-Lagrange approach. Blood is modeled as a Newtonian fluid, discretized using the finite volume method, with physiologically appropriate inflow and outflow boundary conditions. The embolus trajectory is modeled using Lagrangian particle equations accounting for embolus interaction with blood as well as vessel wall. Both one- and two-way fluid-particle coupling are considered, the latter being implemented using momentum sources augmented to the discretized flow equations. It was observed that for small-to-moderate particle sizes (relative to vessel diameters), the estimated particle distribution ratio—with and without the inclusion of two-way fluid-particle momentum exchange—were found to be similar. The maximum observed differences in distribution ratio with and without the coupling were found to be higher for the idealized bifurcation model. Additionally, the distribution was found to be reasonably matching the volumetric flow distribution for the idealized model, while a notable deviation from volumetric flow was observed in the anatomical model. It was also observed from an analysis of particle path lines that particle interaction with helical flow, characteristic of anatomical vasculature models, could play a prominent role in transport of embolic particle. The results indicate therefore that flow helicity could be an important hemodynamic indicator for analysis of embolus particle transport. Additionally, in the presence
JSPAM: Interacting galaxies modeller
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallin, John F.; Holincheck, Anthony; Harvey, Allen
2015-11-01
JSPAM models galaxy collisions using a restricted n-body approach to speed up computation. Instead of using a softened point-mass potential, the software supports a modified version of the three component potential created by Hernquist (1994, ApJS 86, 389). Although spherically symmetric gravitationally potentials and a Gaussian model for the bulge are used to increase computational efficiency, the potential mimics that of a fully consistent n-body model of a galaxy. Dynamical friction has been implemented in the code to improve the accuracy of close approaches between galaxies. Simulations using this code using thousands of particles over the typical interaction times of a galaxy interaction take a few seconds on modern desktop workstations, making it ideal for rapidly prototyping the dynamics of colliding galaxies. Extensive testing of the code has shown that it produces nearly identical tidal features to those from hierarchical tree codes such as Gadget but using a fraction of the computational resources. This code was used in the Galaxy Zoo: Mergers project and is very well suited for automated fitting of galaxy mergers with automated pattern fitting approaches such as genetic algorithms. Java and Fortran versions of the code are available.
Interaction mechanisms between ceramic particles and atomized metallic droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yue; Lavernia, Enrique J.
1992-10-01
The present study was undertaken to provide insight into the dynamic interactions that occur when ceramic particles are placed in intimate contact with a metallic matrix undergoing a phase change. To that effect, Al-4 wt pct Si/SiCp composite droplets were synthesized using a spray atomization and coinjection approach, and their solidification microstructures were studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. The present results show that SiC particles (SiCp) were incor- porated into the matrix and that the extent of incorporation depends on the solidification con- dition of the droplets at the moment of SiC particle injection. Two factors were found to affect the distribution and volume fraction of SiC particles in droplets: the penetration of particles into droplets and the entrapment and/or rejection of particles by the solidification front. First, during coinjection, particles collide with the atomized droplets with three possible results: they may penetrate the droplets, adhere to the droplet surface, or bounce back after impact. The extent of penetration of SiC particles into droplets was noted to depend on the kinetic energy of the particles and the magnitude of the surface energy change in the droplets that occurs upon impact. In liquid droplets, the extent of penetration of SiC particles was shown to depend on the changes in surface energy, ΔEs, experienced by the droplets. Accordingly, large SiC particles encoun- tered more resistance to penetration relative to small ones. In solid droplets, the penetration of SiC particles was correlated with the dynamic pressure exerted by the SiC particles on the droplets during impact and the depth of the ensuing crater. The results showed that no pene- tration was possible in such droplets. Second, once SiC particles have penetrated droplets, their final location in the microstructure is governed by their interactions with the solidification front. As a result of these interactions, both entrapment and rejection of
Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.
2015-03-01
Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.
Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids
Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.
2015-03-07
Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.
Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles
Ai, Bao-Quan; He, Ya-Feng; Zhong, Wei-Rong
2014-11-21
Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction.
Identical particle model on biophoton emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, T. C.; Liu, Songhao; Popp, Fritz A.; Tang, Ao-Qing
1996-09-01
Biophoton emission (PE) method is a non-invasive way revealing biophysical interactions in living tissues. Since its mechanism is not very clear, its acceptance is limited. Gu has presented the quantum theory on biophoton emission according to the Dicke model. However, the Dicke model does not apply to biological system. In this paper, we studied PE by using the identical particle model, the interaction of identical particles by quantum chemistry, as well as the transition of the system interacting with radiation by the time quantum theory on radiation-matter interaction put forward by the first author and his cooperators. It was shown that the identical particles form coherent states, the photon emission probability of the superradiant state is a liner function of N and N2, and the one of the subradiant state is zero. In other words, the photon emission intensity represents the coherent states of the identical particle system. The linear relationship of N and N2 agrees with the PE experiment results on early drosophila embryos. The research on the cell division cycle showed that the superradiant states correspond to the late S phase. This is why PE can be used to differentiate human tumor tissues from normal ones. We also studied induced PE.
SEM++: A particle model of cellular growth, signaling and migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milde, Florian; Tauriello, Gerardo; Haberkern, Hannah; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2014-06-01
We present a discrete particle method to model biological processes from the sub-cellular to the inter-cellular level. Particles interact through a parametrized force field to model cell mechanical properties, cytoskeleton remodeling, growth and proliferation as well as signaling between cells. We discuss the guiding design principles for the selection of the force field and the validation of the particle model using experimental data. The proposed method is integrated into a multiscale particle framework for the simulation of biological systems.
Turbulence-particle interactions under surface gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paskyabi, Mostafa Bakhoday
2016-11-01
The dispersion and transport of single inertial particles through an oscillatory turbulent aquatic environment are examined numerically by a Lagrangian particle tracking model using a series of idealised test cases. The turbulent mixing is incorporated into the Lagrangian model by the means of a stochastic scheme in which the inhomogeneous turbulent quantities are governed by a one-dimensional k- ɛ turbulence closure scheme. This vertical mixing model is further modified to include the effects of surface gravity waves including Coriolis-Stokes forcing, wave breaking, and Langmuir circulations. To simplify the complex interactions between the deterministic and the stochastic phases of flow, we assume a time-invariant turbulent flow field and exclude the hydrodynamic biases due to the effects of ambient mean current. The numerical results show that the inertial particles acquire perturbed oscillations traced out as time-varying sinking/rising orbits in the vicinity of the sea surface under linear and cnoidal waves and acquire a non-looping single arc superimposed with the high-frequency fluctuations beneath the nonlinear solitary waves. Furthermore, we briefly summarise some recipes through the course of this paper on the implementation of the stochastic particle tracking models to realistically describe the drift and suspension of inertial particles throughout the water column.
MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES
Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT
The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...
Electrokinetic particle-electrode interactions at high frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yariv, Ehud; Schnitzer, Ory
2013-01-01
We provide a macroscale description of electrokinetic particle-electrode interactions at high frequencies, where chemical reactions at the electrodes are negligible. Using a thin-double-layer approximation, our starting point is the set of macroscale equations governing the “bounded” configuration comprising of a particle suspended between two electrodes, wherein the electrodes are governed by a capacitive charging condition and the imposed voltage is expressed as an integral constraint. In the large-cell limit the bounded model is transformed into an effectively equivalent “unbounded” model describing the interaction between the particle and a single electrode, where the imposed-voltage condition is manifested in a uniform field at infinity together with a Robin-type condition applying at the electrode. This condition, together with the standard no-flux condition applying at the particle surface, leads to a linear problem governing the electric potential in the fluid domain in which the dimensionless frequency ω of the applied voltage appears as a governing parameter. In the high-frequency limit ω≫1 the flow is dominated by electro-osmotic slip at the particle surface, the contribution of electrode electro-osmosis being O(ω-2) small. That simplification allows for a convenient analytical investigation of the prevailing case where the clearance between the particle and the adjacent electrode is small. Use of tangent-sphere coordinates allows to calculate the electric and flows fields as integral Hankel transforms. At large distances from the particle, along the electrode, both fields decay with the fourth power of distance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sloth, Marianne; Bilde, Merete; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.
2003-06-01
A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical aerosol model is developed to describe the interaction between gas phase molecules and atmospheric particles. The model enables the calculation of interaction energies and time-dependent properties. We use the model to investigate how a succinic acid molecule interacts with an aqueous particle. We show how the interaction energies and linear response properties (excitation energies, transition moments, and polarizabilities) depend on the distance between aerosol particle and molecule and on their relative orientation. The results are compared with those obtained previously using a dielectric continuum model [Sloth et al., J. Phys. Chem. (submitted)].
Patchy Particle Model for Vitrimers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smallenburg, Frank; Leibler, Ludwik; Sciortino, Francesco
2013-11-01
Vitrimers—a recently invented new class of polymers—consist of covalent networks that can rearrange their topology via a bond shuffling mechanism, preserving the total number of network links. We introduce a patchy particle model whose dynamics directly mimic the bond exchange mechanism and reproduce the observed glass-forming ability. We calculate the free energy of this model in the limit of strong (chemical) bonds between the particles, both via the Wertheim thermodynamic perturbation theory and using computer simulations. The system exhibits an entropy-driven phase separation between a network phase and a dilute cluster gas, bringing new insight into the swelling behavior of vitrimers in solvents.
Lubrication analysis of interacting rigid cylindrical particles in confined shear flow
Cardinaels, R.; Stone, H. A.
2015-07-15
Lubrication analysis is used to determine analytical expressions for the elements of the resistance matrix describing the interaction of two rigid cylindrical particles in two-dimensional shear flow in a symmetrically confined channel geometry. The developed model is valid for non-Brownian particles in a low-Reynolds-number flow between two sliding plates with thin gaps between the two particles and also between the particles and the walls. Using this analytical model, a comprehensive overview of the dynamics of interacting cylindrical particles in shear flow is presented. With only hydrodynamic interactions, rigid particles undergo a reversible interaction with no cross-streamline migration, irrespective of the confinement value. However, the interaction time of the particle pair substantially increases with confinement, and at the same time, the minimum distance between the particle surfaces during the interaction substantially decreases with confinement. By combining our purely hydrodynamic model with a simple on/off non-hydrodynamic attractive particle interaction force, the effects of confinement on particle aggregation are qualitatively mapped out in an aggregation diagram. The latter shows that the range of initial relative particle positions for which aggregation occurs is increased substantially due to geometrical confinement. The interacting particle pair exhibits tangential and normal lubrication forces on the sliding plates, which will contribute to the rheology of confined suspensions in shear flow. Due to the combined effects of the confining walls and the particle interaction, the particle velocities and resulting forces both tangential and perpendicular to the walls exhibit a non-monotonic evolution as a function of the orientation angle of the particle pair. However, by incorporating appropriate scalings of the forces, velocities, and doublet orientation angle with the minimum free fraction of the gap height and the plate speed, master curves for
Enhanced fluctuations of interacting particles confined in a box
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel
2012-04-01
We study the position fluctuations of interacting particles aligned in a finite cell that avoid any crossing in equilibrium with a thermal bath. The focus is put on the influence of the confining force directed along the cell length. We show that the system may be modeled as a 1D chain of particles with identical masses, linked with linear springs of varying spring constants. The confining force may be accounted for by linear springs linked to the walls. When the confining force range is increased toward the inside of the chain, a paradoxical behavior is exhibited. The outermost particles fluctuations are enhanced, whereas those of the inner particles are reduced. A minimum of fluctuations is observed at a distance of the cell extremities that scales linearly with the confining force range. Those features are in very good agreement with the model. Moreover, the simulations exhibit an asymmetry in their fluctuations which is an anharmonic effect. It is characterized by the measurement of the skewness, which is found to be strictly positive for the outer particles when the confining force is short ranged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kucharek, Harald; Galvin, Antoinette; Farrugia, Charles; Klecker, Berndt; Pogorelov, Nikolai
2016-04-01
Wave-particle interactions, ion acceleration, and magnetic turbulence are closely interlinked and the physical processes may occur on different scales. These scales range from the kinetic scale to the macro-scale (MHD-scale). These processes are likely universal and the same basic processes occur at the Earth's environment, at the Earth's bow shock, the solar wind, and around the heliosphere. Undoubtedly, the Earth's environment as well as the close interplanetary space are the best plasma environments to study these processes using satellite measurements. Recently, ACE, STEREO, IBEX and Voyager observations clearly showed that turbulence and wave-particle interactions and turbulence are extremely important in interplanetary space and in the heliosphere. Using data from STEREO, Wind, we have investigated the spectral properties of suprathermal ion distributions. The results show that spectral slopes are very variable and depend on the plasma properties. We have also performed 3D hybrid simulations and studied particle dynamics. These simulations show that the particle dynamics in the turbulent magnetic wave field is Levy-Flight like which leads to a kappa distribution, which is often found in various space environments. This result is very significant of future mission such as THOR and IMAP and current operating missions such as STEREO, IBEX, and MMS.
Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles
Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; ...
2014-12-01
In this work we study the self-diusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diusion coecients D0 s for the shells and D0 y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function ofmore » the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of eective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We nd that the yolks, which have no eect on the shell-shell static structure, in uence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.« less
Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles
Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M.
2014-12-01
In this work we study the self-diusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diusion coecients D0 s for the shells and D0 y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of eective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We nd that the yolks, which have no eect on the shell-shell static structure, in uence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.
Lagrangian Trajectory Modeling of Lunar Dust Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.
2008-01-01
Apollo landing videos shot from inside the right LEM window, provide a quantitative measure of the characteristics and dynamics of the ejecta spray of lunar regolith particles beneath the Lander during the final 10 [m] or so of descent. Photogrammetry analysis gives an estimate of the thickness of the dust layer and angle of trajectory. In addition, Apollo landing video analysis divulges valuable information on the regolith ejecta interactions with lunar surface topography. For example, dense dust streaks are seen to originate at the outer rims of craters within a critical radius of the Lander during descent. The primary intent of this work was to develop a mathematical model and software implementation for the trajectory simulation of lunar dust particles acted on by gas jets originating from the nozzle of a lunar Lander, where the particle sizes typically range from 10 micron to 500 micron. The high temperature, supersonic jet of gas that is exhausted from a rocket engine can propel dust, soil, gravel, as well as small rocks to high velocities. The lunar vacuum allows ejected particles to travel great distances unimpeded, and in the case of smaller particles, escape velocities may be reached. The particle size distributions and kinetic energies of ejected particles can lead to damage to the landing spacecraft or to other hardware that has previously been deployed in the vicinity. Thus the primary motivation behind this work is to seek a better understanding for the purpose of modeling and predicting the behavior of regolith dust particle trajectories during powered rocket descent and ascent.
White dwarfs constraints on dark sector models with light particles
Ubaldi, Lorenzo
2014-06-24
The white dwarf luminosity function is well understood in terms of standard model physics and leaves little room for exotic cooling mechanisms related to the possible existence of new weakly interacting light particles. This puts significant constraints on the parameter space of models that contain a massive dark photon and light dark sector particles.
Surface electrical properties of coal particles on interaction with polyelectrolytes
Evmenova, G.L.
2006-07-15
The paper presents experimental data obtained in determining an electrokinetic potential of coal particles during their interaction with coagulation and flocculation agents. It is established that flocculation agents allow decreasing electrokinetic potential of mineral particles up to the values that promote aggregation of the particles thereby enabling the control over the stability of coal dispersions.
Kinetic equation for nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artemyev, A. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Mourenas, D.
2016-09-01
We investigate the nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions including the effects of particle (phase) trapping, detrapping, and scattering by high-amplitude coherent waves. After deriving the relationship between probability of trapping and velocity of particle drift induced by nonlinear scattering (phase bunching), we substitute this relation and other characteristic equations of wave-particle interaction into a kinetic equation for the particle distribution function. The final equation has the form of a Fokker-Planck equation with peculiar advection and collision terms. This equation fully describes the evolution of particle momentum distribution due to particle diffusion, nonlinear drift, and fast transport in phase-space via trapping. Solutions of the obtained kinetic equation are compared with results of test particle simulations.
Park, Bum Jun; Lee, Daeyeon
2015-09-16
Particles trapped at fluid interfaces experience long-range interactions that determine their assembly behavior. Because particle interactions at fluid interfaces tend to be unusually strong, once particles organize themselves into a 2D assembly, it is challenging to induce changes in their microstructure. In this report, a new approach is presented to induce reversible order-disorder transitions (ODTs) in the 2D monolayer of colloidal particles trapped at a soft gel-fluid interface. Particles at the soft interface, consisting of a nonpolar superphase and a weakly gelled subphase, initially form a monolayer with a highly ordered structure. The structure of this monolayer can be dynamically varied by the addition or removal of the oil phase. Upon removing the oil via evaporation, the initially ordered particle monolayer undergoes ODT, driven by capillary attractions. The ordered monolayer can be recovered through disorder-to-order transition by simply adding oil atop the particle-laden soft interface. The possibility to dynamically tune the interparticle interactions using soft interfaces can potentially enable control of the transport and mechanical properties of particle-laden interfaces and provide model systems to study particle-laden soft interfaces that are relevant to biological tissues or organs.
Evaluation of stochastic particle dispersion modeling in turbulent round jets
Sun, Guangyuan; Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.
2016-11-02
ODT (one-dimensional turbulence) simulations of particle-carrier gas interactions are performed in the jet flow configuration. Particles with different diameters are injected onto the centerline of a turbulent air jet. The particles are passive and do not impact the fluid phase. Their radial dispersion and axial velocities are obtained as functions of axial position. The time and length scales of the jet are varied through control of the jet exit velocity and nozzle diameter. Dispersion data at long times of flight for the nozzle diameter (7 mm), particle diameters (60 and 90 µm), and Reynolds numbers (10, 000–30, 000) are analyzed to obtain the Lagrangian particle dispersivity. Flow statistics of the ODT particle model are compared to experimental measurements. It is shown that the particle tracking method is capable of yielding Lagrangian prediction of the dispersive transport of particles in a round jet. In this study, three particle-eddy interaction models (Type-I, -C, and -IC) are presented to examine the details of particle dispersion and particle-eddy interaction in jet flow.
Evaluation of stochastic particle dispersion modeling in turbulent round jets
Sun, Guangyuan; Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.
2016-11-02
ODT (one-dimensional turbulence) simulations of particle-carrier gas interactions are performed in the jet flow configuration. Particles with different diameters are injected onto the centerline of a turbulent air jet. The particles are passive and do not impact the fluid phase. Their radial dispersion and axial velocities are obtained as functions of axial position. The time and length scales of the jet are varied through control of the jet exit velocity and nozzle diameter. Dispersion data at long times of flight for the nozzle diameter (7 mm), particle diameters (60 and 90 µm), and Reynolds numbers (10, 000–30, 000) are analyzedmore » to obtain the Lagrangian particle dispersivity. Flow statistics of the ODT particle model are compared to experimental measurements. It is shown that the particle tracking method is capable of yielding Lagrangian prediction of the dispersive transport of particles in a round jet. In this study, three particle-eddy interaction models (Type-I, -C, and -IC) are presented to examine the details of particle dispersion and particle-eddy interaction in jet flow.« less
Interaction of dilute colloidal particles in a mixed solvent
Kurnaz, M.L.; Maher, J.V.
1995-06-01
We have measured the second virial coefficient {ital B}{sub 2} of very dilute colloidal dispersions of charge-stabilized polystyrene latex spheres in the one-phase region of the mixed solvent 2,6-lutidine plus water. These measurements were made as a function of temperature for two solvent compositions, both of which are richer in 2,6-lutidine than the binary liquid mixture`s critical composition. The temperature ranges started deep in the one-phase region and approached the coexistence curve but did not penetrate the region of reversible aggregation near the coexistence curve. Very large, positive (repulsive-interaction) virial coefficients are observed at temperatures far from the aggregation zone and for calibration samples whose solvent is pure water. These large values of {ital B}{sub 2} are impossible to model without invoking long-range repulsive interactions whose origin is difficult to explain. As the temperature is brought nearer to the aggregation zone, the virial coefficient plunges through zero to large negative (attractive-interaction) values. Crude modeling suggests that the observed changes in the interactions are not inconsistent with a temperature-dependent attraction arising from adsorption layer energetics operating at distances of a few solvent-fluctuation correlation lengths from the particle surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrilik, A. M.; Mishchenko, Yu. A.
2014-11-01
We establish the relation of the second virial coefficient of a recently proposed (μ ˜,q ) -deformed Bose gas model [A. M. Gavrilik and Yu. A. Mishchenko, Ukr. J. Phys. 58, 1171 (2013)] to the interaction and compositeness parameters when either of these factors is taken into account separately. When the interaction is dealt with, the deformation parameter becomes linked directly to the scattering length and the effective radius of interaction (in general, to scattering phases). The additionally arising temperature dependence is a feature absent in the deformed Bose gas model within the adopted interpretation of the deformation parameters μ ˜ and q . Here the problem of the temperature dependence is analyzed in detail and its possible solution is proposed.
Gavrilik, A M; Mishchenko, Yu A
2014-11-01
We establish the relation of the second virial coefficient of a recently proposed (μ[over ̃],q)-deformed Bose gas model [A. M. Gavrilik and Yu. A. Mishchenko, Ukr. J. Phys. 58, 1171 (2013)] to the interaction and compositeness parameters when either of these factors is taken into account separately. When the interaction is dealt with, the deformation parameter becomes linked directly to the scattering length and the effective radius of interaction (in general, to scattering phases). The additionally arising temperature dependence is a feature absent in the deformed Bose gas model within the adopted interpretation of the deformation parameters μ[over ̃] and q. Here the problem of the temperature dependence is analyzed in detail and its possible solution is proposed.
Particle interaction measurements using laser tweezers optical trapping.
Koehler, Timothy P.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Grillet, Anne M.; Molecke, Ryan A.
2008-08-01
Laser tweezers optical trapping provides a unique noninvasive capability to trap and manipulate particles in solution at the focal point of a laser beam passed through a microscope objective. Additionally, combined with image analysis, interaction forces between colloidal particles can be quantitatively measured. By looking at the displacement of particles within the laser trap due to the presence of a neighboring particle or looking at the relative diffusion of two particles held near each other by optical traps, interparticle interaction forces ranging from pico- to femto-Newtons can be measured. Understanding interaction forces is critical for predicting the behavior of particle dispersions including dispersion stability and flow rheology. Using a new analysis method proposed by Sainis, Germain, and Dufresne, we can simultaneously calculate the interparticle velocity and particle diffusivity which allows direct calculation of the interparticle potential for the particles. By applying this versatile tool, we measure difference in interactions between various phospholipid bilayers that have been coated onto silica spheres as a new type of solid supported liposome. We measure bilayer interactions of several cell membrane lipids under various environmental conditions such as pH and ionic strength and compare the results with those obtained for empty liposomes. These results provide insight into the role of bilayer fluctuations in liposome fusion, which is of fundamental interest to liposome based drug delivery schemes.
Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.
1978-01-01
Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.
Effects of field interactions upon particle creation in Robertson-Walker universes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birrell, N. D.; Davies, P. C. W.; Ford, L. H.
1980-01-01
Particle creation due to field interactions in an expanding Robertson-Walker universe is investigated. A model in which pseudoscalar mesons and photons are created as a result of their mutual interaction is considered, and the energy density of created particles is calculated in model universes which undergo a bounce at some maximum curvature. The free-field creation of non-conformally coupled scalar particles and of gravitons is calculated in the same space-times. It is found that if the bounce occurs at a sufficiently early time the interacting particle creation will dominate. This result may be traced to the fact that the model interaction chosen introduces a length scale which is much larger than the Planck length.
Dust particles interaction with plasma jet
Ticos, C. M.; Jepu, I.; Lungu, C. P.; Chiru, P.; Zaroschi, V.
2009-11-10
The flow of plasma and particularly the flow of ions play an important role in dusty plasmas. Here we present some instances in laboratory experiments where the ion flow is essential in establishing dust dynamics in strongly or weakly coupled dust particles. The formation of ion wake potential and its effect on the dynamics of dust crystals, or the ion drag force exerted on micron size dust grains are some of the phenomena observed in the presented experiments.
Coulomb interaction on spin-1 particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owen, D. A.; Barrett, R. C.
2003-11-01
Using the electro-weak theory, we find the lowest order perturbative correction to a spin-1 particle in an external Coulomb field. We show this leads to a correction of order (Zα)4 and is independent of the mass of the external field. Previous work with Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (see Nedjadi and Barrett [J. Math. Phys. 35 (1994) 4517]) and the Proca equation has failed to produce this correction.
Magnetospheric plasma - Sources, wave-particle interactions and acceleration mechanisms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speiser, T. W.
1971-01-01
Some of the basic problems associated with magnetospheric physics are reviewed. The sources of magnetospheric plasma, with auroral particles included as a subset, are discussed. The possible ways in which the solar wind plasma can gain access to the magnetosphere are outlined. Some important consequences of wave-particle interactions are examined. Finally, the basic mechanisms which energize or accelerate particles by reconnection and convection are explained.
Cosmological constraints on the properties of weakly interacting massive particles
Steigman, G.; Turner, M.S.
1984-10-01
Considerations of the age and density of, as well as the evolution of structure in, the Universe lead to constraints on the masses and lifetimes of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). 26 references.
Soft particle production in very high energy hadron interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebr, Jan; Nečesal, Petr; Ridky, Jan
2017-04-01
Indications of a discrepancy between simulations and data on the number of muons in cosmic ray (CR) showers exist over a large span of energies. We focus in particular on the excess of multi-muon bundles observed by the DELPHI detector at LEP and on the excess in the muon number in general reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory. Even though the primary CR energies relevant for these experiments differ by orders of magnitude, we can find a single mechanism which can simultaneously increase predicted muon counts for both, while not violating constraints from accelerators or from the longitudinal shower development as observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory. We present a brief motivation and describe a practical implementation of such a model, based on the addition of soft particles to interactions above a chosen energy threshold. Results of an extensive set of simulations show the behavior of this model in various parts of a simplified parameter space.
Relationship between the cohesion of guest particles on the flow behaviour of interactive mixtures.
Mangal, Sharad; Gengenbach, Thomas; Millington-Smith, Doug; Armstrong, Brian; Morton, David A V; Larson, Ian
2016-05-01
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects cohesion of small surface-engineered guest binder particles on the flow behaviour of interactive mixtures. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) - a model pharmaceutical binder - was spray-dried with varying l-leucine feed concentrations to create small surface-engineered binder particles with varying cohesion. These spray-dried formulations were characterised by their particle size distribution, morphology and cohesion. Interactive mixtures were produced by blending these spray-dried formulations with paracetamol. The resultant blends were visualised under scanning electron microscope to confirm formation of interactive mixtures. Surface coverage of paracetamol by guest particles as well as the flow behaviour of these mixtures were examined. The flow performance of interactive mixtures was evaluated using measurements of conditioned bulk density, basic flowability energy, aeration energy and compressibility. With higher feed l-leucine concentrations, the surface roughness of small binder particles increased, while their cohesion decreased. Visual inspection of the SEM images of the blends indicated that the guest particles adhered to the surface of paracetamol resulting in effective formation of interactive mixtures. These images also showed that the low-cohesion guest particles were better de-agglomerated that consequently formed a more homogeneous interactive mixture with paracetamol compared with high-cohesion formulations. The flow performance of interactive mixtures changed as a function of the cohesion of the guest particles. Interactive mixtures with low-cohesion guest binder particles showed notably improved bulk flow performance compared with those containing high-cohesion guest binder particles. Thus, our study suggests that the cohesion of guest particles dictates the flow performance of interactive mixtures.
Review of Physics Results from the Tevatron: Searches for New Particles and Interactions
Toback, David; ŽIvković, Lidija
2015-02-17
We present a summary of results for searches for new particles and interactions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by the CDF and the D0 experiments. These include results from Run I as well as Run II for the time period up to July 2014. We focus on searches for supersymmetry, as well as other models of new physics such as new fermions and bosons, various models of excited fermions, leptoquarks, technicolor, hidden-valley model particles, long-lived particles, extra dimensions, dark matter particles, and signature-based searches.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward Paul; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles D.
2013-01-01
We investigate the radiative effects of dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. GEOS-5 is improved with the inclusion of a sectional aerosol and cloud microphysics module, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Into CARMA we introduce treatment of the dust and sea salt aerosol lifecycle, including sources, transport evolution, and sinks. The aerosols are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5, and we perform a series of multi-decade AMIP-style simulations in which dust optical properties (spectral refractive index and particle shape distribution) are varied. Optical properties assuming spherical dust particles are from Mie theory, while those for non-spherical shape distributions are drawn from a recently available database for tri-axial ellipsoids. The climatologies of the various simulations generally compare well to data from the MODIS, MISR, and CALIOP space-based sensors, the ground-based AERONET, and surface measurements of dust deposition and concentration. Focusing on the summertime Saharan dust cycle we show significant variability in our simulations resulting from different choices of dust optical properties. Atmospheric heating due to dust enhances surface winds over important Saharan dust sources, and we find a positive feedback where increased dust absorption leads to increased dust emissions. We further find that increased dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increasing dust lofting to higher altitudes and strengthening the African Easterly Jet. This leads to a longer atmospheric residence time, higher altitude, and generally more northward transport of dust in simulations with the most absorbing dust optical properties. We find that particle shape, although important for radiance simulations, is a minor effect compared to choices of refractive index, although total atmospheric forcing is enhanced by greater than 10 percent for simulations incorporating a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breuer, Michael; Alletto, Michael
2011-12-01
Relying on large-eddy simulation (LES) and an efficient algorithm to track a huge number of Lagrangian particles through turbulent flow fields in general complex 3D domains, the flow in a pipe and a model combustion chamber is tackled. The influence of particle-fluid (two-way coupling) as well as particle-particle interactions (four-way coupling) is investigated. The latter is modeled based on deterministic collision detection. First, the LES results of a particle-laden vertical pipe flow with a specular wall and a mass loading of 110% are evaluated based on DNS data from the literature. Second, the predicted LES data of a ring combustion chamber at two different mass loadings (22% and 110%) are analyzed and compared with experimental measurements.
Quantum chaos and thermalization in isolated systems of interacting particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borgonovi, F.; Izrailev, F. M.; Santos, L. F.; Zelevinsky, V. G.
2016-04-01
This review is devoted to the problem of thermalization in a small isolated conglomerate of interacting constituents. A variety of physically important systems of intensive current interest belong to this category: complex atoms, molecules (including biological molecules), nuclei, small devices of condensed matter and quantum optics on nano- and micro-scale, cold atoms in optical lattices, ion traps. Physical implementations of quantum computers, where there are many interacting qubits, also fall into this group. Statistical regularities come into play through inter-particle interactions, which have two fundamental components: mean field, that along with external conditions, forms the regular component of the dynamics, and residual interactions responsible for the complex structure of the actual stationary states. At sufficiently high level density, the stationary states become exceedingly complicated superpositions of simple quasiparticle excitations. At this stage, regularities typical of quantum chaos emerge and bring in signatures of thermalization. We describe all the stages and the results of the processes leading to thermalization, using analytical and massive numerical examples for realistic atomic, nuclear, and spin systems, as well as for models with random parameters. The structure of stationary states, strength functions of simple configurations, and concepts of entropy and temperature in application to isolated mesoscopic systems are discussed in detail. We conclude with a schematic discussion of the time evolution of such systems to equilibrium.
Strong interactive massive particles from a strong coupled theory
Khlopov, Maxim Yu.; Kouvaris, Chris
2008-03-15
Minimal walking technicolor models can provide a nontrivial solution for cosmological dark matter, if the lightest technibaryon is doubly charged. Technibaryon asymmetry generated in the early Universe is related to baryon asymmetry, and it is possible to create an excess of techniparticles with charge (-2). These excessive techniparticles are all captured by {sup 4}He, creating techni-O-helium tOHe atoms, as soon as {sup 4}He is formed in big bang nucleosynthesis. The interaction of techni-O-helium with nuclei opens new paths to the creation of heavy nuclei in big bang nucleosynthesis. Because of the large mass of technibaryons, the tOHe ''atomic'' gas decouples from the baryonic matter and plays the role of dark matter in large scale structure formation, while structures in small scales are suppressed. Nuclear interactions with matter slow down cosmic techni-O-helium in the Earth below the threshold of underground dark matter detectors, thus escaping severe cryogenic dark matter search constraints. On the other hand, these nuclear interactions are not sufficiently strong to exclude this form of strongly interactive massive particles by constraints from the XQC experiment. Experimental tests of this hypothesis are possible in the search for tOHe in balloon-borne experiments (or on the ground) and for its charged techniparticle constituents in cosmic rays and accelerators. The tOHe atoms can cause cold nuclear transformations in matter and might form anomalous isotopes, offering possible ways to exclude (or prove?) their existence.
Latent Variable Interaction Modeling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schumacker, Randall E.
2002-01-01
Used simulation to study two different approaches to latent variable interaction modeling with continuous observed variables: (1) a LISREL 8.30 program and (2) data analysis through PRELIS2 and SIMPLIS programs. Results show that parameter estimation was similar but standard errors were different. Discusses differences in ease of implementation.…
Stochastic transport of interacting particles in periodically driven ratchets.
Savel'ev, Sergey; Marchesoni, Fabio; Nori, Franco
2004-12-01
An open system of overdamped, interacting Brownian particles diffusing on a periodic substrate potential U(x+l)=U(x) is studied in terms of an infinite set of coupled partial differential equations describing the time evolution of the relevant many-particle distribution functions. In the mean-field approximation, this hierarchy of equations can be replaced by a nonlinear integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. This is applicable when the distance a between particles is much less than the interaction length lambda , i.e., a particle interacts with many others, resulting in averaging out fluctuations. The equation obtained in the mean-field approximation is applied to an ensemble of locally (a
A phase-field point-particle model for particle-laden interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Chuan; Botto, Lorenzo
2014-11-01
The irreversible attachment of solid particles to fluid interfaces is exploited in a variety of applications, such as froth flotation and Pickering emulsions. Critical in these applications is to predict particle transport in and near the interface, and the two-way coupling between the particles and the interface. While it is now possible to carry out particle-resolved simulations of these systems, simulating relatively large systems with many particles remains challenging. We present validation studies and preliminary results for a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian simulation method, in which the dynamics of the interface is fully-resolved by a phase-field approach, while the particles are treated in the ``point-particle'' approximation. With this method, which represents a compromise between the competing needs of resolving particle and interface scale phenomena, we are able to simulate the adsorption of a large number of particles in the interface of drops, and particle-interface interactions during the spinodal coarsening of a multiphase system. While this method models the adsorption phenomenon efficiently and with reasonable accuracy, it still requires understanding subtle issues related to the modelling of hydrodynamic and capillary forces for particles in contact with interface.
Interaction between two spherical particles in a nematic liquid crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuda, Jun-Ichi; Stark, Holger; Yoneya, Makoto; Yokoyama, Hiroshi
2004-04-01
We numerically investigate the interaction between two spherical particles in a nematic liquid crystal mediated by elastic distortions in the orientational order. We pay attention to the cases where two particles with equal radii R0 impose rigid normal anchoring on their surfaces and carry a pointlike topological defect referred to as a hyperbolic hedgehog. To describe the geometry of our system, we use bispherical coordinates, which prove useful in the implementation of boundary conditions at the particle surfaces and at infinity. We adopt the Landau de Gennes continuum theory in terms of a second-rank tensor order parameter Qij for the description of the orientational order of a nematic liquid crystal. We also utilize an adaptive mesh refinement scheme that has proven to be an efficient way of dealing with topological defects whose core size is much smaller than the particle size. When the two “dipoles,” composed of a particle and a hyperbolic hedgehog, are in parallel directions, the two-particle interaction potential is attractive for large interparticle distances D and proportional to D-3 as expected from the form of the dipole-dipole interaction, until the well-defined potential minimum at D≃2.46 R0 is reached. For the antiparallel configuration with no hedgehogs between the two particles, the interaction potential is repulsive and behaves as D-2 for D≲10 R0 , which is stronger than the dipole-dipole repulsion ( ˜ D-3 ) expected theoretically as an asymptotic behavior for large D .
Electrostatic interactions between charged dielectric particles in an electrolyte solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derbenev, Ivan N.; Filippov, Anatoly V.; Stace, Anthony J.; Besley, Elena
2016-08-01
Theory is developed to address a significant problem of how two charged dielectric particles interact in the presence of a polarizable medium that is a dilute solution of a strong electrolyte. The electrostatic force is defined by characteristic parameters for the interacting particles (charge, radius, and dielectric constant) and for the medium (permittivity and Debye length), and is expressed in the form of a converging infinite series. The limiting case of weak screening and large inter-particle separation is considered, which corresponds to small (macro)ions that carry constant charge. The theory yields a solution in the limit of monopole and dipole terms that agrees exactly with existing analytical expressions, which are generally used to describe ion-ion and ion-molecular interactions in a medium. Results from the theory are compared with DLVO theory and with experimental measurements for the electrostatic force between two PMMA particles contained in a nonpolar solvent (hexadecane) with an added charge control agent.
Interaction of Escherichia coli and Soil Particles in Runoff
Muirhead, Richard William; Collins, Robert Peter; Bremer, Philip James
2006-01-01
A laboratory-scale model system was developed to investigate the transport mechanisms involved in the horizontal movement of bacteria in overland flow across saturated soils. A suspension of Escherichia coli and bromide tracer was added to the model system, and the bromide concentration and number of attached and unattached E. coli cells in the overland flow were measured over time. Analysis of the breakthrough curves indicated that the E. coli and bromide were transported together, presumably by the same mechanism. This implied that the E. coli was transported by advection with the flowing water. Overland-flow transport of E. coli could be significantly reduced if the cells were preattached to large soil particles (>45 μm). However, when unattached cells were inoculated into the system, the E. coli appeared to attach predominantly to small particles (<2 μm) and hence remained unattenuated during transport. These results imply that in runoff generated by saturation-excess conditions, bacteria are rapidly transported across the surface and have little opportunity to interact with the soil matrix. PMID:16672484
A numerical study of initial-stage interaction between shock and particle curtain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Xiaolong; Jiang, Lingjie
2016-11-01
High speed particulate flow appears in many scientific and engineering problems. Wagner et al., 2012 studied the planar shock - particle curtain interaction experimentally, found the movement and expansion of the particle curtain, together with the movement of shock waves. Theofanous et al., 2016 did similar experiments, discovered a time scaling that reveals a universal regime for cloud expansion. In these experiments, both the particle-fluid interaction and the particle-particle collision are not negligible, which make it challenging to be dealt with. This work aims to numerically study and understand this problem. Applying the stratified multiphase model presented by Chang & Liou 2007 and regarding one phase as solid, following Regele et al., 2014, we study the initial stage of a planar shock impacting on a particle curtain in 2D, in which the particles can be regarded as static so that the collision between particles are not considered. The locations of reflected shock, transmitted shock, and contact discontinuity are examined. The turbulent energy generated in the interacting area is investigated. Keeping the total volume fraction of particles, and changing the particle number, good convergence results are obtained. Effective drag coefficient in 1D model is also calibrated. The authors acknowledge the support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91230203).
Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases
Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.
2015-05-15
An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Green’s function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.
Weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.
2014-06-01
Background: A model-independent formulation of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-nucleon scattering was recently developed in Galilean-invariant effective field theory. Purpose: Here we complete the embedding of this effective interaction in the nucleus, constructing the most general elastic nuclear cross section as a factorized product of WIMP and nuclear response functions. This form explicitly defines what can and cannot be learned about the low-energy constants of the effective theory—and consequently about candidate ultraviolet theories of dark matter—from elastic scattering experiments. Results: We identify those interactions that cannot be reliably treated in a spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation: For derivative- or velocity-dependent couplings, the SI/SD formulation generally mischaracterizes the relevant nuclear operator and its multipolarity (e.g., scalar or vector) and greatly underestimates experimental sensitivities. This can lead to apparent conflicts between experiments when, in fact, none may exist. The new nuclear responses appearing in the factorized cross section are related to familiar electroweak nuclear operators such as angular momentum l⃗(i) and the spin-orbit coupling σ⃗(i).l⃗(i). Conclusions: To unambiguously interpret experiments and to extract all of the available information on the particle physics of dark matter, experimentalists will need to (1) do a sufficient number of experiments with nuclear targets having the requisite sensitivities to the various operators and (2) analyze the results in a formalism that does not arbitrarily limit the candidate operators. In an appendix we describe a code that is available to help interested readers implement such an analysis.
Electrophoretic interactions and aggregation of colloidal biological particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Robert H.; Nichols, Scott C.; Loewenberg, Michael; Todd, Paul
1994-01-01
The separation of cells or particles from solution has traditionally been accomplished with centrifuges or by sedimentation; however, many particles have specific densities close to unity, making buoyancy-driven motion slow or negligible, but most cells and particles carry surface charges, making them ideal for electrophoretic separation. Both buoyancy-driven and electrophoretic separation may be influenced by hydrodynamic interactions and aggregation of neighboring particles. Aggregation by electrophoresis was analyzed for two non-Brownian particles with different zeta potentials and thin double layers migrating through a viscous fluid. The results indicate that the initial rate of electrophoretically-driven aggregation may exceed that of buoyancy-driven aggregation, even under conditions in which buoyancy-driven relative motion of noninteracting particles is dominant.
Foamy Virus Protein—Nucleic Acid Interactions during Particle Morphogenesis
Hamann, Martin V.; Lindemann, Dirk
2016-01-01
Compared with orthoretroviruses, our understanding of the molecular and cellular replication mechanism of foamy viruses (FVs), a subfamily of retroviruses, is less advanced. The FV replication cycle differs in several key aspects from orthoretroviruses, which leaves established retroviral models debatable for FVs. Here, we review the general aspect of the FV protein-nucleic acid interactions during virus morphogenesis. We provide a summary of the current knowledge of the FV genome structure and essential sequence motifs required for RNA encapsidation as well as Gag and Pol binding in combination with details about the Gag and Pol biosynthesis. This leads us to address open questions in FV RNA engagement, binding and packaging. Based on recent findings, we propose to shift the point of view from individual glycine-arginine-rich motifs having functions in RNA interactions towards envisioning the FV Gag C-terminus as a general RNA binding protein module. We encourage further investigating a potential new retroviral RNA packaging mechanism, which seems more complex in terms of the components that need to be gathered to form an infectious particle. Additional molecular insights into retroviral protein-nucleic acid interactions help us to develop safer, more specific and more efficient vectors in an era of booming genome engineering and gene therapy approaches. PMID:27589786
Model independence of constraints on particle dark matter
Griest, K.; Sadoulet, B.
1989-03-01
The connection between the annihilation, elastic, and production cross sections is reviewed, showing how a general lower limit on the interaction rate in a detector is obtained from the requirement that a particle be the dark matter. High energy production experiments further constrain models, making very light dark matter particles unlikely. Special attention is paid to the uncertainties, loopholes and model dependencies that go into the arguments and several examples are given. 12 refs., 6 figs.
Effects of magnetic interactions in antiferromagnetic ferrihydrite particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berquó, Thelma S.; Erbs, Jasmine J.; Lindquist, Anna; Penn, R. Lee; Banerjee, Subir K.
2009-04-01
The effects of magnetic interactions in the magnetic properties of six-line ferrihydrite particles were investigated by studying the behavior of aggregated versus coated particles. Four different coating agents (sugar, alginate, lactate and ascorbate) were employed in order to obtain dispersed particles and prevent particle agglomeration; one sub-sample was allowed to dry with no coating agent. The five sets of ferrihydrite particles were from the same batch and the size was estimated as 3.6 ± 0.4 nm in length. Low temperature magnetization, ac susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy data showed contrasting blocking temperatures for uncoated and coated samples with a decrease of TP from about 50 K to 12 K, respectively. The contributions from magnetic interactions were recognized in magnetic measurements and the effective anisotropy constant for non-interacting ferrihydrite was estimated as (100 ± 10) × 103 J m-3. Overall, employing sugar and alginate as coating agents was more successful in preventing particle aggregation and magnetic interactions. In contrast, ascorbate and lactate were unsuitable due to the chemical reaction between the coating agent and ferrihydrite surface.
Studying bubble-particle interactions by zeta potential distribution analysis.
Wu, Chendi; Wang, Louxiang; Harbottle, David; Masliyah, Jacob; Xu, Zhenghe
2015-07-01
Over a decade ago, Xu and Masliyah pioneered an approach to characterize the interactions between particles in dynamic environments of multicomponent systems by measuring zeta potential distributions of individual components and their mixtures. Using a Zetaphoremeter, the measured zeta potential distributions of individual components and their mixtures were used to determine the conditions of preferential attachment in multicomponent particle suspensions. The technique has been applied to study the attachment of nano-sized silica and alumina particles to sub-micron size bubbles in solutions with and without the addition of surface active agents (SDS, DAH and DF250). The degree of attachment between gas bubbles and particles is shown to be a function of the interaction energy governed by the dispersion, electrostatic double layer and hydrophobic forces. Under certain chemical conditions, the attachment of nano-particles to sub-micron size bubbles is shown to be enhanced by in-situ gas nucleation induced by hydrodynamic cavitation for the weakly interacting systems, where mixing of the two individual components results in negligible attachment. Preferential interaction in complex tertiary particle systems demonstrated strong attachment between micron-sized alumina and gas bubbles, with little attachment between micron-sized alumina and silica, possibly due to instability of the aggregates in the shear flow environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulp-McDowall, Taylor; Ochs, Ian; Fisch, Nathaniel
2016-10-01
A particle pusher was constructed in MATLAB using a fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm to investigate the wave-particle interactions within theoretical models of the MCMF. The model simplified to a radial electric field and a magnetic field focused in the z direction. Studies on an average velocity calculation were conducted in order to test the program's behavior in the large radius limit. The results verified that the particle pusher was behaving correctly. Waves were then simulated on the rotating particles with a periodic divergenceless perturbation in the Bz component of the magnetic field. Preliminary runs indicate an agreement of the particle's motion with analytical predictions-ie. cyclic contractions of the doubly rotating particle's gyroradius.The next stage of the project involves the implementation of particle collisions and turbulence within the particle pusher in order to increase its accuracy and applicability. This will allow for a further investigation of the alpha channeling electrode replacement thesis first proposed by Abraham Fetterman in 2011. Made possible by Grants from the Princeton Environmental Institute (PEI) and the Program for Plasma Science and Technology (PPST).
Asymmetries between strange and antistrange particle production inpion-proton interactions
Gutierrez, T.D.; Vogt, R.
2002-01-29
Recent measurements of the asymmetries between Feynman x-distributions of strange and antistrange hadrons in {pi}{sup -}A interactions show a strong effect as a function of x{sub F}. We calculate strange hadron production in the context of the intrinsic model and make predictions for particle/antiparticle asymmetries in these interactions.
Local wave particle resonant interaction causing energetic particle prompt loss in DIII-D plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, R. B.; Fu, G. Y.; White, R. B.; Wang, X. G.
2015-11-01
A new wave particle resonance mechanism is found explaining the first-orbit prompt neutral beam-ion losses induced by shear Alfvén Eigenmodes (AEs) in the DIII-D tokamak. Because of the large banana width, a typical trapped beam ion can only interact locally with a core localised Alfvén Eigenmode for a fraction of its orbit, i.e. part of its inner leg of the banana orbit. These trapped beam ions can experience substantial radial kick within one bounce as long as the phases of the wave seen by the particles are nearly constant during this local interaction. A wave particle resonant condition is found based on the locally averaged particle orbit frequencies over the interaction part of the particle orbit. It is further found that the frequency width of the local resonance is quite large because the interaction time is short. This implies that particles over a considerable region of phase space can interact effectively with the localised AEs and experience large radial kicks within one bounce orbit. The radial kick size is found numerically and analytically to scale linearly in AE amplitude and is about 5 cm for typical experimental parameters. These results are consistent with experimental measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graeser, M.; Bente, K.; Buzug, T. M.
2015-06-01
The dynamical behaviour of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is not yet fully understood. In magnetic particle imaging (MPI) SPIONs are used to determine quantitative real-time medical images of a tracer material distribution. For reaching spatial resolution in the sub-millimetre range, MPI requires a well engineered instrumentation providing a magnetic field gradient exceeding 2 T m{}-{1} . However, as the particle performance strongly affects the sensitivity of the imaging process, optimization of the particle parameters is a crucial factor, which is not easy to address. Today most simulations of MPI use the Langevin model to describe the particle behaviour. In equilibrium, the model matches the measured data. If alternating fields in the mid kHz frequency range are applied, the dynamic behaviour of the particles differs from the Langevin theory due to anisotropy effects, particle-particle-interactions and/or exchange interaction in case of multi-core particles. In this paper a model based on previous work is introduced, which was adopted to include crystal and shape anisotropy of immobilised mono-domain single-core particles. The model is applied to typical MPI frequencies and field strengths with different possible superposition of the anisotropy effects, leading to differences in the particle response. It is shown that, despite comparatively high anisotropy constants, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy does not quench the signal response for MPI. The constructive superposition of shape and crystal anisotropy leads to the best performance in terms of sensitivity and resolution of the associated imaging modality and slightly reduces the energy barriers compared to a sole-shape anisotropy.
Gas-Particle Interactions in a Microgravity Flow Cell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Louge, Michel; Jenkins, James
1999-01-01
We are developing a microgravity flow cell in which to study the interaction of a flowing gas with relatively massive particles that collide with each other and with the moving boundaries of the cell. The absence of gravity makes possible the independent control of the relative motion of the boundaries and the flow of the gas. The cell will permit gas-particle interactions to be studied over the entire range of flow conditions over which the mixture is not turbulent. Within this range, we shall characterize the viscous dissipation of the energy of the particle fluctuations, measure the influence of particle-phase viscosity on the pressure drop along the cell, and observe the development of localized inhomogeneities that are likely to be associated with the onset of clusters. These measurements and observations should contribute to an understanding of the essential physics of pneumatic transport.
An incompressible two-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell model for dense particle flows
Snider, D.M.; O`Rourke, P.J.; Andrews, M.J.
1997-06-01
A two-dimensional, incompressible, multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) method is presented for dense particle flows. The numerical technique solves the governing equations of the fluid phase using a continuum model and those of the particle phase using a Lagrangian model. Difficulties associated with calculating interparticle interactions for dense particle flows with volume fractions above 5% have been eliminated by mapping particle properties to a Eulerian grid and then mapping back computed stress tensors to particle positions. This approach utilizes the best of Eulerian/Eulerian continuum models and Eulerian/Lagrangian discrete models. The solution scheme allows for distributions of types, sizes, and density of particles, with no numerical diffusion from the Lagrangian particle calculations. The computational method is implicit with respect to pressure, velocity, and volume fraction in the continuum solution thus avoiding courant limits on computational time advancement. MP-PIC simulations are compared with one-dimensional problems that have analytical solutions and with two-dimensional problems for which there are experimental data.
Particle acceleration at corotating interaction regions in the heliosphere
Tsubouchi, K.
2014-11-01
Hybrid simulations are performed to investigate the dynamics of both solar wind protons and interplanetary pickup ions (PUIs) around the corotating interaction region (CIR). The one-dimensional system is applied in order to focus on processes in the direction of CIR propagation. The CIR is bounded by forward and reverse shocks, which are responsible for particle acceleration. The effective acceleration of solar wind protons takes place when the reverse shock (fast wind side) favors a quasi-parallel regime. The diffusive process accounts for this acceleration, and particles can gain energy in a suprathermal range (on the order of 10 keV). In contrast, the PUI acceleration around the shock differs from the conventional model in which the motional electric field along the shock surface accelerates particles. Owing to their large gyroradius, PUIs can gyrate between the upstream and downstream, several proton inertial lengths away from the shock. This 'cross-shock' gyration results in a net velocity increase in the field-aligned component, indicating that the magnetic mirror force is responsible for acceleration. The PUIs that remain in the vicinity of the shock for a long duration (tens of gyroperiods) gain much energy and are reflected back toward the upstream. These reflected energetic PUIs move back and forth along the magnetic field between a pair of CIRs that are magnetically connected. The PUIs are repeatedly accelerated in each reflection, leading to a maximum energy gain close to 100 keV. This mechanism can be evaluated in terms of 'preacceleration' for the generation of anomalous cosmic rays.
Multiscale modelling of nucleosome core particle aggregation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubartsev, Alexander P.; Korolev, Nikolay; Fan, Yanping; Nordenskiöld, Lars
2015-02-01
The nucleosome core particle (NCP) is the basic building block of chromatin. Under the influence of multivalent cations, isolated mononucleosomes exhibit a rich phase behaviour forming various columnar phases with characteristic NCP-NCP stacking. NCP stacking is also a regular element of chromatin structure in vivo. Understanding the mechanism of nucleosome stacking and the conditions leading to self-assembly of NCPs is still incomplete. Due to the complexity of the system and the need to describe electrostatics properly by including the explicit mobile ions, novel modelling approaches based on coarse-grained (CG) methods at the multiscale level becomes a necessity. In this work we present a multiscale CG computer simulation approach to modelling interactions and self-assembly of solutions of NCPs induced by the presence of multivalent cations. Starting from continuum simulations including explicit three-valent cobalt(III)hexammine (CoHex3+) counterions and 20 NCPs, based on a previously developed advanced CG NCP model with one bead per amino acid and five beads per two DNA base pair unit (Fan et al 2013 PLoS One 8 e54228), we use the inverse Monte Carlo method to calculate effective interaction potentials for a ‘super-CG’ NCP model consisting of seven beads for each NCP. These interaction potentials are used in large-scale simulations of up to 5000 NCPs, modelling self-assembly induced by CoHex3+. The systems of ‘super-CG’ NCPs form a single large cluster of stacked NCPs without long-range order in agreement with experimental data for NCPs precipitated by the three-valent polyamine, spermidine3+.
An aggregation model for ash particles in volcanic clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, A.; Folch, A.; Macedonio, G.; Durant, A.
2009-12-01
A large fraction of fine ash particles injected into the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate through complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in particle settling velocities. The aggregates formed have a different size and density compared to primary particles formed during eruption which dramatically changes the dynamics of sedimentation from the volcanic cloud. Consequently, the lifetime of ash particles in the atmosphere is reduced and a distal mass deposition maximum is often generated in resulting tephra deposits. A complete and rigorous description of volcanic ash fallout requires the full coupling of models of volcanic cloud dynamics and dispersion, and ash particle transport, aggregation and sedimentation. Furthermore, volcanic ash transport models should include an aggregation model that accounts for the interaction of all particle size classes. The problem with this approach is that simulations would require excessively long computational times thereby prohibiting its application in an operational setting during an explosive volcanic eruption. Here we present a simplified model for ash particle transport and aggregation that includes the effects of water in the volcanic cloud and surrounding atmosphere. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average sticking efficiency factors, and collision frequency functions that account for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. A parametric study on the key parameters of the model was performed. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, including the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. In these cases, mass deposited as a function of deposit area and the particle
Interactions of casein micelles with calcium phosphate particles.
Tercinier, Lucile; Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Anne; Singh, Harjinder
2014-06-25
Insoluble calcium phosphate particles, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), are often used in calcium-fortified milks as they are considered to be chemically unreactive. However, this study showed that there was an interaction between the casein micelles in milk and HA particles. The caseins in milk were shown to bind to the HA particles, with the relative proportions of bound β-casein, αS-casein, and κ-casein different from the proportions of the individual caseins present in milk. Transmission electron microscopy showed no evidence of intact casein micelles on the surface of the HA particles, which suggested that the casein micelles dissociated either before or during binding. The HA particles behaved as ion chelators, with the ability to bind the ions contained in the milk serum phase. Consequently, the depletion of the serum minerals disrupted the milk mineral equilibrium, resulting in dissociation of the casein micelles in milk.
Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts
Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.
2003-04-01
Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.
Experimental verification of interactions between randomly distributed fine magnetic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taketomi, Susamu; Shull, Robert D.
2003-10-01
We experimentally examined whether or not a magnetic fluid (MF) is really superparamagnetic by comparing the initial magnetic susceptibilities of the mother MFs with those of their highly diluted solutions (more than 1000 times diluted) in which the dipole-dipole interaction between the particles was negligible. We used three mother MFs, SA 1, SB 1, and SC 1, and their highly diluted solutions, SA 2, SB 2, and SC 2, respectively. The particles' dispersability was best in SA 1 and poorest in SC 1. From the static field experiment, it was found that the mutual interaction between the particles in SB 1, and SC 1 made clusters of particles with magnetically closed flux circuits even at zero field while no interaction was detected in SA 1. The initial complex magnetic susceptibility, χ˜, as a function of temperature, T, under an AC field experiment revealed that the complex susceptibility of both the samples SA 1 and SA 2 showed peaks as a function of T. However, their χ˜ vs. T curves were not similar, leading to the conclusion that the sample SA 1 was not superparamagnetic. Instead, SA 1 was a magnetic spin-glass induced by the weak interaction between the particle spins. The existence of the spin-glass state was also confirmed by the Volgel-Fulcher law dependence of the AC-susceptibility peak temperature, Tp, or the frequency of the AC field.
Emergent Dynamics of a Thermodynamically Consistent Particle Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Seung-Yeal; Ruggeri, Tommaso
2017-03-01
We present a thermodynamically consistent particle (TCP) model motivated by the theory of multi-temperature mixture of fluids in the case of spatially homogeneous processes. The proposed model incorporates the Cucker-Smale (C-S) type flocking model as its isothermal approximation. However, it is more complex than the C-S model, because the mutual interactions are not only " mechanical" but are also affected by the "temperature effect" as individual particles may exhibit distinct internal energies. We develop a framework for asymptotic weak and strong flocking in the context of the proposed model.
Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies
Goulianos, Konstantin
2013-07-31
This is the final report of a program of research on ``Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies'' of the High Energy Physics (HEP) group of The Rockefeller University. The research was carried out using the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Three faculty members, two research associates, and two postdoctoral associates participated in this project. At CDF, we studied proton-antiproton collisions at an energy of 1.96 TeV. We focused on diffractive interactions, in which the colliding antiproton loses a small fraction of its momentum, typically less than 1%, while the proton is excited into a high mass state retaining its quantum numbers. The study of such collisions provides insight into the nature of the diffractive exchange, conventionally referred to as Pomeron exchange. In studies of W and Z production, we found results that point to a QCD-based interpretation of the diffractive exchange, as predicted in a data-driven phenomenology developed within the Rockefeller HEP group. At CMS, we worked on diffraction, supersymmetry (SUSY), dark matter, large extra dimensions, and statistical applications to data analysis projects. In diffraction, we extended our CDF studies to higher energies working on two fronts: measurement of the single/double diffraction and of the rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV, and development of a simulation of diffractive processes along the lines of our successful model used at CDF. Working with the PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo simulation authors, we implemented our model as a PYTHIA8-MBR option in PYTHIA8 and used it in our data analysis. Preliminary results indicate good agreement. We searched for SUSY by measuring parameters in the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) and found results which, combined with other experimental constraints and theoretical considerations, indicate that the
Exploring the Standard Model of Particles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johansson, K. E.; Watkins, P. M.
2013-01-01
With the recent discovery of a new particle at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the Higgs boson could be about to be discovered. This paper provides a brief summary of the standard model of particle physics and the importance of the Higgs boson and field in that model for non-specialists. The role of Feynman diagrams in making predictions for…
Calculating the Annihilation Rate of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumgart, Matthew; Rothstein, Ira Z.; Vaidya, Varun
2015-05-01
We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial-state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. For the case of Majorana WIMPs transforming in the adjoint representation of SU(2), we present the result for the resummed rate at leading double-log accuracy in terms of two initial-state partial-wave matrix elements and one hard matching coefficient. For a given model, one may calculate the cross section by finding the tree level matching coefficient and determining the value of a local four-fermion operator. The effects of resummation can be as large as 100% for a 20 TeV WIMP. However, for lighter WIMP masses relevant for the thermal relic scenario, leading-log resummation modifies the Sudakov factors only at the 10% level. Furthermore, given comparably sized Sommerfeld factors, the total effect of radiative corrections on the semi-inclusive photon annihilation rate is found to be percent level. The generalization of the formalism to other types of WIMPs is discussed.
Interacting particles in a periodically moving potential: traveling wave and transport.
Chatterjee, Rakesh; Chatterjee, Sakuntala; Pradhan, Punyabrata; Manna, S S
2014-02-01
We study a system of interacting particles in a periodically moving external potential, within the simplest possible description of paradigmatic symmetric exclusion process on a ring. The model describes diffusion of hardcore particles where the diffusion dynamics is locally modified at a uniformly moving defect site, mimicking the effect of the periodically moving external potential. The model, though simple, exhibits remarkably rich features in particle transport, such as polarity reversal and double peaks in particle current upon variation of defect velocity and particle density. By tuning these variables, the most efficient transport can be achieved in either direction along the ring. These features can be understood in terms of a traveling density wave propagating in the system. Our results could be experimentally tested, e.g., in a system of colloidal particles driven by a moving optical tweezer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreno, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.
2012-12-01
Particles laying motionless at the bed of rivers, lakes and estuaries can be put into motion when the shear stress exerted by the flow on the particles exceeds the critical shear stress. When these particles start their motion they can either remain suspended by long periods of time (suspended load) or move close to the bed (bed load). Particles are transported as bed load in three different modes: Sliding, rolling and saltation. Saltation is usually described as the bouncing motion of sediment particles in a layer a few particle diameters thick. The amount of particles and the bed-load mode in which they move depend on the particle size and density, and the flow intensity, usually quantified by the shear velocity. The bottom shear stress in natural streams will most likely be large enough to set saltation as the most important bed-load transport mechanism among all three modes. Thus, studying the saltation process is crucial for the overall understanding of bed-load transport. Particularly, numerical simulations of this process have been providing important insight regarding the relative importance of the physical mechanisms involved in it. Several processes occur when particles are saltating near the bed: i) Particles collide with the bed, ii) they "fly" between collisions with the bed, as a result of their interaction with the fluid flow, iii) and they collide among themselves. These processes can be simulated using a three-dimensional Eulerian-Lagrangian model. In order to mimic these processes we have experimented with an averaged turbulent flow field represented by the logarithmic law of the wall, and with a more involved approach in which a computed turbulent velocity field for a flat plate was used as a surrogate of the three-dimensional turbulent conditions present close to stream beds. Since flat-plate and open-channel boundary layers are essentially different, a dynamic similarity analysis was performed showing that the highly-resolved three
Modeling the dynamics of several particles behind a propagating shock wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedarev, I. A.; Fedorov, A. V.
2017-01-01
The interaction of a shock wave in a gas phase with a system of particles moving in this gas has been numerically simulated. The wave pattern of the nonstationary interaction of the propagating shock wave with these particles is described in detail. The mathematical model and computational technology employed is compared with experimental data on the dynamics of particles behind the shock wave. It is established that the approximate model of separate particles used to calculate relaxation of their velocities unsatisfactorily operates in the presence of a mutual influence of particles, whereby one particle can occur in the aerodynamic shadow of an adjacent particle.
Simulation of Alfven wave-resonant particle interaction
Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Pekker, M.
1995-07-01
New numerical simulations are presented on the self-consistent dynamics of energetic particles and a set of unstable discrete shear Alfven modes in a tokamak. Our code developed for these simulations has been previously tested in the simulations of the bump-on-tail instability model. The code has a Hamiltonian structure for the mode-particle coupling, with the superimposed wave damping, particle source and classical relaxation processes. In the alpha particle-Alfven wave problem, we observe a transition from a single mode saturation to the mode overlap and global quasilinear diffusion, which is qualitatively similar to that observed in the bump-on-tail model. We demonstrate a considerable enhancement in the wave energy due to the resonance overlap. We also demonstrate the effect of global diffusion on the energetic particle losses.
Statistical mechanics of point particles with a gravitational interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chabanol, M.-L.; Corson, F.; Pomeau, Y.
2000-04-01
We study the dynamics of N point particles with a gravitational interaction. The divergence of the microcanonical partition function prevents this system from reaching equilibrium. Assuming a random diffusion in phase space we deduce a scaling law involving time, which is numerically checked for 3 interacting masses in a quadratic nonsymmetrical potential. This random walk on the potential energy scale is studied in some detail and the results agree with the numerics.
Acoustofluidics 15: streaming with sound waves interacting with solid particles.
Sadhal, S S
2012-08-07
In Part 15 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics-exploiting ultrasonic standing waves forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation," we examine the interaction of acoustic fields with solid particles. The main focus here is the interaction of standing waves with spherical particles leading to streaming, together with some discussion on one non-spherical case. We begin with the classical problem of a particle at the velocity antinode of a standing wave, and then treat the problem of a sphere at the velocity node, followed by the intermediate situation of a particle between nodes. Finally, we discuss the effect of deviation from sphericity which brings about interesting fluid mechanics. The entire Focus article is devoted to the analysis of the nonlinear fluid mechanics by singular perturbation methods, and the study of the streaming phenomenon that ensues from the nonlinear interaction. With the intention of being instructive material, this tutorial cannot by any means be considered 'complete and comprehensive' owing to the complexity of the class of problems being covered herein.
Particle Swarm Optimization With Interswarm Interactive Learning Strategy.
Qin, Quande; Cheng, Shi; Zhang, Qingyu; Li, Li; Shi, Yuhui
2016-10-01
The learning strategy in the canonical particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is often blamed for being the primary reason for loss of diversity. Population diversity maintenance is crucial for preventing particles from being stuck into local optima. In this paper, we present an improved PSO algorithm with an interswarm interactive learning strategy (IILPSO) by overcoming the drawbacks of the canonical PSO algorithm's learning strategy. IILPSO is inspired by the phenomenon in human society that the interactive learning behavior takes place among different groups. Particles in IILPSO are divided into two swarms. The interswarm interactive learning (IIL) behavior is triggered when the best particle's fitness value of both the swarms does not improve for a certain number of iterations. According to the best particle's fitness value of each swarm, the softmax method and roulette method are used to determine the roles of the two swarms as the learning swarm and the learned swarm. In addition, the velocity mutation operator and global best vibration strategy are used to improve the algorithm's global search capability. The IIL strategy is applied to PSO with global star and local ring structures, which are termed as IILPSO-G and IILPSO-L algorithm, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithms with eight popular PSO variants. From the experimental results, IILPSO demonstrates the good performance in terms of solution accuracy, convergence speed, and reliability. Finally, the variations of the population diversity in the entire search process provide an explanation why IILPSO performs effectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gough, M.; Buckley, A.; Carozzi, T.; Beloff, N.
The technique of particle correlation measures directly electron modulations that result from naturally occurring and actively stimulated wave-particle interactions in space plasmas. In the past this technique has been used for studies of beam-plasma interactions, caused by both natural auroral electron beams via sounding rockets and by artificially generated electron beams on Shuttle missions: TSS-1/-TSS-1R. It has also been applied to studies of how electrons become energised by waves injected from in-situ transmitters (OEDIPUS-C). All four ESA Cluster-II spacecraft launched in 2000 to study the outer magnetosphere, cusp, and bow shock were implemented with electron correlators. Here the prevalent broader band wave-particle interactions have been more difficult to extract. However, the application of new statistical algorithms has permitted these correlators to provide a novel insight into turbulence occurring and also provided an independent means whereby electron count rates can be corrected for detector saturation effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsurutani, B. T.; Zhang, L. D.; Mason, G. L.; Lakhina, G. S.; Hada, T.; Arballo, J. K.; Zwickl, R. D.
2002-04-01
Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths l
Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.
1990-01-01
It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.
Electrostatic analysis of the interactions between charged particles of dielectric materials.
Bichoutskaia, Elena; Boatwright, Adrian L; Khachatourian, Armik; Stace, Anthony J
2010-07-14
An understanding of the electrostatic interactions that exist between charged particles of dielectric materials has applications that span much of chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering. Areas of interest include cloud formation, ink-jet printing, and the stability of emulsions. A general solution to the problem of calculating electrostatic interactions between charged dielectric particles is presented. The solution converges very rapidly for low values of the dielectric constant and is stable up to the point where particles touch. Through applications to unspecified particles with a range of size and charge ratios, the model shows that there exist distinct regions of dielectric space where particles with the same sign of charge are strongly attracted to one another.
Interaction of nanosilver particles with human lymphocyte cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhornik, Alena; Baranova, Ludmila; Volotovski, Igor; Chizhik, Sergey; Drozd, Elizaveta; Sudas, Margarita; Buu Ngo, Quoc; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Huynh, Thi Ha; Hien Dao, Trong
2015-01-01
The damaging effects of nanoparticles were hypothesized to be the oxidative stress caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species and initiation of inflammatory reactions. In this context a study on the effects of nanosilver particles on the formation of reactive oxygen species in human lymphocyte culture was carried out. The obtained results showed that fluorescence intensity considerably increased after cells had interacted with nanosilver particles of varying concentrations, indicating the formation of reactive oxygen species and their accumulation in lymphocyte cells. Morphological study of the lymphocyte cells under the effects of nanosilver particles showed that the change in morphology depends on the concentration and size of nanosilver particles: for a size ≤20 nm the lymphocyte cell significantly shrank with pronounced differences in the morphological structure of the cell membrane, but for a size ≥200 nm no change was observed.
Quasi-particles and effective mean field in strongly interacting matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lévai, P.; Ko, C. M.
2010-03-01
We introduce a quasi-particle model of strongly interacting quark-gluon matter and explore the possible connection to an effective field theoretical description consisting of a scalar σ field by introducing a dynamically generated mass, M(σ), and a self-consistently determined interaction term, B(σ). We display a possible connection between the two types of effective description, using the Friedberg-Lee model.
Observations and Modeling of Geospace Energetic Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xinlin
2016-07-01
Comprehensive measurements of energetic particles and electric and magnetic fields from state-of-art instruments onboard Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, revealed new features of the energetic particles and the fields in the inner magnetosphere and impose new challenges to any quantitative modeling of the physical processes responsible for these observations. Concurrent measurements of energetic particles by satellites in highly inclined low Earth orbits and plasma and fields by satellites in farther distances in the magnetospheres and in the up stream solar wind are the critically needed information for quantitative modeling and for leading to eventual accurate forecast of the variations of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere. In this presentation, emphasis will be on the most recent advance in our understanding of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere and the missing links for significantly advance in our modeling and forecasting capabilities.
Time dilation in relativistic two-particle interactions
Shields, B. T.; Morris, M. C.; Ware, M. R.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.; Stefanovich, E. V.
2010-11-15
We study the orbits of two interacting particles described by a fully relativistic classical mechanical Hamiltonian. We use two sets of initial conditions. In the first set (dynamics 1) the system's center of mass is at rest. In the second set (dynamics 2) the center of mass evolves with velocity V. If dynamics 1 is observed from a reference frame moving with velocity -V, the principle of relativity requires that all observables must be identical to those of dynamics 2 seen from the laboratory frame. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that kinematic Lorentz space-time transformations fail to transform particle observables between the two frames. This is explained as a result of the inevitable interaction dependence of the boost generator in the instant form of relativistic dynamics. Despite general inaccuracies of the Lorentz formulas, the orbital periods are correctly predicted by the Einstein's time dilation factor for all interaction strengths.
Wave-particle interactions in a resonant system of photons and ion-solvated water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konishi, Eiji
2017-02-01
We investigate a laser model for a resonant system of photons and ion cluster-solvated rotating water molecules in which ions in the cluster are identical and have very low, non-relativistic velocities and direction of motion parallel to a static electric field induced in a single direction. This model combines Dicke superradiation with wave-particle interaction. As the result, we find that the equations of motion of the system are expressed in terms of a conventional free electron laser system. This result leads to a mechanism for dynamical coherence, induced by collective instability in the wave-particle interaction.
Particle Interactions in Mixed Solvents and Rough Surfaces Formed by Sedimenting Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurnaz, Mehmet Levent
The quasi-two-dimensional sedimentation of silica particles in a viscous fluid results in quasi-one-dimensional rough surfaces. These surfaces are rough on all length -scales between the particle size and the cell size, but different roughness exponents are observed in two well defined length-scale regimes. The range of hydrodynamic forces should play an important role in determining which, if either, length-scale regime shows universal properties. The strong similarity between the height-height correlations of the surface and the density-density correlations inside the flow at longer lengthscales suggests that the roughness at longer lengthscales is very closely tied to the hydrodynamic interactions in the fluid. Measurements have been performed at three different cell-aspect-ratios and at three different fluid viscosities and in no case is there an observable change in the cross-over length-scales of the system. In another work we have measured the interactions of charged colloidal particles in near critical mixtures of 2.6 lutidine and water (LW). An earlier survey has found a temperature dependent flocculation of particles in the one phase region of the liquid mixture. We have now measured static light scattering as a function of number density of colloidal particles and system temperature at two solvent-mixture compositions on the aggregation side of the coexistence curve of one choice of particles. Using a Zimm analysis in the non-aggregating region where the structure factor does not change rapidly with scattering angle, we have extracted values of the 2nd viral coefficient of the colloidal particles. It is possible to extend this measurement to temperatures close enough to the aggregation temperature to establish the temperature at which the virial coefficient falls through zero as the net particle interaction becomes attractive.
Magnetic microswimmers: Controlling particle approach through magnetic and hydrodynamic interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meshkati, Farshad; Cheang, U. Kei; Kim, Minjun; Fu, Henry
2015-11-01
We investigate magnetic microswimmers actuated by a rotating magnetic field that may be useful for drug delivery, micro-surgery, or diagnostics in human body. For modular swimmers, assembly and disassembly requires understanding the interactions between the swimmer and other modules in the fluid. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms for a frequency-dependent attraction/repulsion between a three-bead, achiral swimmer and other magnetic particles, which represent modular assembly elements. We first investigate the hydrodynamic interaction between a swimmer and nearby particle by studying the Lagrangian trajectories in the vicinity of the swimmer. Then we show that the magnetic forces can be attractive or repulsive depending on the spatial arrangement of the swimmer and particle, with a magnitude that decreases with increasing frequency. Combining magnetic and hydrodynamic effects allows us to understand the overall behavior of magnetic particles near the swimmer. Interestingly, we find that the frequency of rotation can be used to control when the particle can closely approach the swimmer, with potential application to assembly.
Electromagnetic sunscreen model: design of experiments on particle specifications.
Lécureux, Marie; Deumié, Carole; Enoch, Stefan; Sergent, Michelle
2015-10-01
We report a numerical study on sunscreen design and optimization. Thanks to the combined use of electromagnetic modeling and design of experiments, we are able to screen the most relevant parameters of mineral filters and to optimize sunscreens. Several electromagnetic modeling methods are used depending on the type of particles, density of particles, etc. Both the sun protection factor (SPF) and the UVB/UVA ratio are considered. We show that the design of experiments' model should include interactions between materials and other parameters. We conclude that the material of the particles is a key parameter for the SPF and the UVB/UVA ratio. Among the materials considered, none is optimal for both. The SPF is also highly dependent on the size of the particles.
Chromatic patchy particles: Effects of specific interactions on liquid structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasilyev, Oleg A.; Klumov, Boris A.; Tkachenko, Alexei V.
2015-07-01
We study the structural and thermodynamic properties of patchy particle liquids, with a special focus on the role of "color," i.e., specific interactions between individual patches. A possible experimental realization of such "chromatic" interactions is by decorating the particle patches with single-stranded DNA linkers. The complementarity of the linkers can promote selective bond formation between predetermined pairs of patches. By using MD simulations, we compare the local connectivity, the bond orientation order, and other structural properties of the aggregates formed by the "colored" and "colorless" systems. The analysis is done for spherical particles with two different patch arrangements (tetrahedral and cubic). It is found that the aggregated (liquid) phase of the "colorless" patchy particles is better connected, denser and typically has stronger local order than the corresponding "colored" one. This, in turn, makes the colored liquid less stable thermodynamically. Specifically, we predict that in a typical case the chromatic interactions should increase the relative stability of the crystalline phase with respect to the disordered liquid, thus expanding its region in the phase diagram.
Chromatic patchy particles: Effects of specific interactions on liquid structure
Vasilyev, Oleg A.; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Klumov, Boris A.
2015-07-13
We study the structural and thermodynamic properties of patchy particle liquids, with a special focus on the role of “color,” i.e., specific interactions between individual patches. A possible experimental realization of such “chromatic” interactions is by decorating the particle patches with single-stranded DNA linkers. The complementarity of the linkers can promote selective bond formation between predetermined pairs of patches. By using MD simulations, we compare the local connectivity, the bond orientation order, and other structural properties of the aggregates formed by the “colored” and “colorless” systems. The analysis is done for spherical particles with two different patch arrangements (tetrahedral and cubic). It is found that the aggregated (liquid) phase of the “colorless” patchy particles is better connected, denser and typically has stronger local order than the corresponding “colored” one. This, in turn, makes the colored liquid less stable thermodynamically. Specifically, we predict that in a typical case the chromatic interactions should increase the relative stability of the crystalline phase with respect to the disordered liquid, thus expanding its region in the phase diagram.
Chromatic patchy particles: Effects of specific interactions on liquid structure
Vasilyev, Oleg A.; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Klumov, Boris A.
2015-07-13
We study the structural and thermodynamic properties of patchy particle liquids, with a special focus on the role of “color,” i.e., specific interactions between individual patches. A possible experimental realization of such “chromatic” interactions is by decorating the particle patches with single-stranded DNA linkers. The complementarity of the linkers can promote selective bond formation between predetermined pairs of patches. By using MD simulations, we compare the local connectivity, the bond orientation order, and other structural properties of the aggregates formed by the “colored” and “colorless” systems. The analysis is done for spherical particles with two different patch arrangements (tetrahedral andmore » cubic). It is found that the aggregated (liquid) phase of the “colorless” patchy particles is better connected, denser and typically has stronger local order than the corresponding “colored” one. This, in turn, makes the colored liquid less stable thermodynamically. Specifically, we predict that in a typical case the chromatic interactions should increase the relative stability of the crystalline phase with respect to the disordered liquid, thus expanding its region in the phase diagram.« less
Modelling Positron Interactions with Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; White, R.; Buckman, S.
2011-05-01
In this work we link fundamental measurements of positron interactions with biomolecules, with the development of computer codes for positron transport and track structure calculations. We model positron transport in a medium from a knowledge of the fundamental scattering cross section for the atoms and molecules comprising the medium, combined with a transport analysis based on statistical mechanics and Monte-Carlo techniques. The accurate knowledge of the scattering is most important at low energies, a few tens of electron volts or less. The ultimate goal of this work is to do this in soft condensed matter, with a view to ultimately developing a dosimetry model for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The high-energy positrons first emitted by a radionuclide in PET may well be described by standard formulas for energy loss of charged particles in matter, but it is incorrect to extrapolate these formulas to low energies. Likewise, using electron cross-sections to model positron transport at these low energies has been shown to be in serious error due to the effects of positronium formation. Work was supported by the Australian Research Council, the Serbian Government, and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain.
The PHOCUS Project: Particle Interactions in the Polar Summer Mesosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gumbel, J.; Hedin, J.; Khaplanov, M.
2012-12-01
On the morning of July 21, 2011, the PHOCUS sounding rocket was launched from Esrange, Sweden, into strong noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) observed by the Esrange lidar and the ESRAD MST radar. The aim of the PHOCUS project (Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere) is to study mesospheric particles (ice and meteoric smoke) and their interaction with their neutral and charged environment. Starting out from first ideas in 2005, PHOCUS has developed into a comprehensive venture that connects to a number of new and renewed scientific questions. Interactions of interest comprise the charging and nucleation of particles, the relationship between meteoric smoke and ice, and the influence of these particles on gas-phase chemistry. This presentation gives an overview of the campaign and scientific results. The backbone of the campaign was a sounding rocket with 18 instruments from 8 scientific groups in Sweden, Norway, Germany, Austria and the USA. Atmospheric composition and ice particle properties were probed by a set of optical instruments from Stockholm University, in collaboration with the University in Trondheim. Exciting new instrument developments concerned microwave radiometers for in situ measurements of water vapour at 183 and 558 GHz by Chalmers University of Technology. Charged particles were probed by impact detectors from the University of Colorado, the University of Tromsø and the Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), complemented by direct particle sampling from Stockholm University. The neutral and charged background state of the atmosphere was quantified by the Technical University Graz, IAP, and the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. Important ground-based instrumentation included the Esrange lidar, the ESRAD MST radar, the SkiYMET meteor radar and EISCAT.
Simulations of Energetic Particles Interacting with Dynamical Magnetic Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A.
2016-02-01
We explore the transport of energetic particles in interplanetary space by using test-particle simulations. In previous work such simulations have been performed by using either magnetostatic turbulence or undamped propagating plasma waves. In the current paper we simulate for the first time particle transport in dynamical turbulence. To do so we employ two models, namely the damping model of dynamical turbulence and the random sweeping model. We compute parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and compare our numerical findings with solar wind observations. We show that good agreement can be found between simulations and the Palmer consensus range for both dynamical turbulence models if the ratio of turbulent magnetic field and mean field is δB/B0 = 0.5.
SIMULATIONS OF ENERGETIC PARTICLES INTERACTING WITH DYNAMICAL MAGNETIC TURBULENCE
Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A. E-mail: husseinm@myumanitoba.ca
2016-02-01
We explore the transport of energetic particles in interplanetary space by using test-particle simulations. In previous work such simulations have been performed by using either magnetostatic turbulence or undamped propagating plasma waves. In the current paper we simulate for the first time particle transport in dynamical turbulence. To do so we employ two models, namely the damping model of dynamical turbulence and the random sweeping model. We compute parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and compare our numerical findings with solar wind observations. We show that good agreement can be found between simulations and the Palmer consensus range for both dynamical turbulence models if the ratio of turbulent magnetic field and mean field is δB/B{sub 0} = 0.5.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gough, M. P.; Buckley, A. M.; Carozzi, T.; Beloff, N.
The technique of particle correlation measures directly electron modulations that result from naturally occurring and actively stimulated wave-particle interactions in space plasmas. In the past this technique has been used for studies of beam-plasma interactions, caused by both natural auroral electron beams via sounding rockets and by artificially generated electron beams on Space Shuttle missions (STS-46, STS-75). It has also been applied to studies of how electrons become energised by waves injected from in-situ transmitters (e.g OEDIPUS-C sounding rocket). All four ESA Cluster-II spacecraft launched in 2000 to study the outer magnetosphere, cusp, and bow shock were implemented with electron correlators. Here the prevalent weaker wave-particle interactions have been more difficult to extract, however, the application of new statistical algorithms has permitted these correlators to provide a novel insight into the plasma turbulence that occurs. Present work involves technical improvements to both sensor design and correlator implementation that enable many electron energy-angle combinations to be simultaneously monitored for wave-particle interactions. A broad energy-angle range spectrograph connected to a multi-channel, multi-frequency range FPGA implemented array of correlators is scheduled to fly early 2004. Neural network techniques previously flown on STS-46 and STS-75, and statistical tests developed for Cluster-II will be used on-board to select data to be transmitted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gough, M.; Buckley, A.; Carozzi, T.; Beloff, N.
The technique of particle correlation measures directly electron modulations that result from naturally occurring and actively stimulated wave-particle interactions in space plasmas. In the past this technique has been used for studies of beam-plasma interactions, caused by both natural auroral electron beams via sounding rockets and by artificially generated electron beams on Shuttle missions: TSS-1/-TSS -1R. It has also been applied to studies of how electrons become energised by waves injected from in-situ transmitters (OEDIPUS-C). All four ESA Cluster-II spacecraft launched in 2000 to study the outer magnetosphere, cusp, and bow shock were implemented with electron correlators. Here the prevalent broader band wave-particle interactions have been more difficult to extract. However, the application of new statistical algorithms has permitted these correlators to provide a novel insight into turbulence occurring and also provided an independent means whereby electron count rates can be corrected for detector saturation effects. Present work involves technical improvements to both sensor design and correlator implementation that enable many electron energy-angle combinations to be simultaneously monitored for wave-particle interactions. A b oad energy -angler range spectrograph connected to a multi-channel, multi-frequency range FPGA implemented array of correlators is scheduled to fly early 2004. Neural network techniques previously flown on TSS -1 , TSS-1R, and statistical tests developed for Cluster-II will be used on-board to select data to be transmitted.
Gas interaction effects on lunar bonded particles and their implications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukherjee, N. R.
1976-01-01
Results are reported for an experimental investigation of gas-interaction effects on different Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 lunar-soil samples containing bonded particles. In the experiments, lunar fines were exposed to pure O2, pure water vapor, HCl, NH3, N2, HCOOH, and CH3NH2, in order to observe whether bonded particles would separate. In addition, repeated gas adsorption/desorption measurements were performed to determine the nature and reactive properties of the particle surfaces, and surface areas were measured for comparison with analogous terrestrial samples to determine whether the surface areas of highly radiation-damaged particles were larger or smaller. It is found that N2 is apparently ineffective in separating bonded particles and that the ratio of Apollo 11 to Apollo 12 bonded particles separated by a particular gas exposure ranges from 2.5 to 3.0. Possible reasons for differences in material surface properties at the two Apollo sites are considered, and it is concluded that material from a certain depth at some other site was transported to the Apollo 12 site and mixed with the original material in recent years (considerably less than 2000 years ago).
Otsuki, Akira; Bryant, Gary
2015-12-01
This paper aims to summarize recent investigations into the dispersion of fine particles, and the characterization of their interactions, in concentrated suspensions. This summary will provide a better understanding of the current status of this research, and will provide useful feedback for advanced particle processing. Such processes include the fabrication of functional nanostructures and the sustainable beneficiation of complex ores. For example, there has been increasing demand for complex ore utilization due to the noticeable decrease in the accessibility of high grade and easily extractable ores. In order to maintain the sustainable use of mineral resources, the effective beneficiation of complex ores is urgently required. It can be successfully achieved only with selective particle/mineral dispersion/liberation and the assistance of mineralogical and particle characterization.
Interaction of Particles and Turbulence in the Solar Nebula
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer S.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Cuzzi, J. N.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
The most widely accepted theories for the formation of the Solar system claim that small solid particles continue to settle into a thin layer at the midplane of the Solar nebula until it becomes gravitationally unstable and collapses directly into km-sized planetesimals. This scenario has been challenged on at least two grounds: (1) due to turbulence, the particles may not settle into a thin layer, and (2) a thin layer may not be unstable. The Solar nebula contains at least three sources of turbulence: radial shear, vertical shear, and thermal convection. The first of these is small and probably negligible, while the last is poorly understood. However, the second contribution is likely to be substantial. The particle-rich layer rotates at nearly the Keplerian speed, but the surrounding gaseous nebula rotates slower because it is partly supported by pressure. The resulting shear generates a turbulent boundary layer which stirs the particles away from the midplane, and forestalls gravitational instability. Our previous work used a 'zero-equation' (Prandtl) model to predict the intensity of shear-generated turbulence, and enabled us to demonstrate numerically that settling of particles to the midplane is self-limiting. However, we neglected the possibility that mass loading by particles might damp the turbulence. To explore this, we have developed a more sophisticated 'one-equation' model which incorporates local generation, transport, and dissipation of turbulence, as well as explicit damping of turbulence by particles. We also include a background level of global turbulence to represent other sources. Our results indicate that damping flattens the distribution of particles somewhat, but that background turbulence thickens the particle layer.
Numerical modeling of the particle velocity and thermal relaxation behind passing shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedarev, I. A.; Fedorov, A. V.
2016-10-01
The interaction of a shock wave with a system of particles moving in a gas is studied by numerical simulation. The wave pattern of the unsteady interaction of the passing shock wave with these particles is described in detail. The mathematical model and computational procedure are verified against experimental data on the particle dynamics behind the shock wave. It is shown that the approximate single-particle model for calculating the velocity relaxation is unsuitable in the case of mutual influence of particles, where one particle is in the wind shadow of another.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebovka, N. I.; Khrapatiy, S.; Melnyk, R.; Vygornitskii, M.
2014-05-01
Self-assembly of particles, suspended in a drying droplet, were studied by the Monte Carlo method. The Brownian diffusion of particles was simulated accounting for the effect of hydrodynamic retardation and interparticle interactions. The model allowed for explaining formation of the "coffee ring" patterns even without accounting for the radial flows towards the three-phase contact line. Morphologies of the drying patterns and their dependence on interparticle interactions and concentration of particles are discussed.
Quantum particle interacting with a metallic particle: Spectra from quantum Langevin theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loh, W. M. Edmund; Ooi, C. H. Raymond
2017-01-01
The effect of a nearby metallic particle on the quantum optical properties of a quantum particle in the four-level double Raman configuration is studied using the quantum Langevin approach. We obtain analytical expressions for the correlated quantum fields of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons emitted from the system and perform analysis on how the interparticle distance, the direction of observation or detection, the strengths of controllable laser fields, the presence of surface plasmon resonance, and the number density of the quantum particle affect the quantum spectra of the Stokes and anti-Stokes fields. We explore the physics behind the quantum-particle-metallic-nanoparticle interaction within the dipole approximation, that is, when the interparticle distance is much larger than the sizes of the particles. Our results show the dependence of the spectra on the interparticle distance in the form of oscillatory behavior with damping as the interparticle distance increases. At weaker laser fields the enhancement of quantum fields which manifests itself in the form of a Fano dip in the central peak of the spectra becomes significant. Also, the quantum-particle-metallic-nanoparticle coupling, which is affected by the size of the metallic nanoparticle and the number density of the quantum particle, changes the angular dependence of the spectra by breaking the angular rotational symmetry. In the presence of surface plasmon resonance the oscillatory dependence of the spectra on the interparticle distance and angles of observation becomes even stronger due to the plasmonic enhancement effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraiwa, Manabu; Garland, Rebecca M.; Pöschl, Ulrich
2010-05-01
We present a kinetic double-layer surface model (K2-SURF) that describes the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on aerosol particles exposed to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, hydroxyl and nitrate radicals [1]. The model is based on multiple experimental studies of PAH degradation and on the Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann (PRA) framework [2] for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions. For a wide range of substrates, including solid and liquid organic and inorganic substances (soot, silica, sodium chloride, octanol/decanol, organic acids, etc.), the concentration- and time-dependence of the heterogeneous reaction between PAHs and O3 can be efficiently described with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism. Depending on the substrate material, the Langmuir adsorption constants for O3 vary over three orders of magnitude, and the second-order rate coefficients for the surface layer reaction of O3 with different PAH vary over two orders of magnitude. The available data indicate that the Langmuir adsorption constants for NO2 are similar to those of O3, while those of H2O are several orders of magnitude smaller. The desorption lifetimes and adsorption enthalpies suggest chemisorption of NO2 and O3 and physisorption of H2O. Note, however, that the exact reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps and possible intermediates still remain to be resolved (e.g., surface diffusion and formation of O atoms or O3- ions at the surface). The K2-SURF model enables the calculation of ozone uptake coefficients, γO3, and of PAH concentrations in the quasi-static particle surface layer. Competitive adsorption and chemical transformation of the surface (aging) lead to a strong non-linear dependence of γO3 on time and gas phase composition, with different characteristics under dilute atmospheric and concentrated laboratory conditions. Under typical ambient conditions, γO3 of PAH-coated aerosol particles are expected to be in the range of 10-6 - 10
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraiwa, M.; Garland, R. M.; Pöschl, U.
2009-12-01
We present a kinetic double-layer surface model (K2-SURF) that describes the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on aerosol particles exposed to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. The model is based on multiple experimental studies of PAH degradation and on the PRA framework (Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007) for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions. For a wide range of substrates, including solid and liquid organic and inorganic substances (soot, silica, sodium chloride, octanol/decanol, organic acids, etc.), the concentration- and time-dependence of the heterogeneous reaction between PAHs and O3 can be efficiently described with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism. Depending on the substrate material, the Langmuir adsorption constants for O3 vary over three orders of magnitude (Kads,O3 ≍ 10-15-10-13 cm3), and the second-order rate coefficients for the surface layer reaction of O3 with different PAH vary over two orders of magnitude (kSLR,PAH,O3 ≍ 10-18-10-17 cm2 s-1). The available data indicate that the Langmuir adsorption constants for NO2 are similar to those of O3, while those of H2O are several orders of magnitude smaller (Kads,H2O ≍ 10-18-10-17 cm3). The desorption lifetimes and adsorption enthalpies inferred from the Langmuir adsorption constants suggest chemisorption of NO2 and O3 and physisorption of H2O. Note, however, that the exact reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps and possible intermediates still remain to be resolved (e.g., surface diffusion and formation of O atoms or O3- ions at the surface). The K2-SURF model enables the calculation of ozone uptake coefficients, γO3, and of PAH concentrations in the quasi-static particle surface layer. Competitive adsorption and chemical transformation of the surface (aging) lead to a strong non-linear dependence of γO3 on time and gas phase composition, with different characteristics under dilute atmospheric and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraiwa, M.; Garland, R. M.; Pöschl, U.
2009-09-01
We present a kinetic double-layer surface model (K2-SURF) that describes the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on aerosol particles exposed to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. The model is based on multiple experimental studies of PAH degradation and on the PRA framework (Pöschl et al., 2007) for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions. For a wide range of substrates, including solid and liquid organic and inorganic substances (soot, silica, sodium chloride, octanol/decanol, organic acids, etc.), the concentration- and time-dependence of the heterogeneous reaction between PAHs and O3 can be efficiently described with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism. Depending on the substrate material, the Langmuir adsorption constants for O3 vary over three orders of magnitude (Kads,O3≍10-15-10-13 cm3), and the second-order rate coefficients for the surface layer reaction of O3 with different PAH vary over two orders of magnitude (kSLR,PAH,O3≍10-18-10-17 cm2 s-1). The available data indicate that the Langmuir adsorption constants for NO2 are similar to those of O3, while those of H2O are several orders of magnitude smaller (Kads,H2O≍10-18-10-17 cm3). The desorption lifetimes and adsorption enthalpies inferred from the Langmuir adsorption constants suggest chemisorption of NO2 and O3 - possibly in the form of O atoms - and physisorption of H2O. The K2-SURF model enables the calculation of ozone uptake coefficients, γO3, and of PAH concentrations in the quasi-static particle surface layer. Competitive adsorption and chemical transformation of the surface (aging) lead to a strong non-linear dependence of γO3 on time and gas phase composition, with different characteristics under dilute atmospheric and concentrated laboratory conditions. Under typical ambient conditions, γO3 of PAH-coated aerosol particles are expected to be in the range of 10-6-10-5. At ambient temperatures, NO2 alone
Modeling of Fine-Particle Formation in Turbulent Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raman, Venkat; Fox, Rodney O.
2016-01-01
The generation of nanostructured particles in high-temperature flames is important both for the control of emissions from combustion devices and for the synthesis of high-value chemicals for a variety of applications. The physiochemical processes that lead to the production of fine particles in turbulent flames are highly sensitive to the flow physics and, in particular, the history of thermochemical compositions and turbulent features they encounter. Consequently, it is possible to change the characteristic size, structure, composition, and yield of the fine particles by altering the flow configuration. This review describes the complex multiscale interactions among turbulent fluid flow, gas-phase chemical reactions, and solid-phase particle evolution. The focus is on modeling the generation of soot particles, an unwanted pollutant from automobile and aircraft engines, as well as metal oxides, a class of high-value chemicals sought for specialized applications, including emissions control. Issues arising due to the numerical methods used to approximate the particle number density function, the modeling of turbulence-chemistry interactions, and model validation are also discussed.
DSD - A Particle Simulation Code for Modeling Dusty Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joyce, Glenn; Lampe, Martin; Ganguli, Gurudas
1999-11-01
The NRL Dynamically Shielded Dust code (DSD) is a particle simulation code developed to study the behavior of strongly coupled, dusty plasmas. The model includes the electrostatic wake effects of plasma ions flowing through plasma electrons, collisions of dust and plasma particles with each other and with neutrals. The simulation model contains the short-range strong forces of a shielded Coulomb system, and the long-range forces that are caused by the wake. It also includes other effects of a flowing plasma such as drag forces. In order to model strongly coupled dust in plasmas, we make use of the techniques of molecular dynamics simulation, PIC simulation, and the "particle-particle/particle-mesh" (P3M) technique of Hockney and Eastwood. We also make use of the dressed test particle representation of Rostoker and Rosenbluth. Many of the techniques we use in the model are common to all PIC plasma simulation codes. The unique properties of the code follow from the accurate representation of both the short-range aspects of the interaction between dust grains, and long-range forces mediated by the complete plasma dielectric response. If the streaming velocity is zero, the potential used in the model reduces to the Debye-Huckel potential, and the simulation is identical to molecular dynamics models of the Yukawa potential. The plasma appears only implicitly through the plasma dispersion function, so it is not necessary in the code to resolve the fast plasma time scales.
[Research in elementary particles and interactions]. Technical progress report
Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.
1992-05-01
Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.
Quantum breathing mode of interacting particles in harmonic traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauch, Sebastian; Hochstuhl, David; Balzer, Karsten; Bonitz, Michael
2010-04-01
The breathing mode - the uniform radial expansion and contraction of a system of interacting particles - is analyzed. Extending our previous work [Bauch et al 2009 Phys. Rev. B. 80 054515] we present a systematic analysis of the breathing mode for fermions with an inverse power law interaction potential w(r) ~ r-dwith d = 1,2,3 in the whole range of coupling parameters. The results thus cover the range from the ideal "gas" to the Wigner crystal-like state. In addition to exact results for two particles obtained from a solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation we present results for N = 4,6 from multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock simulations.
A mechanistic interpretation of the resonant wave-particle interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chim, Chi Yung; O'Neil, Thomas M.
2016-05-01
This paper provides a simple mechanistic interpretation of the resonant wave-particle interaction of Landau. For the simple case of a Langmuir wave in a Vlasov plasma, the non-resonant electrons satisfy an oscillator equation that is driven resonantly by the bare electric field from the resonant electrons, and in the case of wave damping, this complex driver field is of a phase to reduce the oscillation amplitude. The wave-particle resonant interaction also occurs in waves governed by 2D E × B drift dynamics, such as a diocotron wave. In this case, the bare electric field from the resonant electrons causes E × B drift motion back in the core plasma, reducing the amplitude of the wave.
Alpha particle heating at comet-solar wind interaction regions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharma, A. S.; Papadopoulos, K.
1995-01-01
The satellite observations at comet Halley have shown strong heating of solar wind alpha particles over an extended region dominated by high-intensity, low-frequency turbulence. These waves are excited by the water group pickup ions and can energize the solar wind plasma by different heating processes. The alpha particle heating by the Landau damping of kinetic Alfven waves and the transit time damping of low-frequency hydromagnetic waves in this region of high plasma beta are studied in this paper. The Alfven wave heating was shown to be the dominant mechanism for the observed proton heating, but it is found to be insufficient to account for the observed alpha particle heating. The transit time damping due to the interaction of the ions with the electric fields associated with the magnetic field compressions of magnetohydrodynamic waves is found to heat the alpha particles preferentially over the protons. Comparison of the calculated heating times for the transit time damping with the observations from comet Halley shows good agreement. These processes contribute to the thermalization of the solar wind by the conversion of its directed energy into the thermal energy in the transition region at comet-solar wind interaction.
Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.
Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian
2015-12-01
Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation.
Mental Models in Social Interaction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Santamaria, Carlos
2006-01-01
In this study, the authors introduce a new way to analyze cognitive change during social interactions, based on the mental model theory of reasoning. From this approach, cognitive performance can be improved for solving problems that require multiple models when participants in a social interaction group maintain qualitatively different models of…
Sideband growth in nonlinear Landau wave-particle interaction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brinca, A. L.
1972-01-01
The distortion of the electron velocity distribution caused by a large amplitude Landau wave is determined analytically for the initial-value problem. The resulting stability of electrostatic perturbations impressed on the evolving plasma is studied. Narrow sidebands of the applied frequency experience consecutive growths of large magnitude during the early stages of the nonlinear wave-particle interaction. The significance of the derived results to both wave propagation experiments and triggered VLF emissions in the magnetosphere is discussed.
Kim, So Youn; Zukoski, Charles F.
2014-09-24
The microstructure of particles suspended in concentrated polymer solutions is examined with small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. Of interest are changes to long wavelength particle density fluctuations in ternary mixtures of silica nanoparticles suspended in concentrated solutions of poly(ethylene glycol). The results are understood in terms of application of the pseudo-two-component polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory modified to account for solvent addition via effective contact strength of interfacial attraction, ε_{pc}, in an implicit manner. The combined experimental-theoretical study emphasizes the complex interactions between solvent, polymer, and particle surface that control particle miscibility but also demonstrate that these factors can all be understood in terms of variations of ε_{pc}.
Interactive Visual Analysis within Dynamic Ocean Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butkiewicz, T.
2012-12-01
The many observation and simulation based ocean models available today can provide crucial insights for all fields of marine research and can serve as valuable references when planning data collection missions. However, the increasing size and complexity of these models makes leveraging their contents difficult for end users. Through a combination of data visualization techniques, interactive analysis tools, and new hardware technologies, the data within these models can be made more accessible to domain scientists. We present an interactive system that supports exploratory visual analysis within large-scale ocean flow models. The currents and eddies within the models are illustrated using effective, particle-based flow visualization techniques. Stereoscopic displays and rendering methods are employed to ensure that the user can correctly perceive the complex 3D structures of depth-dependent flow patterns. Interactive analysis tools are provided which allow the user to experiment through the introduction of their customizable virtual dye particles into the models to explore regions of interest. A multi-touch interface provides natural, efficient interaction, with custom multi-touch gestures simplifying the otherwise challenging tasks of navigating and positioning tools within a 3D environment. We demonstrate the potential applications of our visual analysis environment with two examples of real-world significance: Firstly, an example of using customized particles with physics-based behaviors to simulate pollutant release scenarios, including predicting the oil plume path for the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster. Secondly, an interactive tool for plotting and revising proposed autonomous underwater vehicle mission pathlines with respect to the surrounding flow patterns predicted by the model; as these survey vessels have extremely limited energy budgets, designing more efficient paths allows for greater survey areas.
The Classical Theory of Light Colors: a Paradigm for Description of Particle Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazilu, Nicolae; Agop, Maricel; Gatu, Irina; Iacob, Dan Dezideriu; Butuc, Irina; Ghizdovat, Vlad
2016-06-01
The color is an interaction property: of the interaction of light with matter. Classically speaking it is therefore akin to the forces. But while forces engendered the mechanical view of the world, the colors generated the optical view. One of the modern concepts of interaction between the fundamental particles of matter - the quantum chromodynamics - aims to fill the gap between mechanics and optics, in a specific description of strong interactions. We show here that this modern description of the particle interactions has ties with both the classical and quantum theories of light, regardless of the connection between forces and colors. In a word, the light is a universal model in the description of matter. The description involves classical Yang-Mills fields related to color.
Modeling transport and aggregation of volcanic ash particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Antonio; Folch, Arnau; Macedonio, Giovanni; Durant, Adam
2010-05-01
A complete description of ash aggregation processes in volcanic clouds is an very arduous task and the full coupling of ash transport and ash aggregation models is still computationally prohibitive. A large fraction of fine ash injected in the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate because of complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in settling velocities. The formation of aggregates of size and density different from those of the primary particles dramatically changes the sedimentation dynamics and results in lower atmospheric residence times of ash particles and in the formation of secondary maxima of tephra deposit. Volcanic ash transport models should include a full aggregation model accounting for all particle class interaction. However this approach would require prohibitive computational times. Here we present a simplified model for wet aggregation that accounts for both atmospheric and volcanic water transport. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average efficiencies factors, and collision frequency functions accounting for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, such as the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. Moreover, understanding aggregation processes in volcanic clouds will contribute to mitigate the risks related with volcanic ash transport and sedimentation.
Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles
The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...
Secondary Cosmic Ray Particles Due to GCR Interactions in the Earth's Atmosphere
Battistoni, G.; Cerutti, F.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Garzelli, M.V.; Lantz, M.; Muraro, S. Pinsky, L.S.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P.R.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan
2009-06-16
Primary GCR interact with the Earth's atmosphere originating atmospheric showers, thus giving rise to fluxes of secondary particles in the atmosphere. Electromagnetic and hadronic interactions interplay in the production of these particles, whose detection is performed by means of complementary techniques in different energy ranges and at different depths in the atmosphere, down to the Earth's surface. Monte Carlo codes are essential calculation tools which can describe the complexity of the physics of these phenomena, thus allowing the analysis of experimental data. However, these codes are affected by important uncertainties, concerning, in particular, hadronic physics at high energy. In this paper we shall report some results concerning inclusive particle fluxes and atmospheric shower properties as obtained using the FLUKA transport and interaction code. Some emphasis will also be given to the validation of the physics models of FLUKA involved in these calculations.
Interaction Models for Functional Regression
USSET, JOSEPH; STAICU, ANA-MARIA; MAITY, ARNAB
2015-01-01
A functional regression model with a scalar response and multiple functional predictors is proposed that accommodates two-way interactions in addition to their main effects. The proposed estimation procedure models the main effects using penalized regression splines, and the interaction effect by a tensor product basis. Extensions to generalized linear models and data observed on sparse grids or with measurement error are presented. A hypothesis testing procedure for the functional interaction effect is described. The proposed method can be easily implemented through existing software. Numerical studies show that fitting an additive model in the presence of interaction leads to both poor estimation performance and lost prediction power, while fitting an interaction model where there is in fact no interaction leads to negligible losses. The methodology is illustrated on the AneuRisk65 study data. PMID:26744549
Probabilistic Solar Energetic Particle Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, James H., Jr.; Dietrich, William F.; Xapsos, Michael A.
2011-01-01
To plan and design safe and reliable space missions, it is necessary to take into account the effects of the space radiation environment. This is done by setting the goal of achieving safety and reliability with some desired level of confidence. To achieve this goal, a worst-case space radiation environment at the required confidence level must be obtained. Planning and designing then proceeds, taking into account the effects of this worst-case environment. The result will be a mission that is reliable against the effects of the space radiation environment at the desired confidence level. In this paper we will describe progress toward developing a model that provides worst-case space radiation environments at user-specified confidence levels. We will present a model for worst-case event-integrated solar proton environments that provide the worst-case differential proton spectrum. This model is based on data from IMP-8 and GOES spacecraft that provide a data base extending from 1974 to the present. We will discuss extending this work to create worst-case models for peak flux and mission-integrated fluence for protons. We will also describe plans for similar models for helium and heavier ions.
Particle interactions in kaolinite suspensions and corresponding aggregate structures.
Gupta, Vishal; Hampton, Marc A; Stokes, Jason R; Nguyen, Anh V; Miller, Jan D
2011-07-01
The surface charge densities of the silica face surface and the alumina face surface of kaolinite particles, recently determined from surface force measurements using atomic force microscopy, show a distinct dependence on the pH of the system. The silica face was found to be negatively charged at pH>4, whereas the alumina face surface was found to be positively charged at pH<6, and negatively charged at pH>8. The surface charge densities of the silica face and the alumina face were utilized in this study to determine the interaction energies between different surfaces of kaolinite particles. Results indicate that the silica face-alumina face interaction is dominant for kaolinite particle aggregation at low pH. This face-face association increases the stacking of kaolinite layers, and thereby promotes the edge-face (edge-silica face and edge-alumina face) and face-face (silica face-alumina face) associations with increasing pH, and hence the maximum shear-yield stress at pH 5-5.5. With further increase in pH, the face-face and edge-face association decreases due to increasing surface charge density on the silica face and the edge surfaces, and decreasing surface charge density on the alumina face. At high pH, all kaolinite surfaces become negatively charged, kaolinite particles are dispersed, and the suspension is stabilized. The face-face association at low pH has been confirmed from cryo-SEM images of kaolinite aggregates taken from suspension which show that the particles are mostly organized in a face-face and edge-face manner. At higher pH conditions, the cryo-SEM images of the kaolinite aggregates reveal a lower degree of consolidation and the edge-edge association is evident.
Polarizable protein model for Dissipative Particle Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peter, Emanuel; Lykov, Kirill; Pivkin, Igor
2015-11-01
In this talk, we present a novel polarizable protein model for the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation technique, a coarse-grained particle-based method widely used in modeling of fluid systems at the mesoscale. We employ long-range electrostatics and Drude oscillators in combination with a newly developed polarizable water model. The protein in our model is resembled by a polarizable backbone and a simplified representation of the sidechains. We define the model parameters using the experimental structures of 2 proteins: TrpZip2 and TrpCage. We validate the model on folding of five other proteins and demonstrate that it successfully predicts folding of these proteins into their native conformations. As a perspective of this model, we will give a short outlook on simulations of protein aggregation in the bulk and near a model membrane, a relevant process in several Amyloid diseases, e.g. Alzheimer's and Diabetes II.
Multiscale Modeling of Particles Embedded in High Speed Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Sean; Sen, Oishik; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H. S.
2015-06-01
Problems involving propagation of shock waves through a cloud of particles are inherently multiscale. The system scale is governed by macro-scale conservation equations, which average over solid and fluid phases. The averaging process results in source terms that represent the unresolved momentum exchange between the solid phase and the fluid phase. Typically, such source terms are modeled using empirical correlations derived from physical experiments conducted in a limited parameter space. The focus of the current research is to advance the multiscale modeling of shocked particle-laden gas flows; particle- (i.e. meso-)scale computations are performed to resolve the dynamics of ensembles of particles and closure laws are obtained from the meso-scale for use in the macro-scale equations. Closure models are constructed from meso-scale simulations using the Dynamic Kriging method. The presentation will demonstrate the multiscale approach by connecting meso-scale simulations to an Eulerian-Lagrangian macro-scale model of particle laden flows. The technique is applied to study shock interactions with particle curtains in shock tubes and the results are compared with experimental data in such systems. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant Number FA9550-12-1-0115 and the National Science Foundation under grant number DMS-115631.
Influence of dipolar interactions on hyperthermia properties of ferromagnetic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serantes, D.; Baldomir, D.; Martinez-Boubeta, C.; Simeonidis, K.; Angelakeris, M.; Natividad, E.; Castro, M.; Mediano, A.; Chen, D.-X.; Sanchez, A.; Balcells, LI.; Martínez, B.
2010-10-01
We show both experimental evidences and Monte Carlo modeling of the effects of interparticle dipolar interactions on the hysteresis losses. Results indicate that an increase in the intensity of dipolar interactions produce a decrease in the magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis losses, thus diminishing the hyperthermia output. These findings may have important clinical implications for cancer treatment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, Fernando; Naqvi, Iftekhar; Squires, Kyle; Piomelli, Ugo
2009-11-01
The overarching interest of the current investigations is numerical modeling of particle entrainment and deposition near sandy beds as relevant to the problem of rotorcraft brownout. Numerical simulations are being performed using an Euler-Lagrange method. Solution of the incompressible gas-phase flow field is accomplished using a fractional-step numerical method; the particulate phase is advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The particular flow field of interest models a rotor wake and is comprised of coherent vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer. The particles, once suspended, interact with the coherent wake vortices characterizing the rotor flow, and with the finer scale turbulence generated near the ground. The primary objectives are two-flow. First, to gain insight into the particle-vortex dynamics that influence transport near the bed and, second, to advance understanding of the mesoscopic particle velocity field. The latter objective requires very large particle ensembles in order to recover an Eulerian description of the particle field, important to advancing other simulation strategies for two-phase flows. Predictions of the flows for a range of particle and flow parameters will be presented.
Dispersive approaches for three-particle final state interaction
Guo, Peng; Danilkin, Igor V.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-10-30
In this work, we presented different representations of Khuri-Treiman equation, the advantage and disadvantage of each representations are discussed. With a scattering amplitude toy model, we also studied the sensitivity of solution of KT equation to left-hand cut of toy model and to the different approximate methods. At last, we give a brief discussion of Watson's theorem when three particles in final states are involved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pacakova, B.; Mantlikova, A.; Niznansky, D.; Kubickova, S.; Vejpravova, J.
2016-05-01
Magnetic response of single-domain nanoparticles (NPs) in concentrated systems is strongly affected by mutual interparticle interactions. However, particle proximity significantly influences single-particle effective anisotropy. To solve which of these two phenomena plays a dominant role in the magnetic response of real NP systems, systematic study on samples with well-defined parameters is required. In our work, we prepared a series of nanocomposites constituted of highly-crystalline and well-isolated CoFe2O4 NPs embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix using a single-molecule precursor method. This preparation method enabled us to reach a wide interval of particle size and concentration. We observed that the characteristic parameters of the single-domain state (coercivity, blocking temperature) and dipole-dipole interaction energy ({{E}\\text{d-\\text{d}}} ) scaled with each other and increased with increasing {{≤ft({{d}\\text{XRD}}/r\\right)}3} , where d XRD was the NP diameter and r was the interparticle distance. Our results are in excellent agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations of the particle growth. Moreover, we demonstrated that the contribution of {{E}\\text{d-\\text{d}}} acting as an additional energetic barrier to the superspin reversal or as an average static field did not sufficiently explain how the concentrated NP systems responded to an external magnetic field. Alternations in the blocking temperature and coercivity of our NP systems accounted for reformed relaxations of the NP superspins and modified effective anisotropy energy of the interacting NPs. Therefore, the concept of modified NP effective anisotropy explains the magnetic response of our concentrated NP systems better than the concept of the energy barrier influenced by interparticle interactions.
Cache Allocation in CDN: An Evolutionary Game Generalized Particle Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Xiang; Lau, Francis C. M.; Gao, Daqi
Content distribution networks (CDNs) increasingly have been used to reduce the response times experienced by Internet users through placing surrogates close to the clients. This paper presents an object replacement approach based on an evolutionary game generalized particle model (G-GPM). We first propose a problem model for CDNs. The CDN model is then fit into a gravitational field. The origin servers and surrogates are regarded as two kinds of particles which are located in two force-fields. The cache allocation problem is thus transformed into the kinematics and dynamics of the particles in the annular and the round force-fields. The G-GPM approach is unique in four aspects: 1) direct viewing of individual and overall optimization; 2) parallel computing (lower time complexity); 3) multi-objective solution; and 4) being able to deal with some social interactions behaviors.
Modeling nanoscale hydrodynamics by smoothed dissipative particle dynamics
Lei, Huan; Mundy, Christopher J.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Voulgarakis, Nikolaos
2015-05-21
Thermal fluctuation and hydrophobicity are two hallmarks of fluid hydrodynamics on the nano-scale. It is a challenge to consistently couple the small length and time scale phenomena associated with molecular interaction with larger scale phenomena. The development of this consistency is the essence of mesoscale science. In this study, we develop a nanoscale fluid model based on smoothed dissipative particle dynamics that accounts for the phenomena of associated with density fluctuations and hydrophobicity. We show consistency in the fluctuation spectrum across scales. In doing so, it is necessary to account for finite fluid particle size. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the present model can capture of the void probability and solvation free energy of apolar particles of different sizes. The present fluid model is well suited for a understanding emergent phenomena in nano-scale fluid systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, O.; Bertulani, C. A.; Hussein, M. S.; Paula, W. de; Frederico, T.
2016-12-01
We propose a mirror model for ordinary and dark matter that assumes a new SU(3) gauge group of transformations, as a natural extension of the Standard Model (SM). A close study of big bang nucleosynthesis, baryon asymmetries, cosmic microwave background bounds, galaxy dynamics, together with the Standard Model assumptions, help us to set a limit on the mass and width of the new gauge boson. The cross section for the elastic scattering of a dark proton by an ordinary proton is estimated and compare to the WIMP-nucleon experimental upper bounds. It is observed that all experimental bounds for the various cross sections can be accommodated consistently within the gauge model. We also suggest a way for direct detection of the new gauge boson via one example of a SM forbidden process: e+ + p → μ + + X, where X=Λ or Λ c .
Dispersive approaches for three-particle final state interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Peng; Danilkin, I. V.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-10-01
In this work, we present different representations of the Khuri-Treiman equation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each representation. In particular we focus on the inversion technique proposed by Pasquier, which, even though developed a long time ago, has not been used in modern analyses of data on three particle decays. We apply the method to a toy model and compare the sensitivity of this and alternative solution methods to the left-hand cut contribution. We also discuss the meaning and applicability of Watson's theorem when three particles in final states are involved.
Water interaction with laboratory-simulated fossil fuel combustion particles.
Popovicheva, O B; Kireeva, E D; Shonija, N K; Khokhlova, T D
2009-10-01
To clarify the impact of fossil fuel combustion particles' composition on their capacity to take up water, we apply a laboratory approach in which the method of deposition of compounds, identified in the particulate coverage of diesel and aircraft engine soot particles, is developed. It is found that near-monolayer organic/inorganic coverage of the soot particles may be represented by three groups of fossil fuel combustion-derived particulate matter with respect to their Hansh's coefficients related to hydrophilic properties. Water adsorption measurements show that nonpolar organics (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) lead to hydrophobization of the soot surface. Acidic properties of organic compounds such as those of oxidized PAHs, ethers, ketones, aromatic, and aliphatic acids are related to higher water uptake, whereas inorganic acids and ionic compounds such as salts of organic acids are shown to be responsible for soot hydrophilization. This finding allows us to quantify the role of the chemical identity of soot surface compounds in water uptake and the water interaction with fossil fuel combustion particles in the humid atmosphere.
Monte Carlo modeling of radiative heat transfer in particle-laden flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farbar, Erin; Boyd, Iain D.; Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi
2016-11-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulations are applied to model radiative heat transfer in a dispersed particle phase exhibiting preferential concentration typical of a turbulent, particle-laden flow environment. The dispersed phase is composed of micron-sized nickel particles, and the carrier phase is non-participating. The simulations are performed for a snapshot of the particle field using the Monte Carlo Ray Tracing method, and the spectral dependence of the optical properties is considered. Interaction between the particles and radiation is modeled by projecting the particle locations onto an Eulerian mesh. Results show that the optically thin approximation results in errors in predicted particle heat transfer of up to 35% at some locations in the particle field. Oxidation is shown to change the absorption efficiency of the particles significantly, while consideration of non-spherical particle shapes results in relatively small changes in the predicted optical properties of the particles.
Event-chain Monte Carlo algorithms for three- and many-particle interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harland, J.; Michel, M.; Kampmann, T. A.; Kierfeld, J.
2017-02-01
We generalize the rejection-free event-chain Monte Carlo algorithm from many-particle systems with pairwise interactions to systems with arbitrary three- or many-particle interactions. We introduce generalized lifting probabilities between particles and obtain a general set of equations for lifting probabilities, the solution of which guarantees maximal global balance. We validate the resulting three-particle event-chain Monte Carlo algorithms on three different systems by comparison with conventional local Monte Carlo simulations: i) a test system of three particles with a three-particle interaction that depends on the enclosed triangle area; ii) a hard-needle system in two dimensions, where needle interactions constitute three-particle interactions of the needle end points; iii) a semiflexible polymer chain with a bending energy, which constitutes a three-particle interaction of neighboring chain beads. The examples demonstrate that the generalization to many-particle interactions broadens the applicability of event-chain algorithms considerably.
Water interaction with hydrophobic and hydrophilic soot particles.
Popovicheva, Olga; Persiantseva, Natalia M; Shonija, Natalia K; DeMott, Paul; Koehler, Kirsten; Petters, Markus; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Tishkova, Victoria; Demirdjian, Benjamin; Suzanne, Jean
2008-05-07
The interaction of water with laboratory soots possessing a range of properties relevant for atmospheric studies is examined by two complementary methods: gravimetrical measurement of water uptake coupled with chemical composition and porosity analysis and HTDMA (humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer) inference of water uptake accompanied by separate TEM (transmission electron microscopy) analysis of single particles. The first method clarifies the mechanism of water uptake for bulk soot and allows the classification of soot with respect to its hygroscopicity. The second method highlights the dependence of the soot aerosol growth factor on relative humidity (RH) for quasi-monodisperse particles. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic soot are qualitatively defined by their water uptake and surface polarity: laboratory soot particles are thus classified from very hydrophobic to very hydrophilic. Thermal soot particles produced from natural gas combustion are classified as hydrophobic with a surface of low polarity since water is found to cover only half of the surface. Graphitized thermal soot particles are proposed for comparison as extremely hydrophobic and of very low surface polarity. Soot particles produced from laboratory flame of TC1 aviation kerosene are less hydrophobic, with their entire surface being available for statistical monolayer water coverage at RH approximately 10%. Porosity measurements suggest that, initially, much of this surface water resides within micropores. Consequently, the growth factor increase of these particles to 1.07 at RH > 80% is attributed to irreversible swelling that accompanies water uptake. Hysteresis of adsorption/desorption cycles strongly supports this conclusion. In contrast, aircraft engine soot, produced from burning TC1 kerosene in a gas turbine engine combustor, has an extremely hydrophilic surface of high polarity. Due to the presence of water soluble organic and inorganic material it can be covered by many water
Resonant wave-particle interactions modified by intrinsic Alfvenic turbulence
Wu, C. S.; Lee, K. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wu, D. J.
2012-08-15
The concept of wave-particle interactions via resonance is well discussed in plasma physics. This paper shows that intrinsic Alfven waves can qualitatively modify the physics discussed in conventional linear plasma kinetic theories. It turns out that preexisting Alfven waves can affect particle motion along the ambient magnetic field and, moreover, the ensuing force field is periodic in time. As a result, the meaning of the usual Landau and cyclotron resonance conditions becomes questionable. It turns out that this effect leads us to find a new electromagnetic instability. In such a process intrinsic Alfven waves not only modify the unperturbed distribution function but also result in a different type of cyclotron resonance which is affected by the level of turbulence. This instability might enable us to better our understanding of the observed radio emission processes in the solar atmosphere.
Erosion processes due to energetic particle-surface interaction
Schmid, K.; Roth, J.
2010-05-20
The interaction of the fast particles from the hot plasma of a magnetic confinement fusion experiment with the first wall is one of the most challenging problems toward the realization of a fusion power plant. The erosion of the first wall by the fast particles leads to life time limitations and the radiative cooling of the plasma by the eroded impurity species lowers the energy confinement. Apart from these obvious consequences also the trapping of large quantities of the fuelling species (deuterium and tritium) in re-deposited layers of the eroded species poses a problem due to accumulation of large radiative inventories and plasma fuelling inefficiency. The source of all these challenges is the erosion of first wall components due to physical sputtering, chemical erosion and radiation enhanced sublimation. This paper will give an overview about the physical principles behind these erosion channels.
Model of Image Artifacts from Dust Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willson, Reg
2008-01-01
A mathematical model of image artifacts produced by dust particles on lenses has been derived. Machine-vision systems often have to work with camera lenses that become dusty during use. Dust particles on the front surface of a lens produce image artifacts that can potentially affect the performance of a machine-vision algorithm. The present model satisfies a need for a means of synthesizing dust image artifacts for testing machine-vision algorithms for robustness (or the lack thereof) in the presence of dust on lenses. A dust particle can absorb light or scatter light out of some pixels, thereby giving rise to a dark dust artifact. It can also scatter light into other pixels, thereby giving rise to a bright dust artifact. For the sake of simplicity, this model deals only with dark dust artifacts. The model effectively represents dark dust artifacts as an attenuation image consisting of an array of diffuse darkened spots centered at image locations corresponding to the locations of dust particles. The dust artifacts are computationally incorporated into a given test image by simply multiplying the brightness value of each pixel by a transmission factor that incorporates the factor of attenuation, by dust particles, of the light incident on that pixel. With respect to computation of the attenuation and transmission factors, the model is based on a first-order geometric (ray)-optics treatment of the shadows cast by dust particles on the image detector. In this model, the light collected by a pixel is deemed to be confined to a pair of cones defined by the location of the pixel s image in object space, the entrance pupil of the lens, and the location of the pixel in the image plane (see Figure 1). For simplicity, it is assumed that the size of a dust particle is somewhat less than the diameter, at the front surface of the lens, of any collection cone containing all or part of that dust particle. Under this assumption, the shape of any individual dust particle artifact
Time delay can facilitate coherence in self-driven interacting-particle systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yongzheng; Lin, Wei; Erban, Radek
2014-12-01
Directional switching in a self-propelled particle model with delayed interactions is investigated. It is shown that the average switching time is an increasing function of time delay. The presented results are applied to studying collective animal behavior. It is argued that self-propelled particle models with time delays can explain the state-dependent diffusion coefficient measured in experiments with locust groups. The theory is further generalized to heterogeneous groups where each individual can respond to its environment with a different time delay.
Wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere of Uranus
Kurth, W.S.; Gurnett, D.A.; Scarf, F.L.; Coroniti, F.V.
1988-07-01
The Voyager 2 encounter of Uranus has provided observations of plasma waves in and near the magnetosphere. These data, while the first from Uranus, will also be the only direct information on wave-particle interactions at this planet for many years to come. The observations include electrostatic waves upstream of the bow shock, turbulence in the shock, Bernstein emissions and whistler mode waves in the magnetosphere, broadband electrostatic noise in the magnetotail, and a number of the other types of plasma waves which have yet to be clearly identified. Each of these types of waves exist in a plasma environment which both supports the growth of the waves and is modified by interactions with the waves. Wave-particle interactions provide the channels through which the waves can accelerate, scatter, or thermalize the plasmas. The most spectacular example in the case of Uranus is the extremely intense whistler mode activity in the inner magnetosphere which is the source of strong pitch angle diffusion. The resulting electron precipitation is sufficient to produce the auroral emissions observed by Voyager. The strong diffusion, however, presents the problem of supplying electrons in the range of 5 to 40 keV in order to support the losses to the atmosphere.
Wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere of Uranus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.; Coroniti, F. V.
1988-01-01
The Voyager 2 encounter of Uranus has provided observations of plasma waves in and near the magnetosphere. These data, while the first from Uranus, will also be the only direct information on wave-particle interactions at this planet for many years to come. The observations include electrostatic waves upstream of the bow shock, turbulence in the shock, Bernstein emissions and whistler mode waves in the magnetosphere, broadband electrostatic noise in the magnetotail, and a number of the other types of plasma waves which have yet to be clearly identified. Each of these types of waves exist in a plasma environment which both supports the growth of the waves and is modified by interactions with the waves. Wave-particle interactions provide the channels through which the waves can accelerate, scatter, or thermalize the plasmas. The most spectacular example in the case of Uranus is the extremely intense whistler mode activity in the inner magnetosphere which is the source of strong pitch angle diffusion. The resulting electron precipitation is sufficient to produce the auroral emissions observed by Voyager. The strong diffusion, however, presents the problem of supplying electrons in the range of 5 to 40 keV in order to support the losses to the atmosphere.
Mechanisms governing the interaction of metallic particles with nanosecond laser pulses.
Demos, Stavros G; Negres, Raluca A; Raman, Rajesh N; Shen, Nan; Rubenchik, Alexander M; Matthews, Manyalibo J
2016-04-04
The interaction of nanosecond laser pulses at 1064- and 355-nm with micro-scale, nominally spherical metallic particles is investigated in order to elucidate the governing interaction mechanisms as a function of material and laser parameters. The experimental model used involves the irradiation of metal particles located on the surface of transparent plates combined with time-resolved imaging capable of capturing the dynamics of particle ejection, plume formation and expansion along with the kinetics of the dispersed material from the liquefied layer of the particle. The mechanisms investigated in this work are informative and relevant across a multitude of materials and irradiation geometries suitable for the description of a wide range of specific applications. The experimental results were interpreted using physical models incorporating specific processes to assess their contribution to the overall observed behaviors. Analysis of the experimental results suggests that the induced kinetic properties of the particle can be adequately described using the concept of momentum coupling introduced to explain the interaction of plane metal targets to large-aperture laser beams. The results also suggest that laser energy deposition on the formed plasma affects the energy partitioning and the material modifications to the substrate.
Lower Bound on the Mean Square Displacement of Particles in the Hard Disk Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richthammer, Thomas
2016-08-01
The hard disk model is a 2D Gibbsian process of particles interacting via pure hard core repulsion. At high particle density the model is believed to show orientational order, however, it is known not to exhibit positional order. Here we investigate to what extent particle positions may fluctuate. We consider a finite volume version of the model in a box of dimensions 2 n × 2 n with arbitrary boundary configuration, and we show that the mean square displacement of particles near the center of the box is bounded from below by c log n. The result generalizes to a large class of models with fairly arbitrary interaction.
Interaction of tallow and hay particle size on ruminal parameters.
Lewis, W D; Bertrand, J A; Jenkins, T C
1999-07-01
Four nonlactating ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with 4 21-d periods to determine if the effects of dietary fat would be affected by hay particle length. Treatments consisted of two levels of tallow (0 and 5%) and two hay particle lengths (short-cut and long-cut) in a 2 x 2 factorial. Diets contained alfalfa hay, corn silage, and concentrate [1:1:2, dry matter (DM) basis] fed as a total mixed ration (TMR) once per day. Samples of the 0 and 5% tallow TMR were ground and incubated in situ in polyester bags for 24 and 48 h. Ruminal samples were taken on day 21 at 0800 h and at 2-h intervals until 1600 h. The total tract digestibilities of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were not affected by tallow or by hay by tallow interactions. There was a trend for tallow to improve total tract digestibility of crude protein (CP) (70.2 vs. 74.7%). After 48 h of ruminal incubation, tallow significantly decreased the digestibilities of DM, ADF, and NDF. No hay length by tallow interactions for DM, NDF, ADF or CP digestibilities occurred after 24 or 48 h. Tallow increased concentrations of propionate and decreased concentrations of acetate and valerate and the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Total volatile fatty acids increased when tallow was added to diets with short-cut hay, which suggests that when unprotected fat is added to diets with a high level of hay, a short-cut hay length may be advantageous. This result may be due to shorter rumen retention time of feed particles, which reduces the time for fatty acids to exert antimicrobial effects. Or, it may because the increased surface area of the hay particle provides more area for microbial attachment and increased fermentation.
Fujita, Toyohisa; Dodbiba, Gjergj; Okaya, Katsunori; Matsuo, Seiji; Wang, Li Pang; Onda, Kana; Otsuki, Akira
2013-12-01
The direct measurement of fine particles size distribution of dispersions or coagulations in liquid is important for water purification, fine particles separation for recycling and mineral processing, as well as the new material production. The nano to micro particle size is usually measured by light scattering method; however, it is difficult to measure at high concentration of suspension. Here, a novel dynamical method by using the interactive force measurement between particles in liquid under electric field is used for measuring distribution of fine particle. Three types of nano to submicron particles, that is well-dispersed nano particles, coagulated nano particles and settled submicron particles, have been measured by interactive force measurement method. The particle size distributions are compered with the size distributions of dried particles measured by TEM or SEM. The well-dispersed nano particle size distribution by interactive force measurement is influenced by the nano size surfactant micelles. The size distribution of coagulated nano particles in water is larger than the result by TEM. On the other hand, the submicron nickel particle size distribution is similar with the one analyzed by SEM.
Computer Models Simulate Fine Particle Dispersion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2010-01-01
Through a NASA Seed Fund partnership with DEM Solutions Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, scientists at Kennedy Space Center refined existing software to study the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces. The software, EDEM, allows users to import particles and obtain accurate representations of their shapes for modeling purposes, such as simulating bulk solids behavior, and was enhanced to be able to more accurately model fine, abrasive, cohesive particles. These new EDEM capabilities can be applied in many industries unrelated to space exploration and have been adopted by several prominent U.S. companies, including John Deere, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble.
Stochastic model for supersymmetric particle branching process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chan, Aik Hui; Oh, Choo Hiap
2017-01-01
We develop a stochastic branching model to describe the jet evolution of supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. This model is a modified two-phase branching process, or more precisely, a two-phase simple birth process plus Poisson process. Both pure SUSY partons initiated jets and SUSY plus ordinary partons initiated jets scenarios are considered. The stochastic branching equations are established and the Multiplicity Distributions (MDs) are derived for these two scenarios. We also fit the distribution of the general case (SUSY plus ordinary partons initiated jets) with experimental data. The fitting shows the SUSY particles have not participated in branching at current collision energy yet.
Field theories and exact stochastic equations for interacting particle systems
Andreanov, Alexei; Lefevre, Alexandre; Biroli, Giulio; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe
2006-09-15
We consider the dynamics of interacting particles with reaction and diffusion. Starting from the underlying discrete stochastic jump process we derive a general field theory describing the dynamics of the density field, which we relate to an exact stochastic equation on the density field. We show how our field theory maps onto the original Doi-Peliti formalism, allowing us to clarify further the issue of the 'imaginary' Langevin noise that appears in the context of reaction-diffusion processes. Our procedure applies to a wide class of problems and is related to large deviation functional techniques developed recently to describe fluctuations of nonequilibrium systems in the hydrodynamic limit.
Time fluctuations in isolated quantum systems of interacting particles.
Zangara, Pablo R; Dente, Axel D; Torres-Herrera, E J; Pastawski, Horacio M; Iucci, Aníbal; Santos, Lea F
2013-09-01
Numerically, we study the time fluctuations of few-body observables after relaxation in isolated dynamical quantum systems of interacting particles. Our results suggest that they decay exponentially with system size in both regimes, integrable and chaotic. The integrable systems considered are solvable with the Bethe ansatz and have a highly nondegenerate spectrum. This is in contrast with integrable Hamiltonians mappable to noninteracting ones. We show that the coefficient of the exponential decay depends on the level of delocalization of the initial state with respect to the energy shell.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Renewable corn flour has a significant reinforcement effect in natural rubber. The corn flour was hydrolyzed and microfluidized to reduce its particle size. Greater than 90% of the hydrolyzed corn flour had an average size of ~300 nm, a reduction of 33 times compared to unhydrolyzed corn flour. Comp...
Modeling the behavior of confined colloidal particles under shear flow.
Mackay, F E; Pastor, K; Karttunen, M; Denniston, C
2014-11-21
We investigate the behavior of colloidal suspensions with different volume fractions confined between parallel walls under a range of steady shears. We model the particles using molecular dynamics (MD) with full hydrodynamic interactions implemented through the use of a lattice-Boltzmann (LB) fluid. A quasi-2d ordering occurs in systems characterized by a coexistence of coupled layers with different densities, order, and granular temperature. We present a phase diagram in terms of shear and volume fraction for each layer, and demonstrate that particle exchange between layers is required for entering the disordered phase.
Parallelization of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model
Buckley, R.L.; O`Steen, B.L.
1997-08-01
An advanced stochastic Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) is used by the Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) to simulate contaminant transport. The model uses time-dependent three-dimensional fields of wind and turbulence to determine the location of individual particles released into the atmosphere. This report describes modifications to LPDM using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) which allows for execution in a parallel configuration on the Cray Supercomputer facility at the SRS. Use of a parallel version allows for many more particles to be released in a given simulation, with little or no increase in computational time. This significantly lowers (greater than an order of magnitude) the minimum resolvable concentration levels without ad hoc averaging schemes and/or without reducing spatial resolution. The general changes made to LPDM are discussed and a series of tests are performed comparing the serial (single processor) and parallel versions of the code.
Bonded-cell model for particle fracture.
Nguyen, Duc-Hanh; Azéma, Emilien; Sornay, Philippe; Radjai, Farhang
2015-02-01
Particle degradation and fracture play an important role in natural granular flows and in many applications of granular materials. We analyze the fracture properties of two-dimensional disklike particles modeled as aggregates of rigid cells bonded along their sides by a cohesive Mohr-Coulomb law and simulated by the contact dynamics method. We show that the compressive strength scales with tensile strength between cells but depends also on the friction coefficient and a parameter describing cell shape distribution. The statistical scatter of compressive strength is well described by the Weibull distribution function with a shape parameter varying from 6 to 10 depending on cell shape distribution. We show that this distribution may be understood in terms of percolating critical intercellular contacts. We propose a random-walk model of critical contacts that leads to particle size dependence of the compressive strength in good agreement with our simulation data.
Generalized slave-particle method for extended Hubbard models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgescu, Alexandru B.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab
2015-12-01
We introduce a set of generalized slave-particle models for extended Hubbard models that treat localized electronic correlations using slave-boson decompositions. Our models automatically include two slave-particle methods of recent interest, the slave-rotor and slave-spin methods, as well as a ladder of new intermediate models where one can choose which of the electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., spin or orbital labels) are treated as correlated degrees of freedom by the slave bosons. In addition, our method removes the aberrant behavior of the slave-rotor model, where it systematically overestimates the importance of electronic correlation effects for weak interaction strength, by removing the contribution of unphysical states from the bosonic Hilbert space. The flexibility of our formalism permits one to separate and isolate the effect of correlations on the key degrees of freedom.
Fast scalable visualization techniques for interactive billion-particle walkthrough
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xinlian
This research develops a comprehensive framework for interactive walkthrough involving one billion particles in an immersive virtual environment to enable interrogative visualization of large atomistic simulation data. As a mixture of scientific and engineering approaches, the framework is based on four key techniques: adaptive data compression based on space-filling curves, octree-based visibility and occlusion culling, predictive caching based on machine learning, and scalable data reduction based on parallel and distributed processing. In terms of parallel rendering, this system combines functional parallelism, data parallelism, and temporal parallelism to improve interactivity. The visualization framework will be applicable not only to material simulation, but also to computational biology, applied mathematics, mechanical engineering, and nanotechnology, etc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stevens, N. J.; Roche, J. C.; Grier, N. T.
1979-01-01
Large high-voltage space power systems proposed for future applications in both low earth orbit and geosynchronous altitudes must operate in the space charged-particle environment with possible interactions between this environment and the high-voltage surfaces. The paper reviews the ground experimental work to provide indicators for the interactions that could exist in the space power system. A preliminary analytical model of a large space power system is constructed using the existing NASA Charging Analyzer Program, and its performance in geosynchronous orbit is evaluated. The analytical results are used to illustrate the regions where detrimental interactions could exist and to establish areas where future technology is required.
Kinetic model of particle-inhibited grain growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Gary Scott
The effects of second phase particles on matrix grain growth kinetics were investigated using Al2O3-SiC as a model system. In particular, the validity of the conclusion drawn from a previous kinetic analysis that the kinetics of particle-inhibited grain growth in Al2 O3-SiC samples with an intermediate volume fraction of second phase could be well quantified by a modified-Zener model was investigated. A critical analysis of assumptions made during the previous kinetic analysis revealed oversimplifications which affect the validity of the conclusion. Specifically, the degree of interaction between particles and grain boundaries was assumed to be independent of the mean second phase particle size and size distribution. In contrast, current measurements indicate that the degree of interaction in Al2O3-SiC is dependent on these parameters. An improved kinetic model for particle-inhibited grain growth in Al 2O3-SiC was developed using a modified-Zener approach. The comparison of model predictions with experimental grain growth data indicated that significant discrepancies (as much as 4--5 orders of magnitude) existed. Based on this, it was concluded that particles had a much more significant effect on grain growth kinetics than that caused by a simple reduction of the boundary driving force due to the removal of boundary area. Consequently, it was also concluded that the conclusion drawn from the earlier kinetic analysis regarding the validity of a modified-Zener model was incorrect. Discrepancies between model and experiment were found to be the result of a significant decrease in experimental growth rate constant not predicted by the model. Possible physical mechanisms for such a decrease were investigated. The investigation of a small amount of SiO2 on grain growth in Al2O3 indicated that the decrease was not the result of a decrease in grain boundary mobility due to impurity contamination by particles. By process of elimination and based on previous observations
Double-resonant fast particle-wave interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneller, M.; Lauber, Ph.; Brüdgam, M.; Pinches, S. D.; Günter, S.
2012-10-01
In future fusion devices fast particles must be well confined in order to transfer their energy to the background plasma. Magnetohydrodynamic instabilities like toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes or core-localized modes such as beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes and reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes, both driven by fast particles, can lead to significant losses. This is observed in many ASDEX Upgrade discharges. This study applies the drift-kinetic HAGIS code with the aim of understanding the underlying resonance mechanisms, especially in the presence of multiple modes with different frequencies. Of particular interest is the resonant interaction of particles simultaneously with two different modes, referred to as ‘double-resonance’. Various mode overlapping scenarios with different q profiles are considered. It is found that, depending on the radial mode distance, double-resonance is able to enhance growth rates as well as mode amplitudes significantly. Surprisingly, no radial mode overlap is necessary for this effect. Quite the contrary is found: small radial mode distances can lead to strong nonlinear mode stabilization of a linearly dominant mode.
A Classical WR Model with Particle Types
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazel, A.; Suhov, Y.; Stuhl, I.
2015-06-01
A version of the Widom-Rowlinson model is considered, where particles of types coexist, subject to pairwise hard-core exclusions. For , in the case of large equal fugacities, we give a complete description of the pure phase picture based on the theory of dominant ground states.
Non-linear interactions of plasma waves in the context of solar particle acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallegos-Cruz, A.; Perez-Peraza, J.
2001-08-01
Stochastic particle acceleration in plasmas by means of MHD turbulence in-volves a wide range of alternatives according to, the specific wave mode, the frequency regime of the turbulence, the kind of particles to be accelerated, the assumed plasma model and so on. At present most of the alternatives have been studied with relatively deepness, though some features are not yet com-pletely understood. One of them is the delimitation of the real importance of non-lineal effects of turbulence waves in the process of particle acceleration. In this work we analyse such effects taking into account the temporal evolution of the turbulence. For illustration we exemplify our analysis with the fast MHD mode. Our results show that in some specific stages of the turbulence evolu-tion, non-linear interactions have important effects in the process of particle acceleration.
Influence of the electronic plasma density on the wave particle interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sicard-Piet, Angelica; Boscher, Daniel
2013-04-01
The wave particle interaction, which is well known to be a major phenomenon in the electron radiation belts dynamics, is based on two main parameters: the characteristics of the wave (type of wave, intensity,…) and the characteristics of the ambient plasma. In this work we studied the second parameter. On one side, the electronic plasma density can be derived from in-situ measurements. On the other side, several empirical models exist: GCPM, IZMIRAN or Carpenter models. Here, we compared electronic plasma densities derived from in-situ measurements each other and with existing models. Then, we investigated on the electronic plasma density distribution to distinguish the inside to the outside plasmasphere. Finally, the effect of the electronic plasma density on the diffusion coefficients due to wave particle interaction has been studied via a numerical code, called WAPI, based on quasi linear theory.
Modelling new particle formation events in the South African savannah
Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Buekes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael
2014-05-28
Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction of these systems with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, called aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scales, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study, measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There already are some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first detailed simulation that includes all the main processes relevant to particle formation. The results show that both of the particle formation mechanisms investigated overestimated the dependency of the formation rates on sulphuric acid. From the two particle formation mechanisms tested in this work, the approach that included low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events than the approach that did not. To obtain a reliable estimate of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa. This work is the first step in developing a more comprehensive new particle formation model applicable to the unique environment in southern Africa. Such a model will assist in better understanding and predicting new particle formation – knowledge which could ultimately be used to mitigate impacts of climate change and air quality.
Camporeale, Enrico; Zimbardo, Gaetano
2015-09-15
We present a self-consistent Particle-in-Cell simulation of the resonant interactions between anisotropic energetic electrons and a population of whistler waves, with parameters relevant to the Earth's radiation belt. By tracking PIC particles and comparing with test-particle simulations, we emphasize the importance of including nonlinear effects and time evolution in the modeling of wave-particle interactions, which are excluded in the resonant limit of quasi-linear theory routinely used in radiation belt studies. In particular, we show that pitch angle diffusion is enhanced during the linear growth phase, and it rapidly saturates well before a single bounce period. This calls into question the widely used bounce average performed in most radiation belt diffusion calculations. Furthermore, we discuss how the saturation is related to the fact that the domain in which the particles pitch angle diffuses is bounded, and to the well-known problem of 90° diffusion barrier.
Modeling Interactive Intelligences
2002-08-01
New York: Basic Books, 1999. P. 207-10. [5] Piaget , Jean . Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood. New York: Norton, 1962. [6] Dillard, Annie. Living...concepts of reentry and binding. Next, I rely on Jean Piaget’s model of adaptation in order to examine the function of imitation and play in an...rather than metrics should be used. 2. ADAPTATION, SELECTION, IMITATION, AND PLAY Piaget presented adaptive behavior as a combination of accommodation and
Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics
Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.
1993-07-01
Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) can be used to model hypervelocity impact phenomena via the addition of a strength of materials treatment. SPH is the only technique that can model such problems efficiently due to the combination of 3-dimensional geometry, large translations of material, large deformations, and large void fractions for most problems of interest. This makes SPH an ideal candidate for modeling of asteroid impact, spacecraft shield modeling, and planetary accretion. In this paper we describe the derivation of the strength equations in SPH, show several basic code tests, and present several impact test cases with experimental comparisons.
Characterizing nanoparticle interactions: Linking models to experiments
Ramakrishnan, S.; Zukoski, C. F.
2000-07-15
Self-assembly of nanoparticles involves manipulating particle interactions such that attractions are on the order of the average thermal energy in the system. If the self-assembly is to result in an ordered packing, an understanding of their phase behavior is necessary. Here we test the ability of simple pair potentials to characterize the interactions and phase behavior of silico tungstic acid (STA), a 1.2 nm particle. The strength of interaction is controlled by dispersing STA in different background salt concentrations. The experimental variables used in characterizing the interactions are the osmotic compressibility (d{pi}/d{rho}), the second virial coefficient (B{sub 2}), relative solution viscosity ({eta}/{eta}{sub c}), and the solubility ({rho}{sigma}{sup 3}){sub sat}. Various techniques are then developed to extract the parameters of square well, the adhesive hard sphere (AHS), and the Yukawa pair potentials that best describe the experimental data. The AHS model describes the solution thermodynamic behavior only where the system is weakly attractive but, as would be expected, fails when long range repulsions or nonmonotonic pair potentials become important. Model free representations are presented which offer the opportunity to extract pair potential parameters. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Quark interchange model of baryon interactions
Maslow, J.N.
1983-01-01
The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.
Beyond the standard model of particle physics.
Virdee, T S
2016-08-28
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its experiments were conceived to tackle open questions in particle physics. The mechanism of the generation of mass of fundamental particles has been elucidated with the discovery of the Higgs boson. It is clear that the standard model is not the final theory. The open questions still awaiting clues or answers, from the LHC and other experiments, include: What is the composition of dark matter and of dark energy? Why is there more matter than anti-matter? Are there more space dimensions than the familiar three? What is the path to the unification of all the fundamental forces? This talk will discuss the status of, and prospects for, the search for new particles, symmetries and forces in order to address the open questions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'.
Process maps for plasma spray: Part 1: Plasma-particle interactions
GILMORE,DELWYN L.; NEISER JR.,RICHARD A.; WAN,YUEPENG; SAMPATH,SANJAY
2000-01-26
This is the first paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at Sandia National Laboratories and the State University of New York at Stony Brook. The aim of the study is to develop a more fundamental understanding of plasma-particle interactions, droplet-substrate interactions, deposit formation dynamics and microstructural development as well as final deposit properties. The purpose is to create models that can be used to link processing to performance. Process maps have been developed for air plasma spray of molybdenum. Experimental work was done to investigate the importance of such spray parameters as gun current, auxiliary gas flow, and powder carrier gas flow. In-flight particle diameters, temperatures, and velocities were measured in various areas of the spray plume. Samples were produced for analysis of microstructures and properties. An empirical model was developed, relating the input parameters to the in-flight particle characteristics. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations of the plasma gas flow field and in-flight particles under different operating conditions were also performed. In addition to the parameters which were experimentally investigated, the effect of particle injection velocity was also considered. The simulation results were found to be in good general agreement with the experimental data.
Raman scattering investigation of VOCs in interaction with ice particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Facq, Sébastien; Oancea, Adriana; Focsa, Cristian; Chazallon, Bertrand
2010-05-01
Cirrus clouds that form in the Earth's upper troposphere (UT) are known to play a significant role in the radiation budget and climate [1]. These clouds that cover about 35% of the Earth's surface [2] are mainly composed of small ice particles that can provide surfaces for trace gas interactions [3]. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are present in relative high abundance in the UT [4][5]. They promote substantial sources of free OH radicals that are responsible for driving photochemical cycles in the atmosphere. Their presence can both influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone budget of the atmosphere. VOCs can interact with ice particles via different trapping processes (adsorption, diffusion, freezing, and co-deposition, i.e., incorporation of trace gases during growing ice conditions) which can result in the perturbation of the chemistry and photochemistry of the UT. Knowledge of the incorporation processes of VOCs in ice particles is important in order to understand and predict their impact on the ice particles structure and reactivity and more generally on the cirrus cloud formation. This proceeds via the in-situ characterization of the ice condensed phase in a pressure and temperature range of the UT. An important mechanism of UT cirrus cloud formation is the heterogeneous ice freezing process. In this study, we examine and characterize the interaction of a VOC, i.e., ethanol (EtOH) with ice particles during freezing. Vibrational spectra of water O-H and EtOH C-H spectral regions are analysed using confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. Information at the molecular level on the surface structure can be derived from accompanying changes observed in band shapes and vibrational mode frequencies. Depending of the EtOH content, different crystalline phases have been identified and compared to hydrates previously reported for the EtOH-water system. Particular attention is paid on the effect of EtOH aqueous solutions cooling rate and droplet sizes on the phases
Final Report - Interaction of radiation and charged particles in miniature plasma structures
Antonsen, Thomas M.
2014-07-16
The extension of our program to the development of theories and models capable of describing the interactions of intense laser pulses and charged particles in miniature plasma channels is reported. These channels, which have recently been created in the laboratory, have unique dispersion properties that make them interesting for a variety of applications including particle acceleration, high harmonic generation, and THz generation. Our program systematically explored the properties of these channels, including dispersion, losses, and coupling. A particular application that was pursued is the generation of intense pulses of THz radiation by short laser pulses propagating these channels. We also explored the nonlinear dynamics of laser pulses propagating in these channels.
Dissipative-particle-dynamics model of biofilm growth
Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.
2011-06-13
A dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model for the quantitative simulation of biofilm growth controlled by substrate (nutrient) consumption, advective and diffusive substrate transport, and hydrodynamic interactions with fluid flow (including fragmentation and reattachment) is described. The model was used to simulate biomass growth, decay, and spreading. It predicts how the biofilm morphology depends on flow conditions, biofilm growth kinetics, the rheomechanical properties of the biofilm and adhesion to solid surfaces. The morphology of the model biofilm depends strongly on its rigidity and the magnitude of the body force that drives the fluid over the biofilm.
Emergence of particle clusters in a one-dimensional model: connection to condensation processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burman, Matthew; Carpenter, Daniel; Jack, Robert L.
2017-03-01
We discuss a simple model of particles hopping in one dimension with attractive interactions. Taking a hydrodynamic limit in which the interaction strength increases with the system size, we observe the formation of multiple clusters of particles, with large gaps between them. These clusters are correlated in space, and the system has a self-similar (fractal) structure. These results are related to condensation phenomena in mass transport models and to a recent mathematical analysis of the hydrodynamic limit in a related model.
Threshold separation distance for attractive interaction between dust particles
Jabdaraghi, R. Najafi; Sobhanian, S.
2008-09-07
Interaction between dust grains in a dusty plasma could be both repulsive and attractive. The Coulomb interaction between two negatively charged dust particulates and the electrostatic force between them are repulsive, while the shadowing force affecting them is attractive. We show in this paper that in some experimental conditions, there is some grain separation zone for which the attractive shadowing force is larger than the repulsive forces between them. In experimental conditions, for the grains separation distance r = 0.4 cm the shadowing force is almost equal to the electrostatic force between them and for r>0.4 cm the shadowing force exceeds the electrostatic force. So the resultant interaction force will be attractive. The possibility of dust crystal formation in this zone and also the motion of dust particles in the resultant potential of the form V = -(a/r)+(b/r{sup 2}) will be discussed. This form of potential comes from the combination electrostatic (F{sub es} (c/r{sup 3})) and shadowing (F{sub shadow} = -(d/r{sup 2})) forces.
Particle dispersion in homogeneous turbulence using the one-dimensional turbulence model
Sun, Guangyuan; Lignell, David O.; Hewson, John C.; Gin, Craig R.
2014-10-09
Lagrangian particle dispersion is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model in homogeneous decaying turbulence configurations. The ODT model has been widely and successfully applied to a number of reacting and nonreacting flow configurations, but only limited application has been made to multiphase flows. We present a version of the particle implementation and interaction with the stochastic and instantaneous ODT eddy events. The model is characterized by comparison to experimental data of particle dispersion for a range of intrinsic particle time scales and body forces. Particle dispersion, velocity, and integral time scale results are presented. Moreover, the particle implementation introduces a single model parameter β p , and sensitivity to this parameter and behavior of the model are discussed. Good agreement is found with experimental data and the ODT model is able to capture the particle inertial and trajectory crossing effects. Our results serve as a validation case of the multiphase implementations of ODT for extensions to other flow configurations.
Effect of long-range repulsive Coulomb interactions on packing structure of adhesive particles.
Chen, Sheng; Li, Shuiqing; Liu, Wenwei; Makse, Hernán A
2016-02-14
The packing of charged micron-sized particles is investigated using discrete element simulations based on adhesive contact dynamic model. The formation process and the final obtained structures of ballistic packings are studied to show the effect of interparticle Coulomb force. It is found that increasing the charge on particles causes a remarkable decrease of the packing volume fraction ϕ and the average coordination number 〈Z〉, indicating a looser and chainlike structure. Force-scaling analysis shows that the long-range Coulomb interaction changes packing structures through its influence on particle inertia before they are bonded into the force networks. Once contact networks are formed, the expansion effect caused by repulsive Coulomb forces are dominated by short-range adhesion. Based on abundant results from simulations, a dimensionless adhesion parameter Ad*, which combines the effects of the particle inertia, the short-range adhesion and the long-range Coulomb interaction, is proposed and successfully scales the packing results for micron-sized particles within the latest derived adhesive loose packing (ALP) regime. The structural properties of our packings follow well the recent theoretical prediction which is described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function, indicating some kind of universality in the low packing density regime of the phase diagram regardless of adhesion or particle charge. Based on the comprehensive consideration of the complicated inter-particle interactions, our findings provide insight into the roles of short-range adhesion and repulsive Coulomb force during packing formation and should be useful for further design of packings.
The effect of particle-particle interaction forces on the flow properties of silica slurries
Harbottle, David; Fairweather, Michael; Biggs, Simon; Rhodes, Dominic
2007-07-01
Preliminary work has been completed to investigate the effect of particle-particle interaction forces on the flow properties of silica slurries. Classically hydro-transport studies have focused on the flow of coarse granular material in Newtonian fluids. However, with current economical and environmental pressures, the need to increase solid loadings in pipe flow has lead to studies that examine non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. The flow characteristics of non-Newtonian slurries can be greatly influenced through controlling the solution chemistry. Here we present data on an 'ideal' slurry where the particle size and shape is controlled together with the solution chemistry. We have investigated the effect of adsorbed cations on the stability of a suspension, the packing nature of a sediment and the frictional forces to be overcome during re-slurrying. A significant change in the criteria assessed was observed as the electrolyte concentration was increased from 0.1 mM to 1 M. In relation to industrial processes, such delicate control of the slurry chemistry can greatly influence the optimum operating conditions of non-Newtonian pipe flows. (authors)
A new mechanism for relativistic particle acceleration via wave-particle interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Marocchino, Alberto
2006-10-01
Often in laboratory, space and astrophysical plasma, high energy populations are observed. Two puzzling factors still defy our understanding. First, such populations of high energy particles produce power law distributions that are not only ubiquitous but also persistent in time. Such persistence is in direct contradiction to the H theorem that states the ineluctable transition of physical systems towards thermodynamic equilibrium, and ergo Maxwellian distributions. Second, such high energy populations are efficiently produced, much more efficiently than processes that we know can produce. A classic example of such a situation is cosmic rays where power alws extend up to tremendolus energy ranges. In the present work, we identify a new mechanism for particle acceleration via wave-particle interaction. The mechanism is peculiar to special relativity and has no classical equivalent. That explains why it is not observed in most simulation studies of plasma processes, based on classical physics. The mechanism is likely to be active in systems undergoing streaming instabilities and in particular shocked systems. The new mechanism can produce energy increases vastly superior to previously known mechanisms (such as Fermi acceleration) and can hold the promise of explaining at least some of the observed power laws.
Determining Trajectory of Triboelectrically Charged Particles, Using Discrete Element Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory is participating in an Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) project with an industry partner to modify a commercial off-the-shelf simulation software product to treat the electrodynamics of particulate systems. Discrete element modeling (DEM) is a numerical technique that can track the dynamics of particle systems. This technique, which was introduced in 1979 for analysis of rock mechanics, was recently refined to include the contact force interaction of particles with arbitrary surfaces and moving machinery. In our work, we endeavor to incorporate electrostatic forces into the DEM calculations to enhance the fidelity of the software and its applicability to (1) particle processes, such as electrophotography, that are greatly affected by electrostatic forces, (2) grain and dust transport, and (3) the study of lunar and Martian regoliths.
Simulation of Cell Adhesion using a Particle Transport Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chesnutt, Jennifer
2005-11-01
An efficient computational method for simulation of cell adhesion through protein binding forces is discussed. In this method, the cells are represented by deformable elastic particles, and the protein binding is represented by a rate equation. The method is first developed for collision and adhesion of two similar cells impacting on each other from opposite directions. The computational method is then applied in a particle-transport model for a cloud of interacting and colliding cells, each of which are represented by particles of finite size. One application might include red blood cells adhering together to form rouleaux, which are chains of red blood cells that are found in different parts of the circulatory system. Other potential applications include adhesion of platelets to a blood vessel wall or mechanical heart valve, which is a precursor of thrombosis formation, or adhesion of cancer cells to organ walls in the lymphatic, circulatory, digestive or pulmonary systems.
Kubilis, Artur; Abdulkarim, Ali; Eissa, Ahmed M.; Cameron, Neil R.
2016-01-01
Despite the low complexity of their components, several simple physical systems, including microspheres, coacervate droplets and phospholipid membrane structures (liposomes), have been suggested as protocell models. These, however, lack key cellular characteristics, such as the ability to replicate or to dock with extracellular species. Here, we report a simple method for the de novo creation of synthetic cell mimics in the form of giant polymeric vesicles (polymersomes), which are capable of behavior approaching that of living cells. These polymersomes form by self-assembly, under electroformation conditions, of amphiphilic, glycosylated block copolymers in aqueous solution. The glycosylated exterior of the resulting polymeric giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) allows their selective interaction with carbohydrate-binding receptor-functionalized particles, in a manner reminiscent of the cell-surface docking of virus particles. We believe that this is the first example of a simple protocell model displaying cell-like behavior through a native receptor-ligand interaction. PMID:27576579
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubilis, Artur; Abdulkarim, Ali; Eissa, Ahmed M.; Cameron, Neil R.
2016-08-01
Despite the low complexity of their components, several simple physical systems, including microspheres, coacervate droplets and phospholipid membrane structures (liposomes), have been suggested as protocell models. These, however, lack key cellular characteristics, such as the ability to replicate or to dock with extracellular species. Here, we report a simple method for the de novo creation of synthetic cell mimics in the form of giant polymeric vesicles (polymersomes), which are capable of behavior approaching that of living cells. These polymersomes form by self-assembly, under electroformation conditions, of amphiphilic, glycosylated block copolymers in aqueous solution. The glycosylated exterior of the resulting polymeric giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) allows their selective interaction with carbohydrate-binding receptor-functionalized particles, in a manner reminiscent of the cell-surface docking of virus particles. We believe that this is the first example of a simple protocell model displaying cell-like behavior through a native receptor-ligand interaction.
Atoms and Ions Interacting with Particles and Fields: Final Report
Robicheaux, Francis
2014-09-18
This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms with particles and fields. The duration of the grant was the 10 year period from 8/2003 to 8/2013. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, postdocs, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 65 peer reviewed publications over these 10 years with 8 of the publications in Physical Review Letters; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B, ...). I will disuss the results for the periods of time relevant for each grant period.
Lin, W B; Huang, D H; Zhang, X; Brandenberger, R
2001-02-05
There is increasing evidence that conventional cold dark matter (CDM) models lead to conflicts between observations and numerical simulations of dark matter halos on subgalactic scales, which rules out the favored candidates for CDM, namely weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). We propose a mechanism of nonthermal production of WIMPs and study its implications on the power spectrum. Our results show that, in this context, WIMPs as candidates for dark matter can work well both on large scales and on subgalactic scales.
Microscopic theory of polymer-mediated interactions between spherical particles
Chatterjee, A.P.; Schweizer, K.S.
1998-12-01
We develop an analytic integral equation theory for treating polymer-induced effects on the structure and thermodynamics of dilute suspensions of hard spheres. Results are presented for the potential of mean force, free energy of insertion per particle into a polymer solution, and the second virial coefficient between spheres. The theory makes predictions for all size ratios between the spheres and the polymer coil dimension. Based on the Percus{endash}Yevick (PY) closure, the attractive polymer-induced depletion interaction is predicted to be too weak under athermal conditions to induce a negative value for the second virial coefficient, B{sub 2}{sup cc}, between spheres in the colloidal limit when the spheres are much larger than the coil size. A nonmonotonic dependence of the second virial coefficient on polymer concentration occurs for small enough particles, with the largest polymer-mediated attractions and most negative B{sub 2}{sup cc} occurring near the dilute{endash}semidilute crossover concentration. Predictions for the polymer-mediated force between spheres are compared to the results of computer simulations and scaling theory. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Dynamics of particle--turbulence interaction at the dissipative scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Dam, Nico; van de Water, Willem; JM Burgerscentrum Collaboration; COST Action, Particles in Turbulence Collaboration
2013-11-01
We present results of a novel phosphorescent tagging technique that is particularly suited to study particle-laden flows. Using phosphorescent droplets we probe the dynamics of particle-turbulence interaction at the dissipative length scales. We create a cloud of droplets within a chamber capable of generating homogeneous, isotropic turbulence with zero-mean flow. The droplets have Stokes number St ~ 1 , and the flow is intensely turbulent, with Reynolds number Reλ ~ 500 . Using a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser, we can tag a variety of volumes, such as thin slabs or thin, pencil-like cylinders. The droplets in these volumes glow during a few Kolmogorov times. By tracking the fate of pencil-shaped clouds using a fast (5 kHz) camera, we come to the surprising conclusion that they disperse faster than fluid elements, with a spreading rate reaching a maximum at St ~ 2 . Sheets of tagged droplets display preferential concentration at work; we discuss statistical quantities that can capture these events. This project is funded by Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM).
Modeling Deep Burn TRISO particle nuclear fuel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Besmann, T. M.; Stoller, R. E.; Samolyuk, G.; Schuck, P. C.; Golubov, S. I.; Rudin, S. P.; Wills, J. M.; Coe, J. D.; Wirth, B. D.; Kim, S.; Morgan, D. D.; Szlufarska, I.
2012-11-01
Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel, the fission product's attack on the SiC coating layer, as well as fission product diffusion through an alternative coating layer, ZrC. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.
Particle model for nonlocal heat transport in fusion plasmas.
Bufferand, H; Ciraolo, G; Ghendrih, Ph; Lepri, S; Livi, R
2013-02-01
We present a simple stochastic, one-dimensional model for heat transfer in weakly collisional media as fusion plasmas. Energies of plasma particles are treated as lattice random variables interacting with a rate inversely proportional to their energy schematizing a screened Coulomb interaction. We consider both the equilibrium (microcanonical) and nonequilibrium case in which the system is in contact with heat baths at different temperatures. The model exhibits a characteristic length of thermalization that can be associated with an interaction mean free path and one observes a transition from ballistic to diffusive regime depending on the average energy of the system. A mean-field expression for heat flux is deduced from system heat transport properties. Finally, it is shown that the nonequilibrium steady state is characterized by long-range correlations.
Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Poh, Ming-Zher; Insin, Numpon; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Fukumura, Dai; Munn, Lance L.; Jain, Rakesh K.
2010-01-01
Diffusive transport of macromolecules and nanoparticles in charged fibrous media is of interest in many biological applications, including drug delivery and separation processes. Experimental findings have shown that diffusion can be significantly hindered by electrostatic interactions between the diffusing particle and charged components of the extracellular matrix. The implications, however, have not been analyzed rigorously. Here, we present a mathematical framework to study the effect of charge on the diffusive transport of macromolecules and nanoparticles in the extracellular matrix of biological tissues. The model takes into account steric, hydrodynamic, and electrostatic interactions. We show that when the fiber size is comparable to the Debye length, electrostatic forces between the fibers and the particles result in slowed diffusion. However, as the fiber diameter increases the repulsive forces become less important. Our results explain the experimental observations that neutral particles diffuse faster than charged particles. Taken together, we conclude that optimal particles for delivery to tumors should be initially cationic to target the tumor vessels and then change to neutral charge after exiting the blood vessels. PMID:20816045
Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen
2014-01-01
This paper presents a fluid-particle interaction algorithm using the distributed Lagrange multiplier based fictitious domain method. The application of this method to the numerical investigation of motion and aggregation of red blood cells in two-dimensional microvessels is discussed. The cells are modelled as rigid biconcave-shaped neutrally buoyant particles. The aggregating force between two cells is derived from a Morse type potential function. The cell-cell interaction is coupled with the fluid-cell interaction through a time splitting scheme. Simulation results of multiple red blood cells in Poiseuille flow are presented. Because of its modular nature, this algorithm is applicable to a large class of problems involving the processes of particle aggregation and fluid-particle interaction.
The joy of interactive modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donchyts, Gennadii; Baart, Fedor; van Dam, Arthur; Jagers, Bert
2013-04-01
The conventional way of working with hydrodynamical models usually consists of the following steps: 1) define a schematization (e.g., in a graphical user interface, or by editing input files) 2) run model from start to end 3) visualize results 4) repeat any of the previous steps. This cycle commonly takes up from hours to several days. What if we can make this happen instantly? As most of the research done using numerical models is in fact qualitative and exploratory (Oreskes et al., 1994), why not use these models as such? How can we adapt models so that we can edit model input, run and visualize results at the same time? More and more, interactive models become available as online apps, mainly for demonstration and educational purposes. These models often simplify the physics behind flows and run on simplified model geometries, particularly when compared with state-of-the-art scientific simulation packages. Here we show how the aforementioned conventional standalone models ("static, run once") can be transformed into interactive models. The basic concepts behind turning existing (conventional) model engines into interactive engines are the following. The engine does not run the model from start to end, but is always available in memory, and can be fed by new boundary conditions, or state changes at any time. The model can be run continuously, per step, or up to a specified time. The Hollywood principle dictates how the model engine is instructed from 'outside', instead of the model engine taking all necessary actions on its own initiative. The underlying techniques that facilitate these concepts are introspection of the computation engine, which exposes its state variables, and control functions, e.g. for time stepping, via a standardized interface, such as BMI (Peckam et. al., 2012). In this work we have used a shallow water flow model engine D-Flow Flexible Mesh. The model was converted from executable to a library, and coupled to the graphical modelling
Transport equations for subdiffusion with nonlinear particle interaction.
Straka, P; Fedotov, S
2015-02-07
We show how the nonlinear interaction effects 'volume filling' and 'adhesion' can be incorporated into the fractional subdiffusive transport of cells and individual organisms. To this end, we use microscopic random walk models with anomalous trapping and systematically derive generic non-Markovian and nonlinear governing equations for the mean concentrations of the subdiffusive cells or organisms. We uncover an interesting interaction between the nonlinearities and the non-Markovian nature of the transport. In the subdiffusive case, this interaction manifests itself in a nontrivial combination of nonlinear terms with fractional derivatives. In the long time limit, however, these equations simplify to a form without fractional operators. This provides an easy method for the study of aggregation phenomena. In particular, this enables us to show that volume filling can prevent "anomalous aggregation," which occurs in subdiffusive systems with a spatially varying anomalous exponent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majka, M.; Góra, P. F.
2017-02-01
The collectivity in the simultaneous diffusion of many particles, i.e. the interdependence of stochastic forces affecting different particles in the same solution, is a largely overlooked phenomenon with no well-established theory. Recently, we have proposed a novel type of thermodynamically consistent Langevin dynamics driven by spatially correlated noise (SCN) that can contribute to the understanding of this problem. This model draws a link between the theory of effective interactions in binary colloidal mixtures and the properties of SCN. In the current article, we review this model from the perspective of collective diffusion and generalize it to the case of multiple (N > 2) particles. Since our theory of SCN-driven Langevin dynamics has certain issues that could not be resolved within this framework, in this article we also provide another approach to the problem of collectivity. We discuss the multi-particle Mori-Zwanzig model, which is fully microscopically consistent. Indeed, we show that this model supplies a lot of information, complementary to the SCN-based approach, e.g. it predicts the deterministic dynamics of the relative distance between the particles, it provides an approximation for non-equilibrium effective interactions and predicts the collective sub-diffusion of tracers in the group. These results provide the short-range, inertial limit of the earlier model and agree with its predictions under some general conditions. In this article we also review the origin of SCN and its consequences for a variety of physical systems, with emphasis on the colloids.
Neural Networks for Modeling and Control of Particle Accelerators
Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Chase, B. E.; ...
2016-04-01
Myriad nonlinear and complex physical phenomena are host to particle accelerators. They often involve a multitude of interacting systems, are subject to tight performance demands, and should be able to run for extended periods of time with minimal interruptions. Often times, traditional control techniques cannot fully meet these requirements. One promising avenue is to introduce machine learning and sophisticated control techniques inspired by artificial intelligence, particularly in light of recent theoretical and practical advances in these fields. Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, neural networks are particularly well-suited to modeling, control, and diagnostic analysis of complex, nonlinear, and time-varying systems,more » as well as systems with large parameter spaces. Consequently, the use of neural network-based modeling and control techniques could be of significant benefit to particle accelerators. For the same reasons, particle accelerators are also ideal test-beds for these techniques. Moreover, many early attempts to apply neural networks to particle accelerators yielded mixed results due to the relative immaturity of the technology for such tasks. For the purpose of this paper is to re-introduce neural networks to the particle accelerator community and report on some work in neural network control that is being conducted as part of a dedicated collaboration between Fermilab and Colorado State University (CSU). We also describe some of the challenges of particle accelerator control, highlight recent advances in neural network techniques, discuss some promising avenues for incorporating neural networks into particle accelerator control systems, and describe a neural network-based control system that is being developed for resonance control of an RF electron gun at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, including initial experimental results from a benchmark controller.« less
Neural Networks for Modeling and Control of Particle Accelerators
Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Chase, B. E.; Edstrom, D.; Milton, S. V.; Stabile, P.
2016-04-01
Myriad nonlinear and complex physical phenomena are host to particle accelerators. They often involve a multitude of interacting systems, are subject to tight performance demands, and should be able to run for extended periods of time with minimal interruptions. Often times, traditional control techniques cannot fully meet these requirements. One promising avenue is to introduce machine learning and sophisticated control techniques inspired by artificial intelligence, particularly in light of recent theoretical and practical advances in these fields. Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, neural networks are particularly well-suited to modeling, control, and diagnostic analysis of complex, nonlinear, and time-varying systems, as well as systems with large parameter spaces. Consequently, the use of neural network-based modeling and control techniques could be of significant benefit to particle accelerators. For the same reasons, particle accelerators are also ideal test-beds for these techniques. Moreover, many early attempts to apply neural networks to particle accelerators yielded mixed results due to the relative immaturity of the technology for such tasks. For the purpose of this paper is to re-introduce neural networks to the particle accelerator community and report on some work in neural network control that is being conducted as part of a dedicated collaboration between Fermilab and Colorado State University (CSU). We also describe some of the challenges of particle accelerator control, highlight recent advances in neural network techniques, discuss some promising avenues for incorporating neural networks into particle accelerator control systems, and describe a neural network-based control system that is being developed for resonance control of an RF electron gun at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, including initial experimental results from a benchmark controller.
Collision model for fully resolved simulations of flows laden with finite-size particles.
Costa, Pedro; Boersma, Bendiks Jan; Westerweel, Jerry; Breugem, Wim-Paul
2015-11-01
We present a collision model for particle-particle and particle-wall interactions in interface-resolved simulations of particle-laden flows. Three types of interparticle interactions are taken into account: (1) long- and (2) short-range hydrodynamic interactions, and (3) solid-solid contact. Long-range interactions are incorporated through an efficient and second-order-accurate immersed boundary method (IBM). Short-range interactions are also partly reproduced by the IBM. However, since the IBM uses a fixed grid, a lubrication model is needed for an interparticle gap width smaller than the grid spacing. The lubrication model is based on asymptotic expansions of analytical solutions for canonical lubrication interactions between spheres in the Stokes regime. Roughness effects are incorporated by making the lubrication correction independent of the gap width for gap widths smaller than ∼1% of the particle radius. This correction is applied until the particles reach solid-solid contact. To model solid-solid contact we use a variant of a linear soft-sphere collision model capable of stretching the collision time. This choice is computationally attractive because it allows us to reduce the number of time steps required for integrating the collision force accurately and is physically realistic, provided that the prescribed collision time is much smaller than the characteristic time scale of particle motion. We verified the numerical implementation of our collision model and validated it against several benchmark cases for immersed head-on particle-wall and particle-particle collisions, and oblique particle-wall collisions. The results show good agreement with experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shenwei; Qiu, Chunyin; Wang, Mudi; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou
2016-11-01
In this work, we study the acoustically mediated interaction forces among multiple well-separated spherical particles trapped in the same node or antinode plane of a standing wave. An analytical expression of the acoustic interaction force is derived, which is accurate even for the particles beyond the Rayleigh limit. Interestingly, the multi-particle system can be decomposed into a series of independent two-particle systems described by pairwise interactions. Each pairwise interaction is a long-range interaction, as characterized by a soft oscillatory attenuation (at the power exponent of n = -1 or -2). The vector additivity of the acoustic interaction force, which is not well expected considering the nonlinear nature of the acoustic radiation force, is greatly useful for exploring a system consisting of a large number of particles. The capability of self-organizing a big particle cluster can be anticipated through such acoustically controllable long-range interaction.
Moncada-Hernandez, Hector; Nagler, Eliot; Minerick, Adrienne R
2014-07-01
Dielectrophoresis (DEP), an electrokinetic phenomenon based on particle polarizations in nonuniform electric fields, is increasingly employed for particle and cell characterizations and manipulations in microdevices. However, particle number densities are rarely varied and particle-particle interactions are largely overlooked, but both affect particle's effective polarizations by changing the local electric field, which directly impacts particle assembly into chains. This work examines theoretical and experimental particle-particle interactions and dielectrophoretic responses in nonuniform electric fields, then presents individual and chain velocities of spherical polystyrene microparticles and red blood cells (RBCs) under DEP forces in a modified quadruple electrode microdevice. Velocities are independently compared between 1, 2, 3, and 4 polystyrene beads and RBCs assembled into chains aligned with the electric field. Simulations compared induced dipole moments for particles experiencing the same (single point) and changing (multiple points) electric fields. Experiments and simulations are compared by plotting DEP velocities versus applied signal frequency from 1 kHz to 80 MHz. Simulations indicate differences in the DEP force exerted on each particle according to chain position. Simulations and experiments show excellent qualitative agreement; chains with more particles experienced a decrease in the DEP response for both polystyrene beads and RBCs. These results advance understanding of the extent that induced dipole polarizations with multiple particle chains affect observed behaviors in electrokinetic cellular diagnostic systems.
Interactive modeling of storm impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Rooijen, A.; Baart, F.; Roelvink, J. A.; Donchyts, G.; Scheel, F.; de Boer, W.
2014-12-01
In the past decades the impact of storms on the coastal zone has increasingly drawn the attention of policy makers and coastal planners, engineers and researchers. The mean reason for this interest is the high density of the world's population living near the ocean, in combination with climate change. Due to sea level rise and extremer weather conditions, many of the world's coastlines are becoming more vulnerable to the potential of flooding. Currently it is common practice to predict storm impact using physics-based numerical models. The numerical model utilizes several inputs (e.g. bathymetry, waves, surge) to calculate the impact on the coastline. Traditionally, the numerical modeller takes the following three steps: schematization/model setup, running and post-processing. This process generally has a total feedback time in the order of hours to days, and is suitable for so-called confirmatory modelling.However, often models are applied as an exploratory tool, in which the effect of e.g. different hydraulic conditions, or measures is investigated. The above described traditional work flow is not the most efficient method for exploratory modelling. Interactive modelling lets users adjust a simulation while running. For models typically used for storm impact studies (e.g. XBeach, Delft3D, D-Flow FM), the user can for instance change the storm surge level, wave conditions, or add a measure such as a nourishment or a seawall. The model will take the adjustments into account immediately, and will directly compute the effect. Using this method, tools can be developed in which stakeholders (e.g. coastal planners, policy makers) are in control and together evaluate ideas by interacting with the model. Here we will show initial results for interactive modelling with a storm impact model.
A Simple Mathematical Model for Standard Model of Elementary Particles and Extension Thereof
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Ashok
2016-03-01
An algebraically (and geometrically) simple model representing the masses of the elementary particles in terms of the interaction (strong, weak, electromagnetic) constants is developed, including the Higgs bosons. The predicted Higgs boson mass is identical to that discovered by LHC experimental programs; while possibility of additional Higgs bosons (and their masses) is indicated. The model can be analyzed to explain and resolve many puzzles of particle physics and cosmology including the neutrino masses and mixing; origin of the proton mass and the mass-difference between the proton and the neutron; the big bang and cosmological Inflation; the Hubble expansion; etc. A novel interpretation of the model in terms of quaternion and rotation in the six-dimensional space of the elementary particle interaction-space - or, equivalently, in six-dimensional spacetime - is presented. Interrelations among particle masses are derived theoretically. A new approach for defining the interaction parameters leading to an elegant and symmetrical diagram is delineated. Generalization of the model to include supersymmetry is illustrated without recourse to complex mathematical formulation and free from any ambiguity. This Abstract represents some results of the Author's Independent Theoretical Research in Particle Physics, with possible connection to the Superstring Theory. However, only very elementary mathematics and physics is used in my presentation.
Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; 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Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Valdes Santurio, E; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasquez, J G; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigani, L; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vittori, C; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wallangen, V; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Washbrook, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Whallon, N L; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilk, F; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winston, O J; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zakharchuk, N; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L
2016-01-01
This paper presents measurements of distributions of charged particles which are produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of [Formula: see text] and recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. A special dataset recorded in 2012 with a small number of interactions per beam crossing (below 0.004) and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 160 [Formula: see text] was used. A minimum-bias trigger was utilised to select a data sample of more than 9 million collision events. The multiplicity, pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum distributions of charged particles are shown in different regions of kinematics and charged-particle multiplicity, including measurements of final states at high multiplicity. The results are corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generator models which simulate the full hadronic final state.
On Nonlinear Self-interaction of Geodesic Acoustic Mode Driven By Energetic Particles
G.Y. Fu
2010-10-01
It is shown that nonlinear self-interaction of energetic particle-driven Geodesic Acoustic Mode does not generate a second harmonic in radial electric field using the fluid model. However, kinetic effects of energetic particles can induce a second harmonic in the radial electric field. A formula for the second order plasma density perturbation is derived. It is shown that a second harmonic of plasma density perturbation is generated by the convective nonlinearity of both thermal plasma and energetic particles. Near the midplane of a tokamak, the second order plasma density perturbation (the sum of second harmonic and zero frequency sideband) is negative on the low field side with its size comparable to the main harmonic at low fluctuation level. These analytic predictions are consistent with the recent experimental observation in DIII-D.
On Nonlinear Self-interaction of Geodesic Acoustic Mode Driven by Energetic Particles
G. Y. Fu
2010-06-04
It is shown that nonlinear self-interaction of energetic particle-driven Geodesic Acoustic Mode does not generate a second harmonic in radial electric field using the fluid model. However, kinetic effects of energetic particles can induce a second harmonic in the radial electric field. A formula for the second order plasma density perturbation is derived. It is shown that a second harmonic of plasma density perturbation is generated by the convective nonlinearity of both thermal plasma and energetic particles. Near the midplane of a tokamak, the second order plasma density perturbation (the sum of second harmonic and zero frequency sideband) is negative on the low field side with its size comparable to the main harmonic at low uctuation level. These analytic predictions are consistent with the recent experimental observation in DIII-D.
Kinetic theory for systems of self-propelled particles with metric-free interactions.
Chou, Yen-Liang; Wolfe, Rylan; Ihle, Thomas
2012-08-01
A model of self-driven particles similar to the Vicsek model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995)] but with metric-free interactions is studied by means of a novel Enskog-type kinetic theory. In this model, N particles of constant speed v(0) try to align their travel directions with the average direction of a fixed number of closest neighbors. At strong alignment a global flocking state forms. The alignment is defined by a stochastic rule, not by a Hamiltonian. The corresponding interactions are of genuine multibody nature. The theory is based on a Master equation in 3N-dimensional phase space, which is made tractable by means of the molecular chaos approximation. The phase diagram for the transition to collective motion is calculated and compared to direct numerical simulations. A linear stability analysis of a homogeneous ordered state is performed using the kinetic but not the hydrodynamic equations in order to achieve high accuracy. In contrast to the regular metric Vicsek-model no instabilities occur. This confirms previous direct simulations that, for Vicsek-like models with metric-free interactions, there is no formation of density bands and that the flocking transition is continuous.
Modelling New Particle Formation Events in the South African Savannah
Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Beukes, J. P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael
2014-01-01
Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, aka aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scale, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There are already some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first time detailed simulations, that include all the main processes relevant to particle formation, were done. The results show that both investigated particle formation mechanisms overestimated the formation rates dependency on sulphuric acid. The approach including low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events. To get reliable estimation of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa.
The Roles of Transport and Wave-Particle Interactions on Radiation Belt Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fok, Mei-Ching; Glocer, Alex; Zheng, Qiuhua
2011-01-01
Particle fluxes in the radiation belts can vary dramatically during geomagnetic active periods. Transport and wave-particle interactions are believed to be the two main types of mechanisms that control the radiation belt dynamics. Major transport processes include substorm dipolarization and injection, radial diffusion, convection, adiabatic acceleration and deceleration, and magnetopause shadowing. Energetic electrons and ions are also subjected to pitch-angle and energy diffusion when interact with plasma waves in the radiation belts. Important wave modes include whistler mode chorus waves, plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and magnetosonic waves. We investigate the relative roles of transport and wave associated processes in radiation belt variations. Energetic electron fluxes during several storms are simulated using our Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model. The model includes important transport and wave processes such as substorm dipolarization in global MHD fields, chorus waves, and plasmaspheric hiss. We discuss the effects of these competing processes at different phases of the storms and validate the results by comparison with satellite and ground-based observations. Keywords: Radiation Belts, Space Weather, Wave-Particle Interaction, Storm and Substorm
Numerical Model for Ultra-fine Particles in the Absence and Presence of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutt, Meenakshi; Elliott, James A.
2009-06-01
Length scales of particles and their surrounding medium strongly determines the nature of their interactions with one another and their responses to external fields. We are interested in systems of ultra-fine particles (0.1-1.0 micron) such as volcanic ash, soot from forest fires, solid aerosols, or fine powders for pharmaceutical inhalation applications. We have a developed a numerical model which captures the dominant physical interactions which control the behavior of these systems. The adhesive interactions between the particles use the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) adhesion theory along with the van der Waals attraction. The elastic restoring forces are modeled by the Hertz's contact model, and require details of material properties such as the Young's modulus and Poisson ratio. Commencing with a three dimensional gas of ultra-fine particles, the absence of gravity does not produce any noticeable clustering. The presence of gravity initially generates a large population of clusters with small number of particles, as the particles settle. The initial population of small clusters or single particles which have settled decrease with time as more particles, or clusters, agglomerate with one another. Our final results show clusters containing 10 to 100 particles, with a larger population of small clusters. We present details of the model, and some preliminary results which demonstrate the influence of the particle surface properties on the clustering dynamics of these systems, in the absence and presence of gravity (M. Dutt, J. A. Elliott, et al. in press).
Particle-hole duality, integrability, and Russian doll BCS model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bork, L. V.; Pogosov, W. V.
2015-08-01
We address a generalized Richardson model (Russian doll BCS model), which is characterized by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry. This model is known to be exactly solvable and integrable. We point out that the Russian doll BCS model, on the level of Hamiltonian, is also particle-hole symmetric. This implies that the same state can be expressed both in the particle and hole representations with two different sets of Bethe roots. We then derive exact relations between Bethe roots in the two representations, which can hardly be obtained staying on the level of Bethe equations. In a quasi-classical limit, similar identities for usual Richardson model, known from literature, are recovered from our results. We also show that these relations for Richardson roots take a remarkably simple form at half-filling and for a symmetric with respect to the middle of the interaction band distribution of one-body energy levels, since, in this special case, the rapidities in the particle and hole representations up to the translation satisfy the same system of equations.
Particle-based model for skiing traffic.
Holleczek, Thomas; Tröster, Gerhard
2012-05-01
We develop and investigate a particle-based model for ski slope traffic. Skiers are modeled as particles with a mass that are exposed to social and physical forces, which define the riding behavior of skiers during their descents on ski slopes. We also report position and speed data of 21 skiers recorded with GPS-equipped cell phones on two ski slopes. A comparison of these data with the trajectories resulting from computer simulations of our model shows a good correspondence. A study of the relationship among the density, speed, and flow of skiers reveals that congestion does not occur even with arrival rates of skiers exceeding the maximum ski lift capacity. In a sensitivity analysis, we identify the kinetic friction coefficient of skis on snow, the skier mass, the range of repelling social forces, and the arrival rate of skiers as the crucial parameters influencing the simulation results. Our model allows for the prediction of speed zones and skier densities on ski slopes, which is important in the prevention of skiing accidents.
Langangian Particle Model of Friction Stir Welding
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2006-12-13
Since its invention fifteen years ago, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has found commercial application in the marine, aerospace, rail, and now automotive industries. Development of the FSW process for each new application, however, has remained largely empirical. Few detailed numerical modeling techniques have been developed that can explain and predict important features of the process physics. This is particularly true in the areas of material flow, mixing mechanisms, and void prediction. In this paper we present a novel modeling approach to simulate FSW processes that may have significant advantages over current traditional finite element or finite difference based methods. The proposed model is based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Unlike traditional grid-based methods, Lagrangian particle methods such as SPH can simulate the dynamics of interfaces, large material deformations, void formations and the material's strain and temperature history without employing complex tracking schemes. Two- and three-dimensional FSW simulations for different tool designs are presented. Preliminary numerical results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. Detailed comparisons between experimental measurements and larger scale FSW simulations are required to further validate and calibrate the SPH based FSW model.
The interaction of solid particles with laser beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misconi, Nebil Y.; Rusk, Edwin T.; Oliver, John P.
1989-04-01
Light scattering curves of intensity vs. scattering angle were made of layers of transparent silica particles, single silica particles isolated by optical levitation; using an Argon ion laser light source and a goniometer mounted silicon photodiode detector. Scattering measurements of spherical particles demonstrated an excellent agreement with Mie theory. Spheroids and irregular particles were also measured. Dynamics of particles in a space environment were studied both theoretically, and experimentally inside a 10 to the -7th power Torr vacuum chamber. Research in this area will be continued to determine the effective moment arm of optically induced particle rotation.
Modeling Interactions in Small Groups
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heise, David R.
2013-01-01
A new theory of interaction within small groups posits that group members initiate actions when tension mounts between the affective meanings of their situational identities and impressions produced by recent events. Actors choose partners and behaviors so as to reduce the tensions. A computer model based on this theory, incorporating reciprocal…
Studies of HZE particle interactions and transport for space radiation protection purposes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter; Wong, Mervyn
1987-01-01
The main emphasis is on developing general methods for accurately predicting high-energy heavy ion (HZE) particle interactions and transport for use by researchers in mission planning studies, in evaluating astronaut self-shielding factors, and in spacecraft shield design and optimization studies. The two research tasks are: (1) to develop computationally fast and accurate solutions to the Boltzmann (transport) equation; and (2) to develop accurate HZE interaction models, from fundamental physical considerations, for use as inputs into these transport codes. Accurate solutions to the HZE transport problem have been formulated through a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. In addition, theoretical models for the input interaction parameters are under development: stopping powers, nuclear absorption cross sections, and fragmentation parameters.
Mangal, Sharad; Lakio, Satu; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Morton, David A V
2016-12-05
In this study, we investigated the influence of deformability of specifically-engineered guest particles on the tensile strength of tablets of interactive mixtures. The binder polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) of different molecular weights were spray dried with l-leucine to create guest particle formulations. The guest particle formulations were characterized by their particle size, surface l-leucine concentration and glass transition temperature (Tg). These spray-dried particles were then blended with paracetamol to form interactive mixtures, which were compacted into tablets and tablet tensile strength and elastic recovery were determined. The guest particles had particle diameters in the range of 1-10μm, and surfaces that were l-leucine enriched. The Tg of guest particle formulations increased with increasing molecular weight of the PVP. All the guest particle formulations formed an observed homogeneous interactive mixture with paracetamol. The tensile strength of the tablets of interactive mixtures increased with decreasing Tg of the guest particles. In these interactive mixtures, higher tensile strength was also associated with lower tablet elastic recovery. The elastic recovery of the tablets showed a correlation with the elastic recovery of the tablets of guest particles. Thus, our results indicated that the deformability of guest particles dictates the tensile strength of the tablets of these interactive mixtures.
Effects of hydrodynamic interactions on rectified transport of self-propelled particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ai, Bao-quan; He, Ya-feng; Zhong, Wei-rong
2017-01-01
Directed transport of self-propelled particles is numerically investigated in a three-dimensional asymmetric potential. Beside the steric repulsive forces, hydrodynamic interactions between particles have been taken into account in an approximate way. From numerical simulations, we find that hydrodynamic interactions can strongly affect the rectified transport of self-propelled particles. Hydrodynamic interactions enhance the performance of the rectified transport when particles can easily pass across the barrier of the potential, and reduce the rectified transport when particles are mainly trapped in the potential well.
Discrete particle modelling of granular roll waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsang, Jonathan; Dalziel, Stuart; Vriend, Nathalie
2016-11-01
A granular current flowing down an inclined chute or plane can undergo an instability that leads to the formation of surface waves, known as roll waves. Examples of roll waves are found in avalanches and debris flows in landslides, and in many industrial processes. Although related to the Kapitza instability of viscous fluid films, granular roll waves are not yet as well understood. Laboratory experiments typically measure the surface height and velocity of a current as functions of position and time, but they do not give insight into the processes below the surface: in particular, the possible formation of a boundary layer at the free surface as well as the base. To overcome this, we are running discrete particle model (DPM) simulations. Simulations are validated against our laboratory experiments, but they also allow us to examine a much larger range of parameters, such as material properties, chute geometry and particle size dispersity, than that which is possible in the lab. We shall present results from simulations in which we vary particle size and dispersity, and examine the implications on roll wave formation and propagation. Future work will include simulations in which the shape of the chute is varied, both cross-sectionally and in the downstream direction. EPSRC studentship (Tsang) and Royal Society Research Fellowship (Vriend).
Turbulence and wave particle interactions in solar-terrestrial plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulk, G. A.; Goldman, M. V.; Toomre, J.
1985-01-01
Activities in the following study areas are reported: (1) particle and wave processes in solar flares; (2) solar convection zone turbulence; and (3) solar radiation emission. To investigate the amplification of cyclotron maser radiation in solar flares, a radio frequency. (RF) heating model was developed for the corona surrounding the energy release site. Then nonlinear simulations of compressible convection display prominent penetration by plumes into regions of stable stratification at the base of the solar convection zone, leading to the excitation of internal gravity waves there. Lastly, linear saturation of electron-beam-driven Langmuir waves by ambient density fluctuations, nonlinear saturation by strong turbulence processes, and radiation emission mechanisms are examined. An additional section discusses solar magnetic fields and hydromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous media, and the effect of magnetic fields on stellar oscillation.
Montagnaro, Fabio; Salatino, Piero
2010-05-15
The fate of carbon particles during entrained-flow gasification of coal in the slagging regime is analyzed. More specifically, the study addresses the relevance of segregation of carbon particles in a near-wall region of the gasifier to coal conversion. Segregation of carbon particles is analyzed considering the effects of turbulence- and swirl-promoted particle migration toward the wall, interaction of the impinging particles with the wall ash layer, coverage of the slag layer by refractory carbon particles, accumulation of carbon particles in a dense-dispersed phase near the wall of the gasifier. Operating conditions of the gasifier and slag properties may be combined so as to give rise to a variety of conversion regimes characterized by distinctively different patterns of carbon particles segregation. A simple 1D model of an entrained-flow gasifier has been developed based on the conceptual framework of carbon particle segregation. The model aims at providing a general assessment of the impact of the different patterns of carbon particle segregation on the course and extent of carbon gasification. A sensitivity analysis with reference to selected model parameters is performed to identify key processes controlling carbon segregation and their impact on the gasifier performance. (author)
Thermodynamics of Distinguishable Particles: A Key to High-Energy Strong Interactions?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagedorn, Rolf
A new kind of thermodynamical model for strong interactions at high energies is proposed. We start from the fact that strong interactions produce so many possible particle states (from \\uppi over its resonances to nucleons, strange particles and their resonances, up to highly excited `fireballs') that in an actual process each of these states practically never occurs more than once. We use this in order to treat the very first instant of a high-energy collision by statistical thermodynamics of a system of an illimited number of distinguishable particles. The model shows surprising properties: there exists a universal highest possible temperature T 0 of the order of 150-200 MeV (corresponding to ≈ 1012 K) which governs all high-energy processes of strongly interacting particles, independently of the actual energy and independently of the particle number, from cosmic ray jets down to elastic scattering. If a Lorentz contracted volume is introduced, the transverse momentum distribution in jets as well as in elastic scattering is described in agreement with experimental results. Paradoxically, this distribution is independent of whether or not `thermal equilibrium' is reached. If it is not reached—in the majority of cases it is not reached—then the jet structure for production processes is the consequence. If the model turns out to be as good as present experiments indicated, then the existence of a highest temperature is very likely; it implies that, from higher and higher energy experiments, not much new can be learnt about the structure of strong interactions, since the mode of excitation (which depends on the dynamical details we would like to know) has no influence on what is finally observed. The situation would then be similar to that in ordinary thermodynamics, where no experiment could possibly reveal how a certain system was brought into its thermodynamical state. In astrophysics, the method of thermodynamics of distinguishable particles may have
Models of dyadic social interaction.
Griffin, Dale; Gonzalez, Richard
2003-01-01
We discuss the logic of research designs for dyadic interaction and present statistical models with parameters that are tied to psychologically relevant constructs. Building on Karl Pearson's classic nineteenth-century statistical analysis of within-organism similarity, we describe several approaches to indexing dyadic interdependence and provide graphical methods for visualizing dyadic data. We also describe several statistical and conceptual solutions to the 'levels of analytic' problem in analysing dyadic data. These analytic strategies allow the researcher to examine and measure psychological questions of interdependence and social influence. We provide illustrative data from casually interacting and romantic dyads. PMID:12689382
Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech
2016-01-01
Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of −0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process. PMID:27104527
Haddad, Yazan; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech
2016-04-20
Magnetic isolation of biological targets is in major demand in the biotechnology industry today. This study considers the interaction of four surface-modified magnetic micro- and nanoparticles with selected DNA fragments. Different surface modifications of nanomaghemite precursors were investigated: MAN37 (silica-coated), MAN127 (polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated), MAN158 (phosphate-coated), and MAN164 (tripolyphosphate-coated). All particles were positive polycharged agglomerated monodispersed systems. Mean particle sizes were 0.48, 2.97, 2.93, and 3.67 μm for MAN37, MAN127, MAN164, and MAN158, respectively. DNA fragments exhibited negative zeta potential of -0.22 mV under binding conditions (high ionic strength, low pH, and dehydration). A decrease in zeta potential of particles upon exposure to DNA was observed with exception of MAN158 particles. The measured particle size of MAN164 particles increased by nearly twofold upon exposure to DNA. Quantitative PCR isolation of DNA with a high retrieval rate was observed by magnetic particles MAN127 and MAN164. Interaction between polycharged magnetic particles and DNA is mediated by various binding mechanisms such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Future development of DNA isolation technology requires an understanding of the physical and biochemical conditions of this process.
Interactions of energetic particles and clusters with solids
Averback, R.S.; Hsieh, Horngming . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Diaz de la Rubia, T. ); Benedek, R. )
1990-12-01
Ion beams are being applied for surface modifications of materials in a variety of different ways: ion implantation, ion beam mixing, sputtering, and particle or cluster beam-assisted deposition. Fundamental to all of these processes is the deposition of a large amount of energy, generally some keV's, in a localized area. This can lead to the production of defects, atomic mixing, disordering and in some cases, amorphization. Recent results of molecular dynamics computer simulations of energetic displacement cascades in Cu and Ni with energies up to 5 keV suggest that thermal spikes play an important role in these processes. Specifically, it will be shown that many aspects of defect production, atomic mixing and cascade collapse'' can be understood as a consequence of local melting of the cascade core. Included in this discussion will be the possible role of electron-phonon coupling in thermal spike dynamics. The interaction of energetic clusters of atoms with solid surfaces has also been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. this process is of interest because a large amount of energy can be deposited in a small region and possibly without creating point defects in the substrate or implanting cluster atoms. The simulations reveal that the dynamics of the collision process are strongly dependent on cluster size and energy. Different regimes where defect production, local melting and plastic flow dominate will be discussed. 43 refs., 7 figs.
Low energy charged particles interacting with amorphous solid water layers
Horowitz, Yonatan; Asscher, Micha
2012-04-07
The interaction of charged particles with condensed water films has been studied extensively in recent years due to its importance in biological systems, ecology as well as interstellar processes. We have studied low energy electrons (3-25 eV) and positive argon ions (55 eV) charging effects on amorphous solid water (ASW) and ice films, 120-1080 ML thick, deposited on ruthenium single crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Charging the ASW films by both electrons and positive argon ions has been measured using a Kelvin probe for contact potential difference (CPD) detection and found to obey plate capacitor physics. The incoming electrons kinetic energy has defined the maximum measurable CPD values by retarding further impinging electrons. L-defects (shallow traps) are suggested to be populated by the penetrating electrons and stabilize them. Low energy electron transmission measurements (currents of 0.4-1.5 {mu}A) have shown that the maximal and stable CPD values were obtained only after a relatively slow change has been completed within the ASW structure. Once the film has been stabilized, the spontaneous discharge was measured over a period of several hours at 103 {+-} 2 K. Finally, UV laser photo-emission study of the charged films has suggested that the negative charges tend to reside primarily at the ASW-vacuum interface, in good agreement with the known behavior of charged water clusters.
On the ``Matrix Approach'' to Interacting Particle Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Sanctis, L.; Isopi, M.
2004-04-01
Derrida et al. and Schütz and Stinchcombe gave algebraic formulas for the correlation functions of the partially asymmetric simple exclusion process. Here we give a fairly general recipe of how to get these formulas and extend them to the whole time evolution (starting from the generator of the process), for a certain class of interacting systems. We then analyze the algebraic relations obtained to show that the matrix approach does not work with some models such as the voter and the contact processes.
Search for light neutral scalar and pseudoscalar particles in pFe interactions at 70 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anikeev, V. B.; Bamburov, N. S.; Bozhko, N. I.
A search has been performed for weakly interacting neutral light scalar and pseudoscalar particles in a proton beam dump experiment. No positive signal is observed. Limits on the mass and lifetime of these particles are set in the frame of the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension. The Higgs particle of the SU(2L) x U(1) Standard Model is excluded for masses in the range 1 MeV less than m less than 80 MeV at 95 percent CL. Limits on the Peccei Quinn like axions are also derived.
Anisotropic exchange-interaction model: From the Potts model to the exchange-interaction model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, T. C.; Chen, H. H.
1995-04-01
A spin model called the anisotropic exchange-interaction model is proposed. The Potts model, the exchange-interaction model, and the spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg model are special cases of the proposed model. Thermodynamic properties of the model on the bcc and the fcc lattices are determined by the constant-coupling approximation.
Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System (CMS)
2014-10-31
System ( CMS ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...www.erdc.usace.army.mil/Missions/WaterResources/CIRP.aspx Coastal Inlets Research Program Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) The...System ( CMS ), which provides coupled wave and current forcing for PTM simulations. CMS -PTM is implemented in the Surface-water Modeling System, a
Laser-plasma interactions with a Fourier-Bessel particle-in-cell method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andriyash, Igor A.; Lehe, Remi; Lifschitz, Agustin
2016-03-01
A new spectral particle-in-cell (PIC) method for plasma modeling is presented and discussed. In the proposed scheme, the Fourier-Bessel transform is used to translate the Maxwell equations to the quasi-cylindrical spectral domain. In this domain, the equations are solved analytically in time, and the spatial derivatives are approximated with high accuracy. In contrast to the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) methods, that are used commonly in PIC, the developed method does not produce numerical dispersion and does not involve grid staggering for the electric and magnetic fields. These features are especially valuable in modeling the wakefield acceleration of particles in plasmas. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the code PLARES-PIC, and the test simulations of laser plasma interactions are compared to the ones done with the quasi-cylindrical FDTD PIC code CALDER-CIRC.
Ding, Liu-Guan; Xu, Fei; Gu, Bin; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Li, Gang; Jiang, Yong; Le, Gui-Ming; Shen, Cheng-Long; Wang, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yao
2014-10-01
We investigate the eruption and interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the large 2013 May 22 solar energetic particle event using multiple spacecraft observations. Two CMEs, having similar propagation directions, were found to erupt from two nearby active regions (ARs), AR11748 and AR11745, at ∼08:48 UT and ∼13:25 UT, respectively. The second CME was faster than the first CME. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, we reconstructed the propagation of these two CMEs and found that the leading edge of the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME at a height of ∼6 solar radii. After about two hours, the leading edges of the two CMEs merged at a height of ∼20 solar radii. Type II solar radio bursts showed strong enhancement during this two hour period. Using the velocity dispersion method, we obtained the solar particle release (SPR) time and the path length for energetic electrons. Further assuming that energetic protons propagated along the same interplanetary magnetic field, we also obtained the SPR time for energetic protons, which were close to that of electrons. These release times agreed with the time when the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME, indicating that the CME-CME interaction (and shock-CME interaction) plays an important role in the process of particle acceleration in this event.
Model-independent particle accelerator tuning
Scheinker, Alexander; Pang, Xiaoying; Rybarcyk, Larry
2013-10-21
We present a new model-independent dynamic feedback technique, rotation rate tuning, for automatically and simultaneously tuning coupled components of uncertain, complex systems. The main advantages of the method are: 1) It has the ability to handle unknown, time-varying systems, 2) It gives known bounds on parameter update rates, 3) We give an analytic proof of its convergence and its stability, and 4) It has a simple digital implementation through a control system such as the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Because this technique is model independent it may be useful as a real-time, in-hardware, feedback-based optimization scheme for uncertain and time-varying systems. In particular, it is robust enough to handle uncertainty due to coupling, thermal cycling, misalignments, and manufacturing imperfections. As a result, it may be used as a fine-tuning supplement for existing accelerator tuning/control schemes. We present multi-particle simulation results demonstrating the scheme’s ability to simultaneously adaptively adjust the set points of twenty two quadrupole magnets and two RF buncher cavities in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Linear Accelerator’s transport region, while the beam properties and RF phase shift are continuously varying. The tuning is based only on beam current readings, without knowledge of particle dynamics. We also present an outline of how to implement this general scheme in software for optimization, and in hardware for feedback-based control/tuning, for a wide range of systems.
Orientation and self-assembly of cylindrical particles by anisotropic capillary interactions.
Lewandowski, Eric P; Cavallaro, Marcello; Botto, Lorenzo; Bernate, Jorge C; Garbin, Valeria; Stebe, Kathleen J
2010-10-05
In this research, we study cylindrical microparticles at fluid interfaces. Cylinders orient and assemble with high reliability to form end-to-end chains in dilute surfaces or dense rectangular lattices in crowded surfaces owing to capillary interactions. In isolation, a cylinder assumes one of two possible equilibrium states, the end-on state, in which the cylinder axis is perpendicular to the interface, or the side-on state, in which the cylinder axis is parallel to the interface. A phase diagram relating aspect ratio and contact angle is constructed to predict the preferred state and verified in experiment. Cylinders in the side-on state create distortions that result in capillary interactions. Overlapping deformations by neighboring particles drive oriented capillary assembly. Interferometry, electron microscopy, and numerical simulations are used to characterize the interface shape around isolated particles. Experiments and numerics show that "side-on" cylinders have concentrated excess area near the end faces, and that the interface distortion resembles an elliptical quadrupole a few radii away from the particle surface. To model the cylinder interactions for separations greater than a few radii, an anisotropic potential is derived based on elliptical quadrupoles. This potential predicts an attractive force and a torque, both of which depend strongly on aspect ratio, in keeping with experiment. Particle trajectories and angular orientations recorded by video microscopy agree with the predicted potential. In particular, the analysis predicts the rate of rotation, a feature lacking in prior analyses. To understand interactions near contact, the concentrated excess area near the cylinder ends is quantified and its role in creating stable end-to-end assemblies is discussed. When a pair of cylinders is near contact, these high excess area regions overlap to form a capillary bridge between the particles. This capillary bridge may stabilize the end-to-end chains
Evolution of Clouds of Migrating Micron-particles with Hydrodynamic and Electrostatic Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuiqing; Chen, Sheng
2016-11-01
The evolution of dilute clouds of charged micron-sized particles during the migration in an external electric field is numerically investigated. The hydrodynamic interaction is modeled employing the Oseen dynamics in the limit of small-but-finite particle Reynolds number. The effects of external field and inter-particle Coulomb repulsion are accounted by a pairwise summation. As a result, with a dominant external electrostatic force, the cloud is seen to flatten into a planar configuration with particle leakage in the tail and eventually breaks up into two small clouds. Decreasing the external force or increasing the pairwise Coulomb repulsion has a similar effect on the dynamics of the cloud, i.e., decreases the scaled migrating velocity of the cloud and makes the cloud steady in its spherical shape. While this behavior bears some similarity with the transition from the Stokes regime to the micro-scale inertia dominant regime, the underlying physical mechanisms differ. Finally, the variation of the typical aspect ratio of the cloud, as a function of a scaled radial velocity of particles, is used to quantify the effect of Coulomb repulsion on the stability of the shape of the cloud.
Stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zacate, Matthew O.; Evenson, William E.
2011-04-01
The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) provides a set of routines to assist in the development and application of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The library provides routines written in the C programming language that (1) read a text description of a model for fluctuating hyperfine fields, (2) set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the system depends, and (3) find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix so that theoretical spectra of experimental techniques that measure hyperfine interactions can be calculated. The optimized vector and matrix operations of the BLAS and LAPACK libraries are utilized; however, there was a need to develop supplementary code to find an orthonormal set of (left and right) eigenvectors of complex, non-Hermitian matrices. In addition, example code is provided to illustrate the use of SHIML to generate perturbed angular correlation spectra for the special case of polycrystalline samples when anisotropy terms of higher order than A can be neglected. Program summaryProgram title: SHIML Catalogue identifier: AEIF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8224 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 312 348 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: Any Operating system: LINUX, OS X RAM: Varies Classification: 7.4 External routines: TAPP [1], BLAS [2], a C-interface to BLAS [3], and LAPACK [4] Nature of problem: In condensed matter systems, hyperfine methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Mössbauer effect (ME), muon spin rotation (μSR), and perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC) measure electronic and magnetic structure within Angstroms of nuclear probes through the hyperfine interaction. When
Toward a descriptive model of solar particles in the heliosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Chenette, D.; Feynman, Joan; Hamilton, Douglas C.; Heckman, G. R.; Konradi, A.; Lee, Martin A.; Nachtwey, D. S.
1988-01-01
During a workshop on the interplanetary charged particle environment held in 1987, a descriptive model of solar particles in the heliosphere was assembled. This model includes the fluence, composition, energy spectra, and spatial and temporal variations of solar particles both within and beyong 1 AU. The ability to predict solar particle fluences was also discussed. Suggestions for specific studies designed to improve the basic model were also made.
Many-body dissipative particle dynamics simulation of liquid/vapor and liquid/solid interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arienti, Marco; Pan, Wenxiao; Li, Xiaoyi; Karniadakis, George
2011-05-01
The combination of short-range repulsive and long-range attractive forces in many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) is examined at a vapor/liquid and liquid/solid interface. Based on the radial distribution of the virial pressure in a drop at equilibrium, a systematic study is carried out to characterize the sensitivity of the surface tension coefficient with respect to the inter-particle interaction parameters. For the first time, the approximately cubic dependence of the surface tension coefficient on the bulk density of the fluid is evidenced. In capillary flow, MDPD solutions are shown to satisfy the condition on the wavelength of an axial disturbance leading to the pinch-off of a cylindrical liquid thread; correctly, no pinch-off occurs below the cutoff wavelength. Moreover, in an example that illustrates the cascade of fluid dynamics behaviors from potential to inertial-viscous to stochastic flow, the dynamics of the jet radius is consistent with the power law predictions of asymptotic analysis. To model interaction with a solid wall, MDPD is augmented by a set of bell-shaped weight functions; hydrophilic and hydrophobic behaviors, including the occurrence of slip in the latter, are reproduced using a modification in the weight function that avoids particle clustering. The dynamics of droplets entering an inverted Y-shaped fracture junction is shown to be correctly captured in simulations parametrized by the Bond number, confirming the flexibility of MDPD in modeling interface-dominated flows.
Modeling of the optical properties of a two-dimensional system of small conductive particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondikov, A. A.; Tonkaev, P. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Vartanyan, T. A.
2016-08-01
Software was developed for quick numerical calculations and graphic display of the absorption, reflection and transmittance spectra of two-dimensional systems of small conductive particles. It allowed us to make instant comparison of calculation results and experimental data. A lattice model was used to simulate nearly distributed particles, and the coherent-potential approximation was applied to obtain a solution to the problem of interacting particles. The Delphi programming environment was used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belotsky, K. M.; Esipova, E. A.; Kirillov, A. A.
2016-10-01
Cold dark matter (DM) scenario may be cured of several problems by involving self-interaction of dark matter. Viability of the models of long-range interacting DM crucially depends on the effectiveness of recombination of the DM particles, making thereby their interaction short-range. Usually in numeric calculations, recombination is described by cross section obtained on a feasible quantum level. However in a wide range of parameter values, a classical treatment, where the particles are bound due to dipole radiation, is applicable. The cross sections, obtained in both approaches, are very different and lead to diverse consequences. Classical cross section has a steeper dependence on relative velocity, what leads to the fact that, after decoupling of DM particles from thermal background of "dark photons" (carriers of DM long-range interaction), recombination process does not "freeze out", diminishing gradually density of unbound DM particles. Our simplified estimates show, that at the taken parameter values (the mass of DM particle is 100 GeV, interaction constant is 100-1, and quite natural assumptions on initial conditions, from which the result is very weakly dependent) the difference in residual density reaches about 5 orders of magnitude on pre-galactic stage. This estimate takes into account thermal effects induced by dipole radiation and recombination, which resulted in the increase of both temperature and density of DM particles by a half order of magnitude.
Hierarchical modeling of protein interactions.
Kurcinski, Mateusz; Kolinski, Andrzej
2007-07-01
A novel approach to hierarchical peptide-protein and protein-protein docking is described and evaluated. Modeling procedure starts from a reduced space representation of proteins and peptides. Polypeptide chains are represented by strings of alpha-carbon beads restricted to a fine-mesh cubic lattice. Side chains are represented by up to two centers of interactions, corresponding to beta-carbons and the centers of mass of the remaining portions of the side groups, respectively. Additional pseudoatoms are located in the centers of the virtual bonds connecting consecutive alpha carbons. These pseudoatoms support a model of main-chain hydrogen bonds. Docking starts from a collection of random configurations of modeled molecules. Interacting molecules are flexible; however, higher accuracy models are obtained when the conformational freedom of one (the larger one) of the assembling molecules is limited by a set of weak distance restraints extracted from the experimental (or theoretically predicted) structures. Sampling is done by means of Replica Exchange Monte Carlo method. Afterwards, the set of obtained structures is subject to a hierarchical clustering. Then, the centroids of the resulting clusters are used as scaffolds for the reconstruction of the atomic details. Finally, the all-atom models are energy minimized and scored using classical tools of molecular mechanics. The method is tested on a set of macromolecular assemblies consisting of proteins and peptides. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach to the flexible docking could be successfully applied to prediction of protein-peptide and protein-protein interactions. The obtained models are almost always qualitatively correct, although usually of relatively low (or moderate) resolution. In spite of this limitation, the proposed method opens new possibilities of computational studies of macromolecular recognition and mechanisms of assembly of macromolecular complexes.
A-DROP: A predictive model for the formation of oil particle aggregates (OPAs)
Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C.; Geng, Xiaolong; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Robinson, Brian; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.
2016-01-01
Oil–particle interactions play a major role in removal of free oil from the water column. We present a new conceptual–numerical model, A-DROP, to predict oil amount trapped in oil–particle aggregates. A new conceptual formulation of oil–particle coagulation efficiency is introduced to account for the effects of oil stabilization by particles, particle hydrophobicity, and oil–particle size ratio on OPA formation. A-DROP was able to closely reproduce the oil trapping efficiency reported in experimental studies. The model was then used to simulate the OPA formation in a typical nearshore environment. Modeling results indicate that the increase of particle concentration in the swash zone would speed up the oil–particle interaction process; but the oil amount trapped in OPAs did not correspond to the increase of particle concentration. The developed A-DROP model could become an important tool in understanding the natural removal of oil and developing oil spill countermeasures by means of oil–particle aggregation.
Particle-based models for hydrologically triggered deep seated landslides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martelloni, Gianluca; Bagnoli, Franco
2013-04-01
In this work we explore the integration between existing soil infiltration modeling and particle based methods in order to simulate two and three-dimensional schemes of triggered deep seated landslides. In literature, usually, the infiltration models are based on continuum scheme, i.e., Eulerian approach by means of which it is possible to define the field of the pore pressure within a soil (e.g., Iverson, 2000). Differently the particle based method follow a discrete Lagrangian scheme that allow to identify the trajectory of the particles and its dynamical properties. At present we test some infiltration models based on classical and generalized Richards equations that are adapted to the molecular dynamics approach according to the failure criterion of Mohr-Coulomb to simulate the triggering mechanism. In case of analytical infiltration model solution, the latter is discretized, differently a numerical one is achieved and the increasing pore pressure effect is simulated at soil particle level, i.e., we can simulate the rainfall in terms of water mass and, using the response function, we take into account the absorbed water in time and space at each thickness of our fictitious soil. The inter-particle interactions are through a force that, in the absence of suitable experimental data and due to the arbitrariness of the grain dimension, is modeled by means of a potential similar to the Lennard-Jones one. For the prediction of the particle positions, after and during a rainfall, we use a molecular dynamics approach that results very suitable to simulate this type of systems. The outcome of simulations are quite satisfactory and we can claim that this types of modeling can represent a new method to simulate landslides triggered by rainfall. Particularly, the results are consistent with the behavior of real landslides, e.g., it is possible to apply the method of the inverse surface displacement velocity for predicting the failure time (Fukuzono 1985). An interesting
Shaw, David E
2005-10-01
Classical molecular dynamics simulations of biological macromolecules in explicitly modeled solvent typically require the evaluation of interactions between all pairs of atoms separated by no more than some distance R, with more distant interactions handled using some less expensive method. Performing such simulations for periods on the order of a millisecond is likely to require the use of massive parallelism. The extent to which such simulations can be efficiently parallelized, however, has historically been limited by the time required for interprocessor communication. This article introduces a new method for the parallel evaluation of distance-limited pairwise particle interactions that significantly reduces the amount of data transferred between processors by comparison with traditional methods. Specifically, the amount of data transferred into and out of a given processor scales as O(R(3/2)p(-1/2)), where p is the number of processors, and with constant factors that should yield a substantial performance advantage in practice.
Spectral Theory for Interacting Particle Systems Solvable by Coordinate Bethe Ansatz
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borodin, Alexei; Corwin, Ivan; Petrov, Leonid; Sasamoto, Tomohiro
2015-11-01
We develop spectral theory for the q-Hahn stochastic particle system introduced recently by Povolotsky. That is, we establish a Plancherel type isomorphism result that implies completeness and biorthogonality statements for the Bethe ansatz eigenfunctions of the system. Owing to a Markov duality with the q-Hahn TASEP (a discrete-time generalization of TASEP with particles' jump distribution being the orthogonality weight for the classical q-Hahn orthogonal polynomials), we write down moment formulas that characterize the fixed time distribution of the q-Hahn TASEP with general initial data. The Bethe ansatz eigenfunctions of the q-Hahn system degenerate into eigenfunctions of other (not necessarily stochastic) interacting particle systems solvable by the coordinate Bethe ansatz. This includes the ASEP, the (asymmetric) six-vertex model, and the Heisenberg XXZ spin chain (all models are on the infinite lattice). In this way, each of the latter systems possesses a spectral theory, too. In particular, biorthogonality of the ASEP eigenfunctions, which follows from the corresponding q-Hahn statement, implies symmetrization identities of Tracy and Widom (for ASEP with either step or step Bernoulli initial configuration) as corollaries. Another degeneration takes the q-Hahn system to the q-Boson particle system (dual to q-TASEP) studied in detail in our previous paper (2013). Thus, at the spectral theory level we unify two discrete-space regularizations of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation/stochastic heat equation, namely, q-TASEP and ASEP.
Experimental investigation of particle surface interactions for turbomachinery application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.
This paper describes an experimental investigation to determine the particle restitution characteristics after impacting solid targets in a particulate flow wind tunnel. The tests simulate the two phase flow conditions encountered in turbomachinery operating in particle laden flow environments. Both incoming and rebounding velocities are measured using a three color Argon Ion laser in backward scattered mode through a window in the tunnel section containing the impact target. The experimental results are presented for ash particles impinging on RENE 41 targets at different impact conditions. The presented results are applicable to particle dynamics simulations in gas turbine engines and to the prediction of the associated blade surface erosion.
A Diffusion Limited Sorption Kinetics Model with a Mixture of Polydispersed Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basagaoglu, H.; McCoy, B. J.; Ginn, T. R.; Loge, F. J.; Dietrich, J. P.
2002-12-01
A reactive radial pore diffusion model has been formulated for batch systems with a mixture of polydispersed particles of distinct shapes and sizes to determine temporal and spatial variations in intra particle sorbed and aqueous concentrations that undergo dynamic mass transfer with the extra particle bulk volume. The model accommodates film resistance at particle boundaries, intra particle reversible sorption kinetics, and first-order decays in intra and extra particle phases. The model also allows consideration of nonlinear site-limited intra particle reaction kinetics. A finite-difference formulation of the model identifies a novel term that carries important information on the interaction and competition of a mixture of particles with varying sizes and shapes for the uptake of contaminants from the extra particle aqueous volume. The spatial resolution employed in the finite-difference formulation has been found to be a critical factor that determines the magnitude of the mass balance error (MBE). We have shown that 5 to 20 radial divisions along the particle radius can lead to a MBE as high as 6-27%. Applications for several generic examples illustrate the general behavior. In addition, the model was used to represent experimental site-limited non-linear pore diffusion of iodine into particles in a wastewater secondary effluent.
Beyond Standard Model Physics: At the Frontiers of Cosmology and Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez-Suarez, Alejandro O.
I begin to write this thesis at a time of great excitement in the field of cosmology and particle physics. The aim of this thesis is to study and search for beyond the standard model (BSM) physics in the cosmological and high energy particle fields. There are two main questions, which this thesis aims to address: 1) what can we learn about the inflationary epoch utilizing the pioneer gravitational wave detector Adv. LIGO?, and 2) what are the dark matter particle properties and interactions with the standard model particles?. This thesis will focus on advances in answering both questions.
Particle acceleration model for gas--solid suspensions at moderate Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenneti, Sudheer; Garg, Rahul; Hrenya, Christine; Fox, Rodney; Subramaniam, Shankar
2009-11-01
Particle granular temperature plays an important role in the prediction of core annular structure in riser flows. The covariance of fluctuating particle acceleration and fluctuating particle velocity governs the evolution of the granular temperature in homogeneous suspensions undergoing elastic collisions. Koch and co--workers (Phys. Fluid. 1990, JFM 1999) showed that the granular temperature has a source term due to hydrodynamic interactions in gas--solid suspensions in the Stokes flow regime. We performed direct numerical simulations (DNS) of freely evolving suspensions at moderate Reynolds numbers using the immersed boundary method (IBM). We found that simple extension of a class of mean particle acceleration models to their instantaneous counterparts does not predict the correct fluctuating particle acceleration--fluctuating velocity covariance that is obtained from DNS. The fluctuating particle velocity autocorrelation function decay and the Lagrangian structure function obtained from DNS motivate the use of a Langevin model for the instantaneous particle acceleration.
Wave-Particle Interactions As a Driving Mechanism for the Solar Wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, William J.
2004-01-01
Our research has been focusing on a highly experimentally relevant issue: intermittency of the fluctuating fields in outflowing plasmas. We have contributed to both the theoretical and experimental research of the topic. In particular, we have developed a theoretical model and data analyzing programs to examine the issue of intermittency in space plasma outflows, including the solar wind. As fluctuating electric fields in the solar wind are likely to provide a heating and acceleration mechanism for the ions, our studies of the intermittency in turbulence in space plasma outflows help us toward achieving the goal of comparing major physical mechanisms that contribute to the driving of the fast solar wind. Our new theoretical model extends the utilities of our global hybrid model, which has allowed us to follow the kinetic evolution of the particle distributions along an inhomogeneous field line while the particles are subjected to various physical mechanisms. The physical effects that were considered in the global hybrid model included wave-particle interactions, an ambipolar electric field that was consistent with the particle distributions themselves, and Coulomb collisions. With an earlier version of the global hybrid model, we examined the overall impact on the solar wind flow due to the combination of these physical effects. In particular, we studied the combined effects of two major mechanisms that had been proposed as the drivers of the fast solar wind: (1) velocity filtration effect due to suprathermal electrons; (2) ion cyclotron resonance. Since the approval of this research grant, we have updated the model such that the effects due to these two driving mechanisms can be examined separately, thereby allowing us to compare their contributions to the acceleration of the solar wind. In the next section, we shall demonstrate that the velocity filtration effect is rather insignificant in comparison with that due to ion cyclotron resonance.
The competition of particle-vibration coupling and tensor interaction in spherical nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasjev, Anatoli; Litvinova, Elena
2014-09-01
The search for missing terms in the energy density functionals (EDF) is one of the leading directions in the development of nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Tensor force is one of possible candidates. However, despite extensive studies the questions about its effective strength and unambiguous signals still remain open. One of the main experimental benchmarks for the studies of tensor interaction is provided by the data on the single-particle states in the N = 82 and Z = 50 isotopes. The energy splittings of the proton h11 / 2 and g7 / 2 states in the Z = 50 isotopes and neutron 1i13 / 2 and 1h9 / 2 states in the N = 82 isotones are used in the definition of tensor force in the Skyrme DFT. However, in experiment these states are not ``mean-field'' states because of coupling with vibrations. Employing relativistic particle-vibration coupling (PVC) model we show that many features of these splittings can be reproduced when PVC is taken into account. This suggests the competition of PVC and tensor interaction and that tensor interaction should be weaker as compared with previous estimates. The search for missing terms in the energy density functionals (EDF) is one of the leading directions in the development of nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Tensor force is one of possible candidates. However, despite extensive studies the questions about its effective strength and unambiguous signals still remain open. One of the main experimental benchmarks for the studies of tensor interaction is provided by the data on the single-particle states in the N = 82 and Z = 50 isotopes. The energy splittings of the proton h11 / 2 and g7 / 2 states in the Z = 50 isotopes and neutron 1i13 / 2 and 1h9 / 2 states in the N = 82 isotones are used in the definition of tensor force in the Skyrme DFT. However, in experiment these states are not ``mean-field'' states because of coupling with vibrations. Employing relativistic particle-vibration coupling (PVC) model we show that
Dynamic cross correlation studies of wave particle interactions in ULF phenomena
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcpherron, R. L.
1979-01-01
Magnetic field observations made by satellites in the earth's magnetic field reveal a wide variety of ULF waves. These waves interact with the ambient particle populations in complex ways, causing modulation of the observed particle fluxes. This modulation is found to be a function of species, pitch angle, energy and time. The characteristics of this modulation provide information concerning the wave mode and interaction process. One important characteristic of wave-particle interactions is the phase of the particle flux modulation relative to the magnetic field variations. To display this phase as a function of time a dynamic cross spectrum program has been developed. The program produces contour maps in the frequency time plane of the cross correlation coefficient between any particle flux time series and the magnetic field vector. This program has been utilized in several studies of ULF wave-particle interactions at synchronous orbit.
Atomic data for controlled fusion research. Volume III. Particle interactions with surfaces
Thomas, E.W.
1985-02-01
This report provides a handbook of data concerning particle solid interactions that are relevant to plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. Published data have been collected, assessed, and represented by a single functional relationship which is presented in both tabular and graphical form. Mechanisms reviewed here include sputtering, secondary electron emission, particle reflection, and trapping.
Wave/current interaction model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, A. K.
1988-01-01
The wave-current interaction for the application to remote sensing data via numerical simulations and data comparison is modelled. Using the field data of surface current shear, wind condition and ambient wave spectrum, the numerical simulations of directional wave spectrum evolution were used to interpret and to compare with the aircraft data from Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) and Surface Contour Radar (SCR) across the front during Frontal Air Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX). The wave-ice interaction was inspired by the observation of large amplitude waves hundreds of kms inside the ice pack in the Weddell Sea, resulting in breakup of the ice pack. The developed analysis of processes includes the refraction of waves at the pack edge, the effects of pack compression on wave propagation, wave train stability and buckling stability in the ice pack. Sources of pack compression and interaction between wave momentum and pack compression are investigated. Viscous camping of propagating waves in the marginal ice zone are also studied. The analysis suggests an explanation for the change in wave dispersion observed from the ship and the sequence of processes that cause ice pack breakup, pressure ridge formation and the formation of open bands of water.
Evaluation of Drying Rates of Lignite Particles in Superheated Steam Using Single-Particle Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiriyama, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Akira; Kaneko, Shozo; Maeda, Masafumi
2016-12-01
Drying rates of lignite particle groups in superheated steam are evaluated using a single-particle model developed for Australian lignite. Size distributions of the particles are assumed to obey the Rosin-Rammler equation with the maximum particle diameters defined as 100, 50, and 6 mm. The results show the drying rate of a lignite group depends strongly on the maximum particle size, and removal of large particles prior to drying is shown to be effective to reduce the drying time. The calculation model is available for simulations of drying behaviors of lignite in various dryers when an appropriate heat transfer coefficient is given. This study simulates the drying of particles smaller than 6 mm using a heat transfer coefficient in a fluidized bed dryer reported elsewhere. The required drying time estimated from the calculation is comparable to the processing time reported in an actual fluidized bed dryer, supporting the validity of the calculation model.
Cellular interactions of surface modified nanoporous silicon particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bimbo, Luis M.; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Mäkilä, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo; Laaksonen, Päivi; Salonen, Jarno; Linder, Markus B.; Hirvonen, Jouni; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Santos, Hélder A.
2012-05-01
In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, 125I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi nanoparticles incubated in pH 7.4, which renders the particles the possibility for further track-imaging applications. The results highlight the potential of HFBII coating for improving wettability, increasing biocompatibility and possible intestinal association of PSi nanoparticulates for drug delivery applications.In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, 125I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi
Collective Behavior of Interacting Particles: Radius-Dependent Phase Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarras, I.; Moussa, N.; Mazroui, M.; Boughaleb, Y.; Hajjaji, A.
2013-02-01
The aim of this paper is to study and discuss the effect of three zones (repulsion zone, orientation zone and attraction zone) on the phase transition in 2D-collective moving particles. Our main motivation is to better understand the complex behavior of non-equilibrium multi-agent system by extending the earlier and original model proposed by Viscek et al. [T. Viscek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.75 (1995) 1226] for one zone. The analysis is performed over different situations by using a numerical simulation method. It is found that the radius R2 of orientation zone plays an important role in the system. In effect, by varying the parameter R2 a phase transition can be achieved from disordered moving of individuals to a group to highly aligned collective motion. The results also show that, the critical value of R2 at which the transition emerges depends strongly on the size of the repulsion zone but not on the size of attraction one.
Cell and Particle Interactions and Aggregation During Electrophoretic Motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Robert H.
2000-01-01
The objectives of this research were (i) to perform experiments for observing and quantifying electrophoretic aggregation, (ii) to develop a theoretical description to appropriately analyze and compare with the experimental results, (iii) to study the combined effects of electrophoretic and gravitational aggregation of large particles, and the combined effects of electrophoretic and Brownian aggregation of small particles, and (iv) to perform a preliminary design of a potential future flight experiment involving electrophoretic aggregation. Electrophoresis refers to the motion of charged particles, droplets or molecules in response to an applied electric field. Electrophoresis is commonly used for analysis and separation of biological particles or molecules. When particles have different surface charge densities or potentials, they will migrate at different velocities in an electric field. This differential migration leads to the possibility that they will collide and aggregate, thereby preventing separation.
Mechanism for thermal relic dark matter of strongly interacting massive particles.
Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker, Jay G
2014-10-24
We present a new paradigm for achieving thermal relic dark matter. The mechanism arises when a nearly secluded dark sector is thermalized with the standard model after reheating. The freeze-out process is a number-changing 3→2 annihilation of strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) in the dark sector, and points to sub-GeV dark matter. The couplings to the visible sector, necessary for maintaining thermal equilibrium with the standard model, imply measurable signals that will allow coverage of a significant part of the parameter space with future indirect- and direct-detection experiments and via direct production of dark matter at colliders. Moreover, 3→2 annihilations typically predict sizable 2→2 self-interactions which naturally address the "core versus cusp" and "too-big-to-fail" small-scale structure formation problems.
Talanquer, V
2005-04-15
In this study, we explore the global phase behavior of a simple model for self-associating fluids where association reduces the strength of the dispersion interactions between bonded particles. Recent research shows that this type of behavior likely explains the thermodynamic properties of strongly polar fluids and certain micellar solutions. Based on Wertheim's theory of associating liquids [M. S. Wertheim, J. Stat. Phys. 42, 459 (1986); 42, 477 (1986)], our model takes into account the effect that dissimilar particle interactions have on the equilibrium constant for self-association in the system. We find that weaker interactions between bonded molecules tend to favor the dissociation of chains at any temperature and density. This effect stabilizes a monomeric liquid phase at high densities, enriching the global phase behavior of the system. In particular, for systems in which the energy of mixing between bonded and unbonded species is positive, we find a triple point involving a vapor, a dense phase of chain aggregates, and a monomeric liquid. Phase coexistence between the vapor and the monomeric fluid is always more stable at temperatures above the triple point, but a highly associated fluid may exist as a metastable phase under these conditions. The presence of this metastable phase may explain the characteristic nucleation behavior of the liquid phase in strongly dipolar fluids.
Model-independent particle accelerator tuning
Scheinker, Alexander; Pang, Xiaoying; Rybarcyk, Larry
2013-10-21
We present a new model-independent dynamic feedback technique, rotation rate tuning, for automatically and simultaneously tuning coupled components of uncertain, complex systems. The main advantages of the method are: 1) It has the ability to handle unknown, time-varying systems, 2) It gives known bounds on parameter update rates, 3) We give an analytic proof of its convergence and its stability, and 4) It has a simple digital implementation through a control system such as the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Because this technique is model independent it may be useful as a real-time, in-hardware, feedback-based optimization scheme formore » uncertain and time-varying systems. In particular, it is robust enough to handle uncertainty due to coupling, thermal cycling, misalignments, and manufacturing imperfections. As a result, it may be used as a fine-tuning supplement for existing accelerator tuning/control schemes. We present multi-particle simulation results demonstrating the scheme’s ability to simultaneously adaptively adjust the set points of twenty two quadrupole magnets and two RF buncher cavities in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Linear Accelerator’s transport region, while the beam properties and RF phase shift are continuously varying. The tuning is based only on beam current readings, without knowledge of particle dynamics. We also present an outline of how to implement this general scheme in software for optimization, and in hardware for feedback-based control/tuning, for a wide range of systems.« less
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics model for polymer molecules in suspension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litvinov, Sergey; Ellero, Marco; Hu, Xiangyu; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2008-06-01
We present a model for a polymer molecule in solution based on smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) [Español and Revenga, Phys. Rev. E 67, 026705 (2003)]. This method is a thermodynamically consistent version of smoothed particle hydrodynamics able to discretize the Navier-Stokes equations and, at the same time, to incorporate thermal fluctuations according to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Within the framework of the method developed for mesoscopic multiphase flows by Hu and Adams [J. Comput. Phys. 213, 844 (2006)], we introduce additional finitely extendable nonlinear elastic interactions between particles that represent the beads of a polymer chain. In order to assess the accuracy of the technique, we analyze the static and dynamic conformational properties of the modeled polymer molecule in solution. Extensive tests of the method for the two-dimensional (2D) case are performed, showing good agreement with the analytical theory. Finally, the effect of confinement on the conformational properties of the polymer molecule is investigated by considering a 2D microchannel with gap H varying between 1 and 10μm , of the same order as the polymer gyration radius. Several SDPD simulations are performed for different chain lengths corresponding to N=20-100 beads, giving a universal behavior of the gyration radius RG and polymer stretch X as functions of the channel gap when normalized properly.
Interacting Boson Model and nucleons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otsuka, Takaharu
2012-10-01
An overview on the recent development of the microscopic derivation of the Interacting Boson Model is presented with some remarks not found elsewhere. The OAI mapping is reviewed very briefly, including the basic correspondence from nucleon-pair to boson. The new fermionboson mapping method is introduced, where intrinsic states of nucleons and bosons for a wide variation of shapes play an important role. Nucleon intrinsic states are obtained from mean field models, which is Skyrme model in examples to be shown. This method generates IBM-2 Hamiltonian which can describe and predict various situations of quadrupole collective states, including U(5), SU(3), O(6) and E(5) limits. The method is extended so that rotational response (cranking) can be handled, which enables us to describe rotational bands of strongly deformed nuclei. Thus, we have obtained a unified framework for the microscopic derivation of the IBM covering all known situations of quadrupole collectivity at low energy.
Emergent smectic order in simple active particle models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanczuk, Pawel; Chaté, Hugues; Chen, Leiming; Ngo, Sandrine; Toner, John
2016-06-01
Novel ‘smectic-P’ behavior, in which self-propelled particles form rows and move on average along them, occurs generically within the orientationally ordered phase of simple models that we simulate. Both apolar (head-tail symmetric) and polar (head-tail asymmetric) models with aligning and repulsive interactions exhibit slow algebraic decay of smectic order with system size up to some finite length scale, after which faster decay occurs. In the apolar case, this scale is that of an undulation instability of the rows. In the polar case, this instability is absent, but traveling fluctuations disrupt the rows in large systems and motion and smectic order may spontaneously globally rotate. These observations agree with a new hydrodynamic theory which we present here. Variants of our models also exhibit active smectic ‘A’ and ‘C’ order, with motion orthogonal and oblique to the layers respectively.
Systematic Uncertainties in High-Energy Hadronic Interaction Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zha, M.; Knapp, J.; Ostapchenko, S.
2003-07-01
Hadronic interaction models for cosmic ray energies are uncertain since our knowledge of hadronic interactions is extrap olated from accelerator experiments at much lower energies. At present most high-energy models are based on Grib ov-Regge theory of multi-Pomeron exchange, which provides a theoretical framework to evaluate cross-sections and particle production. While experimental data constrain some of the model parameters, others are not well determined and are therefore a source of systematic uncertainties. In this paper we evaluate the variation of results obtained with the QGSJET model, when modifying parameters relating to three ma jor sources of uncertainty: the form of the parton structure function, the role of diffractive interactions, and the string hadronisation. Results on inelastic cross sections, on secondary particle production and on the air shower development are discussed.
Single-file diffusion of particles with long-range interactions: damping and finite-size effects.
Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel
2011-07-01
We study the single file diffusion of a cyclic chain of particles that cannot cross each other, in a thermal bath, with long-ranged interactions and arbitrary damping. We present simulations that exhibit new behaviors specifically associated with systems of small numbers of particles and with small damping. In order to understand those results, we present an original analysis based on the decomposition of the particles' motion in the normal modes of the chain. Our model explains all dynamic regimes observed in our simulations and provides convincing estimates of the crossover times between those regimes.
Zhang, Yanyan; Gao, Baojiao; Xu, Zeqing
2013-05-09
The adsorption properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-grafted silica gel particles PVA/SiO2 toward genistein are researched in this paper. The effects of the main factors on the adsorption properties are investigated, the adsorption mechanism is explored in depth, and the adsorption thermodynamics is researched. The experimental results show that the conventional hydrogen bond is formed between the hydroxyl groups with high density on the surfaces of PVA/SiO2 and the phenolic hydroxyl groups in genistein, while π-type hydrogen bond is formed between the hydroxyl groups of PVA/SiO2 and the conjugated aromatic rings. It is the two types of hydrogen bond that make the functional composite particles PVA/SiO2 produce very strong physical adsorption toward genistein. The competitive adsorption of the solvent can have severe negative impact on the adsorption capacity of genistein. Increasing temperature will weaken the hydrogen-bond interaction between PVA/SiO2 particles and genistein. The existence of electrolytes in the protic solvent will affect the adsorption negatively. The adsorption process of PVA/SiO2 particles toward genistein is exothermic and driven by enthalpy. The adsorption isotherm data matches the Langmuir model.
Effective Semi-empirical Interaction Potential for Dusty Particles
Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Omarbakiyeva, Y. A.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.
2008-09-07
The Poisson equation was numerically solved on the basis of the experimental correlation functions of dusty particles. Calculations were performed with real parameters of dusty plasma. Reconstructed potential has oscillated character; the minimums coincide to maximums of correlation functions.
Interactive design environment transportation channel of relativistic charged particle beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osadchuk, I. O.; Averyanov, G. P.; Budkin, V. A.
2017-01-01
Considered a modern implementation of a computer environment for the design of channels of transportation of high-energy charged particle beams. The environment includes a software package for the simulation of the dynamics of charged particles in the channel, operating means for changing parameters of the channel, the elements channel optimization and processing of the output characteristics of the beam with the graphical output the main output parameters.
Approach to the unification of elementary particle interactions
Gaillard, M.K.
1981-09-01
The assumption that the grand unified theory (GUT) emerges as an effective theory describing bound states of N = 8 supergravity preons should determine the GUT particle spectrum and constrain their couplings. Analysis of the spectrum has led to some possibly encouraging indications. At the least, the particle content in scalars, vectors and fermions needed to reproduce SU(5) phenomenology can be found among the states of the EGMZ multiplet.
Wave-particle interaction in the Faraday waves.
Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Shats, M
2015-10-01
Wave motion in disordered Faraday waves is analysed in terms of oscillons or quasi-particles. The motion of these oscillons is measured using particle tracking tools and it is compared with the motion of fluid particles on the water surface. Both the real floating particles and the oscillons, representing the collective fluid motion, show Brownian-type dispersion exhibiting ballistic and diffusive mean squared displacement at short and long times, respectively. While the floating particles motion has been previously explained in the context of two-dimensional turbulence driven by Faraday waves, no theoretical description exists for the random walk type motion of oscillons. It is found that the r.m.s velocity ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) of oscillons is directly related to the turbulent r.m.s. velocity ⟨μ̃⟩(rms) of the fluid particles in a broad range of vertical accelerations. The measured ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) accurately explains the broadening of the frequency spectra of the surface elevation observed in disordered Faraday waves. These results suggest that 2D turbulence is the driving force behind both the randomization of the oscillons motion and the resulting broadening of the wave frequency spectra. The coupling between wave motion and hydrodynamic turbulence demonstrated here offers new perspectives for predicting complex fluid transport from the knowledge of wave field spectra and vice versa.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yulong; Li, Ziwei; Wen, Shipeng; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhang, Liqun; Zhong, Chongli; Liu, Li
2014-09-01
The strain-amplitude dependence of viscoelastic behavior of model crosslinked elastomers containing various concentrations of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) was studied by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. All the filler NPs were in monodispersed state and the interactions between these particles were purely repulsive. The polymer-particle interactions were attractive and their interaction energies were tuned in a broad range. Through the computational study, many important features of the behavior of particle-reinforced elastomers observed in experiments, including the Payne effect, were successfully reproduced. It was shown that the magnitude of the Payne effect was found to depend on the polymer-particle interaction and the filler loading. By examining the microstructures of the simulation systems and their evolution during oscillatory shear, four different mechanisms for the role of the polymer-particle interactions in the Payne effect were revealed that consist of the debonding of polymer chains from NP surfaces, the breakage of polymer-shell-bridged NP network, the rearrangement of the NPs in the network into different layers and the shear-induced yielding of the rigid polymer shell in-between neighboring NPs.
Can a particle interacting with a scalar field reach the speed of light\\?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vollick, Dan N.
1995-09-01
The motion of a particle interacting with a scalar field is examined. It is shown that the effective mass of the particle is a linear function of the scalar field and that the particle reaches the speed of light when its effective mass goes to zero if scalar field radiation is neglected. The equation of motion for the particle including radiation reaction has the same form as the Lorentz-Dirac equation. The radiation emitted diverges as the particle approaches the speed of light and prevents the particle from becoming luminal. The energy-momentum tensor for the particle and field is calculated and it is shown that there exists an interaction energy-momentum tensor which allows for violations of the weak energy condition.
Fidelity decay and entropy production in many-particle systems after random interaction quench
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haldar, Sudip Kumar; Chavda, N. D.; Vyas, Manan; Kota, V. K. B.
2016-04-01
We analyze the effect of spin degree of freedom on fidelity decay and entropy production of a many-particle fermionic (bosonic) system in a mean-field, quenched by a random two-body interaction preserving many-particle spin S. The system Hamiltonian is represented by embedded Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (EGOE) of random matrices (for time-reversal and rotationally invariant systems) with one plus two-body interactions preserving S for fermions/bosons. EGOE are paradigmatic models to study the dynamical transition from integrability to chaos in interacting many-body quantum systems. A simple general picture, in which the variances of the eigenvalue density play a central role, is obtained for describing the short-time dynamics of fidelity decay and entropy production. Using some approximations, an EGOE formula for the time (t sat) for the onset of saturation of entropy, is also derived. These analytical EGOE results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. Moreover, both fermion and boson systems show significant spin dependence on the relaxation dynamics of the fidelity and entropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artemyev, Anton; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Mourenas, Didier; Vasiliev, Alexei
Wave-particle resonant interaction is the main mechanism responsible for electron acceleration and scattering in the radiation belts. There are two approaches describing this interaction - quasi-linear theory describes particle diffusion in momentum space, while nonlinear trapping of particles by high-amplitude waves can describe fast particle acceleration. The diffusion approach is more developed and widely used now. However, many modern observations in the radiation belts suggest the presence of significant population of large amplitude waves which can be responsible for nonlinear wave-particle interaction. We show that such nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction corresponds to the fast transport of particles in phase space. We show that the general approach for the description of the evolution of the particle velocity distribution based on the Fokker-Plank equation can be modified to consider the process of nonlinear wave-particle interaction, including particle trapping. Such a modification consists in one additional operator describing fast particle jumps in phase space. The proposed approach is illustrated by considering the acceleration of relativistic electrons by strongly oblique whistler waves. We determine the typical variation of electron phase-density due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction and compare this variation with pitch-angle/energy diffusion due to quasi-linear electron scattering. We show that relation between nonlinear and quasi-linear effects is controlled by the distribution of wave-amplitudes. When this distribution has a heavy tail, nonlinear effects can become dominant in the formation of the electron energy distribution. We compare effectiveness of quasi-linear diffusion and nonlinear trapping for conditions typical for Earth radiation belts.
Plasma/particle interaction in subsonic argon/helium thermal plasma jets
Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Haggard, D.C.
1993-04-01
Understanding the behavior of a particle and the interactions between a particle and the plasma surrounding it is important to the development and optimization of the plasma spray coating process. This is an experimental study of the interaction between a subsonic thermal plasma jet and injected nickel-aluminum particles. The velocity, temperature and composition of the gas flow field is mapped using an enthalpy probe/mass spectrometer system. The particle flow field is examined by simultaneously measuring the in-flight size, velocity, and temperature of individual particles. The complex interaction between the gas and particle flow fields is examined by combining the two sets of data. Particle and gas temperatures and velocities are compared in the vicinity of a nominal substrate standoff distance and axially along the median particle trajectory. The temperature and velocity difference is shown to vary substantially depending on the particle`s trajectory. By the time a particle on the median trajectory reaches the nominal substrate stand off of 63.5 mm it is transferring it`s heat and momentum to the plasma gas.
Mathematical model of reaction rate oscillations on a chain of nm-sized catalyst particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peskov, N. V.; Slinko, M. M.; Jaeger, N. I.
2003-05-01
The model of reaction rate oscillations over the surface of nanoparticles embedded into zeolite matrix is numerically investigated. The reaction rate oscillations on each particle are described by a lumped model. The reactions on separate particles interact via the gas diffusion through the pores, which is modeled in the frame of the Maxwell-Stefan approach. The reaction reveals a complex dynamical behavior if a nonhomogeneous distribution of reagent concentrations exists along the chain of particles with a sufficiently large gradient near the ends of the chain.
Particle-hole optical model and strength functions for high-energy giant resonances
Urin, M. H.
2010-08-15
A formulation of the particle-hole optical model is proposed for describing the contribution of the fragmentation effect to the formation of strength functions for high-energy giant resonances. The model is based on the Bethe-Goldstone equation for the energy-averaged particle-hole Green's function. In this equation, the particle-hole interaction that is induced by a virtual excitation of multiquasiparticle configurations and in which, upon averaging over energy, an imaginary part is contained is taken into account. An analogy with the single-quasiparticle optical model is discussed.
A particle based simulation model for glacier dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Åström, J. A.; Riikilä, T. I.; Tallinen, T.; Zwinger, T.; Benn, D.; Moore, J. C.; Timonen, J.
2013-10-01
A particle-based computer simulation model was developed for investigating the dynamics of glaciers. In the model, large ice bodies are made of discrete elastic particles which are bound together by massless elastic beams. These beams can break, which induces brittle behaviour. At loads below fracture, beams may also break and reform with small probabilities to incorporate slowly deforming viscous behaviour in the model. This model has the advantage that it can simulate important physical processes such as ice calving and fracturing in a more realistic way than traditional continuum models. For benchmarking purposes the deformation of an ice block on a slip-free surface was compared to that of a similar block simulated with a Finite Element full-Stokes continuum model. Two simulations were performed: (1) calving of an ice block partially supported in water, similar to a grounded marine glacier terminus, and (2) fracturing of an ice block on an inclined plane of varying basal friction, which could represent transition to fast flow or surging. Despite several approximations, including restriction to two-dimensions and simplified water-ice interaction, the model was able to reproduce the size distributions of the debris observed in calving, which may be approximated by universal scaling laws. On a moderate slope, a large ice block was stable and quiescent as long as there was enough of friction against the substrate. For a critical length of frictional contact, global sliding began, and the model block disintegrated in a manner suggestive of a surging glacier. In this case the fragment size distribution produced was typical of a grinding process.
Wave - fluid particle interaction in the Faraday waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Francois, Nicolas; Xia, Hua; Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael
2016-11-01
Faraday waves are parametrically excited perturbations that appear on a liquid surface when the latter is vertically vibrated. Recently it has been discovered that: 1) such wave field can be described as a disordered lattice made of localised oscillating excitations, termed oscillons, 2) the horizontal motion of fluid particles on the water surface reproduces in detail the motion of fluid in two-dimensional turbulence. Here we report experimental measurements of the motion of both entities using Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry techniques. Those techniques allow to measure Lagrangian and Eulerian features of the oscillon motion and compare them with those of the fluid motion. A strong coupling is uncovered between the erratic motion of the waves and the turbulent agitation of the fluid particles. Both motions show Brownian-type dispersion and the r.m.s velocity of oscillons is directly related to the r.m.s. velocity of the fluid particles in a broad range of vertical accelerations. These results offer new perspectives for predicting surface fluid transport from the knowledge of the wave fields and vice versa. In particular, the broadening of the wave spectra at high wave amplitude can be predicted if the 2D turbulence energy is known. This work was supported by the Australian Research Council's Discovery Projects funding scheme (DP150103468 and DP160100863). NF acknowledges support by the Australian Research Council's DECRA Award (DE160100742).
Multiscale Modeling of Metallic Materials Containing Embedded Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Dawn R.; Iesulauro, Erin; Glaessgen, Edward H.
2004-01-01
Multiscale modeling at small length scales (10(exp -9) to 10(exp -3) m) is discussed for aluminum matrices with embedded particles. A configuration containing one particle surrounded by about 50 grains and subjected to uniform tension and lateral constraint is considered. The analyses are performed to better understand the effects of material configuration on the initiation and progression of debonding of the particles from the surrounding aluminum matrix. Configurational parameters considered include particle aspect ratio and orientation within the surrounding matrix. Both configurational parameters are shown to have a significant effect on the behavior of the materials as a whole. For elliptical particles with the major axis perpendicular to the direction of loading, a particle with a 1:1 aspect ratio completely debonds from the surrounding matrix at higher loads than particles with higher aspect ratios. As the particle major axis is aligned with the direction of the applied load, increasing amounts of load are required to completely debond the particles.
An approach to mineral particle-air bubble interaction in turbulent flow of flotation cell
Lu, S.; Song, S.; Gou, J.; Pan, Y.
1995-12-31
The calculated potential energies of interaction between hydrophobic particle of three minerals (rhodochrosite, quartz and talc) and air bubble show that the energy of hydrophobic interaction is the dominant factor for their attachment. An attachment rate equation, integrating particle-bubble collision and adhesion by introducing a capture efficiency, has been put forward. It was found that the hydrophobic particle-bubble aggregates can not be disconnected in the bulk zone of flotation cell, whereas in the impeller zone the breakup may occur, particularly for the coarser particles captured by bubble. Finally, the flotation rate constant was estimated theoretically and verified by experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stevens, N. J.
1979-01-01
Cases where the charged-particle environment acts on the spacecraft (e.g., spacecraft charging phenomena) and cases where a system on the spacecraft causes the interaction (e.g., high voltage space power systems) are considered. Both categories were studied in ground simulation facilities to understand the processes involved and to measure the pertinent parameters. Computer simulations are based on the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) code. Analytical models are developed in this code and verified against the experimental data. Extrapolation from the small test samples to space conditions are made with this code. Typical results from laboratory and computer simulations are presented for both types of interactions. Extrapolations from these simulations to performance in space environments are discussed.
Quench field sensitivity of two-particle correlation in a Hubbard model
Zhang, X. Z.; Lin, S.; Song, Z.
2016-01-01
Short-range interaction can give rise to particle pairing with a short-range correlation, which may be destroyed in the presence of an external field. We study the transition between correlated and uncorrelated particle states in the framework of one- dimensional Hubbard model driven by a field. We show that the long time-scale transfer rate from an initial correlated state to final uncorrelated particle states is sensitive to the quench field strength and exhibits a periodic behavior. This process involves an irreversible energy transfer from the field to particles, leading to a quantum electrothermal effect. PMID:27250080
Cluster kinetics model of particle separation in vibrated granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCoy, Benjamin J.; Madras, Giridhar
2006-01-01
We model the Brazil-nut effect (BNE) by hypothesizing that granules form clusters that fragment and aggregate. This provides a heterogeneous medium in which the immersed intruder particle rises (BNE) or sinks (reverse BNE) according to relative convection currents and buoyant and drag forces. A simple relationship proposed for viscous drag in terms of the vibrational intensity and the particle to grain density ratio allows simulation of published experimental data for rise and sink times as functions of particle radius, initial depth of the particle, and particle-grain density ratio. The proposed model correctly describes the experimentally observed maximum in risetime.
Wallqvist, Viveca; Claesson, Per M; Swerin, Agne; Schoelkopf, Joachim; Gane, Patrick A C
2009-06-16
The interactions between a natural talc surface and a model hydrophobic particle have been investigated in aqueous solutions by employing the atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe technique. The results demonstrate the presence of long-range attractive forces due to bridging via preadsorbed or induced bubbles/cavities. Due to the natural heterogeneity of talc, and the stochastic nature of the bubble bridging process, the variability in the range and magnitude of the attraction is larger than that for cases when other interactions predominate or than that when only model surfaces are used. Addition of poly(acrylic acid), a common dispersing agent, did not affect the measured forces. Thus, we conclude that poly(acrylic acid) does not adsorb to the basal plane of talc. In sharp contrast, addition of Pluronic PE6400, a nonionic triblock polymer used as wetting agent, resulted in complete removal of the bubble-induced attractive force. Instead, a short-range steric repulsion is the dominating feature. Clearly, Pluronic PE6400 is able to displace air bubbles from the surface and prevent their formation when the particles come into contact. These are suggested to be important features of efficient wetting agents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauh, Cornelia; Delgado, Antonio
2010-12-01
High pressures of up to several hundreds of MPa are utilized in a wide range of applications in chemical, bio-, and food engineering, aiming at selective control of (bio-)chemical reactions. Non-uniformity of process conditions may threaten the safety and quality of the resulting products because processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and treatment history are crucial for the course of (bio-)chemical reactions. Therefore, thermofluid-dynamical phenomena during the high pressure process have to be examined, and numerical tools to predict process uniformity and to optimize the processes have to be developed. Recently applied mathematical models and numerical simulations of laboratory and industrial scale high pressure processes investigating the mentioned crucial phenomena are based on continuum balancing models of thermofluid dynamics. Nevertheless, biological systems are complex fluids containing the relevant (bio-)chemical compounds (enzymes and microorganisms). These compounds are particles that interact with the surrounding medium and between each other. This contribution deals with thermofluid-dynamical interactions of the relevant particulate (bio-)chemical compounds (enzymes and microorganisms) with the surrounding fluid. By consideration of characteristic time and length scales and particle forces, the motion of the (bio-)chemical compounds is characterized.
Study of wave-particle interactions of VLF/ELF chorus waves observed at subauroral latitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoyama, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ozaki, M.; Ishizaka, K.; Yagitani, S.; Connors, M. G.
2012-12-01
One of the mechanisms that cause energetic particle precipitation at low latitude side of auroral zone, such as pulsating auroras, is the VLF/ELF waves generated around magnetic equator which modulate particle precipitation through wave-particle interaction. In this model, correlations between pulsating auroras and VLF/ELF waves observed at ground are expected. Indeed, examples of such good correlations were reported previously (Tsuruda et al., 1981). In those days, however, it was difficult to analyze the frequency characteristics and wave forms in detail, since all data were in analog recordings. Therefore, we made a campaign observation of high-time resolution measurements of auroras and VLF/ELF waves at Athabasca (54.72N, 246.69E, MLAT=61.3) and Fort Vermillion (58.38N, 243.99E, MLAT=64.5), using two loop antennas(100kHz sampling), several auroral cameras(30-100Hz sampling) and induction magnetometers(64Hz sampling) for February 16-27, 2012. In this campaign, various types of chorus waves were observed, i.e., Q-P emissions with repeating periods of 20-60 seconds, rising/falling tones for which the emission frequency varies in a few seconds, patchy high-frequency burst waves, and so on. In order to investigate waveparticle interaction of these waves, we closely compare these VLF/ELF waves with the data of energetic particle precipitation obtained from all-sky cameras and riometers in Athabasca and Meanook (54.61N, 246.65E, MLAT=61.47). We also investigate local magnetic field variations and ULF wave variations to identify the cause of temporal variation of VLF/ELF waves.
Modeling the effects of particle deformation in chemical mechanical polishing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiaochun; Zhao, Yongwu; Wang, Yongguang
2012-09-01
In a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, an active abrasive particle participating in the wear process will contact the pad and the wafer at the same time. The applied polishing load causes the deformation of the pad in the contact interface of the particle and the pad, and the deformation of the wafer in the contact interface of the particle and the wafer. Besides, this force causes the deformation of the abrasive particle. Based on the elastic-plastic micro-contact mechanics and abrasive wear theory, a novel model for material removal rate (MRR) with consideration of the abrasive particle deformation is presented in this paper. The deformation of the abrasive particle, affecting the indentation depth of the particle into the wafer, is quantitatively incorporated into the model. The results and analyses show that the present model is in good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takakura, T.; Yanagi, I.; Goto, Y.; Ishige, Y.; Kohara, Y.
2016-03-01
We developed a resistive-pulse sensor with a solid-state pore and measured the latex agglutination of submicron particles induced by antigen-antibody interaction for single-molecule detection of proteins. We fabricated the pore based on numerical simulation to clearly distinguish between monomer and dimer latex particles. By measuring single dimers agglutinated in the single-molecule regime, we detected single human alpha-fetoprotein molecules. Adjusting the initial particle concentration improves the limit of detection (LOD) to 95 fmol/l. We established a theoretical model of the LOD by combining the reaction kinetics and the counting statistics to explain the effect of initial particle concentration on the LOD. The theoretical model shows how to improve the LOD quantitatively. The single-molecule detection studied here indicates the feasibility of implementing a highly sensitive immunoassay by a simple measurement method using resistive-pulse sensing.
Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure during solar particle events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al Anid, Hani Khaled
In 1990, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recognized the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. In Canada, a Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circular was issued by Transport Canada suggesting that action should be taken to manage such exposure. In anticipation of possible regulations on exposure of Canadian-based aircrew in the near future, an extensive study was carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada to measure the radiation exposure during commercial flights. The radiation exposure to aircrew is a result of a complex mixed-radiation field resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei are responsible for GCRs which consist of 90% protons, 9% alpha particles, and 1% heavy nuclei. While they have a fairly constant fluence rate, their interaction with the magnetic field of the Earth varies throughout the solar cycles, which has a period of approximately 11 years. SEPs are highly sporadic events that are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This type of exposure may be of concern to certain aircrew members, such as pregnant flight crew, for which the annual effective dose is limited to 1 mSv over the remainder of the pregnancy. The composition of SEPs is very similar to GCRs, in that they consist of mostly protons, some alpha particles and a few heavy nuclei, but with a softer energy spectrum. An additional factor when analysing SEPs is the effect of flare anisotropy. This refers to the way charged particles are transported through the Earth's magnetosphere in an anisotropic fashion. Solar flares that are fairly isotropic produce a uniform radiation exposure for areas that have similar geomagnetic shielding, while highly anisotropic events produce variable exposures at different locations on the Earth. Studies of neutron monitor count rates from detectors sharing similar geomagnetic shielding properties
Thermocapillary Interaction between a Solid Particle and a Liquid-Gas Interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golovin, A. A.; Leshansky, A. M.; Nir, A.
1996-11-01
Interaction between solid particles and a free liquid-gas interface is very important for flotation processes and for various processes involving multiphase flows. In the present contribution, interaction between a hot solid particle submerged into an ambient fluid, and a free liquid-gas interface is considered. A non-uniform temperature field around the solid particle produces surface tension gradients at the liquid-gas interface which generate a thermocapillary flow in the surrounding fluid. This flow yields the motion of the solid particle itself. Three cases are considered: (i) interaction between a solid particle and a spherical gas bubble at a finite separation distance; (ii) thermocapillary motion of a solid particle and an attached gas bubble; (iii) interaction between a solid particle and a plane undeformable liquid-gas interface. In all cases the velocity of the thermocapillarity induced motion of the solid particle is calculated in the approximation of the Stokes flow and a low Peclet number as a function of the separation distance and the bubble-to-particle radii ratio. Some preliminary results of the present work have been published in (A.A.Golovin, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21), 715 (1995)..
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dessup, Tommy; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel
2017-01-01
We study the path toward equilibrium of pairs of solitary wave envelopes (bubbles) that modulate a regular zigzag pattern in an annular channel. We evidence that bubble pairs are metastable states, which spontaneously evolve toward a stable single bubble. We exhibit the concept of topological frustration of a bubble pair. A configuration is frustrated when the particles between the two bubbles are not organized in a modulated staggered row. For a nonfrustrated (NF) bubble pair configuration, the bubbles interaction is attractive, whereas it is repulsive for a frustrated (F) configuration. We describe a model of interacting solitary wave that provides all qualitative characteristics of the interaction force: It is attractive for NF systems and repulsive for F systems and decreases exponentially with the bubbles distance. Moreover, for NF systems, the bubbles come closer and eventually merge as a single bubble, in a coalescence process. We also evidence a collapse process, in which one bubble shrinks in favor of the other one, overcoming an energetic barrier in phase space. This process is relevant for both NF systems and F systems. In NF systems, the coalescence prevails at low temperature, whereas thermally activated jumps make the collapse prevail at high temperature. In F systems, the path toward equilibrium involves a collapse process regardless of the temperature.
Numerical simulation of particle-wave interaction in boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, S.; Danabasoglu, G.
1990-01-01
The effects of wall injection and particle motion on the spatial stability of two-dimensional plane channel flow are investigated. For this purpose, an accurate Navier-Stokes solver to simulate the space-time evolution of disturbances in three-dimensional flows has been developed. The code is operational on the NASA Langley CRAY2 and can be ported to any other supercomputer. The code has been tested extensively in tracking the spatial evolution of two-dimensional disturbances in plane channel flow and provided excellent agreement with the linear theory including at the inflow/outflow boundaries. Preliminary calculations have been performed to investigate the effects of stationary and moving sources of vortical disturbances simulating a particle traveling in the flow field. Results suggest that even at very low amplitudes, vortical disturbances act as amplifiers on the Tollmien-Schlichting waves promoting rapid instability. It is also found that slow moving particles are more dangerous than both stationary and fast moving particles for the same disturbance levels.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Catalina, Adrian V.; Ssen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.
2003-01-01
The interaction of an insoluble particle with an advancing solid/liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the past four decades. While the original interest stemmed from geology applications (e.g., frost heaving in soil), researchers soon realized that the complex science associated with such an interaction is relevant to many other scientific fields encompassing metal matrix composites (MMCs), high temperature superconductors, inclusion management in steel, growth of monotectics, and preservation of biological cells. During solidification of a liquid containing an insoluble particle, three distinct interaction phenomena have been experimentally observed: instantaneous engulfment of the particle, continuous pushing, and particle pushing followed by engulfment. It was also observed that for given experimental conditions and particle size there is a critical solidification velocity, V(sub cr), above which a particle is engulfed. During solidification of MMCs pushing leads to particle agglomeration at the grain boundaries and this has detrimental effects on mechanical properties of the casting. Consequently, the process must be designed for instantaneous engulfment to occur. This implies the development of accurate theoretical models to predict V(sub cr), and perform benchmark experiments to test the validity of such models. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the pushing/engulfment phenomenon (PEP), its quantification in terms of the material and processing parameters remains a focus of research. Since natural convection currents occurring during terrestrial solidification experiments complicate the study of PEP, execution of experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) has been approved and funded by NASA. Extensive terrestrial (1g) experiments and preliminary micro-gravity (mu g) experiments on two space shuttle missions have been conducted in preparation for future experiments on the ISS. The investigated
Plasma/particle interaction in subsonic argon/helium thermal plasma jets
Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Haggard, D.C.
1993-01-01
Understanding the behavior of a particle and the interactions between a particle and the plasma surrounding it is important to the development and optimization of the plasma spray coating process. This is an experimental study of the interaction between a subsonic thermal plasma jet and injected nickel-aluminum particles. The velocity, temperature and composition of the gas flow field is mapped using an enthalpy probe/mass spectrometer system. The particle flow field is examined by simultaneously measuring the in-flight size, velocity, and temperature of individual particles. The complex interaction between the gas and particle flow fields is examined by combining the two sets of data. Particle and gas temperatures and velocities are compared in the vicinity of a nominal substrate standoff distance and axially along the median particle trajectory. The temperature and velocity difference is shown to vary substantially depending on the particle's trajectory. By the time a particle on the median trajectory reaches the nominal substrate stand off of 63.5 mm it is transferring it's heat and momentum to the plasma gas.
Critical examination of the colloidal particle model of globular proteins.
Sarangapani, Prasad S; Hudson, Steven D; Jones, Ronald L; Douglas, Jack F; Pathak, Jai A
2015-02-03
Recent studies of globular protein solutions have uniformly adopted a colloidal view of proteins as particles, a perspective that neglects the polymeric primary structure of these biological macromolecules, their intrinsic flexibility, and their ability to sample a large configurational space. While the colloidal perspective often serves as a useful idealization in many cases, the macromolecular identity of proteins must reveal itself under thermodynamic conditions in which the native state is no longer stable, such as denaturing solvents and high protein concentrations where macromolecules tend to have screened excluded volume, charge, and hydrodynamic interactions. Under extreme pH conditions, charge repulsion interactions within the protein chain can overcome the attractive hydrogen-bonding interactions, holding it in its native globular state. Conformational changes can therefore be expected to have great significance on the shear viscosity and other rheological properties of protein solutions. These changes are not envisioned in conventional colloidal protein models and we have initiated an investigation of the scattering and rheological properties of model proteins. We initiate this effort by considering bovine serum albumin because it is a globular protein whose solution properties have also been extensively investigated as a function of pH, temperature, ionic strength, and concentration. As we anticipated, near-ultraviolet circular dichroism measurements and intrinsic viscosity measurements clearly indicate that the bovine serum albumin tertiary structure changes as protein concentration and pH are varied. Our findings point to limited validity of the colloidal protein model and to the need for further consideration and quantification of the effects of conformational changes on protein solution viscosity, protein association, and the phase behavior. Small-angle Neutron Scattering measurements have allowed us to assess how these conformational changes
Critical Examination of the Colloidal Particle Model of Globular Proteins
Sarangapani, Prasad S.; Hudson, Steven D.; Jones, Ronald L.; Douglas, Jack F.; Pathak, Jai A.
2015-01-01
Recent studies of globular protein solutions have uniformly adopted a colloidal view of proteins as particles, a perspective that neglects the polymeric primary structure of these biological macromolecules, their intrinsic flexibility, and their ability to sample a large configurational space. While the colloidal perspective often serves as a useful idealization in many cases, the macromolecular identity of proteins must reveal itself under thermodynamic conditions in which the native state is no longer stable, such as denaturing solvents and high protein concentrations where macromolecules tend to have screened excluded volume, charge, and hydrodynamic interactions. Under extreme pH conditions, charge repulsion interactions within the protein chain can overcome the attractive hydrogen-bonding interactions, holding it in its native globular state. Conformational changes can therefore be expected to have great significance on the shear viscosity and other rheological properties of protein solutions. These changes are not envisioned in conventional colloidal protein models and we have initiated an investigation of the scattering and rheological properties of model proteins. We initiate this effort by considering bovine serum albumin because it is a globular protein whose solution properties have also been extensively investigated as a function of pH, temperature, ionic strength, and concentration. As we anticipated, near-ultraviolet circular dichroism measurements and intrinsic viscosity measurements clearly indicate that the bovine serum albumin tertiary structure changes as protein concentration and pH are varied. Our findings point to limited validity of the colloidal protein model and to the need for further consideration and quantification of the effects of conformational changes on protein solution viscosity, protein association, and the phase behavior. Small-angle Neutron Scattering measurements have allowed us to assess how these conformational changes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubinstein, Robert
2015-11-01
It is well known that collision models based on an assumed intermolecular potential (IPL, LJ, ...) can be successfully replaced by simplified surrogates (VHS, VSS, VS, ...) in DSMC calculations. But these surrogates only reproduce certain gross properties of the molecular model, for example, the temperature dependence of the viscosity; they do not approximate, and even mis-state, the details of the particle interactions. The success of the simplified models in problems at finite Knudsen number, where the Navier-Stokes approximation is not valid, may therefore seem surprising. To understand this success in a very special case, we showed that the first seven relaxation rates of the linearized Boltzmann equation for Maxwellian molecules are well approximated by the corresponding relaxation rates of its VHS surrogate. We will show that this analysis can be extended in somewhat less generality to IPL interactions, and to some extent to more realistic models including LJ. We believe that this analysis can help address the more general problem of identifying the properties of the collision model that dominate the predictions of the Boltzmann equation.
Comparison of Particle Flow Code and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Modelling of Landslide Run outs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preh, A.; Poisel, R.; Hungr, O.
2009-04-01
In most continuum mechanics methods modelling the run out of landslides the moving mass is divided into a number of elements, the velocities of which can be established by numerical integration of Newtońs second law (Lagrangian solution). The methods are based on fluid mechanics modelling the movements of an equivalent fluid. In 2004, McDougall and Hungr presented a three-dimensional numerical model for rapid landslides, e.g. debris flows and rock avalanches, called DAN3D.The method is based on the previous work of Hungr (1995) and is using an integrated two-dimensional Lagrangian solution and meshless Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) principle to maintain continuity. DAN3D has an open rheological kernel, allowing the use of frictional (with constant porepressure ratio) and Voellmy rheologies and gives the possibility to change material rheology along the path. Discontinuum (granular) mechanics methods model the run out mass as an assembly of particles moving down a surface. Each particle is followed exactly as it moves and interacts with the surface and with its neighbours. Every particle is checked on contacts with every other particle in every time step using a special cell-logic for contact detection in order to reduce the computational effort. The Discrete Element code PFC3D was adapted in order to make possible discontinuum mechanics models of run outs. Punta Thurwieser Rock Avalanche and Frank Slide were modelled by DAN as well as by PFC3D. The simulations showed correspondingly that the parameters necessary to get results coinciding with observations in nature are completely different. The maximum velocity distributions due to DAN3D reveal that areas of different maximum flow velocity are next to each other in Punta Thurwieser run out whereas the distribution of maximum flow velocity shows almost constant maximum flow velocity over the width of the run out regarding Frank Slide. Some 30 percent of total kinetic energy is rotational kinetic energy in
3D Plasma Clusters: Analysis of dynamical evolution and individual particle interaction
Antonova, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Annaratone, B. M.
2008-09-07
3D plasma clusters (up to 100 particles) have been built inside small (32 mm{sup 3}) plasma volume in gravity. It has been estimated that the external confinement has a negligible influence on the processes inside the clusters. At such conditions the analysis of dynamical evolution and individual particle interactions have shown that the binary interaction among particles in addition to the repelling Coulomb force exhibits also an attractive part. The tendency of the systems to approach the state with minimum energy by rearranging particles inside has been detected. The measured 63 particles' cluster vibrations are in close agreement with vibrations of a drop with surface tension. This indicates that even a 63 particle cluster already exhibits properties normally associated with the cooperative regime.
Particle hopping vs. fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow
Nagel, K.
1995-12-31
Although particle hopping models have been introduced into traffic science in the 19509, their systematic use has only started recently. Two reasons for this are, that they are advantageous on modem computers, and that recent theoretical developments allow analytical understanding of their properties and therefore more confidence for their use. In principle, particle hopping models fit between microscopic models for driving and fluiddynamical models for traffic flow. In this sense, they also help closing the conceptual gap between these two. This paper shows connections between particle hopping models and traffic flow theory. It shows that the hydrodynamical limits of certain particle hopping models correspond to the Lighthill-Whitham theory for traffic flow, and that only slightly more complex particle hopping models produce already the correct traffic jam dynamics, consistent with recent fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. By doing so, this paper establishes that, on the macroscopic level, particle hopping models are at least as good as fluid-dynamical models. Yet, particle hopping models have at least two advantages over fluid-dynamical models: they straightforwardly allow microscopic simulations, and they include stochasticity.
A particle dynamic model of red blood cell aggregation kinetics.
Fenech, Marianne; Garcia, Damien; Meiselman, Herbert J; Cloutier, Guy
2009-11-01
To elucidate the relationship between microscopic red blood cell (RBC) interactions and macroscopic rheological behavior, we propose a two-dimensional particle model capable of mimicking the main characteristics of RBC aggregation kinetics. The mechanical model of RBCs sheared in Couette flow is based on Newton law. We assumed a hydrodynamic force to move particles, a force to describe aggregation and an elasticity force. The role of molecular mass and concentration of neutral polymers on aggregation [Neu, B., and H. J. Meiselman. Biophys. J. 83:2482-2490, 2002] could be mimicked. Specifically, it was shown that for any shear rate (SR), the mean aggregate size (MAS) grew with time until it reached a constant value, which is consistent with in vitro experiments. It was also demonstrated that we could mimic the modal relationship between MAS and SR and the occurrence of maximum aggregation at about 0.1 s(-1). As anticipated, simulations indicated that an increase in aggregation force augmented MAS. Further, augmentation of the depletion layer thickness influenced MAS only for SR close to zero, which is a new finding. To conclude, our contribution reveals that the aggregation force intensity and SR influence the steady state MAS, and that the depletion and layer thickness affect the aggregation speed.
Medical Modeling of Particle Size Effects for CB Inhalation Hazards
2015-09-01
typical city. As has been described , many of the parameters in the model are hard-coded due to limitations in data transfer with SCIPUFF. When fully... describes the resulting medical impact. Many current models assume that only the 1 to 5 micron “respirable” particles capable of reaching the pulmonary...well. Inhalation mechanics , FXCODA, DARRT, bioagent, aerosol, particle size, particle deposition, biological agents, ricin, tularemia Unclassified
Modeling of particles orientation in magnetic field in drying magnetic coatings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potanin, Andrei A.; Reynolds, George; J. Hirko, Ronald
2000-03-01
Filament coating is studied as a model of magnetic tape manufacturing. Freshly coated filament is driven through a solenoid magnet which orients particles. After drying the coated filament, its squareness is measured as a function of the magnet position, field and the filament speed during coating. Production and model mixes are tested, which differ in dispersion quality and drying rate. A mean-field model is used to describe orientation of particles in the coating. The model fits experiments with two parameters: particles mobility and a mean-field interaction coefficient. Well dispersed kneaded mix has higher mobility and weaker interactions than non-kneaded mixes. The model well agrees with the data for squareness decay with magnet separation from the mix deposition point, thereby providing a theoretical tool for finding proper magnet position on the production coating lines.
Modeling inertial particle acceleration statistics in isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayyalasomayajula, S.; Warhaft, Z.; Collins, L. R.
2008-09-01
Our objective is to explain recent Lagrangian acceleration measurements of inertial particles in decaying, nearly isotropic turbulence [Ayyalasomayajula et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 144507 (2006)]. These experiments showed that as particle inertial effects increased, the variance in the particle acceleration fluctuations was reduced, and the tails of the normalized particle acceleration probability density function (PDF) became systematically attenuated. We model this phenomenon using a base flow that consists of a two-dimensional array of evenly spaced vortices with signs and intensities that vary randomly in time. We simulate a large sample of inertial particles moving through the fluid without disturbing the flow (one-way coupling). Consistent with Bec et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 550, 349 (2006)], we find that our model exhibits preferential concentration or clustering of particles in regions located away from the vortex centers. That is, inertial particles selectively sample the flow field, oversampling regions with high strains and undersampling regions with high vorticities. At low Stokes numbers, this biased "sampling" of the flow is responsible for the reduction in the acceleration variance and partially explains the attenuation of the tails of the acceleration PDF. However, contrary to previous findings, we show that the tails of the PDF are also diminished by "filtering" induced by the attenuated response of the inertial particles to temporal variations in the fluid acceleration: Inertial particles do not respond to fluctuations with frequencies much higher than the inverse of the particle stopping time. We show that larger fluid acceleration events have higher frequencies and hence experience greater filtering by particle inertia. We contrast the vortex model with previous Lagrangian acceleration models by Sawford [Phys. Fluids A 3, 1577 (1991)] and Reynolds [Phys. Fluids 15, L1 (2003)] and show that although these models capture some aspects of the inertial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deca, Jan; Lapenta, Giovanni; Lembège, Bertrand; Divin, Andrey; Markidis, Stefano; Amaya, Jorge
2013-04-01
We present the first 2D/3D fully kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. The simulations are performed using the implicit electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell code iPIC3D [Markidis, Lapenta & Rizwan-uddin, 2010]. Multiscale physics is resolved for all plasma components (heavy ions, protons and electrons) in the code, recently updated with a set of open boundary conditions designed for solar wind-body interactions. We use a dipole to model the crustal anomaly. The dipole center is located outside the computational domain and the boundary representing the lunar surface is modeled as a particle-absorbing plane. Photo-emission from the lunar surface is at this point not included, but will be in future work. We study the behaviour of the dipole model with variable surface magnetic field strength under changing solar wind conditions and confirm that lunar crustal magnetic fields may indeed be strong enough to stand off the solar wind and form a mini-magnetosphere, as suggested by MHD simulations [Harnett & Winglee, 2000, 2002, 2003] and spacecraft observations [Kurata et al., 2005; Halekas et al., 2008; Wieser et al., 2010]. 3D-PIC simulations reveal to be very helpful to analyze the diversion/braking of the particle flux and the characteristics of the resulting particles accumulation. The particle flux to the surface is significantly reduced at the magnetic anomaly, surrounded by a region of enhanced density due to the magnetic mirror effect. Finally we will present preliminary results on the interaction of the solar wind with weaker magnetic anomalies in which highly non-adiabatic interactions are expected.
Interactions of Ultracold Impurity Particles with Bose-Einstein Condensates
2015-06-23
STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Research on interactions between quantum gases and impurities has become an active area of AMO . Here...2015 Abstract. Research on interactions between quantum gases and impurities (ions, other atoms etc.) has become an active area of AMO research...respectively. Green and red electrodes are grounded. PRL 107, 103001 (2011) P HY S I CA L R EV I EW LE T T E R S week ending 2 SEPTEMBER 2011 0031-9007=11
Current sheet interaction and particle acceleration in the Jovian magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Andrew F.
1990-01-01
The thin, rapidly rotating current sheet in Jupiter's magnetodisk can energize heavy ions by hundreds of keV. If the magnetic field lines are azimuthally swept back, energetic ions undergoing nonadiabatic current sheet interactions will step radially outward and be centrifugally energized. Estimated energization times can be comparable to the Jovian rotation period. Nonadiabatic interactions with the rotating Jovian current sheet may be an important energization mechanism for heavy ions, but are not effective for energizing electrons or light ions like protons.
Elementary particle interactions. Progress report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992
Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.
1992-10-01
Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out.
Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.
1992-10-01
Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leefer, N.; Gerhardus, A.; Budker, D.; Flambaum, V. V.; Stadnik, Y. V.
2016-12-01
We propose a new method to search for hypothetical scalar particles that have feeble interactions with standard-model particles. In the presence of massive bodies, these interactions produce a nonzero Yukawa-type scalar-field magnitude. Using radio-frequency spectroscopy data of atomic dysprosium, as well as atomic clock spectroscopy data, we constrain the Yukawa-type interactions of a scalar field with the photon, electron, and nucleons for a range of scalar-particle masses corresponding to length scales >10 cm . In the limit as the scalar-particle mass mϕ→0 , our derived limits on the Yukawa-type interaction parameters are Λγ≳8 ×1 019 GeV , Λe≳1.3 ×1 019 GeV , and ΛN≳6 ×1 020 GeV . Our measurements also constrain combinations of interaction parameters, which cannot otherwise be probed with traditional anomalous-force measurements. We suggest further measurements to improve on the current level of sensitivity.
Modeling and experimental study of a honeycomb beam filled with damping particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, Nazeer; Ranganath, R.; Ghosal, Ashitava
2017-03-01
Honeycomb sandwich laminates which are the basic structural element of spacecraft have inherently low damping. In this paper, we propose to improve the damping characteristics of such structures by adding damping particles in the cells of the honeycomb. This paper presents modeling of a cantilever beam constructed with honeycomb structure with the hexagonal honeycomb cells, filled with particles. The beam is subjected to external dynamic loads and the interactions of damping particles with the walls of the cells and its overall effect on the frequency response function (FRF) and the damping of the beam are obtained. The discrete-element-method (DEM) is used to model the dynamics of the particles in conjunction with the governing equations of motion of the beam and the cell-walls. The particle-particle and particle-wall impact is modeled using Hertz's non-linear dissipative contact model for normal component and Coulomb's laws of friction for tangential component. Contiguous block of cells near the tip of the cantilever beam were filled with the damping particles and the beam was excited with a random signal near the fixed end. The damping and transfer functions obtained experimentally are compared to those obtained from the mathematical model and they are found to match very well. Further the model was used to study the effect of fill fraction, mass ratio, and the level of excitation signal on transfer function. Depending on the mass ratio and fill fraction, significant reductions in vibration levels are observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedyaev, V. L.; Morenko, I. V.; Siraev, A. R.; Galimov, E. R.; Gimranov, I. R.; Fazlyev, L. R.; Takhaviyev, M. S.
2015-06-01
Heating and melting of particles of polymeric powder in the central flow channel of spraying gun is investigated. Mathematical models of these processes taking into account convective and radiative-convective heat interaction of particles with environment is represented. Relations for calculating the temperature of the particles depending on the longitudinal coordinate, time of flight, operating and design parameters as well as thermophysical characteristics of the particles material and environment are given.
Nonlinear interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in toroidal plasmas
Candy, J.; Borba, D.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Berk, H.L.
1996-12-17
A numerical algorithm to study the nonlinear, resonant interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in tokamak geometry has been developed. The scope of the formalism is wide enough to describe the nonlinear evolution of fishbone modes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and ellipticity-induced Alfven eigenmodes, driven by both passing and trapped fast ions. When the instability is sufficiently weak, it is known that the wave-particle trapping nonlinearity will lead to mode saturation before wave-wave nonlinearities are appreciable. The spectrum of linear modes can thus be calculated using a magnetohydrodynamic normal-mode code, then nonlinearly evolved in time in an efficient way according to a two-time-scale Lagrangian dynamical wave model. The fast particle kinetic equation, including the effect of orbit nonlinearity arising from the mode perturbation, is simultaneously solved of the deviation, {delta}f = f {minus} f{sub 0}, from an initial analytic distribution f{sub 0}. High statistical resolution allows linear growth rates, frequency shifts, resonance broadening effects, and nonlinear saturation to be calculated quickly and precisely. The results have been applied to an ITER instability scenario. Results show that weakly-damped core-localized modes alone cause negligible alpha transport in ITER-like plasmas--even with growth rates one order of magnitude higher than expected values. However, the possibility of significant transport in reactor-type plasmas due to weakly unstable global modes remains an open question.
Ferrimagnetism and single-particle excitations in a periodic Anderson model on the honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seki, Kazuhiro; Shirakawa, Tomonori; Zhang, Qinfang; Li, Tao; Yunoki, Seiji
2015-04-01
By using the variationalcluster approximation and cluster perturbation theory, we investigate the magnetism and single-particle excitations of a periodic Anderson model on the honeycomb lattice as an effective model for the single-side hydrogenated graphene, namely, graphone. We calculate the magnetic moment as a function of U (Coulomb interaction on impurity sites) with showing that the ground state is ferrimagneticfor any U > 0. We then calculate the single-particle excitations and show that the single-particle excitations are gapless and exhibit quadratic dispersion relation near the Fermi energy.
Experimental validation of different modeling approaches for solid particle receivers.
Khalsa, Siri Sahib S.; Amsbeck, Lars , Spain and Stuttgart, Germany); Roger, Marc , Spain and Stuttgart, Germany); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Buck, Reiner , Spain and Stuttgart, Germany); Ho, Clifford Kuofei
2009-07-01
Solid particle receivers have the potential to provide high-temperature heat for advanced power cycles, thermochemical processes, and thermal storage via direct particle absorption of concentrated solar energy. This paper presents two different models to evaluate the performance of these systems. One model is a detailed computational fluid dynamics model using FLUENT that includes irradiation from the concentrated solar flux, two-band re-radiation and emission within the cavity, discrete-phase particle transport and heat transfer, gas-phase convection, wall conduction, and radiative and convective heat losses. The second model is an easy-to-use and fast simulation code using Matlab that includes solar and thermal radiation exchange between the particle curtain, cavity walls, and aperture, but neglects convection. Both models were compared to unheated particle flow tests and to on-sun heating tests. Comparisons between measured and simulated particle velocities, opacity, particle volume fractions, particle temperatures, and thermal efficiencies were found to be in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were also performed with the models to identify parameters and modifications to improve the performance of the solid particle receiver.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mai-Duy, N.; Phan-Thien, N.; Khoo, B. C.
2015-04-01
In the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation of suspension, the fluid (solvent) and colloidal particles are replaced by a set of DPD particles and therefore their relative sizes (as measured by their exclusion zones) can affect the maximal packing fraction of the colloidal particles. In this study, we investigate roles of the conservative, dissipative and random forces in this relative size ratio (colloidal/solvent). We propose a mechanism of adjusting the DPD parameters to properly model the solvent phase (the solvent here is supposed to have the same isothermal compressibility to that of water).
Modeling photoacoustic spectral features of micron-sized particles.
Strohm, Eric M; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael C
2014-10-07
The photoacoustic signal generated from particles when irradiated by light is determined by attributes of the particle such as the size, speed of sound, morphology and the optical absorption coefficient. Unique features such as periodically varying minima and maxima are observed throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum, where the periodicity depends on these physical attributes. The frequency content of the photoacoustic signals can be used to obtain the physical attributes of unknown particles by comparison to analytical solutions of homogeneous symmetric geometric structures, such as spheres. However, analytical solutions do not exist for irregularly shaped particles, inhomogeneous particles or particles near structures. A finite element model (FEM) was used to simulate photoacoustic wave propagation from four different particle configurations: a homogeneous particle suspended in water, a homogeneous particle on a reflecting boundary, an inhomogeneous particle with an absorbing shell and non-absorbing core, and an irregularly shaped particle such as a red blood cell. Biocompatible perfluorocarbon droplets, 3-5 μm in diameter containing optically absorbing nanoparticles were used as the representative ideal particles, as they are spherical, homogeneous, optically translucent, and have known physical properties. The photoacoustic spectrum of micron-sized single droplets in suspension and on a reflecting boundary were measured over the frequency range of 100-500 MHz and compared directly to analytical models and the FEM. Good agreement between the analytical model, FEM and measured values were observed for a droplet in suspension, where the spectral minima agreed to within a 3.3 MHz standard deviation. For a droplet on a reflecting boundary, spectral features were correctly reproduced using the FEM but not the analytical model. The photoacoustic spectra from other common particle configurations such as particle with an absorbing shell and a
Modeling photoacoustic spectral features of micron-sized particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strohm, Eric M.; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael C.
2014-10-01
The photoacoustic signal generated from particles when irradiated by light is determined by attributes of the particle such as the size, speed of sound, morphology and the optical absorption coefficient. Unique features such as periodically varying minima and maxima are observed throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum, where the periodicity depends on these physical attributes. The frequency content of the photoacoustic signals can be used to obtain the physical attributes of unknown particles by comparison to analytical solutions of homogeneous symmetric geometric structures, such as spheres. However, analytical solutions do not exist for irregularly shaped particles, inhomogeneous particles or particles near structures. A finite element model (FEM) was used to simulate photoacoustic wave propagation from four different particle configurations: a homogeneous particle suspended in water, a homogeneous particle on a reflecting boundary, an inhomogeneous particle with an absorbing shell and non-absorbing core, and an irregularly shaped particle such as a red blood cell. Biocompatible perfluorocarbon droplets, 3-5 μm in diameter containing optically absorbing nanoparticles were used as the representative ideal particles, as they are spherical, homogeneous, optically translucent, and have known physical properties. The photoacoustic spectrum of micron-sized single droplets in suspension and on a reflecting boundary were measured over the frequency range of 100-500 MHz and compared directly to analytical models and the FEM. Good agreement between the analytical model, FEM and measured values were observed for a droplet in suspension, where the spectral minima agreed to within a 3.3 MHz standard deviation. For a droplet on a reflecting boundary, spectral features were correctly reproduced using the FEM but not the analytical model. The photoacoustic spectra from other common particle configurations such as particle with an absorbing shell and a
Inverse Bremsstrahlung Heating in Laser-Matter Interactions: the effects of other particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandit, Rishi; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Ackad, Edward
2016-10-01
The laser-matter interaction of inverse bremsstrahlung heating is studied via a particle in cell code, PICLS and via molecular dynamics code, MD. Inverse bremsstrahlung heating, an important process in the laser-matter interaction, involves three different kinds of interactions, i)the interaction of the electrons with the external laser field, ii) the electron-ion interaction and iii) the electron-electron interaction. In the interaction of atomic clusters with femtosecond laser pulses, nanoplasmas with high density are created. A new scaling for the rate of energy absorption in inverse bremsstrahlung heating has been derived which depends on the external laser field as well as electric field due to the other particles. Electric fields due to the particles depend on a parameter, the potential depth. Thus, inverse bremsstrahlung heating also depends on potential depth. We will discuss the particle in cell code results and molecular dynamics code results by varying laser intensities and potential depths to understand the effect of potential depth as well as the particle's field's dependence of inverse bremsstrahlung heating in laser-matter interaction. This work was supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research under AFOSR Award No. FA9550-14-1-0247.
Computer modeling of test particle acceleration at oblique shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Robert B.
1988-01-01
The present evaluation of the basic techniques and illustrative results of charged particle-modeling numerical codes suitable for particle acceleration at oblique, fast-mode collisionless shocks emphasizes the treatment of ions as test particles, calculating particle dynamics through numerical integration along exact phase-space orbits. Attention is given to the acceleration of particles at planar, infinitessimally thin shocks, as well as to plasma simulations in which low-energy ions are injected and accelerated at quasi-perpendicular shocks with internal structure.
TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook
Kuang, C.
2016-02-01
The Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) measures the size distribution of aerosols ranging from 10 nm up to 1000 nm. The SMPS uses a bipolar aerosol charger to keep particles within a known charge distribution. Charged particles are classified according to their electrical mobility, using a long-column differential mobility analyzer (DMA). Particle concentration is measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC). The SMPS is well-suited for applications including: nanoparticle research, atmospheric aerosol studies, pollution studies, smog chamber evaluations, engine exhaust and combustion studies, materials synthesis, filter efficiency testing, nucleation/condensation studies, and rapidly changing aerosol systems.
Colloidal interactions between Langmuir-Blodgett bitumen films and fine solid particles.
Long, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob H
2006-10-10
In oil sand processing, accumulation of surface-active compounds at various interfaces imposes a significant impact on bitumen recovery and bitumen froth cleaning (i.e., froth treatment) by altering the interfacial properties and colloidal interactions among various oil sand components. In the present study, bitumen films were prepared at toluene/water interfaces using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) upstroke deposition technique. The surface of the prepared LB bitumen films was found to be hydrophobic, comprised of wormlike aggregates containing a relatively high content of oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen, indicating an accumulation of surface-active compounds in the films. Using an atomic force microscope, colloidal interactions between the LB bitumen films and fine solids (model silica particles and clay particles chosen directly from an oil sand tailing stream) were measured in industrial plant process water and compared with those measured in simple electrolyte solutions of controlled pH and divalent cation concentrations. The results show a stronger long-range repulsive force and weaker adhesion force in solutions of higher pH and lower divalent cation concentration. In plant process water, a moderate long-range repulsive force and weak adhesion were measured despite its high electrolyte content. These findings provide more insight into the mechanisms of bitumen extraction and froth treatment.
Nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the outer radiation belts: Van Allen Probes results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton; Drake, James; Vasko, Ivan
2016-10-01
Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. Observations of electron velocity distributions and chorus waves by the Van Allen Probe B provided long-lasting signatures of electron Landau resonant interactions with oblique chorus waves in the outer radiation belt. In the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field, such resonant interactions then lead to the formation of a plateau in the parallel (with respect to the geomagnetic field) velocity distribution due to trapping of electrons into the wave effective potential. The feedback from trapped particles provides steepening of parallel electric field and development of TDS seeded from initial whistler structure (well explained in terms of Particle-In-Cell model). The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system and are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts.
Test of Particle-Assisted Tunneling for Strongly Interacting Fermions in an Optical Superlattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, Tim; Duan, Luming
2008-05-01
Fermions in an optical lattice near a wide Feshbach resonance are expected to be described by an effective Hamiltonian which is equivalent to the general Hubbard model (GHM), with particle-assisted tunneling rates resulting from the strong atomic interaction. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243202 (2005).] Here, we propose a scheme to unambiguously test the predictions of this effective Hamiltonian through manipulation of ultracold atoms in an inhomogeneous optical superlattice. The superlattice potential separates the lattice into an array of independent double wells, allowing an exact solution of the GHM which can be compared with experimental observations. In practical experimental configurations the presence of a global harmonic trap makes each double well slightly different, and the measured time-of-flight images involve signals that are averaged over all potential wells. In spite of this complication, we show that under appropriate manipulation of the lattice barrier and the! external magnetic field, one can reconstruct precisely the two-site dynamics from the time-of-flight images. This provides a quantitative testbed to compare theory with experiments in the strongly interacting region. The proposed measurement also allows us to infer the structure of the low energy Hilbert space, directly testing a key assumption in the derivation of the effective Hamiltonian, and it allows a complete empirical determination of all the parameters in the effective GHM, including the particle-assisted tunneling rates.
Modelling complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of particle-size
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberson, Sam; Weltje, Gert Jan
2014-05-01
Estimates of particle-size made by operators in the field and laboratory represent a vast and relatively untapped data archive. The wide spatial distribution of particle-size estimates makes them ideal for constructing geological models and soil maps. This study uses a large data set from the Netherlands (n = 4837) containing both operator estimates of particle size and complete particle-size distributions measured by laser granulometry. This study introduces a logit-based constrained-cubic-spline (CCS) algorithm to interpolate complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates. The CCS model is compared to four other models: (i) a linear interpolation; (ii) a log-hyperbolic interpolation; (iii) an empirical logistic function; and (iv) an empirical arctan function. Operator estimates were found to be both inaccurate and imprecise; only 14% of samples were successfully classified using the Dutch classification scheme for fine sediment. Operator estimates of sediment particle-size encompass the same range of values as particle-size distributions measured by laser analysis. However, the distributions measured by laser analysis show that most of the sand percentage values lie between zero and one, so the majority of the variability in the data is lost because operator estimates are made to the nearest 1% at best, and more frequently to the nearest 5%. A method for constructing complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of sediment texture using a logit constrained cubit spline (CCS) interpolation algorithm is presented. This model and four other previously published methods are compared to establish the best approach to modelling particle-size distributions. The logit-CCS model is the most accurate method, although both logit-linear and log-linear interpolation models provide reasonable alternatives. Models based on empirical distribution functions are less accurate than interpolation algorithms for modelling particle-size distributions in
Particle Physics Primer: Explaining the Standard Model of Matter.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vondracek, Mark
2002-01-01
Describes the Standard Model, a basic model of the universe that describes electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force radioactivity, and the strong nuclear force responsible for holding particles within the nucleus together. (YDS)
Applying Particle Tracking Model In The Coastal Modeling System
2011-01-01
Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-78 January 2011 2 Figure 1. CMS domain, grid, and bathymetry . CMS-Flow is driven by...through the simulation. At the end of the simulation, about 65 percent of the released clay particles are considered “ dead ,” ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-78 January...2011 11 which means that they are either permanently buried at the sea bed or have moved out of the model domain. Figure 11. Specifications of
Sticking transition in a minimal model for the collisions of active particles in quantum fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Vishwanath; Brachet, Marc; Pandit, Rahul
2016-10-01
Particles of low velocity, traveling without dissipation in a superfluid, can interact and emit sound when they collide. We propose a minimal model in which the equations of motion of the particles, including a short-range repulsive force, are self-consistently coupled with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We show that this model generates naturally an effective superfluid-mediated attractive interaction between the particles; and we study numerically the collisional dynamics of particles as a function of their incident kinetic energy and the length scale of the repulsive force. We find a transition from almost elastic to completely inelastic (sticking) collisions as the parameters are tuned. We find that aggregation and clustering result from this sticking transition in multiparticle systems.
Merging for Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic Modeling of the Multiple Plasma Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lipatov, Alexander S.
2011-01-01
We suggest a merging procedure for the Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic (PMCPK) method in case of inter-penetrating flow (multiple plasma beams). We examine the standard particle-in-cell (PIC) and the PMCPK methods in the case of particle acceleration by shock surfing for a wide range of the control numerical parameters. The plasma dynamics is described by a hybrid (particle-ion-fluid-electron) model. Note that one may need a mesh if modeling with the computation of an electromagnetic field. Our calculations use specified, time-independent electromagnetic fields for the shock, rather than self-consistently generated fields. While a particle-mesh method is a well-verified approach, the CPK method seems to be a good approach for multiscale modeling that includes multiple regions with various particle/fluid plasma behavior. However, the CPK method is still in need of a verification for studying the basic plasma phenomena: particle heating and acceleration by collisionless shocks, magnetic field reconnection, beam dynamics, etc.
Two-body relativistic scattering of directly interacting particles
Droz-Vincent, P.
1984-02-15
Two-body relativistic scattering via direct interaction is discussed. For a certain class of interactions the problem is equivalent to a family of nonrelativistic scattering problems. The relativistic mass shell is shown to correspond with the kinetic-energy shell of the reduced problem. Under certain sufficient assumptions it is shown that known proofs apply, which ensure that the wave operators exist off-shell. Under more precise conditions, the scattering operator S can be defined also on the mass shell, which is stable by its action. Moreover, S preserves the positivity of energy and is unitary with respect to the inner product of on-shell states. In a more particular case, we obtain a natural normalization in the interacting mass shell.
Numerical investigation of gas-particle interaction in polydisperse volcanic jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carcano, Susanna; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Bonaventura, Luca; Neri, Augusto
2014-05-01
We investigate the problem of underexpanded jet decompression when the injected fluid is a mixture of a gaseous phase and different classes of solid particles. The underexpanded multiphase jet problem is representative of phenomena that can be observed in the first stages of explosive volcanic eruptions. Whereas the case of homogeneous jets has been studied deeply in the literature, both experimentally, theoretically and numerically, the case of multiphase gas--particle jets still presents some open issues. It has been proven theoretically and experimentally that vents with supersonic or sonic velocity and gas pressure greater than the atmospheric one result in a rapid expansion and acceleration of the fluid to high Mach number. A series of expansion waves form and are reflected as compression waves at the flow boundary. The compression waves coealesce to form a standing normal shock wave (Mach disk), across which the fluid is rapidly compressed and decelerated to subsonic speeds. When solid particles are added to the gas flow, new phenomena associated to kinetic and thermal non-equilibrium between gas and particulate phases arise. Such effects are controlled by drag and heat exchange terms in the momentum and energy equations. In the present work we carry out two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations with the multiphase flow model PDAC (Neri et al., J. Geophys. Res, 2003; Carcano et al., Geosci. Mod. Dev., 2013), to identify and quantify non-equilibrium effects related to the interaction between the jet decompression structure and solid particles. We quantify, on a theoretical basis, the expected non-equilibrium effects between the gas and the solid phase in terms of the particle Stokes numer (St), i.e. the ratio between the particle relaxation time and a characteristic time scale of the jet (taken as the formation time of the Mach disk shock), for two sample grain-size distributions of natural events (Mount St. Helens, 1980; Vesuvius, aD 79). The Stokes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adesemowo, Morakinyo; Shelton, John
2016-11-01
Previous experimental and numerical investigations involving lid-driven cavity flows with particle suspensions have primarily focused on particle tracking and the visualization of complex three-dimensional structures that compose the flow field. However, these particle suspensions and their resulting particle-particle interactions could also be viewed as a system of time-dependent perturbation equations to the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations and could affect both the stability and steady-state characteristics of the two-dimensional lid-driven cavity system. In this investigation, an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to modeling particle suspensions in the lid-driven cavity is utilized in FV-CFD simulations to investigate the effect particle density, area fraction, and Reynolds number have on the two-dimensional flow characteristics of a laminar fluid. Observations have indicated that the development of the primary vortex in the lid-driven cavity varies according to the area fraction of particle suspensions in the system; transitioning from development via an adverse pressure gradient at the top-right corner of the cavity towards particle-laden behavior where particle-particle interactions dominate the development of the primary vortex. Dynamic responses were also observed for particle systems of less dense particles. Finally, a comparison between flows perturbed using disturbance velocities and from particle interactions was performed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragot, B. R.
2012-10-01
A new method for simulating the three-dimensional dynamics of charged energetic particles in very broadband noncompressive magnetic turbulence is introduced. All scales within the primary inertial range of the turbulence observed in the solar wind near 1 AU are now included for the independent computations of both the particle dynamics and the turbulent magnetic field lines (MFLs). While previous theories of resonant particle pitch-angle (PA) scattering and transport in interplanetary magnetic fields had favored interpreting the observed depletions in the electron PA distributions (PADs) around 90° PA as evidence of poor scattering at low PA cosines, the computed particle dynamics reveal a very different reality. The MFL directions now vary on many scales, and the PADs are depleted around 90° PA due to nonresonant filtering of the particles that propagate at too large an angle to the local magnetic field. Rather than being too weak, the scattering through 90° PA is actually so strong that the particles (electrons and protons/ions) are reflected and trapped in the turbulent magnetic fields. While the low-frequency nonresonant turbulence produces ubiquitous magnetic traps that only let through particles with the most field-aligned velocities, higher-frequency near-gyroscale turbulence, when present, enhances particle transport by allowing the particles to navigate between magnetic traps. Finally, visualizing both particle trajectories and MFLs in the very same turbulence reveals a powerful tool for understanding the effects of the turbulent fields on the particle dynamics and cross-field transport. Some cross-field-line scattering, strongly amplified by MFL dispersal, results in a strong cross-field scattering of the particles. From this visualization, it also appears that near-gyroscale turbulence, previously known as gyroresonant turbulence, does not resonantly interact with the particles. The interaction between particles and fields at or near the gyroscale
Phytoplankton as Particles - A New Approach to Modeling Algal Blooms
2013-07-01
behaviors. A particle- tracking model is inserted into the CE-QUAL-ICM eutrophication model. Phytoplankton are quantified as carbonaceous biomass attached to...phytoplankton transport and production is central to the understanding and remediation of a host of environmental problems, including eutrophication ...comprehensive eutrophication model which will provide transport and ambient conditions to the modeled particles. ERDC/EL TR-13-13 3 Figure 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, C.; Lin, E.
2014-12-01
In this study, modeling of suspended sediment particle movement in extreme flows is proposed by stochastic particle tracking modeling approaches. The proposed stochastic model is governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE) composed of two random processes (a Wiener process and a Poisson process), and a random variable (i.e., flow magnitude) simulated by the extreme value Type I distribution. An extreme flow is defined as a hydrologic flow event (such as a flash flood) or a large flow perturbation with a low probability of occurrence and a high impact on its ambient flow environment. In the proposed particle tracking model, a random term mainly caused by fluid eddy motions is modeled as a Wiener process, while the random occurrences of a sequence of extreme flows can be modeled as a Poisson process. Following previous work by Oh and Tsai (2010)[1] and Tsai et al. (2014)[2], this study is intended to modify the jump term, which models the abrupt changes of particle position in the extreme flow environments. It is proposed that the probabilistic magnitude of extreme events can be simulated by the extreme value type I (EV I) distribution. The ensemble mean and variance of particle trajectory can be obtained from the proposed stochastic models via simulations. Our findings suggest that the ability to consider the probabilistic magnitude of extreme events can provide a more comprehensive and realistic estimate of the uncertainty of particle movement when extreme flow events occur. It is also found that the variance of particle position may be attributed to both the random magnitudes and occurrences of particle jumps in the presence of extreme flow events. It is demonstrated from this study that the proposed model can more explicitly quantify the uncertainty of particle movement by taking into considerations both the random arrival process of extreme flows and the variability of the extreme flow magnitude. [1] Oh, J. S., and Tsai, C.W.(2010). "A stochastic jump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pugnat, P.; Ballou, R.; Schott, M.; Husek, T.; Sulc, M.; Deferne, G.; Duvillaret, L.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Flekova, L.; Hosek, J.; Jary, V.; Jost, R.; Kral, M.; Kunc, S.; Macuchova, K.; Meissner, K. A.; Morville, J.; Romanini, D.; Siemko, A.; Slunecka, M.; Vitrant, G.; Zicha, J.
2014-08-01
Recent theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the Standard Model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for "Light Shining through a Wall" (LSW) from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into "Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles" (WISPs), like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over the unprecedented length of $2 \\times 14.3$ m. No excess of events has been detected over the background. The di-photon couplings of possible new light scalar and pseudo-scalar particles can be constrained in the massless limit to be less than $8.0\\times10^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$. These results are very close to the most stringent laboratory constraints obtained for the coupling of ALPs to two photons. Plans for further improving the sensitivity of the OSQAR experiment are presented.
Hydrodynamic model for particle size segregation in granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trujillo, Leonardo; Herrmann, Hans J.
2003-12-01
We present a hydrodynamic theoretical model for “Brazil nut” size segregation in granular materials. We give analytical solutions for the rise velocity of a large intruder particle immersed in a medium of monodisperse fluidized small particles. We propose a new mechanism for this particle size-segregation due to buoyant forces caused by density variations which come from differences in the local “granular temperature”. The mobility of the particles is modified by the energy dissipation due to inelastic collisions and this leads to a different behavior from what one would expect for an elastic system. Using our model we can explain the size ratio dependence of the upward velocity.
Production of neutrons from interactions of GCR-like particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heilbronn, L.; Frankel, K.; Holabird, K.; Zeitlin, C.; McMahan, M. A.; Rathbun, W.; Cronqvist, M.; Gong, W.; Madey, R.; Htun, M.; Elaasar, M.; Anderson, B. D.; Baldwin, A. R.; Jiang, J.; Keane, D.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Watson, J. W.; Zhang, W. M.; Galonsky, A.; Ronningen, R.; Zecher, P.; Kruse, J.; Wang, J.; Miller, J. (Principal Investigator)
1998-01-01
In order to help assess the risk to astronauts due to the long-term exposure to the natural radiation environment in space, an understanding of how the primary radiation field is changed when passing through shielding and tissue materials must be obtained. One important aspect of the change in the primary radiation field after passing through shielding materials is the production of secondary particles from the breakup of the primary. Neutrons are an important component of the secondary particle field due to their relatively high biological weighting factors, and due to their relative abundance, especially behind thick shielding scenarios. Because of the complexity of the problem, the estimation of the risk from exposure to the secondary neutron field must be handled using calculational techniques. However, those calculations will need an extensive set of neutron cross section and thicktarget neutron yield data in order to make an accurate assessment of the risk. In this paper we briefly survey the existing neutron-production data sets that are applicable to the space radiation transport problem, and we point out how neutron production from protons is different than neutron production from heavy ions. We also make comparisons of one the heavy-ion data sets with Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) calculations.
Toward a Unified Picture of Elementary Particle Interactions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gaillard, Mary K.
1982-01-01
Discusses progress made over the last two decades concerning the synthesis and possible unification of the three interactions (strong, electromagnetic, gravitational) relevant to high energy experiments. Areas addressed include quantum field theories, a unified quantum field theory, connection with cosmology, and possibilities for