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Sample records for model particle interactions

  1. Particle-Surface Interaction Model and Method of Determining Particle-Surface Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method and model of predicting particle-surface interactions with a surface, such as the surface of a spacecraft. The method includes the steps of: determining a trajectory path of a plurality of moving particles; predicting whether any of the moving particles will intersect a surface; predicting whether any of the particles will be captured by the surface and/or; predicting a reflected trajectory and velocity of particles reflected from the surface.

  2. Modeling of particle interactions in magnetorheological elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Biller, A. M. Stolbov, O. V. Raikher, Yu. L.

    2014-09-21

    The interaction between two particles made of an isotropic linearly polarizable magnetic material and embedded in an elastomer matrix is studied. In this case, when an external field is imposed, the magnetic attraction of the particles, contrary to point dipoles, is almost wraparound. The exact solution of the magnetic problem in the linear polarization case, although existing, is not practical; to circumvent its use, an interpolation formula is proposed. One more interpolation expression is developed for the resistance of the elastic matrix to the field-induced particle displacements. Minimization of the total energy of the pair reveals its configurational bistability in a certain field range. One of the possible equilibrium states corresponds to the particles dwelling at a distance, the other—to their collapse in a tight dimer. This mesoscopic bistability causes magnetomechanical hysteresis which has important implications for the macroscopic behavior of magnetorheological elastomers.

  3. Shock Particle Interaction - Fully Resolved Simulations and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Yash; Neal, Chris; Jackson, Thomas L.; Balachandar, S. "Bala"; Thakur, Siddharth

    2016-11-01

    Currently there is a substantial lack of fully resolved data for shock interacting with multiple particles. In this talk we will fill this gap by presenting results of shock interaction with 1-D array and 3-D structured arrays of particles. Objectives of performing fully resolved simulations of shock propagation through packs of multiple particles are twofold, 1) To understand the complicated physical phenomena occurring during shock particle interaction, and 2) To translate the knowledge from microscale simulations in building next generation point-particle models for macroscale simulations that can better predict the motion (forces) and heat transfer for particles. We compare results from multiple particle simulations against the single particle simulations and make relevant observations. The drag history and flow field for multiple particle simulations are markedly different from those of single particle simluations, highlighting the effect of neighboring particles. We propose new models which capture this effect of neighboring particles. These models are called Pair-wise Interaction Extended Point Particle models (PIEP). Effect of multiple neighboring particles is broken down into pair-wise interactions, and these pair-wise interactions are superimposed to get the final model U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  4. Utilitarian supersymmetric gauge model of particle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ernest

    2010-05-01

    A remarkabale U(1) gauge extension of the supersymmetric standard model was proposed 8 years ago. It is anomaly free, has no μ term, and conserves baryon and lepton numbers automatically. The phenomenology of a specific version of this model is discussed. In particular, leptoquarks are predicted, with couplings to the heavy singlet neutrinos, the scalar partners of which may be components of dark matter. The Majorana neutrino mass matrix itself may have two zero subdeterminants.

  5. Theory and modeling of particles with DNA-mediated interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licata, Nicholas A.

    2008-05-01

    In recent years significant attention has been attracted to proposals which utilize DNA for nanotechnological applications. Potential applications of these ideas range from the programmable self-assembly of colloidal crystals, to biosensors and nanoparticle based drug delivery platforms. In Chapter I we introduce the system, which generically consists of colloidal particles functionalized with specially designed DNA markers. The sequence of bases on the DNA markers determines the particle type. Due to the hybridization between complementary single-stranded DNA, specific, type-dependent interactions can be introduced between particles by choosing the appropriate DNA marker sequences. In Chapter II we develop a statistical mechanical description of the aggregation and melting behavior of particles with DNA-mediated interactions. In Chapter III a model is proposed to describe the dynamical departure and diffusion of particles which form reversible key-lock connections. In Chapter IV we propose a method to self-assemble nanoparticle clusters using DNA scaffolds. A natural extension is discussed in Chapter V, the programmable self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters where the desired cluster geometry is encoded using DNA-mediated interactions. In Chapter VI we consider a nanoparticle based drug delivery platform for targeted, cell specific chemotherapy. In Chapter VII we present prospects for future research: the connection between DNA-mediated colloidal crystallization and jamming, and the inverse problem in self-assembly.

  6. A study on the validity of the point-particle model for particle-turbulence interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongzhen; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2002-11-01

    The point-particle model, widely used in simulations of particle-turbulence interaction, is justified when the particle size is smaller than or comparable to the Kolmogorov scale. The precise limits of validity of the approximation and the manner in which errors accrue when the particle size increases are not well known. In the present work, direct simulations are conducted for a single finite-size particle suspended in a decaying homogeneous turbulent flow generated with a spectral code as an intial condition. The simulations are conducted by means of the PHYSALIS method. The trajectories of finite-size and point particles are compared as the particle radius is increased above the Kolmogorov scale for different Stokes numbers.

  7. Interactive computational models of particle dynamics using virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, T.; Diachin, D.; Freitag, L.; Heath, D.; Herzog, J.; Michels, W.

    1996-12-31

    An increasing number of industrial applications rely on computational models to reduce costs in product design, development, and testing cycles. Here, the authors discuss an interactive environment for the visualization, analysis, and modification of computational models used in industrial settings. In particular, they focus on interactively placing massless, massed, and evaporating particulate matter in computational fluid dynamics applications.they discuss the numerical model used to compute the particle pathlines in the fluid flow for display and analysis. They briefly describe the toolkits developed for vector and scalar field visualization, interactive particulate source placement, and a three-dimensional GUI interface. This system is currently used in two industrial applications, and they present the tools in the context of these applications. They summarize the current state of the project and offer directions for future research.

  8. How to model the interaction of charged Janus particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieronimus, Reint; Raschke, Simon; Heuer, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the interaction of charged Janus particles including screening effects. The explicit interaction is mapped via a least square method on a variable number n of systematically generated tensors that reflect the angular dependence of the potential. For n = 2 we show that the interaction is equivalent to a model previously described by Erdmann, Kröger, and Hess (EKH). Interestingly, this mapping is for n = 2 not able to capture the subtleties of the interaction for small screening lengths. Rather, a larger number of tensors has to be used. We find that the characteristics of the Janus type interaction plays an important role for the aggregation behavior. We obtained cluster structures up to the size of 13 particles for n = 2 and 36 and screening lengths κ-1 = 0.1 and 1.0 via Monte Carlo simulations. The influence of the screening length is analyzed and the structures are compared to results for an electrostatic-type potential and for the multipole-expanded Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. We find that a dipole-like potential (EKH or dipole DLVO approximation) is not able to sufficiently reproduce the anisotropy effects of the potential. Instead, a higher order expansion has to be used to obtain cluster structures that are compatible with experimental observations. The resulting minimum-energy clusters are compared to those of sticky hard sphere systems. Janus particles with a short-range screened interaction resemble sticky hard sphere clusters for all considered particle numbers, whereas for long-range screening even very small clusters are structurally different.

  9. Interactive data exploration and particle tracking for general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, R. I.; Peskin, R. L.; Walther, S. S.; Zinn, H. P.

    1995-01-01

    The SCENE environment for interactive visualization of complex data sets is discussed. This environment is used to create tools for graphical exploration of atmospheric flow models. These tools may be extended by the user in a seamless manner, so that no programming is required. A module for accurately tracing field lines and particle trajectories in SCENE is presented. This is used to examine the flowfield qualitatively with streamlines and pathlines and to identify critical points in the velocity field. The paper also describes a visualization tool for general circulation models on which the primary features of the environment are demonstrated.

  10. Multi-particle interaction in a model of the hydrophobic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedeaux, D.; Koper, G. J. M.; Ispolatov, S.; Widom, B.

    2001-03-01

    The multi-particle potential of mean force between interstitial solute molecules in Ben-Naim's one-dimensional, many-state lattice model is calculated. The solution is a direct extension of an earlier calculation of the two-particle interaction by Kolomeisky and Widom (Faraday Dis. 112 (1999) 81). It is found that the many-particle interaction potential is a sum of pair potentials between neighboring particles only. An exact equation of state, expressing the activity in the temperature and the pressure, is derived. The resulting solubility of a gaseous hydrophobe, which is defined osmotically, is calculated and found to increase considerably with the gas density.

  11. Reduced Quasilinear Models for Energetic Particles Interaction with Alfvenic Eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ghantous, Katy

    2013-11-01

    The Line Broadened Quasilinear (LBQ) and the 1.5D reduced models are able to predict the effect of Alfvenic eigenmodes' interaction with energetic particles in burning plasmas. This interaction can result in energetic-particle losses that can damage the first wall, deteriorate the plasma performance, and even prevent ignition. The 1.5D model assumes a broad spectrum of overlapping modes and, based on analytic expressions for the growth and damping rates, calculates the pressure profiles that the energetic particles relax to upon interacting with the modes. 1.5D is validated with DIII-D experiments and predicted neutron losses consistent with observation. The model is employed to predict alpha-particle fusion-product losses in a large-scale operational parameter-space for burning plasmas. \\par The LBQ model captures the interaction both in the regime of isolated modes as well as in the conventional regime of overlapping modes. Rules were established that allow quasilinear equations to replicate the expected steady-state saturation levels of isolated modes. The fitting formula is improved and the model is benchmarked with a Vlasov code, BOT. The saturation levels are accurately predicted and the mode evolution is well-replicated in the case of steady-state evolution where the collisions are high enough that coherent structures do not form. When the collisionality is low, oscillatory behavior can occur. LBQ can also exhibit non-steady behavior, but the onset of oscillations occurs for much higher collisional rates in BOT than in LBQ. For certain parameters of low collisionality, hole-clump creation and frequency chirping can occur which are not captured by the LBQ model. Also, there are cases of non-steady evolution without chirping which is possible for LBQ to study. However the results are inconclusive since the periods and amplitudes of the oscillations in the mode evolution are not well-replicated. If multiple modes exist, they can grow to the point of overlap

  12. Reduced quasilinear models for energetic particles interaction with Alfvenic eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghantous, Katy

    The Line Broadened Quasilinear (LBQ) and the 1.5D reduced models are able to predict the effect of Alfvenic eigenmodes' interaction with energetic particles in burning plasmas. This interaction can result in energetic-particle losses that can damage the first wall, deteriorate the plasma performance, and even prevent ignition. The 1.5D model assumes a broad spectrum of overlapping modes and, based on analytic expressions for the growth and damping rates, calculates the pressure profiles that the energetic particles relax to upon interacting with the modes. 1.5D is validated with DIII-D experiments and predicted neutron losses consistent with observation. The model is employed to predict alpha-particle fusion-product losses in a large-scale operational parameter-space for burning plasmas. The LBQ model captures the interaction both in the regime of isolated modes as well as in the conventional regime of overlapping modes. Rules were established that allow quasilinear equations to replicate the expected steady-state saturation levels of isolated modes. The fitting formula is improved and the model is benchmarked with a Vlasov code, BOT. The saturation levels are accurately predicted and the mode evolution is well-replicated in the case of steady-state evolution where the collisions are high enough that coherent structures do not form. When the collisionality is low, oscillatory behavior can occur. LBQ can also exhibit non-steady behavior, but the onset of oscillations occurs for much higher collisional rates in BOT than in LBQ. For certain parameters of low collisionality, hole-clump creation and frequency chirping can occur which are not captured by the LBQ model. Also, there are cases of non-steady evolution without chirping which is possible for LBQ to study. However the results are inconclusive since the periods and amplitudes of the oscillations in the mode evolution are not well-replicated. If multiple modes exist, they can grow to the point of overlap which

  13. Model-independent analyses of dark-matter particle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.

    2015-03-24

    A model-independent treatment of dark-matter particle elastic scattering has been developed, yielding the most general interaction for WIMP-nucleon low-energy scattering, and the resulting amplitude has been embedded into the nucleus, taking into account the selection rules imposed by parity and time-reversal. One finds that, in contrast to the usual spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation, the resulting cross section contains six independent nuclear response functions, three of which are associated with possible velocity-dependent interactions. We find that current experiments are four orders of magnitude more sensitive to derivative couplings than is apparent in the standard SI/SD treatment, which necessarily associated such interactions with cross sections proportional to v2T ~ 10⁻⁶, where vT is the WIMP velocity relative to the center of mass of the nuclear target.

  14. Model-independent analyses of dark-matter particle interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.

    2015-03-24

    A model-independent treatment of dark-matter particle elastic scattering has been developed, yielding the most general interaction for WIMP-nucleon low-energy scattering, and the resulting amplitude has been embedded into the nucleus, taking into account the selection rules imposed by parity and time-reversal. One finds that, in contrast to the usual spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation, the resulting cross section contains six independent nuclear response functions, three of which are associated with possible velocity-dependent interactions. We find that current experiments are four orders of magnitude more sensitive to derivative couplings than is apparent in the standard SI/SD treatment, which necessarily associated such interactions withmore » cross sections proportional to v2T ~ 10⁻⁶, where vT is the WIMP velocity relative to the center of mass of the nuclear target.« less

  15. Triviality of a model of particles with point interactions in the thermodynamic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Thomas; Seiringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We consider a model of fermions interacting via point interactions, defined via a certain weighted Dirichlet form. While for two particles the interaction corresponds to infinite scattering length, the presence of further particles effectively decreases the interaction strength. We show that the model becomes trivial in the thermodynamic limit, in the sense that the free energy density at any given particle density and temperature agrees with the corresponding expression for non-interacting particles.

  16. A battery model that fully couples mechanics and electrochemistry at both particle and electrode levels by incorporation of particle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Lu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This paper develops a multi-scale mechanical-electrochemical model which enables fully coupled mechanics and electrochemistry at both particle and electrode levels. At the particle level, solid diffusion is modeled using a generalized chemical potential to capture the effects of mechanical stress and phase transformation. At the electrode level, the stress arising from particle interaction is incorporated in a continuum model. This particle interaction stress is in addition to the traditional concept of intercalation stress inside isolated particles. The particle and continuum electrode levels are linked by the particle interaction stress as loads on the particle surface, and by consideration of stress on the electrochemical reaction rate on the particle surface. The effect of mechanical stress on electrochemical reaction results in a stress-dependent over-potential between particle and electrolyte. Stress gradient in an electrode leads to inhomogeneous intercalation/deintercalation currents for particles depending on their interaction stress with neighbors, resulting in stress gradient induced inhomogeneous state of charge. Conversely, non-uniform intercalation/deintercalation currents in an electrode lead to stress between particles. With this model we have an important finding: an electrochemically inactive region in an electrode causes stress built-up. This model provides a powerful tool to address various problems such as fracture in-between particles.

  17. Microscale simulations of shock interaction with large assembly of particles for developing point-particle models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Siddharth; Neal, Chris; Mehta, Yash; Sridharan, Prasanth; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, S.

    2017-01-01

    Micrsoscale simulations are being conducted for developing point-particle and other related models that are needed for the mesoscale and macroscale simulations of explosive dispersal of particles. These particle models are required to compute (a) instantaneous aerodynamic force on the particle and (b) instantaneous net heat transfer between the particle and the surrounding. A strategy for a sequence of microscale simulations has been devised that allows systematic development of the hybrid surrogate models that are applicable at conditions representative of the explosive dispersal application. The ongoing microscale simulations seek to examine particle force dependence on: (a) Mach number, (b) Reynolds number, and (c) volume fraction (different particle arrangements such as cubic, face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC) and random). Future plans include investigation of sequences of fully-resolved microscale simulations consisting of an array of particles subjected to more realistic time-dependent flows that progressively better approximate the actual problem of explosive dispersal. Additionally, effects of particle shape, size, and number in simulation as well as the transient particle deformation dependence on various parameters including: (a) particle material, (b) medium material, (c) multiple particles, (d) incoming shock pressure and speed, (e) medium to particle impedance ratio, (f) particle shape and orientation to shock, etc. are being investigated.

  18. Towards a Revised Monte Carlo Neutral Particle Surface Interaction Model

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Stotler

    2005-06-09

    The components of the neutral- and plasma-surface interaction model used in the Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS 2 are reviewed. The idealized surfaces and processes handled by that model are inadequate for accurately simulating neutral transport behavior in present day and future fusion devices. We identify some of the physical processes missing from the model, such as mixed materials and implanted hydrogen, and make some suggestions for improving the model.

  19. The model of the mechanical interaction of particles with the combustion products in a nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teterev, A. V.; Mandrik, P. A.; Misuchenko, N. I.; Rudak, L. V.

    2017-07-01

    This article describes the development of model of interaction of condensed particles with the gas flow in the Laval nozzle. Conducted parametric calculations have shown that the interaction of particles with the combustion products, even with a relatively small volume content may lead to a qualitative change in the internal flow in the Laval nozzle, and thereby influence the characteristics of the nozzle.

  20. Lieb-Thirring inequality for a model of particles with point interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Rupert L.; Seiringer, Robert

    2012-09-15

    We consider a model of quantum-mechanical particles interacting via point interactions of infinite scattering length. In the case of fermions we prove a Lieb-Thirring inequality for the energy, i.e., we show that the energy is bounded from below by a constant times the integral of the particle density to the power (5/3).

  1. Chaotic delocalization of two interacting particles in the classical Harper model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-06-01

    We study the problem of two interacting particles in the classical Harper model in the regime when one-particle motion is absolutely bounded inside one cell of periodic potential. The interaction between particles breaks integrability of classical motion leading to emergence of Hamiltonian dynamical chaos. At moderate interactions and certain energies above the mobility edge this chaos leads to a chaotic propulsion of two particles with their diffusive spreading over the whole space both in one and two dimensions. At the same time the distance between particles remains bounded by one or two periodic cells demonstrating appearance of new composite quasi-particles called chaons. The effect of chaotic delocalization of chaons is shown to be rather general being present for Coulomb and short range interactions. It is argued that such delocalized chaons can be observed in experiments with cold atoms and ions in optical lattices.

  2. Map model for nonlinear alpha particle interaction with toroidal Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Ye, H.

    1992-09-01

    A map model has been developed for studying the nonlinear interaction of alpha particles with the toroidal Alfven eigenmodes. The map is constructed by assuming a linear interaction during a single poloidal transit, which allows the study of the nonlinear interaction over many transits. By using this map, analytic expressions are obtained for the particle nonlinear bounce frequency, and the wave amplitude threshold for the onset of particle orbit stochasticity. The map model can also facilitate self-consistent simulations which incorporate the time variation of the waves.

  3. Microbial interactions lead to rapid micro-scale successions on model marine particles.

    PubMed

    Datta, Manoshi S; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Gore, Jeff; Polz, Martin F; Cordero, Otto X

    2016-06-17

    In the ocean, organic particles harbour diverse bacterial communities, which collectively digest and recycle essential nutrients. Traits like motility and exo-enzyme production allow individual taxa to colonize and exploit particle resources, but it remains unclear how community dynamics emerge from these individual traits. Here we track the taxon and trait dynamics of bacteria attached to model marine particles and demonstrate that particle-attached communities undergo rapid, reproducible successions driven by ecological interactions. Motile, particle-degrading taxa are selected for during early successional stages. However, this selective pressure is later relaxed when secondary consumers invade, which are unable to use the particle resource but, instead, rely on carbon from primary degraders. This creates a trophic chain that shifts community metabolism away from the particle substrate. These results suggest that primary successions may shape particle-attached bacterial communities in the ocean and that rapid community-wide metabolic shifts could limit rates of marine particle degradation.

  4. Microbial interactions lead to rapid micro-scale successions on model marine particles

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Manoshi S.; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Gore, Jeff; Polz, Martin F.; Cordero, Otto X.

    2016-01-01

    In the ocean, organic particles harbour diverse bacterial communities, which collectively digest and recycle essential nutrients. Traits like motility and exo-enzyme production allow individual taxa to colonize and exploit particle resources, but it remains unclear how community dynamics emerge from these individual traits. Here we track the taxon and trait dynamics of bacteria attached to model marine particles and demonstrate that particle-attached communities undergo rapid, reproducible successions driven by ecological interactions. Motile, particle-degrading taxa are selected for during early successional stages. However, this selective pressure is later relaxed when secondary consumers invade, which are unable to use the particle resource but, instead, rely on carbon from primary degraders. This creates a trophic chain that shifts community metabolism away from the particle substrate. These results suggest that primary successions may shape particle-attached bacterial communities in the ocean and that rapid community-wide metabolic shifts could limit rates of marine particle degradation. PMID:27311813

  5. Delocalization of two interacting particles in the 2D Harper model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of two interacting particles in a two-dimensional quasiperiodic potential of the Harper model. We consider an amplitude of the quasiperiodic potential such that in absence of interactions all eigenstates are exponentially localized while the two interacting particles are delocalized showing anomalous subdiffusive spreading over the lattice with the spreading exponent b ≈ 0.5 instead of a usual diffusion with b = 1. This spreading is stronger than in the case of a correlated disorder potential with a one particle localization length as for the quasiperiodic potential. At the same time we do not find signatures of ballistic pairs existing for two interacting particles in the localized phase of the one-dimensional Harper model.

  6. Solvable model of the collective motion of heterogeneous particles interacting on a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takuma

    2014-02-01

    I propose a model of mutually interacting particles on an M-dimensional unit sphere. I derive the dynamics of the particles by extending the dynamics of the Kuramoto-Sakaguchi model. The dynamics include a natural-frequency matrix, which determines the motion of a particle with no external force, and an external force vector. The position (state variable) of a particle at a given time is obtained by the projection transformation of the initial position of the particle. The same projection transformation gives the position of the particles with the same natural-frequency matrix. I show that the motion of the center of mass of an infinite number of heterogeneous particles whose natural-frequency matrices are obtained from a class of multivariate Lorentz distribution is given by an M-dimensional ordinary differential equation in closed form. This result is an extension of the Ott-Antonsen theory.

  7. Axionlike particle assisted strongly interacting massive particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Ayuki; Kim, Hyungjin; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu

    2017-07-01

    We propose a new realization of strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) as self-interacting dark matter, where SIMPs couple to the standard model (SM) sector through an axionlike particle. Our model overcomes major obstacles accompanying the original SIMP model, such as a missing mechanism of kinetically equilibrating SIMPs with the SM plasma as well as marginal perturbativity of the chiral Lagrangian density. Remarkably, the parameter region realizing σself/mDM≃0.1 - 1 cm2/g is within the reach of future beam dump experiments such as the Search for Hidden Particles experiment.

  8. Pairwise Interaction Extended Point Particle (PIEP) Model for a Random Array of Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiki, Georges; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, Sivaramakrishnan; CenterCompressible Multiphase Turbulence Team

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates a flow past random array of spherical particles. The understanding of the governing forces within these arrays is crucial for obtaining accurate models used in particle-laden simulations. These models have to faithfully reflect the sub-grid interactions between the particles and the continuous phase. The models being used today assumes an average force on all particles within the array based on the mean volume fraction and Reynolds number. Here, we develop a model which can compute the drag and lateral forces on each particle by accounting for the precise location of few surrounding neighbors. A pairwise interaction is assumed where the perturbation flow induced by each neighbor is considered separately, then the effect of all neighbors are linearly superposed to obtain the total perturbation. Faxén correction is used to quantify the force perturbation due to the presence of the neighbors. The single neighbor perturbations are mapped in the vicinity of a reference sphere and stored as libraries. We test the Pairwise Interaction Extended Point-Particle (PIEP) model for random arrays at two different volume fractions of ϕ = 0 . 1 and 0.21 and Reynolds number in the range 16 <= Re <= 170 . The PIEP model predictions are compared against drag and lift forces obtained from fully-resolved DNS performed using immersed boundary method. We observe the PIEP model prediction to correlate much better with the DNS results than the classical mean drag model prediction.

  9. A Simple Model of Bose-Einstein Condensation of Interacting Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poluektov, Yu. M.

    2017-03-01

    A simple model of Bose-Einstein condensation of interacting particles is proposed. It is shown that in the condensate state the dependence of thermodynamic quantities on the interaction constant does not allow an expansion in powers of the coupling constant. Therefore, it is impossible to pass to the Einstein model of condensation in an ideal Bose gas by means of a limiting passage, setting the interaction constant to zero. The account for the interaction between particles eliminates difficulties in the description of condensation available in the model of an ideal gas, which are connected with the fulfillment of thermodynamic relations and an infinite value of the particle number fluctuation in the condensate phase.

  10. Concurrent Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Interaction Forces Improves Particle Deposition Predictions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chao; Ren, Carolyn L; Emelko, Monica B

    2016-04-19

    It is widely believed that media surface roughness enhances particle deposition-numerous, but inconsistent, examples of this effect have been reported. Here, a new mathematical framework describing the effects of hydrodynamics and interaction forces on particle deposition on rough spherical collectors in absence of an energy barrier was developed and validated. In addition to quantifying DLVO force, the model includes improved descriptions of flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation functions. This work demonstrates that hydrodynamic effects can significantly alter particle deposition relative to expectations when only the DLVO force is considered. Moreover, the combined effects of hydrodynamics and interaction forces on particle deposition on rough, spherical media are not additive, but synergistic. Notably, the developed model's particle deposition predictions are in closer agreement with experimental observations than those from current models, demonstrating the importance of inclusion of roughness impacts in particle deposition description/simulation. Consideration of hydrodynamic contributions to particle deposition may help to explain discrepancies between model-based expectations and experimental outcomes and improve descriptions of particle deposition during physicochemical filtration in systems with nonsmooth collector surfaces.

  11. 2D double interaction method for modeling small particles contaminating microstructures located on substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albella, P.; Moreno, F.; Saiz, J. M.; González, F.

    2007-07-01

    An interaction model developed in previous research [de la Peña JL, González F, Saiz JM, Moreno F, Valle PJ. Sizing particles on substrates. A general method for oblique incidence. J Appl Phys 1999; 85:432] is extended to the study of two-scaled systems consisting of particles located on larger structures. Far-field scattering patterns produced by these systems can be obtained by coherent addition of different electromagnetic contributions, each one obtained from an independent isolated particle calculation. Results are performed on a 2D scheme, where they can be easily compared with those given by an exact method. This analysis shows some features of the scattering patterns that can be obtained with high reliability. Research on this kind of systems can be applied to 3D situations like particle substrate contamination and particle particle contamination.

  12. Euler-Lagrange Modeling of Vortex Interaction with a Particle-Laden Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Fernando

    Rotorcraft operation in austere environments can result in difficult operating conditions, particularly in the vicinity of sandy areas. The uplift of sediment by rotorcraft downwash, a phenomenon known as brownout, hinders pilot visual cues and may result in a potentially dangerous situation. Brownout is a complex multiphase flow problem that is not unique and depends on both the characteristics of the rotorcraft and the sediment. The lack of fundamental understanding constrains models and limits development of technologies that could mitigate the adverse effects of brownout. This provides the over-arching motivation of the current work focusing on models of particle-laden sediment beds. The particular focus of the current investigations is numerical modeling of near-surface fluid-particle interactions in turbulent boundary layers with and without coherent vortices superimposed on the background flow, that model rotorcraft downwash. The simulations are performed with two groups of particles having different densities both of which display strong vortex-particle interaction close to the source location. The simulations include cases with inter-particle collisions and gravitational settling. Particle effects on the fluid are ignored. The numerical simulations are performed using an Euler- Lagrange method in which a fractional-step approach is used for the fluid and with the particulate phase advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The objectives are to gain insight into the fluid-particle dynamics that influence transport near the bed by analyzing the competing effects of the vortices, inter-particle collisions, and gravity. Following the introduction of coherent vortices into the domain, the structures convect downstream, dissipate, and then recover to an equilibrium state with the boundary layer. The particle phase displays an analogous return to an equilibrium state as the vortices dissipate and the boundary layer recovers, though this recovery is slower than

  13. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics and element bending group modeling of flexible fibers interacting with viscous fluids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiufeng; Liu, Moubin; Peng, Shiliu

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and element bending group (EBG) coupling method for modeling the interaction of flexible fibers with moving viscous fluids. SPH is a well-developed mesh-free particle method for simulating viscous fluid flows. EBG is also a particle method for modeling flexible bodies. The interaction of flexible fibers with moving viscous fluids is rendered through the interaction of EBG particles for flexible fiber and SPH particles for fluid. In numerical simulation, flexible fibers of different lengths are immersed in a moving viscous fluid driven by a body force. The drag force on the fiber obtained from SPH-EBG simulation agrees well with experimental observations. It is shown that the flexible fiber demonstrates three typical bending modes, including the U-shaped mode, the flapping mode, and the closed mode, and that the flexible fiber experiences a drag reduction due to its reconfiguration by bending. It is also found that the U4/3 drag scaling law for a flexible fiber is only valid for the U-shaped mode, but not valid for the flapping and closed modes. The results indicate that the reconfiguration of a flexible fiber is caused by the fluid force acting on it, while vortex shedding is of importance in the translations of bending modes.

  14. Electrostatic Interactions in Dissipative Particle Dynamics: Toward a Mesoscale Modeling of the Polyelectrolyte Brushes.

    PubMed

    Ibergay, Cyrille; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J

    2009-12-08

    We report mesoscopic simulations of bulk electrolytes and polyelectrolyte brushes using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method. The calculation of the electrostatic interactions is carried out using both the Ewald summation method and the particle-particle particle-mesh technique with charges distributed over the particles. The local components of the pressure tensor are calculated using the Irving and Kirkwood, and the method of planes and mechanical equilibrium is demonstrated. The profiles of the normal component of the pressure tensor are shown to be similar for both the Ewald and particle-particle particle-mesh methods for a single polyelectrolyte brush. We show that the PPPM method with the MOP technique is the appropriate choice for simulations of this type. The mesoscale modeling of a strongly stretched polylectrolyte brush formed by strong charged polymer chains at a high grafting density shows that the polyelectrolyte follows the nonlinear osmotic regime, as expected from the calculation of the Gouy-Chapman length and the dimensionless Manning ratio.

  15. A Hard Constraint Algorithm to Model Particle Interactions in DNA-laden Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Trebotich, D; Miller, G H; Bybee, M D

    2006-08-01

    We present a new method for particle interactions in polymer models of DNA. The DNA is represented by a bead-rod polymer model and is fully-coupled to the fluid. The main objective in this work is to implement short-range forces to properly model polymer-polymer and polymer-surface interactions, specifically, rod-rod and rod-surface uncrossing. Our new method is based on a rigid constraint algorithm whereby rods elastically bounce off one another to prevent crossing, similar to our previous algorithm used to model polymer-surface interactions. We compare this model to a classical (smooth) potential which acts as a repulsive force between rods, and rods and surfaces.

  16. Particle-hole symmetry in generalized seniority, microscopic interacting boson (fermion) model, nucleon-pair approximation, and other models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, L. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The particle-hole symmetry (equivalence) of the full shell-model Hilbert space is straightforward and routinely used in practical calculations. In this work I show that this symmetry is preserved in the subspace truncated up to a certain generalized seniority and give the explicit transformation between the states in the two types (particle and hole) of representations. Based on the results, I study particle-hole symmetry in popular theories that could be regarded as further truncations on top of the generalized seniority, including the microscopic interacting boson (fermion) model, the nucleon-pair approximation, and other models.

  17. Microfluidic devices for modeling cell-cell and particle-cell interactions in the microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Shen, Ming-Che; Pant, Kapil; Kiani, Mohammad F.

    2011-01-01

    Cell-fluid and cell-cell interactions are critical components of many physiological and pathological conditions in the microvasculature. Similarly, particle-cell interactions play an important role in targeted delivery of therapeutics to tissue. Development of in vitro fluidic devices to mimic these microcirculatory processes has been a critical step forward in our understanding of the inflammatory process, development of nano-particulate drug carriers, and developing realistic in vitro models of the microvasculature and its surrounding tissue. However, widely used parallel plate flow based devices and assays have a number of important limitations for studying the physiological conditions in vivo. In addition, these devices are resource hungry and time consuming for performing various assays. Recently developed, more realistic, microfluidic based devices have been able to overcome many of these limitations. In this review, an overview of the fluidic devices and their use in studying the effects of shear forces on cell-cell and cell-particle interactions is presented. In addition, use of mathematical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based models for interpreting the complex flow patterns in the microvasculature are highlighted. Finally, the potential of 3D microfluidic devices and imaging for better representing in vivo conditions under which cell-cell and cell-particle interactions take place are discussed. PMID:21763328

  18. Coulomb interactions in particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, G.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book develops analytical and computer models for beams in which Coulomb interactions are important. The research into the different phenomena of Coulomb interactions in particle beams is stimulated by developments in the field of electron beam lithography for VLSI electronics. The standard theory of charged particle optics breaks down for intense beams in which interactions between particles are significant. This monograph is devoted to the theory of these intense beams, which are not only used in VLSI electronics but also in scanning electron microscopes. The theory is also applicable to focused ion beams, which are used in VLSI mask repair.

  19. Elementary particle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to {mu}{sup +} and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics. (LSP)

  20. Deriving reaction-diffusion models in ecology from interacting particle systems.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, R S; Cosner, C

    2004-02-01

    We use a scaling procedure based on averaging Poisson distributed random variables to derive population level models from local models of interactions between individuals. The procedure is suggested by using the idea of hydrodynamic limits to derive reaction-diffusion models for population interactions from interacting particle systems. The scaling procedure is formal in the sense that we do not address the issue of proving that it converges; instead we focus on methods for computing the results of the scaling or deriving properties of rescaled systems. To that end we treat the scaling procedure as a transform, in analogy with the Laplace or Fourier transform, and derive operational formulas to aid in the computation of rescaled systems or the derivation of their properties. Since the limiting procedure is adapted from work by Durrett and Levin, we refer to the transform as the Durrett-Levin transform. We examine the effects of rescaling in various standard models, including Lotka-Volterra models, Holling type predator-prey models, and ratio-dependent models. The effects of scaling are mostly quantitative in models with smooth interaction terms, but ratio-dependent models are profoundly affected by the scaling. The scaling transforms ratio-dependent terms that are singular at the origin into smooth terms. Removing the singularity at the origin eliminates some of the unique dynamics that can arise in ratio-dependent models.

  1. Interactive Terascale Particle Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, David; Green, Bryan; Moran, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to produce an interactive visualization of a 2 TB computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data set using particle tracing (streaklines). We use the method introduced by Bruckschen et al. [2001] that pre-computes a large number of particles, stores them on disk using a space-filling curve ordering that minimizes seeks, and then retrieves and displays the particles according to the user's command. We describe how the particle computation can be performed using a PC cluster, how the algorithm can be adapted to work with a multi-block curvilinear mesh, and how the out-of-core visualization can be scaled to 296 billion particles while still achieving interactive performance on PG hardware. Compared to the earlier work, our data set size and total number of particles are an order of magnitude larger. We also describe a new compression technique that allows the lossless compression of the particles by 41% and speeds the particle retrieval by about 30%.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Interacting Stellar Winds Model Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Li, P. S.; Kwok, S.

    1997-12-01

    In the past decade, the Interacting Stellar Winds (ISW) model has been shown to be successful in explaining the formation of planetary nebulae, Wolf-Rayet nebulae, slow novae, and supernovae. Since analytical methods applied to the ISW model have been limited to the spherical symmetric (1D) geometry, numerical methods are necessary for axisymmetric (2D) or arbitrary (3D) geometries, such as the study of formation and evolution of planetary nebulae, and for symbiotic nova outbursts. The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm has been developed to study hydrodynamics using the particle method. This algorithm has been applied in many different fields successfully. In this paper, we apply the SPH algorithm using the TREE code to the problem of interacting winds dynamics. We present three simulations: (1) the interaction of two winds in spherical symmetry to demonstrate the validity of the algorithm in dealing with ISW modeling, (2) the formation and evolution of an axisymmetric nebula in the first 500 years, and (3) the interacting-colliding winds caused by a slow nova outburst in a symbiotic system. It is the first time that the SPH algorithm has been applied to an ISW simulation. The SPH algorithm is proved to be an accurate and powerful tool in studying ISW model. This work is supported by NASA's US ISO program and the University of Calgary.

  3. ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN

    2013-07-30

    The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NOνA”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

  4. Rubber particle proteins, HbREF and HbSRPP, show different interactions with model membranes.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Zhendre, Vanessa; Henry, Sarah; Thévenot, Julie; Dufourc, Erick J; Alves, Isabel D; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The biomembrane surrounding rubber particles from the hevea latex is well known for its content of numerous allergen proteins. HbREF (Hevb1) and HbSRPP (Hevb3) are major components, linked on rubber particles, and they have been shown to be involved in rubber synthesis or quality (mass regulation), but their exact function is still to be determined. In this study we highlighted the different modes of interactions of both recombinant proteins with various membrane models (lipid monolayers, liposomes or supported bilayers, and multilamellar vesicles) to mimic the latex particle membrane. We combined various biophysical methods (polarization-modulation-infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS)/ellipsometry, attenuated-total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR), fluorescence spectroscopy) to elucidate their interactions. Small rubber particle protein (SRPP) shows less affinity than rubber elongation factor (REF) for the membranes but displays a kind of "covering" effect on the lipid headgroups without disturbing the membrane integrity. Its structure is conserved in the presence of lipids. Contrarily, REF demonstrates higher membrane affinity with changes in its aggregation properties, the amyloid nature of REF, which we previously reported, is not favored in the presence of lipids. REF binds and inserts into membranes. The membrane integrity is highly perturbed, and we suspect that REF is even able to remove lipids from the membrane leading to the formation of mixed micelles. These two homologous proteins show affinity to all membrane models tested but neatly differ in their interacting features. This could imply differential roles on the surface of rubber particles.

  5. Modelling pathogen fate in stormwaters by a particle-pathogen interaction model using population balances.

    PubMed

    Vergeynst, L; Vallet, B; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater is polluted by various contaminants affecting the quality of receiving water bodies. Pathogens are one of these contaminants, which have a critical effect on water use in rivers. Increasing the retention time of water in stormwater basins can lead to reduced loads of pathogens released to the rivers. In this paper a model describing the behaviour of pathogens in stormwater basins is presented including different fate processes such as decay, adsorption/desorption, settling and solar disinfection. By considering the settling velocity distribution of particles and a layered approach, this model is able to create a light intensity, and particle and pathogen concentration profile along the water depth in the basin. A strong effect of solar disinfection is discerned. The model has been used to evaluate pathogen removal efficiencies in stormwater basins. It includes a population of particle classes characterized by a distribution of settling velocities in order to be able to reproduce stormwater quality and treatment in a realistic way.

  6. Final Report: Model interacting particle systems for simulation and macroscopic description of particulate suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Mucha

    2007-08-30

    Suspensions of solid particles in liquids appear in numerous applications, from environmental settings like river silt, to industrial systems of solids transport and water treatment, and biological flows such as blood flow. Despite their importance, much remains unexplained about these complicated systems. Mucha's research aims to improve understanding of basic properties of suspensions through a program of simulating model interacting particle systems with critical evaluation of proposed continuum equations, in close collaboration with experimentalists. Natural to this approach, the original proposal centered around collaboration with studies already conducted in various experimental groups. However, as was detailed in the 2004 progress report, following the first year of this award, a number of the questions from the original proposal were necessarily redirected towards other specific goals because of changes in the research programs of the proposed experimental collaborators. Nevertheless, the modified project goals and the results that followed from those goals maintain close alignment with the main themes of the original proposal, improving efficient simulation and macroscopic modeling of sedimenting and colloidal suspensions. In particular, the main investigations covered under this award have included: (1) Sedimentation instabilities, including the sedimentation analogue of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (for heavy, particle-laden fluid over lighter, clear fluid). (2) Ageing dynamics of colloidal suspensions at concentrations above the glass transition, using simplified interactions. (3) Stochastic reconstruction of velocity-field dependence for particle image velocimetry (PIV). (4) Stochastic modeling of the near-wall bias in 'nano-PIV'. (5) Distributed Lagrange multiplier simulation of the 'internal splash' of a particle falling through a stable stratified interface. (6) Fundamental study of velocity fluctuations in sedimentation. (7) Parallelization of

  7. Dynamical analysis of an interacting dark energy model in the framework of a particle creation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sujay Kr.; Khyllep, Wompherdeiki; Dutta, Jibitesh; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2017-05-01

    In this work we present the cosmological dynamics of interacting dark energy models in the framework of the particle-creation mechanism. The particle-creation mechanism presented here describes the true nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the Universe. In the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe considered here, the dissipative bulk viscous pressure is due to the nonconservation of particle number. For simplicity, we assume that the creation of perfect-fluid particles is isentropic (adiabatic) and consequently the viscous pressure obeys a linear relationship with the particle-creation rate. Due to the complicated nature of Einstein's field equations, dynamical systems analysis is performed to understand the cosmological dynamics. We find some interesting cosmological scenarios, like a late-time evolution of the universe dominated by dark energy which could mimic quintessence, a cosmological constant, and a phantom field through a dark-matter-dominated era. We also find a possibility of crossing the phantom divide line which is favored by observations.

  8. Pools, riffles and surface roughness in a particle interactions model of steep gravel-to-cobble streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Nancy E.

    Particle interactions are important in sediment transport in mountain channels, and in all particulate surfaces. Particle interactions in poorly-sorted stream sediments arise from the constraints on particle mobility imposed on a sediment particle by the particles surrounding it. These interactions were evaluated in terms of the size and position of the top of a given particle compared to neighboring particles. Model simulation results from a particle interactions cellular automata model suggest that particle interactions lead to non-random structuring of the quasi-steady-state sediment surface, and influence the size and spacing of pools in pool-riffle channels. The modeled pool spacing ranges from one to fourteen bed widths, similar to the range from theoretical predictions and from measurements in pool-riffle channels. Pool spacing shows a strongly non-linear decrease as the particle size distribution widens to encompass a greater fraction of finer sediment. The spacing of the pools was essentially unvarying with slope and the mobility threshold. Nearest-neighbor analyses of cell-scale highs and lows in the detrended modeled bed surface indicate a regularity in the spacing of high points, and some clustering at low particle mobility. The coarse areas of the bed also show a tendency to occupy different areas than the deep areas of the bed, as is characteristics of pool-riffle channels. As in streams, the model bed surface coarsens, and the degree of coarsening differs with the model control variable, and between the areas that are deep and the areas that are coarse. Surface roughness of the model channel bed was characterized using the root-mean-square of the height deviations of the surface. The roughness of the model bed increases as a power of time, then reaches a maximum value that is stable, on average, during the remainder of the model run. The roughening also varies as the model boundary conditions vary.

  9. Coulomb interactions in particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Gerrit Hermanus

    The theory of particle interactions in low and medium density, nonrelativistic, time-independent beams of identical particles, in probe forming instruments is discussed. Low and medium density and nonrelativistic refer to beam currents typically much smaller than 1 mA and beam voltages typically between 1 and 100 keV. Time-independent implies that the flow of particles is assumed to be constant. The theory is developed for electron-beam lithography pattern generators and scanning electron microscopes. It should be applicable to focused ion beam tools as well. The analytical models used are based on the ideas of Van Leeuwen and Jansen (1983). This work is extended and confronted with other theories and the results of numerical Monte Carlo simulation. The impact of particle interactions on beams in drift space is stressed. Results of an analysis to extend the model to beams in an external uniform acceleration field are presented.

  10. Dynamic model for coherent production of particles in nuclei. Determination of the cross section for resonance-particle interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev, L.A.; Tarasov, V.E.

    1983-07-01

    The Drell-Hiida-Deck model modified to include rescattering effects has been used to obtain a formula for the coherent production of particles in nuclei. In contrast to the well known Kolbig-Margolis formula, our formula takes into account the dynamics of the process. The coherent diffraction processes NA..-->..(N..pi..)A and ..pi..A..-->..(3..pi..)A are analyzed. From analysis of the reaction NA..-->..(N..pi..)A it follows that the cross section for interaction of the beam of (N..pi..) with a nucleon has a ''normal'' value sigma/sup t//sub N/..pi..,Napprox. =sigma/sup t//sub N/N+sigma/sup t//sub piN/. Analysis of the reaction ..pi..N..-->..(3..pi..)A shows that the cross sections for interaction of a rho meson with a nucleon and with a nucleus are anomalously small: sigma/sup t//sub rhoA/approx. =0.6sigma/sup t//sub piA/ and sigma/sup t//sub rhoN/approx. =10--15 mb. The observed smallness of the cross sections is due to the smallness of the effective Pomeron vertex function for the rho meson.

  11. Ionic conductivity in a quantum lattice gas model with three-particle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, J. H.; Muttalib, K. A.; Tanaka, T.

    2012-12-01

    A system of mesoscopic ions with dominant three-particle interactions is modeled by a quantum lattice liquid on the planar kagomé lattice. The two-parameter Hamiltonian contains localized attractive triplet interactions as potential energy and nearest neighbor hopping-type terms as kinetic energy. The dynamic ionic conductivity σ(ω) is theoretically investigated for ‘weak hopping’ via a quantum many-body perturbation expansion of the thermal (Matsubara) Green function (current-current correlation). A simple analytic continuation and mapping of the thermal Green function provide the temporal Fourier transform of the physical retarded Green function in the Kubo formula. Substituting pertinent exact solutions for static multi-particle correlations known from previous work, Arrhenius relations are revealed in zeroth-order approximation for the dc ionic conductivity σdc along special trajectories in density-temperature space. The Arrhenius plots directly yield static activation energies along the latter loci. Experimental possibilities relating to σdc are discussed in the presence of equilibrium aggregation. This article is part of ‘Lattice models and integrability’, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of F Y Wu's 80th birthday.

  12. Improved Treatment of Wave-Particle Interaction in a Ring-Current Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, C. A.; Delzanno, G. L.; Jordanova, V.; Yu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Simulation of radiation belt electron dynamics during geomagnetic storms requires detailed temporal knowledge of global wave distributions. However, in-situ observations of waves are confined to a limited range of L-shell and magnetic local times, while global climatologies of wave amplitudes, constructed from the statistics of many years of observations, may not well represent any given event. In principle, ring current simulations that predict anisotropic electron distributions via a kinetic model contain knowledge of the unstable wave-particle interactions that generate Chorus waves. The details of these instabilities is, however, unresolved at the spatial (tenths of L-shells) and temporal (tenths of minutes) scales of a typical large-scale ring current code. We present a preliminary attempt to couple in a more self-consistent way inner magnetospheric micro- and macro-scale interactions via the selective spatial coupling of a kinetic ring current model (RAM) with a very high resolution Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. In our approach, anisotropic electron distributions predicted by RAM at a few select locations are used to seed the PIC code which, in turn, predicts the resulting Chorus wave distributions that are fed back into RAM.

  13. Mixing model with multi-particle interactions for Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, T. Nagata, K.

    2016-08-15

    We report on the numerical study of the mixing volume model (MVM) for molecular diffusion in Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing problems. The MVM is based on the multi-particle interaction in a finite volume (mixing volume). A priori test of the MVM, based on the direct numerical simulations of planar jets, is conducted in the turbulent region and the interfacial layer between the turbulent and non-turbulent fluids. The results show that the MVM predicts well the mean effects of the molecular diffusion under various numerical and flow parameters. The number of the mixing particles should be large for predicting a value of the molecular diffusion term positively correlated to the exact value. The size of the mixing volume relative to the Kolmogorov scale η is important in the performance of the MVM. The scalar transfer across the turbulent/non-turbulent interface is well captured by the MVM especially with the small mixing volume. Furthermore, the MVM with multiple mixing particles is tested in the hybrid implicit large-eddy-simulation/Lagrangian-particle-simulation (LES–LPS) of the planar jet with the characteristic length of the mixing volume of O(100η). Despite the large mixing volume, the MVM works well and decays the scalar variance in a rate close to the reference LES. The statistics in the LPS are very robust to the number of the particles used in the simulations and the computational grid size of the LES. Both in the turbulent core region and the intermittent region, the LPS predicts a scalar field well correlated to the LES.

  14. A Dynamic Model for the Interaction Between an Insoluble Particle and an Advancing Solid/Liquid Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, A. V.; Mukherjee, S.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    Most models that describe the interaction of an insoluble particle with an advancing solid-liquid interface are based on the assumption of steady state. However, as demonstrated by experimental work, the process does not reach steady state until the particle is pushed for a while by the interface. In this work, a dynamic mathematical model was developed. The dynamic model demonstrates that this interaction is essentially non-steady state and that steady state eventually occurs only when solidification is conducted at sub-critical velocities. The model was tested for three systems: aluminum-zirconia particles, succinonitrilepolystyrene particles, and biphenyl-glass particles. The calculated values for critical velocity of the pushing/engulfment transition were in same range with the experimental ones.

  15. A Penalty Method to Model Particle Interactions in DNA-laden Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Trebotich, D; Miller, G H; Bybee, M D

    2006-10-06

    We present a hybrid fluid-particle algorithm to simulate flow and transport of DNA-laden fluids in microdevices. Relevant length scales in microfluidic systems range from characteristic channel sizes of millimeters to micron scale geometric variation (e.g., post arrays) to 10 nanometers for the length of a single rod in a bead-rod polymer representation of a biological material such as DNA. The method is based on a previous fluid-particle algorithm in which long molecules are represented as a chain of connected rods, but in which the physically unrealistic behavior of rod crossing occurred. We have extended this algorithm to include screened Coulombic forces between particles by implementing a Debye-Hueckel potential acting between rods. In the method an unsteady incompressible Newtonian fluid is discretized with a second-order finite difference method in the interior of the Cartesian grid domain; an embedded boundary volume-of-fluid formulation is used near boundaries. The bead-rod polymer model is fully coupled to the solvent through body forces representing hydrodynamic drag and stochastic thermal fluctuations. While intrapolymer interactions are modeled by a soft potential, polymer-structure interactions are treated as perfectly elastic collisions. We demonstrate this method on flow and transport of a polymer through a post array microchannel in 2D where the polymer incorporates more realistic physical parameters of DNA, and compare to previous simulations where rods are allowed to cross. We also show that the method is capable of simulating 3D flow in a packed bed micro-column.

  16. New particles and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.; Grannis, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    The Working Group on New Particles and Interactions met as a whole at the beginning and at the end of the Workshop. However, much of what was accomplished was done in five subgroups. These were devoted to: (1) new quarks and leptons; (2) technicolor; (3) supersymmetry; (4) rare decays and CP; and (5) substructure of quarks and leptons. Other aspects of new particles, e.g., Higgs, W', Z', fell to the Electroweak Working Group to consider. The central question of this Workshop of comparing anti pp (with L = 10/sup 32//cm/sup 2/-sec) with pp (with L = 10/sup 33//cm/sup 2/-sec) colliders carried through to all these subgroups. In addition there were several other aspects of hadron colliders which were considered: what does an increase in ..sqrt..s gain in cross section and resultant sensitivity to new physics versus an increase in luminosity; will polarized beams or the use of asymmetries be essential in finding new interactions; where and at what level do rate limitations due to triggering or detection systems play a role; and how and where will the detection of particles with short, but detectable, lifetimes be important. 25 references.

  17. Computations of Lifshitz-van der Waals interaction energies between irregular particles and surfaces at all separations for resuspension modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priye, Aashish; Marlow, William H.

    2013-10-01

    The phenomenon of particle resuspension plays a vital role in numerous fields. Among many aspects of particle resuspension dynamics, a dominant concern is the accurate description and formulation of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between the particle and substrate. Current models treat adhesion by incorporating a material-dependent Hamaker's constant which relies on the heuristic Hamaker's two-body interactions. However, this assumption of pairwise summation of interaction energies can lead to significant errors in condensed matter as it does not take into account the many-body interaction and retardation effects. To address these issues, an approach based on Lifshitz continuum theory of vdW interactions has been developed to calculate the principal many-body interactions between arbitrary geometries at all separation distances to a high degree of accuracy through Lifshitz's theory. We have applied this numerical implementation to calculate the many-body vdW interactions between spherical particles and surfaces with sinusoidally varying roughness profile and also to non-spherical particles (cubes, cylinders, tetrahedron etc) orientated differently with respect to the surface. Our calculations revealed that increasing the surface roughness amplitude decreases the adhesion force and non-spherical particles adhere to the surfaces more strongly when their flatter sides are oriented towards the surface. Such practical shapes and structures of particle-surface systems have not been previously considered in resuspension models and this rigorous treatment of vdW interactions provides more realistic adhesion forces between the particle and the surface which can then be coupled with computational fluid dynamics models to improve the predictive capabilities of particle resuspension dynamics.

  18. Charged patchy particle models in explicit salt: Ion distributions, electrostatic potentials, and effective interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yigit, Cemil; Dzubiella, Joachim; Heyda, Jan

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a set of charged patchy particle models (CPPMs) in order to systematically study the influence of electrostatic charge patchiness and multipolarity on macromolecular interactions by means of implicit-solvent, explicit-ion Langevin dynamics simulations employing the Gromacs software. We consider well-defined zero-, one-, and two-patched spherical globules each of the same net charge and (nanometer) size which are composed of discrete atoms. The studied mono- and multipole moments of the CPPMs are comparable to those of globular proteins with similar size. We first characterize ion distributions and electrostatic potentials around a single CPPM. Although angle-resolved radial distribution functions reveal the expected local accumulation and depletion of counter- and co-ions around the patches, respectively, the orientation-averaged electrostatic potential shows only a small variation among the various CPPMs due to space charge cancellations. Furthermore, we study the orientation-averaged potential of mean force (PMF), the number of accumulated ions on the patches, as well as the CPPM orientations along the center-to-center distance of a pair of CPPMs. We compare the PMFs to the classical Derjaguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek theory and previously introduced orientation-averaged Debye-Hückel pair potentials including dipolar interactions. Our simulations confirm the adequacy of the theories in their respective regimes of validity, while low salt concentrations and large multipolar interactions remain a challenge for tractable theoretical descriptions.

  19. Charged patchy particle models in explicit salt: Ion distributions, electrostatic potentials, and effective interactions.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Cemil; Heyda, Jan; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a set of charged patchy particle models (CPPMs) in order to systematically study the influence of electrostatic charge patchiness and multipolarity on macromolecular interactions by means of implicit-solvent, explicit-ion Langevin dynamics simulations employing the Gromacs software. We consider well-defined zero-, one-, and two-patched spherical globules each of the same net charge and (nanometer) size which are composed of discrete atoms. The studied mono- and multipole moments of the CPPMs are comparable to those of globular proteins with similar size. We first characterize ion distributions and electrostatic potentials around a single CPPM. Although angle-resolved radial distribution functions reveal the expected local accumulation and depletion of counter- and co-ions around the patches, respectively, the orientation-averaged electrostatic potential shows only a small variation among the various CPPMs due to space charge cancellations. Furthermore, we study the orientation-averaged potential of mean force (PMF), the number of accumulated ions on the patches, as well as the CPPM orientations along the center-to-center distance of a pair of CPPMs. We compare the PMFs to the classical Derjaguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek theory and previously introduced orientation-averaged Debye-Hückel pair potentials including dipolar interactions. Our simulations confirm the adequacy of the theories in their respective regimes of validity, while low salt concentrations and large multipolar interactions remain a challenge for tractable theoretical descriptions.

  20. Charged patchy particle models in explicit salt: Ion distributions, electrostatic potentials, and effective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigit, Cemil; Heyda, Jan; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a set of charged patchy particle models (CPPMs) in order to systematically study the influence of electrostatic charge patchiness and multipolarity on macromolecular interactions by means of implicit-solvent, explicit-ion Langevin dynamics simulations employing the Gromacs software. We consider well-defined zero-, one-, and two-patched spherical globules each of the same net charge and (nanometer) size which are composed of discrete atoms. The studied mono- and multipole moments of the CPPMs are comparable to those of globular proteins with similar size. We first characterize ion distributions and electrostatic potentials around a single CPPM. Although angle-resolved radial distribution functions reveal the expected local accumulation and depletion of counter- and co-ions around the patches, respectively, the orientation-averaged electrostatic potential shows only a small variation among the various CPPMs due to space charge cancellations. Furthermore, we study the orientation-averaged potential of mean force (PMF), the number of accumulated ions on the patches, as well as the CPPM orientations along the center-to-center distance of a pair of CPPMs. We compare the PMFs to the classical Derjaguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek theory and previously introduced orientation-averaged Debye-Hückel pair potentials including dipolar interactions. Our simulations confirm the adequacy of the theories in their respective regimes of validity, while low salt concentrations and large multipolar interactions remain a challenge for tractable theoretical descriptions.

  1. Probing bilayer-cytoskeletal interactions in erythrocytes using a two-component dissipative particle dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhangli; Li, Xuejin; Pivkin, Igor; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George

    2013-11-01

    We develop a two-component dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane by modeling the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton separately. By applying this model to simulate four different experiments on RBCs, including micropipette aspiration, membrane fluctuations, tank-treading motions in shear flow and bilayer tethering in a flow channel, we validated our model and studied the mechanical properties of the bilayer-cytoskeletal interaction in a systematic and controlled manner, such as its elastic stiffness, viscous friction and strength. In the same time, we also resolved several controversies in RBC mechanics, e.g., the dependence of tank-treading frequency on shear rates and the possibility of bilayer-cytoskeletal slip. Furthermore, to investigate RBC dynamics in the microcirculation, we simulated the passages of RBCs through narrow channels of the flow cytometer in vitro and their passages through the splenic inter-endothelial slits in vivo. The effects of RBC geometry and membrane stiffness on the critical pressure gradient of passage were studied, and the simulation results agree well with experimental measurements. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant R01HL094270 and the new Department of Energy Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4).

  2. Eulerian flow modeling of suspensions containing interacting nano-particles: application to colloidal film drying.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergianakis, I.; Meireles, M.; Bacchin, P.; Hallez, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Nano-particles in suspension often experience strong non-hydrodynamic interactions (NHIs) such as electrostatic repulsions. In this work, we present and justify a flow modeling strategy adapted to such systems. Earlier works on colloidal transport in simple flows, were based on the solution of a transport equation for the colloidal volume fraction with a known fluid velocity field and a volume-fraction-dependent diffusion coefficient accounting for mass fluxes due to NHIs. Extension of this modelling to complex flows requires the coupled resolution of a momentum transport equation for the suspension velocity field. We use the framework of the Suspension Balance Model to show that in the Pe << 1 regime relevant here, the average suspension velocity field is independent of NHIs between nanoparticles , while the average fluid phase and solid phase velocity fields both always depend of the NHIs. Lastly, we apply this modelling strategy to the problem of the drying of a colloidal suspension in a micro-evaporator [Merlin et al., 2012, Soft Matter]. The influence of the effective Peclet number on the 1D/2D character of the flow is evaluated and the possible colloidal film patterning due to defaults of substrate topography is commented.

  3. A Modified Fermi Model for Wave-Particle Interactions in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    De Marco, Rossana; Carbone, Vincenzo; Veltri, Pierluigi

    2006-03-31

    Wave-particle interactions in plasmas are investigated through a nonlinear map that describes elastic collisions between an ensemble of particles and two barriers. The amplitude of the barriers, proportional to the energy of the wave, can increase or decrease due to the sequence of stochastic collisions. After an initial exponential decrease, the nonlinear strong trapping regime is characterized by low-frequency oscillations of the amplitude of the barriers around a certain saturation value. This is a transitory phenomenon stemming from the dynamical approach towards equilibrium in the wave-particle conservative system.

  4. Modeling of conductive particle motion in viscous medium affected by an electric field considering particle-electrode interactions and microdischarge phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Ghiyam; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmaeil; Pérez, Alberto T.

    2016-10-01

    Up and down motion of a spherical conductive particle in dielectric viscous fluid driven by a DC electric field between two parallel electrodes was investigated. A nonlinear differential equation, governing the particle dynamics, was derived, based on Newton's second law of mechanics, and solved numerically. All the pertaining dimensionless groups were extracted. In contrast to similar previous works, hydrodynamic interaction between the particle and the electrodes, as well as image electric forces, has been taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of the microdischarge produced between the electrodes and the approaching particle on the particle dynamics has been included in the model. The model results were compared with experimental data available in the literature, as well as with some additional experimental data obtained through the present study showing very good agreement. The results indicate that the wall hydrodynamic effect and the dielectric liquid ionic conductivity are very dominant factors determining the particle trajectory. A lower bound is derived for the charge transferred to the particle while rebounding from an electrode. It is found that the time and length scales of the post-microdischarge motion of the particle can be as small as microsecond and micrometer, respectively. The model is able to predict the so called settling/dwelling time phenomenon for the first time.

  5. Electrostatic interactions between Janus particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Joost; Boon, Niels; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we study the electrostatic properties of "Janus" spheres with unequal charge densities on both hemispheres. We introduce a method to compare primitive-model Monte Carlo simulations of the ionic double layer with predictions of (mean-field) nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We also derive practical Derjaguin Landau Verwey Overbeek (DLVO)-like expressions that describe the Janus-particle pair interactions by mean-field theory. Using a large set of parameters, we are able to probe the range of validity of the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation, and thus of DLVO-like theories, for such particles. For homogeneously charged spheres this range corresponds well to the range that was predicted by field-theoretical studies of homogeneously charged flat surfaces. Moreover, we find similar ranges for colloids with a Janus-type charge distribution. The techniques and parameters we introduce show promise for future studies of an even wider class of charged-patterned particles.

  6. A Hamiltonian Model of Dissipative Wave-particle Interactions and the Negative-mass Effect

    SciTech Connect

    A. Zhmoginov

    2011-02-07

    The effect of radiation friction is included in the Hamiltonian treatment of wave-particle interactions with autoresonant phase-locking, yielding a generalized canonical approach to the problem of dissipative dynamics near a nonlinear resonance. As an example, the negativemass eff ect exhibited by a charged particle in a pump wave and a static magnetic field is studied in the presence of the friction force due to cyclotron radiation. Particles with negative parallel masses m! are shown to transfer their kinetic energy to the pump wave, thus amplifying it. Counterintuitively, such particles also undergo stable dynamics, decreasing their transverse energy monotonically due to cyclotron cooling, whereas some of those with positive m! undergo cyclotron heating instead, extracting energy from the pump wave.

  7. Numerical modeling of the early interaction of a planar shock with a dense particle field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regele, Jonathan; Blanquart, Guillaume

    2011-11-01

    Dense compressible multiphase flows are of interest for multiphase turbomachinary and energetic material detonations. Still, there is little understanding of the detailed interaction mechanisms between shock waves and dense (particle volume fraction αd > 0 . 001) particle fields. A recent experimental study [Wagner et al, AIAA Aero. Sci., Orlando, 2011-188] has focused on the impingement of a planar shock wave on a dense particle curtain. In the present work, numerical solutions of the Euler equations in one and two dimensions are performed for a planar shock wave impinging on a fixed particle curtain and are compared to the experimental data for early times. Comparison of the one- and two-dimensional results demonstrate that the one-dimensional description captures the large scale flow behavior, but is inadequate to capture all the details observed in the experiments. The two-dimensional solutions are shown to reproduce the experimentally observed flow structures and provide insight into how these details originate.

  8. Cosmic-Ray Transport in Heliospheric Magnetic Structures. II. Modeling Particle Transport through Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Andreas; Wiengarten, Tobias; Fichtner, Horst; Effenberger, Frederic; Kühl, Patrick; Heber, Bernd; Raath, Jan-Louis; Potgieter, Marius S.

    2017-03-01

    The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the heliosphere is determined by the properties of the solar wind plasma. The heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric CR transport are structures such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which, due to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength and magnetic fluctuations within and due to the associated shocks as well as stream interfaces, do influence the CR diffusion and drift. In a three-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with the numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework Cronos (Wiengarten et al., referred as Paper I), and the results serve as input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (this paper). While, in Paper I, we presented results from 3D simulations with Cronos, the MHD output is now taken as an input to the CR transport modeling. We discuss the diffusion and drift behavior of Galactic cosmic rays using the example of different theories, and study the effects of CIRs on these transport processes. In particular, we point out the wide range of possible particle fluxes at a given point in space resulting from these different theories. The restriction of this variety by fitting the numerical results to spacecraft data will be the subject of the third paper of this series.

  9. Modeling aerosol surface chemistry and gas-particle interaction kinetics with K2-SURF: PAH oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, M.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. They have the ability to impact cloud properties, radiative balance and provide surfaces for heterogeneous reactions. The uptake of gaseous species on aerosol surfaces impacts both the aerosol particles and the atmospheric budget of trace gases. These subsequent changes to the aerosol can in turn impact the aerosol chemical and physical properties. However, this uptake, as well as the impact on the aerosol, is not fully understood. This uncertainty is due not only to limited measurement data, but also a dearth of comprehensive and applicable modeling formalizations used for the analysis, interpretation and description of these heterogeneous processes. Without a common model framework, comparing and extrapolating experimental data is difficult. In this study, a novel kinetic surface model (K2-SURF) [Ammann & Pöschl, 2007; Pöschl et al., 2007] was used to describe the oxidation of a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Integrated into this consistent and universally applicable kinetic and thermodynamic process model are the concepts, terminologies and mathematical formalizations essential to the description of atmospherically relevant physicochemical processes involving organic and mixed organic-inorganic aerosols. Within this process model framework, a detailed master mechanism, simplified mechanism and parameterizations of atmospheric aerosol chemistry are being developed and integrated in analogy to existing mechanisms and parameterizations of atmospheric gas-phase chemistry. One of the key aspects to this model is the defining of a clear distinction between various layers of the particle and surrounding gas phase. The processes occurring at each layer can be fully described using known fluxes and kinetic parameters. Using this system there is a clear separation of gas phase, gas-surface and surface bulk transport and reactions. The partitioning of compounds can be calculated using the flux

  10. Long-range interacting pendula: A simple model for understanding complex dynamics of charged particles in an electronic curtain device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Owen; Del Maestro, Adrian; Wu, Junru; Marshall, Jeffrey S.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of a model that shares several important characteristics with charged particles interacting in an Electric Curtain (EC) device. An EC comprises a periodic array of parallel electrodes, applied to each is an alternating electric potential. Depending on the applied potentials and the geometry of the electrodes, a wide variety of field structures above the plane of the electrodes are possible. The EC has multiple applications in the control and manipulation of small particles, but is under utilized in industry and science because of difficulties in predicting and understanding the particle dynamics. One particular challenge in understanding the dynamics is the many-body coulomb interactions. To better understand the role of the interactions, we study a one-dimensional analytically tractable model that encapsulates their long-range nature. Specifically, we study a Hamiltonian similar to that of the Hamiltonian mean field model but with the inclusion of an index dependent phase in the interaction term that, as we show, reflects the periodic structure of an EC field. We solve for the canonical partition function and also investigate some of the non-equilibrium behaviors. In the study of the non-equilibrium behaviors, we find an interesting property, namely that a quasistationary (lifetime diverges as the number of particles is increased) clustered state can exist when an initial configuration is ordered by the particle indices.

  11. Eulerian formulation of the interacting particle representation model of homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Alejandro; Duraisamy, Karthik; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2016-10-01

    The Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM) of homogeneous turbulence incorporates information about the morphology of turbulent structures within the confines of a one-point model. In the original formulation [Kassinos and Reynolds, Center for Turbulence Research: Annual Research Briefs, 31-51 (1996)], the IPRM was developed in a Lagrangian setting by evolving second moments of velocity conditional on a given gradient vector. In the present work, the IPRM is reformulated in an Eulerian framework, and evolution equations are developed for the marginal probability density functions (PDFs). Eulerian methods avoid the issues associated with statistical estimators used by Lagrangian approaches, such as slow convergence. A specific emphasis of this work is to use the IPRM to examine the long time evolution of homogeneous turbulence. We first describe the derivation of the marginal PDF in spherical coordinates, which reduces the number of independent variables and the cost associated with Eulerian simulations of PDF models. Next, a numerical method based on radial basis functions over a spherical domain is adapted to the IPRM. Finally, results obtained with the new Eulerian solution method are thoroughly analyzed. The sensitivity of the Eulerian simulations to parameters of the numerical scheme, such as the size of the time step and the shape parameter of the radial basis functions, is examined. A comparison between Eulerian and Lagrangian simulations is performed to discern the capabilities of each of the methods. Finally, a linear stability analysis based on the eigenvalues of the discrete differential operators is carried out for both the new Eulerian solution method and the original Lagrangian approach.

  12. Molecular dynamics study of force acting on a model nano particle immersed in fluid with temperature gradient: Effect of interaction potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Tetsuro; Iseki, Hirotaka; Hanasaki, Itsuo; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Thermophoresis of a nano particle in a fluid is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. In order to elucidate effective factors on the characteristics of thermophoresis, simple models for both the fluid and the nano particle are considered, namely, the surrounding fluid consists of Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles and the model nano particle is a cluster consisting of several tens of LJ particles. Interaction between the fluid particle and the model nano particle is described by the LJ interaction potential or repulsive interaction potential with the Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rule. As a preliminary result, the effect of mass on thermophoretic force acting on the model nano particle is investigated for both interaction potentials.

  13. First-order phase transition in a model of self-propelled particles with variable angular range of interaction.

    PubMed

    Durve, Mihir; Sayeed, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    We have carried out a Monte Carlo simulation of a modified version of Vicsek model for the motion of self-propelled particles in two dimensions. In this model the neighborhood of interaction of a particle is a sector of the circle with the particle at the center (rather than the whole circle as in the original Vicsek model). The sector is centered along the direction of the velocity of the particle, and the half-opening angle of this sector is called the "view angle." We vary the view angle over its entire range and study the change in the nature of the collective motion of the particles. We find that ordered collective motion persists down to remarkably small view angles. And at a certain transition view angle the collective motion of the system undergoes a first-order phase transition to a disordered state. We also find that the reduction in the view angle can in fact increase the order in the system significantly. We show that the directionality of the interaction, and not only the radial range of the interaction, plays an important role in the determination of the nature of the above phase transition.

  14. Modeling Plasma-Particle Interaction in Multi-Arc Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2017-01-01

    The properties of plasma-sprayed coatings are controlled by the heat, momentum, and mass transfer between individual particles and the plasma jet. The particle behavior in conventional single-arc plasma spraying has been the subject of intensive numerical research, whereas multi-arc plasma spraying has not yet received the same attention. We propose herein a numerical model to serve as a scientific tool to investigate particle behavior in multi-arc plasma spraying. In the Lagrangian description of particles in the model, the mathematical formulations describing the heat, momentum, and mass transfer are of great importance for good predictive power, so such formulations proposed by different authors were compared critically, revealing that different mathematical formulations lead to significantly different results. The accuracy of the different formulations was evaluated based on theoretical considerations, and those found to be more accurate were implemented in the final model. Furthermore, a mathematical formulation is proposed to enable simplified calculation of partial particle melting and resolidification.

  15. Modeling Plasma-Particle Interaction in Multi-Arc Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2017-02-01

    The properties of plasma-sprayed coatings are controlled by the heat, momentum, and mass transfer between individual particles and the plasma jet. The particle behavior in conventional single-arc plasma spraying has been the subject of intensive numerical research, whereas multi-arc plasma spraying has not yet received the same attention. We propose herein a numerical model to serve as a scientific tool to investigate particle behavior in multi-arc plasma spraying. In the Lagrangian description of particles in the model, the mathematical formulations describing the heat, momentum, and mass transfer are of great importance for good predictive power, so such formulations proposed by different authors were compared critically, revealing that different mathematical formulations lead to significantly different results. The accuracy of the different formulations was evaluated based on theoretical considerations, and those found to be more accurate were implemented in the final model. Furthermore, a mathematical formulation is proposed to enable simplified calculation of partial particle melting and resolidification.

  16. An Interactive Computer Model for Improved Student Understanding of Random Particle Motion and Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottonau, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Effectively teaching the concepts of osmosis to college-level students is a major obstacle in biological education. Therefore, a novel computer model is presented that allows students to observe the random nature of particle motion simultaneously with the seemingly directed net flow of water across a semipermeable membrane during osmotic…

  17. An Interactive Computer Model for Improved Student Understanding of Random Particle Motion and Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottonau, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Effectively teaching the concepts of osmosis to college-level students is a major obstacle in biological education. Therefore, a novel computer model is presented that allows students to observe the random nature of particle motion simultaneously with the seemingly directed net flow of water across a semipermeable membrane during osmotic…

  18. Interaction of Burning Metal Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Hoffmann, Vern K.

    1999-01-01

    Physical characteristics of the combustion of metal particle groups have been addressed in this research. The combustion behavior and interaction effects of multiple metal particles has been studied using a microgravity environment, which presents a unique opportunity to create an "aerosol" consisting of relatively large particles, i.e., 50-300 m diameter. Combustion behavior of such an aerosol could be examined using methods adopted from well-developed single particle combustion research. The experiment included fluidizing relatively large (order of 100 m diameter) uniform metal particles under microgravity and igniting such an "aerosol" using a hot wire igniter. The flame propagation and details of individual particle combustion and particle interaction have been studied using a high speed movie and video-imaging with cameras coupled with microscope lenses to resolve individual particles. Interference filters were used to separate characteristic metal and metal oxide radiation bands from the thermal black body radiation. Recorded flame images were digitized and various image processing techniques including flame position tracking, color separation, and pixel by pixel image comparison were employed to understand the processes occurring in the burning aerosol. The development of individual particle flames, merging or separation, and extinguishment as well as induced particle motion have been analyzed to identify the mechanisms governing these processes. Size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of combustion products were characterized and used to link the observed in this project aerosol combustion phenomena with the recently expanded mechanism of single metal particle combustion.

  19. Interaction of Burning Metal Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Hoffmann, Vern K.

    1999-01-01

    Physical characteristics of the combustion of metal particle groups have been addressed in this research. The combustion behavior and interaction effects of multiple metal particles has been studied using a microgravity environment, which presents a unique opportunity to create an "aerosol" consisting of relatively large particles, i.e., 50-300 micrometer diameter. Combustion behavior of such an aerosol could be examined using methods adopted from well-developed single particle combustion research. The experiment included fluidizing relatively large (order of 100 micrometer diameter) uniform metal particles under microgravity and igniting such an "aerosol" using a hot wire igniter. The flame propagation and details of individual particle combustion and particle interaction have been studied using a high speed movie and video-imaging with cameras coupled with microscope lenses to resolve individual particles. Interference filters were used to separate characteristic metal and metal oxide radiation bands form the thermal black body radiation. Recorded flame images were digitized and employed to understand the processes occurring in the burning aerosol. The development of individual particle flames, merging or separation, and extinguishing as well as induced particle motion have been analyzed to identify the mechanisms governing these processes. Size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of combustion products were characterized and used to link the observed in this project aerosol combustion phenomena with the recently expanded mechanism of single metal particle combustion.

  20. Optimized sparse-particle aerosol representations for modeling cloud-aerosol interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierce, Laura; McGraw, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Sparse representations of atmospheric aerosols are needed for efficient regional- and global-scale chemical transport models. Here we introduce a new framework for representing aerosol distributions, based on the method of moments. Given a set of moment constraints, we show how linear programming can be used to identify collections of sparse particles that approximately maximize distributional entropy. The collections of sparse particles derived from this approach reproduce CCN activity of the exact model aerosol distributions with high accuracy. Additionally, the linear programming techniques described in this study can be used to bound key aerosol properties, such as the number concentration of CCN. Unlike the commonly used sparse representations, such as modal and sectional schemes, the maximum-entropy moment-based approach is not constrained to pre-determined size bins or assumed distribution shapes. This study is a first step toward a new aerosol simulation scheme that will track multivariate aerosol distributions with sufficient computational efficiency for large-scale simulations.

  1. Model for Thermal Relic Dark Matter of Strongly Interacting Massive Particles.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker, Jay G

    2015-07-10

    A recent proposal is that dark matter could be a thermal relic of 3→2 scatterings in a strongly coupled hidden sector. We present explicit classes of strongly coupled gauge theories that admit this behavior. These are QCD-like theories of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, where the pions play the role of dark matter. The number-changing 3→2 process, which sets the dark matter relic abundance, arises from the Wess-Zumino-Witten term. The theories give an explicit relationship between the 3→2 annihilation rate and the 2→2 self-scattering rate, which alters predictions for structure formation. This is a simple calculable realization of the strongly interacting massive-particle mechanism.

  2. Comparing Particle-in-Cell QED Models for High-Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedtke, Scott V.; Labun, Lance A.; Hegelich, Björn Manuel

    2016-10-01

    High-intensity lasers, such as the Texas Petawatt, are pushing into new regimes of laser-matter interaction, requiring continuing improvement and inclusion of new physics effects in computer simulations. Experiments at the Texas Petawatt are reaching intensity regimes where new physics-quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections to otherwise classical plasma dynamics-becomes important. We have two particle-in-cell (PIC) codes with different QED implementations. We review the theory of photon emission in QED-strong fields, and cover the differing PIC implementations. We show predictions from the two codes and compare with ongoing experiments. This work was supported by NNSA cooperative agreement DE-NA0002008, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's PULSE program (12-63-PULSE-FP014) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-14-1-0045). HPC resources provided by TACC.

  3. Model of waterlike fluid under confinement for hydrophobic and hydrophilic particle-plate interaction potentials.

    PubMed

    Krott, Leandro B; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations were employed to study a waterlike model confined between hydrophobic and hydrophilic plates. The phase behavior of this system is obtained for different distances between the plates and particle-plate potentials. For both hydrophobic and hydrophilic walls, there are the formation of layers. Crystallization occurs at lower temperature at the contact layer than at the middle layer. In addition, the melting temperature decreases as the plates become more hydrophobic. Similarly, the temperatures of maximum density and extremum diffusivity decrease with hydrophobicity.

  4. A relativistically interacting exactly solvable multi-time model for two massless Dirac particles in 1 + 1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lienert, Matthias

    2015-04-15

    The question how to Lorentz transform an N-particle wave function naturally leads to the concept of a so-called multi-time wave function, i.e., a map from (space-time){sup N} to a spin space. This concept was originally proposed by Dirac as the basis of relativistic quantum mechanics. In such a view, interaction potentials are mathematically inconsistent. This fact motivates the search for new mechanisms for relativistic interactions. In this paper, we explore the idea that relativistic interaction can be described by boundary conditions on the set of coincidence points of two particles in space-time. This extends ideas from zero-range physics to a relativistic setting. We illustrate the idea at the simplest model which still possesses essential physical properties like Lorentz invariance and a positive definite density: two-time equations for massless Dirac particles in 1 + 1 dimensions. In order to deal with a spatio-temporally non-trivial domain, a necessity in the multi-time picture, we develop a new method to prove existence and uniqueness of classical solutions: a generalized version of the method of characteristics. Both mathematical and physical considerations are combined to precisely formulate and answer the questions of probability conservation, Lorentz invariance, interaction, and antisymmetry.

  5. Noroviral p-particles as an in vitro model to assess the interactions of noroviruses with probiotics.

    PubMed

    Rubio-del-Campo, Antonio; Coll-Marqués, José M; Yebra, María J; Buesa, Javier; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Monedero, Vicente; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the main etiologic agents of acute epidemic gastroenteritis and probiotic bacteria have been reported to exert a positive effect on viral diarrhea. The protruding (P) domain from NoVs VP1 capsid protein has the ability to assemble into the so-called P-particles, which retain the binding ability to host receptors. We purified the P-domains from NoVs genotypes GI.1 and GII.4 as 6X(His)-tagged proteins and determined that, similar to native domains, they were structured into P-particles that were functional in the recognition of the specific glycoconjugated receptors, as established by surface plasmon resonance experiments. We showed that several lactic acid bacteria (probiotic and non-probiotic) and a Gram-negative probiotic strain have the ability to bind P-particles on their surfaces irrespective of their probiotic status. The binding of P-particles (GI.1) to HT-29 cells in the presence of selected strains showed that bacteria can inhibit P-particle attachment in competitive exclusion experiments. However, pre-treatment of cells with bacteria or adding bacteria to cells with already attached P-particles enhanced the retention of the particles. Although direct viral binding and blocking of viral receptors have been postulated as mechanisms of protection against viral infection by probiotic bacteria, these results highlight the need for a careful evaluation of this hypothesis. The work presented here investigates for the first time the probiotic-NoVs-host interactions and points up the NoVs P-particles as useful tools to overcome the absence of in vitro cellular models to propagate these viruses.

  6. 1.5D Quasilinear Model for Alpha Particle-TAE Interaction in ARIES ACT-I

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ghantous, N.N. Gorelenkov, C. Kessel, F. Poli

    2013-01-30

    We study the TAE interaction with alpha particle fusion products in ARIES ACT-I using the 1.5D quasilinear model. 1.5D uses linear analytic expressions for growth and damping rates of TAE modes evaluated using TRANSP pro les to calculates the relaxation of pressure pro les. NOVA- K simulations are conducted to validate the analytic dependancies of the rates, and to normalize their absolute value. The low dimensionality of the model permits calculating loss diagrams in large parameter spaces.

  7. Test of hadron interaction models in the most important energy range of secondary particles in spectra of atmospheric muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F.

    2014-10-01

    A simple method has been proposed for testing hadron interaction models, which are used to simulate extensive air showers, in observed spectra of atmospheric muons. It has been shown that muon flux intensities in the energy range of 102-104 GeV that are calculated within the SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJETII-04, and QGSJET01 models exceed the data of the classical experiments L3 + Cosmic, MACRO, and LVD on the spectra of atmospheric muons by a factor of 1.5-2. It has been concluded that these tested models overestimate the generation of secondary particles with the highest energies in elementary events of interaction between hadrons in agreement with the LHCf and TOTEM accelerator experiments.

  8. Elementary Particles and Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.; Yang, C. N.

    1957-01-01

    Some general patterns of interactions between various elementary particles are reviewed and some general questions concerning the symmetry properties of these particles are studied. Topics are included on the theta-tau puzzle, experimental limits on the validity of parity conservation, some general discussions on the consequences due to possible non-invariance under P, C, and T, various possible experimental tests on invariance under P, C, and T, a two-component theory of the neutrino, a possible law of conservation of leptons and the universal Fermi interactions, and time reversal invariance and Mach's principle. (M.H.R.)

  9. Numerical Approach of Interactions of Proton Beams and Dense Plasmas with Quantum-Hydrodynamic/Particle-in-Cell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya; Li, Lian; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin

    2016-07-01

    A one dimensional quantum-hydrodynamic/particle-in-cell (QHD/PIC) model is used to study the interaction process of an intense proton beam (injection density of 1017 cm-3) with a dense plasma (initial density of ~ 1021 cm-3), with the PIC method for simulating the beam particle dynamics and the QHD model for considering the quantum effects including the quantum statistical and quantum diffraction effects. By means of the QHD theory, the wake electron density and wakefields are calculated, while the proton beam density is calculated by the PIC method and compared to hydrodynamic results to justify that the PIC method is a more suitable way to simulate the beam particle dynamics. The calculation results show that the incident continuous proton beam when propagating in the plasma generates electron perturbations as well as wakefields oscillations with negative valleys and positive peaks where the proton beams are repelled by the positive wakefields and accelerated by the negative wakefields. Moreover, the quantum correction obviously hinders the electron perturbations as well as the wakefields. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the quantum effects in the interaction of a proton beam with cold dense plasmas, such as in the metal films. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405067, 11105057, 11275007)

  10. Characteristics of the mixing volume model with the interactions among spatially distributed particles for Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tomoaki; Nagata, Koji

    2016-11-01

    The mixing volume model (MVM), which is a mixing model for molecular diffusion in Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing problems, is proposed based on the interactions among spatially distributed particles in a finite volume. The mixing timescale in the MVM is derived by comparison between the model and the subgrid scale scalar variance equation. A-priori test of the MVM is conducted based on the direct numerical simulations of planar jets. The MVM is shown to predict well the mean effects of the molecular diffusion under various conditions. However, a predicted value of the molecular diffusion term is positively correlated to the exact value in the DNS only when the number of the mixing particles is larger than two. Furthermore, the MVM is tested in the hybrid implicit large-eddy-simulation/Lagrangian-particle-simulation (ILES/LPS). The ILES/LPS with the present mixing model predicts well the decay of the scalar variance in planar jets. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Nos. 25289030 and 16K18013. The numerical simulations presented in this manuscript were carried out on the high performance computing system (NEC SX-ACE) in the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology.

  11. Dielectrophoretic particle-particle interaction under AC electrohydrodynamic flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh-Hyoung; Yu, Chengjie; Papazoglou, Elisabeth; Farouk, Bakhtier; Noh, Hongseok M

    2011-09-01

    We used the Maxwell stress tensor method to understand dielectrophoretic particle-particle interactions and applied the results to the interpretation of particle behaviors under alternating current (AC) electrohydrodynamic conditions such as AC electroosmosis (ACEO) and electrothermal flow (ETF). Distinct particle behaviors were observed under ACEO and ETF. Diverse particle-particle interactions observed in experiments such as particle clustering, particles keeping a certain distance from each other, chain and disc formation and their rotation, are explained based on the numerical simulation data. The improved understanding of particle behaviors in AC electrohydrodynamic flows presented here will enable researchers to design better particle manipulation strategies for lab-on-a-chip applications.

  12. Light weakly interacting massive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2017-08-01

    Light weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are dark matter particle candidates with weak scale interaction with the known particles, and mass in the GeV to tens of GeV range. Hints of light WIMPs have appeared in several dark matter searches in the last decade. The unprecedented possible coincidence into tantalizingly close regions of mass and cross section of four separate direct detection experimental hints and a potential indirect detection signal in gamma rays from the galactic center, aroused considerable interest in our field. Even if these hints did not so far result in a discovery, they have had a significant impact in our field. Here we review the evidence for and against light WIMPs as dark matter candidates and discuss future relevant experiments and observations.

  13. Wave-turbulence description of interacting particles: Klein-Gordon model with a Mexican-hat potential.

    PubMed

    Gallet, Basile; Nazarenko, Sergey; Dubrulle, Bérengère

    2015-07-01

    In field theory, particles are waves or excitations that propagate on the fundamental state. In experiments or cosmological models, one typically wants to compute the out-of-equilibrium evolution of a given initial distribution of such waves. Wave turbulence deals with out-of-equilibrium ensembles of weakly nonlinear waves, and is therefore well suited to address this problem. As an example, we consider the complex Klein-Gordon equation with a Mexican-hat potential. This simple equation displays two kinds of excitations around the fundamental state: massive particles and massless Goldstone bosons. The former are waves with a nonzero frequency for vanishing wave number, whereas the latter obey an acoustic dispersion relation. Using wave-turbulence theory, we derive wave kinetic equations that govern the coupled evolution of the spectra of massive and massless waves. We first consider the thermodynamic solutions to these equations and study the wave condensation transition, which is the classical equivalent of Bose-Einstein condensation. We then focus on nonlocal interactions in wave-number space: we study the decay of an ensemble of massive particles into massless ones. Under rather general conditions, these massless particles accumulate at low wave number. We study the dynamics of waves coexisting with such a strong condensate, and we compute rigorously a nonlocal Kolmogorov-Zakharov solution, where particles are transferred nonlocally to the condensate, while energy cascades towards large wave numbers through local interactions. This nonlocal cascading state constitutes the intermediate asymptotics between the initial distribution of waves and the thermodynamic state reached in the long-time limit.

  14. An interacting particle system modelling aggregation behavior: from individuals to populations.

    PubMed

    Morale, Daniela; Capasso, Vincenzo; Oelschläger, Karl

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the stochastic modelling of a spatially structured biological population subject to social interaction. The biological motivation comes from the analysis of field experiments on a species of ants which exhibits a clear tendency to aggregate, still avoiding overcrowding. The model we propose here provides an explanation of this experimental behavior in terms of "long-ranged" aggregation and "short-ranged" repulsion mechanisms among individuals, in addition to an individual random dispersal described by a Brownian motion. Further, based on a "law of large numbers", we discuss the convergence, for large N, of a system of stochastic differential equations describing the evolution of N individuals (Lagrangian approach) to a deterministic integro-differential equation describing the evolution of the mean-field spatial density of the population (Eulerian approach).

  15. On multi-scale percolation behaviour of the effective conductivity for the lattice model with interacting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniowski, R.; Olchawa, W.; Frączek, D.; Piasecki, R.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the effective medium approach (EMA) using 2×2 basic cluster of model lattice sites to predict the conductivity of interacting microemulsion droplets has been presented by Hattori et al. To make a step aside from pure applications, we studied earlier a multi-scale percolation, employing any k× k basic cluster for non-interacting particles. Here, with interactions included, we examine in what way they alter the percolation threshold for any cluster case. We found that at a fixed length scale k, the interaction reduces the range of shifts of the percolation threshold. To determine the critical concentrations, the simplified EMA-model is used. It diminishes the number of local conductivities into two main ones. In the presence of a dominance of the repulsive interaction over the thermal energy, the exact percolation thresholds at two small scales can be revealed from analytical formulas. Furthermore, at large scales, the highest possible value of the estimated threshold can be obtained.

  16. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W.; Brown, N.A.; Babcock, R.C.; Martono, H.; Carey, D.C. |

    1997-02-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is an educational software concept to aid students and professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab is being developed as a cross-platform application and includes four key elements. The first is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. The second is a knowledge database containing information on electric and magnetic optics transport elements. The knowledge database provides interactive tutorials on the fundamental physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware. The third element is a graphical construction kit that provides tools for students to interactively and visually construct optical beamlines. The final element is a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute trajectories, transport beam envelopes, fit parameters to optical constraints and carry out similar calculations for the student designed beamlines. The primary computational engine is provided by the third-order TRANSPORT code. Augmenting TRANSPORT is the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE and a first-order matrix program that includes a space charge model and support for calculating single particle trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. This paper describes progress on the development of the PBO Lab. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, George H.; Hill, Barrey W.; Brown, Nathan A.; Babcock, R. Chris; Martono, Hendy; Carey, David C.

    1997-02-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is an educational software concept to aid students and professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab is being developed as a cross-platform application and includes four key elements. The first is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. The second is a knowledge database containing information on electric and magnetic optics transport elements. The knowledge database provides interactive tutorials on the fundamental physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware. The third element is a graphical construction kit that provides tools for students to interactively and visually construct optical beamlines. The final element is a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute trajectories, transport beam envelopes, fit parameters to optical constraints and carry out similar calculations for the student designed beamlines. The primary computational engine is provided by the third-order TRANSPORT code. Augmenting TRANSPORT is the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE and a first-order matrix program that includes a space charge model and support for calculating single particle trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. This paper describes progress on the development of the PBO Lab.

  18. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, George H.; Hill, Barrey W.; Brown, Nathan A.; Babcock, R. Chris; Martono, Hendy; Carey, David C.

    1997-02-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is an educational software concept to aid students and professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab is being developed as a cross-platform application and includes four key elements. The first is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. The second is a knowledge database containing information on electric and magnetic optics transport elements. The knowledge database provides interactive tutorials on the fundamental physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware. The third element is a graphical construction kit that provides tools for students to interactively and visually construct optical beamlines. The final element is a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute trajectories, transport beam envelopes, fit parameters to optical constraints and carry out similar calculations for the student designed beamlines. The primary computational engine is provided by the third-order TRANSPORT code. Augmenting TRANSPORT is the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE and a first-order matrix program that includes a space charge model and support for calculating single particle trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. This paper describes progress on the development of the PBO Lab.

  19. Modelling particles moving in a potential field with pairwise interactions and an application

    Treesearch

    D. R. Brillinger; Haiganoush Preisler; M. J. Wisdom

    2011-01-01

    Motions of particles in fields characterized by real-valued potential functions, are considered. Three particular expressions for potential functions are studied. One, U, depends on the ith particle’s location, ri(t) at times t

  20. Constraints on Dark Matter Interactions with Standard Model Particles from Cosmic Microwave Background Spectral Distortions.

    PubMed

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Chluba, Jens; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2015-08-14

    We propose a new method to constrain elastic scattering between dark matter (DM) and standard model particles in the early Universe. Direct or indirect thermal coupling of nonrelativistic DM with photons leads to a heat sink for the latter. This results in spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the amplitude of which can be as large as a few times the DM-to-photon-number ratio. We compute CMB spectral distortions due to DM-proton, DM-electron, and DM-photon scattering for generic energy-dependent cross sections and DM mass m_{χ}≳1 keV. Using Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer measurements, we set constraints on the cross sections for m_{χ}≲0.1 MeV. In particular, for energy-independent scattering we obtain σ_{DM-proton}≲10^{-24} cm^{2} (keV/m_{χ})^{1/2}, σ_{DM-electron}≲10^{-27} cm^{2} (keV/m_{χ})^{1/2}, and σ_{DM-photon}≲10^{-39} cm^{2} (m_{χ}/keV). An experiment with the characteristics of the Primordial Inflation Explorer would extend the regime of sensitivity up to masses m_{χ}~1 GeV.

  1. Detecting weakly interacting massive particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukier, A. K.; Gelmini, G. B.

    The growing synergy between astrophysics, particle physics, and low background experiments strengthens the possibility of detecting astrophysical non-baryonic matter. The idea of direct detection is that an incident, massive weakly interacting particle could collide with a nucleus and transfer an energy that could be measured. The present low levels of background achieved by the PNL/USC Ge detector represent a new technology which yields interesting bounds on Galactic cold dark matter and on light bosons emitted from the Sun. Further improvements require the development of cryogenic detectors. The authors analyse the practicality of such detectors, their optimalization and background suppression using the "annual modulation effect".

  2. A unified Hamiltonian solution to Maxwell-Schrödinger equations for modeling electromagnetic field-particle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongpin P.; Sha, Wei E. I.; Jiang, Lijun; Meng, Min; Wu, Yu Mao; Chew, Weng Cho

    2017-06-01

    A novel unified Hamiltonian approach is proposed to solve Maxwell-Schrödinger equation for modeling the interaction between classical electromagnetic (EM) fields and particles. Based on the Hamiltonian of electromagnetics and quantum mechanics, a unified Maxwell-Schrödinger system is derived by the variational principle. The coupled system is well-posed and symplectic, which ensures energy conserving property during the time evolution. However, due to the disparity of wavelengths of EM waves and that of electron waves, a numerical implementation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to the multiscale coupled system is extremely challenging. To overcome this difficulty, a reduced eigenmode expansion technique is first applied to represent the wave function of the particle. Then, a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the time evolution of the slowly-varying expansion coefficients are derived to replace the original Schrödinger equation. Finally, Maxwell's equations represented by the vector potential with a Coulomb gauge, together with the ODEs, are solved self-consistently. For numerical examples, the interaction between EM fields and a particle is investigated for both the closed, open and inhomogeneous electromagnetic systems. The proposed approach not only captures the Rabi oscillation phenomenon in the closed cavity but also captures the effects of radiative decay and shift in the open free space. After comparing with the existing theoretical approximate models, it is found that the approximate models break down in certain cases where a rigorous self-consistent approach is needed. This work is helpful for the EM simulation of emerging nanodevices or next-generation quantum electrodynamic systems.

  3. Matter and Interactions: A Particle Physics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organtini, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    In classical mechanics, matter and fields are completely separated; matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case; both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this article we explain why particle physicists believe in…

  4. Matter and Interactions: A Particle Physics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organtini, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    In classical mechanics, matter and fields are completely separated; matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case; both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this article we explain why particle physicists believe in…

  5. Dissipative particle dynamics with attractive and repulsive particle-particle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Meakin; Moubin Liu; Hai Huang

    2006-01-01

    In molecular dynamics simulations, a combination of short-range repulsive and long-range attractive interactions allows the behavior of gases, liquids, solids, and multiphase systems to be simulated. We demonstrate that dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations with similar pairwise particle-particle interactions can also be used to simulate the dynamics of multiphase fluids. In these simulations, the positive, short-range, repulsive part of the interaction potentials were represented by polynomial spline functions such as those used as smoothing functions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and the negative long-range part of the interaction has the same form but a different range and amplitude. If a single spline function corresponding to a purely repulsive interaction is used, the DPD fluid is a gas, and we show that the Poiseuille flow of this gas can be described accurately by the Navier-Stokes equation at low Reynolds numbers. In a two-component system in which the purely repulsive interactions between different components are substantially larger than the purely repulsive intracomponent interactions, separation into two gas phases occurs, in agreement with results obtained using DPD simulations with standard repulsive particle-particle interactions. Finally, we show that a combination of short-range repulsive interactions and long-range attractive interactions can be used to simulate the behavior of liquid drops surrounded by a gas. Similar models can be used to simulate a wide range of processes such as multiphase fluid flow through fractures and porous media with complex geometries and wetting behaviors.

  6. PIC simulations of wave-particle interactions with an initial electron velocity distribution from a kinetic ring current model

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania Koleva; ...

    2017-07-15

    Whistler wave-particle interactions play an important role in the Earth inner magnetospheric dynamics and have been the subject of numerous investigations. By running a global kinetic ring current model (RAM-SCB) in a storm event occurred on Oct 23–24 2002, we obtain the ring current electron distribution at a selected location at MLT of 9 and L of 6 where the electron distribution is composed of a warm population in the form of a partial ring in the velocity space (with energy around 15 keV) in addition to a cool population with a Maxwellian-like distribution. The warm population is likely frommore » the injected plasma sheet electrons during substorm injections that supply fresh source to the inner magnetosphere. These electron distributions are then used as input in an implicit particle-in-cell code (iPIC3D) to study whistler-wave generation and the subsequent wave-particle interactions. Here, we find that whistler waves are excited and propagate in the quasi-parallel direction along the background magnetic field. Several different wave modes are instantaneously generated with different growth rates and frequencies. The wave mode at the maximum growth rate has a frequency around 0.62ωce, which corresponds to a parallel resonant energy of 2.5 keV. Linear theory analysis of wave growth is in excellent agreement with the simulation results. These waves grow initially due to the injected warm electrons and are later damped due to cyclotron absorption by electrons whose energy is close to the resonant energy and can effectively attenuate waves. The warm electron population overall experiences net energy loss and anisotropy drop while moving along the diffusion surfaces towards regions of lower phase space density, while the cool electron population undergoes heating when the waves grow, suggesting the cross-population interactions.« less

  7. Weakly-interacting massive particles in non-supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Natsumi; Olive, Keith A.; Zheng, Jiaming

    2015-10-01

    Non-supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories provide a framework in which the stability of dark matter is explained while gauge coupling unification is realized. In this work, we systematically study this possibility by classifying weakly interacting dark matter candidates in terms of their quantum numbers of SU(2) L ⊗ U(1) Y , B - L, and SU(2) R . We consider both scalar and fermion candidates. We show that the requirement of a sufficiently high unification scale to ensure a proton lifetime compatible with experimental constraints plays a strong role in selecting viable candidates. Among the scalar candidates originating from either a 16 or 144 of SO(10), only SU(2) L singlets with zero hypercharge or doublets with Y = 1 /2 satisfy all constraints for SU(4) C ⊗ SU(2) L ⊗ SU(2) R and SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) L ⊗ SU(2) R ⊗ U(1) B- L intermediate scale gauge groups. Among fermion triplets with zero hypercharge, only a triplet in the 45 with intermediate group SU(4) C ⊗ SU(2) L ⊗ SU(2) R leads to solutions with M GUT > M int and a long proton lifetime. We find three models with weak doublets and Y = 1 /2 as dark matter candidates for the SU(4) C ⊗ SU(2) L ⊗ SU(2) R and SU(4) C ⊗ SU(2) L ⊗ U(1) R intermediate scale gauge groups assuming a minimal Higgs content. We also discuss how these models may be tested at accelerators and in dark matter detection experiments.

  8. High energy interactions of cosmic ray particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The highlights of seven sessions of the Conference dealing with high energy interactions of cosmic rays are discussed. High energy cross section measurements; particle production-models of experiments; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collision; searches for magnetic monopoles; and studies of nucleon decay are covered.

  9. Dynamics and statistics of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam β-model with different ranges of particle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulidi, Helen; Bountis, Tassos; Tsallis, Constantino; Drossos, Lambros

    2016-12-01

    In the present work we study the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) β -model involving long-range interactions (LRI) in both the quadratic and quartic potentials, by introducing two independent exponents {α1} and {α2} respectively, which make the forces decay with distance r. Our results demonstrate that weak chaos, in the sense of decreasing Lyapunov exponents, and q-Gaussian probability density functions (pdfs) of sums of the momenta, occurs only when long-range interactions are included in the quartic part. More importantly, for 0≤slant {α2}<1 , we obtain extrapolated values for q\\equiv {{q}∞}>1 , as N\\to ∞ , suggesting that these pdfs persist in that limit. On the other hand, when long-range interactions are imposed only on the quadratic part, strong chaos and purely Gaussian pdfs are always obtained for the momenta. We have also focused on similar pdfs for the particle energies and have obtained q E -exponentials (with q E   >  1) when the quartic-term interactions are long-ranged, otherwise we get the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs weight, with q  =  1. The values of q E coincide, within small discrepancies, with the values of q obtained by the momentum distributions.

  10. From interacting particles to equilibrium statistical ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilievski, Enej; Quinn, Eoin; Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-03-01

    We argue that a particle language provides a conceptually simple framework for the description of anomalous equilibration in isolated quantum systems. We address this paradigm in the context of integrable models, which are those where particles scatter completely elastically and are stable against decay. In particular, we demonstrate that a complete description of equilibrium ensembles for interacting integrable models requires a formulation built from the mode occupation numbers of the underlying particle content, mirroring the case of noninteracting particles. This yields an intuitive physical interpretation of generalized Gibbs ensembles, and reconciles them with the microcanonical ensemble. We explain how previous attempts to identify an appropriate ensemble overlooked an essential piece of information, and provide explicit examples in the context of quantum quenches.

  11. Testing model energy spectra of charged particles produced in hadron interactions on the basis of atmospheric muons

    SciTech Connect

    Dedenko, L. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F.

    2015-10-15

    An original method for calculating the spectrum of atmospheric muons with the aid of the CORSIKA 7.4 code package and numerical integration is proposed. The first step consists in calculating the energy distribution of muons for various fixed energies of primary-cosmic-ray particles and within several chosen hadron-interaction models included in the CORSIKA 7.4 code package. After that, the spectrum of atmospheric muons is calculated via integrating the resulting distribution densities with the chosen spectrum of primary-cosmic-ray particles. The atmospheric-muon fluxes that were calculated on the basis of the SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJET01, and QGSJET II-04 models exceed the predictions of the wellknown Gaisser approximation of this spectrum by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8 in the range of muon energies between about 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4} GeV.Under the assumption that, in the region of extremely highmuon energies, a dominant contribution to the muon flux comes from one to two generations of charged π{sup ±} and K{sup ±} mesons, the production rate calculated for these mesons is overestimated by a factor of 1.3 to 1.5. This conclusion is confirmed by the results of the LHCf and TOTEM experiments.

  12. Depinning of interacting particles in random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapperi, Stefano; Andrade, José S., Jr.; Mendes Filho, Josué

    2000-06-01

    We study the overdamped motion of interacting particles in a random medium using the model introduced by Pla and Nori [Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 919 (1991)]. We investigate the associated depinning transition by numerical integration of the equation of motion and show evidence that the model is in the same universality class of a driven elastic chain on a rough substrate. We discuss the implications of these results for flux line motion in type-II superconductors.

  13. Material and interaction properties of selected grains and oilseeds for modeling discrete particles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experimental investigations of grain flow can be expensive and time-consuming, but computer simulations can reduce the large effort required to evaluate the flow of grain in handling operations. Published data on material and interaction properties of selected grains and oilseeds relevant to Discret...

  14. Particle-in-cell modeling of spacecraft-plasma interaction effects on double-probe electric field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Y.; Usui, H.

    2016-12-01

    The double-probe technique, commonly used for electric field measurements in magnetospheric plasmas, is susceptible to environmental perturbations caused by spacecraft-plasma interactions. To better model the interactions, we have extended the existing particle-in-cell simulation technique so that it accepts very small spacecraft structures, such as thin wire booms, by incorporating an accurate potential field solution calculated based on the boundary element method. This immersed boundary element approach is effective for quantifying the impact of geometrically small but electrically large spacecraft elements on the formation of sheaths or wakes. The developed model is applied to the wake environment near a Cluster satellite for three distinctive plasma conditions: the solar wind, the tail lobe, and just outside the plasmapause. The simulations predict the magnitudes and waveforms of wake-derived spurious electric fields, and these are in good agreement with in situ observations. The results also reveal the detailed structure of potential around the double probes. It shows that any probes hardly experience a negative wake potential in their orbit, and instead, they experience an unbalanced drop rate of a large potential hill that is created by the spacecraft and boom bodies. As a by-product of the simulations, we also found a photoelectron short-circuiting effect that is analogous to the well-known short-circuiting effect due to the booms of a double-probe instrument. The effect is sustained by asymmetric photoelectron distributions that cancel out the external electric field.

  15. Interacting particle systems on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Vishal

    In this dissertation, the dynamics of socially or biologically interacting populations are investigated. The individual members of the population are treated as particles that interact via links on a social or biological network represented as a graph. The effect of the structure of the graph on the properties of the interacting particle system is studied using statistical physics techniques. In the first chapter, the central concepts of graph theory and social and biological networks are presented. Next, interacting particle systems that are drawn from physics, mathematics and biology are discussed in the second chapter. In the third chapter, the random walk on a graph is studied. The mean time for a random walk to traverse between two arbitrary sites of a random graph is evaluated. Using an effective medium approximation it is found that the mean first-passage time between pairs of sites, as well as all moments of this first-passage time, are insensitive to the density of links in the graph. The inverse of the mean-first passage time varies non-monotonically with the density of links near the percolation transition of the random graph. Much of the behavior can be understood by simple heuristic arguments. Evolutionary dynamics, by which mutants overspread an otherwise uniform population on heterogeneous graphs, are studied in the fourth chapter. Such a process underlies' epidemic propagation, emergence of fads, social cooperation or invasion of an ecological niche by a new species. The first part of this chapter is devoted to neutral dynamics, in which the mutant genotype does not have a selective advantage over the resident genotype. The time to extinction of one of the two genotypes is derived. In the second part of this chapter, selective advantage or fitness is introduced such that the mutant genotype has a higher birth rate or a lower death rate. This selective advantage leads to a dynamical competition in which selection dominates for large populations

  16. Impact of Interaction Laws and Particle Modeling in Discrete Element Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hong-Phong; Renouf, Mathieu; Dubois, Frédéric

    2009-06-01

    To describe the evolution of divided media, Discrete Elements Methods (DEMs) appear as one of the most appropriate tools. Medium evolution is directly related to assumptions about local contact area, body deformations and contact interactions. In some circumstance such assumptions have a strong influence on the macroscopic behaviour of the media and consequently become questionable. Using the Contact Dynamics framework, the paper presents how classical assumptions could be extended to avoid numerical effects. A reflection is proposed taking into account both physical and numerical aspects. Static and dynamic configuration have been used to illustrate the paper purposes.

  17. A theoretical model of the wave particle interaction of plasma in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Hung, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical model, based on the kinetic theory for the perturbation of plasma in the magnetosphere, is proposed to study the observed disturbances which are caused by both natural and artificial sources that generate wave-like perturbations propagating around the globe. The proposed model covers the wave propagation through a media of transitional (from collisional to collisionless) fully ionized magnetoactive plasma. A systematic formulation of the problem is presented and the method of solution for the transitional model of magnetosphere is discussed. The possible emission of hydromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere during the quiet and disturbed time are also discussed.

  18. Theoretical modeling of wave-particle interactions in the radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, J.

    The behavior of radiation belt electrons in the aftermath of magnetic storms has received much attention in recent years largely due to an increased appreciation for how poorly understood it is Progress has been made by extending and generalizing the classical mechanisms of radial diffusion and its associated energization and in situ heating and loss due to interaction with cyclotron-resonant waves These refined theoretical treatments demand refined knowledge of other input quantities such as cold electron density and especially the wave population as well as improved numerical tools These are also starting to appear and it should soon be possible to make definitive evaluations of the roles of the new theoretical ideas This presentation will review some of this recent progress especially in numerical issues surrounding multidimensional multimodal diffusion processes

  19. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Boning; Herbold, Eric B.; Homel, Michael A.; Regueiro, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  20. Cosmological constraints on interacting light particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brust, Christopher; Cui, Yanou; Sigurdson, Kris

    2017-08-01

    Cosmological observations are becoming increasingly sensitive to the effects of light particles in the form of dark radiation (DR) at the time of recombination. The conventional observable of effective neutrino number, Neff, is insufficient for probing generic, interacting models of DR. In this work, we perform likelihood analyses which allow both free-streaming effective neutrinos (parametrized by Neff) and interacting effective neutrinos (parametrized by Nfld). We motivate an alternative parametrization of DR in terms of Ntot (total effective number of neutrinos) and ffs (the fraction of effective neutrinos which are free-streaming), which is less degenerate than using Neff and Nfld. Using the Planck 2015 likelihoods in conjunction with measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), we find constraints on the total amount of beyond the Standard Model effective neutrinos (both free-streaming and interacting) of Δ Ntot < 0.39 at 2σ. In addition, we consider the possibility that this scenario alleviates the tensions between early-time and late-time cosmological observations, in particular the measurements of σ8 (the amplitude of matter power fluctuations at 8h-1 Mpc), finding a mild preference for interactions among light species. We further forecast the sensitivities of a variety of future experiments, including Advanced ACTPol (a representative CMB Stage-III experiment), CMB Stage-IV, and the Euclid satellite. This study is relevant for probing non-standard neutrino physics as well as a wide variety of new particle physics models beyond the Standard Model that involve dark radiation.

  1. Investigation of unsteadiness in Shock-particle cloud interaction: Fully resolved two-dimensional simulation and one-dimensional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh-Nik, Zahra; Regele, Jonathan D.

    2015-11-01

    Dense compressible particle-laden flow, which has a complex nature, exists in various engineering applications. Shock waves impacting a particle cloud is a canonical problem to investigate this type of flow. It has been demonstrated that large flow unsteadiness is generated inside the particle cloud from the flow induced by the shock passage. It is desirable to develop models for the Reynolds stress to capture the energy contained in vortical structures so that volume-averaged models with point particles can be simulated accurately. However, the previous work used Euler equations, which makes the prediction of vorticity generation and propagation innacurate. In this work, a fully resolved two dimensional (2D) simulation using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with a volume penalization method to model the particles has been performed with the parallel adaptive wavelet-collocation method. The results still show large unsteadiness inside and downstream of the particle cloud. A 1D model is created for the unclosed terms based upon these 2D results. The 1D model uses a two-phase simple low dissipation AUSM scheme (TSLAU) developed by coupled with the compressible two phase kinetic energy equation.

  2. Gup-Based and Snyder Noncommutative Algebras, Relativistic Particle Models, Deformed Symmetries and Interaction: a Unified Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir

    2013-08-01

    We have developed a unified scheme for studying noncommutative algebras based on generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and Snyder form in a relativistically covariant point particle Lagrangian (or symplectic) framework. Even though the GUP-based algebra and Snyder algebra are very distinct, the more involved latter algebra emerges from an approximation of the Lagrangian model of the former algebra. Deformed Poincaré generators for the systems that keep space-time symmetries of the relativistic particle models have been studied thoroughly. From a purely constrained dynamical analysis perspective the models studied here are very rich and provide insights on how to consistently construct approximate models from the exact ones when nonlinear constraints are present in the system. We also study dynamics of the GUP particle in presence of external electromagnetic field.

  3. Gup-Based and Snyder Noncommutative Algebras, Relativistic Particle Models, Deformed Symmetries and Interaction: a Unified Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir

    2013-10-01

    We have developed a unified scheme for studying noncommutative algebras based on generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and Snyder form in a relativistically covariant point particle Lagrangian (or symplectic) framework. Even though the GUP-based algebra and Snyder algebra are very distinct, the more involved latter algebra emerges from an approximation of the Lagrangian model of the former algebra. Deformed Poincaré generators for the systems that keep space-time symmetries of the relativistic particle models have been studied thoroughly. From a purely constrained dynamical analysis perspective the models studied here are very rich and provide insights on how to consistently construct approximate models from the exact ones when nonlinear constraints are present in the system. We also study dynamics of the GUP particle in presence of external electromagnetic field.

  4. Hydrodynamic particle focusing design using fluid-particle interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Teng; Liu, Zhenyu; Wu, Yihui; Deng, Yongbo; Liu, Yongshun; Liu, Geng

    2013-01-01

    For passive sheathless particles focusing in microfluidics, the equilibrium positions of particles are typically controlled by micro channels with a V-shaped obstacle array (VOA). The design of the obstacles is mainly based on the distribution of flow streamlines without considering the existence of particles. We report an experimentally verified particle trajectory simulation using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) fluid-particle interaction method. The particle trajectory which is strongly influenced by the interaction between the particle and channel wall is systematically analyzed. The numerical experiments show that the streamline is a good approximation of particle trajectory only when the particle locates on the center of the channel in depth. As the advantage of fluid-particle interaction method is achieved at a high computational cost and the streamline analysis is complex, a heuristic dimensionless design objective based on the Faxen's law is proposed to optimize the VOA devices. The optimized performance of particle focusing is verified via the experiments and ALE method.

  5. Information propagation for interacting-particle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, Norbert; Harrison, Sarah K.; Osborne, Tobias J.; Eisert, Jens

    2011-09-15

    We study the speed at which information propagates through systems of interacting quantum particles moving on a regular lattice and show that for a certain class of initial conditions there exists a maximum speed of sound at which information can propagate. Our argument applies equally to quantum spins, bosons such as in the Bose-Hubbard model, fermions, anyons, and general mixtures thereof, on arbitrary lattices of any dimension. It also pertains to dissipative dynamics on the lattice, and generalizes to the continuum for quantum fields. Our result can be seen as an analog of the Lieb-Robinson bound for strongly correlated models.

  6. A model for the distribution of particle flux in the mid-water column controlled by subsurface biotic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, George A.; Burd, Adrian B.

    The sub-euphotic zone water column is important in controlling the downward transport of material falling from the surface waters. Descriptions of the carbon flux as a function of depth have focused on empirical relationships that neglect biological processes that might control them. We develop here a series of simple models of the region that describe changes in flux in terms of the population dynamics of a particle feeder and its predator. One model predicts that the flux and predator concentration at steady state decrease exponentially with depth while the concentration of the particle feeders is constant; a second predicts that flux, particle feeder, and predator concentrations are proportional and decrease at rates that are approximately inversely proportional to depth. Away from steady state, variations in particle flux leaving the surface can induce oscillations in the near-surface animal populations but not the deeper populations. As a result of the animal oscillations associated with the surface flux variations, there can be large swings in the deep vertical particle flux that are not synchronized to the surface variations for one model formulation; a second formulation predicts that fluctuations in surface flux are damped out near the bottom. The differences in predictions for the various models make it possible to verify the utility of one or the other formulation.

  7. A comparison of three Peyer's patch "M-like" cell culture models: particle uptake, bacterial interaction, and epithelial histology.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tauseef; Gogarty, Martina; Walsh, Edwin G; Brayden, David J

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal Peyer's patch (PP) microfold (M) cells transport microbes and particulates across the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) as part of the mucosal immune surveillance system. In vitro human M-like cell co-culture models are used as screens to investigate uptake of antigens-in-nanoparticles, but the models are labour-intensive and there is inter-laboratory variability. We compared the three most established filter-grown Caco-2/Raji B cell co-culture systems. These were Model A (Kernéis et al., 1997), Model B (Gullberg et al., 2000), and Model C (Des Rieux et al. 2007). The criteria used were transepithelial resistance (TEER), the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of [(14)C]-mannitol, M cell-like histology, as well as latex particle and Salmonella typhimurium translocation. Each co-culture model displayed substantial increases in particle translocation. Truncated microvilli compared to mono-cultures was their most consistent feature. The inverted model developed by des Rieux et al. (2007) displayed reductions in TEER and an increased (Papp), accompanied by the largest increase in particle translocation compared to the other two models. The normally-oriented model developed by Gullberg et al. (2000) was the only one to consistently display an increased translocation of Salmonella typhimurium. By applying a double Matrigel™ coating on filters, altering the medium feeding regime for Raji B cells, and restricting the passage number of B cells, improvements to the Gullberg model B were achieved, as reflected by increased particle translocation and improved histology. In conclusion, this is the first time all three designs have been compared in one study and each displays phenotypic features of M-like cells. While Model C was the most robust co-culture, the Model B protocol could be improved by optimizing several variables and is less complicated to establish than the two inverted models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Convective Polymer Depletion on Pair Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Tai-Hsi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tuinier, Remco

    2011-11-01

    Understanding transport, reaction, aggregation, and viscoelastic properties of colloid-polymer mixture is of great importance in food, biomedical, and pharmaceutical sciences. In non-adsorbing polymer solutions, colloidal particles tend to aggregate due to the depletion-induced osmotic or entropic force. Our early development for the relative mobility of pair particles assumed that polymer reorganization around the particles is much faster than particle's diffusive time, so that the coupling of diffusive and convective effects can be neglected. Here we present a nonequilibrium two-fluid (polymer and solvent) model to resolve the convective depletion effect. The theoretical framework is based on ground state approximation and accounts for the coupling of fluid flow and polymer transport to better describe pair particle interactions. The momentum and polymer transport, chemical potential, and local viscosity and osmotic pressure are simultaneously solved by numerical approximation. This investigation is essential for predicting the demixing kinetics in the pairwise regime for colloid-polymer mixtures. This work is supported by NSF CMMI 0952646.

  9. Energy exchange in systems of particles with nonreciprocal interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vaulina, O. S.; Lisina, I. I. Lisin, E. A.

    2015-10-15

    A model is proposed to describe the sources of additional kinetic energy and its redistribution in systems of particles with a nonreciprocal interaction. The proposed model is shown to explain the qualitative specific features of the dust particle dynamics in the sheath region of an RF discharge. Prominence is given to the systems of particles with a quasi-dipole–dipole interaction, which is similar to the interaction induced by the ion focusing effects that occur in experiments on a laboratory dusty plasma, and with the shadow interaction caused by thermophoretic forces and Le Sage’s forces.

  10. A Particle-Particle Collision Model for Smoothed Profile Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaghegh, Fazlolah; Mousel, John; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2014-11-01

    Smoothed Profile Method (SPM) is a type of continuous forcing approach that adds the particles to the fluid using a forcing. The fluid-structure interaction is through a diffuse interface which avoids sudden transition from solid to fluid. The SPM simulation as a monolithic approach uses an indicator function field in the whole domain based on the distance from each particle's boundary where the possible particle-particle interaction can occur. A soft sphere potential based on the indicator function field has been defined to add an artificial pressure to the flow pressure in the potential overlapping regions. Thus, a repulsion force is obtained to avoid overlapping. Study of two particles which impulsively start moving in an initially uniform flow shows that the particle in the wake of the other one will have less acceleration leading to frequent collisions. Various Reynolds numbers and initial distances have been chosen to test the robustness of the method. Study of Drafting-Kissing Tumbling of two cylindrical particles shows a deviation from the benchmarks due to lack of rotation modeling. The method is shown to be accurate enough for simulating particle-particle collision and can easily be extended for particle-wall modeling and for non-spherical particles.

  11. Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.

    2016-03-01

    The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian interacting massive particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than 0.01 Mp is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the Kaluza-Klein graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark matter.

  12. Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S

    2016-03-11

    The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian interacting massive particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than 0.01M_{p} is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the Kaluza-Klein graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark matter.

  13. Electrostatic interaction between colloidal particles trapped at an electrolyte interface.

    PubMed

    Majee, Arghya; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2014-04-28

    The electrostatic interaction between colloidal particles trapped at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions is studied in the limit of small inter-particle distances. Within an appropriate model analytic expressions for the electrostatic potential as well as for the surface and line interaction energies are obtained. They demonstrate that the widely used superposition approximation, which is commonly applied to large distances between the colloidal particles, fails qualitatively at small distances, and is quantitatively unreliable even at large distances. Our results contribute to an improved description of the interaction between colloidal particles trapped at fluid interfaces.

  14. Interactions between Janus particles and membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hong-Ming; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    Understanding how nanoparticles interact with cell membranes is of great importance in drug/gene delivery. In this paper, we investigate the interactions between Janus particles and membranes by using dissipative particle dynamics, and find that there exist two different modes (i.e., insertion and engulfment) in the Janus particle-membrane interactions. The initial orientation and properties of Janus particles have an important impact on the interactions. When the hydrophilic part of the particle is close to the membrane or the particle has a larger section area and higher hydrophilic coverage, the particle is more likely to be engulfed by the membrane. We also provide insights into the interactions between Janus particles and membranes containing lipid rafts, and find that a Janus particle could easily detach from a membrane after it is engulfed by the raft. The present study suggests a potential way to translocate Janus particles through membranes, which may give some significant suggestions on future nanoparticle design for drug delivery.

  15. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of repulsive particle-particle and particle-wall interactions: Coughing and choking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Başaǧaoǧlu, Hakan; Succi, Sauro

    2010-04-01

    We propose and numerically investigate a new particle retention mechanism for particle entrapment in creeping flows in a constricted section of a saturated rough-walled narrow flow channel. We hypothesize that particles, whose size is smaller than channel width, can be temporarily or permanently immobilized in a flow channel away from channel walls due to particle-particle and particle-wall repulsive potentials, and, consequently, the flow field is clogged temporarily (coughing) or permanently (choking). Two mathematically simplified repulsive particle-particle and particle-wall interaction potentials are incorporated into a two-dimensional colloidal lattice-Boltzmann model. These potentials are two-body Lennard-Jones 12 and screened electrostatic repulsive potentials. Numerical simulations reveal that unlike in smooth-walled flow channels, particles are entrapped away from rough-walled channel walls and subsequently clog the flow field if fluid-drag and repulsive forces on particles are in balance. Off-balance forces, however, could result in temporary clogging if repulsive forces are stronger on the advancing edge of a particle than on its trailing edge. The new conceptualization and two-particle numerical simulations successfully captured (i) temporary entrapment of two particles (coughing), (ii) temporary entrapment of one of the particles with permanent entrapment of the other particle (coughing-choking), and (iii) permanent entrapment of both particles (choking) as a function of repulsive interaction strength.

  16. Particle image velocimetry in viscoelastic fluids and particle interaction effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirsepassi, Alireza; Rankin, Derek Dunn

    2014-01-01

    Two main assumptions in laser doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are that tracer particles are following the flow faithfully and that they are not interacting hydrodynamically or affecting the flow field. It has been shown, however, that particles in polymeric fluids even in low volumetric concentrations ( ϕ < 1 % v/v) can interact profoundly because of the viscoelastic nature of the background fluid, leading even to particle chain or string formation. The objective of this study is to determine how these interactions can affect the flow conclusions drawn from PIV measurements. We chose a highly viscoelastic and shear thinning fluid and confirmed that particle string formation does occur rapidly in a simple shear flow of this fluid. Then, we measured via PIV, the fully developed velocity profile in the mid-plane of a square channel over a wide range of particle loadings 0.005-0.2 % v/v. The measurements confirm that despite the chaining process, there is no discernible effect of particle interaction on PIV velocity measurements.

  17. Free-Propagator Reweighting Integrator for Single-Particle Dynamics in Reaction-Diffusion Models of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interaction Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Margaret E.; Hummer, Gerhard

    2014-07-01

    We present a new algorithm for simulating reaction-diffusion equations at single-particle resolution. Our algorithm is designed to be both accurate and simple to implement, and to be applicable to large and heterogeneous systems, including those arising in systems biology applications. We combine the use of the exact Green's function for a pair of reacting particles with the approximate free-diffusion propagator for position updates to particles. Trajectory reweighting in our free-propagator reweighting (FPR) method recovers the exact association rates for a pair of interacting particles at all times. FPR simulations of many-body systems accurately reproduce the theoretically known dynamic behavior for a variety of different reaction types. FPR does not suffer from the loss of efficiency common to other path-reweighting schemes, first, because corrections apply only in the immediate vicinity of reacting particles and, second, because by construction the average weight factor equals one upon leaving this reaction zone. FPR applications include the modeling of pathways and networks of protein-driven processes where reaction rates can vary widely and thousands of proteins may participate in the formation of large assemblies. With a limited amount of bookkeeping necessary to ensure proper association rates for each reactant pair, FPR can account for changes to reaction rates or diffusion constants as a result of reaction events. Importantly, FPR can also be extended to physical descriptions of protein interactions with long-range forces, as we demonstrate here for Coulombic interactions.

  18. Free-Propagator Reweighting Integrator for Single-Particle Dynamics in Reaction-Diffusion Models of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interaction Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hummer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for simulating reaction-diffusion equations at single-particle resolution. Our algorithm is designed to be both accurate and simple to implement, and to be applicable to large and heterogeneous systems, including those arising in systems biology applications. We combine the use of the exact Green's function for a pair of reacting particles with the approximate free-diffusion propagator for position updates to particles. Trajectory reweighting in our free-propagator reweighting (FPR) method recovers the exact association rates for a pair of interacting particles at all times. FPR simulations of many-body systems accurately reproduce the theoretically known dynamic behavior for a variety of different reaction types. FPR does not suffer from the loss of efficiency common to other path-reweighting schemes, first, because corrections apply only in the immediate vicinity of reacting particles and, second, because by construction the average weight factor equals one upon leaving this reaction zone. FPR applications include the modeling of pathways and networks of protein-driven processes where reaction rates can vary widely and thousands of proteins may participate in the formation of large assemblies. With a limited amount of bookkeeping necessary to ensure proper association rates for each reactant pair, FPR can account for changes to reaction rates or diffusion constants as a result of reaction events. Importantly, FPR can also be extended to physical descriptions of protein interactions with long-range forces, as we demonstrate here for Coulombic interactions. PMID:26005592

  19. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  20. Computation of Capillary Interactions among Many Particles at Free Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Koike, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Yukio

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a new computational method to efficiently estimate capillary interactions among many moving particles at a free surface. A novelty of the method is the immersed free surface (IFS) model that transforms the surface tension exerted on a three-phase contact line on a particle surface into the surface tension exerted on an artificially created virtual free surface in the particle. Using the IFS model along with a level set method and an immersed boundary method, we have reasonably simulated a capillary-force-induced self-assembly of particles that is common in coating-drying of particle suspension.

  1. Attractive interaction between similarly charged colloidal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, X.; Wasan, D.T.

    1996-12-01

    The pair interactions between the charged colloidal particles dispersed in a solvent are studied theoretically by the integral equation method. The pair potential of the mean forces, accounting for the effective pair interaction between colloidal particles, is calculated from the solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the mean spherical approximation (MSA). An attractive interaction was found between two similarly charged colloidal particles in contrast with the purely repulsive force predicted by the Debye-Huckel theory. Such an attractive interaction provides physical insight for the condensed phenomena in charged colloidal dispersions, that is, the coexistence of a condensed phase and an expanded phase (voids). At the higher concentration and charge on colloidal particles, the effective pair interaction becomes oscillatory.

  2. CFD Modeling of Particle Resuspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraw, Jason; Cimbala, John; Freihaut, James

    2006-11-01

    The phenomenon of resuspension plays a role in everyday life and is an important factor in indoor air quality. There are several models available for particle detachment, but the mechanisms by which particles are induced to lift off of a surface are not well explained in the literature. The lifting forces on a particle are generally too small to resuspend it, especially in the air flows generated by human activity (e.g., walking). We model the interaction of the aerodynamic disturbances and a thin layer of particles deposited on the surface. A standard CFD solver is used to compute the flow, and the particle transport model is one-way-coupled with the flow solution. Several time-dependent flows are considered, including an idealized footstep. The foot is represented using an immersed boundary technique, and is modeled as a disk that moves up and down with a trajectory patterned after experimental gait data. A jet and a radially moving vortex are generated as the foot approaches the floor. The strength of the jet is determined by the details of the foot movement near the surface. If the foot is slowed as it nears the floor, we find maximum velocities around 3 m/s, while the maximum velocity is more than doubled by a sudden stop. We have also computed a ``vacuum cleaner'' case to model the airflow generated by cleaning activities. In either case, the wall shear along the floor and the near-wall flow structure are used to examine the resuspension of particles.

  3. Arsenic interactions with lipid particles containing iron.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahbub M; Rahman, Farzana; Sansom, Lloyd; Naidu, Ravi; Schmidt, Otto

    2009-04-01

    While arsenic is toxic to all multicellular organisms, some organisms become tolerant by an unknown mechanism. We have recently uncovered an inducible tolerance mechanism in insects, which is based on a sequestration of toxins and pathogens by lipid particles. To examine whether arsenic interacts with lipid particles from mammals we compared binding of arsenic to lipid particles from insect and pig plasma after separation of lipid particles by low-density gradient centrifugation. Arsenic was found in both organisms in an area of the gradient, which corresponds to lipid-rich lipid particles. Since iron is known to affect arsenic toxicity in some organisms, we asked whether iron may be present in lipid particles. When low density cell (LDC) gradient fractions were analysed for the presence of iron we detected a peak in very low-density fractions similar to those that carried arsenic. This could indicate that arsenic interacts with lipid particles that contain iron and, if arsenic is removed from the plasma by lipid particles, that would also reduce iron-containing lipid particles at the time of arsenic emergence in the plasma. To test this assumption we measured the iron content in plasma at various time periods after the toxin ingestion. This time course revealed that iron is depleted in plasma fractions when arsenic shows a peak. Our data suggest that arsenic interacts with invertebrate and vertebrate lipid particles that are associated with proteins that may lead to detoxification by cell-free or cellular sequestration mechanisms.

  4. Particle systems with quasihomogeneous interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Cristina

    In this dissertation we analyse from a qualitative standpoint motion in a quasihomogeneous potential field: we offer a complete description of the flow associated with the two-body problem in quasihomogeneous field, obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the block regularization of the flow and we propose an alternative model for the helium atom within the framework of a Manev-type interaction. We call a potential quasihomogeneous if it is of the form A/r α + B/rβ, where r is the distance between the two mass points, 0 < α < β are real parameters and A > 0 and B > 0 inertia factors. To obtain the full description of the flow associated with the two-body problem in quasihomogeneous fields, we use diffeomorphic transformations that lead to an equivalent analytic system and at least differentiable integral energy relation. For each level of energy, we introduce the fictional invariant collision manifold and the infinity manifolds. We offer and analyse the global flow picture and we point out the Lebesgue measure of the set of initial conditions that lead to collision for each different case with respect to α and β. The next chapter focuses on the smoothness of the flow in the neighborhood of the collision manifold. In question is the possibility of extending solutions beyond singularities maintaining good properties with respect to initial data. In this case the singularity set for the system is said to be block regularizable. It is proved that the singularity set block regularizable if and only if β = 2 - / , where n is a positive integer, n >= 2. Also, the physical interpretation of this result is pointed out, namely that block regularization is in fact the mathematical expression of constrain imposed over the classical scattering angle. The last chapter presents a model for the Helium atom within the framework of classical mechanics. The set up consists of a planar isosceles 3-body problem formed by one neutron and two electrons, whose law of motion

  5. Investigation of plasma particle interactions with variable particle sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    In dusty plasmas, the dust particles are subjected to many forces of different origins. Both the gas and plasma directly affect the dust particles through electric fields, neutral drag, ion drag and thermophoretic forces, while the particles themselves interact with one another through a screened coulomb potential, which can be influenced by flowing ions. Recently, micron sized particles have been used as probes to analyze the electric fields in the plasma directly. A proper analysis of the resulting data requires a full understanding of the manner in which these forces couple to the dust particles. In most cases each of the forces exhibit unique characteristics, many of which are partially dependent on the particle size. In this study, five different particle sizes are used to investigate the forces resident in the sheath above the lower electrode of a GEC RF reference cell. The particles are tracked using a high-speed camera, yielding two-dimensional force maps allowing the force on the particles to be described as a polynomial series. It will be shown that the data collected can be analyzed to reveal information about the origins of the various forces. Support from the NSF and the DOE (award numbers PHY-1262031 and PHY-1414523) is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Monte Carlo modeling of secondary electron emission and its incorporation in particle simulations of electron-surface interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guoxin; Liu, Lie

    2011-06-01

    Based on Vaughan's empirical formula of secondary emission yield and the assumption of mutual exclusion of each type of secondary electron, a mathematically self-consistent secondary emission model is proposed. It identifies each generated secondary electron as either elastic reflected, rediffused, or true secondary, hence, it allows the use of distinct emission energy and angular distributions of each type of electron. Monte Carlo modeling of the developed model is presented, and second-order algorithms for particle collection and ejection at the secondary-emission wall are developed in order to incorporate the secondary electron emission process in the standard leap-frog integrator. The accuracy of these algorithms is analyzed for general fields and is confirmed by comparing the numerically computed values with the exact solution under a homogeneous magnetic field. In particular, the phenomenon of multipactor electron discharge on a dielectric is simulated to verify the usefulness of the model developed in this paper.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Molten Steel Flow Patterns and Particle-Wall Interactions Inside a Slide-Gate Nozzle by a Hybrid Turbulent Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi-Ghaleni, Mahdi; Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Smith, Jeffrey D.; O'Malley, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    Melt flow patterns and turbulence inside a slide-gate throttled submerged entry nozzle (SEN) were studied using Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) model, which is a combination of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) models. The DES switching criterion between RANS and LES was investigated to closely reproduce the flow structures of low and high turbulence regions similar to RANS and LES simulations, respectively. The melt flow patterns inside the nozzle were determined by k- ɛ (a RANS model), LES, and DES turbulent models, and convergence studies were performed to ensure reliability of the results. Results showed that the DES model has significant advantages over the standard k- ɛ model in transient simulations and in regions containing flow separation from the nozzle surface. Moreover, due to applying a hybrid approach, DES uses a RANS model at wall boundaries which resolves the extremely fine mesh requirement of LES simulations, and therefore it is computationally more efficient. Investigation of particle distribution inside the nozzle and particle adhesion to the nozzle wall also reveals that the DES model simulations predict more particle-wall interactions compared to LES model.

  8. Algorithm for Computing Particle/Surface Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm has been devised for predicting the behaviors of sparsely spatially distributed particles impinging on a solid surface in a rarefied atmosphere. Under the stated conditions, prior particle-transport models in which (1) dense distributions of particles are treated as continuum fluids; or (2) sparse distributions of particles are considered to be suspended in and to diffuse through fluid streams are not valid.

  9. Thermoelectricity of interacting particles: a numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shunda; Wang, Jiao; Casati, Giulio; Benenti, Giuliano

    2015-09-01

    A method for computing the thermopower in interacting systems is proposed. This approach, which relies on Monte Carlo simulations, is illustrated first for a diatomic chain of hard-point elastically colliding particles and then in the case of a one-dimensional gas with (screened) Coulomb interparticle interaction. Numerical simulations up to N>10^{4} particles confirm the general theoretical arguments for momentum-conserving systems and show that the thermoelectric figure of merit increases linearly with the system size.

  10. Particle-Vortex Interaction in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenghi, Carlo F.

    2008-11-01

    The application of the classical Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique in liquid helium has opened the way to better visualization of superfluid turbulence. To interpret the data, it is necessary to understand the interaction between micron-size tracer particles and vortex lines. This talk summarizes current understanding of this interaction resulting from theoretical and numerical calculations. In collaboration with Yuri A. Sergeev, Newcastle University.

  11. Shock Interaction with Random Spherical Particle Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Chris; Mehta, Yash; Salari, Kambiz; Jackson, Thomas L.; Balachandar, S. "Bala"; Thakur, Siddharth

    2016-11-01

    In this talk we present results on fully resolved simulations of shock interaction with randomly distributed bed of particles. Multiple simulations were carried out by varying the number of particles to isolate the effect of volume fraction. Major focus of these simulations was to understand 1) the effect of the shockwave and volume fraction on the forces experienced by the particles, 2) the effect of particles on the shock wave, and 3) fluid mediated particle-particle interactions. Peak drag force for particles at different volume fractions show a downward trend as the depth of the bed increased. This can be attributed to dissipation of energy as the shockwave travels through the bed of particles. One of the fascinating observations from these simulations was the fluctuations in different quantities due to presence of multiple particles and their random distribution. These are large simulations with hundreds of particles resulting in large amount of data. We present statistical analysis of the data and make relevant observations. Average pressure in the computational domain is computed to characterize the strengths of the reflected and transmitted waves. We also present flow field contour plots to support our observations. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  12. Dynamics of two interacting active Janus particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayati, Parvin; Najafi, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Starting from a microscopic model for a spherically symmetric active Janus particle, we study the interactions between two such active motors. The ambient fluid mediates a long range hydrodynamic interaction between two motors. This interaction has both direct and indirect hydrodynamic contributions. The direct contribution is due to the propagation of fluid flow that originated from a moving motor and affects the motion of the other motor. The indirect contribution emerges from the re-distribution of the ionic concentrations in the presence of both motors. Electric force exerted on the fluid from this ionic solution enhances the flow pattern and subsequently changes the motion of both motors. By formulating a perturbation method for very far separated motors, we derive analytic results for the translation and rotational dynamics of the motors. We show that the overall interaction at the leading order modifies the translational and rotational speeds of motors which scale as O (" separators=" [ 1 / D ] 3 ) and O (" separators=" [ 1 / D ] 4 ) with their separation, respectively. Our findings open up the way for studying the collective dynamics of synthetic micro-motors.

  13. Dynamics of two interacting active Janus particles.

    PubMed

    Bayati, Parvin; Najafi, Ali

    2016-04-07

    Starting from a microscopic model for a spherically symmetric active Janus particle, we study the interactions between two such active motors. The ambient fluid mediates a long range hydrodynamic interaction between two motors. This interaction has both direct and indirect hydrodynamic contributions. The direct contribution is due to the propagation of fluid flow that originated from a moving motor and affects the motion of the other motor. The indirect contribution emerges from the re-distribution of the ionic concentrations in the presence of both motors. Electric force exerted on the fluid from this ionic solution enhances the flow pattern and subsequently changes the motion of both motors. By formulating a perturbation method for very far separated motors, we derive analytic results for the translation and rotational dynamics of the motors. We show that the overall interaction at the leading order modifies the translational and rotational speeds of motors which scale as O[1/D](3) and O[1/D](4) with their separation, respectively. Our findings open up the way for studying the collective dynamics of synthetic micro-motors.

  14. Interactions between particles in a magnetocapillary self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Darras, Alexis; Grosjean, Galien; Lumay, Geoffroy; Hubert, Maxime; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Grasp Team

    2014-11-01

    When particles are suspended at air-water interfaces in the presence of a vertical magnetic field, dipole-dipole repulsion competes with capillary attraction. This interaction was used recently to control self-assembling particles, as well as to create low Reynolds swimming systems. Although the equilibrium properties of the magnetocapillary interaction is understood, the dynamics was unclear. In the present report, we emphasize the rich behavior of two/three particles driven by this interaction. We propose a model for describing the motion driven by an external field, being the basis for developing swimming strategies and other elaborated collective behaviors along liquid-air interfaces.

  15. Charged particle therapy: the physics of interaction.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Antony J

    2009-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long and distinguished history with more than 50,000 patients having been treated, mainly with high-energy proton therapy. Particularly, for proton therapy, there is an increasing interest in exploiting the physical characteristics of charged particles for further improving the potential of radiation therapy. In this article, we review the most important interactions of charged particles with matter and describe the basic physical principles that underlie why particle beams behave the way they do and why such a behavior could bring many benefits in radiation therapy.

  16. Ring particles - Collisional interactions and physical nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, S. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to the properties of, and dynamical processes affecting individual particles of Saturn's rings. Because particles tend to be gravitationally bound when located on the surfaces of larger particles, and since net tidal stresses within the particles are small, particle collisions should produce accretion in Saturn's rings. Rapid accretionary processes within the rings are counterbalanced by tidal disruption of the larger accreted aggregates, which are presently designated 'dynamic ephemeral bodies'. The coefficient of restitution is probably very low, implying that the large particles containing most of the rings' mass are in a monolayer, although the small particles responsible for most of the rings' visible cross section form a layer many particles thick. Kinematic viscosity and interparticle erosive process models should incorporate these properties.

  17. Exactly solvable interacting two-particle quantum graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolte, Jens; Garforth, George

    2017-03-01

    We construct models of exactly solvable two-particle quantum graphs with certain non-local two-particle interactions, establishing appropriate boundary conditions via suitable self-adjoint realisations of the two-particle Laplacian. Showing compatibility with the Bethe ansatz method, we calculate quantisation conditions in the form of secular equations from which the spectra can be deduced. We compare spectral statistics of some examples to well known results in random matrix theory, analysing the chaotic properties of their classical counterparts.

  18. Effects of Wave-Particle Interactions on Radiation Belt Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Fok, M.; Khazanov, G. V.; Ober, D. M.; Gallagher, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    In this presentation, the effects of wave-particle interactions on radiation belt development will be investigated. The tool of this investigation is the kinetic Radiation Belt model that solves the convection-diffusion equation of plasma distributions in the 10keV to MeV range, with the addition of a plasmasphere model and a diffusion coefficient model. The boundary condtions of the Radiation Belt model are driven by solar wind and IMF. The purpose of the plasmasphere model is to provide the density profile of the cold core plasma, which is used in the diffusion coefficient model for calculating the diffusion coefficients of different types of wave-particle interactions. Therefore the effects of wave-particle interactions on the development of the Radiation Belt can be incorporated and modeled in a more realistic fashion. We will present the model logic and the model validation by comparing measured particle fluxes with the model calculations for several magnetic storms. We hope, through this modeling effort, that the comparison study will shed light on the evolution of the Radiation Belt and on the contribution of different physical processes involved, particularly wave-particle interactions.

  19. Spatiotemporal binary interaction and designer quasi-particle condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Radha; Pattu Sakthi, Vinayagam; Hyun Jong, Shin; Kuppuswamy, Porsezian

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a new integrable model to investigate the dynamics of two component quasi-particle condensates with spatiotemporal interaction strengths. We derive the associated Lax pair of the coupled Gross—Pitaevskii (GP) equation and construct matter wave solitons. We show that the spatiotemporal binary interaction strengths not only facilitate the stabilization of the condensates, but also enables one to fabricate condensates with desirable densities, geometries, and properties, leading to the so-called “designer quasi-particle condensates”.

  20. Collective Cell Motion in an Epithelial Sheet Can Be Quantitatively Described by a Stochastic Interacting Particle Model

    PubMed Central

    Cochet, Olivier; Grasland-Mongrain, Erwan; Silberzan, Pascal; Hakim, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Modelling the displacement of thousands of cells that move in a collective way is required for the simulation and the theoretical analysis of various biological processes. Here, we tackle this question in the controlled setting where the motion of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells in a confluent epithelium is triggered by the unmasking of free surface. We develop a simple model in which cells are described as point particles with a dynamic based on the two premises that, first, cells move in a stochastic manner and, second, tend to adapt their motion to that of their neighbors. Detailed comparison to experimental data show that the model provides a quantitatively accurate description of cell motion in the epithelium bulk at early times. In addition, inclusion of model “leader” cells with modified characteristics, accounts for the digitated shape of the interface which develops over the subsequent hours, providing that leader cells invade free surface more easily than other cells and coordinate their motion with their followers. The previously-described progression of the epithelium border is reproduced by the model and quantitatively explained. PMID:23505356

  1. Multipoint Analysis of a Corotating Interaction Region and its Associated Energetic Particles at STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and ACE: Observations and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, R. W.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; Li, G.; Mason, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    There is mounting evidence that the < 1 MeV nucleon-1 suprathermal ions associated with corotating interaction regions (CIRs) at 1 AU are accelerated locally at the compression region trailing edge in events with a reverse shock or a well-formed compression region boundary. This picture is somewhat at odds with the current interpretation that these energetic particle enhancements arise from ions accelerated at CIR-driven shocks well beyond Earth orbit that travel to 1 AU along the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). That being said, there are a significant number of CIRs with suprathermal ions that appear to originate from beyond 1 AU. In this study, we combine data analysis and modeling and attempt to constrain the source location for CIR-associated suprathermal ions that originate beyond 1 AU. Specifically, we examine a CIR and its associated energetic particles observed at STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and ACE between February 9 - 18, 2008. This CIR was first observed at STEREO-B at a time when its compression region was bounded by a reverse shock that was accelerating particles while ACE and STEREO-A observed energetic particles but no shock. We compare the time-intensity profiles and spectral properties of this CIR at each of the three longitudinally-separated spacecraft and model the acceleration and transport of the energetic particles in this event using a 2D model. We hypothesize that the energetic particles measured at ACE and STEREO-A are accelerated by the reverse shock observed at STEREO-B.

  2. Microstructure and rheology of particle stabilized emulsions: Effects of particle shape and inter-particle interactions.

    PubMed

    Katepalli, Hari; John, Vijay T; Tripathi, Anubhav; Bose, Arijit

    2017-01-01

    Using fumed and spherical silica particles of similar hydrodynamic size, we investigated the effects of particle shape and inter-particle interactions on the formation, stability and rheology of bromohexadecane-in-water Pickering emulsions. The interparticle interactions were varied from repulsive to attractive by modifying the salt concentration in the aqueous phase. Optical microscope images revealed smaller droplet sizes for the fumed silica stabilized emulsions. All the emulsions remained stable for several weeks. Cryo-SEM images of the emulsion droplets showed a hexagonally packed single layer of particles at oil-water interfaces in emulsions stabilized with silica spheres, irrespective of the nature of the inter-particle interactions. Thus, entropic, excluded volume interactions dominate the fate of spherical particles at oil-water interfaces. On the other hand, closely packed layers of particles were observed at oil-water interfaces for the fumed silica stabilized emulsions for both attractive and repulsive interparticle interactions. At the high salt concentrations, attractive inter-particles interactions led to aggregation of fumed silica particles, and multiple layers of these particles were then observed on the droplet surfaces. A network of fumed silica particles was also observed between the emulsion droplets, suggesting that enthalpic interactions are responsible for the determining particle configurations at oil-water interfaces as well as in the aqueous phase. Steady shear viscosity measurements over a range of shear stresses, as well as oscillatory shear measurements at 1Hz confirm the presence of a network in fumed silica suspensions and emulsions, and the lack of such a network when spherical particles are used. The fractal structure of fumed silica leads to several contact points and particle interlocking in the water as well as on the bromohexadecane-water interfaces, with corresponding effects on the structure and rheology of the emulsions

  3. A new physical model of the electron radiation belts of Jupiter: on the importance of the wave-particle interaction between Io and Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nénon, Quentin; Sicard-Piet, Angélica

    2017-04-01

    From 1998 to 2004, ONERA has adapted its 3D physical model of the Earth radiation belts, Salammbô, to the Jovian electron belts. An upgraded Jupiter-Salammbô model will be presented, now taking into account the gyro-resonant interaction with the plasma waves between Io and Europa. The full spectrum of the electromagnetic waves detected by the Galileo Plasma Wave Science experiment was considered. The WAPI (WAve-Particle Interaction) code, developed by ONERA and implementing the quasi-linear theory, has then been used to estimate the pitch angle and kinetic energy diffusion rates. Regarding the boundary condition, the Galileo Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) high-resolution data suggests that the electron distribution at a Mc Illwain parameter of L=9.5 is almost isotropic, with a flux ratio between equatorial electrons and those bouncing near the loss cone lower than 5 at all the observed kinetic energies. We therefore adopted an isotropic boundary condition at L=9.5 that relies on the in-situ flux measurements coming from the Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1 and Galileo missions. We propose to model the radial diffusion process with a diffusion coefficient DLL = 10-10L4s-1 for L extending from 1 to 9.5. The validation of the new model against in-situ and remote (synchrotron emission) observations will be presented. We will then discuss the effect of the wave-particle interaction on the predicted in-situ fluxes. In particular, the observable depletions of the Pioneer and Voyager fluxes near the orbit of Io seem to be predominantly induced by the plasma waves and not by the sweeping effect of Io.

  4. Interactive methods for exploring particle simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Co, Christopher S.; Friedman, Alex; Grote, David P.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Bethel, E. Wes; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2004-05-01

    In this work, we visualize high-dimensional particle simulation data using a suite of scatter plot-based visualizations coupled with interactive selection tools. We use traditional 2D and 3D projection scatter plots as well as a novel oriented disk rendering style to convey various information about the data. Interactive selection tools allow physicists to manually classify ''interesting'' sets of particles that are highlighted across multiple, linked views of the data. The power of our application is the ability to correspond new visual representations of the simulation data with traditional, well understood visualizations. This approach supports the interactive exploration of the high-dimensional space while promoting discovery of new particle behavior.

  5. Discrete Element Modeling of Triboelectrically Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Weitzman, Peter S.; Curry, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carry out experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. While simple Coulombic force between two particles is well understood, its operation in an ensemble of particles is more complex. When the tribocharging of particles and surfaces due to frictional contact is also considered, it is necessary to consider longer range of interaction of particles in response to electrostatic charging. The standard DEM algorithm accounts for particle mechanical properties and inertia as a function of particle shape and mass. If fluid drag is neglected, then particle dynamics are governed by contact between particles, between particles and equipment surfaces and gravity forces. Consideration of particle charge and any tribocharging and

  6. The Interaction of Debye-Shielded Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Merle E.; Buss, Richard J.

    1999-10-01

    Macroscopic particles or solid surfaces in contact with a typical low-temperature plasma immediately charge negatively and surround themselves with an electron-depleted region of positive charge. This Debye shielding effect is involved in the Debye-Huckel theory in liquids and plasma sheath formation in the gas phase. In this report, the interaction between such screened particles is found by using the same basic linearization approximation that is used in constructing the Debye shielding potential itself. The results demonstrate that a small but significant attraction exists between the particles, and, if conditions are right, this attractive force can contribute to the generation of particulate plasma crystals.

  7. The Interaction of Debye-Shielded Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, Richard J.; Riley, Merle E.

    1999-04-01

    Macroscopic particles or solid surfaces in contact with a typical low-temperature plasma immediately charge negatively and surround themselves with an electron-depleted region of positive charge. This Debye shielding effect is involved in the Debye-Huckel theory in liquids and plasma sheath formation in the gas phase. In this report, the interaction between such screened particles is found by using the same basic approximation that is used in constructing the Debye shielding potential itself. The results demonstrate that a significant attraction exists between the particles, and, if conditions are right, this attractive force can contribute to the generation of particulate plasma crystals.

  8. Capillary interactions between anisotropic colloidal particles.

    PubMed

    Loudet, J C; Alsayed, A M; Zhang, J; Yodh, A G

    2005-01-14

    We report on the behavior of micron-sized prolate ellipsoids trapped at an oil-water interface. The particles experience strong, anisotropic, and long-ranged attractive capillary interactions which greatly exceed the thermal energy k(B)T. Depending on surface chemistry, the particles aggregate into open structures or chains. Using video microscopy, we extract the pair interaction potential between ellipsoids and show it exhibits a power law behavior over the length scales probed. Our observations can be explained using recent calculations, if we describe the interfacial ellipsoids as capillary quadrupoles.

  9. Molecular modeling in structural nano-toxicology: interactions of nano-particles with nano-machinery of cells.

    PubMed

    Yanamala, Naveena; Kagan, Valerian E; Shvedova, Anna A

    2013-12-01

    Over the past two decades, nanotechnology has emerged as a key player in various disciplines of science and technology. Some of the most exciting applications are in the field of biomedicine - for theranostics (for combined diagnostic and therapeutic purposes) as well as for exploration of biological systems. A detailed understanding of the molecular interactions between nanoparticles and biological nano-machinery - macromolecules, membranes, and intracellular organelles - is crucial for obtaining adequate information on mechanisms of action of nanomaterials as well as a perspective on the long term effects of these materials and their possible toxicological outcomes. This review focuses on the use of structure-based computational molecular modeling as a tool to understand and to predict the interactions between nanomaterials and nano-biosystems. We review major approaches and provide examples of computational analysis of the structural principles behind such interactions. A rationale on how nanoparticles of different sizes, shape, structure and chemical properties can affect the organization and functions of nano-machinery of cells is also presented.

  10. Probabilistic approach to nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Mourenas, D.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we provide a theoretical model describing the evolution of the charged-particle distribution function in a system with nonlinear wave-particle interactions. Considering a system with strong electrostatic waves propagating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field, we demonstrate that individual particle motion can be characterized by the probability of trapping into the resonance with the wave and by the efficiency of scattering at resonance. These characteristics, being derived for a particular plasma system, can be used to construct a kinetic equation (or generalized Fokker-Planck equation) modeling the long-term evolution of the particle distribution. In this equation, effects of charged-particle trapping and transport in phase space are simulated with a nonlocal operator. We demonstrate that solutions of the derived kinetic equations agree with results of test-particle tracing. The applicability of the proposed approach for the description of space and laboratory plasma systems is also discussed.

  11. Irreversible aggregation of interacting particles in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Sidi Ammi, Hachem; Chame, Anna; Touzani, M'hammed; Benyoussef, Abdelilah; Pierre-Louis, Olivier; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2005-04-01

    We present a study of the aggregation of interacting particles in one dimension. This situation, for example, applies to atoms trapped along linear defects at the surface of a crystal. Simulations are performed with two lattice models. In the first model, the borders of atoms and islands interact in a vectorial manner via force monopoles. In the second model, each atom carries a dipole. These two models lead to qualitatively similar but quantitatively different behaviors. In both cases, the final average island size S(f) does not depend on the interactions in the limits of very low and very high coverages. For intermediate coverages, S(f) exhibits an asymmetric behavior as a function of the interaction strength: while it saturates for attractive interactions, it decreases for repulsive interactions. A class of mean-field models is designed, which allows one to retrieve the interaction dependence on the coverage dependence of the average island size with a good accuracy.

  12. An Advanced Coarse-Grained Nucleosome Core Particle Model for Computer Simulations of Nucleosome-Nucleosome Interactions under Varying Ionic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yanping; Korolev, Nikolay; Lyubartsev, Alexander P.; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, DNA exists as chromatin, a compact but dynamic complex with histone proteins. The first level of DNA organization is the linear array of nucleosome core particles (NCPs). The NCP is a well-defined complex of 147 bp DNA with an octamer of histones. Interactions between NCPs are of paramount importance for higher levels of chromatin compaction. The polyelectrolyte nature of the NCP implies that nucleosome-nucleosome interactions must exhibit a great influence from both the ionic environment as well as the positively charged and highly flexible N-terminal histone tails, protruding out from the NCP. The large size of the system precludes a modelling analysis of chromatin at an all-atom level and calls for coarse-grained approximations. Here, a model of the NCP that include the globular histone core and the flexible histone tails described by one particle per each amino acid and taking into account their net charge is proposed. DNA wrapped around the histone core was approximated at the level of two base pairs represented by one bead (bases and sugar) plus four beads of charged phosphate groups. Computer simulations, using a Langevin thermostat, in a dielectric continuum with explicit monovalent (K+), divalent (Mg2+) or trivalent (Co(NH3)63+) cations were performed for systems with one or ten NCPs. Increase of the counterion charge results in a switch from repulsive NCP-NCP interaction in the presence of K+, to partial aggregation with Mg2+ and to strong mutual attraction of all 10 NCPs in the presence of CoHex3+. The new model reproduced experimental results and the structure of the NCP-NCP contacts is in agreement with available data. Cation screening, ion-ion correlations and tail bridging contribute to the NCP-NCP attraction and the new NCP model accounts for these interactions. PMID:23418426

  13. An advanced coarse-grained nucleosome core particle model for computer simulations of nucleosome-nucleosome interactions under varying ionic conditions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanping; Korolev, Nikolay; Lyubartsev, Alexander P; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, DNA exists as chromatin, a compact but dynamic complex with histone proteins. The first level of DNA organization is the linear array of nucleosome core particles (NCPs). The NCP is a well-defined complex of 147 bp DNA with an octamer of histones. Interactions between NCPs are of paramount importance for higher levels of chromatin compaction. The polyelectrolyte nature of the NCP implies that nucleosome-nucleosome interactions must exhibit a great influence from both the ionic environment as well as the positively charged and highly flexible N-terminal histone tails, protruding out from the NCP. The large size of the system precludes a modelling analysis of chromatin at an all-atom level and calls for coarse-grained approximations. Here, a model of the NCP that include the globular histone core and the flexible histone tails described by one particle per each amino acid and taking into account their net charge is proposed. DNA wrapped around the histone core was approximated at the level of two base pairs represented by one bead (bases and sugar) plus four beads of charged phosphate groups. Computer simulations, using a Langevin thermostat, in a dielectric continuum with explicit monovalent (K(+)), divalent (Mg(2+)) or trivalent (Co(NH(3))(6) (3+)) cations were performed for systems with one or ten NCPs. Increase of the counterion charge results in a switch from repulsive NCP-NCP interaction in the presence of K(+), to partial aggregation with Mg(2+) and to strong mutual attraction of all 10 NCPs in the presence of CoHex(3+). The new model reproduced experimental results and the structure of the NCP-NCP contacts is in agreement with available data. Cation screening, ion-ion correlations and tail bridging contribute to the NCP-NCP attraction and the new NCP model accounts for these interactions.

  14. Internal waves interacting with particles in suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micard, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Internal waves are produced as a consequence of the dynamic balance between buoy- ancy and gravity forces when a particle of fluid is vertically displaced in a stable stratified environment. Geophysical systems such as ocean and atmosphere are naturally stratified and therefore suitable for internal waves to propagate. Furthermore, these two environ- ments stock a vast amount of particles in suspension, which present a large spectrum of physical properties (size, density, shape), and can be organic, mineral or pollutant agents. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that internal waves will have an active effect over the dynamics of these particles. In order to study the interaction of internal waves and suspended particles, an ide- alized experimental setup has been implemented. A linear stratification is produced in a 80×40×17 cm3 tank, in which two dimensional plane waves are created thanks to the inno- vative wave generator GOAL. In addition, a particle injector has been developed to produce a vertical column of particles within the fluid, displaying the same two-dimensional sym- metry as the waves. The particle injector allows to control the volumic fraction of particles and the size of the column. The presence of internal waves passing through the column of particles allowed to observe two main effects: The column oscillates around an equilibrium position (which is observed in both, the contours an the interior of the column), and the column is displaced as a whole. The column is displaced depending on the characteristics of the column, the gradient of the density, and the intensity and frequency of the wave. When displaced, the particles within the column are sucked towards the source of waves. The direction of the displacement of the column is explained by computing the effect of the Lagrangian drift generated by the wave over the time the particles stay in the wave beam before settling.

  15. Elementary Particle Interactions with CMS at LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Spanier, Stefan

    2016-07-31

    The High Energy Particle Physics group of the University of Tennessee participates in the search for new particles and forces in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. Since the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the search has intensified to find new generations of particles beyond the standard model using the higher collision energies and ever increasing luminosity, either directly or via deviations from standard model predictions such as the Higgs boson decays. As part of this effort, the UTK group has expanded the search for new particles in four-muon final states, and in final states with jets, has successfully helped and continues to help to implement and operate an instrument for improved measurements of the luminosity needed for all data analyses, and has continued to conduct research of new technologies for charged particle tracking at a high-luminosity LHC.

  16. Localized N, {lambda}, {sigma}, and {xi} single-particle potentials in finite nuclei calculated with SU{sub 6} quark-model baryon-baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kohno, M.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2009-05-15

    Localized single-particle potentials for all octet baryons, N, {lambda}, {sigma}, and {xi}, in finite nuclei, {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 28}Si, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 56}Fe, and {sup 90}Zr, are calculated using the quark-model baryon-baryon interactions. G matrices evaluated in symmetric nuclear matter in the lowest order Brueckner theory (LOBT) are applied to finite nuclei in local density approximation. Nonlocal potentials are localized by a zero-momentum Wigner transformation. Empirical single-particle properties of the nucleon and the {lambda} hyperon in a nuclear medium have been known to be explained semiquantitatively in the LOBT framework. Attention is focused in the present consideration on predictions for the {sigma} and {xi} hyperons. The unified description for the octet baryon-baryon interactions by the SU{sub 6} quark model enables us to obtain less ambiguous extrapolation to the S=-1 and S=-2 sectors based on the knowledge in the NN sector than other potential models. The {sigma} mean field is shown to be weakly attractive at the surface, but turns out to be repulsive inside, which is consistent with the experimental evidence. The {xi} hyperon s.p. potential is also attractive at the nuclear surface region, and inside it fluctuates around zero. Hence {xi} hypernuclear bound states are unlikely. We also evaluate energy shifts of the {sigma}{sup -} and {xi}{sup -} atomic levels in {sup 28}Si and {sup 56}Fe, using the calculated s.p. potentials.

  17. Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-01-11

    Wave-particle interactions in E×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  18. Dissipative Particle Dynamics interaction parameters from ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, Fatemeh; Paddison, Stephen J.

    2016-02-01

    Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is a commonly employed coarse-grained method to model complex systems. Presented here is a pragmatic approach to connect atomic-scale information to the meso-scale interactions defined between the DPD particles or beads. Specifically, electronic structure calculations were utilized for the calculation of the DPD pair-wise interaction parameters. An implicit treatment of the electrostatic interactions for charged beads is introduced. The method is successfully applied to derive the parameters for a hydrated perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer with absorbed vanadium cations.

  19. Interacting Brownian dynamics in a nonequilibrium particle bath.

    PubMed

    Steffenoni, Stefano; Kroy, Klaus; Falasco, Gianmaria

    2016-12-01

    We set up a mesoscopic theory for interacting Brownian particles embedded in a nonequilibrium environment, starting from the microscopic interacting many-body theory. Using nonequilibrium linear-response theory, we characterize the effective dynamical interactions on the mesoscopic scale and the statistics of the nonequilibrium environmental noise, arising upon integrating out the fast degrees of freedom. As hallmarks of nonequilibrium, the breakdown of the fluctuation-dissipation and action-reaction relations for Brownian degrees of freedom is exemplified with two prototypical models for the environment, namely active Brownian particles and stirred colloids.

  20. Granular segregation driven by particle interactions.

    PubMed

    Lozano, C; Zuriguel, I; Garcimartín, A; Mullin, T

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of particle-particle interactions in a horizontally shaken granular layer that undergoes a second order phase transition from a binary gas to a segregation liquid as the packing fraction C is increased. By focusing on the behavior of individual particles, the effect of C is studied on (1) the process of cluster formation, (2) cluster dynamics, and (3) cluster destruction. The outcomes indicate that the segregation is driven by two mechanisms: attraction between particles with the same properties and random motion with a characteristic length that is inversely proportional to C. All clusters investigated are found to be transient and the probability distribution functions of the separation times display a power law tail, indicating that the splitting probability decreases with time.

  1. Turbulence-radiation interactions in a particle-laden flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Ari; Pouransari, Hadi; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Mani, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Turbulent fluctuations in a radiatively participating medium can significantly alter the mean heat transfer characteristics in a manner that current RANS models cannot accurately capture. While turbulence-radiation interaction has been studied extensively in traditional combustion systems, such interactions have not yet been studied in the context of particle-laden flows. This work is motivated by applications in particle-based solar receivers in which external radiation is primarily absorbed by a dispersed phase and conductively exchanged with the carrier fluid. Direct numerical simulations of turbulence with Lagrangian particles subject to a collimated radiation source are performed with a flux-limited diffusion approximation to radiative transfer. The dependence of the turbulence-radiation interaction statistics on the particle Stokes number will be demonstrated. Supported by PSAAP II.

  2. Internal bremsstrahlung of strongly interacting charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgalin, S. D.; Tchuvil'sky, Yu. M.; Churakova, T. A.

    2016-11-01

    A universal theoretical model intended for calculating internal-bremsstrahlung spectra is proposed. In this model, which can be applied to describing nuclear decays of various type (such as alpha decay, cluster decay, and proton emission), use is made of realistic nucleus-nucleus potentials. Theoretical internal-bremsstrahlung spectra were obtained for the alpha decay of the 214Po nucleus, as well as for the decay of the 222Ra nucleus via the emission of a 14C cluster and for the decay of the 113Cs nucleus via proton emission, and the properties of these spectra were studied. The contributions of various regions (internal, subbarrier, and external) to the internal-bremsstrahlung amplitude were analyzed in detail. It is shown that the contribution of the internal region to the amplitude for internal bremsstrahlung generated in nuclear decay via proton emission is quite large, but that this is not so for alpha decay and decay via cluster emission. Thus, a process in which strong interaction of nuclear particles affects the internal-bremsstrahlung spectrum if found.

  3. Simply split strongly interacting massive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Nicolás; Chu, Xiaoyong; Pradler, Josef

    2017-06-01

    Dark matter which interacts strongly with itself, but only feebly with the Standard Model, is a possibility that has been entertained to solve apparent small-scale structure problems that are pertinent to the noninteracting cold dark matter paradigm. In this paper, we study the simple case in which the self-scattering rate today is regulated by kinematics and/or the abundance ratio, through the mass splitting of nearly degenerate pseudo-Dirac fermions χ1 and χ2 or real scalars ϕ1 and ϕ2. We calculate the relic density of these states in a scenario where self-scattering proceeds through off-diagonal couplings with a vector particle V (dark photon) and where the abundance is set through number-depleting 4-to-2 reactions in the hidden sector, or, alternatively, via freeze-in. We study the implications of the considered models and their prospect of solving astrophysical small-scale structure problems. We also show how the introduction of the (meta)stable heavier state may be probed in future dark matter searches.

  4. Internal bremsstrahlung of strongly interacting charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kurgalin, S. D.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.; Churakova, T. A.

    2016-11-15

    A universal theoretical model intended for calculating internal-bremsstrahlung spectra is proposed. In this model, which can be applied to describing nuclear decays of various type (such as alpha decay, cluster decay, and proton emission), use is made of realistic nucleus–nucleus potentials. Theoretical internal-bremsstrahlung spectra were obtained for the alpha decay of the {sup 214}Po nucleus, as well as for the decay of the {sup 222}Ra nucleus via the emission of a {sup 14}C cluster and for the decay of the {sup 113}Cs nucleus via proton emission, and the properties of these spectra were studied. The contributions of various regions (internal, subbarrier, and external) to the internal-bremsstrahlung amplitude were analyzed in detail. It is shown that the contribution of the internal region to the amplitude for internal bremsstrahlung generated in nuclear decay via proton emission is quite large, but that this is not so for alpha decay and decay via cluster emission. Thus, a process in which strong interaction of nuclear particles affects the internal-bremsstrahlung spectrum if found.

  5. Polarizable water model for Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peter, Emanuel

    2015-11-01

    Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is an efficient particle-based method for modeling mesoscopic behavior of fluid systems. DPD forces conserve the momentum resulting in a correct description of hydrodynamic interactions. Polarizability has been introduced into some coarse-grained particle-based simulation methods; however it has not been done with DPD before. We developed a new polarizable coarse-grained water model for DPD, which employs long-range electrostatics and Drude oscillators. In this talk, we will present the model and its applications in simulations of membrane systems, where polarization effects play an essential role.

  6. Interactions between two touching spherical particles in sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ren; Chwang, Allen T

    2007-10-01

    A contact of a falling spherical particle with another fixed one in an unbounded viscous fluid is theoretically investigated based on a model of adding the contact interaction to the gravitational and hydrodynamic forces. The hydrodynamic interaction between the two particles is dealt with using an extended successive reflection method, with which the complete solution to the exterior velocity field around the two-particle system is constructed on the basis of the general expression given by Lamb, and then the hydrodynamic forces and torques on the two particles are obtained by integrating the fluid stress over each particle surface. The mechanical contact force is characterized by the standard friction theory with a criterion responsible for the transition from pure rolling to rolling with slip. Resorting to the dynamical equations of motion including the gravitational, hydrodynamic, and contact forces, the settling motion of a spherical particle in the vicinity of another fixed one is depicted using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Compared with the experimental results available in the literature, the theoretical prediction confirms two moving patterns at contact: pure rolling and rolling with slip, analyzes the dependence of the transition from one to another on the static friction coefficient and the contact separation distance between the particle surfaces, and accounts for a limitation of the quasisteady description of two interacting noncolloidal particles.

  7. Physicochemical Properties of 'Particle Brush'-Based Materials: Using Polymer Graft Modification to Tailor Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Michael D.

    The advent of surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization techniques has allowed a new class of hybrid polymer-grafted nanoparticles, known as eparticle brushes,f to be realized. By grafting polymers from the surface, interactions between particles can be tuned using the precise control over graft architecture (i.e. chain length, dispersity, particle size, and grafting density) afforded by controlled radical polymerizations. Previously, a transition from particle-like to polymer-like interactions in small particles with increasing graft length has been observed. In the limit of long graft lengths, the polymer chains impart new interactions between particles, such as entanglements. These results outline a rich, but largely unexplored parameter space. The present thesis further elucidates the extent to which polymer graft modification facilitates new interaction types between particles and the dependence of those interactions on chain conformation. Specifically, the mechanical properties, processability, phase separation, and vibrational modes of particle brushes are examined. A dependence of the mechanical properties of particle brush assemblies on particle size is accurately captured by accounting for differences in chain conformation between particles of different sizes using a simple scaling model. Further tailoring of mechanical characteristics in weak particle brush assemblies can be achieved using appropriate homopolymer additives to form two-component systems. Improved mechanical properties are accompanied by a significant enhancement in particle processability that allows application of previously unusable processing methods. Considering more complex systems, mesoscale phase separation of nanoparticles is demonstrated for the first time by blending of particle brushes with different graft polymers. Polymer graft modification is seen to not only strengthen and introduce new interactions, but also tune particle properties. Vibrational modes of

  8. Forest canopy interactions with nucleation mode particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, S. C.; Hornsby, K. E.; Novick, K. A.

    2014-07-01

    Forests play a key role in removal of particles from the atmosphere but may also significantly contribute to formation and growth of ultrafine particles. Ultrafine particle size distributions through a deciduous forest canopy indicate substantial capture of nucleation mode particles by the foliage. Concentrations decline with depth into the canopy, such that nucleation mode number concentrations at the bottom of the canopy are an average of 16% lower than those at the top. However, growth rates of nucleation mode particles (diameters 6-30 nm) are invariant with height within the canopy, which implies that the semi-volatile gases contributing to their growth are comparatively well-mixed through the canopy. Growth rates of nucleation mode particles during a meteorological drought year (2012) were substantially lower than during a meteorologically normal year with high soil water potential (2013). This may reflect suppression of actual BVOC emissions by drought and thus reduced production of condensable products (and thus particle growth) during the drought-affected vegetation season. This hypothesis is supported by evidence that growth rates during the normal year exhibit a positive correlation with emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) modeled based on observed forest composition, leaf area index, temperature and PAR, but particle growth rates during the drought-affected vegetation season are not correlated with modeled BVOC emissions. These data thus provide direct evidence for the importance of canopy capture in atmospheric particle budgets and indirect evidence that drought-stress in forests may reduce BVOC emissions and limit growth of nucleation mode particles to climate-relevant sizes.

  9. NASCAP modelling of high-voltage power system interactions with space charged-particle environments. [particle impact on solar satellite surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Roche, J. C.; Mandell, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP), an engineering tool capable of analyzing the impact of the charged particle environment on spacecraft surfaces and systems, is described. NASCAP is a quasi-static computational program which analyzes the charging of a 3-dimensional complex body as a function of time and system-generated voltages for given space environmental conditions. The material properties of the surfaces are taken into account; the surface potentials, low energy sheath, potential distribution in space and particle trajectories are calculated. An application of NASCAP to a simple space solar power station consisting of two 6 m by 18 m solar array wings surrounding a central body is presented. Each solar array wing is considered to be divided into three regions operating at 2000 volts. Results of NASCAP analysis of the system for a normal environment and a moderate geomagnetic substorm environment are discussed.

  10. Simulation of Au particle interaction on graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcleod, A.; Vernon, K. C.; Rider, A. E.; Ostrikov, K.

    2013-09-01

    The interaction of Au particles with few layer graphene is of interest for the formation of the next generation of sensing devices 1. In this paper we investigate the coupling of single gold nanoparticles to a graphene sheet, and multiple gold nanoparticles with a graphene sheet using COMSOL Multiphysics. By using these simulations we are able to determine the electric field strength and associated hot-spots for various gold nanoparticle-graphene systems. The Au nanoparticles were modelled as 8 nm diameter spheres on 1.5 nm thick (5 layers) graphene, with properties of graphene obtained from the refractive index data of Weber 2 and the Au refractive index data from Palik 3. The field was incident along the plane of the sheet with polarisation tested for both s and p. The study showed strong localised interaction between the Au and graphene with limited spread; however the double particle case where the graphene sheet separated two Au nanoparticles showed distinct interaction between the particles and graphene. An offset was introduced (up to 4 nm) resulting in much reduced coupling between the opposed particles as the distance apart increased. Findings currently suggest that the graphene layer has limited interaction with incident fields with a single particle present whilst reducing the coupling region to a very fine area when opposing particles are involved. It is hoped that the results of this research will provide insight into graphene-plasmon interactions and spur the development of the next generation of sensing devices.

  11. Simulation of hydrodynamically interacting particles confined by a spherical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte-Rivera, Christian; Zia, Roseanna N.

    2016-06-01

    We present a theoretical framework to model the behavior of a concentrated colloidal dispersion confined inside a spherical cavity. Prior attempts to model such behavior were limited to a single enclosed particle and attempts to enlarge such models to two or more particles have seen limited success owing to the challenges of accurately modeling many-body and singular hydrodynamic interactions. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a set of hydrodynamic mobility functions that couple particle motion with hydrodynamic traction moments that, when inverted and combined with near-field resistance functions, form a complete coupling tensor that accurately captures both the far-field and near-field physics and is valid for an arbitrary number of spherical particles enclosed by a spherical cavity of arbitrary relative size a /R , where a and R are the particle and cavity size, respectively. This framework is then utilized to study the effect of spherical confinement on the self- and entrained motion of the colloids, for a range of particle-to-cavity size ratios. The self-motion of a finite-size enclosed particle is studied first, recovering prior results published in the literature: The hydrodynamic mobility of the particle is greatest at the center of the cavity and decays as (a /R ) /(1 -y2) , where y is the particle distance to the cavity center. Near the cavity wall, the no-slip surfaces couple strongly and mobility along the cavity radius vanishes as ξ ≡R -(a +y ) , where y is center-to-center distance from particle to cavity. Corresponding motion transverse to the cavity radius vanishes as [ln(1/ξ ) ] -1. The effect of confinement on entrainment of a particle in the flow created by the motion of others is also studied, where we find that confinement exerts a qualitative effect on the strength and anisotropy of entrainment of a passive particle dragged by the flow of a forced particle. As expected, entrainment strength decays with increased distance

  12. Effect of particle-particle interactions on the acoustic radiation force in an ultrasonic standing wave

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkens, Bart; Ilinskii, Yurii A. Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.

    2015-10-28

    Ultrasonic standing waves are widely used for separation applications. In MEMS applications, a half wavelength standing wave field is generated perpendicular to a laminar flow. The acoustic radiation force exerted on the particle drives the particle to the center of the MEMS channel, where concentrated particles are harvested. In macro-scale applications, the ultrasonic standing wave spans multiple wavelengths. Examples of such applications are oil/water emulsion splitting [1], and blood/lipid separation [2]. In macro-scale applications, particles are typically trapped in the standing wave, resulting in clumping or coalescence of particles/droplets. Subsequent gravitational settling results in separation of the secondary phase. An often used expression for the radiation force on a particle is that derived by Gorkov [3]. The assumptions are that the particle size is small relative to the wavelength, and therefore, only monopole and dipole scattering contributions are used to calculate the radiation force. This framework seems satisfactory for MEMS scale applications where each particle is treated separately by the standing wave, and concentrations are typically low. In macro-scale applications, particle concentration is high, and particle clumping or droplet coalescence results in particle sizes not necessarily small relative to the wavelength. Ilinskii et al. developed a framework for calculation of the acoustic radiation force valid for any size particle [4]. However, this model does not take into account particle to particle effects, which can become important as particle concentration increases. It is known that an acoustic radiation force on a particle or a droplet is determined by the local field. An acoustic radiation force expression is developed that includes the effect of particle to particle interaction. The case of two neighboring particles is considered. The approach is based on sound scattering by the particles. The acoustic field at the location of

  13. Effect of particle-particle interactions on the acoustic radiation force in an ultrasonic standing wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkens, Bart; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasonic standing waves are widely used for separation applications. In MEMS applications, a half wavelength standing wave field is generated perpendicular to a laminar flow. The acoustic radiation force exerted on the particle drives the particle to the center of the MEMS channel, where concentrated particles are harvested. In macro-scale applications, the ultrasonic standing wave spans multiple wavelengths. Examples of such applications are oil/water emulsion splitting [1], and blood/lipid separation [2]. In macro-scale applications, particles are typically trapped in the standing wave, resulting in clumping or coalescence of particles/droplets. Subsequent gravitational settling results in separation of the secondary phase. An often used expression for the radiation force on a particle is that derived by Gorkov [3]. The assumptions are that the particle size is small relative to the wavelength, and therefore, only monopole and dipole scattering contributions are used to calculate the radiation force. This framework seems satisfactory for MEMS scale applications where each particle is treated separately by the standing wave, and concentrations are typically low. In macro-scale applications, particle concentration is high, and particle clumping or droplet coalescence results in particle sizes not necessarily small relative to the wavelength. Ilinskii et al. developed a framework for calculation of the acoustic radiation force valid for any size particle [4]. However, this model does not take into account particle to particle effects, which can become important as particle concentration increases. It is known that an acoustic radiation force on a particle or a droplet is determined by the local field. An acoustic radiation force expression is developed that includes the effect of particle to particle interaction. The case of two neighboring particles is considered. The approach is based on sound scattering by the particles. The acoustic field at the location of

  14. Soft wall effects on interacting particles in billiards.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, H A; Manchein, C; Beims, M W

    2008-10-01

    The effect of physically realizable wall potentials (soft walls) on the dynamics of two interacting particles in a one-dimensional (1D) billiard is examined numerically. The 1D walls are modeled by the error function and the transition from hard to soft walls can be analyzed continuously by varying the softness parameter sigma . For sigma-->0 the 1D hard wall limit is obtained and the corresponding wall force on the particles is the delta function. In this limit the interacting particle dynamics agrees with previous results obtained for the 1D hard walls. We show that the two interacting particles in the 1D soft walls model is equivalent to one particle inside a soft right triangular billiard. Very small values of sigma substantiously change the dynamics inside the billiard and the mean finite-time Lyapunov exponent decreases significantly as the consequence of regular islands which appear due to the low-energy double collisions (simultaneous particle-particle-1D wall collisions). The rise of regular islands and sticky trajectories induced by the 1D wall softness is quantified by the number of occurrences of the most probable finite-time Lyapunov exponent. On the other hand, chaotic motion in the system appears due to the high-energy double collisions. In general we observe that the mean finite-time Lyapunov exponent decreases when sigma increases, but the number of occurrences of the most probable finite-time Lyapunov exponent increases, meaning that the phase-space dynamics tends to be more ergodiclike. Our results suggest that the transport efficiency of interacting particles and heat conduction in periodic structures modeled by billiards will strongly be affected by the smoothness of physically realizable walls.

  15. Effects of Hydrodynamic Interaction in Aerosol Particle Settling: Mesoscopic Particle-level Full Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuiqing; Yang, Mengmeng; Marshall, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    A new mesoscopic particle-level approach is developed for the full dynamics simulation (FDS) of the settling of systems of aerosol micro-particles. The approach efficiently combines an adhesive discrete-element method for particle motions and an Oseen dynamics method for hydrodynamic interactions. Compared to conventional Stokeslet and Oseenlet simulations, the FDS not only accounts for the cloud-scale fluid inertia effect and the particle inertia effect, but also overcomes the singularity problem using a soft-sphere model of adhesive contact. The effect of hydrodynamic interactions is investigated based on FDS results. The particle inertia is found to reduce the mobility of particle clouds and to elongate the cloud on vertical direction. Meanwhile, the fluid inertia decreases the settling velocity by weakening the hydrodynamic interaction and tends to flatten the cloud, leading to breakup. Expressions for the settling velocity of particle cloud are proposed with consideration of fluid inertia effect and the cloud shape. Finally, the transformation in settling behavior from a finite particle cloud to an unbounded uniform suspension is explained. This work has been funded by the National Natural Science Funds of China (No. 50976058), and by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2013CB228506).

  16. Forest canopy interactions with nucleation mode particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, S. C.; Hornsby, K. E.; Novick, K. A.

    2014-11-01

    Ultrafine particle size distributions through a deciduous forest canopy indicate that nucleation mode particle concentrations decline with depth into the canopy, such that number concentrations at the bottom of the canopy are an average of 16% lower than those at the top. However, growth rates of nucleation mode particles (diameters 6-30 nm) are invariant with height within the canopy, which implies that the semi-volatile gases contributing to their growth are comparatively well-mixed through the canopy. Growth rates of nucleation mode particles during a meteorological drought year (2012) were substantially lower than during a meteorologically normal year with high soil water potential (2013). This may reflect suppression of actual biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by drought and thus a reduction in the production of condensable products during the drought-affected vegetation season. This hypothesis is supported by evidence that growth rates during the normal year exhibit a positive correlation with emissions of BVOC modeled on observed forest composition, leaf area index, temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), but particle growth rates during the drought-affected vegetation season are not correlated with modeled BVOC emissions. These data thus provide indirect evidence that drought stress in forests may reduce BVOC emissions and limit growth of nucleation mode particles to climate-relevant sizes.

  17. (Research in elementary particles and interactions). [1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.

    1992-05-01

    Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.

  18. Critical Casimir interactions between Janus particles.

    PubMed

    Labbé-Laurent, M; Dietrich, S

    2016-08-21

    Recently there has been strong experimental and theoretical interest in studying the self-assembly and the phase behavior of patchy and Janus particles, which form colloidal suspensions. Although in this quest a variety of effective interactions have been proposed and used in order to achieve a directed assembly, the critical Casimir effect stands out as being particularly suitable in this respect because it provides both attractive and repulsive interactions as well as the potential of a sensitive temperature control of their strength. Specifically, we have calculated the critical Casimir force between a single Janus particle and a laterally homogeneous substrate as well as a substrate with a chemical step. We have used the Derjaguin approximation and compared it with results from full mean field theory. A modification of the Derjaguin approximation turns out to be generally reliable. Based on this approach we have derived the effective force and the effective potential between two Janus cylinders as well as between two Janus spheres.

  19. Interaction measurement of particles bound to a lipid membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfati, Raphael; Dufresne, Eric

    2015-03-01

    The local shape and dynamics of the plasma membrane play important roles in many cellular processes. Local membrane deformations are often mediated by the adsorption of proteins (notably from the BAR family), and their subsequent self-assembly. The emerging hypothesis is that self-assembly arises from long-range interactions of individual proteins through the membrane's deformation field. We study these interactions in a model system of micron-sized colloidal particles adsorbed onto a lipid bilayer. We use fluorescent microscopy, optical tweezers and particle tracking to measure dissipative and conservative forces as a function of the separation between the particles. We find that particles are driven together with forces of order 100 fN and remain bound in a potential well with a stiffness of order 100 fN/micron.

  20. Simulations of Shock Wave Interaction with a Particle Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koneru, Rahul; Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.'Bala'

    2016-11-01

    Simulations of a shock wave interacting with a cloud of particles are performed in an attempt to understand similar phenomena observed in dispersal of solid particles under such extreme environment as an explosion. We conduct numerical experiments in which a particle curtain fills only 87% of the shock tube from bottom to top. As such, the particle curtain upon interaction with the shock wave is expected to experience Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. In this study, the initial volume fraction profile matches with that of Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments, and the shock Mach number is limited to M =1.66. In these simulations we use a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with state-of-the-art point-particle force and heat transfer models. Measurements of particle dispersion are made at different initial volume fractions of the particle cloud. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the particle curtain with respect to the initial conditions is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  1. Asymmetric exclusion process in a system of interacting Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Eduardo de Oliveira Rodrigues, José; Dickman, Ronald

    2010-06-01

    We study a continuous-space version of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), consisting of interacting Brownian particles subject to a driving force in a periodic array of potential wells. Particles are inserted into the leftmost well at rate α, hop to the right at unit rate, and are removed at the rightmost well at rate β. Our study is motivated by recent experiments on colloidal particles in a periodic potential generated by an optical tweezers array. Particles spend most of the time near potential minima, approximating the situation on the lattice; a short-range repulsive interaction prevents two particles from occupying the same potential well. A constant driving force, representing Stokes drag on particles suspended in a moving fluid, leads to biased motion. Our results for the density profile and current, obtained via numerical integration of the Langevin equation and dynamic Monte Carlo simulations, indicate that the continuous-space model exhibits phase transitions analogous to those observed in the lattice TASEP. The correspondence is not exact, however, due to the lack of particle-hole symmetry in our model.

  2. Effect of ion streaming on particle-particle interactions in a dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Vivek; Kushner, Mark J.

    2005-02-15

    Dust particles in low-temperature, low-pressure plasmas form Coulomb crystals and display collective behavior under select conditions. The trajectories of ions can be perturbed as they pass by negatively charged dust particles and, in some cases, will converge beyond the particle. This process, called ion streaming, produces a positive potential in the wakefield of the particle that can be large enough to perturb interparticle dynamics. In this paper, we discuss results from a three-dimensional model for dust particle transport in plasma processing reactors with which we investigated the effects of ion streaming on particle-particle interactions. When including the wakefield potential produced by ion streaming, dust particles can form vertically correlated pairs when trapped in electrical potential wells. The ion-streaming force was found to be significant only over a select range of pressures and for given combinations of particle sizes and mass densities. The formation of vertically correlated pairs critically depends on the shape of the potential well. Wakefield forces can also affect the order of multilayer lattices by producing vertical correlations between particles in adjacent layers.

  3. The impact of surface properties on particle-interface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Anna; Kaz, David; McGorty, Ryan; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

    2013-03-01

    The propensity for particles to bind to oil-water interfaces was first noted by Ramsden and Pickering over a century ago, and has been attributed to the huge reduction in surface energy when a particle breaches an oil-water interface and straddles it at its equilibrium height. Since then materials on a variety of length scales have been fabricated using particles at interfaces, from Pickering emulsions to Janus particles. In these applications, it is simply assumed that the particle sits at its hugely energetically favourable equilibrium position. However, it was recently shown that the relaxation of particles towards their equilibrium position is logarithmic in time and could take months, much longer than typical experiments. Here we investigate how surface charge and particle 'hairiness' impact the interaction between micron-sized particles and oil-water interfaces, and explore a molecular kinetic theory model to help understand these results. We use digital holographic microscopy to track micron-sized particles as they approach an oil-water interface with a resolution of 2 nm in all three dimensions at up to thousands of frames per second.

  4. Noisy quantum walks of two indistinguishable interacting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siloi, Ilaria; Benedetti, Claudia; Piccinini, Enrico; Piilo, Jyrki; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Bordone, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the dynamics of continuous-time two-particle quantum walks on a one-dimensional noisy lattice. Depending on the initial condition, we show how the interplay between particle indistinguishability and interaction determines distinct propagation regimes. A realistic model for the environment is considered by introducing non-Gaussian noise as time-dependent fluctuations of the tunneling amplitudes between adjacent sites. We observe that the combined effect of particle interaction and fast noise (weak coupling with the environment) provides a faster propagation compared to the noiseless case. This effect can be understood in terms of the band structure of the Hubbard model, and a detailed analysis as a function of both noise and system parameters is presented.

  5. Numerical investigation of fluid-particle interactions for embolic stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Debanjan; Padilla, Jose; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2016-04-01

    Roughly one-third of all strokes are caused by an embolus traveling to a cerebral artery and blocking blood flow in the brain. The objective of this study is to gain a detailed understanding of the dynamics of embolic particles within arteries. Patient computed tomography image is used to construct a three-dimensional model of the carotid bifurcation. An idealized carotid bifurcation model of same vessel diameters was also constructed for comparison. Blood flow velocities and embolic particle trajectories are resolved using a coupled Euler-Lagrange approach. Blood is modeled as a Newtonian fluid, discretized using the finite volume method, with physiologically appropriate inflow and outflow boundary conditions. The embolus trajectory is modeled using Lagrangian particle equations accounting for embolus interaction with blood as well as vessel wall. Both one- and two-way fluid-particle coupling are considered, the latter being implemented using momentum sources augmented to the discretized flow equations. It was observed that for small-to-moderate particle sizes (relative to vessel diameters), the estimated particle distribution ratio—with and without the inclusion of two-way fluid-particle momentum exchange—were found to be similar. The maximum observed differences in distribution ratio with and without the coupling were found to be higher for the idealized bifurcation model. Additionally, the distribution was found to be reasonably matching the volumetric flow distribution for the idealized model, while a notable deviation from volumetric flow was observed in the anatomical model. It was also observed from an analysis of particle path lines that particle interaction with helical flow, characteristic of anatomical vasculature models, could play a prominent role in transport of embolic particle. The results indicate therefore that flow helicity could be an important hemodynamic indicator for analysis of embolus particle transport. Additionally, in the presence

  6. Bilocal model for the relativistic spinning particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, Trevor; Freidel, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    In this work we show that a relativistic spinning particle can be described at the classical and the quantum level as being composed of two physical constituents which are entangled and separated by a fixed distance. This bilocal model for spinning particles allows for a natural description of particle interactions as a local interaction at each of the constituents. This form of the interaction vertex provides a resolution to a long standing issue on the nature of relativistic interactions for spinning objects in the context of the worldline formalism. It also potentially brings a dynamical explanation for why massive fundamental objects are naturally of lowest spin. We analyze first a nonrelativistic system where spin is modeled as an entangled state of two particles with the entanglement encoded into a set of constraints. It is shown that these constraints can be made relativistic and that the resulting description is isomorphic to the usual description of the phase space of massive relativistic particles with the restriction that the quantum spin has to be an integer.

  7. Sedimentation of concentrated monodisperse colloidal suspensions: role of collective particle interaction forces.

    PubMed

    Vesaratchanon, Jan S; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, Darsh T

    2008-06-01

    The sedimentation velocities and concentration profiles of low-charge, monodisperse hydroxylate latex particle suspensions were investigated experimentally as a function of the particle concentration to study the effects of the collective particle interactions on suspension stability. We used the Kossel diffraction technique to measure the particle concentration profile and sedimentation rate. We conducted the sedimentation experiments using three different particle sizes. Collective hydrodynamic interactions dominate the particle-particle interactions at particle concentrations up to 6.5 vol%. However, at higher particle concentrations, additional collective particle-particle interactions resulting from the self-depletion attraction cause particle aggregation inside the suspension. The collective particle-particle interaction forces play a much more important role when relatively small particles (500 nm in diameter or less) are used. We developed a theoretical model based on the statistical particle dynamics simulation method to examine the role of the collective particle interactions in concentrated suspensions in the colloidal microstructure formation and sedimentation rates. The theoretical results agree with the experimentally-measured values of the settling velocities and concentration profiles.

  8. Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-03-07

    Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.

  9. Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-03-01

    Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed.

  10. Interaction mechanisms between ceramic particles and atomized metallic droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    1992-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide insight into the dynamic interactions that occur when ceramic particles are placed in intimate contact with a metallic matrix undergoing a phase change. To that effect, Al-4 wt pct Si/SiCp composite droplets were synthesized using a spray atomization and coinjection approach, and their solidification microstructures were studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. The present results show that SiC particles (SiCp) were incor- porated into the matrix and that the extent of incorporation depends on the solidification con- dition of the droplets at the moment of SiC particle injection. Two factors were found to affect the distribution and volume fraction of SiC particles in droplets: the penetration of particles into droplets and the entrapment and/or rejection of particles by the solidification front. First, during coinjection, particles collide with the atomized droplets with three possible results: they may penetrate the droplets, adhere to the droplet surface, or bounce back after impact. The extent of penetration of SiC particles into droplets was noted to depend on the kinetic energy of the particles and the magnitude of the surface energy change in the droplets that occurs upon impact. In liquid droplets, the extent of penetration of SiC particles was shown to depend on the changes in surface energy, ΔEs, experienced by the droplets. Accordingly, large SiC particles encoun- tered more resistance to penetration relative to small ones. In solid droplets, the penetration of SiC particles was correlated with the dynamic pressure exerted by the SiC particles on the droplets during impact and the depth of the ensuing crater. The results showed that no pene- tration was possible in such droplets. Second, once SiC particles have penetrated droplets, their final location in the microstructure is governed by their interactions with the solidification front. As a result of these interactions, both entrapment and rejection of

  11. SEM++: A particle model of cellular growth, signaling and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milde, Florian; Tauriello, Gerardo; Haberkern, Hannah; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2014-06-01

    We present a discrete particle method to model biological processes from the sub-cellular to the inter-cellular level. Particles interact through a parametrized force field to model cell mechanical properties, cytoskeleton remodeling, growth and proliferation as well as signaling between cells. We discuss the guiding design principles for the selection of the force field and the validation of the particle model using experimental data. The proposed method is integrated into a multiscale particle framework for the simulation of biological systems.

  12. Identical particle model on biophoton emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. C.; Liu, Songhao; Popp, Fritz A.; Tang, Ao-Qing

    1996-09-01

    Biophoton emission (PE) method is a non-invasive way revealing biophysical interactions in living tissues. Since its mechanism is not very clear, its acceptance is limited. Gu has presented the quantum theory on biophoton emission according to the Dicke model. However, the Dicke model does not apply to biological system. In this paper, we studied PE by using the identical particle model, the interaction of identical particles by quantum chemistry, as well as the transition of the system interacting with radiation by the time quantum theory on radiation-matter interaction put forward by the first author and his cooperators. It was shown that the identical particles form coherent states, the photon emission probability of the superradiant state is a liner function of N and N2, and the one of the subradiant state is zero. In other words, the photon emission intensity represents the coherent states of the identical particle system. The linear relationship of N and N2 agrees with the PE experiment results on early drosophila embryos. The research on the cell division cycle showed that the superradiant states correspond to the late S phase. This is why PE can be used to differentiate human tumor tissues from normal ones. We also studied induced PE.

  13. JSPAM: Interacting galaxies modeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, John F.; Holincheck, Anthony; Harvey, Allen

    2015-11-01

    JSPAM models galaxy collisions using a restricted n-body approach to speed up computation. Instead of using a softened point-mass potential, the software supports a modified version of the three component potential created by Hernquist (1994, ApJS 86, 389). Although spherically symmetric gravitationally potentials and a Gaussian model for the bulge are used to increase computational efficiency, the potential mimics that of a fully consistent n-body model of a galaxy. Dynamical friction has been implemented in the code to improve the accuracy of close approaches between galaxies. Simulations using this code using thousands of particles over the typical interaction times of a galaxy interaction take a few seconds on modern desktop workstations, making it ideal for rapidly prototyping the dynamics of colliding galaxies. Extensive testing of the code has shown that it produces nearly identical tidal features to those from hierarchical tree codes such as Gadget but using a fraction of the computational resources. This code was used in the Galaxy Zoo: Mergers project and is very well suited for automated fitting of galaxy mergers with automated pattern fitting approaches such as genetic algorithms. Java and Fortran versions of the code are available.

  14. Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Bao-Quan; He, Ya-Feng; Zhong, Wei-Rong

    2014-11-21

    Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction.

  15. TASEP of interacting particles of arbitrary size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, S. L.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2017-10-01

    A mean-field description of the stationary state behaviour of interacting k-mers performing totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEP) on an open lattice segment is presented employing the discrete Takahashi formalism. It is shown how the maximal current and the phase diagram, including triple-points, depend on the strength of repulsive and attractive interactions. We compare the mean-field results with Monte Carlo simulation of three types interacting k-mers: monomers, dimers and trimers. (a) We find that the Takahashi estimates of the maximal current agree quantitatively with those of the Monte Carlo simulation in the absence of interaction as well as in both the the attractive and the strongly repulsive regimes. However, theory and Monte Carlo results disagree in the range of weak repulsion, where the Takahashi estimates of the maximal current show a monotonic behaviour, whereas the Monte Carlo data show a peaking behaviour. It is argued that the peaking of the maximal current is due to a correlated motion of the particles. In the limit of very strong repulsion the theory predicts a universal behavior: th maximal currents of k-mers correspond to that of non-interacting (k+1) -mers; (b) Monte Carlo estimates of the triple-points for monomers, dimers and trimers show an interesting general behaviour : (i) the phase boundaries α * and β* for entry and exit current, respectively, as function of interaction strengths show maxima for α* whereas β * exhibit minima at the same strength; (ii) in the attractive regime, however, the trend is reversed (β * > α * ). The Takahashi estimates of the triple-point for monomers show a similar trend as the Monte Carlo data except for the peaking of α * ; for dimers and trimers, however, the Takahashi estimates show an opposite trend as compared to the Monte Carlo data.

  16. Evolution of one-particle and double-occupied Green functions for the Hubbard model, with interaction, at half-filling with lifetime effects within the moment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafroth, S.; Rodríguez-Núñez, J. J.

    1999-08-01

    We evaluate the one-particle and double-occupied Green functions for the Hubbard model at half-filling using the moment approach of Nolting [Z. Phys. 255, 25 (1972); Grund Kurs: Theoretische Physik. 7 Viel-Teilchen-Theorie (Verlag Zimmermann-Neufang, Ulmen, 1992)]. Our starting point is a self-energy, Σ(k-->,ω), which has a single pole, Ω(k-->), with spectral weight, α(k-->), and quasiparticle lifetime, γ(k-->) [J. J. Rodríguez-Núñez and S. Schafroth, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, L391 (1998); J. J. Rodríguez-Núñez, S. Schafroth, and H. Beck, Physica B (to be published); (unpublished)]. In our approach, Σ(k-->,ω) becomes the central feature of the many-body problem and due to three unknown k--> parameters we have to satisfy only the first three sum rules instead of four as in the canonical formulation of Nolting [Z. Phys. 255, 25 (1972); Grund Kurs: Theoretische Physik. 7 Viel-Teilchen-Theorie (Verlag Zimmermann-Neufang, Ulmen, 1992)]. This self-energy choice forces our system to be a non-Fermi liquid for any value of the interaction, since it does not vanish at zero frequency. The one-particle Green function, G(k-->,ω), shows the fingerprint of a strongly correlated system, i.e., a double peak structure in the one-particle spectral density, A(k-->,ω), vs ω for intermediate values of the interaction. Close to the Mott insulator-transition, A(k-->,ω) becomes a wide single peak, signaling the absence of quasiparticles. Similar behavior is observed for the real and imaginary parts of the self-energy, Σ(k-->,ω). The double-occupied Green function, G2(q-->,ω), has been obtained from G(k-->,ω) by means of the equation of motion. The relation between G2(q-->,ω) and the self-energy, Σ(k-->,ω), is formally established and numerical results for the spectral function of G2(k-->,ω), χ(2)(k-->,ω)≡-(1/π)δ-->0+Im[G2(k-->,ω)], are given. Our approach represents the simplest way to include (1) lifetime effects in the moment approach of Nolting, as

  17. Electrostatic interactions of colloidal particles at vanishing ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Sainis, Sunil K; Merrill, Jason W; Dufresne, Eric R

    2008-12-02

    Electrostatic interactions of colloidal particles are typically screened by mobile ions in the solvent. We measure the forces between isolated pairs of colloidal polymer microspheres as the density of bulk ions vanishes. The ionic strength is controlled by varying the concentration of surfactant (NaAOT) in a nonpolar solvent (hexadecane). While interactions are well-described by the familiar screened-Coulomb form at high surfactant concentrations, they are experimentally indistinguishable from bare Coulomb interactions at low surfactant concentration. Interactions are strongest just above the critical micelle concentration, where particles can obtain high surface potentials without significant screening, kappaa < 1. Exploiting the absence of significant charge renormalization, we are able to construct a simple thermodynamic model capturing the role of reverse micelles in charging the particle surface. These measurements provide novel access to electrostatic forces in the limit where the particle size is much less than the screening length, which is relevant not just to the nonpolar suspensions described here, but also to aqueous suspensions of nanoparticles.

  18. Particle-fluid interactions for flow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, N. S.

    1973-01-01

    Study has been made of the motion of single particle and of group of particles, emphasizing solid particles in gaseous fluid. Velocities of fluid and particle are compared for several conditions of physical interest. Mean velocity and velocity fluctuations are calculated for single particle, and some consideration is given to multiparticle systems.

  19. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  20. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  1. Turbulence-particle interactions under surface gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paskyabi, Mostafa Bakhoday

    2016-11-01

    The dispersion and transport of single inertial particles through an oscillatory turbulent aquatic environment are examined numerically by a Lagrangian particle tracking model using a series of idealised test cases. The turbulent mixing is incorporated into the Lagrangian model by the means of a stochastic scheme in which the inhomogeneous turbulent quantities are governed by a one-dimensional k- ɛ turbulence closure scheme. This vertical mixing model is further modified to include the effects of surface gravity waves including Coriolis-Stokes forcing, wave breaking, and Langmuir circulations. To simplify the complex interactions between the deterministic and the stochastic phases of flow, we assume a time-invariant turbulent flow field and exclude the hydrodynamic biases due to the effects of ambient mean current. The numerical results show that the inertial particles acquire perturbed oscillations traced out as time-varying sinking/rising orbits in the vicinity of the sea surface under linear and cnoidal waves and acquire a non-looping single arc superimposed with the high-frequency fluctuations beneath the nonlinear solitary waves. Furthermore, we briefly summarise some recipes through the course of this paper on the implementation of the stochastic particle tracking models to realistically describe the drift and suspension of inertial particles throughout the water column.

  2. Particle Acceleration in Shock-Shock Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanotani, Masaru; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Hada, Tohru

    2015-04-01

    Collisionless shock waves play a crucial role in producing high energy particles. One of the most plausible acceleration mechanisms is the first order Fermi acceleration in which non-thermal particles statistically gain energy while scattered by MHD turbulence both upstream and downstream of a shock. Indeed, X-ray emission from energetic particles accelerated at supernova remnant shocks is often observed [e.g., Uchiyama et al., 2007]. Most of the previous studies on shock acceleration assume the presence of a single shock. In space, however, two shocks frequently come close to or even collide with each other. For instance, it is observed that a CME (coronal mass ejection) driven shock collides with the earth's bow shock [Hietala et al., 2011], or interplanetary shocks pass through the heliospheric termination shock [Lu et al., 1999]. Colliding shocks are observed also in high power laser experiments [Morita et al., 2013]. It is expected that shock-shock interactions efficiently produce high energy particles. A previous work using hybrid simulation [Cargill et al., 1986] reports efficient ion acceleration when supercritical two shocks collide. In the hybrid simulation, however, the electron dynamics cannot be resolved so that electron acceleration cannot be discussed in principle. Here, we perform one-dimensional full Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to examine colliding two symmetric oblique shocks and the associated electron acceleration. In particular, the following three points are discussed in detail. 1. Energetic electrons are observed upstream of the two shocks before their collision. These energetic electrons are efficiently accelerated through multiple reflections at the two shocks (Fermi acceleration). 2. The reflected electrons excite large amplitude upstream waves. Electron beam cyclotron instability [Hasegawa, 1975] and electron fire hose instability [Li et al., 2000] appear to occur. 3. The large amplitude waves can scatters energetic electrons in

  3. Electrokinetic particle-electrode interactions at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yariv, Ehud; Schnitzer, Ory

    2013-01-01

    We provide a macroscale description of electrokinetic particle-electrode interactions at high frequencies, where chemical reactions at the electrodes are negligible. Using a thin-double-layer approximation, our starting point is the set of macroscale equations governing the “bounded” configuration comprising of a particle suspended between two electrodes, wherein the electrodes are governed by a capacitive charging condition and the imposed voltage is expressed as an integral constraint. In the large-cell limit the bounded model is transformed into an effectively equivalent “unbounded” model describing the interaction between the particle and a single electrode, where the imposed-voltage condition is manifested in a uniform field at infinity together with a Robin-type condition applying at the electrode. This condition, together with the standard no-flux condition applying at the particle surface, leads to a linear problem governing the electric potential in the fluid domain in which the dimensionless frequency ω of the applied voltage appears as a governing parameter. In the high-frequency limit ω≫1 the flow is dominated by electro-osmotic slip at the particle surface, the contribution of electrode electro-osmosis being O(ω-2) small. That simplification allows for a convenient analytical investigation of the prevailing case where the clearance between the particle and the adjacent electrode is small. Use of tangent-sphere coordinates allows to calculate the electric and flows fields as integral Hankel transforms. At large distances from the particle, along the electrode, both fields decay with the fourth power of distance.

  4. Patchy Particle Model for Vitrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Leibler, Ludwik; Sciortino, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    Vitrimers—a recently invented new class of polymers—consist of covalent networks that can rearrange their topology via a bond shuffling mechanism, preserving the total number of network links. We introduce a patchy particle model whose dynamics directly mimic the bond exchange mechanism and reproduce the observed glass-forming ability. We calculate the free energy of this model in the limit of strong (chemical) bonds between the particles, both via the Wertheim thermodynamic perturbation theory and using computer simulations. The system exhibits an entropy-driven phase separation between a network phase and a dilute cluster gas, bringing new insight into the swelling behavior of vitrimers in solvents.

  5. A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach to the investigation of particle-molecule interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloth, Marianne; Bilde, Merete; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.

    2003-06-01

    A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical aerosol model is developed to describe the interaction between gas phase molecules and atmospheric particles. The model enables the calculation of interaction energies and time-dependent properties. We use the model to investigate how a succinic acid molecule interacts with an aqueous particle. We show how the interaction energies and linear response properties (excitation energies, transition moments, and polarizabilities) depend on the distance between aerosol particle and molecule and on their relative orientation. The results are compared with those obtained previously using a dielectric continuum model [Sloth et al., J. Phys. Chem. (submitted)].

  6. Lubrication analysis of interacting rigid cylindrical particles in confined shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinaels, R.; Stone, H. A.

    2015-07-15

    Lubrication analysis is used to determine analytical expressions for the elements of the resistance matrix describing the interaction of two rigid cylindrical particles in two-dimensional shear flow in a symmetrically confined channel geometry. The developed model is valid for non-Brownian particles in a low-Reynolds-number flow between two sliding plates with thin gaps between the two particles and also between the particles and the walls. Using this analytical model, a comprehensive overview of the dynamics of interacting cylindrical particles in shear flow is presented. With only hydrodynamic interactions, rigid particles undergo a reversible interaction with no cross-streamline migration, irrespective of the confinement value. However, the interaction time of the particle pair substantially increases with confinement, and at the same time, the minimum distance between the particle surfaces during the interaction substantially decreases with confinement. By combining our purely hydrodynamic model with a simple on/off non-hydrodynamic attractive particle interaction force, the effects of confinement on particle aggregation are qualitatively mapped out in an aggregation diagram. The latter shows that the range of initial relative particle positions for which aggregation occurs is increased substantially due to geometrical confinement. The interacting particle pair exhibits tangential and normal lubrication forces on the sliding plates, which will contribute to the rheology of confined suspensions in shear flow. Due to the combined effects of the confining walls and the particle interaction, the particle velocities and resulting forces both tangential and perpendicular to the walls exhibit a non-monotonic evolution as a function of the orientation angle of the particle pair. However, by incorporating appropriate scalings of the forces, velocities, and doublet orientation angle with the minimum free fraction of the gap height and the plate speed, master curves for

  7. Self-diffusion in a system of interacting Langevin particles.

    PubMed

    Dean, D S; Lefèvre, A

    2004-06-01

    The behavior of the self-diffusion constant of Langevin particles interacting via a pairwise interaction is considered. The diffusion constant is calculated approximately within a perturbation theory in the potential strength about the bare diffusion constant. It is shown how this expansion leads to a systematic double expansion in the inverse temperature beta and the particle density rho. The one-loop diagrams in this expansion can be summed exactly and we show that this result is exact in the limit of small beta and rhobeta constants. The one-loop result can also be resummed using a semiphenomenological renormalization group method which has proved useful in the study of diffusion in random media. In certain cases the renormalization group calculation predicts the existence of a diverging relaxation time signaled by the vanishing of the diffusion constant, possible forms of divergence coming from this approximation are discussed. Finally, at a more quantitative level, the results are compared with numerical simulations, in two dimensions, of particles interacting via a soft potential recently used to model the interaction between coiled polymers.

  8. The importance of particle-support interaction on particle size determination by gas chemisorption.

    PubMed

    Torrente-Murciano, L

    The interaction of the metal-support and particle shape has a key role on the determination of the particle size by gas chemisorption. This paper demonstrates mathematically that, assuming metal particles with hemispherical shapes (a common assumption in this type of characterisation) can provide misleading results of up to one order of magnitude. Thus, the metal particle sizes are underestimated when the metal strongly interacts with the support and overestimated when there is a weak metal-support interaction. Additionally, we also demonstrate that although the assumption of spherical shapes always underestimates the size of particles, this error is considerably lower with regular geometries than that associated to the effect of the metal-support interaction due to their effect on the particle shape. Herein, it is demonstrated the importance of introducing the particle-support interaction factor in the chemisorption particle size determination.

  9. Enhanced fluctuations of interacting particles confined in a box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel

    2012-04-01

    We study the position fluctuations of interacting particles aligned in a finite cell that avoid any crossing in equilibrium with a thermal bath. The focus is put on the influence of the confining force directed along the cell length. We show that the system may be modeled as a 1D chain of particles with identical masses, linked with linear springs of varying spring constants. The confining force may be accounted for by linear springs linked to the walls. When the confining force range is increased toward the inside of the chain, a paradoxical behavior is exhibited. The outermost particles fluctuations are enhanced, whereas those of the inner particles are reduced. A minimum of fluctuations is observed at a distance of the cell extremities that scales linearly with the confining force range. Those features are in very good agreement with the model. Moreover, the simulations exhibit an asymmetry in their fluctuations which is an anharmonic effect. It is characterized by the measurement of the skewness, which is found to be strictly positive for the outer particles when the confining force is short ranged.

  10. On the Relation of Wave-Particle Interactions, Particle Dynamics, and Suprathermal Particle Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharek, Harald; Galvin, Antoinette; Farrugia, Charles; Klecker, Berndt; Pogorelov, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Wave-particle interactions, ion acceleration, and magnetic turbulence are closely interlinked and the physical processes may occur on different scales. These scales range from the kinetic scale to the macro-scale (MHD-scale). These processes are likely universal and the same basic processes occur at the Earth's environment, at the Earth's bow shock, the solar wind, and around the heliosphere. Undoubtedly, the Earth's environment as well as the close interplanetary space are the best plasma environments to study these processes using satellite measurements. Recently, ACE, STEREO, IBEX and Voyager observations clearly showed that turbulence and wave-particle interactions and turbulence are extremely important in interplanetary space and in the heliosphere. Using data from STEREO, Wind, we have investigated the spectral properties of suprathermal ion distributions. The results show that spectral slopes are very variable and depend on the plasma properties. We have also performed 3D hybrid simulations and studied particle dynamics. These simulations show that the particle dynamics in the turbulent magnetic wave field is Levy-Flight like which leads to a kappa distribution, which is often found in various space environments. This result is very significant of future mission such as THOR and IMAP and current operating missions such as STEREO, IBEX, and MMS.

  11. Geometry of the equilibrium distribution of interacting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebesh, A. P.; Lev, B. I.

    2017-08-01

    The formations of structures in all systems of interacting particles at different temperatures and particle concentrations have the same physical nature and therefore they could be described geometrically the same way. We propose a geometric description of a thermodynamically stable distribution of interacting particles. The character and intensity of interaction between particles determine the effective geometry of the medium which is provided by the minimum of the total free energy with non-linearity. A realization of spaces with possible particle distributions of arbitrary-order symmetries (including fifth, seventh etc. orders) which cannot occur in the ordinary Euclidean space, is described.

  12. Particle Interactions in DNA-laden Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Bybee, M D; Miller, G H; Trebotich, D

    2005-12-20

    Microfluidic devices are becoming state-of-the-art in many significant applications including pathogen detection, continuous monitoring, and drug delivery. Numerical algorithms which can simulate flows of complex fluids within these devices are needed for their development and optimization. A method is being developed at LLNL by Trebotich et. al. [30] for simulations of DNA-laden flows in complex microscale geometries such as packed bed reactors and pillar chips. In this method an incompressible Newtonian fluid is discretized with Cartesian grid embedded boundary methods, and the DNA is represented by a bead-rod polymer model. The fluid and polymer are coupled through a body force. In its current state, polymer-surface interactions are treated as elastic collisions between beads and surface, and polymer-polymer interactions are neglected. Implementation of polymer-polymer interactions is the main objective of this work. It is achieved by two methods: (1) a rigid constraint whereby rods elastically bounce off one another, and (2) a smooth potential acting between rods. In addition, a smooth potential is also implemented for the polymer-surface interactions. Background information will also be presented as well as related work by other researchers.

  13. Lagrangian Trajectory Modeling of Lunar Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo landing videos shot from inside the right LEM window, provide a quantitative measure of the characteristics and dynamics of the ejecta spray of lunar regolith particles beneath the Lander during the final 10 [m] or so of descent. Photogrammetry analysis gives an estimate of the thickness of the dust layer and angle of trajectory. In addition, Apollo landing video analysis divulges valuable information on the regolith ejecta interactions with lunar surface topography. For example, dense dust streaks are seen to originate at the outer rims of craters within a critical radius of the Lander during descent. The primary intent of this work was to develop a mathematical model and software implementation for the trajectory simulation of lunar dust particles acted on by gas jets originating from the nozzle of a lunar Lander, where the particle sizes typically range from 10 micron to 500 micron. The high temperature, supersonic jet of gas that is exhausted from a rocket engine can propel dust, soil, gravel, as well as small rocks to high velocities. The lunar vacuum allows ejected particles to travel great distances unimpeded, and in the case of smaller particles, escape velocities may be reached. The particle size distributions and kinetic energies of ejected particles can lead to damage to the landing spacecraft or to other hardware that has previously been deployed in the vicinity. Thus the primary motivation behind this work is to seek a better understanding for the purpose of modeling and predicting the behavior of regolith dust particle trajectories during powered rocket descent and ascent.

  14. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the self-diffusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diffusion coefficients D^0s for the shells and D^0y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of effective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diffusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We find that the yolks, which have no effect on the shell-shell static structure, influence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.

  15. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the self-diusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diusion coecients D0 s for the shells and D0 y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of eective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We nd that the yolks, which have no eect on the shell-shell static structure, in uence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.

  16. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    DOE PAGES

    Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; ...

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the self-diusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diusion coecients D0 s for the shells and D0 y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function ofmore » the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of eective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We nd that the yolks, which have no eect on the shell-shell static structure, in uence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.« less

  17. Significance of particle size and charge capacity in TiO2 nanoparticle-lipid interactions.

    PubMed

    Vakurov, Alex; Drummond-Brydson, Rik; Ugwumsinachi, Oji; Nelson, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The activity of submicron sized titanium oxide (TiO2) particles towards biomembrane models is coupled to their charge carrying capacity and their primary particle size. Electrochemical methods using a phospholipid layer on mercury (Hg) membrane model have been used to determine the phospholipid monolayer activity of TiO2 as an indicator of biomembrane activity. The particles were characterised for size, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and for charge, by acid-base titration. TiO2 nanoparticles aggregate in 0.1moldm(-3) solutions of KCl. The charge capacity of TiO2 nanoparticles depends on their primary particle size and is unaffected by aggregation. TiO2 particles of ∼40nm primary particle size interact significantly with phospholipid layers. Aggregation of these particles initially has a small effect on this interaction but long term aggregation influences the interaction whereby the aggregates penetrate the lipid layer rather than adsorbing on the surface. Fulvic acid does not inhibit the ∼40nm particle/phospholipid interaction. P25 TiO2 particles of larger particle size interact less strongly with phospholipid layers and the interaction is alleviated following particle aggregation. The semiconductor properties of TiO2 are evident in voltammograms showing electron transfer to TiO2 adsorbed on uncoated Hg. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. White dwarfs constraints on dark sector models with light particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ubaldi, Lorenzo

    2014-06-24

    The white dwarf luminosity function is well understood in terms of standard model physics and leaves little room for exotic cooling mechanisms related to the possible existence of new weakly interacting light particles. This puts significant constraints on the parameter space of models that contain a massive dark photon and light dark sector particles.

  19. Bond rupture between colloidal particles with a depletion interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Kathryn A.; Furst, Eric M.

    2016-05-15

    The force required to break the bonds of a depletion gel is measured by dynamically loading pairs of colloidal particles suspended in a solution of a nonadsorbing polymer. Sterically stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) colloids that are 2.7 μm diameter are brought into contact in a solvent mixture of cyclohexane-cyclohexyl bromide and polystyrene polymer depletant. The particle pairs are subject to a tensile load at a constant loading rate over many approach-retraction cycles. The stochastic nature of the thermal rupture events results in a distribution of bond rupture forces with an average magnitude and variance that increases with increasing depletant concentration. The measured force distribution is described by the flux of particle pairs sampling the energy barrier of the bond interaction potential based on the Asakura–Oosawa depletion model. A transition state model demonstrates the significance of lubrication hydrodynamic interactions and the effect of the applied loading rate on the rupture force of bonds in a depletion gel.

  20. Surface electrical properties of coal particles on interaction with polyelectrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Evmenova, G.L.

    2006-07-15

    The paper presents experimental data obtained in determining an electrokinetic potential of coal particles during their interaction with coagulation and flocculation agents. It is established that flocculation agents allow decreasing electrokinetic potential of mineral particles up to the values that promote aggregation of the particles thereby enabling the control over the stability of coal dispersions.

  1. Application of a Semiclassical Model for Particle Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Eugene

    2005-11-01

    We apply a tunneling model of particle decay via the intermediate vector boson. Past workers have applied the tunneling model to pair production [Schwinger, 1951; Brezin and Itzykson, 1970; Casher, Neuberger, and Nussinov, 1979]. In our model we apply a potential barrier of 80 GeV, the mass-energy of the W particle, to inhibit beta-decay. A factor similar to the Bethe preformation factor is then evaluated for various weak interaction particle decays to examine whether we get quantitative agreement with experiment. The model is successful in explaining why certain decays proceed by the strong interaction, and seems to simulate certain weak-decay ratios.

  2. Modelling thrombosis using dissipative particle dynamics method

    PubMed Central

    Filipovic, N; Kojic, M; Tsuda, A

    2008-01-01

    Aim. Arterial occlusion is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. The main mechanism causing vessel occlusion is thrombus formation, which may be initiated by the activation of platelets. The focus of this study is on the mechanical aspects of platelet-mediated thrombosis which includes the motion, collision, adhesion and aggregation of activated platelets in the blood. A review of the existing continuum-based models is given. A mechanical model of platelet accumulation onto the vessel wall is developed using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method in which the blood (i.e. colloidal-composed medium) is treated as a group of mesoscale particles interacting through conservative, dissipative, attractive and random forces. Methods. Colloidal fluid components (plasma and platelets) are discretized by mesoscopic (micrometre-size) particles that move according to Newton's law. The size of each mesoscopic particle is small enough to allow tracking of each constituent of the colloidal fluid, but significantly larger than the size of atoms such that, in contrast to the molecular dynamics approach, detailed atomic level analysis is not required. Results. To test this model, we simulated the deposition of platelets onto the wall of an expanded tube and compared our computed results with the experimental data of Karino et al. (Miscrovasc. Res. 17, 238–269, 1977). By matching our simulations to the experimental results, the platelet aggregation/adhesion binding force (characterized by an effective spring constant) was determined and found to be within a physiologically reasonable range. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the DPD method offers a promising new approach to the modelling of platelet-mediated thrombosis. The DPD model includes interaction forces between platelets both when they are in the resting state (non-activated) and when they are activated, and therefore it can be extended to the analysis of kinetics of binding and other phenomena relevant to

  3. Colloidal Particles and Liquid Interfaces: A Spectrum of Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaz, David Martin

    Young's law predicts that a colloidal sphere in equilibrium with a liquid interface will straddle the two fluids, its height above the interface defined by an equilibrium contact angle. This equilibrium analysis has been used to explain why colloids often bind to liquid interfaces, an effect first observed a century ago by Ramsden and Pickering and later exploited in a wide range of material processes, including emulsification, water purification, mineral recovery, encapsulation, and the making of nanostructured materials. But little is known about the dynamics of binding, or any aspect of the interaction between a particle and an interface outside of equilibrium. This thesis explores the spectrum of particle-interface interactions, from non-binding to non-adsorptive binding and finally adsorptive binding and the relaxation toward equilibrium that ensues. Chapter 2 reviews the importance of interfacial particles in materials science, and serves as a partial motivation for the work presented here. Chapter 3 describes the apparatus and experimental procedures employed in the acquisition of our data, with a short review of experiments that led to the current set. Special attention is paid to the optical apparatus and the custom sample cells we designed. Chapter 4 deals with non-adsorptive interactions between colloidal particles and liquid interfaces. A theoretical discussion founded on (but not wedded to) classical DLVO theory is presented before the results of our experiments are analyzed. It is shown that particle-interface interactions may be purely repulsive or contain an attractive component that results in binding to the interface that is not associated with breach. In chapter 5 the adsorption of polystyrene microspheres to a water-oil interface is shown to be characterized by a sudden breach and an unexpectedly slow relaxation. Particles do not reach equilibrium even after 100 seconds, and the relaxation appears logarithmic in time, suggesting that complete

  4. Particle dynamics modeling methods for colloid suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolintineanu, Dan S.; Grest, Gary S.; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Pierce, Flint; Plimpton, Steven J.; Schunk, P. Randall

    2014-09-01

    We present a review and critique of several methods for the simulation of the dynamics of colloidal suspensions at the mesoscale. We focus particularly on simulation techniques for hydrodynamic interactions, including implicit solvents (Fast Lubrication Dynamics, an approximation to Stokesian Dynamics) and explicit/particle-based solvents (Multi-Particle Collision Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics). Several variants of each method are compared quantitatively for the canonical system of monodisperse hard spheres, with a particular focus on diffusion characteristics, as well as shear rheology and microstructure. In all cases, we attempt to match the relevant properties of a well-characterized solvent, which turns out to be challenging for the explicit solvent models. Reasonable quantitative agreement is observed among all methods, but overall the Fast Lubrication Dynamics technique shows the best accuracy and performance. We also devote significant discussion to the extension of these methods to more complex situations of interest in industrial applications, including models for non-Newtonian solvent rheology, non-spherical particles, drying and curing of solvent and flows in complex geometries. This work identifies research challenges and motivates future efforts to develop techniques for quantitative, predictive simulations of industrially relevant colloidal suspension processes.

  5. Dynamically Tuning Particle Interactions and Assemblies at Soft Interfaces: Reversible Order-Disorder Transitions in 2D Particle Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Park, Bum Jun; Lee, Daeyeon

    2015-09-16

    Particles trapped at fluid interfaces experience long-range interactions that determine their assembly behavior. Because particle interactions at fluid interfaces tend to be unusually strong, once particles organize themselves into a 2D assembly, it is challenging to induce changes in their microstructure. In this report, a new approach is presented to induce reversible order-disorder transitions (ODTs) in the 2D monolayer of colloidal particles trapped at a soft gel-fluid interface. Particles at the soft interface, consisting of a nonpolar superphase and a weakly gelled subphase, initially form a monolayer with a highly ordered structure. The structure of this monolayer can be dynamically varied by the addition or removal of the oil phase. Upon removing the oil via evaporation, the initially ordered particle monolayer undergoes ODT, driven by capillary attractions. The ordered monolayer can be recovered through disorder-to-order transition by simply adding oil atop the particle-laden soft interface. The possibility to dynamically tune the interparticle interactions using soft interfaces can potentially enable control of the transport and mechanical properties of particle-laden interfaces and provide model systems to study particle-laden soft interfaces that are relevant to biological tissues or organs.

  6. Electrostatic interactions between particles through heterogeneous fluid phases.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Woo; Lee, Mina; Kim, Kyung Hak; Xia, Ming; Im, Sang Hyuk; Park, Bum Jun

    2017-09-27

    We investigated the electrostatic interactions between particles acting through heterogeneous fluid phases. An oil lens system floating on the surface of water was used to trap particles at different fluid-fluid interfaces. The inner particles are located at the centrosymmetrically curved oil-water interface inside the oil lens while satellite particles are located at the curved air-water interface, separated by a particular distance from the triple phase boundary. The satellite particles are likely to be captured in an energy minimum state due to electrostatic repulsions by the inner particles balanced with the gravity-induced potential energy. As the size of the oil lens decreases upon evaporation, the satellite particles escape from the gravitational confinement at a critical moment. The self-potential values of the inner particles and the satellite particles were calculated by employing an energy balance and the experimentally obtained geometric parameter values. It was found that the self-potential values of the inner particles decrease as oil evaporates over time and that the magnitude of the self-potential of the satellite particles is a hundred times larger than that of the inner particles. These results demonstrate significant effects of the thickness and shape of the nonpolar superphase on the electrostatic interactions between the particles trapped at different fluid-fluid interfaces.

  7. Evaluation of stochastic particle dispersion modeling in turbulent round jets

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Guangyuan; Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.

    2016-11-02

    ODT (one-dimensional turbulence) simulations of particle-carrier gas interactions are performed in the jet flow configuration. Particles with different diameters are injected onto the centerline of a turbulent air jet. The particles are passive and do not impact the fluid phase. Their radial dispersion and axial velocities are obtained as functions of axial position. The time and length scales of the jet are varied through control of the jet exit velocity and nozzle diameter. Dispersion data at long times of flight for the nozzle diameter (7 mm), particle diameters (60 and 90 µm), and Reynolds numbers (10, 000–30, 000) are analyzedmore » to obtain the Lagrangian particle dispersivity. Flow statistics of the ODT particle model are compared to experimental measurements. It is shown that the particle tracking method is capable of yielding Lagrangian prediction of the dispersive transport of particles in a round jet. In this study, three particle-eddy interaction models (Type-I, -C, and -IC) are presented to examine the details of particle dispersion and particle-eddy interaction in jet flow.« less

  8. Evaluation of stochastic particle dispersion modeling in turbulent round jets

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Guangyuan; Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.

    2016-11-02

    ODT (one-dimensional turbulence) simulations of particle-carrier gas interactions are performed in the jet flow configuration. Particles with different diameters are injected onto the centerline of a turbulent air jet. The particles are passive and do not impact the fluid phase. Their radial dispersion and axial velocities are obtained as functions of axial position. The time and length scales of the jet are varied through control of the jet exit velocity and nozzle diameter. Dispersion data at long times of flight for the nozzle diameter (7 mm), particle diameters (60 and 90 µm), and Reynolds numbers (10, 000–30, 000) are analyzed to obtain the Lagrangian particle dispersivity. Flow statistics of the ODT particle model are compared to experimental measurements. It is shown that the particle tracking method is capable of yielding Lagrangian prediction of the dispersive transport of particles in a round jet. In this study, three particle-eddy interaction models (Type-I, -C, and -IC) are presented to examine the details of particle dispersion and particle-eddy interaction in jet flow.

  9. Interaction of dilute colloidal particles in a mixed solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Kurnaz, M.L.; Maher, J.V.

    1995-06-01

    We have measured the second virial coefficient {ital B}{sub 2} of very dilute colloidal dispersions of charge-stabilized polystyrene latex spheres in the one-phase region of the mixed solvent 2,6-lutidine plus water. These measurements were made as a function of temperature for two solvent compositions, both of which are richer in 2,6-lutidine than the binary liquid mixture`s critical composition. The temperature ranges started deep in the one-phase region and approached the coexistence curve but did not penetrate the region of reversible aggregation near the coexistence curve. Very large, positive (repulsive-interaction) virial coefficients are observed at temperatures far from the aggregation zone and for calibration samples whose solvent is pure water. These large values of {ital B}{sub 2} are impossible to model without invoking long-range repulsive interactions whose origin is difficult to explain. As the temperature is brought nearer to the aggregation zone, the virial coefficient plunges through zero to large negative (attractive-interaction) values. Crude modeling suggests that the observed changes in the interactions are not inconsistent with a temperature-dependent attraction arising from adsorption layer energetics operating at distances of a few solvent-fluctuation correlation lengths from the particle surfaces.

  10. Particle interaction measurements using laser tweezers optical trapping.

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, Timothy P.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Grillet, Anne M.; Molecke, Ryan A.

    2008-08-01

    Laser tweezers optical trapping provides a unique noninvasive capability to trap and manipulate particles in solution at the focal point of a laser beam passed through a microscope objective. Additionally, combined with image analysis, interaction forces between colloidal particles can be quantitatively measured. By looking at the displacement of particles within the laser trap due to the presence of a neighboring particle or looking at the relative diffusion of two particles held near each other by optical traps, interparticle interaction forces ranging from pico- to femto-Newtons can be measured. Understanding interaction forces is critical for predicting the behavior of particle dispersions including dispersion stability and flow rheology. Using a new analysis method proposed by Sainis, Germain, and Dufresne, we can simultaneously calculate the interparticle velocity and particle diffusivity which allows direct calculation of the interparticle potential for the particles. By applying this versatile tool, we measure difference in interactions between various phospholipid bilayers that have been coated onto silica spheres as a new type of solid supported liposome. We measure bilayer interactions of several cell membrane lipids under various environmental conditions such as pH and ionic strength and compare the results with those obtained for empty liposomes. These results provide insight into the role of bilayer fluctuations in liposome fusion, which is of fundamental interest to liposome based drug delivery schemes.

  11. Virial coefficients in the (μ ˜,q ) -deformed Bose gas model related to compositeness of particles and their interaction: Temperature-dependence problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilik, A. M.; Mishchenko, Yu. A.

    2014-11-01

    We establish the relation of the second virial coefficient of a recently proposed (μ ˜,q ) -deformed Bose gas model [A. M. Gavrilik and Yu. A. Mishchenko, Ukr. J. Phys. 58, 1171 (2013)] to the interaction and compositeness parameters when either of these factors is taken into account separately. When the interaction is dealt with, the deformation parameter becomes linked directly to the scattering length and the effective radius of interaction (in general, to scattering phases). The additionally arising temperature dependence is a feature absent in the deformed Bose gas model within the adopted interpretation of the deformation parameters μ ˜ and q . Here the problem of the temperature dependence is analyzed in detail and its possible solution is proposed.

  12. Virial coefficients in the (μ[over ̃],q)-deformed Bose gas model related to compositeness of particles and their interaction: Temperature-dependence problem.

    PubMed

    Gavrilik, A M; Mishchenko, Yu A

    2014-11-01

    We establish the relation of the second virial coefficient of a recently proposed (μ[over ̃],q)-deformed Bose gas model [A. M. Gavrilik and Yu. A. Mishchenko, Ukr. J. Phys. 58, 1171 (2013)] to the interaction and compositeness parameters when either of these factors is taken into account separately. When the interaction is dealt with, the deformation parameter becomes linked directly to the scattering length and the effective radius of interaction (in general, to scattering phases). The additionally arising temperature dependence is a feature absent in the deformed Bose gas model within the adopted interpretation of the deformation parameters μ[over ̃] and q. Here the problem of the temperature dependence is analyzed in detail and its possible solution is proposed.

  13. Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

  14. Energetic charged particle interactions at icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordheim, T.; Hand, K. P.; Paranicas, C.; Howett, C.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Satellites embedded within planetary magnetospheres are typically exposed to bombardment by charged particles, from thermal plasma to more energetic particles at radiation belt energies. At many planetary satellites, energetic charged particles are typically unimpeded by patchy atmospheres or induced satellite magnetic fields and instead are stopped in the surface itself. Most of these primaries have ranges in porous water ice that are at most centimeters, but some of their secondary photons, emitted during the deceleration process, can reach meter depths [Paranicas et al., 2002, 2004; Johnson et al., 2004]. Examples of radiation-induced surface alteration includes sputtering, radiolysis and grain sintering, processes that are capable of significantly altering the physical properties of surface material. Thus, accurate characterization of energetic charged particle weathering at icy satellites is crucial to a more comprehensive understanding of these bodies. At Saturn's inner mid-size moons remote sensing observations by several instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft have revealed distinct weathering patterns which have been attributed to energetic electron bombardment of the surface [Howett et al., 2011, 2012, 2014; Schenk et al., 2011; Paranicas et al., 2014]. In the Jovian system, radiolytic production of oxidants has been invoked as a potential source of energy for life which may reside in the sub-surface ocean of its satellite Europa [Johnson et al., 2003; Hand et al., 2007; Vance et al., 2016]. Here we will discuss the near-surface energetic charged particle environment of icy satellites, with particular emphasis on comparative studies between the Saturnian and Jovian systems and interpretation of remote sensing observations by instruments onboard missions such as Cassini and Galileo. In addition, we will discuss implications for surface sampling by future lander missions (e.g. the proposed Europa lander now under study).

  15. Wave-particle Interactions in Space and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xin

    beam-plasma system. The electron beam is first slowed down and relaxed by the rapidly growing Langmuir wave parallel to the background magnetic field. The tail of the core electrons are trapped by the large amplitude Langmuir wave and are accelerated to the beam energy level in the parallel direction. The excitation of whistler waves through Landau resonance is limited by the saturation of Langmuir waves, due to a faster depletion rate of the beam free energy from ∂fb/∂v ∥> 0 by the latter compare to the former. The second part of the thesis considers the interaction between electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and relativistic electrons. Nonlinear interactions between them are investigated in a two-wave oscillator model. Three interaction regimes are identified depending on the separation of the two wave numbers. Both the decoupled and degenerate regimes are characterized by phase bunching, in which the resonant electrons are scattered preferentially to one direction rather than diffusively. In the coupled regime, resonant electrons experience alternate trapping and de-trapping near the separatrix, from which stochastic motion of electrons arises. For a continuous spectrum of EMIC waves, test particle simulations are compared against quasi-linear diffusion theory (QLT) description of the wave-particle interactions. QLT gives similar results as test particle simulations for the small amplitude and broadband waves, whereas it fails for large amplitude and narrowband waves. By varying the wave spectral width and wave intensity systematically, a regime map is constructed to indicate the applicability of QLT in the wave parameter space.

  16. Particle physics and cosmology in supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, David Edgar

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics provides an excellent description of the elementary particle interactions observed in particle collider experiments, but the model does less well when it is applied to cosmology. Recent measurements of the Universe over very large distances indicate the existence of non-luminous dark matter and an excess of baryons over anti-baryons. The SM is unable to account for either of these results, implying that an extension of the SM description is needed. One such extension is supersymmetry. Within the minimal supersymmetric version of the SM, the MSSM, the lightest superpartner particle can make up the dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry can be generated by the mechanism of electroweak baryogenesis (EWBG). In this work, we examine these issues together in order to find out whether the MSSM can account for both of them simultaneously. We find that the MSSM can explain both the baryon asymmetry and the dark matter, but only over a very constrained region of the model parameter space. The strongest constraints on this scenario come from the lower bound on the Higgs boson mass, and the upper bound on the electric dipole moment of the electron. Moreover, upcoming experiments will probe the remaining allowed parameter space in the near future. Some of these constraints may be relaxed by going beyond the MSSM. With this in mind, we also investigate the nMSSM, a minimal singlet extension of the MSSM. We find that this model can also explain both the dark matter and the baryon asymmetry.

  17. Magnetospheric plasma - Sources, wave-particle interactions and acceleration mechanisms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speiser, T. W.

    1971-01-01

    Some of the basic problems associated with magnetospheric physics are reviewed. The sources of magnetospheric plasma, with auroral particles included as a subset, are discussed. The possible ways in which the solar wind plasma can gain access to the magnetosphere are outlined. Some important consequences of wave-particle interactions are examined. Finally, the basic mechanisms which energize or accelerate particles by reconnection and convection are explained.

  18. Effects of field interactions upon particle creation in Robertson-Walker universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birrell, N. D.; Davies, P. C. W.; Ford, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Particle creation due to field interactions in an expanding Robertson-Walker universe is investigated. A model in which pseudoscalar mesons and photons are created as a result of their mutual interaction is considered, and the energy density of created particles is calculated in model universes which undergo a bounce at some maximum curvature. The free-field creation of non-conformally coupled scalar particles and of gravitons is calculated in the same space-times. It is found that if the bounce occurs at a sufficiently early time the interacting particle creation will dominate. This result may be traced to the fact that the model interaction chosen introduces a length scale which is much larger than the Planck length.

  19. Two-phase flow predictions of the turbulent flow in a combustion chamber including particle-particle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Michael; Alletto, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Relying on large-eddy simulation (LES) and an efficient algorithm to track a huge number of Lagrangian particles through turbulent flow fields in general complex 3D domains, the flow in a pipe and a model combustion chamber is tackled. The influence of particle-fluid (two-way coupling) as well as particle-particle interactions (four-way coupling) is investigated. The latter is modeled based on deterministic collision detection. First, the LES results of a particle-laden vertical pipe flow with a specular wall and a mass loading of 110% are evaluated based on DNS data from the literature. Second, the predicted LES data of a ring combustion chamber at two different mass loadings (22% and 110%) are analyzed and compared with experimental measurements.

  20. Dust particles interaction with plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, C. M.; Jepu, I.; Lungu, C. P.; Chiru, P.; Zaroschi, V.

    2009-11-10

    The flow of plasma and particularly the flow of ions play an important role in dusty plasmas. Here we present some instances in laboratory experiments where the ion flow is essential in establishing dust dynamics in strongly or weakly coupled dust particles. The formation of ion wake potential and its effect on the dynamics of dust crystals, or the ion drag force exerted on micron size dust grains are some of the phenomena observed in the presented experiments.

  1. Relationship between the cohesion of guest particles on the flow behaviour of interactive mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Sharad; Gengenbach, Thomas; Millington-Smith, Doug; Armstrong, Brian; Morton, David A V; Larson, Ian

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects cohesion of small surface-engineered guest binder particles on the flow behaviour of interactive mixtures. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) - a model pharmaceutical binder - was spray-dried with varying l-leucine feed concentrations to create small surface-engineered binder particles with varying cohesion. These spray-dried formulations were characterised by their particle size distribution, morphology and cohesion. Interactive mixtures were produced by blending these spray-dried formulations with paracetamol. The resultant blends were visualised under scanning electron microscope to confirm formation of interactive mixtures. Surface coverage of paracetamol by guest particles as well as the flow behaviour of these mixtures were examined. The flow performance of interactive mixtures was evaluated using measurements of conditioned bulk density, basic flowability energy, aeration energy and compressibility. With higher feed l-leucine concentrations, the surface roughness of small binder particles increased, while their cohesion decreased. Visual inspection of the SEM images of the blends indicated that the guest particles adhered to the surface of paracetamol resulting in effective formation of interactive mixtures. These images also showed that the low-cohesion guest particles were better de-agglomerated that consequently formed a more homogeneous interactive mixture with paracetamol compared with high-cohesion formulations. The flow performance of interactive mixtures changed as a function of the cohesion of the guest particles. Interactive mixtures with low-cohesion guest binder particles showed notably improved bulk flow performance compared with those containing high-cohesion guest binder particles. Thus, our study suggests that the cohesion of guest particles dictates the flow performance of interactive mixtures.

  2. Cosmological constraints on the properties of weakly interacting massive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Steigman, G.; Turner, M.S.

    1984-10-01

    Considerations of the age and density of, as well as the evolution of structure in, the Universe lead to constraints on the masses and lifetimes of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). 26 references.

  3. Review of Physics Results from the Tevatron: Searches for New Particles and Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Toback, David; ŽIvković, Lidija

    2015-02-17

    We present a summary of results for searches for new particles and interactions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by the CDF and the D0 experiments. These include results from Run I as well as Run II for the time period up to July 2014. We focus on searches for supersymmetry, as well as other models of new physics such as new fermions and bosons, various models of excited fermions, leptoquarks, technicolor, hidden-valley model particles, long-lived particles, extra dimensions, dark matter particles, and signature-based searches.

  4. Modeling of dielectrophoretic particle motion: Point particle versus finite-sized particle.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Barbaros; Öner, S Doğan; Baranoğlu, Besim

    2017-06-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a very popular technique for microfluidic bio-particle manipulation. For the design of a DEP-based microfluidic device, simulation of the particle trajectory within the microchannel network is crucial. There are basically two approaches: (i) point-particle approach and (ii) finite-sized particle approach. In this study, many aspects of both approaches are discussed for the simulation of direct current DEP, alternating current DEP, and traveling-wave DEP applications. Point-particle approach is implemented using Lagrangian tracking method, and finite-sized particle is implemented using boundary element method. The comparison of the point-particle approach and finite-sized particle approach is presented for different DEP applications. Moreover, the effect of particle-particle interaction is explored by simulating the motion of closely packed multiple particles for the same applications, and anomalous-DEP, which is a result of particle-wall interaction at the close vicinity of electrode surface, is illustrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A phase-field point-particle model for particle-laden interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chuan; Botto, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The irreversible attachment of solid particles to fluid interfaces is exploited in a variety of applications, such as froth flotation and Pickering emulsions. Critical in these applications is to predict particle transport in and near the interface, and the two-way coupling between the particles and the interface. While it is now possible to carry out particle-resolved simulations of these systems, simulating relatively large systems with many particles remains challenging. We present validation studies and preliminary results for a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian simulation method, in which the dynamics of the interface is fully-resolved by a phase-field approach, while the particles are treated in the ``point-particle'' approximation. With this method, which represents a compromise between the competing needs of resolving particle and interface scale phenomena, we are able to simulate the adsorption of a large number of particles in the interface of drops, and particle-interface interactions during the spinodal coarsening of a multiphase system. While this method models the adsorption phenomenon efficiently and with reasonable accuracy, it still requires understanding subtle issues related to the modelling of hydrodynamic and capillary forces for particles in contact with interface.

  6. Soft particle production in very high energy hadron interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebr, Jan; Nečesal, Petr; Ridky, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Indications of a discrepancy between simulations and data on the number of muons in cosmic ray (CR) showers exist over a large span of energies. We focus in particular on the excess of multi-muon bundles observed by the DELPHI detector at LEP and on the excess in the muon number in general reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory. Even though the primary CR energies relevant for these experiments differ by orders of magnitude, we can find a single mechanism which can simultaneously increase predicted muon counts for both, while not violating constraints from accelerators or from the longitudinal shower development as observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory. We present a brief motivation and describe a practical implementation of such a model, based on the addition of soft particles to interactions above a chosen energy threshold. Results of an extensive set of simulations show the behavior of this model in various parts of a simplified parameter space.

  7. Impact of Radiatively Interactive Dust Aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 Climate Model: Sensitivity to Dust Particle Shape and Refractive Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward Paul; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the radiative effects of dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. GEOS-5 is improved with the inclusion of a sectional aerosol and cloud microphysics module, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Into CARMA we introduce treatment of the dust and sea salt aerosol lifecycle, including sources, transport evolution, and sinks. The aerosols are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5, and we perform a series of multi-decade AMIP-style simulations in which dust optical properties (spectral refractive index and particle shape distribution) are varied. Optical properties assuming spherical dust particles are from Mie theory, while those for non-spherical shape distributions are drawn from a recently available database for tri-axial ellipsoids. The climatologies of the various simulations generally compare well to data from the MODIS, MISR, and CALIOP space-based sensors, the ground-based AERONET, and surface measurements of dust deposition and concentration. Focusing on the summertime Saharan dust cycle we show significant variability in our simulations resulting from different choices of dust optical properties. Atmospheric heating due to dust enhances surface winds over important Saharan dust sources, and we find a positive feedback where increased dust absorption leads to increased dust emissions. We further find that increased dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increasing dust lofting to higher altitudes and strengthening the African Easterly Jet. This leads to a longer atmospheric residence time, higher altitude, and generally more northward transport of dust in simulations with the most absorbing dust optical properties. We find that particle shape, although important for radiance simulations, is a minor effect compared to choices of refractive index, although total atmospheric forcing is enhanced by greater than 10 percent for simulations incorporating a

  8. Particle interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated iron oxide particles as magnetic drug delivery agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İşçi, Sevim; İşçi, Yavuz; Bekaroğlu, Maide Gökçe

    2017-08-01

    Iron oxide particles have been recently researched for the potential applications of targeted drug delivery due to their magnetic properties. The surfaces of the iron oxide particles must be modified to reduce the toxicity and to load the drug to the particles. Biopolymers are good surface modifiers of colloidal particles such as iron oxide particles. The degree of surface coverage of the colloidal iron oxide particles affects the stability, toxicity, magnetic properties and drug loading efficiency. In this study, the interactions of iron oxide (Fe3O4) particles and PVP were determined according to the colloidal properties. The proper concentration of PVP for the whole coverage of the iron oxide particles was found for the possible magnetic drug delivery applications by controlling the colloidal properties of the dispersions. The magnetic properties and toxicity of the fully covered bioiron oxide was also determined for possible applications.

  9. Strong interactive massive particles from a strong coupled theory

    SciTech Connect

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.; Kouvaris, Chris

    2008-03-15

    Minimal walking technicolor models can provide a nontrivial solution for cosmological dark matter, if the lightest technibaryon is doubly charged. Technibaryon asymmetry generated in the early Universe is related to baryon asymmetry, and it is possible to create an excess of techniparticles with charge (-2). These excessive techniparticles are all captured by {sup 4}He, creating techni-O-helium tOHe atoms, as soon as {sup 4}He is formed in big bang nucleosynthesis. The interaction of techni-O-helium with nuclei opens new paths to the creation of heavy nuclei in big bang nucleosynthesis. Because of the large mass of technibaryons, the tOHe ''atomic'' gas decouples from the baryonic matter and plays the role of dark matter in large scale structure formation, while structures in small scales are suppressed. Nuclear interactions with matter slow down cosmic techni-O-helium in the Earth below the threshold of underground dark matter detectors, thus escaping severe cryogenic dark matter search constraints. On the other hand, these nuclear interactions are not sufficiently strong to exclude this form of strongly interactive massive particles by constraints from the XQC experiment. Experimental tests of this hypothesis are possible in the search for tOHe in balloon-borne experiments (or on the ground) and for its charged techniparticle constituents in cosmic rays and accelerators. The tOHe atoms can cause cold nuclear transformations in matter and might form anomalous isotopes, offering possible ways to exclude (or prove?) their existence.

  10. Quantum chaos and thermalization in isolated systems of interacting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgonovi, F.; Izrailev, F. M.; Santos, L. F.; Zelevinsky, V. G.

    2016-04-01

    This review is devoted to the problem of thermalization in a small isolated conglomerate of interacting constituents. A variety of physically important systems of intensive current interest belong to this category: complex atoms, molecules (including biological molecules), nuclei, small devices of condensed matter and quantum optics on nano- and micro-scale, cold atoms in optical lattices, ion traps. Physical implementations of quantum computers, where there are many interacting qubits, also fall into this group. Statistical regularities come into play through inter-particle interactions, which have two fundamental components: mean field, that along with external conditions, forms the regular component of the dynamics, and residual interactions responsible for the complex structure of the actual stationary states. At sufficiently high level density, the stationary states become exceedingly complicated superpositions of simple quasiparticle excitations. At this stage, regularities typical of quantum chaos emerge and bring in signatures of thermalization. We describe all the stages and the results of the processes leading to thermalization, using analytical and massive numerical examples for realistic atomic, nuclear, and spin systems, as well as for models with random parameters. The structure of stationary states, strength functions of simple configurations, and concepts of entropy and temperature in application to isolated mesoscopic systems are discussed in detail. We conclude with a schematic discussion of the time evolution of such systems to equilibrium.

  11. Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System (CMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-04

    Coastal Inlets Research Program Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System (CMS) The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) is a Lagrangian...resuspension in coastal, estuarine and river environments. Local sediment particle sources include dredging, placement sites, inflows, and vessel...propeller wash. The PTM calculates pathways and fate of neutrally buoyant or sediment particles under wave and hydrodynamic conditions. Calculations

  12. Stochastic transport of interacting particles in periodically driven ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savel'Ev, Sergey; Marchesoni, Fabio; Nori, Franco

    2004-12-01

    An open system of overdamped, interacting Brownian particles diffusing on a periodic substrate potential U(x+l)=U(x) is studied in terms of an infinite set of coupled partial differential equations describing the time evolution of the relevant many-particle distribution functions. In the mean-field approximation, this hierarchy of equations can be replaced by a nonlinear integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. This is applicable when the distance a between particles is much less than the interaction length λ , i.e., a particle interacts with many others, resulting in averaging out fluctuations. The equation obtained in the mean-field approximation is applied to an ensemble of locally (a≪λ≪l) interacting (either repelling or attracting) particles placed in an asymmetric one-dimensional substrate potential, either with an oscillating temperature (temperature rachet) or driven by an ac force (rocked ratchet). In both cases we focus on the high-frequency limit. For the temperature ratchet, we find that the net current is typically suppressed (or can even be inverted) with increasing density of the repelling particles. In contrast, the net current through a rocked ratchet can be enhanced by increasing the density of the repelling particles. In the case of attracting particles, our perturbation technique is valid up to a critical value of the particle density, above which a finite fraction of the particles starts condensing in a liquidlike state near the substrate minima. The dependence of the net transport current on the particle density and the interparticle potential is analyzed in detail for different values of the ratchet parameters.

  13. Stochastic transport of interacting particles in periodically driven ratchets.

    PubMed

    Savel'ev, Sergey; Marchesoni, Fabio; Nori, Franco

    2004-12-01

    An open system of overdamped, interacting Brownian particles diffusing on a periodic substrate potential U(x+l)=U(x) is studied in terms of an infinite set of coupled partial differential equations describing the time evolution of the relevant many-particle distribution functions. In the mean-field approximation, this hierarchy of equations can be replaced by a nonlinear integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. This is applicable when the distance a between particles is much less than the interaction length lambda , i.e., a particle interacts with many others, resulting in averaging out fluctuations. The equation obtained in the mean-field approximation is applied to an ensemble of locally (ainteracting (either repelling or attracting) particles placed in an asymmetric one-dimensional substrate potential, either with an oscillating temperature (temperature rachet) or driven by an ac force (rocked ratchet). In both cases we focus on the high-frequency limit. For the temperature ratchet, we find that the net current is typically suppressed (or can even be inverted) with increasing density of the repelling particles. In contrast, the net current through a rocked ratchet can be enhanced by increasing the density of the repelling particles. In the case of attracting particles, our perturbation technique is valid up to a critical value of the particle density, above which a finite fraction of the particles starts condensing in a liquidlike state near the substrate minima. The dependence of the net transport current on the particle density and the interparticle potential is analyzed in detail for different values of the ratchet parameters.

  14. The effects of particle loading on turbulence structure and modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, Kyle D.; Eaton, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to extend the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach to particle-laden turbulent flows using a simple model of particle/flow interaction. The program addressed the simplest type of flow, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, and examined interactions between the particles and gas phase turbulence. The specific range of problems examined include those in which the particle is much smaller than the smallest length scales of the turbulence yet heavy enough to slip relative to the flow. The particle mass loading is large enough to have a significant impact on the turbulence, while the volume loading was small enough such that particle-particle interactions could be neglected. Therefore, these simulations are relevant to practical problems involving small, dense particles conveyed by turbulent gas flows at moderate loadings. A sample of the results illustrating modifications of the particle concentration field caused by the turbulence structure is presented and attenuation of turbulence by the particle cloud is also illustrated.

  15. Cell and Particle Interactions and Aggregation During Electrophoretic Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hua; Zeng, Shulin; Loewenberg, Michael; Todd, Paul; Davis, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    The stability and pairwise aggregation rates of small spherical particles under the collective effects of buoyancy-driven motion and electrophoretic migration are analyzed. The particles are assumed to be non-Brownian, with thin double-layers and different zeta potentials. The particle aggregation rates may be enhanced or reduced, respectively, by parallel and antiparallel alignments of the buoyancy-driven and electrophoretic velocities. For antiparallel alignments, with the buoyancy-driven relative velocity exceeding the electrophoretic relative velocity between two widely-separated particles, there is a 'collision-forbidden region' in parameter space due to hydrodynamic interactions; thus, the suspension becomes stable against aggregation.

  16. Interaction between two spherical particles in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Jun-Ichi; Stark, Holger; Yoneya, Makoto; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    We numerically investigate the interaction between two spherical particles in a nematic liquid crystal mediated by elastic distortions in the orientational order. We pay attention to the cases where two particles with equal radii R0 impose rigid normal anchoring on their surfaces and carry a pointlike topological defect referred to as a hyperbolic hedgehog. To describe the geometry of our system, we use bispherical coordinates, which prove useful in the implementation of boundary conditions at the particle surfaces and at infinity. We adopt the Landau de Gennes continuum theory in terms of a second-rank tensor order parameter Qij for the description of the orientational order of a nematic liquid crystal. We also utilize an adaptive mesh refinement scheme that has proven to be an efficient way of dealing with topological defects whose core size is much smaller than the particle size. When the two “dipoles,” composed of a particle and a hyperbolic hedgehog, are in parallel directions, the two-particle interaction potential is attractive for large interparticle distances D and proportional to D-3 as expected from the form of the dipole-dipole interaction, until the well-defined potential minimum at D≃2.46 R0 is reached. For the antiparallel configuration with no hedgehogs between the two particles, the interaction potential is repulsive and behaves as D-2 for D≲10 R0 , which is stronger than the dipole-dipole repulsion ( ˜ D-3 ) expected theoretically as an asymptotic behavior for large D .

  17. A numerical study of initial-stage interaction between shock and particle curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaolong; Jiang, Lingjie

    2016-11-01

    High speed particulate flow appears in many scientific and engineering problems. Wagner et al., 2012 studied the planar shock - particle curtain interaction experimentally, found the movement and expansion of the particle curtain, together with the movement of shock waves. Theofanous et al., 2016 did similar experiments, discovered a time scaling that reveals a universal regime for cloud expansion. In these experiments, both the particle-fluid interaction and the particle-particle collision are not negligible, which make it challenging to be dealt with. This work aims to numerically study and understand this problem. Applying the stratified multiphase model presented by Chang & Liou 2007 and regarding one phase as solid, following Regele et al., 2014, we study the initial stage of a planar shock impacting on a particle curtain in 2D, in which the particles can be regarded as static so that the collision between particles are not considered. The locations of reflected shock, transmitted shock, and contact discontinuity are examined. The turbulent energy generated in the interacting area is investigated. Keeping the total volume fraction of particles, and changing the particle number, good convergence results are obtained. Effective drag coefficient in 1D model is also calibrated. The authors acknowledge the support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91230203).

  18. Interaction of a shock wave with an array of particles and effect of particles on the shock wave weakening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulat, P. V.; Ilyina, T. E.; Volkov, K. N.; Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    Two-phase systems that involve gas-particle or gas-droplet flows are widely used in aerospace and power engineering. The problems of weakening and suppression of detonation during saturation of a gas or liquid flow with the array of solid particles are considered. The tasks, associated with the formation of particles arrays, dust lifting behind a travelling shock wave, ignition of particles in high-speed and high-temperature gas flows are adjoined to safety of space flight. The mathematical models of shock wave interaction with the array of solid particles are discussed, and numerical methods are briefly described. The numerical simulations of interaction between sub- and supersonic flows and an array of particles being in motionless state at the initial time are performed. Calculations are carried out taking into account the influence that the particles cause on the flow of carrier gas. The results obtained show that inert particles significantly weaken the shock waves up to their suppression, which can be used to enhance the explosion safety of spacecrafts.

  19. Modelling aggregate formation and sedimentation of organic and mineral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkmann, Wolfgang; Schäfer-Neth, Christian; Balzer, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    A one-dimensional model "ADAM" is presented that allows the prognostic computation of the interactions between mineral particles (dust) and biologically formed aggregates. The model couples a 7-compartment biogeochemical component (NO 3, NH 4, phytoplankton aggregates, zooplankton, detritus, carbon, and chlorophyll) and a 4-compartment component for the tracing of mineral particles: single free particles in the water, particles aggregated with phytoplankton, incorporated in zooplankton, and attached to detritus. It resolves both annual and daily cycles of plankton and the fate of dust from eolian import into the ocean via biological activity, aggregation and disaggregation to sedimentation at the sea floor. The model results suggest that particle scavenging is essentially occurring in the mixed layer, where biological activity and shear aggregation regulate the formation of the aggregates. The aggregates interact intensively with the suspended pool of dust particles, and sink through the upper main thermocline with increasing speed. Particle break up and organic matter degradation are important mechanisms for particle cycling in the intermediate and deeper layers. The model predicts an 80% decrease of the annual carbon flux between 100 m and 3000 m depth. The vertical profile of Al-contents in suspended particulates and the annual average vertical flux of particulate organic matter are fairly well reproduced by the model, as well as the seasonal cycles of carbon and dust fluxes in the ocean interior.

  20. Electrostatic interactions between charged dielectric particles in an electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbenev, Ivan N.; Filippov, Anatoly V.; Stace, Anthony J.; Besley, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Theory is developed to address a significant problem of how two charged dielectric particles interact in the presence of a polarizable medium that is a dilute solution of a strong electrolyte. The electrostatic force is defined by characteristic parameters for the interacting particles (charge, radius, and dielectric constant) and for the medium (permittivity and Debye length), and is expressed in the form of a converging infinite series. The limiting case of weak screening and large inter-particle separation is considered, which corresponds to small (macro)ions that carry constant charge. The theory yields a solution in the limit of monopole and dipole terms that agrees exactly with existing analytical expressions, which are generally used to describe ion-ion and ion-molecular interactions in a medium. Results from the theory are compared with DLVO theory and with experimental measurements for the electrostatic force between two PMMA particles contained in a nonpolar solvent (hexadecane) with an added charge control agent.

  1. Interaction of Escherichia coli and Soil Particles in Runoff

    PubMed Central

    Muirhead, Richard William; Collins, Robert Peter; Bremer, Philip James

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory-scale model system was developed to investigate the transport mechanisms involved in the horizontal movement of bacteria in overland flow across saturated soils. A suspension of Escherichia coli and bromide tracer was added to the model system, and the bromide concentration and number of attached and unattached E. coli cells in the overland flow were measured over time. Analysis of the breakthrough curves indicated that the E. coli and bromide were transported together, presumably by the same mechanism. This implied that the E. coli was transported by advection with the flowing water. Overland-flow transport of E. coli could be significantly reduced if the cells were preattached to large soil particles (>45 μm). However, when unattached cells were inoculated into the system, the E. coli appeared to attach predominantly to small particles (<2 μm) and hence remained unattenuated during transport. These results imply that in runoff generated by saturation-excess conditions, bacteria are rapidly transported across the surface and have little opportunity to interact with the soil matrix. PMID:16672484

  2. Monte Carlo framework for noncontinuous interactions between particles and classical fields.

    PubMed

    Wesp, Christian; van Hees, Hendrik; Meistrenko, Alex; Greiner, Carsten

    2015-04-01

    Particles and fields are standard components in numerical calculations like transport simulations in nuclear physics and have well-understood dynamics. Still, a common problem is the interaction between particles and fields due to their different formal description. Particle interactions are discrete, pointlike events while field dynamics is described with continuous partial-differential equations of motion. A workaround is the use of effective theories like the Langevin equation with the drawback of energy conservation violation. We present a method, which allows us to model noncontinuous interactions between particles and scalar fields, allowing us to simulate scattering-like interactions which exchange discrete "quanta" of energy and momentum between fields and particles while obeying energy and momentum conservation and allowing control over interaction strengths and times. In this paper we apply this method to different model systems, starting with a simple harmonic oscillator, which is damped by losing discrete energy quanta. The second and third system consists of an oscillator and a one-dimensional field, which are damped via discrete energy loss and are coupled to a stochastic force, leading to equilibrium states which correspond to statistical Langevin-like systems. The last example is a scalar field in (1 + 3) space-time dimensions, which is coupled to a microcanonical ensemble of particles by incorporating particle production and annihilation processes. Obeying the detailed-balance principle, the system equilibrates to thermal and chemical equilibrium with dynamical fluctuations on the fields, generated dynamically by the discrete interactions.

  3. Feebly interacting dark matter particle as the inflaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenkanen, Tommi

    2016-09-01

    We present a scenario where a Z 2-symmetric scalar field ϕ first drives cosmic inflation, then reheats the Universe but remains out-of-equilibrium itself, and finally comprises the observed dark matter abundance, produced by particle decays à la freeze-in mechanism. We work model-independently without specifying the interactions of the scalar field besides its self-interaction coupling, λϕ 4, non-minimal coupling to gravity, ξϕ 2 R, and coupling to another scalar field, gϕ 2 σ 2. We find the scalar field ϕ serves both as the inflaton and a dark matter candidate if 10-9 ≲ λ ≲ g ≲ 10-7 and 3 keV ≲ m ϕ ≲ 85 MeV for ξ ={O}(1) . Such a small value of the non-minimal coupling is also found to be of the right magnitude to produce the observed curvature perturbation amplitude within the scenario. We also discuss how the model may be distinguished from other inflationary models of the same type by the next generation CMB satellites.

  4. Model independence of constraints on particle dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, K.; Sadoulet, B.

    1989-03-01

    The connection between the annihilation, elastic, and production cross sections is reviewed, showing how a general lower limit on the interaction rate in a detector is obtained from the requirement that a particle be the dark matter. High energy production experiments further constrain models, making very light dark matter particles unlikely. Special attention is paid to the uncertainties, loopholes and model dependencies that go into the arguments and several examples are given. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.

    2015-05-15

    An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Green’s function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.

  6. Electrophoretic interactions and aggregation of colloidal biological particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert H.; Nichols, Scott C.; Loewenberg, Michael; Todd, Paul

    1994-01-01

    The separation of cells or particles from solution has traditionally been accomplished with centrifuges or by sedimentation; however, many particles have specific densities close to unity, making buoyancy-driven motion slow or negligible, but most cells and particles carry surface charges, making them ideal for electrophoretic separation. Both buoyancy-driven and electrophoretic separation may be influenced by hydrodynamic interactions and aggregation of neighboring particles. Aggregation by electrophoresis was analyzed for two non-Brownian particles with different zeta potentials and thin double layers migrating through a viscous fluid. The results indicate that the initial rate of electrophoretically-driven aggregation may exceed that of buoyancy-driven aggregation, even under conditions in which buoyancy-driven relative motion of noninteracting particles is dominant.

  7. Weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.

    2014-06-01

    Background: A model-independent formulation of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-nucleon scattering was recently developed in Galilean-invariant effective field theory. Purpose: Here we complete the embedding of this effective interaction in the nucleus, constructing the most general elastic nuclear cross section as a factorized product of WIMP and nuclear response functions. This form explicitly defines what can and cannot be learned about the low-energy constants of the effective theory—and consequently about candidate ultraviolet theories of dark matter—from elastic scattering experiments. Results: We identify those interactions that cannot be reliably treated in a spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation: For derivative- or velocity-dependent couplings, the SI/SD formulation generally mischaracterizes the relevant nuclear operator and its multipolarity (e.g., scalar or vector) and greatly underestimates experimental sensitivities. This can lead to apparent conflicts between experiments when, in fact, none may exist. The new nuclear responses appearing in the factorized cross section are related to familiar electroweak nuclear operators such as angular momentum l⃗(i) and the spin-orbit coupling σ⃗(i).l⃗(i). Conclusions: To unambiguously interpret experiments and to extract all of the available information on the particle physics of dark matter, experimentalists will need to (1) do a sufficient number of experiments with nuclear targets having the requisite sensitivities to the various operators and (2) analyze the results in a formalism that does not arbitrarily limit the candidate operators. In an appendix we describe a code that is available to help interested readers implement such an analysis.

  8. Foamy Virus Protein—Nucleic Acid Interactions during Particle Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Martin V.; Lindemann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Compared with orthoretroviruses, our understanding of the molecular and cellular replication mechanism of foamy viruses (FVs), a subfamily of retroviruses, is less advanced. The FV replication cycle differs in several key aspects from orthoretroviruses, which leaves established retroviral models debatable for FVs. Here, we review the general aspect of the FV protein-nucleic acid interactions during virus morphogenesis. We provide a summary of the current knowledge of the FV genome structure and essential sequence motifs required for RNA encapsidation as well as Gag and Pol binding in combination with details about the Gag and Pol biosynthesis. This leads us to address open questions in FV RNA engagement, binding and packaging. Based on recent findings, we propose to shift the point of view from individual glycine-arginine-rich motifs having functions in RNA interactions towards envisioning the FV Gag C-terminus as a general RNA binding protein module. We encourage further investigating a potential new retroviral RNA packaging mechanism, which seems more complex in terms of the components that need to be gathered to form an infectious particle. Additional molecular insights into retroviral protein-nucleic acid interactions help us to develop safer, more specific and more efficient vectors in an era of booming genome engineering and gene therapy approaches. PMID:27589786

  9. Persistent entanglement in arrays of interacting particles.

    PubMed

    Briegel, H J; Raussendorf, R

    2001-01-29

    We study the entanglement properties of a class of N-qubit quantum states that are generated in arrays of qubits with an Ising-type interaction. These states contain a large amount of entanglement as given by their Schmidt measure. They also have a high persistency of entanglement which means that approximately N/2 qubits have to be measured to disentangle the state. These states can be regarded as an entanglement resource since one can generate a family of other multiparticle entangled states such as the generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of

  10. Energetic particle acceleration at corotating interaction regions: Ulysses results

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, M.I.; Marsden, R.G.; Sanderson, T.R.; Gosling, J.T.

    1997-07-01

    We present here statistical properties of energetic ions (tilde 1 MeV) accelerated by corotating interaction regions observed at the Ulysses spacecraft. We have correlated the tilde 1 MeV proton intensity measured near the trailing edges of the interaction regions with their compression ratio. We interpret our results in terms of the plasma conditions experienced at Ulysses and identify a likely source of the low energy seed particles accelerated at the interaction regions.

  11. Studying bubble-particle interactions by zeta potential distribution analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chendi; Wang, Louxiang; Harbottle, David; Masliyah, Jacob; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-07-01

    Over a decade ago, Xu and Masliyah pioneered an approach to characterize the interactions between particles in dynamic environments of multicomponent systems by measuring zeta potential distributions of individual components and their mixtures. Using a Zetaphoremeter, the measured zeta potential distributions of individual components and their mixtures were used to determine the conditions of preferential attachment in multicomponent particle suspensions. The technique has been applied to study the attachment of nano-sized silica and alumina particles to sub-micron size bubbles in solutions with and without the addition of surface active agents (SDS, DAH and DF250). The degree of attachment between gas bubbles and particles is shown to be a function of the interaction energy governed by the dispersion, electrostatic double layer and hydrophobic forces. Under certain chemical conditions, the attachment of nano-particles to sub-micron size bubbles is shown to be enhanced by in-situ gas nucleation induced by hydrodynamic cavitation for the weakly interacting systems, where mixing of the two individual components results in negligible attachment. Preferential interaction in complex tertiary particle systems demonstrated strong attachment between micron-sized alumina and gas bubbles, with little attachment between micron-sized alumina and silica, possibly due to instability of the aggregates in the shear flow environment.

  12. Effects of magnetic interactions in antiferromagnetic ferrihydrite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquó, Thelma S.; Erbs, Jasmine J.; Lindquist, Anna; Penn, R. Lee; Banerjee, Subir K.

    2009-04-01

    The effects of magnetic interactions in the magnetic properties of six-line ferrihydrite particles were investigated by studying the behavior of aggregated versus coated particles. Four different coating agents (sugar, alginate, lactate and ascorbate) were employed in order to obtain dispersed particles and prevent particle agglomeration; one sub-sample was allowed to dry with no coating agent. The five sets of ferrihydrite particles were from the same batch and the size was estimated as 3.6 ± 0.4 nm in length. Low temperature magnetization, ac susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy data showed contrasting blocking temperatures for uncoated and coated samples with a decrease of TP from about 50 K to 12 K, respectively. The contributions from magnetic interactions were recognized in magnetic measurements and the effective anisotropy constant for non-interacting ferrihydrite was estimated as (100 ± 10) × 103 J m-3. Overall, employing sugar and alginate as coating agents was more successful in preventing particle aggregation and magnetic interactions. In contrast, ascorbate and lactate were unsuitable due to the chemical reaction between the coating agent and ferrihydrite surface.

  13. Dynamic single-domain particle model for magnetite particles with combined crystalline and shape anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeser, M.; Bente, K.; Buzug, T. M.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamical behaviour of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is not yet fully understood. In magnetic particle imaging (MPI) SPIONs are used to determine quantitative real-time medical images of a tracer material distribution. For reaching spatial resolution in the sub-millimetre range, MPI requires a well engineered instrumentation providing a magnetic field gradient exceeding 2 T m{}-{1} . However, as the particle performance strongly affects the sensitivity of the imaging process, optimization of the particle parameters is a crucial factor, which is not easy to address. Today most simulations of MPI use the Langevin model to describe the particle behaviour. In equilibrium, the model matches the measured data. If alternating fields in the mid kHz frequency range are applied, the dynamic behaviour of the particles differs from the Langevin theory due to anisotropy effects, particle-particle-interactions and/or exchange interaction in case of multi-core particles. In this paper a model based on previous work is introduced, which was adopted to include crystal and shape anisotropy of immobilised mono-domain single-core particles. The model is applied to typical MPI frequencies and field strengths with different possible superposition of the anisotropy effects, leading to differences in the particle response. It is shown that, despite comparatively high anisotropy constants, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy does not quench the signal response for MPI. The constructive superposition of shape and crystal anisotropy leads to the best performance in terms of sensitivity and resolution of the associated imaging modality and slightly reduces the energy barriers compared to a sole-shape anisotropy.

  14. Particle Pusher for the Investigation of Wave-Particle Interactions in the Magnetic Centrifugal Mass Filter (MCMF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp-McDowall, Taylor; Ochs, Ian; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2016-10-01

    A particle pusher was constructed in MATLAB using a fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm to investigate the wave-particle interactions within theoretical models of the MCMF. The model simplified to a radial electric field and a magnetic field focused in the z direction. Studies on an average velocity calculation were conducted in order to test the program's behavior in the large radius limit. The results verified that the particle pusher was behaving correctly. Waves were then simulated on the rotating particles with a periodic divergenceless perturbation in the Bz component of the magnetic field. Preliminary runs indicate an agreement of the particle's motion with analytical predictions-ie. cyclic contractions of the doubly rotating particle's gyroradius.The next stage of the project involves the implementation of particle collisions and turbulence within the particle pusher in order to increase its accuracy and applicability. This will allow for a further investigation of the alpha channeling electrode replacement thesis first proposed by Abraham Fetterman in 2011. Made possible by Grants from the Princeton Environmental Institute (PEI) and the Program for Plasma Science and Technology (PPST).

  15. Design of bio-mimetic particles with enhanced vascular interaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sei-Young; Ferrari, Mauro; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2009-08-25

    The majority of particle-based delivery systems for the 'smart' administration of therapeutic and imaging agents have a spherical shape, are made by polymeric or lipid materials, have a size in the order of few hundreds of nanometers and a negligibly small relative density to aqueous solutions. In the microcirculation and deep airways of the lungs, where the creeping flow assumption holds, such small spheres move by following the flow stream lines and are not affected by external volume force fields. A delivery system should be designed to drift across the stream lines and interact repeatedly with the vessel walls, so that vascular interaction could be enhanced. The numerical approach presented in [Gavze, E., Shapiro, M., 1997. Particles in a shear flow near a solid wall: effect of nonsphericity on forces and velocities. International Journal of Multiphase Flow 23, 155-182.] is, here, proposed as a tool to analyze the dynamics of arbitrarily shaped particles in a creeping flow, and has been extended to include the contribution of external force fields. As an example, ellipsoidal particles with aspect ratio 0.5 are considered. In the absence of external volume forces, a net lateral drift (margination) of the particles has been observed for Stokes number larger than unity (St>1); whereas, for smaller St, the particles oscillate with no net lateral motion. Under these conditions, margination is governed solely by particle inertia (geometry and particle-to-fluid density ratio). In the presence of volume forces, even for fairly small St, margination is observed but in a direction dictated by the external force field. It is concluded that a fine balance between size, shape and density can lead to EVI particles (particles with enhanced vascular interaction) that are able to sense endothelial cells for biological and biophysical abnormalities, mimicking circulating platelets and leukocytes.

  16. An incompressible two-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell model for dense particle flows

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, D.M.; O`Rourke, P.J.; Andrews, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    A two-dimensional, incompressible, multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) method is presented for dense particle flows. The numerical technique solves the governing equations of the fluid phase using a continuum model and those of the particle phase using a Lagrangian model. Difficulties associated with calculating interparticle interactions for dense particle flows with volume fractions above 5% have been eliminated by mapping particle properties to a Eulerian grid and then mapping back computed stress tensors to particle positions. This approach utilizes the best of Eulerian/Eulerian continuum models and Eulerian/Lagrangian discrete models. The solution scheme allows for distributions of types, sizes, and density of particles, with no numerical diffusion from the Lagrangian particle calculations. The computational method is implicit with respect to pressure, velocity, and volume fraction in the continuum solution thus avoiding courant limits on computational time advancement. MP-PIC simulations are compared with one-dimensional problems that have analytical solutions and with two-dimensional problems for which there are experimental data.

  17. Interaction of Particles with Recirculating Flow Regions inside Cavities of Inertial Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Hamed; di Carlo, Dino

    2015-11-01

    Confined inertial flow over cavities of a microfluidic device leads to formation of recirculating flow regions, i.e flow cells, inside cavities which can entrap particles from the free stream. Besides its significance as a fundamental problem in fluid mechanics of mixtures, understanding particle interaction with recirculating flow regions inside cavities is important in biomedical applications, such as Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) separation and platelet deposition in arterial stenosis. In the present work, a lattice-Boltzmann model with resolved particle-corner interaction combined with microfluidic experiments enabled improved understanding of the particle exchange within flow cells in confined inertial flow. Formation of a limit cycle trajectory, observed in experiments and numerical simulations, is a key feature in particle accumulation. By varying the dimensions of the cavity and channel Reynolds number, The length and location of the limit cycle trajectory also varies, altering of the rate of particle exchange and level of accumulation with recirculating zones inside cavities.

  18. Separation of two attractive ferromagnetic ellipsoidal particles by hydrodynamic interactions under alternating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Micheline; Bossis, Georges

    2017-06-01

    In applications where magnetic particles are used to detect and dose targeted molecules, it is of major importance to prevent particle clustering and aggregation during the capture stage in order to maximize the capture rate. Elongated ferromagnetic particles can be more interesting than spherical ones due to their large magnetic moment, which facilitates their separation by magnets or the detection by optical measurement of their orientation relaxation time. Under alternating magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of elongated ferromagnetic particles results from the balance between magnetic torque that tends to align the particle axis with the field direction and viscous torque. As for their translational motion, it results from a competition between direct magnetic particle-particle interactions and solvent-flow-mediated hydrodynamic interactions. Due to particle anisotropy, this may lead to intricate translation-rotation couplings. Using numerical simulations and theoretical modeling of the system, we show that two ellipsoidal magnetic particles, initially in a head-to-tail attractive configuration resulting from their remnant magnetization, can repel each other due to hydrodynamic interactions when alternating field is operated. The separation takes place in a range of low frequencies fc 1particle magnetization strength, whereas fc 1 tends to zero when this ratio increases.

  19. Local wave particle resonant interaction causing energetic particle prompt loss in DIII-D plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. B.; Fu, G. Y.; White, R. B.; Wang, X. G.

    2015-11-01

    A new wave particle resonance mechanism is found explaining the first-orbit prompt neutral beam-ion losses induced by shear Alfvén Eigenmodes (AEs) in the DIII-D tokamak. Because of the large banana width, a typical trapped beam ion can only interact locally with a core localised Alfvén Eigenmode for a fraction of its orbit, i.e. part of its inner leg of the banana orbit. These trapped beam ions can experience substantial radial kick within one bounce as long as the phases of the wave seen by the particles are nearly constant during this local interaction. A wave particle resonant condition is found based on the locally averaged particle orbit frequencies over the interaction part of the particle orbit. It is further found that the frequency width of the local resonance is quite large because the interaction time is short. This implies that particles over a considerable region of phase space can interact effectively with the localised AEs and experience large radial kicks within one bounce orbit. The radial kick size is found numerically and analytically to scale linearly in AE amplitude and is about 5 cm for typical experimental parameters. These results are consistent with experimental measurement.

  20. Particle-fluid interactions in rotor-generated vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauleder, Jürgen; Leishman, J. Gordon

    2014-03-01

    An investigation was made into the particle-laden turbulent flow produced by a rotor hovering in ground effect over a mobile sediment bed. Measurements of the two-phase flow were made using time-resolved particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry as the rotor wake and its embedded vorticity approached and interacted with the sediment bed. Mobilized particles of 45-63 μm diameter (estimated to have a particle Reynolds number of <30 and a Stokes number of about 60) were individually identified and tracked in the resulting flow, with the objective of relating any changes in the vortical flow and turbulence characteristics of the carrier flow phase to the action of the dispersed particle phase. It was observed that, in general, a two-way coupling between the flow phases was produced near the ground, and in some cases, the coupling was very significant. Specifically, it was shown that the uplifted particles altered the carrier flow near the sediment bed, leading to an earlier distortion of the external flow induced by the blade tip vortices and to the accelerated diffusion of the vorticity they contained. The uplifted particles were also seen to modify the overall turbulence field, and when sufficient particle concentrations built up, the particles began to attenuate the turbulence levels. Even in regions with lower particle concentrations, turbulence was found to be attenuated by the indirect action of the particles because of the distortions made to the tip vortices, which were otherwise a significant source of turbulence production. After the tip vortices had diffused further downstream, the uplifted particles were also found to increase the anisotropy of turbulence in the flow.

  1. Multiscale modelling of nucleosome core particle aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubartsev, Alexander P.; Korolev, Nikolay; Fan, Yanping; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2015-02-01

    The nucleosome core particle (NCP) is the basic building block of chromatin. Under the influence of multivalent cations, isolated mononucleosomes exhibit a rich phase behaviour forming various columnar phases with characteristic NCP-NCP stacking. NCP stacking is also a regular element of chromatin structure in vivo. Understanding the mechanism of nucleosome stacking and the conditions leading to self-assembly of NCPs is still incomplete. Due to the complexity of the system and the need to describe electrostatics properly by including the explicit mobile ions, novel modelling approaches based on coarse-grained (CG) methods at the multiscale level becomes a necessity. In this work we present a multiscale CG computer simulation approach to modelling interactions and self-assembly of solutions of NCPs induced by the presence of multivalent cations. Starting from continuum simulations including explicit three-valent cobalt(III)hexammine (CoHex3+) counterions and 20 NCPs, based on a previously developed advanced CG NCP model with one bead per amino acid and five beads per two DNA base pair unit (Fan et al 2013 PLoS One 8 e54228), we use the inverse Monte Carlo method to calculate effective interaction potentials for a ‘super-CG’ NCP model consisting of seven beads for each NCP. These interaction potentials are used in large-scale simulations of up to 5000 NCPs, modelling self-assembly induced by CoHex3+. The systems of ‘super-CG’ NCPs form a single large cluster of stacked NCPs without long-range order in agreement with experimental data for NCPs precipitated by the three-valent polyamine, spermidine3+.

  2. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  3. An aggregation model for ash particles in volcanic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A.; Folch, A.; Macedonio, G.; Durant, A.

    2009-12-01

    A large fraction of fine ash particles injected into the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate through complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in particle settling velocities. The aggregates formed have a different size and density compared to primary particles formed during eruption which dramatically changes the dynamics of sedimentation from the volcanic cloud. Consequently, the lifetime of ash particles in the atmosphere is reduced and a distal mass deposition maximum is often generated in resulting tephra deposits. A complete and rigorous description of volcanic ash fallout requires the full coupling of models of volcanic cloud dynamics and dispersion, and ash particle transport, aggregation and sedimentation. Furthermore, volcanic ash transport models should include an aggregation model that accounts for the interaction of all particle size classes. The problem with this approach is that simulations would require excessively long computational times thereby prohibiting its application in an operational setting during an explosive volcanic eruption. Here we present a simplified model for ash particle transport and aggregation that includes the effects of water in the volcanic cloud and surrounding atmosphere. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average sticking efficiency factors, and collision frequency functions that account for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. A parametric study on the key parameters of the model was performed. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, including the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. In these cases, mass deposited as a function of deposit area and the particle

  4. Asymmetries between strange and antistrange particle production inpion-proton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, T.D.; Vogt, R.

    2002-01-29

    Recent measurements of the asymmetries between Feynman x-distributions of strange and antistrange hadrons in {pi}{sup -}A interactions show a strong effect as a function of x{sub F}. We calculate strange hadron production in the context of the intrinsic model and make predictions for particle/antiparticle asymmetries in these interactions.

  5. Gas-Particle Interactions in a Microgravity Flow Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louge, Michel; Jenkins, James

    1999-01-01

    We are developing a microgravity flow cell in which to study the interaction of a flowing gas with relatively massive particles that collide with each other and with the moving boundaries of the cell. The absence of gravity makes possible the independent control of the relative motion of the boundaries and the flow of the gas. The cell will permit gas-particle interactions to be studied over the entire range of flow conditions over which the mixture is not turbulent. Within this range, we shall characterize the viscous dissipation of the energy of the particle fluctuations, measure the influence of particle-phase viscosity on the pressure drop along the cell, and observe the development of localized inhomogeneities that are likely to be associated with the onset of clusters. These measurements and observations should contribute to an understanding of the essential physics of pneumatic transport.

  6. Finite difference time domain modelling of particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgens, T.G.; Harfoush, F.A.

    1989-03-01

    Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modelling has been successfully applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic scattering and interaction problems for many years. Here the method is extended to incorporate the modelling of wake fields in particle accelerators. Algorithmic comparisons are made to existing wake field codes, such as MAFIA T3. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Particle acceleration at corotating interaction regions in the heliosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tsubouchi, K.

    2014-11-01

    Hybrid simulations are performed to investigate the dynamics of both solar wind protons and interplanetary pickup ions (PUIs) around the corotating interaction region (CIR). The one-dimensional system is applied in order to focus on processes in the direction of CIR propagation. The CIR is bounded by forward and reverse shocks, which are responsible for particle acceleration. The effective acceleration of solar wind protons takes place when the reverse shock (fast wind side) favors a quasi-parallel regime. The diffusive process accounts for this acceleration, and particles can gain energy in a suprathermal range (on the order of 10 keV). In contrast, the PUI acceleration around the shock differs from the conventional model in which the motional electric field along the shock surface accelerates particles. Owing to their large gyroradius, PUIs can gyrate between the upstream and downstream, several proton inertial lengths away from the shock. This 'cross-shock' gyration results in a net velocity increase in the field-aligned component, indicating that the magnetic mirror force is responsible for acceleration. The PUIs that remain in the vicinity of the shock for a long duration (tens of gyroperiods) gain much energy and are reflected back toward the upstream. These reflected energetic PUIs move back and forth along the magnetic field between a pair of CIRs that are magnetically connected. The PUIs are repeatedly accelerated in each reflection, leading to a maximum energy gain close to 100 keV. This mechanism can be evaluated in terms of 'preacceleration' for the generation of anomalous cosmic rays.

  8. Emergent Dynamics of a Thermodynamically Consistent Particle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Ruggeri, Tommaso

    2017-03-01

    We present a thermodynamically consistent particle (TCP) model motivated by the theory of multi-temperature mixture of fluids in the case of spatially homogeneous processes. The proposed model incorporates the Cucker-Smale (C-S) type flocking model as its isothermal approximation. However, it is more complex than the C-S model, because the mutual interactions are not only " mechanical" but are also affected by the "temperature effect" as individual particles may exhibit distinct internal energies. We develop a framework for asymptotic weak and strong flocking in the context of the proposed model.

  9. 3D Lagrangian Model of Particle Saltation in an Open Channel Flow with Emphasis on Particle-Particle Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2012-12-01

    Particles laying motionless at the bed of rivers, lakes and estuaries can be put into motion when the shear stress exerted by the flow on the particles exceeds the critical shear stress. When these particles start their motion they can either remain suspended by long periods of time (suspended load) or move close to the bed (bed load). Particles are transported as bed load in three different modes: Sliding, rolling and saltation. Saltation is usually described as the bouncing motion of sediment particles in a layer a few particle diameters thick. The amount of particles and the bed-load mode in which they move depend on the particle size and density, and the flow intensity, usually quantified by the shear velocity. The bottom shear stress in natural streams will most likely be large enough to set saltation as the most important bed-load transport mechanism among all three modes. Thus, studying the saltation process is crucial for the overall understanding of bed-load transport. Particularly, numerical simulations of this process have been providing important insight regarding the relative importance of the physical mechanisms involved in it. Several processes occur when particles are saltating near the bed: i) Particles collide with the bed, ii) they "fly" between collisions with the bed, as a result of their interaction with the fluid flow, iii) and they collide among themselves. These processes can be simulated using a three-dimensional Eulerian-Lagrangian model. In order to mimic these processes we have experimented with an averaged turbulent flow field represented by the logarithmic law of the wall, and with a more involved approach in which a computed turbulent velocity field for a flat plate was used as a surrogate of the three-dimensional turbulent conditions present close to stream beds. Since flat-plate and open-channel boundary layers are essentially different, a dynamic similarity analysis was performed showing that the highly-resolved three

  10. Exploring the Standard Model of Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Watkins, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    With the recent discovery of a new particle at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the Higgs boson could be about to be discovered. This paper provides a brief summary of the standard model of particle physics and the importance of the Higgs boson and field in that model for non-specialists. The role of Feynman diagrams in making predictions for…

  11. Exploring the Standard Model of Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Watkins, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    With the recent discovery of a new particle at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the Higgs boson could be about to be discovered. This paper provides a brief summary of the standard model of particle physics and the importance of the Higgs boson and field in that model for non-specialists. The role of Feynman diagrams in making predictions for…

  12. Interactions of casein micelles with calcium phosphate particles.

    PubMed

    Tercinier, Lucile; Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Anne; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-06-25

    Insoluble calcium phosphate particles, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), are often used in calcium-fortified milks as they are considered to be chemically unreactive. However, this study showed that there was an interaction between the casein micelles in milk and HA particles. The caseins in milk were shown to bind to the HA particles, with the relative proportions of bound β-casein, αS-casein, and κ-casein different from the proportions of the individual caseins present in milk. Transmission electron microscopy showed no evidence of intact casein micelles on the surface of the HA particles, which suggested that the casein micelles dissociated either before or during binding. The HA particles behaved as ion chelators, with the ability to bind the ions contained in the milk serum phase. Consequently, the depletion of the serum minerals disrupted the milk mineral equilibrium, resulting in dissociation of the casein micelles in milk.

  13. New model of the higher spin particle

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoruk, S. Ivanov, E.

    2008-05-15

    We elaborate on a new model of the higher spin (HS) particle which makes manifest the classical equivalence of the HS particle of the unfolded formulation and the HS particle model with a bosonic counterpart of supersymmetry. Both these models emerge as two different gauges of the new master system. Physical states of the master model are massless HS multiplets described by complex HS fields which carry an extra U(1) charge q. The latter fully characterizes the given multiplet by fixing the minimal helicity at q/2. We construct the twistorial formulation of the master model and discuss symmetries of the new HS multiplets within its framework.

  14. Modeling the dynamics of several particles behind a propagating shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedarev, I. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of a shock wave in a gas phase with a system of particles moving in this gas has been numerically simulated. The wave pattern of the nonstationary interaction of the propagating shock wave with these particles is described in detail. The mathematical model and computational technology employed is compared with experimental data on the dynamics of particles behind the shock wave. It is established that the approximate model of separate particles used to calculate relaxation of their velocities unsatisfactorily operates in the presence of a mutual influence of particles, whereby one particle can occur in the aerodynamic shadow of an adjacent particle.

  15. A coarse grained stochastic particle interacting system for tropical convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouider, B.

    2012-12-01

    Climate models (GCMs) fail to represent adequately the variability associated with organized convection in the tropics. This deficiency is believed to hinder medium and long range weather forecasts, over weeks to months. GCMs use very complex sub-grid models, known as cumulus parameterizations, to represent the effects of clouds and convection as well as other unresolved processes. Cumulus parameterizations are intrinsically deterministic and are typically based on the quasi-equilibrium theory, which assumes that convection instantaneously consumes the atmospheric instability produced by radiation. In this talk, I will discuss a stochastic model for organized tropical convection based on a particle interacting system defined on a microscopic lattice. An order parameter is assumed to take the values 0,1,2,3 at a any given lattice site according to whether it is a clear site or it is occupied by a cloud of a one of the three types: congestus, deep, or stratiform, following intuitive rules motivated by recent satellite observations and various field campaigns conducted over the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific. The microscopic Markov process is coarse-grained systematically to obtain a multidimensional birth-death process with immigration, following earlier work done by Katsoulakis, Majda, and Vlachos (JCP 2003) for the case of the Ising model where the order parameter takes the values 0 and 1. The coarse grained birth-death process is a stochastic model, intermediate between the microscopic lattice model and the deterministic mean field limit, that is used to represent the sub-grid scale variability of the underlying physical process (here the cloud cover) with a negligible computational overhead and yet permits both local interactions between lattice sites and two-way interactions between the cloud cover and the large-scale climate dynamics. The new systematic coarse-graining, developed here for the multivalued order parameter, provides a unifying framework

  16. Experimental verification of interactions between randomly distributed fine magnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketomi, Susamu; Shull, Robert D.

    2003-10-01

    We experimentally examined whether or not a magnetic fluid (MF) is really superparamagnetic by comparing the initial magnetic susceptibilities of the mother MFs with those of their highly diluted solutions (more than 1000 times diluted) in which the dipole-dipole interaction between the particles was negligible. We used three mother MFs, SA 1, SB 1, and SC 1, and their highly diluted solutions, SA 2, SB 2, and SC 2, respectively. The particles' dispersability was best in SA 1 and poorest in SC 1. From the static field experiment, it was found that the mutual interaction between the particles in SB 1, and SC 1 made clusters of particles with magnetically closed flux circuits even at zero field while no interaction was detected in SA 1. The initial complex magnetic susceptibility, χ˜, as a function of temperature, T, under an AC field experiment revealed that the complex susceptibility of both the samples SA 1 and SA 2 showed peaks as a function of T. However, their χ˜ vs. T curves were not similar, leading to the conclusion that the sample SA 1 was not superparamagnetic. Instead, SA 1 was a magnetic spin-glass induced by the weak interaction between the particle spins. The existence of the spin-glass state was also confirmed by the Volgel-Fulcher law dependence of the AC-susceptibility peak temperature, Tp, or the frequency of the AC field.

  17. Nonlinearly interacting trapped particle solitons in collisionless plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Debraj; Sharma, Devendra

    2016-02-01

    The formulation of collective waves in collisionless plasmas is complicated by the kinetic effects produced by the resonant particles, capable of responding to the smallest of the amplitude disturbance. The dispersive plasma manifests this response by generating coherent nonlinear structures associated with phase-space vortices, or holes, at very small amplitudes. The nonlinear interaction between solitary electron phase-space holes is studied in the electron acoustic regime of a collisionless plasma using Vlasov simulations. Evolution of the analytic trapped particle solitary solutions is examined, observing them propagate stably, preserve their identity across strong mutual interactions in adiabatic processes, and display close correspondence with observable processes in nature.

  18. Light scattering and dynamics of interacting Brownian particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Tang, H. T.

    1982-01-01

    The relative motions of interacting Brownian particles in liquids may be described as radial diffusion in an effective potential of the mean force. By using a harmonic approximation for the effective potential, the intermediate scattering function may also be evaluated. For polystyrene spheres of 250 A mean radius in aqueous environment at 0.00125 g/cu cm concentration, the results for the calculated mean square displacement are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from photon correlation spectroscopy. Because of the interactions, the functions deviate considerably from the exponential forms for the free particles.

  19. Interacting particles in a periodically moving potential: traveling wave and transport.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Rakesh; Chatterjee, Sakuntala; Pradhan, Punyabrata; Manna, S S

    2014-02-01

    We study a system of interacting particles in a periodically moving external potential, within the simplest possible description of paradigmatic symmetric exclusion process on a ring. The model describes diffusion of hardcore particles where the diffusion dynamics is locally modified at a uniformly moving defect site, mimicking the effect of the periodically moving external potential. The model, though simple, exhibits remarkably rich features in particle transport, such as polarity reversal and double peaks in particle current upon variation of defect velocity and particle density. By tuning these variables, the most efficient transport can be achieved in either direction along the ring. These features can be understood in terms of a traveling density wave propagating in the system. Our results could be experimentally tested, e.g., in a system of colloidal particles driven by a moving optical tweezer.

  20. Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2013-07-31

    This is the final report of a program of research on ``Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies'' of the High Energy Physics (HEP) group of The Rockefeller University. The research was carried out using the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Three faculty members, two research associates, and two postdoctoral associates participated in this project. At CDF, we studied proton-antiproton collisions at an energy of 1.96 TeV. We focused on diffractive interactions, in which the colliding antiproton loses a small fraction of its momentum, typically less than 1%, while the proton is excited into a high mass state retaining its quantum numbers. The study of such collisions provides insight into the nature of the diffractive exchange, conventionally referred to as Pomeron exchange. In studies of W and Z production, we found results that point to a QCD-based interpretation of the diffractive exchange, as predicted in a data-driven phenomenology developed within the Rockefeller HEP group. At CMS, we worked on diffraction, supersymmetry (SUSY), dark matter, large extra dimensions, and statistical applications to data analysis projects. In diffraction, we extended our CDF studies to higher energies working on two fronts: measurement of the single/double diffraction and of the rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV, and development of a simulation of diffractive processes along the lines of our successful model used at CDF. Working with the PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo simulation authors, we implemented our model as a PYTHIA8-MBR option in PYTHIA8 and used it in our data analysis. Preliminary results indicate good agreement. We searched for SUSY by measuring parameters in the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) and found results which, combined with other experimental constraints and theoretical considerations, indicate that the

  1. Random particle methods applied to broadband fan interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieste, M.; Gabard, G.

    2012-10-01

    Predicting broadband fan noise is key to reduce noise emissions from aircraft and wind turbines. Complete CFD simulations of broadband fan noise generation remain too expensive to be used routinely for engineering design. A more efficient approach consists in synthesizing a turbulent velocity field that captures the main features of the exact solution. This synthetic turbulence is then used in a noise source model. This paper concentrates on predicting broadband fan noise interaction (also called leading edge noise) and demonstrates that a random particle mesh method (RPM) is well suited for simulating this source mechanism. The linearized Euler equations are used to describe sound generation and propagation. In this work, the definition of the filter kernel is generalized to include non-Gaussian filters that can directly follow more realistic energy spectra such as the ones developed by Liepmann and von Kármán. The velocity correlation and energy spectrum of the turbulence are found to be well captured by the RPM. The acoustic predictions are successfully validated against Amiet's analytical solution for a flat plate in a turbulent stream. A standard Langevin equation is used to model temporal decorrelation, but the presence of numerical issues leads to the introduction and validation of a second-order Langevin model.

  2. Calculating the Annihilation Rate of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Rothstein, Ira Z.; Vaidya, Varun

    2015-05-01

    We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial-state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. For the case of Majorana WIMPs transforming in the adjoint representation of SU(2), we present the result for the resummed rate at leading double-log accuracy in terms of two initial-state partial-wave matrix elements and one hard matching coefficient. For a given model, one may calculate the cross section by finding the tree level matching coefficient and determining the value of a local four-fermion operator. The effects of resummation can be as large as 100% for a 20 TeV WIMP. However, for lighter WIMP masses relevant for the thermal relic scenario, leading-log resummation modifies the Sudakov factors only at the 10% level. Furthermore, given comparably sized Sommerfeld factors, the total effect of radiative corrections on the semi-inclusive photon annihilation rate is found to be percent level. The generalization of the formalism to other types of WIMPs is discussed.

  3. Simulation of Alfven wave-resonant particle interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Pekker, M.

    1995-07-01

    New numerical simulations are presented on the self-consistent dynamics of energetic particles and a set of unstable discrete shear Alfven modes in a tokamak. Our code developed for these simulations has been previously tested in the simulations of the bump-on-tail instability model. The code has a Hamiltonian structure for the mode-particle coupling, with the superimposed wave damping, particle source and classical relaxation processes. In the alpha particle-Alfven wave problem, we observe a transition from a single mode saturation to the mode overlap and global quasilinear diffusion, which is qualitatively similar to that observed in the bump-on-tail model. We demonstrate a considerable enhancement in the wave energy due to the resonance overlap. We also demonstrate the effect of global diffusion on the energetic particle losses.

  4. Particle interactions of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate detected with single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS).

    PubMed

    Jetzer, Martin; Morrical, Bradley; Fergenson, David; Imanidis, Georgios

    2017-08-29

    Particle co-associations between the active pharmaceutical ingredients fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate were examined in dry powder inhaled (DPI) and metered dose inhaled (MDI) combination products. Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry was used to investigate the particle interactions in Advair Diskus(®) (500/50 mcg) and Seretide(®) (125/25 mcg). A simple rules tree was used to identify each compound, either alone or co-associated at the level of the individual particle, using unique marker peaks in the mass spectra for the identification of each drug. High levels of drug particle co-association (fluticasone-salmeterol) were observed in the aerosols emitted from Advair Diskus(®) and Seretide(®). The majority of the detected salmeterol particles were found to be in co-association with fluticasone in both tested devices. Another significant finding was that rather coarse fluticasone particles (in DPI) and fine salmeterol particles (both MDI and DPI) were forming the particle co-associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Statistical mechanics of point particles with a gravitational interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabanol, M.-L.; Corson, F.; Pomeau, Y.

    2000-04-01

    We study the dynamics of N point particles with a gravitational interaction. The divergence of the microcanonical partition function prevents this system from reaching equilibrium. Assuming a random diffusion in phase space we deduce a scaling law involving time, which is numerically checked for 3 interacting masses in a quadratic nonsymmetrical potential. This random walk on the potential energy scale is studied in some detail and the results agree with the numerics.

  6. Particle transport in 3 He-rich events: wave-particle interactions and particle anisotropy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Zhang, L. D.; Mason, G. L.; Lakhina, G. S.; Hada, T.; Arballo, J. K.; Zwickl, R. D.

    2002-04-01

    Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths l

  7. Particle Swarm Optimization With Interswarm Interactive Learning Strategy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Quande; Cheng, Shi; Zhang, Qingyu; Li, Li; Shi, Yuhui

    2016-10-01

    The learning strategy in the canonical particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is often blamed for being the primary reason for loss of diversity. Population diversity maintenance is crucial for preventing particles from being stuck into local optima. In this paper, we present an improved PSO algorithm with an interswarm interactive learning strategy (IILPSO) by overcoming the drawbacks of the canonical PSO algorithm's learning strategy. IILPSO is inspired by the phenomenon in human society that the interactive learning behavior takes place among different groups. Particles in IILPSO are divided into two swarms. The interswarm interactive learning (IIL) behavior is triggered when the best particle's fitness value of both the swarms does not improve for a certain number of iterations. According to the best particle's fitness value of each swarm, the softmax method and roulette method are used to determine the roles of the two swarms as the learning swarm and the learned swarm. In addition, the velocity mutation operator and global best vibration strategy are used to improve the algorithm's global search capability. The IIL strategy is applied to PSO with global star and local ring structures, which are termed as IILPSO-G and IILPSO-L algorithm, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed algorithms with eight popular PSO variants. From the experimental results, IILPSO demonstrates the good performance in terms of solution accuracy, convergence speed, and reliability. Finally, the variations of the population diversity in the entire search process provide an explanation why IILPSO performs effectively.

  8. Acoustofluidics 15: streaming with sound waves interacting with solid particles.

    PubMed

    Sadhal, S S

    2012-08-07

    In Part 15 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics-exploiting ultrasonic standing waves forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation," we examine the interaction of acoustic fields with solid particles. The main focus here is the interaction of standing waves with spherical particles leading to streaming, together with some discussion on one non-spherical case. We begin with the classical problem of a particle at the velocity antinode of a standing wave, and then treat the problem of a sphere at the velocity node, followed by the intermediate situation of a particle between nodes. Finally, we discuss the effect of deviation from sphericity which brings about interesting fluid mechanics. The entire Focus article is devoted to the analysis of the nonlinear fluid mechanics by singular perturbation methods, and the study of the streaming phenomenon that ensues from the nonlinear interaction. With the intention of being instructive material, this tutorial cannot by any means be considered 'complete and comprehensive' owing to the complexity of the class of problems being covered herein.

  9. BDO-RFQ Program Complex of Modelling and Optimization of Charged Particle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsyannikov, D. A.; Ovsyannikov, A. D.; Antropov, I. V.; Kozynchenko, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    The article is dedicated to BDO Code program complex used for modelling and optimization of charged particle dynamics with consideration of interaction in RFQ accelerating structures. The structure of the program complex and its functionality are described; mathematical models of charged particle dynamics, interaction models and methods of optimization are given.

  10. Electrostatic analysis of the interactions between charged particles of dielectric materials.

    PubMed

    Bichoutskaia, Elena; Boatwright, Adrian L; Khachatourian, Armik; Stace, Anthony J

    2010-07-14

    An understanding of the electrostatic interactions that exist between charged particles of dielectric materials has applications that span much of chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering. Areas of interest include cloud formation, ink-jet printing, and the stability of emulsions. A general solution to the problem of calculating electrostatic interactions between charged dielectric particles is presented. The solution converges very rapidly for low values of the dielectric constant and is stable up to the point where particles touch. Through applications to unspecified particles with a range of size and charge ratios, the model shows that there exist distinct regions of dielectric space where particles with the same sign of charge are strongly attracted to one another.

  11. Evolution of Clouds of Migrating Micro-particles with Hydrodynamic and Electrostatic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Shuiqing

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of a migrating cloud of particles with electrohydrodynamic interactions is numerically investigated. The hydrodynamic interaction is modelled by Oseen dynamics in the limit of small-but-finite particle Reynolds number. The effects of external field and the particle-particle Coulomb repulsion, calculated through pairwise summation, are quantified by a charge parameter, κq. With a small or zero κq, the cloud is seen to flatten into a toroidal configuration and eventually breaks up into two small clouds, indicating that the external electrostatic field has a similar effect with gravity. Increasing the long-range Coulomb repulsion can delay or even totally prevent the breakup. With sufficiently strong repulsion, the cloud undergoes a self-similar expansion. Finally, we show that the breakup of the cloud is strongly related to the initial inhomogeneity of the particle concentration. This chaotic characteristic, however, is dramatically depressed by the long-range Coulomb repulsion.

  12. Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.

  13. Water vapor interactions with FeOOH particle surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaowei; Boily, Jean-François

    2013-02-01

    Interactions between iron (oxyhydr)oxide particle surfaces and water are of fundamental importance to natural and technological processes. In this Letter, we probe the interactions between submicron-sized lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) surfaces and gaseous water using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Formation of hydrogen bonds between different lepidocrocite surface OH functional groups and water was specifically monitored in the O-H stretching region. Molecular dynamics simulations of the dominant crystallographic terminations of these particles provided insights into interfacial water structures and hydrogen bonding networks. Theoretical power spectra were moreover used to validate interpretations of experimental spectra. This Letter constrains our understanding of incipient water adsorption reactions leading to thermodynamically stable and reversible thin water films at FeOOH particle surfaces. It also suggests that these water layers are structurally analogous precursors to those occurring at a FeOOH surfaces contacted with liquid water.

  14. Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.

  15. A FDR-Preserving Field Theory for Interacting Brownian Particles: One-Loop Theory and MCT

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bongsoo; Kawasaki, Kyozi

    2008-02-21

    We develop a field theoretical treatment of a model of interacting Brownian particles. We pay particlular attention to the requirement of the time reversal (TR) invariance and the flucutation-dissipation relationship (FDR). Previous field theoretical formulations were found to be inconsistent with this requirement. The method used in the present formulation is a modified version of the auxilliary field method due originally to Andreanov, Biroli and Lefevre (ABL). We recover the correct diffusion law when the interaction is dropped as well as the standard mode coupling equation in the one-loop order calculation for interacting Brownian particle systems.

  16. Dark-matter particles without weak-scale masses or weak interactions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jonathan L; Kumar, Jason

    2008-12-05

    We propose that dark matter is composed of particles that naturally have the correct thermal relic density, but have neither weak-scale masses nor weak interactions. These models emerge naturally from gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, where they elegantly solve the dark-matter problem. The framework accommodates single or multiple component dark matter, dark-matter masses from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and interaction strengths from gravitational to strong. These candidates enhance many direct and indirect signals relative to weakly interacting massive particles and have qualitatively new implications for dark-matter searches and cosmological implications for colliders.

  17. Observations and Modeling of Geospace Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinlin

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive measurements of energetic particles and electric and magnetic fields from state-of-art instruments onboard Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, revealed new features of the energetic particles and the fields in the inner magnetosphere and impose new challenges to any quantitative modeling of the physical processes responsible for these observations. Concurrent measurements of energetic particles by satellites in highly inclined low Earth orbits and plasma and fields by satellites in farther distances in the magnetospheres and in the up stream solar wind are the critically needed information for quantitative modeling and for leading to eventual accurate forecast of the variations of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere. In this presentation, emphasis will be on the most recent advance in our understanding of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere and the missing links for significantly advance in our modeling and forecasting capabilities.

  18. DLVO interaction energies between hollow spherical particles and collector surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The surface element integration technique was used to systematically study Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies/forces between hollow spherical particles (HPs) and a planar surface or two intercepting half planes under different ionic strength conditions. The inner and outer ...

  19. Interaction of nanosilver particles with human lymphocyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhornik, Alena; Baranova, Ludmila; Volotovski, Igor; Chizhik, Sergey; Drozd, Elizaveta; Sudas, Margarita; Buu Ngo, Quoc; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Huynh, Thi Ha; Hien Dao, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The damaging effects of nanoparticles were hypothesized to be the oxidative stress caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species and initiation of inflammatory reactions. In this context a study on the effects of nanosilver particles on the formation of reactive oxygen species in human lymphocyte culture was carried out. The obtained results showed that fluorescence intensity considerably increased after cells had interacted with nanosilver particles of varying concentrations, indicating the formation of reactive oxygen species and their accumulation in lymphocyte cells. Morphological study of the lymphocyte cells under the effects of nanosilver particles showed that the change in morphology depends on the concentration and size of nanosilver particles: for a size ≤20 nm the lymphocyte cell significantly shrank with pronounced differences in the morphological structure of the cell membrane, but for a size ≥200 nm no change was observed.

  20. Electromagnetic sunscreen model: design of experiments on particle specifications.

    PubMed

    Lécureux, Marie; Deumié, Carole; Enoch, Stefan; Sergent, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    We report a numerical study on sunscreen design and optimization. Thanks to the combined use of electromagnetic modeling and design of experiments, we are able to screen the most relevant parameters of mineral filters and to optimize sunscreens. Several electromagnetic modeling methods are used depending on the type of particles, density of particles, etc. Both the sun protection factor (SPF) and the UVB/UVA ratio are considered. We show that the design of experiments' model should include interactions between materials and other parameters. We conclude that the material of the particles is a key parameter for the SPF and the UVB/UVA ratio. Among the materials considered, none is optimal for both. The SPF is also highly dependent on the size of the particles.

  1. Modeling fibrin aggregation in blood flow with discrete-particles.

    PubMed

    Boryczko, Krzysztof; Dzwinel, Witold; Yuen, David A

    2004-09-01

    Excessive clotting can cause bleeding over a vast capillary area. We study the mesoscopic dynamics of clotting by using the fluid particle model. We assume that the plasma consists of fluid particles containing fibrin monomers, while the red blood cells and capillary walls are modeled with elastic mesh of "solid" particles. The fluid particles interact with each other with a short-ranged, repulsive dissipative force. The particles containing fibrin monomers have a dual character. The polymerization of fibrin monomers into hydrated fibrins is modeled by the change of the interactions between fluid particles from repulsive to attractive forces. This process occurs with a probability being an increasing function of the local density. We study the blood flow in microscopic capillary vessels about 100 microm long and with diameters in order of 10 microm. We show that the model of polymerization reflects clearly the role played by fibrins in clotting. Due to the density fluctuations caused the by the high acceleration, the fibrin chains are produced within a very short time (0.5 ms). Fibrin aggregation modifies the rheological properties of blood, slows down the incipient flow, and entraps the red blood cells, thus forming dangerous clots.

  2. Particle-boundary interaction in a shear-driven cavity flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanò, Francesco; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C.

    2017-08-01

    The motion of a heavy finite-size tracer is numerically calculated in a two-dimensional shear-driven cavity. The particle motion is computed using a discontinuous Galerkin-finite-element method combined with a smoothed profile method resolving all scales, including the flow in the lubrication gap between the particle and the boundary. The centrifugation of heavy particles in the recirculating flow is counteracted by a repulsion from the shear-stress surface. The resulting limit cycle for the particle motion represents an attractor for particles in dilute suspensions. The limit cycles obtained by fully resolved simulations as a function of the particle size and density are compared with those obtained by one-way coupling using the Maxey-Riley equation and an inelastic collision model for the particle-boundary interaction, solely characterized by an interaction-length parameter. It is shown that the one-way coupling approach can faithfully approximate the true limit cycle if the interaction length is selected depending on the particle size and its relative density.

  3. Quasi-particles and effective mean field in strongly interacting matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévai, P.; Ko, C. M.

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a quasi-particle model of strongly interacting quark-gluon matter and explore the possible connection to an effective field theoretical description consisting of a scalar σ field by introducing a dynamically generated mass, M(σ), and a self-consistently determined interaction term, B(σ). We display a possible connection between the two types of effective description, using the Friedberg-Lee model.

  4. Time dilation in relativistic two-particle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, B. T.; Morris, M. C.; Ware, M. R.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.; Stefanovich, E. V.

    2010-11-15

    We study the orbits of two interacting particles described by a fully relativistic classical mechanical Hamiltonian. We use two sets of initial conditions. In the first set (dynamics 1) the system's center of mass is at rest. In the second set (dynamics 2) the center of mass evolves with velocity V. If dynamics 1 is observed from a reference frame moving with velocity -V, the principle of relativity requires that all observables must be identical to those of dynamics 2 seen from the laboratory frame. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that kinematic Lorentz space-time transformations fail to transform particle observables between the two frames. This is explained as a result of the inevitable interaction dependence of the boost generator in the instant form of relativistic dynamics. Despite general inaccuracies of the Lorentz formulas, the orbital periods are correctly predicted by the Einstein's time dilation factor for all interaction strengths.

  5. Wave-particle interactions in a resonant system of photons and ion-solvated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Eiji

    2017-02-01

    We investigate a laser model for a resonant system of photons and ion cluster-solvated rotating water molecules in which ions in the cluster are identical and have very low, non-relativistic velocities and direction of motion parallel to a static electric field induced in a single direction. This model combines Dicke superradiation with wave-particle interaction. As the result, we find that the equations of motion of the system are expressed in terms of a conventional free electron laser system. This result leads to a mechanism for dynamical coherence, induced by collective instability in the wave-particle interaction.

  6. Magnetic microswimmers: Controlling particle approach through magnetic and hydrodynamic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkati, Farshad; Cheang, U. Kei; Kim, Minjun; Fu, Henry

    2015-11-01

    We investigate magnetic microswimmers actuated by a rotating magnetic field that may be useful for drug delivery, micro-surgery, or diagnostics in human body. For modular swimmers, assembly and disassembly requires understanding the interactions between the swimmer and other modules in the fluid. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms for a frequency-dependent attraction/repulsion between a three-bead, achiral swimmer and other magnetic particles, which represent modular assembly elements. We first investigate the hydrodynamic interaction between a swimmer and nearby particle by studying the Lagrangian trajectories in the vicinity of the swimmer. Then we show that the magnetic forces can be attractive or repulsive depending on the spatial arrangement of the swimmer and particle, with a magnitude that decreases with increasing frequency. Combining magnetic and hydrodynamic effects allows us to understand the overall behavior of magnetic particles near the swimmer. Interestingly, we find that the frequency of rotation can be used to control when the particle can closely approach the swimmer, with potential application to assembly.

  7. Ridge Regression for Interactive Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory study of the value of ridge regression for interactive models is reported. Assuming that the linear terms in a simple interactive model are centered to eliminate non-essential multicollinearity, a variety of common models, representing both ordinal and disordinal interactions, are shown to have "orientations" that are…

  8. Chromatic patchy particles: Effects of specific interactions on liquid structure

    DOE PAGES

    Vasilyev, Oleg A.; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Klumov, Boris A.

    2015-07-13

    We study the structural and thermodynamic properties of patchy particle liquids, with a special focus on the role of “color,” i.e., specific interactions between individual patches. A possible experimental realization of such “chromatic” interactions is by decorating the particle patches with single-stranded DNA linkers. The complementarity of the linkers can promote selective bond formation between predetermined pairs of patches. By using MD simulations, we compare the local connectivity, the bond orientation order, and other structural properties of the aggregates formed by the “colored” and “colorless” systems. The analysis is done for spherical particles with two different patch arrangements (tetrahedral andmore » cubic). It is found that the aggregated (liquid) phase of the “colorless” patchy particles is better connected, denser and typically has stronger local order than the corresponding “colored” one. This, in turn, makes the colored liquid less stable thermodynamically. Specifically, we predict that in a typical case the chromatic interactions should increase the relative stability of the crystalline phase with respect to the disordered liquid, thus expanding its region in the phase diagram.« less

  9. Particle Simulations for Electron Beam-Plasma Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guo-cheng; G, Zhou C.; Li, Yang; Cao, Jin-bin; J, Cao B.; Wang, Xue-yi; X, Wang Y.

    1998-12-01

    The computer simulations of high-frequency instabilities excited by the high density electron beam and their nonlinear effect are presented. One-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations are performed with different values of the electron beam-to-plasma density ratio. The results show that for the high electron beam-to-background plasma density ratio, all the Langmuir waves and two electromagnetic waves with left-hand and right-hand circular polarizations (i.e., the "L-O mode" and the "R-X mode") propagating parallel to the magnetic field can be generated and the maximum values of wave electric fields are nearly the same. The electron beam and background plasma are diffused and a part of energetic background electrons are obviously accelerated by the wave-particle interactions. The heating of the beam and background plasma is mainly due to the electrostatic (Langmuir) wave-particle interactions, but the accelerations of a part of energetic background electrons may be mainly due to the electromagnetic wave-particle interactions.

  10. Chromatic patchy particles: Effects of specific interactions on liquid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Oleg A.; Klumov, Boris A.; Tkachenko, Alexei V.

    2015-07-01

    We study the structural and thermodynamic properties of patchy particle liquids, with a special focus on the role of "color," i.e., specific interactions between individual patches. A possible experimental realization of such "chromatic" interactions is by decorating the particle patches with single-stranded DNA linkers. The complementarity of the linkers can promote selective bond formation between predetermined pairs of patches. By using MD simulations, we compare the local connectivity, the bond orientation order, and other structural properties of the aggregates formed by the "colored" and "colorless" systems. The analysis is done for spherical particles with two different patch arrangements (tetrahedral and cubic). It is found that the aggregated (liquid) phase of the "colorless" patchy particles is better connected, denser and typically has stronger local order than the corresponding "colored" one. This, in turn, makes the colored liquid less stable thermodynamically. Specifically, we predict that in a typical case the chromatic interactions should increase the relative stability of the crystalline phase with respect to the disordered liquid, thus expanding its region in the phase diagram.

  11. Chromatic patchy particles: Effects of specific interactions on liquid structure

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilyev, Oleg A.; Tkachenko, Alexei V.; Klumov, Boris A.

    2015-07-13

    We study the structural and thermodynamic properties of patchy particle liquids, with a special focus on the role of “color,” i.e., specific interactions between individual patches. A possible experimental realization of such “chromatic” interactions is by decorating the particle patches with single-stranded DNA linkers. The complementarity of the linkers can promote selective bond formation between predetermined pairs of patches. By using MD simulations, we compare the local connectivity, the bond orientation order, and other structural properties of the aggregates formed by the “colored” and “colorless” systems. The analysis is done for spherical particles with two different patch arrangements (tetrahedral and cubic). It is found that the aggregated (liquid) phase of the “colorless” patchy particles is better connected, denser and typically has stronger local order than the corresponding “colored” one. This, in turn, makes the colored liquid less stable thermodynamically. Specifically, we predict that in a typical case the chromatic interactions should increase the relative stability of the crystalline phase with respect to the disordered liquid, thus expanding its region in the phase diagram.

  12. Particle interaction in oscillatory Couette and Poiseuille flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, Nima; Ingber, Marc; Vorobieff, Peter

    2013-11-01

    In oscillating Poiseuille flows of relatively dense suspensions, the direction of particle migration changes with the amplitude of oscillation. High amplitudes produce migration toward low shear rate regions of the flow, and vice versa, low oscillation amplitude results in particle migration toward the high shear rate region. We demonstrate that a similar behavior can be observed in a two-particle system, where it can be physically interpreted more easily, and discuss numerical modeling and experimental studies of oscillatory Poiseuille and Couette flows. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation and (in part) by a gift from the Procter & Gamble Company.

  13. Numerical modeling of the particle velocity and thermal relaxation behind passing shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedarev, I. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of a shock wave with a system of particles moving in a gas is studied by numerical simulation. The wave pattern of the unsteady interaction of the passing shock wave with these particles is described in detail. The mathematical model and computational procedure are verified against experimental data on the particle dynamics behind the shock wave. It is shown that the approximate single-particle model for calculating the velocity relaxation is unsuitable in the case of mutual influence of particles, where one particle is in the wind shadow of another.

  14. Space Particle Hazard Measurement and Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0120 TR-2016-0120 SPACE PARTICLE HAZARD MEASUREMENT AND MODELING Adrian Wheelock 01 September 2016 Final Report...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE...AND SUBTITLE Space Particle Hazard Measurement and Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S

  15. The PHOCUS Project: Particle Interactions in the Polar Summer Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbel, J.; Hedin, J.; Khaplanov, M.

    2012-12-01

    On the morning of July 21, 2011, the PHOCUS sounding rocket was launched from Esrange, Sweden, into strong noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) observed by the Esrange lidar and the ESRAD MST radar. The aim of the PHOCUS project (Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere) is to study mesospheric particles (ice and meteoric smoke) and their interaction with their neutral and charged environment. Starting out from first ideas in 2005, PHOCUS has developed into a comprehensive venture that connects to a number of new and renewed scientific questions. Interactions of interest comprise the charging and nucleation of particles, the relationship between meteoric smoke and ice, and the influence of these particles on gas-phase chemistry. This presentation gives an overview of the campaign and scientific results. The backbone of the campaign was a sounding rocket with 18 instruments from 8 scientific groups in Sweden, Norway, Germany, Austria and the USA. Atmospheric composition and ice particle properties were probed by a set of optical instruments from Stockholm University, in collaboration with the University in Trondheim. Exciting new instrument developments concerned microwave radiometers for in situ measurements of water vapour at 183 and 558 GHz by Chalmers University of Technology. Charged particles were probed by impact detectors from the University of Colorado, the University of Tromsø and the Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), complemented by direct particle sampling from Stockholm University. The neutral and charged background state of the atmosphere was quantified by the Technical University Graz, IAP, and the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. Important ground-based instrumentation included the Esrange lidar, the ESRAD MST radar, the SkiYMET meteor radar and EISCAT.

  16. Validity of the no-pumping theorem in systems with finite-range interactions between particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahav, Saar

    2017-01-01

    The no-pumping theorem states that seemingly natural driving cycles of stochastic machines fail to generate directed motion. Initially derived for single particle systems, the no-pumping theorem was recently extended to many-particle systems with zero-range interactions. Interestingly, it is known that the theorem is violated by systems with exclusion interactions. These two paradigmatic interactions differ by two qualitative aspects: the range of interactions and the dependence of branching fractions on the state of the system. In this work two different models are studied in order to identify the qualitative property of the interaction that leads to breakdown of no pumping. A model with finite-range interaction is shown analytically to satisfy no pumping. In contrast, a model in which the interaction affects the probabilities of reaching different sites, given that a particle is making a transition, is shown numerically to violate the no-pumping theorem. The results suggest that systems with interactions that lead to state-dependent branching fractions do not satisfy the no-pumping theorem.

  17. Characterization of the interactions within fine particle mixtures in highly concentrated suspensions for advanced particle processing.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Akira; Bryant, Gary

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to summarize recent investigations into the dispersion of fine particles, and the characterization of their interactions, in concentrated suspensions. This summary will provide a better understanding of the current status of this research, and will provide useful feedback for advanced particle processing. Such processes include the fabrication of functional nanostructures and the sustainable beneficiation of complex ores. For example, there has been increasing demand for complex ore utilization due to the noticeable decrease in the accessibility of high grade and easily extractable ores. In order to maintain the sustainable use of mineral resources, the effective beneficiation of complex ores is urgently required. It can be successfully achieved only with selective particle/mineral dispersion/liberation and the assistance of mineralogical and particle characterization.

  18. Interaction between biopolyelectrolytes and sparingly soluble mineral particles.

    PubMed

    Versluis, Peter; Popp, Alois K; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2011-01-04

    We investigate the complex physicochemical behavior of dispersions containing calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) particles, a sparingly soluble mineral salt; and carrageenans, negatively charged biopolyelectrolytes containing sulfate groups. We reveal that the carrageenans suspend and stabilize CaCO(3) particles in neutral systems by absorbing on the particle surface which provides electrosteric stabilization. In addition, carrageenans provide a weak apparent yield stress which keeps the particles suspended for several months. The absorption measurements of carrageenan on the CaCO(3) particle indicate that more carrageenan is removed from the solution than expected from the case of a simple monolayer adsorption. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations confirm that polyelectrolyte-containing precipitate is formed in both CaCO(3)-carrageenan and CaCl(2)-carrageenan mixtures. On the basis of these results, we confirm that in the presence of carrageenan some CaCO(3) dissolves and the Ca(2+) ions interact with the sulfate groups leading to aggregation and formation of particle-like structures. These new insights are important for fundamental understanding of other mineral-polyelectrolyte systems and have important implications for various industrial applications where calcium carbonate is used.

  19. Gas interaction effects on lunar bonded particles and their implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, N. R.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for an experimental investigation of gas-interaction effects on different Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 lunar-soil samples containing bonded particles. In the experiments, lunar fines were exposed to pure O2, pure water vapor, HCl, NH3, N2, HCOOH, and CH3NH2, in order to observe whether bonded particles would separate. In addition, repeated gas adsorption/desorption measurements were performed to determine the nature and reactive properties of the particle surfaces, and surface areas were measured for comparison with analogous terrestrial samples to determine whether the surface areas of highly radiation-damaged particles were larger or smaller. It is found that N2 is apparently ineffective in separating bonded particles and that the ratio of Apollo 11 to Apollo 12 bonded particles separated by a particular gas exposure ranges from 2.5 to 3.0. Possible reasons for differences in material surface properties at the two Apollo sites are considered, and it is concluded that material from a certain depth at some other site was transported to the Apollo 12 site and mixed with the original material in recent years (considerably less than 2000 years ago).

  20. SIMULATIONS OF ENERGETIC PARTICLES INTERACTING WITH DYNAMICAL MAGNETIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A. E-mail: husseinm@myumanitoba.ca

    2016-02-01

    We explore the transport of energetic particles in interplanetary space by using test-particle simulations. In previous work such simulations have been performed by using either magnetostatic turbulence or undamped propagating plasma waves. In the current paper we simulate for the first time particle transport in dynamical turbulence. To do so we employ two models, namely the damping model of dynamical turbulence and the random sweeping model. We compute parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and compare our numerical findings with solar wind observations. We show that good agreement can be found between simulations and the Palmer consensus range for both dynamical turbulence models if the ratio of turbulent magnetic field and mean field is δB/B{sub 0} = 0.5.

  1. Simulations of Energetic Particles Interacting with Dynamical Magnetic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A.

    2016-02-01

    We explore the transport of energetic particles in interplanetary space by using test-particle simulations. In previous work such simulations have been performed by using either magnetostatic turbulence or undamped propagating plasma waves. In the current paper we simulate for the first time particle transport in dynamical turbulence. To do so we employ two models, namely the damping model of dynamical turbulence and the random sweeping model. We compute parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and compare our numerical findings with solar wind observations. We show that good agreement can be found between simulations and the Palmer consensus range for both dynamical turbulence models if the ratio of turbulent magnetic field and mean field is δB/B0 = 0.5.

  2. Modeling of Fine-Particle Formation in Turbulent Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Venkat; Fox, Rodney O.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of nanostructured particles in high-temperature flames is important both for the control of emissions from combustion devices and for the synthesis of high-value chemicals for a variety of applications. The physiochemical processes that lead to the production of fine particles in turbulent flames are highly sensitive to the flow physics and, in particular, the history of thermochemical compositions and turbulent features they encounter. Consequently, it is possible to change the characteristic size, structure, composition, and yield of the fine particles by altering the flow configuration. This review describes the complex multiscale interactions among turbulent fluid flow, gas-phase chemical reactions, and solid-phase particle evolution. The focus is on modeling the generation of soot particles, an unwanted pollutant from automobile and aircraft engines, as well as metal oxides, a class of high-value chemicals sought for specialized applications, including emissions control. Issues arising due to the numerical methods used to approximate the particle number density function, the modeling of turbulence-chemistry interactions, and model validation are also discussed.

  3. Micromechanics of Ultrafine Particle Adhesion—Contact Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, Jürgen

    2009-06-01

    Ultrafine, dry, cohesive and compressible powders (particle diameter d<10 μm) show a wide variety of flow problems that cause insufficient apparatus and system reliability of processing plants. Thus, the understanding of the micromechanics of particle adhesion is essential to assess the product quality and to improve the process performance in particle technology. Comprehensive models are shown that describe the elastic-plastic force-displacement and frictional moment-angle behavior of adhesive contacts of isotropic smooth spheres. By the model stiff particles with soft contacts, a sphere-sphere interaction of van der Waals forces without any contact deformation describes the stiff attractive term. But, the soft micro-contact response generates a flattened contact, i.e. plate-plate interaction, and increasing adhesion. These increasing adhesion forces between particles directly depend on this frozen irreversible deformation. Thus, the adhesion force is found to be load dependent. It contributes to the tangential forces in an elastic-plastic frictional contact with partially sticking and micro-slip within the contact plane. The load dependent rolling resistance and torque of mobilized frictional contact rotation (spin around its principal axis) are also shown. This reasonable combination of particle contact micromechanics and powder continuum mechanics is used to model analytically the macroscopic friction limits of incipient powder consolidation, yield and cohesive steady-state shear flow on physical basis.

  4. DSD - A Particle Simulation Code for Modeling Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Glenn; Lampe, Martin; Ganguli, Gurudas

    1999-11-01

    The NRL Dynamically Shielded Dust code (DSD) is a particle simulation code developed to study the behavior of strongly coupled, dusty plasmas. The model includes the electrostatic wake effects of plasma ions flowing through plasma electrons, collisions of dust and plasma particles with each other and with neutrals. The simulation model contains the short-range strong forces of a shielded Coulomb system, and the long-range forces that are caused by the wake. It also includes other effects of a flowing plasma such as drag forces. In order to model strongly coupled dust in plasmas, we make use of the techniques of molecular dynamics simulation, PIC simulation, and the "particle-particle/particle-mesh" (P3M) technique of Hockney and Eastwood. We also make use of the dressed test particle representation of Rostoker and Rosenbluth. Many of the techniques we use in the model are common to all PIC plasma simulation codes. The unique properties of the code follow from the accurate representation of both the short-range aspects of the interaction between dust grains, and long-range forces mediated by the complete plasma dielectric response. If the streaming velocity is zero, the potential used in the model reduces to the Debye-Huckel potential, and the simulation is identical to molecular dynamics models of the Yukawa potential. The plasma appears only implicitly through the plasma dispersion function, so it is not necessary in the code to resolve the fast plasma time scales.

  5. Quantum particle interacting with a metallic particle: Spectra from quantum Langevin theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, W. M. Edmund; Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a nearby metallic particle on the quantum optical properties of a quantum particle in the four-level double Raman configuration is studied using the quantum Langevin approach. We obtain analytical expressions for the correlated quantum fields of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons emitted from the system and perform analysis on how the interparticle distance, the direction of observation or detection, the strengths of controllable laser fields, the presence of surface plasmon resonance, and the number density of the quantum particle affect the quantum spectra of the Stokes and anti-Stokes fields. We explore the physics behind the quantum-particle-metallic-nanoparticle interaction within the dipole approximation, that is, when the interparticle distance is much larger than the sizes of the particles. Our results show the dependence of the spectra on the interparticle distance in the form of oscillatory behavior with damping as the interparticle distance increases. At weaker laser fields the enhancement of quantum fields which manifests itself in the form of a Fano dip in the central peak of the spectra becomes significant. Also, the quantum-particle-metallic-nanoparticle coupling, which is affected by the size of the metallic nanoparticle and the number density of the quantum particle, changes the angular dependence of the spectra by breaking the angular rotational symmetry. In the presence of surface plasmon resonance the oscillatory dependence of the spectra on the interparticle distance and angles of observation becomes even stronger due to the plasmonic enhancement effect.

  6. Interaction of Particles and Turbulence in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer S.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Cuzzi, J. N.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The most widely accepted theories for the formation of the Solar system claim that small solid particles continue to settle into a thin layer at the midplane of the Solar nebula until it becomes gravitationally unstable and collapses directly into km-sized planetesimals. This scenario has been challenged on at least two grounds: (1) due to turbulence, the particles may not settle into a thin layer, and (2) a thin layer may not be unstable. The Solar nebula contains at least three sources of turbulence: radial shear, vertical shear, and thermal convection. The first of these is small and probably negligible, while the last is poorly understood. However, the second contribution is likely to be substantial. The particle-rich layer rotates at nearly the Keplerian speed, but the surrounding gaseous nebula rotates slower because it is partly supported by pressure. The resulting shear generates a turbulent boundary layer which stirs the particles away from the midplane, and forestalls gravitational instability. Our previous work used a 'zero-equation' (Prandtl) model to predict the intensity of shear-generated turbulence, and enabled us to demonstrate numerically that settling of particles to the midplane is self-limiting. However, we neglected the possibility that mass loading by particles might damp the turbulence. To explore this, we have developed a more sophisticated 'one-equation' model which incorporates local generation, transport, and dissipation of turbulence, as well as explicit damping of turbulence by particles. We also include a background level of global turbulence to represent other sources. Our results indicate that damping flattens the distribution of particles somewhat, but that background turbulence thickens the particle layer.

  7. Effects of hydrodynamic retardation and interparticle interactions on the self-assembly in a drying droplet containing suspended solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebovka, N. I.; Khrapatiy, S.; Melnyk, R.; Vygornitskii, M.

    2014-05-01

    Self-assembly of particles, suspended in a drying droplet, were studied by the Monte Carlo method. The Brownian diffusion of particles was simulated accounting for the effect of hydrodynamic retardation and interparticle interactions. The model allowed for explaining formation of the "coffee ring" patterns even without accounting for the radial flows towards the three-phase contact line. Morphologies of the drying patterns and their dependence on interparticle interactions and concentration of particles are discussed.

  8. On magnetic dipole-dipole interactions of nanoparticles in magnetic particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Them, Kolja

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic dipole-dipole (MDD) interactions between iron oxide nanoparticles can influence the sensitivity, image resolution and quantification of magnetic particle imaging (MPI). For the first time, the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation (LLG) for MDD interactions has been solved to investigate the effect of MDD interactions on the MPI spectrum. It was found that at concentrations above 39 mmol(Fe) l-1, MDD interactions significantly influence MPI spectra. This influence increases with increasing harmonics, which means first harmonics should be preferred for iron quantification. Since  ≈1018 particles are neglected in the LLG compared to in an MPI experiment, the calculated limit below which MDD interactions can be neglected is only a bound. The true limit is therefore below the calculated limit of 39 mmol(Fe) l-1, because all other neglected particles also contribute to deviations in the MPI spectra via MDD interactions. Therefore, a quantum mechanical bound on the influence of MDD interactions is calculated, including up to 1015 particles. Analysis of the bound as a function of the particle number provides a valuable insight into the influence of the large number of particles neglected in numerical simulations. Both results are compared with concentrations in biomedical MPI experiments. We conclude that the standard approximation of an absence of MDD interactions in MPI experiments must be handled more carefully. Our method of incorporating MDD interactions into the LLG can be easily implemented as part of model-based reconstruction to increase the sensitivity, image resolution and quantitative tracer detection during MPI.

  9. Kinetic double-layer model of aerosol surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions (K2-SURF): Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposed to O3, NO2, H2O, OH and NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Garland, Rebecca M.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    We present a kinetic double-layer surface model (K2-SURF) that describes the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on aerosol particles exposed to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, hydroxyl and nitrate radicals [1]. The model is based on multiple experimental studies of PAH degradation and on the Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann (PRA) framework [2] for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions. For a wide range of substrates, including solid and liquid organic and inorganic substances (soot, silica, sodium chloride, octanol/decanol, organic acids, etc.), the concentration- and time-dependence of the heterogeneous reaction between PAHs and O3 can be efficiently described with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism. Depending on the substrate material, the Langmuir adsorption constants for O3 vary over three orders of magnitude, and the second-order rate coefficients for the surface layer reaction of O3 with different PAH vary over two orders of magnitude. The available data indicate that the Langmuir adsorption constants for NO2 are similar to those of O3, while those of H2O are several orders of magnitude smaller. The desorption lifetimes and adsorption enthalpies suggest chemisorption of NO2 and O3 and physisorption of H2O. Note, however, that the exact reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps and possible intermediates still remain to be resolved (e.g., surface diffusion and formation of O atoms or O3- ions at the surface). The K2-SURF model enables the calculation of ozone uptake coefficients, γO3, and of PAH concentrations in the quasi-static particle surface layer. Competitive adsorption and chemical transformation of the surface (aging) lead to a strong non-linear dependence of γO3 on time and gas phase composition, with different characteristics under dilute atmospheric and concentrated laboratory conditions. Under typical ambient conditions, γO3 of PAH-coated aerosol particles are expected to be in the range of 10-6 - 10

  10. Kinetic double-layer model of aerosol surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions (K2-SURF): Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposed to O3, NO2, H2O, OH and NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, M.; Garland, R. M.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-12-01

    We present a kinetic double-layer surface model (K2-SURF) that describes the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on aerosol particles exposed to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. The model is based on multiple experimental studies of PAH degradation and on the PRA framework (Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007) for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions. For a wide range of substrates, including solid and liquid organic and inorganic substances (soot, silica, sodium chloride, octanol/decanol, organic acids, etc.), the concentration- and time-dependence of the heterogeneous reaction between PAHs and O3 can be efficiently described with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism. Depending on the substrate material, the Langmuir adsorption constants for O3 vary over three orders of magnitude (Kads,O3 ≍ 10-15-10-13 cm3), and the second-order rate coefficients for the surface layer reaction of O3 with different PAH vary over two orders of magnitude (kSLR,PAH,O3 ≍ 10-18-10-17 cm2 s-1). The available data indicate that the Langmuir adsorption constants for NO2 are similar to those of O3, while those of H2O are several orders of magnitude smaller (Kads,H2O ≍ 10-18-10-17 cm3). The desorption lifetimes and adsorption enthalpies inferred from the Langmuir adsorption constants suggest chemisorption of NO2 and O3 and physisorption of H2O. Note, however, that the exact reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps and possible intermediates still remain to be resolved (e.g., surface diffusion and formation of O atoms or O3- ions at the surface). The K2-SURF model enables the calculation of ozone uptake coefficients, γO3, and of PAH concentrations in the quasi-static particle surface layer. Competitive adsorption and chemical transformation of the surface (aging) lead to a strong non-linear dependence of γO3 on time and gas phase composition, with different characteristics under dilute atmospheric and

  11. Kinetic double-layer model of aerosol surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions (K2-SURF): degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposed to O3, NO2, H2O, OH and NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, M.; Garland, R. M.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-09-01

    We present a kinetic double-layer surface model (K2-SURF) that describes the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on aerosol particles exposed to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. The model is based on multiple experimental studies of PAH degradation and on the PRA framework (Pöschl et al., 2007) for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions. For a wide range of substrates, including solid and liquid organic and inorganic substances (soot, silica, sodium chloride, octanol/decanol, organic acids, etc.), the concentration- and time-dependence of the heterogeneous reaction between PAHs and O3 can be efficiently described with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism. Depending on the substrate material, the Langmuir adsorption constants for O3 vary over three orders of magnitude (Kads,O3≍10-15-10-13 cm3), and the second-order rate coefficients for the surface layer reaction of O3 with different PAH vary over two orders of magnitude (kSLR,PAH,O3≍10-18-10-17 cm2 s-1). The available data indicate that the Langmuir adsorption constants for NO2 are similar to those of O3, while those of H2O are several orders of magnitude smaller (Kads,H2O≍10-18-10-17 cm3). The desorption lifetimes and adsorption enthalpies inferred from the Langmuir adsorption constants suggest chemisorption of NO2 and O3 - possibly in the form of O atoms - and physisorption of H2O. The K2-SURF model enables the calculation of ozone uptake coefficients, γO3, and of PAH concentrations in the quasi-static particle surface layer. Competitive adsorption and chemical transformation of the surface (aging) lead to a strong non-linear dependence of γO3 on time and gas phase composition, with different characteristics under dilute atmospheric and concentrated laboratory conditions. Under typical ambient conditions, γO3 of PAH-coated aerosol particles are expected to be in the range of 10-6-10-5. At ambient temperatures, NO2 alone

  12. Modelling Positron Interactions with Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; White, R.; Buckman, S.

    2011-05-01

    In this work we link fundamental measurements of positron interactions with biomolecules, with the development of computer codes for positron transport and track structure calculations. We model positron transport in a medium from a knowledge of the fundamental scattering cross section for the atoms and molecules comprising the medium, combined with a transport analysis based on statistical mechanics and Monte-Carlo techniques. The accurate knowledge of the scattering is most important at low energies, a few tens of electron volts or less. The ultimate goal of this work is to do this in soft condensed matter, with a view to ultimately developing a dosimetry model for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The high-energy positrons first emitted by a radionuclide in PET may well be described by standard formulas for energy loss of charged particles in matter, but it is incorrect to extrapolate these formulas to low energies. Likewise, using electron cross-sections to model positron transport at these low energies has been shown to be in serious error due to the effects of positronium formation. Work was supported by the Australian Research Council, the Serbian Government, and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain.

  13. Probing the Pathways and Interactions Controlling Crystallization by Particle Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Yoreo, J. J.; Li, D.; Chun, J.; Schenter, G.; Mundy, C.; Rosso, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Crystallization by particle attachment appears to be a widespread mechanism of mineralization. Yet many long-standing questions surrounding nucleation and assembly of precursor particles remain unanswered, due in part to a lack of tools to probe mineralization dynamics with adequate spatial and temporal resolution. Here we report results of liquid phase TEM studies of nucleation and particle assembly in a number of mineral systems. We interpret the results within a framework that considers the impact of both the complexity of free energy landscapes and kinetic factors associated with high supersaturation or slow dynamics. In the calcium carbonate system, the need for high supersturations to overcome the high barrier to nucleation of calcite leads to simultaneous occurrence of multiple pathways, including direct formation of all the common ploymorphs, as well as two-step pathways through which initial precursors, particularly ACC, undergo a direct transformation to a more stable phase. Introduction of highly charged polymers that bind calcium inhibits nucleation, but directs the pathway to a metastable amorphous phase that no longer transforms to more stable polymorphs. Experiments in the iron oxide and oxyhydroxide systems show that, when high supersaturations lead to nucleation of many nanoprticles, further growth occurs through a combination of particle aggregation events and Ostwald ripening. In some cases, aggregation occurs only through oriented attachment on lattice matched faces, leading to single crystals with complex topologies and internal twin boundaries, while in others aggregation results initially in poor co-alignment, but over time the particles undergo atomic rearrangements to achieve a single crystal structure. AFM-based measurements of forces between phyllosilicate surfaces reveal the importance of long-range dispersion interactions in driving alignment, as well as the impact of electrolyte concentration and temperature on the competition of those

  14. Atypical energetic particle events observed prior energetic particle enhancements associated with corotating interaction regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabarova, Olga; Malandraki, Olga; Zank, Gary; Jackson, Bernard; Bisi, Mario; Desai, Mihir; Li, Gang; le Roux, Jakobus; Yu, Hsiu-Shan

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies of mechanisms of particle acceleration in the heliosphere have revealed the importance of the comprehensive analysis of stream-stream interactions as well as the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) - stream interactions that often occur in the solar wind, producing huge magnetic cavities bounded by strong current sheets. Such cavities are usually filled with small-scale magnetic islands that trap and re-accelerate energetic particles (Zank et al. ApJ, 2014, 2015; le Roux et al. ApJ, 2015, 2016; Khabarova et al. ApJ, 2015, 2016). Crossings of these regions are associated with unusual variations in the energetic particle flux up to several MeV/nuc near the Earth's orbit. These energetic particle flux enhancements called "atypical energetic particle events" (AEPEs) are not associated with standard mechanisms of particle acceleration. The analysis of multi-spacecraft measurements of energetic particle flux, plasma and the interplanetary magnetic field shows that AEPEs have a local origin as they are observed by different spacecraft with a time delay corresponding to the solar wind propagation from one spacecraft to another, which is a signature of local particle acceleration in the region embedded in expanding and rotating background solar wind. AEPEs are often observed before the arrival of corotating interaction regions (CIRs) or stream interaction regions (SIRs) to the Earth's orbit. When fast solar wind streams catch up with slow solar wind, SIRs of compressed heated plasma or more regular CIRs are created at the leading edge of the high-speed stream. Since coronal holes are often long-lived structures, the same CIR re-appears often for several consecutive solar rotations. At low heliographic latitudes, such CIRs are typically bounded by forward and reverse waves on their leading and trailing edges, respectively, that steepen into shocks at heliocentric distances beyond 1 AU. Energetic ion increases have been frequently observed in association with CIR

  15. Modeling transport and aggregation of volcanic ash particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Antonio; Folch, Arnau; Macedonio, Giovanni; Durant, Adam

    2010-05-01

    A complete description of ash aggregation processes in volcanic clouds is an very arduous task and the full coupling of ash transport and ash aggregation models is still computationally prohibitive. A large fraction of fine ash injected in the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate because of complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in settling velocities. The formation of aggregates of size and density different from those of the primary particles dramatically changes the sedimentation dynamics and results in lower atmospheric residence times of ash particles and in the formation of secondary maxima of tephra deposit. Volcanic ash transport models should include a full aggregation model accounting for all particle class interaction. However this approach would require prohibitive computational times. Here we present a simplified model for wet aggregation that accounts for both atmospheric and volcanic water transport. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average efficiencies factors, and collision frequency functions accounting for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, such as the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. Moreover, understanding aggregation processes in volcanic clouds will contribute to mitigate the risks related with volcanic ash transport and sedimentation.

  16. [Research in elementary particles and interactions]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.

    1992-05-01

    Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.

  17. Quantum breathing mode of interacting particles in harmonic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Sebastian; Hochstuhl, David; Balzer, Karsten; Bonitz, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The breathing mode - the uniform radial expansion and contraction of a system of interacting particles - is analyzed. Extending our previous work [Bauch et al 2009 Phys. Rev. B. 80 054515] we present a systematic analysis of the breathing mode for fermions with an inverse power law interaction potential w(r) ~ r-dwith d = 1,2,3 in the whole range of coupling parameters. The results thus cover the range from the ideal "gas" to the Wigner crystal-like state. In addition to exact results for two particles obtained from a solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation we present results for N = 4,6 from multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock simulations.

  18. A mechanistic interpretation of the resonant wave-particle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chim, Chi Yung; O'Neil, Thomas M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides a simple mechanistic interpretation of the resonant wave-particle interaction of Landau. For the simple case of a Langmuir wave in a Vlasov plasma, the non-resonant electrons satisfy an oscillator equation that is driven resonantly by the bare electric field from the resonant electrons, and in the case of wave damping, this complex driver field is of a phase to reduce the oscillation amplitude. The wave-particle resonant interaction also occurs in waves governed by 2D E × B drift dynamics, such as a diocotron wave. In this case, the bare electric field from the resonant electrons causes E × B drift motion back in the core plasma, reducing the amplitude of the wave.

  19. A mechanistic interpretation of the resonant wave-particle interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chim, Chi Yung; O'Neil, Thomas M.

    2016-05-15

    This paper provides a simple mechanistic interpretation of the resonant wave-particle interaction of Landau. For the simple case of a Langmuir wave in a Vlasov plasma, the non-resonant electrons satisfy an oscillator equation that is driven resonantly by the bare electric field from the resonant electrons, and in the case of wave damping, this complex driver field is of a phase to reduce the oscillation amplitude. The wave-particle resonant interaction also occurs in waves governed by 2D E × B drift dynamics, such as a diocotron wave. In this case, the bare electric field from the resonant electrons causes E × B drift motion back in the core plasma, reducing the amplitude of the wave.

  20. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alpha particle heating at comet-solar wind interaction regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, A. S.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1995-01-01

    The satellite observations at comet Halley have shown strong heating of solar wind alpha particles over an extended region dominated by high-intensity, low-frequency turbulence. These waves are excited by the water group pickup ions and can energize the solar wind plasma by different heating processes. The alpha particle heating by the Landau damping of kinetic Alfven waves and the transit time damping of low-frequency hydromagnetic waves in this region of high plasma beta are studied in this paper. The Alfven wave heating was shown to be the dominant mechanism for the observed proton heating, but it is found to be insufficient to account for the observed alpha particle heating. The transit time damping due to the interaction of the ions with the electric fields associated with the magnetic field compressions of magnetohydrodynamic waves is found to heat the alpha particles preferentially over the protons. Comparison of the calculated heating times for the transit time damping with the observations from comet Halley shows good agreement. These processes contribute to the thermalization of the solar wind by the conversion of its directed energy into the thermal energy in the transition region at comet-solar wind interaction.

  2. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  3. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  4. Role of Polymer Segment-Particle Surface Interactions in Controlling Nanoparticle Dispersions in Concentrated Polymer Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, So Youn; Zukoski, Charles F.

    2014-09-24

    The microstructure of particles suspended in concentrated polymer solutions is examined with small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. Of interest are changes to long wavelength particle density fluctuations in ternary mixtures of silica nanoparticles suspended in concentrated solutions of poly(ethylene glycol). The results are understood in terms of application of the pseudo-two-component polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory modified to account for solvent addition via effective contact strength of interfacial attraction, εpc, in an implicit manner. The combined experimental-theoretical study emphasizes the complex interactions between solvent, polymer, and particle surface that control particle miscibility but also demonstrate that these factors can all be understood in terms of variations of εpc.

  5. Sideband growth in nonlinear Landau wave-particle interaction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinca, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    The distortion of the electron velocity distribution caused by a large amplitude Landau wave is determined analytically for the initial-value problem. The resulting stability of electrostatic perturbations impressed on the evolving plasma is studied. Narrow sidebands of the applied frequency experience consecutive growths of large magnitude during the early stages of the nonlinear wave-particle interaction. The significance of the derived results to both wave propagation experiments and triggered VLF emissions in the magnetosphere is discussed.

  6. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory for Personal Computers and Workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, G. H.; Hill, B.; Brown, N.; Martono, H.; Moore, J.; Babcock, C.

    1997-05-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is a new software concept to aid both students and professionals in modeling charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab has been designed to run on several computer platforms and includes four key elements: a graphic user interface shell; (2) a knowledge database on electric and magnetic optics elements, including interactive tutorials on the physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware; (3) a graphic construction kit for users to interactively and visually construct optical beam lines; and (4) a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute transport matrices, beam envelopes and trajectories, fit parameters to optical constraints, and carry out similar calculations for the graphically-defined beam lines. The primary computational engines in the first generation PBO Lab are the third-order TRANSPORT code, the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE, and a new first-order matrix code that includes an envelope space charge model with support for calculating single trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. Progress on the PBO Lab development is described and a demonstration will be given.

  7. Fluctuations of absorption of interacting diffusing particles by multiple absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranov, Tal; Meerson, Baruch

    2017-06-01

    We study fluctuations of particle absorption by a three-dimensional domain with multiple absorbing patches. The domain is in contact with a gas of interacting diffusing particles. This problem is motivated by living cell sensing via multiple receptors distributed over the cell surface. Employing the macroscopic fluctuation theory, we calculate the covariance matrix of the particle absorption by different patches, extending previous works which addressed fluctuations of a single current. We find a condition when the sign of correlations between different patches is fully determined by the transport coefficients of the gas and is independent of the problem's geometry. We show that the fluctuating particle flux field typically develops vorticity. We establish a simple connection between the statistics of particle absorption by all the patches combined and the statistics of current in a nonequilibrium steady state in one dimension. We also discuss connections between the absorption statistics and (i) statistics of electric currents in multiterminal diffusive conductors and (ii) statistics of wave transmission through disordered media with multiple absorbers.

  8. Tensor interaction contributions to single-particle energies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B. A.; Duguet, T.; Otsuka, T.; Abe, D.; Suzuki, T.

    2006-12-15

    We calculate the contribution of the nucleon-nucleon tensor interaction to single-particle energies with finite-range G-matrix potentials and with zero-range Skyrme potentials. The Skx Skyrme parameters including the zero-range tensor terms with strengths calibrated to the finite-range results are refitted to nuclear properties. The fit allows the zero-range proton-neutron tensor interaction as calibrated to the finite-range potential results which gives the observed change in the single-particle gap {epsilon}(h{sub 11/2})-{epsilon}(g{sub 7/2}) going from {sup 114}Sn to {sup 132}Sn. However, the experimental l dependence of the spin-orbit splittings in {sup 132}Sn and {sup 208}Pb is not well described when the tensor is added, owing to a change in the radial dependence of the total spin-orbit potential. The gap shift and a good fit to the l dependence can be recovered when the like-particle tensor interaction is opposite in sign to that required for the G matrix.

  9. Cell (A549)-particle (Jasada Bhasma) interactions using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pyrgiotakis, G; Bhowmick, T K; Finton, K; Suresh, A K; Kane, S G; Bellare, J R; Moudgil, B M

    2008-06-01

    Current methods for the evaluation of cell interactions with particles are nonspecific, slow, and invasive to the cells. Raman spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique, and is used in the present study to investigate particle-cell interactions. The main focus of the present study is to employ Raman spectroscopy for investigating the interaction of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) with the particulate system Jasada Bhasma, a traditional Indian medicine. Jasada Bhasma is a unique preparation of zinc and is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases like diabetes, age-related eye diseases, and as a health promotional tonic. The Raman spectral analysis is executed by identifying the difference in intracellular DNA/RNA, and proteins and lipids concentration between particles--treated and untreated cells. Comparison between Bhasma-treated and -untreated cells indicates that vibrational peaks corresponding to the DNA/RNA molecule show a significant increase in cells treated with the Jasada Bhasma. Apart from the DNA molecule, several other vibrational peaks related to the protein molecules also show a significant increase in A549 cells after treatment with Bhasma. These results indicate that Bhasma treatment of A549 possibly delays DNA degradation and enables retention of higher amount of protein molecules in the cells.

  10. Probabilistic Solar Energetic Particle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Dietrich, William F.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    To plan and design safe and reliable space missions, it is necessary to take into account the effects of the space radiation environment. This is done by setting the goal of achieving safety and reliability with some desired level of confidence. To achieve this goal, a worst-case space radiation environment at the required confidence level must be obtained. Planning and designing then proceeds, taking into account the effects of this worst-case environment. The result will be a mission that is reliable against the effects of the space radiation environment at the desired confidence level. In this paper we will describe progress toward developing a model that provides worst-case space radiation environments at user-specified confidence levels. We will present a model for worst-case event-integrated solar proton environments that provide the worst-case differential proton spectrum. This model is based on data from IMP-8 and GOES spacecraft that provide a data base extending from 1974 to the present. We will discuss extending this work to create worst-case models for peak flux and mission-integrated fluence for protons. We will also describe plans for similar models for helium and heavier ions.

  11. The Classical Theory of Light Colors: a Paradigm for Description of Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazilu, Nicolae; Agop, Maricel; Gatu, Irina; Iacob, Dan Dezideriu; Butuc, Irina; Ghizdovat, Vlad

    2016-06-01

    The color is an interaction property: of the interaction of light with matter. Classically speaking it is therefore akin to the forces. But while forces engendered the mechanical view of the world, the colors generated the optical view. One of the modern concepts of interaction between the fundamental particles of matter - the quantum chromodynamics - aims to fill the gap between mechanics and optics, in a specific description of strong interactions. We show here that this modern description of the particle interactions has ties with both the classical and quantum theories of light, regardless of the connection between forces and colors. In a word, the light is a universal model in the description of matter. The description involves classical Yang-Mills fields related to color.

  12. Surface charge features of kaolinite particles and their interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vishal

    Kaolinite is both a blessing and a curse. As an important industrial mineral commodity, kaolinite clays are extensively used in the paper, ceramic, paint, plastic and rubber industries. In all these applications the wettability, aggregation, dispersion, flotation and thickening of kaolinite particles are affected by its crystal structure and surface properties. It is therefore the objective of this research to investigate selected physical and surface chemical properties of kaolinite, specifically the surface charge of kaolinite particles. A pool of advanced analytical techniques such as XRD, XRF, SEM, AFM, FTIR and ISS were utilized to investigate the morphological and surface chemistry features of kaolinite. Surface force measurements revealed that the silica tetrahedral face of kaolinite is negatively charged at pH>4, whereas the alumina octahedral face of kaolinite is positively charged at pH<6, and negatively charged at pH>8. Based on electrophoresis measurements, the apparent iso-electric point for kaolinite particles was determined to be less than pH 3. In contrast, the point of zero charge was determined to be pH 4.5 by titration techniques, which corresponds to the iso-electric point of between pH 4 and 5 as determined by surface force measurements. Results from kaolinite particle interactions indicate that the silica face--alumina face interaction is dominant for kaolinite particle aggregation at low and intermediate pH values, which explains the maximum shear yield stress at pH 5-5.5. Lattice resolution images reveal the hexagonal lattice structure of these two face surfaces of kaolinite. Analysis of the silica face of kaolinite showed that the center of the hexagonal ring of oxygen atoms is vacant, whereas the alumina face showed that the hexagonal surface lattice ring of hydroxyls surround another hydroxyl in the center of the ring. High resolution transmission electron microscopy investigation of kaolinite has indicated that kaolinite is indeed

  13. Polarizable protein model for Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Emanuel; Lykov, Kirill; Pivkin, Igor

    2015-11-01

    In this talk, we present a novel polarizable protein model for the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation technique, a coarse-grained particle-based method widely used in modeling of fluid systems at the mesoscale. We employ long-range electrostatics and Drude oscillators in combination with a newly developed polarizable water model. The protein in our model is resembled by a polarizable backbone and a simplified representation of the sidechains. We define the model parameters using the experimental structures of 2 proteins: TrpZip2 and TrpCage. We validate the model on folding of five other proteins and demonstrate that it successfully predicts folding of these proteins into their native conformations. As a perspective of this model, we will give a short outlook on simulations of protein aggregation in the bulk and near a model membrane, a relevant process in several Amyloid diseases, e.g. Alzheimer's and Diabetes II.

  14. Multiscale Modeling of Particles Embedded in High Speed Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Sean; Sen, Oishik; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2015-06-01

    Problems involving propagation of shock waves through a cloud of particles are inherently multiscale. The system scale is governed by macro-scale conservation equations, which average over solid and fluid phases. The averaging process results in source terms that represent the unresolved momentum exchange between the solid phase and the fluid phase. Typically, such source terms are modeled using empirical correlations derived from physical experiments conducted in a limited parameter space. The focus of the current research is to advance the multiscale modeling of shocked particle-laden gas flows; particle- (i.e. meso-)scale computations are performed to resolve the dynamics of ensembles of particles and closure laws are obtained from the meso-scale for use in the macro-scale equations. Closure models are constructed from meso-scale simulations using the Dynamic Kriging method. The presentation will demonstrate the multiscale approach by connecting meso-scale simulations to an Eulerian-Lagrangian macro-scale model of particle laden flows. The technique is applied to study shock interactions with particle curtains in shock tubes and the results are compared with experimental data in such systems. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant Number FA9550-12-1-0115 and the National Science Foundation under grant number DMS-115631.

  15. Secondary Cosmic Ray Particles Due to GCR Interactions in the Earth's Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Cerutti, F.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Garzelli, M.V.; Lantz, M.; Muraro, S. Pinsky, L.S.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P.R.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan

    2009-06-16

    Primary GCR interact with the Earth's atmosphere originating atmospheric showers, thus giving rise to fluxes of secondary particles in the atmosphere. Electromagnetic and hadronic interactions interplay in the production of these particles, whose detection is performed by means of complementary techniques in different energy ranges and at different depths in the atmosphere, down to the Earth's surface. Monte Carlo codes are essential calculation tools which can describe the complexity of the physics of these phenomena, thus allowing the analysis of experimental data. However, these codes are affected by important uncertainties, concerning, in particular, hadronic physics at high energy. In this paper we shall report some results concerning inclusive particle fluxes and atmospheric shower properties as obtained using the FLUKA transport and interaction code. Some emphasis will also be given to the validation of the physics models of FLUKA involved in these calculations.

  16. Particle interactions in kaolinite suspensions and corresponding aggregate structures.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Hampton, Marc A; Stokes, Jason R; Nguyen, Anh V; Miller, Jan D

    2011-07-01

    The surface charge densities of the silica face surface and the alumina face surface of kaolinite particles, recently determined from surface force measurements using atomic force microscopy, show a distinct dependence on the pH of the system. The silica face was found to be negatively charged at pH>4, whereas the alumina face surface was found to be positively charged at pH<6, and negatively charged at pH>8. The surface charge densities of the silica face and the alumina face were utilized in this study to determine the interaction energies between different surfaces of kaolinite particles. Results indicate that the silica face-alumina face interaction is dominant for kaolinite particle aggregation at low pH. This face-face association increases the stacking of kaolinite layers, and thereby promotes the edge-face (edge-silica face and edge-alumina face) and face-face (silica face-alumina face) associations with increasing pH, and hence the maximum shear-yield stress at pH 5-5.5. With further increase in pH, the face-face and edge-face association decreases due to increasing surface charge density on the silica face and the edge surfaces, and decreasing surface charge density on the alumina face. At high pH, all kaolinite surfaces become negatively charged, kaolinite particles are dispersed, and the suspension is stabilized. The face-face association at low pH has been confirmed from cryo-SEM images of kaolinite aggregates taken from suspension which show that the particles are mostly organized in a face-face and edge-face manner. At higher pH conditions, the cryo-SEM images of the kaolinite aggregates reveal a lower degree of consolidation and the edge-edge association is evident.

  17. Interactive Visual Analysis within Dynamic Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkiewicz, T.

    2012-12-01

    The many observation and simulation based ocean models available today can provide crucial insights for all fields of marine research and can serve as valuable references when planning data collection missions. However, the increasing size and complexity of these models makes leveraging their contents difficult for end users. Through a combination of data visualization techniques, interactive analysis tools, and new hardware technologies, the data within these models can be made more accessible to domain scientists. We present an interactive system that supports exploratory visual analysis within large-scale ocean flow models. The currents and eddies within the models are illustrated using effective, particle-based flow visualization techniques. Stereoscopic displays and rendering methods are employed to ensure that the user can correctly perceive the complex 3D structures of depth-dependent flow patterns. Interactive analysis tools are provided which allow the user to experiment through the introduction of their customizable virtual dye particles into the models to explore regions of interest. A multi-touch interface provides natural, efficient interaction, with custom multi-touch gestures simplifying the otherwise challenging tasks of navigating and positioning tools within a 3D environment. We demonstrate the potential applications of our visual analysis environment with two examples of real-world significance: Firstly, an example of using customized particles with physics-based behaviors to simulate pollutant release scenarios, including predicting the oil plume path for the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster. Secondly, an interactive tool for plotting and revising proposed autonomous underwater vehicle mission pathlines with respect to the surrounding flow patterns predicted by the model; as these survey vessels have extremely limited energy budgets, designing more efficient paths allows for greater survey areas.

  18. Wave particle interactions in Jupiter's magnetosphere: Implications for auroral and magnetospheric particle distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Joachim; Schreiner, Anne; Barry, Mauk; Clark, George; Kollman, Peter

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the occurrence and the role of wave particle interaction processes, i.e., Landau and cyclotron damping, in Jupiter's magnetosphere. Therefore we calculate kinetic length and temporal scales, which we cross-compare at various regions within Jupiter's magnetosphere. Based on these scales, we investigate the roles of possible wave particle mechanisms in each region, e.g., Jupiter's plasma sheet, the auroral acceleration region and the polar ionosphere. We thereby consider that the magnetospheric regions are coupled through convective transport, Alfven and other wave modes. We particularly focus on the role of kinetic Alfven waves in contributing to Jupiter's aurora. Our results will aid the interpretation of particle distribution functions measured by the JEDI instrument onboard the JUNO spacecraft.

  19. Monte Carlo modeling of radiative heat transfer in particle-laden flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farbar, Erin; Boyd, Iain D.; Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations are applied to model radiative heat transfer in a dispersed particle phase exhibiting preferential concentration typical of a turbulent, particle-laden flow environment. The dispersed phase is composed of micron-sized nickel particles, and the carrier phase is non-participating. The simulations are performed for a snapshot of the particle field using the Monte Carlo Ray Tracing method, and the spectral dependence of the optical properties is considered. Interaction between the particles and radiation is modeled by projecting the particle locations onto an Eulerian mesh. Results show that the optically thin approximation results in errors in predicted particle heat transfer of up to 35% at some locations in the particle field. Oxidation is shown to change the absorption efficiency of the particles significantly, while consideration of non-spherical particle shapes results in relatively small changes in the predicted optical properties of the particles.

  20. Cache Allocation in CDN: An Evolutionary Game Generalized Particle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiang; Lau, Francis C. M.; Gao, Daqi

    Content distribution networks (CDNs) increasingly have been used to reduce the response times experienced by Internet users through placing surrogates close to the clients. This paper presents an object replacement approach based on an evolutionary game generalized particle model (G-GPM). We first propose a problem model for CDNs. The CDN model is then fit into a gravitational field. The origin servers and surrogates are regarded as two kinds of particles which are located in two force-fields. The cache allocation problem is thus transformed into the kinematics and dynamics of the particles in the annular and the round force-fields. The G-GPM approach is unique in four aspects: 1) direct viewing of individual and overall optimization; 2) parallel computing (lower time complexity); 3) multi-objective solution; and 4) being able to deal with some social interactions behaviors.

  1. Modeling nanoscale hydrodynamics by smoothed dissipative particle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Huan; Mundy, Christopher J.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Voulgarakis, Nikolaos

    2015-05-21

    Thermal fluctuation and hydrophobicity are two hallmarks of fluid hydrodynamics on the nano-scale. It is a challenge to consistently couple the small length and time scale phenomena associated with molecular interaction with larger scale phenomena. The development of this consistency is the essence of mesoscale science. In this study, we develop a nanoscale fluid model based on smoothed dissipative particle dynamics that accounts for the phenomena of associated with density fluctuations and hydrophobicity. We show consistency in the fluctuation spectrum across scales. In doing so, it is necessary to account for finite fluid particle size. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the present model can capture of the void probability and solvation free energy of apolar particles of different sizes. The present fluid model is well suited for a understanding emergent phenomena in nano-scale fluid systems.

  2. Mental Models in Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Santamaria, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors introduce a new way to analyze cognitive change during social interactions, based on the mental model theory of reasoning. From this approach, cognitive performance can be improved for solving problems that require multiple models when participants in a social interaction group maintain qualitatively different models of…

  3. Euler-Lagrange Simulations of Particle Interactions with Coherent Vortices in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Fernando; Naqvi, Iftekhar; Squires, Kyle; Piomelli, Ugo

    2009-11-01

    The overarching interest of the current investigations is numerical modeling of particle entrainment and deposition near sandy beds as relevant to the problem of rotorcraft brownout. Numerical simulations are being performed using an Euler-Lagrange method. Solution of the incompressible gas-phase flow field is accomplished using a fractional-step numerical method; the particulate phase is advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The particular flow field of interest models a rotor wake and is comprised of coherent vortices embedded in a turbulent boundary layer. The particles, once suspended, interact with the coherent wake vortices characterizing the rotor flow, and with the finer scale turbulence generated near the ground. The primary objectives are two-flow. First, to gain insight into the particle-vortex dynamics that influence transport near the bed and, second, to advance understanding of the mesoscopic particle velocity field. The latter objective requires very large particle ensembles in order to recover an Eulerian description of the particle field, important to advancing other simulation strategies for two-phase flows. Predictions of the flows for a range of particle and flow parameters will be presented.

  4. Understanding particle size and distance driven competition of interparticle interactions and effective single-particle anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacakova, B.; Mantlikova, A.; Niznansky, D.; Kubickova, S.; Vejpravova, J.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic response of single-domain nanoparticles (NPs) in concentrated systems is strongly affected by mutual interparticle interactions. However, particle proximity significantly influences single-particle effective anisotropy. To solve which of these two phenomena plays a dominant role in the magnetic response of real NP systems, systematic study on samples with well-defined parameters is required. In our work, we prepared a series of nanocomposites constituted of highly-crystalline and well-isolated CoFe2O4 NPs embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix using a single-molecule precursor method. This preparation method enabled us to reach a wide interval of particle size and concentration. We observed that the characteristic parameters of the single-domain state (coercivity, blocking temperature) and dipole-dipole interaction energy ({{E}\\text{d-\\text{d}}} ) scaled with each other and increased with increasing {{≤ft({{d}\\text{XRD}}/r\\right)}3} , where d XRD was the NP diameter and r was the interparticle distance. Our results are in excellent agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations of the particle growth. Moreover, we demonstrated that the contribution of {{E}\\text{d-\\text{d}}} acting as an additional energetic barrier to the superspin reversal or as an average static field did not sufficiently explain how the concentrated NP systems responded to an external magnetic field. Alternations in the blocking temperature and coercivity of our NP systems accounted for reformed relaxations of the NP superspins and modified effective anisotropy energy of the interacting NPs. Therefore, the concept of modified NP effective anisotropy explains the magnetic response of our concentrated NP systems better than the concept of the energy barrier influenced by interparticle interactions.

  5. Model of Image Artifacts from Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, Reg

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of image artifacts produced by dust particles on lenses has been derived. Machine-vision systems often have to work with camera lenses that become dusty during use. Dust particles on the front surface of a lens produce image artifacts that can potentially affect the performance of a machine-vision algorithm. The present model satisfies a need for a means of synthesizing dust image artifacts for testing machine-vision algorithms for robustness (or the lack thereof) in the presence of dust on lenses. A dust particle can absorb light or scatter light out of some pixels, thereby giving rise to a dark dust artifact. It can also scatter light into other pixels, thereby giving rise to a bright dust artifact. For the sake of simplicity, this model deals only with dark dust artifacts. The model effectively represents dark dust artifacts as an attenuation image consisting of an array of diffuse darkened spots centered at image locations corresponding to the locations of dust particles. The dust artifacts are computationally incorporated into a given test image by simply multiplying the brightness value of each pixel by a transmission factor that incorporates the factor of attenuation, by dust particles, of the light incident on that pixel. With respect to computation of the attenuation and transmission factors, the model is based on a first-order geometric (ray)-optics treatment of the shadows cast by dust particles on the image detector. In this model, the light collected by a pixel is deemed to be confined to a pair of cones defined by the location of the pixel s image in object space, the entrance pupil of the lens, and the location of the pixel in the image plane (see Figure 1). For simplicity, it is assumed that the size of a dust particle is somewhat less than the diameter, at the front surface of the lens, of any collection cone containing all or part of that dust particle. Under this assumption, the shape of any individual dust particle artifact

  6. Dispersive approaches for three-particle final state interaction

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Peng; Danilkin, Igor V.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-10-30

    In this work, we presented different representations of Khuri-Treiman equation, the advantage and disadvantage of each representations are discussed. With a scattering amplitude toy model, we also studied the sensitivity of solution of KT equation to left-hand cut of toy model and to the different approximate methods. At last, we give a brief discussion of Watson's theorem when three particles in final states are involved.

  7. Dispersive approaches for three-particle final state interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Peng; Danilkin, Igor V.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-10-30

    In this work, we presented different representations of Khuri-Treiman equation, the advantage and disadvantage of each representations are discussed. With a scattering amplitude toy model, we also studied the sensitivity of solution of KT equation to left-hand cut of toy model and to the different approximate methods. At last, we give a brief discussion of Watson's theorem when three particles in final states are involved.

  8. Influence of dipolar interactions on hyperthermia properties of ferromagnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serantes, D.; Baldomir, D.; Martinez-Boubeta, C.; Simeonidis, K.; Angelakeris, M.; Natividad, E.; Castro, M.; Mediano, A.; Chen, D.-X.; Sanchez, A.; Balcells, LI.; Martínez, B.

    2010-10-01

    We show both experimental evidences and Monte Carlo modeling of the effects of interparticle dipolar interactions on the hysteresis losses. Results indicate that an increase in the intensity of dipolar interactions produce a decrease in the magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis losses, thus diminishing the hyperthermia output. These findings may have important clinical implications for cancer treatment.

  9. Dispersive approaches for three-particle final state interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peng; Danilkin, I. V.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we present different representations of the Khuri-Treiman equation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each representation. In particular we focus on the inversion technique proposed by Pasquier, which, even though developed a long time ago, has not been used in modern analyses of data on three particle decays. We apply the method to a toy model and compare the sensitivity of this and alternative solution methods to the left-hand cut contribution. We also discuss the meaning and applicability of Watson's theorem when three particles in final states are involved.

  10. Growth of the interaction layer around fuel particles in dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, D.

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion of uranium particles in dispersion fuel by the aluminum matrix produces interaction layers (an intermetallic-compound corrosion product) around the shrinking fuel spheres. The rate of this process was modeled as series resistances due to Al diffusion through the interaction layer and reaction of aluminum with uranium in the fuel particle to produce UAl x. The overall kinetics are governed by the relative rates of these two steps, the slowest of which is reaction at the interface between Al in the interaction layer and U in the fuel particle. The substantial volume change as uranium is transferred from the fuel to the interaction layer was accounted for. The model was compared to literature data on in-reactor growth of the interaction layer and the Al/U gradient in this layer, the latter measured in ex-reactor experiments. The rate constant of the Al-U interface reaction and the diffusivity of Al in the interaction layer were obtained from this fitting procedure. The second feature of the corrosion process is the transfer of fission products from the fuel particle to the interaction layer due to the reaction. It is commonly assumed that the observed swelling of irradiated fuel elements of this type is due to release of fission gas in the interaction layer to form large bubbles. This hypothesis was tested by using the model to compute the quantity of fission gas available from this source and comparing the pressure of the resulting gas with the observed swelling of fuel plates. It was determined that the gas pressure so generated is too small to account for the observed delamination of the fuel.

  11. Water interaction with laboratory-simulated fossil fuel combustion particles.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, O B; Kireeva, E D; Shonija, N K; Khokhlova, T D

    2009-10-01

    To clarify the impact of fossil fuel combustion particles' composition on their capacity to take up water, we apply a laboratory approach in which the method of deposition of compounds, identified in the particulate coverage of diesel and aircraft engine soot particles, is developed. It is found that near-monolayer organic/inorganic coverage of the soot particles may be represented by three groups of fossil fuel combustion-derived particulate matter with respect to their Hansh's coefficients related to hydrophilic properties. Water adsorption measurements show that nonpolar organics (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) lead to hydrophobization of the soot surface. Acidic properties of organic compounds such as those of oxidized PAHs, ethers, ketones, aromatic, and aliphatic acids are related to higher water uptake, whereas inorganic acids and ionic compounds such as salts of organic acids are shown to be responsible for soot hydrophilization. This finding allows us to quantify the role of the chemical identity of soot surface compounds in water uptake and the water interaction with fossil fuel combustion particles in the humid atmosphere.

  12. Stochastic model for supersymmetric particle branching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chan, Aik Hui; Oh, Choo Hiap

    2017-01-01

    We develop a stochastic branching model to describe the jet evolution of supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. This model is a modified two-phase branching process, or more precisely, a two-phase simple birth process plus Poisson process. Both pure SUSY partons initiated jets and SUSY plus ordinary partons initiated jets scenarios are considered. The stochastic branching equations are established and the Multiplicity Distributions (MDs) are derived for these two scenarios. We also fit the distribution of the general case (SUSY plus ordinary partons initiated jets) with experimental data. The fitting shows the SUSY particles have not participated in branching at current collision energy yet.

  13. Computer Models Simulate Fine Particle Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Through a NASA Seed Fund partnership with DEM Solutions Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, scientists at Kennedy Space Center refined existing software to study the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces. The software, EDEM, allows users to import particles and obtain accurate representations of their shapes for modeling purposes, such as simulating bulk solids behavior, and was enhanced to be able to more accurately model fine, abrasive, cohesive particles. These new EDEM capabilities can be applied in many industries unrelated to space exploration and have been adopted by several prominent U.S. companies, including John Deere, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble.

  14. Event-chain Monte Carlo algorithms for three- and many-particle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harland, J.; Michel, M.; Kampmann, T. A.; Kierfeld, J.

    2017-02-01

    We generalize the rejection-free event-chain Monte Carlo algorithm from many-particle systems with pairwise interactions to systems with arbitrary three- or many-particle interactions. We introduce generalized lifting probabilities between particles and obtain a general set of equations for lifting probabilities, the solution of which guarantees maximal global balance. We validate the resulting three-particle event-chain Monte Carlo algorithms on three different systems by comparison with conventional local Monte Carlo simulations: i) a test system of three particles with a three-particle interaction that depends on the enclosed triangle area; ii) a hard-needle system in two dimensions, where needle interactions constitute three-particle interactions of the needle end points; iii) a semiflexible polymer chain with a bending energy, which constitutes a three-particle interaction of neighboring chain beads. The examples demonstrate that the generalization to many-particle interactions broadens the applicability of event-chain algorithms considerably.

  15. Lower Bound on the Mean Square Displacement of Particles in the Hard Disk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richthammer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The hard disk model is a 2D Gibbsian process of particles interacting via pure hard core repulsion. At high particle density the model is believed to show orientational order, however, it is known not to exhibit positional order. Here we investigate to what extent particle positions may fluctuate. We consider a finite volume version of the model in a box of dimensions 2 n × 2 n with arbitrary boundary configuration, and we show that the mean square displacement of particles near the center of the box is bounded from below by c log n. The result generalizes to a large class of models with fairly arbitrary interaction.

  16. Cosmological and Particle Physics Constraints on a New Non-Abelian SU(3) Gauge Model for Ordinary/Dark Matter Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, O.; Bertulani, C. A.; Hussein, M. S.; Paula, W. de; Frederico, T.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a mirror model for ordinary and dark matter that assumes a new SU(3) gauge group of transformations, as a natural extension of the Standard Model (SM). A close study of big bang nucleosynthesis, baryon asymmetries, cosmic microwave background bounds, galaxy dynamics, together with the Standard Model assumptions, help us to set a limit on the mass and width of the new gauge boson. The cross section for the elastic scattering of a dark proton by an ordinary proton is estimated and compare to the WIMP-nucleon experimental upper bounds. It is observed that all experimental bounds for the various cross sections can be accommodated consistently within the gauge model. We also suggest a way for direct detection of the new gauge boson via one example of a SM forbidden process: e+ + p → μ + + X, where X=Λ or Λ c .

  17. Interaction Models for Functional Regression

    PubMed Central

    USSET, JOSEPH; STAICU, ANA-MARIA; MAITY, ARNAB

    2015-01-01

    A functional regression model with a scalar response and multiple functional predictors is proposed that accommodates two-way interactions in addition to their main effects. The proposed estimation procedure models the main effects using penalized regression splines, and the interaction effect by a tensor product basis. Extensions to generalized linear models and data observed on sparse grids or with measurement error are presented. A hypothesis testing procedure for the functional interaction effect is described. The proposed method can be easily implemented through existing software. Numerical studies show that fitting an additive model in the presence of interaction leads to both poor estimation performance and lost prediction power, while fitting an interaction model where there is in fact no interaction leads to negligible losses. The methodology is illustrated on the AneuRisk65 study data. PMID:26744549

  18. Nano to micro particle size distribution measurement in the fluid by interactive force apparatus for fine particle processing.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toyohisa; Dodbiba, Gjergj; Okaya, Katsunori; Matsuo, Seiji; Wang, Li Pang; Onda, Kana; Otsuki, Akira

    2013-12-01

    The direct measurement of fine particles size distribution of dispersions or coagulations in liquid is important for water purification, fine particles separation for recycling and mineral processing, as well as the new material production. The nano to micro particle size is usually measured by light scattering method; however, it is difficult to measure at high concentration of suspension. Here, a novel dynamical method by using the interactive force measurement between particles in liquid under electric field is used for measuring distribution of fine particle. Three types of nano to submicron particles, that is well-dispersed nano particles, coagulated nano particles and settled submicron particles, have been measured by interactive force measurement method. The particle size distributions are compered with the size distributions of dried particles measured by TEM or SEM. The well-dispersed nano particle size distribution by interactive force measurement is influenced by the nano size surfactant micelles. The size distribution of coagulated nano particles in water is larger than the result by TEM. On the other hand, the submicron nickel particle size distribution is similar with the one analyzed by SEM.

  19. Modeling selective local interactions with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galante, Amanda; Levy, Doron

    2013-10-01

    Recently we developed a stochastic particle system describing local interactions between cyanobacteria. We focused on the common freshwater cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp., which are coccoidal bacteria that utilize group dynamics to move toward a light source, a motion referred to as phototaxis. We were particularly interested in the local interactions between cells that were located in low to medium density areas away from the front. The simulations of our stochastic particle system in 2D replicated many experimentally observed phenomena, such as the formation of aggregations and the quasi-random motion of cells. In this paper, we seek to develop a better understanding of group dynamics produced by this model. To facilitate this study, we replace the stochastic model with a system of ordinary differential equations describing the evolution of particles in 1D. Unlike many other models, our emphasis is on particles that selectively choose one of their neighbors as the preferred direction of motion. Furthermore, we incorporate memory by allowing persistence in the motion. We conduct numerical simulations which allow us to efficiently explore the space of parameters, in order to study the stability, size, and merging of aggregations.

  20. Water interaction with hydrophobic and hydrophilic soot particles.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, Olga; Persiantseva, Natalia M; Shonija, Natalia K; DeMott, Paul; Koehler, Kirsten; Petters, Markus; Kreidenweis, Sonia; Tishkova, Victoria; Demirdjian, Benjamin; Suzanne, Jean

    2008-05-07

    The interaction of water with laboratory soots possessing a range of properties relevant for atmospheric studies is examined by two complementary methods: gravimetrical measurement of water uptake coupled with chemical composition and porosity analysis and HTDMA (humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer) inference of water uptake accompanied by separate TEM (transmission electron microscopy) analysis of single particles. The first method clarifies the mechanism of water uptake for bulk soot and allows the classification of soot with respect to its hygroscopicity. The second method highlights the dependence of the soot aerosol growth factor on relative humidity (RH) for quasi-monodisperse particles. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic soot are qualitatively defined by their water uptake and surface polarity: laboratory soot particles are thus classified from very hydrophobic to very hydrophilic. Thermal soot particles produced from natural gas combustion are classified as hydrophobic with a surface of low polarity since water is found to cover only half of the surface. Graphitized thermal soot particles are proposed for comparison as extremely hydrophobic and of very low surface polarity. Soot particles produced from laboratory flame of TC1 aviation kerosene are less hydrophobic, with their entire surface being available for statistical monolayer water coverage at RH approximately 10%. Porosity measurements suggest that, initially, much of this surface water resides within micropores. Consequently, the growth factor increase of these particles to 1.07 at RH > 80% is attributed to irreversible swelling that accompanies water uptake. Hysteresis of adsorption/desorption cycles strongly supports this conclusion. In contrast, aircraft engine soot, produced from burning TC1 kerosene in a gas turbine engine combustor, has an extremely hydrophilic surface of high polarity. Due to the presence of water soluble organic and inorganic material it can be covered by many water

  1. Erosion processes due to energetic particle-surface interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, K.; Roth, J.

    2010-05-20

    The interaction of the fast particles from the hot plasma of a magnetic confinement fusion experiment with the first wall is one of the most challenging problems toward the realization of a fusion power plant. The erosion of the first wall by the fast particles leads to life time limitations and the radiative cooling of the plasma by the eroded impurity species lowers the energy confinement. Apart from these obvious consequences also the trapping of large quantities of the fuelling species (deuterium and tritium) in re-deposited layers of the eroded species poses a problem due to accumulation of large radiative inventories and plasma fuelling inefficiency. The source of all these challenges is the erosion of first wall components due to physical sputtering, chemical erosion and radiation enhanced sublimation. This paper will give an overview about the physical principles behind these erosion channels.

  2. Resonant wave-particle interactions modified by intrinsic Alfvenic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. S.; Lee, K. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wu, D. J.

    2012-08-15

    The concept of wave-particle interactions via resonance is well discussed in plasma physics. This paper shows that intrinsic Alfven waves can qualitatively modify the physics discussed in conventional linear plasma kinetic theories. It turns out that preexisting Alfven waves can affect particle motion along the ambient magnetic field and, moreover, the ensuing force field is periodic in time. As a result, the meaning of the usual Landau and cyclotron resonance conditions becomes questionable. It turns out that this effect leads us to find a new electromagnetic instability. In such a process intrinsic Alfven waves not only modify the unperturbed distribution function but also result in a different type of cyclotron resonance which is affected by the level of turbulence. This instability might enable us to better our understanding of the observed radio emission processes in the solar atmosphere.

  3. Time delay can facilitate coherence in self-driven interacting-particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongzheng; Lin, Wei; Erban, Radek

    2014-12-01

    Directional switching in a self-propelled particle model with delayed interactions is investigated. It is shown that the average switching time is an increasing function of time delay. The presented results are applied to studying collective animal behavior. It is argued that self-propelled particle models with time delays can explain the state-dependent diffusion coefficient measured in experiments with locust groups. The theory is further generalized to heterogeneous groups where each individual can respond to its environment with a different time delay.

  4. Mechanisms governing the interaction of metallic particles with nanosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Demos, Stavros G; Negres, Raluca A; Raman, Rajesh N; Shen, Nan; Rubenchik, Alexander M; Matthews, Manyalibo J

    2016-04-04

    The interaction of nanosecond laser pulses at 1064- and 355-nm with micro-scale, nominally spherical metallic particles is investigated in order to elucidate the governing interaction mechanisms as a function of material and laser parameters. The experimental model used involves the irradiation of metal particles located on the surface of transparent plates combined with time-resolved imaging capable of capturing the dynamics of particle ejection, plume formation and expansion along with the kinetics of the dispersed material from the liquefied layer of the particle. The mechanisms investigated in this work are informative and relevant across a multitude of materials and irradiation geometries suitable for the description of a wide range of specific applications. The experimental results were interpreted using physical models incorporating specific processes to assess their contribution to the overall observed behaviors. Analysis of the experimental results suggests that the induced kinetic properties of the particle can be adequately described using the concept of momentum coupling introduced to explain the interaction of plane metal targets to large-aperture laser beams. The results also suggest that laser energy deposition on the formed plasma affects the energy partitioning and the material modifications to the substrate.

  5. Wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, W.S.; Gurnett, D.A.; Scarf, F.L.; Coroniti, F.V.

    1988-07-01

    The Voyager 2 encounter of Uranus has provided observations of plasma waves in and near the magnetosphere. These data, while the first from Uranus, will also be the only direct information on wave-particle interactions at this planet for many years to come. The observations include electrostatic waves upstream of the bow shock, turbulence in the shock, Bernstein emissions and whistler mode waves in the magnetosphere, broadband electrostatic noise in the magnetotail, and a number of the other types of plasma waves which have yet to be clearly identified. Each of these types of waves exist in a plasma environment which both supports the growth of the waves and is modified by interactions with the waves. Wave-particle interactions provide the channels through which the waves can accelerate, scatter, or thermalize the plasmas. The most spectacular example in the case of Uranus is the extremely intense whistler mode activity in the inner magnetosphere which is the source of strong pitch angle diffusion. The resulting electron precipitation is sufficient to produce the auroral emissions observed by Voyager. The strong diffusion, however, presents the problem of supplying electrons in the range of 5 to 40 keV in order to support the losses to the atmosphere.

  6. Wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Coroniti, F. V.; Scarf, F. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager 2 encounter of Uranus has provided observations of plasma waves in and near the magnetosphere. These data, while the first from Uranus, will also be the only direct information on wave-particle interactions at this planet for many years to come. The observations include electrostatic waves upstream of the bow shock, turbulence in the shock Bernstein emissions and whistler mode waves in the magnetosphere, broadband electrostatic noise in the magnetotail, and a number of the other types of plasma waves which have yet to be clearly identified. Each of these types of waves exist in a plasma environment which both supports the growth of the waves and is modified by interactions with the waves. Wave-particle interactions provide the channels through which the waves can accelerate, scatter, or thermalize the plasmas. The most spectacular example in the case of Uranus is the extremely intense whistler mode activity in the inner magnetosphere which is the source of strong pitch angle diffusion. The resulting electron precipitation is sufficient to produce the auroral emissions observed by Voyager. The strong diffusion, however, presents the problem of supplying electrons in the range of 5 to 40 keV in order to support the losses to the atmosphere.

  7. Wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1988-01-01

    The Voyager 2 encounter of Uranus has provided observations of plasma waves in and near the magnetosphere. These data, while the first from Uranus, will also be the only direct information on wave-particle interactions at this planet for many years to come. The observations include electrostatic waves upstream of the bow shock, turbulence in the shock, Bernstein emissions and whistler mode waves in the magnetosphere, broadband electrostatic noise in the magnetotail, and a number of the other types of plasma waves which have yet to be clearly identified. Each of these types of waves exist in a plasma environment which both supports the growth of the waves and is modified by interactions with the waves. Wave-particle interactions provide the channels through which the waves can accelerate, scatter, or thermalize the plasmas. The most spectacular example in the case of Uranus is the extremely intense whistler mode activity in the inner magnetosphere which is the source of strong pitch angle diffusion. The resulting electron precipitation is sufficient to produce the auroral emissions observed by Voyager. The strong diffusion, however, presents the problem of supplying electrons in the range of 5 to 40 keV in order to support the losses to the atmosphere.

  8. Interaction of tallow and hay particle size on ruminal parameters.

    PubMed

    Lewis, W D; Bertrand, J A; Jenkins, T C

    1999-07-01

    Four nonlactating ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with 4 21-d periods to determine if the effects of dietary fat would be affected by hay particle length. Treatments consisted of two levels of tallow (0 and 5%) and two hay particle lengths (short-cut and long-cut) in a 2 x 2 factorial. Diets contained alfalfa hay, corn silage, and concentrate [1:1:2, dry matter (DM) basis] fed as a total mixed ration (TMR) once per day. Samples of the 0 and 5% tallow TMR were ground and incubated in situ in polyester bags for 24 and 48 h. Ruminal samples were taken on day 21 at 0800 h and at 2-h intervals until 1600 h. The total tract digestibilities of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were not affected by tallow or by hay by tallow interactions. There was a trend for tallow to improve total tract digestibility of crude protein (CP) (70.2 vs. 74.7%). After 48 h of ruminal incubation, tallow significantly decreased the digestibilities of DM, ADF, and NDF. No hay length by tallow interactions for DM, NDF, ADF or CP digestibilities occurred after 24 or 48 h. Tallow increased concentrations of propionate and decreased concentrations of acetate and valerate and the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Total volatile fatty acids increased when tallow was added to diets with short-cut hay, which suggests that when unprotected fat is added to diets with a high level of hay, a short-cut hay length may be advantageous. This result may be due to shorter rumen retention time of feed particles, which reduces the time for fatty acids to exert antimicrobial effects. Or, it may because the increased surface area of the hay particle provides more area for microbial attachment and increased fermentation.

  9. Modeling the behavior of confined colloidal particles under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Mackay, F E; Pastor, K; Karttunen, M; Denniston, C

    2014-11-21

    We investigate the behavior of colloidal suspensions with different volume fractions confined between parallel walls under a range of steady shears. We model the particles using molecular dynamics (MD) with full hydrodynamic interactions implemented through the use of a lattice-Boltzmann (LB) fluid. A quasi-2d ordering occurs in systems characterized by a coexistence of coupled layers with different densities, order, and granular temperature. We present a phase diagram in terms of shear and volume fraction for each layer, and demonstrate that particle exchange between layers is required for entering the disordered phase.

  10. Parallelization of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.L.; O`Steen, B.L.

    1997-08-01

    An advanced stochastic Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) is used by the Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) to simulate contaminant transport. The model uses time-dependent three-dimensional fields of wind and turbulence to determine the location of individual particles released into the atmosphere. This report describes modifications to LPDM using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) which allows for execution in a parallel configuration on the Cray Supercomputer facility at the SRS. Use of a parallel version allows for many more particles to be released in a given simulation, with little or no increase in computational time. This significantly lowers (greater than an order of magnitude) the minimum resolvable concentration levels without ad hoc averaging schemes and/or without reducing spatial resolution. The general changes made to LPDM are discussed and a series of tests are performed comparing the serial (single processor) and parallel versions of the code.

  11. Bonded-cell model for particle fracture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc-Hanh; Azéma, Emilien; Sornay, Philippe; Radjai, Farhang

    2015-02-01

    Particle degradation and fracture play an important role in natural granular flows and in many applications of granular materials. We analyze the fracture properties of two-dimensional disklike particles modeled as aggregates of rigid cells bonded along their sides by a cohesive Mohr-Coulomb law and simulated by the contact dynamics method. We show that the compressive strength scales with tensile strength between cells but depends also on the friction coefficient and a parameter describing cell shape distribution. The statistical scatter of compressive strength is well described by the Weibull distribution function with a shape parameter varying from 6 to 10 depending on cell shape distribution. We show that this distribution may be understood in terms of percolating critical intercellular contacts. We propose a random-walk model of critical contacts that leads to particle size dependence of the compressive strength in good agreement with our simulation data.

  12. Particle size and particle-particle interactions on tensile properties and reinforcement of corn flour particles in natural rubber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Renewable corn flour has a significant reinforcement effect in natural rubber. The corn flour was hydrolyzed and microfluidized to reduce its particle size. Greater than 90% of the hydrolyzed corn flour had an average size of ~300 nm, a reduction of 33 times compared to unhydrolyzed corn flour. Comp...

  13. Quasilinear Line Broadened Model for Energetic Particle Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghantous, Katy; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Berk, Herbert

    2011-10-01

    We present a self-consistent quasi-linear model that describes wave-particle interaction in toroidal geometry and computes fast ion transport during TAE mode evolution. The model bridges the gap between single mode resonances, where it predicts the analytically expected saturation levels, and the case of multiple modes overlapping, where particles diffuse across phase space. Results are presented in the large aspect ratio limit where analytic expressions are used for Fourier harmonics of the power exchange between waves and particles, . Implemention of a more realistic mode structure calculated by NOVAK code are also presented. This work is funded by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  14. Generalized slave-particle method for extended Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Alexandru B.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a set of generalized slave-particle models for extended Hubbard models that treat localized electronic correlations using slave-boson decompositions. Our models automatically include two slave-particle methods of recent interest, the slave-rotor and slave-spin methods, as well as a ladder of new intermediate models where one can choose which of the electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., spin or orbital labels) are treated as correlated degrees of freedom by the slave bosons. In addition, our method removes the aberrant behavior of the slave-rotor model, where it systematically overestimates the importance of electronic correlation effects for weak interaction strength, by removing the contribution of unphysical states from the bosonic Hilbert space. The flexibility of our formalism permits one to separate and isolate the effect of correlations on the key degrees of freedom.

  15. Model of particle growth in silane discharges

    PubMed

    Gallagher

    2000-08-01

    The growth of silicon particles in the neutral plasma region of pure silane, rf capacitively coupled, steady-state discharges is calculated with a homogeneous, plasma-chemistry model. Plasma conditions are typical of those used in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) device production. SiH3 and SiH-3 grow into particles by the step-by-step addition of silicon atoms, primarily due to reactions with SiH3. Attrition of growing Si(x)H(z)(m) radicals and ions with z charges, which are "particles" for large x, occurs by diffusion of neutral and positively charged radicals to the electrodes. Rate coefficients for electron, ion, radical, and silane collisions with the Si(x)H(z)(m) for x=1-10(5) are estimated from detailed considerations of the literature and relevant physics. Self-consistent anion, cation (n(+)), and electron (n(e)) densities and charge fluxes are used, and charge neutrality is maintained. Typically n(+)/n(e) congruent with100, which causes a large fraction of neutral particles and thereby a major particle flux into the growing a-Si:H film. The density of visible particles (x>10(4)) varies many orders of magnitude with relatively minor changes in discharge power, pressure, and electrode gap. This parameter dependence agrees with experiment, and by adjusting collision parameters within a reasonable range the calculated particle densities can be brought into exact agreement with experiment. An additional result of the model, which has not yet been detected, is that Si(x)H(m) clusters with 3

  16. Field theories and exact stochastic equations for interacting particle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andreanov, Alexei; Lefevre, Alexandre; Biroli, Giulio; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2006-09-15

    We consider the dynamics of interacting particles with reaction and diffusion. Starting from the underlying discrete stochastic jump process we derive a general field theory describing the dynamics of the density field, which we relate to an exact stochastic equation on the density field. We show how our field theory maps onto the original Doi-Peliti formalism, allowing us to clarify further the issue of the 'imaginary' Langevin noise that appears in the context of reaction-diffusion processes. Our procedure applies to a wide class of problems and is related to large deviation functional techniques developed recently to describe fluctuations of nonequilibrium systems in the hydrodynamic limit.

  17. Time fluctuations in isolated quantum systems of interacting particles.

    PubMed

    Zangara, Pablo R; Dente, Axel D; Torres-Herrera, E J; Pastawski, Horacio M; Iucci, Aníbal; Santos, Lea F

    2013-09-01

    Numerically, we study the time fluctuations of few-body observables after relaxation in isolated dynamical quantum systems of interacting particles. Our results suggest that they decay exponentially with system size in both regimes, integrable and chaotic. The integrable systems considered are solvable with the Bethe ansatz and have a highly nondegenerate spectrum. This is in contrast with integrable Hamiltonians mappable to noninteracting ones. We show that the coefficient of the exponential decay depends on the level of delocalization of the initial state with respect to the energy shell.

  18. Strong gravitation and models of particles

    SciTech Connect

    Panov, V.F.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of determining the most realistic model of particles in strong gravitation is considered. The relation between the hypothesis of strong gravitation and the structure of the proton is analyzed. The thermodynamics of a hadron as a black hole in strong gravitation is studied.

  19. A Classical WR Model with Particle Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazel, A.; Suhov, Y.; Stuhl, I.

    2015-06-01

    A version of the Widom-Rowlinson model is considered, where particles of types coexist, subject to pairwise hard-core exclusions. For , in the case of large equal fugacities, we give a complete description of the pure phase picture based on the theory of dominant ground states.

  20. Kinetic model of particle-inhibited grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gary Scott

    The effects of second phase particles on matrix grain growth kinetics were investigated using Al2O3-SiC as a model system. In particular, the validity of the conclusion drawn from a previous kinetic analysis that the kinetics of particle-inhibited grain growth in Al2 O3-SiC samples with an intermediate volume fraction of second phase could be well quantified by a modified-Zener model was investigated. A critical analysis of assumptions made during the previous kinetic analysis revealed oversimplifications which affect the validity of the conclusion. Specifically, the degree of interaction between particles and grain boundaries was assumed to be independent of the mean second phase particle size and size distribution. In contrast, current measurements indicate that the degree of interaction in Al2O3-SiC is dependent on these parameters. An improved kinetic model for particle-inhibited grain growth in Al 2O3-SiC was developed using a modified-Zener approach. The comparison of model predictions with experimental grain growth data indicated that significant discrepancies (as much as 4--5 orders of magnitude) existed. Based on this, it was concluded that particles had a much more significant effect on grain growth kinetics than that caused by a simple reduction of the boundary driving force due to the removal of boundary area. Consequently, it was also concluded that the conclusion drawn from the earlier kinetic analysis regarding the validity of a modified-Zener model was incorrect. Discrepancies between model and experiment were found to be the result of a significant decrease in experimental growth rate constant not predicted by the model. Possible physical mechanisms for such a decrease were investigated. The investigation of a small amount of SiO2 on grain growth in Al2O3 indicated that the decrease was not the result of a decrease in grain boundary mobility due to impurity contamination by particles. By process of elimination and based on previous observations

  1. Modelling new particle formation events in the South African savannah

    SciTech Connect

    Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Buekes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael

    2014-05-28

    Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction of these systems with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, called aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scales, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study, measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There already are some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first detailed simulation that includes all the main processes relevant to particle formation. The results show that both of the particle formation mechanisms investigated overestimated the dependency of the formation rates on sulphuric acid. From the two particle formation mechanisms tested in this work, the approach that included low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events than the approach that did not. To obtain a reliable estimate of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa. This work is the first step in developing a more comprehensive new particle formation model applicable to the unique environment in southern Africa. Such a model will assist in better understanding and predicting new particle formation – knowledge which could ultimately be used to mitigate impacts of climate change and air quality.

  2. Fast scalable visualization techniques for interactive billion-particle walkthrough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinlian

    This research develops a comprehensive framework for interactive walkthrough involving one billion particles in an immersive virtual environment to enable interrogative visualization of large atomistic simulation data. As a mixture of scientific and engineering approaches, the framework is based on four key techniques: adaptive data compression based on space-filling curves, octree-based visibility and occlusion culling, predictive caching based on machine learning, and scalable data reduction based on parallel and distributed processing. In terms of parallel rendering, this system combines functional parallelism, data parallelism, and temporal parallelism to improve interactivity. The visualization framework will be applicable not only to material simulation, but also to computational biology, applied mathematics, mechanical engineering, and nanotechnology, etc.

  3. Interaction forces between particles containing grafted or adsorbed polymer layers.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Tharwat

    2003-07-01

    The interaction forces between particles containing grafted or adsorbed polymer layers have been investigated using rheological and surface force measurements. Polystyrene latex dispersions with grafted poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains (M=2000) were used for the rheological measurements. Results were also obtained for latex dispersions stabilised with adsorbed graft copolymers of poly(methyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid) with methoxy capped PEO chains (M=750). The relative viscosity eta(r)-volume fraction phi curves for the latex dispersions with grafted PEO chains were established for three particle radii of 77.5, 306 and 502 nm. For comparison the eta(r)-phi curve was calculated using the Dougherty-Krieger equation. This allows one to obtain the adsorbed layer thickness delta as a function of phi. The results showed a decrease of delta with increase of phi, which was attributed to the interpenetration and/or compression of the PEO chains on increasing phi. Viscoelastic measurements as a function of phi showed a change from predominantly viscous to predominantly elastic response at a critical volume fraction, which indicated the onset of the strong steric repulsion when the polymer layers begin to overlap. A similar trend was obtained with the latex particles containing adsorbed graft copolymer layers. A scaling law was used to fit the elastic part of the logG'-log phi curve (where G' is the elastic modulus). This fit could be used to estimate the compressibility of the PEO chains. The correlation of the rheology of concentrated sterically stabilised dispersions with interparticle interactions was investigated by measuring the energy-distance curves for the graft copolymer that was adsorbed on smooth mica sheets. Using de Gennes scaling theory, it was possible to calculate the energy of interaction between the polymer layers. The high frequency modulus of the latex dispersions was obtained as a function of the volume fraction and the results were compared with

  4. Large space system - Charged particle environment interaction technology. [effects on high voltage solar array performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Roche, J. C.; Grier, N. T.

    1979-01-01

    Large high-voltage space power systems proposed for future applications in both low earth orbit and geosynchronous altitudes must operate in the space charged-particle environment with possible interactions between this environment and the high-voltage surfaces. The paper reviews the ground experimental work to provide indicators for the interactions that could exist in the space power system. A preliminary analytical model of a large space power system is constructed using the existing NASA Charging Analyzer Program, and its performance in geosynchronous orbit is evaluated. The analytical results are used to illustrate the regions where detrimental interactions could exist and to establish areas where future technology is required.

  5. Non-linear interactions of plasma waves in the context of solar particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos-Cruz, A.; Perez-Peraza, J.

    2001-08-01

    Stochastic particle acceleration in plasmas by means of MHD turbulence in-volves a wide range of alternatives according to, the specific wave mode, the frequency regime of the turbulence, the kind of particles to be accelerated, the assumed plasma model and so on. At present most of the alternatives have been studied with relatively deepness, though some features are not yet com-pletely understood. One of them is the delimitation of the real importance of non-lineal effects of turbulence waves in the process of particle acceleration. In this work we analyse such effects taking into account the temporal evolution of the turbulence. For illustration we exemplify our analysis with the fast MHD mode. Our results show that in some specific stages of the turbulence evolu-tion, non-linear interactions have important effects in the process of particle acceleration.

  6. Role of surface gauging in extended particle interactions: The case for spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazilu, Nicolae; Ghizdovat, Vlad; Agop, Maricel

    2016-05-01

    The matter, being extended in space, should be first characterized by a surface of separation from the empty space. This surface cannot be neatly, i.e. purely geometrically, defined. When it comes to extended particles, which thereby are to be considered the fundamental structural units of the matter, the physical evidence points out that they are not even stable: they are in a continuous transformation; and so is their limit of separation from space. The present work describes a concept of extended particle with special emphasis on this limit of separation. It turns out that the properties of inertia, as classically understood, are intrinsically related to the spin properties of quantum origin. Thus, an extended particle model cannot be but "holographic" when it comes to imbedding it in a physical structure. The spin properties turn out to be essential, inasmuch as they decide the forces of interaction issuing from particles.

  7. Double-resonant fast particle-wave interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneller, M.; Lauber, Ph.; Brüdgam, M.; Pinches, S. D.; Günter, S.

    2012-10-01

    In future fusion devices fast particles must be well confined in order to transfer their energy to the background plasma. Magnetohydrodynamic instabilities like toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes or core-localized modes such as beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes and reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes, both driven by fast particles, can lead to significant losses. This is observed in many ASDEX Upgrade discharges. This study applies the drift-kinetic HAGIS code with the aim of understanding the underlying resonance mechanisms, especially in the presence of multiple modes with different frequencies. Of particular interest is the resonant interaction of particles simultaneously with two different modes, referred to as ‘double-resonance’. Various mode overlapping scenarios with different q profiles are considered. It is found that, depending on the radial mode distance, double-resonance is able to enhance growth rates as well as mode amplitudes significantly. Surprisingly, no radial mode overlap is necessary for this effect. Quite the contrary is found: small radial mode distances can lead to strong nonlinear mode stabilization of a linearly dominant mode.

  8. Aspects of wave-particle interactions at mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. J.

    Arguably the most significant source of particle precipitation into the ionosphere at mid-latitudes (L ~ 2-3), at least for electrons in the tens to hundreds of keV energy range, is that which arises from the interaction between trapped particles and whistler-mode waves in the magnetosphere. Quasi-steady plasmaspheric hiss has long been postulated as a major class of waves contributing to the loss of radiation belt particles but recent studies have suggested that under some conditions, impulsive precipitation caused by interactions with lightning-generated whistlers may be equally important as a loss process. Such lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) and its ionospheric signature is the subject of this paper. Although LEP may be detected and studied by a variety of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite-borne sensors, through optical emissions, X-ray production, enhanced conductivity, or the direct measurement of the precipitating particles themselves, a technique using ground-based narrow-band VLF receivers to measure the Trimpi effect (the transient perturbations in amplitude and/or phase of received narrow-band VLF transmissions) caused by LEP-associated ionisation enhancements has become increasingly popular due to its simple instrumentation and wide field of view. Most work has concentrated on the 2 < L < 3 region where typical whistler spectra, trapped electron energy distributions and magnetospheric plasma densities and magnetic field strengths are most favourable for the Trimpi effect. In order to use the technique to study in detail the characteristics and distribution of LEP (and its importance as a trapped-particle loss mechanism), using a network of intersecting transmitter-receiver great-circle paths (TRGCPs), a consensus on how to interpret the observational data is crucial, though this has recently been the subject of controversy. Whilst most studies suggest that only LEP within ~200 km of the TRGCP gives rise to an observable Trimpi

  9. Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.

    1993-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) can be used to model hypervelocity impact phenomena via the addition of a strength of materials treatment. SPH is the only technique that can model such problems efficiently due to the combination of 3-dimensional geometry, large translations of material, large deformations, and large void fractions for most problems of interest. This makes SPH an ideal candidate for modeling of asteroid impact, spacecraft shield modeling, and planetary accretion. In this paper we describe the derivation of the strength equations in SPH, show several basic code tests, and present several impact test cases with experimental comparisons.

  10. A 1-D model of sinking particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokulsdottir, T.; Archer, D.

    2006-12-01

    Acidification of the surface ocean due to increased atmospheric CO2 levels is altering its saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate (Orr et al., 2005) and the ability of calcifying phytoplankton to calcify (Riebesell et al., 2000). Sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide into the deep ocean is affected by this, because calcite is the key component in ballasting sinking particles (Klaas and Archer, 2001). The settling velocity of particles is not explicitly modeled but often represented as a constant in climate models. That is clearly inaccurate as the composition of particles changes with depth as bacteria and dissolution processes act on its different components, changing their ratio with depth. An idealized, mechanistic model of particles has been developed where settling velocity is calculated from first principles. The model is forced 100m below the surface with export ratios (organic carbon/calcium carbonate) corresponding to different CO2 levels according to Riebesell et al. The resulting flux is compared to the flux generated by the same model where the settling velocity is held constant. The model produces a relatively constant rain ratio regardless of the amount of calcite available to ballast the particle, which is what data suggests (Conte et al., 2001), whereas a constant velocity model does not. Comparing the flux of particulate organic carbon to the seafloor with increasing CO2 levels, the outcome of the constant velocity model is an increase whereas when the velocity is calculated a decrease results. If so, the change in export ratio with an increase in CO2 concentrations acts as a positive feedback: as increased atmospheric CO2 levels lead to the ocean pH being lowered, reduced calcification of marine organisms results and a decrease in particulate organic carbon flux to the deep ocean, which again raises CO2 concentrations. Conte, M.,, N. Ralph, E. Ross, Seasonal and interannual variability in deep ocean particle fluxes at the Oceanic

  11. Wave-particle interactions with parallel whistler waves: Nonlinear and time-dependent effects revealed by particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporeale, Enrico; Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2015-09-01

    We present a self-consistent Particle-in-Cell simulation of the resonant interactions between anisotropic energetic electrons and a population of whistler waves, with parameters relevant to the Earth's radiation belt. By tracking PIC particles and comparing with test-particle simulations, we emphasize the importance of including nonlinear effects and time evolution in the modeling of wave-particle interactions, which are excluded in the resonant limit of quasi-linear theory routinely used in radiation belt studies. In particular, we show that pitch angle diffusion is enhanced during the linear growth phase, and it rapidly saturates well before a single bounce period. This calls into question the widely used bounce average performed in most radiation belt diffusion calculations. Furthermore, we discuss how the saturation is related to the fact that the domain in which the particles pitch angle diffuses is bounded, and to the well-known problem of 90° diffusion barrier.

  12. Wave-particle interactions with parallel whistler waves: Nonlinear and time-dependent effects revealed by particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Camporeale, Enrico; Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2015-09-15

    We present a self-consistent Particle-in-Cell simulation of the resonant interactions between anisotropic energetic electrons and a population of whistler waves, with parameters relevant to the Earth's radiation belt. By tracking PIC particles and comparing with test-particle simulations, we emphasize the importance of including nonlinear effects and time evolution in the modeling of wave-particle interactions, which are excluded in the resonant limit of quasi-linear theory routinely used in radiation belt studies. In particular, we show that pitch angle diffusion is enhanced during the linear growth phase, and it rapidly saturates well before a single bounce period. This calls into question the widely used bounce average performed in most radiation belt diffusion calculations. Furthermore, we discuss how the saturation is related to the fact that the domain in which the particles pitch angle diffuses is bounded, and to the well-known problem of 90° diffusion barrier.

  13. Beyond the standard model of particle physics.

    PubMed

    Virdee, T S

    2016-08-28

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its experiments were conceived to tackle open questions in particle physics. The mechanism of the generation of mass of fundamental particles has been elucidated with the discovery of the Higgs boson. It is clear that the standard model is not the final theory. The open questions still awaiting clues or answers, from the LHC and other experiments, include: What is the composition of dark matter and of dark energy? Why is there more matter than anti-matter? Are there more space dimensions than the familiar three? What is the path to the unification of all the fundamental forces? This talk will discuss the status of, and prospects for, the search for new particles, symmetries and forces in order to address the open questions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'.

  14. Influence of the electronic plasma density on the wave particle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard-Piet, Angelica; Boscher, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The wave particle interaction, which is well known to be a major phenomenon in the electron radiation belts dynamics, is based on two main parameters: the characteristics of the wave (type of wave, intensity,…) and the characteristics of the ambient plasma. In this work we studied the second parameter. On one side, the electronic plasma density can be derived from in-situ measurements. On the other side, several empirical models exist: GCPM, IZMIRAN or Carpenter models. Here, we compared electronic plasma densities derived from in-situ measurements each other and with existing models. Then, we investigated on the electronic plasma density distribution to distinguish the inside to the outside plasmasphere. Finally, the effect of the electronic plasma density on the diffusion coefficients due to wave particle interaction has been studied via a numerical code, called WAPI, based on quasi linear theory.

  15. A Dissipative Particle Dynamics model for two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Anupam

    2005-11-01

    A Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) model for two-phase flows is presented. The new model, unlike existing models [1, 2], uses different cut-off radii for the attractive and repulsive components of the inter-particle interaction potential and allows for larger density ratios between the phases. Surface tension arises due to the attractive component and a forcing term that depends on higher order density gradients. The model is shown to reproduce the Laplace law and analytical results for drop oscillations. A new method that couples a Lennard-Jones type potential with a coarse-grained potential is also presented. References: [1] Pagonabarraga, I. and Frenkel, D. (2001). Journal of Chemical Physics, 115(11): 5015-5026. [2] Warren, P.B. (2003). Physical Review E. 68. 066702: 1-8.

  16. Analytical theory of polymer-network-mediated interaction between colloidal particles

    PubMed Central

    Di Michele, Lorenzo; Zaccone, Alessio; Eiser, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured materials based on colloidal particles embedded in a polymer network are used in a variety of applications ranging from nanocomposite rubbers to organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells. Further, polymer-network-mediated colloidal interactions are highly relevant to biological studies whereby polymer hydrogels are commonly employed to probe the mechanical response of living cells, which can determine their biological function in physiological environments. The performance of nanomaterials crucially relies upon the spatial organization of the colloidal particles within the polymer network that depends, in turn, on the effective interactions between the particles in the medium. Existing models based on nonlocal equilibrium thermodynamics fail to clarify the nature of these interactions, precluding the way toward the rational design of polymer-composite materials. In this article, we present a predictive analytical theory of these interactions based on a coarse-grained model for polymer networks. We apply the theory to the case of colloids partially embedded in cross-linked polymer substrates and clarify the origin of attractive interactions recently observed experimentally. Monte Carlo simulation results that quantitatively confirm the theoretical predictions are also presented. PMID:22679289

  17. Pauli structures arising from confined particles interacting via a statistical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batle, Josep; Ciftja, Orion; Farouk, Ahmed; Alkhambashi, Majid; Abdalla, Soliman

    2017-09-01

    There have been suggestions that the Pauli exclusion principle alone can lead a non-interacting (free) system of identical fermions to form crystalline structures dubbed Pauli crystals. Single-shot imaging experiments for the case of ultra-cold systems of free spin-polarized fermionic atoms in a two-dimensional harmonic trap appear to show geometric arrangements that cannot be characterized as Wigner crystals. This work explores this idea and considers a well-known approach that enables one to treat a quantum system of free fermions as a system of classical particles interacting with a statistical interaction potential. The model under consideration, though classical in nature, incorporates the quantum statistics by endowing the classical particles with an effective interaction potential. The reasonable expectation is that possible Pauli crystal features seen in experiments may manifest in this model that captures the correct quantum statistics as a first order correction. We use the Monte Carlo simulated annealing method to obtain the most stable configurations of finite two-dimensional systems of confined particles that interact with an appropriate statistical repulsion potential. We consider both an isotropic harmonic and a hard-wall confinement potential. Despite minor differences, the most stable configurations observed in our model correspond to the reported Pauli crystals in single-shot imaging experiments of free spin-polarized fermions in a harmonic trap. The crystalline configurations observed appear to be different from the expected classical Wigner crystal structures that would emerge should the confined classical particles had interacted with a pair-wise Coulomb repulsion.

  18. Particle Models with Self Sustained Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, M.; De Masi, A.; Presutti, E.

    2017-06-01

    We present some computer simulations run on a stochastic cellular automaton (CA). The CA simulates a gas of particles which are in a channel,the interval [1, L] in Z, but also in "reservoirs" R_1 and R_2. The evolution in the channel simulates a lattice gas with Kawasaki dynamics with attractive Kac interactions; the temperature is chosen smaller than the mean field critical one. There are also exchanges of particles between the channel and the reservoirs and among reservoirs. When the rate of exchanges among reservoirs is in a suitable interval the CA reaches an apparently stationary state with a non zero current; for different choices of the initial condition the current changes sign. We have a quite satisfactory theory of the phenomenon but we miss a full mathematical proof.

  19. CFD modeling of particle dispersion and deposition coupled with particle dynamical models in a ventilated room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangping; Wang, Jiasong

    2017-10-01

    Two dynamical models, the traditional method of moments coupled model (MCM) and Taylor-series expansion method of moments coupled model (TECM) for particle dispersion distribution and gravitation deposition are developed in three-dimensional ventilated environments. The turbulent airflow field is modeled with the renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model. The particle number concentration distribution in a ventilated room is obtained by solving the population balance equation coupled with the airflow field. The coupled dynamical models are validated using experimental data. A good agreement between the numerical and experimental results can be achieved. Both models have a similar characteristic for the spatial distribution of particle concentration. Relative to the MCM model, the TECM model presents a more close result to the experimental data. The vortex structure existed in the air flow makes a relative large concentration difference at the center region and results in a spatial non-uniformity of concentration field. With larger inlet velocity, the mixing level of particles in the room is more uniform. In general, the new dynamical models coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the current study provide a reasonable and accurate method for the temporal and spatial evolution of particles effected by the deposition and dispersion behaviors. In addition, two ventilation modes with different inlet velocities are proceeded to study the effect on the particle evolution. The results show that with the ceiling ventilation mode (CVM), the particles can be better mixed and the concentration level is also higher. On the contrast, with the side ceiling ventilation mode (SVM), the particle concentration has an obvious stratified distribution with a relative lower level and it makes a much better environment condition to the human exposure.

  20. A unified kinetic model for particle aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, K.H.; Theis, T.L.

    1996-06-01

    Aggregation of submicrometer particles is a process with significant implications for the fate and transport of contaminants and major nutrients in many coastal, estuarine, and freshwater bodies as well as groundwater systems. A unified model has been developed that describes the kinetics of particle aggregation. The model is unique in the incorporation of surface chemical phenomena along with solution chemistry in the determination of the stability of a colloidal dispersion. The aggregation process is treated in a truly kinetic fashion, the main output from the model being the evolution of complete particle size distributions over time. The model was developed to interpret laboratory data and, as such, has the capacity to estimate a (variable) set of system parameters by fitting the size distribution over time data to that measured. It was found that the attachment distance, a parameter frequently approximated in practice, has a profound influence on the predicted aggregation kinetics as does the choice of a solid/solution interfacial model. Furthermore, simulation of relatively long-term aggregation, which was the principal focus of this work, indicates that values of the collision efficiency factor should be much smaller than those reported elsewhere in the literature.

  1. Enhancement of proinflammatory and procoagulant responses to silica particles by monocyte-endothelial cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Xue, Yang; Ding, Tingting; Sun, Jiao

    2012-09-18

    Inorganic particles, such as drug carriers or contrast agents, are often introduced into the vascular system. Many key components of the in vivo vascular environment include monocyte-endothelial cell interactions, which are important in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. To better understand the effect of particles on vascular function, the present study explored the direct biological effects of particles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and monocytes (THP-1 cells). In addition, the integrated effects and possible mechanism of particle-mediated monocyte-endothelial cell interactions were investigated using a coculture model of HUVECs and THP-1 cells. Fe₃O₄ and SiO₂ particles were chosen as the test materials in the present study. The cell viability data from an MTS assay showed that exposure to Fe₃O₄ or SiO₂ particles at concentrations of 200 μg/mL and above significantly decreased the cell viability of HUVECs, but no significant loss in viability was observed in the THP-1 cells. TEM images indicated that with the accumulation of SiO₂ particles in the cells, the size, structure and morphology of the lysosomes significantly changed in HUVECs, whereas the lysosomes of THP-1 cells were not altered. Our results showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β; and the expression of CD106, CD62E and tissue factor in HUVECs and monocytes were significantly enhanced to a greater degree in the SiO₂-particle-activated cocultures compared with the individual cell types alone. In contrast, exposure to Fe₃O₄ particles had no impact on the activation of monocytes or endothelial cells in monoculture or coculture. Moreover, using treatment with the supernatants of SiO₂-particle-stimulated monocytes or HUVECs, we found that the enhancement of proinflammatory response by SiO₂ particles was not

  2. Dissipative-particle-dynamics model of biofilm growth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre; Scheibe, Timothy D

    2011-06-01

    A dissipative-particle-dynamics model for the quantitative simulation of biofilm growth controlled by substrate (nutrient) consumption, advective and diffusive substrate transport, and hydrodynamic interactions with fluid flow (including fragmentation and reattachment) is described. The model was used to simulate biomass growth, decay, and spreading. It predicts how the biofilm morphology depends on flow conditions, biofilm growth kinetics, the rheomechanical properties of the biofilm, and adhesion to solid surfaces. The morphology of the model biofilm depends strongly on its rigidity and the magnitude of the body force that drives the fluid over the biofilm.

  3. Dissipative-particle-dynamics model of biofilm growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre; Scheibe, Timothy D.

    2011-06-01

    A dissipative-particle-dynamics model for the quantitative simulation of biofilm growth controlled by substrate (nutrient) consumption, advective and diffusive substrate transport, and hydrodynamic interactions with fluid flow (including fragmentation and reattachment) is described. The model was used to simulate biomass growth, decay, and spreading. It predicts how the biofilm morphology depends on flow conditions, biofilm growth kinetics, the rheomechanical properties of the biofilm, and adhesion to solid surfaces. The morphology of the model biofilm depends strongly on its rigidity and the magnitude of the body force that drives the fluid over the biofilm.

  4. Dissipative-particle-dynamics model of biofilm growth

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.

    2011-06-13

    A dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model for the quantitative simulation of biofilm growth controlled by substrate (nutrient) consumption, advective and diffusive substrate transport, and hydrodynamic interactions with fluid flow (including fragmentation and reattachment) is described. The model was used to simulate biomass growth, decay, and spreading. It predicts how the biofilm morphology depends on flow conditions, biofilm growth kinetics, the rheomechanical properties of the biofilm and adhesion to solid surfaces. The morphology of the model biofilm depends strongly on its rigidity and the magnitude of the body force that drives the fluid over the biofilm.

  5. Process maps for plasma spray: Part 1: Plasma-particle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    GILMORE,DELWYN L.; NEISER JR.,RICHARD A.; WAN,YUEPENG; SAMPATH,SANJAY

    2000-01-26

    This is the first paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at Sandia National Laboratories and the State University of New York at Stony Brook. The aim of the study is to develop a more fundamental understanding of plasma-particle interactions, droplet-substrate interactions, deposit formation dynamics and microstructural development as well as final deposit properties. The purpose is to create models that can be used to link processing to performance. Process maps have been developed for air plasma spray of molybdenum. Experimental work was done to investigate the importance of such spray parameters as gun current, auxiliary gas flow, and powder carrier gas flow. In-flight particle diameters, temperatures, and velocities were measured in various areas of the spray plume. Samples were produced for analysis of microstructures and properties. An empirical model was developed, relating the input parameters to the in-flight particle characteristics. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations of the plasma gas flow field and in-flight particles under different operating conditions were also performed. In addition to the parameters which were experimentally investigated, the effect of particle injection velocity was also considered. The simulation results were found to be in good general agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Particle dispersion in homogeneous turbulence using the one-dimensional turbulence model

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Guangyuan; Lignell, David O.; Hewson, John C.; Gin, Craig R.

    2014-10-09

    Lagrangian particle dispersion is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model in homogeneous decaying turbulence configurations. The ODT model has been widely and successfully applied to a number of reacting and nonreacting flow configurations, but only limited application has been made to multiphase flows. We present a version of the particle implementation and interaction with the stochastic and instantaneous ODT eddy events. The model is characterized by comparison to experimental data of particle dispersion for a range of intrinsic particle time scales and body forces. Particle dispersion, velocity, and integral time scale results are presented. Moreover, the particle implementation introduces a single model parameter β p , and sensitivity to this parameter and behavior of the model are discussed. Good agreement is found with experimental data and the ODT model is able to capture the particle inertial and trajectory crossing effects. Our results serve as a validation case of the multiphase implementations of ODT for extensions to other flow configurations.

  7. Emergence of particle clusters in a one-dimensional model: connection to condensation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Matthew; Carpenter, Daniel; Jack, Robert L.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss a simple model of particles hopping in one dimension with attractive interactions. Taking a hydrodynamic limit in which the interaction strength increases with the system size, we observe the formation of multiple clusters of particles, with large gaps between them. These clusters are correlated in space, and the system has a self-similar (fractal) structure. These results are related to condensation phenomena in mass transport models and to a recent mathematical analysis of the hydrodynamic limit in a related model.

  8. Raman scattering investigation of VOCs in interaction with ice particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facq, Sébastien; Oancea, Adriana; Focsa, Cristian; Chazallon, Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    Cirrus clouds that form in the Earth's upper troposphere (UT) are known to play a significant role in the radiation budget and climate [1]. These clouds that cover about 35% of the Earth's surface [2] are mainly composed of small ice particles that can provide surfaces for trace gas interactions [3]. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are present in relative high abundance in the UT [4][5]. They promote substantial sources of free OH radicals that are responsible for driving photochemical cycles in the atmosphere. Their presence can both influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone budget of the atmosphere. VOCs can interact with ice particles via different trapping processes (adsorption, diffusion, freezing, and co-deposition, i.e., incorporation of trace gases during growing ice conditions) which can result in the perturbation of the chemistry and photochemistry of the UT. Knowledge of the incorporation processes of VOCs in ice particles is important in order to understand and predict their impact on the ice particles structure and reactivity and more generally on the cirrus cloud formation. This proceeds via the in-situ characterization of the ice condensed phase in a pressure and temperature range of the UT. An important mechanism of UT cirrus cloud formation is the heterogeneous ice freezing process. In this study, we examine and characterize the interaction of a VOC, i.e., ethanol (EtOH) with ice particles during freezing. Vibrational spectra of water O-H and EtOH C-H spectral regions are analysed using confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. Information at the molecular level on the surface structure can be derived from accompanying changes observed in band shapes and vibrational mode frequencies. Depending of the EtOH content, different crystalline phases have been identified and compared to hydrates previously reported for the EtOH-water system. Particular attention is paid on the effect of EtOH aqueous solutions cooling rate and droplet sizes on the phases

  9. Final Report - Interaction of radiation and charged particles in miniature plasma structures

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, Thomas M.

    2014-07-16

    The extension of our program to the development of theories and models capable of describing the interactions of intense laser pulses and charged particles in miniature plasma channels is reported. These channels, which have recently been created in the laboratory, have unique dispersion properties that make them interesting for a variety of applications including particle acceleration, high harmonic generation, and THz generation. Our program systematically explored the properties of these channels, including dispersion, losses, and coupling. A particular application that was pursued is the generation of intense pulses of THz radiation by short laser pulses propagating these channels. We also explored the nonlinear dynamics of laser pulses propagating in these channels.

  10. Determining Trajectory of Triboelectrically Charged Particles, Using Discrete Element Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory is participating in an Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) project with an industry partner to modify a commercial off-the-shelf simulation software product to treat the electrodynamics of particulate systems. Discrete element modeling (DEM) is a numerical technique that can track the dynamics of particle systems. This technique, which was introduced in 1979 for analysis of rock mechanics, was recently refined to include the contact force interaction of particles with arbitrary surfaces and moving machinery. In our work, we endeavor to incorporate electrostatic forces into the DEM calculations to enhance the fidelity of the software and its applicability to (1) particle processes, such as electrophotography, that are greatly affected by electrostatic forces, (2) grain and dust transport, and (3) the study of lunar and Martian regoliths.

  11. Simulation of Cell Adhesion using a Particle Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnutt, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    An efficient computational method for simulation of cell adhesion through protein binding forces is discussed. In this method, the cells are represented by deformable elastic particles, and the protein binding is represented by a rate equation. The method is first developed for collision and adhesion of two similar cells impacting on each other from opposite directions. The computational method is then applied in a particle-transport model for a cloud of interacting and colliding cells, each of which are represented by particles of finite size. One application might include red blood cells adhering together to form rouleaux, which are chains of red blood cells that are found in different parts of the circulatory system. Other potential applications include adhesion of platelets to a blood vessel wall or mechanical heart valve, which is a precursor of thrombosis formation, or adhesion of cancer cells to organ walls in the lymphatic, circulatory, digestive or pulmonary systems.

  12. Magnetic interaction of Janus magnetic particles suspended in a viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Seong, Yujin; Kang, Tae Gon; Hulsen, Martien A; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Anderson, Patrick D

    2016-02-01

    We studied the magnetic interaction between circular Janus magnetic particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid under the influence of an externally applied uniform magnetic field. The particles are equally compartmentalized into paramagnetic and nonmagnetic sides. A direct numerical scheme is employed to solve the magnetic particulate flow in the Stokes flow regime. Upon applying the magnetic field, contrary to isotropic paramagnetic particles, a single Janus particle can rotate due to the magnetic torque created by the magnetic anisotropy of the particle. In a two-particle problem, the orientation of each particle is found to be an additional factor that affects the critical angle separating the nature of magnetic interaction. Using multiparticle problems, we show that the orientation of the particles has a significant influence on the dynamics of the particles, the fluid flow induced by the actuated particles, and the final conformation of the particles. Straight and staggered chain structures observed experimentally can be reproduced numerically in a multiple particle problem.

  13. A new mechanism for relativistic particle acceleration via wave-particle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Marocchino, Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Often in laboratory, space and astrophysical plasma, high energy populations are observed. Two puzzling factors still defy our understanding. First, such populations of high energy particles produce power law distributions that are not only ubiquitous but also persistent in time. Such persistence is in direct contradiction to the H theorem that states the ineluctable transition of physical systems towards thermodynamic equilibrium, and ergo Maxwellian distributions. Second, such high energy populations are efficiently produced, much more efficiently than processes that we know can produce. A classic example of such a situation is cosmic rays where power alws extend up to tremendolus energy ranges. In the present work, we identify a new mechanism for particle acceleration via wave-particle interaction. The mechanism is peculiar to special relativity and has no classical equivalent. That explains why it is not observed in most simulation studies of plasma processes, based on classical physics. The mechanism is likely to be active in systems undergoing streaming instabilities and in particular shocked systems. The new mechanism can produce energy increases vastly superior to previously known mechanisms (such as Fermi acceleration) and can hold the promise of explaining at least some of the observed power laws.

  14. The effect of particle-particle interaction forces on the flow properties of silica slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, David; Fairweather, Michael; Biggs, Simon; Rhodes, Dominic

    2007-07-01

    Preliminary work has been completed to investigate the effect of particle-particle interaction forces on the flow properties of silica slurries. Classically hydro-transport studies have focused on the flow of coarse granular material in Newtonian fluids. However, with current economical and environmental pressures, the need to increase solid loadings in pipe flow has lead to studies that examine non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. The flow characteristics of non-Newtonian slurries can be greatly influenced through controlling the solution chemistry. Here we present data on an 'ideal' slurry where the particle size and shape is controlled together with the solution chemistry. We have investigated the effect of adsorbed cations on the stability of a suspension, the packing nature of a sediment and the frictional forces to be overcome during re-slurrying. A significant change in the criteria assessed was observed as the electrolyte concentration was increased from 0.1 mM to 1 M. In relation to industrial processes, such delicate control of the slurry chemistry can greatly influence the optimum operating conditions of non-Newtonian pipe flows. (authors)

  15. Effect of long-range repulsive Coulomb interactions on packing structure of adhesive particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Shuiqing; Liu, Wenwei; Makse, Hernán A

    2016-02-14

    The packing of charged micron-sized particles is investigated using discrete element simulations based on adhesive contact dynamic model. The formation process and the final obtained structures of ballistic packings are studied to show the effect of interparticle Coulomb force. It is found that increasing the charge on particles causes a remarkable decrease of the packing volume fraction ϕ and the average coordination number 〈Z〉, indicating a looser and chainlike structure. Force-scaling analysis shows that the long-range Coulomb interaction changes packing structures through its influence on particle inertia before they are bonded into the force networks. Once contact networks are formed, the expansion effect caused by repulsive Coulomb forces are dominated by short-range adhesion. Based on abundant results from simulations, a dimensionless adhesion parameter Ad*, which combines the effects of the particle inertia, the short-range adhesion and the long-range Coulomb interaction, is proposed and successfully scales the packing results for micron-sized particles within the latest derived adhesive loose packing (ALP) regime. The structural properties of our packings follow well the recent theoretical prediction which is described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function, indicating some kind of universality in the low packing density regime of the phase diagram regardless of adhesion or particle charge. Based on the comprehensive consideration of the complicated inter-particle interactions, our findings provide insight into the roles of short-range adhesion and repulsive Coulomb force during packing formation and should be useful for further design of packings.

  16. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO particle nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besmann, T. M.; Stoller, R. E.; Samolyuk, G.; Schuck, P. C.; Golubov, S. I.; Rudin, S. P.; Wills, J. M.; Coe, J. D.; Wirth, B. D.; Kim, S.; Morgan, D. D.; Szlufarska, I.

    2012-11-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel, the fission product's attack on the SiC coating layer, as well as fission product diffusion through an alternative coating layer, ZrC. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  17. Threshold separation distance for attractive interaction between dust particles

    SciTech Connect

    Jabdaraghi, R. Najafi; Sobhanian, S.

    2008-09-07

    Interaction between dust grains in a dusty plasma could be both repulsive and attractive. The Coulomb interaction between two negatively charged dust particulates and the electrostatic force between them are repulsive, while the shadowing force affecting them is attractive. We show in this paper that in some experimental conditions, there is some grain separation zone for which the attractive shadowing force is larger than the repulsive forces between them. In experimental conditions, for the grains separation distance r = 0.4 cm the shadowing force is almost equal to the electrostatic force between them and for r>0.4 cm the shadowing force exceeds the electrostatic force. So the resultant interaction force will be attractive. The possibility of dust crystal formation in this zone and also the motion of dust particles in the resultant potential of the form V = -(a/r)+(b/r{sup 2}) will be discussed. This form of potential comes from the combination electrostatic (F{sub es} (c/r{sup 3})) and shadowing (F{sub shadow} = -(d/r{sup 2})) forces.

  18. Characterizing nanoparticle interactions: Linking models to experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, S.; Zukoski, C. F.

    2000-07-15

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles involves manipulating particle interactions such that attractions are on the order of the average thermal energy in the system. If the self-assembly is to result in an ordered packing, an understanding of their phase behavior is necessary. Here we test the ability of simple pair potentials to characterize the interactions and phase behavior of silico tungstic acid (STA), a 1.2 nm particle. The strength of interaction is controlled by dispersing STA in different background salt concentrations. The experimental variables used in characterizing the interactions are the osmotic compressibility (d{pi}/d{rho}), the second virial coefficient (B{sub 2}), relative solution viscosity ({eta}/{eta}{sub c}), and the solubility ({rho}{sigma}{sup 3}){sub sat}. Various techniques are then developed to extract the parameters of square well, the adhesive hard sphere (AHS), and the Yukawa pair potentials that best describe the experimental data. The AHS model describes the solution thermodynamic behavior only where the system is weakly attractive but, as would be expected, fails when long range repulsions or nonmonotonic pair potentials become important. Model free representations are presented which offer the opportunity to extract pair potential parameters. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Measurement error models with interactions.

    PubMed

    Midthune, Douglas; Carroll, Raymond J; Freedman, Laurence S; Kipnis, Victor

    2016-04-01

    An important use of measurement error models is to correct regression models for bias due to covariate measurement error. Most measurement error models assume that the observed error-prone covariate (WW ) is a linear function of the unobserved true covariate (X) plus other covariates (Z) in the regression model. In this paper, we consider models for W that include interactions between X and Z. We derive the conditional distribution of X given W and Z and use it to extend the method of regression calibration to this class of measurement error models. We apply the model to dietary data and test whether self-reported dietary intake includes an interaction between true intake and body mass index. We also perform simulations to compare the model to simpler approximate calibration models. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  1. Modeling Interactive Intelligences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    New York: Basic Books, 1999. P. 207-10. [5] Piaget , Jean . Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood. New York: Norton, 1962. [6] Dillard, Annie. Living...concepts of reentry and binding. Next, I rely on Jean Piaget’s model of adaptation in order to examine the function of imitation and play in an...rather than metrics should be used. 2. ADAPTATION, SELECTION, IMITATION, AND PLAY Piaget presented adaptive behavior as a combination of accommodation and

  2. Giant Polymersome Protocells Dock with Virus Particle Mimics via Multivalent Glycan-Lectin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kubilis, Artur; Abdulkarim, Ali; Eissa, Ahmed M.; Cameron, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the low complexity of their components, several simple physical systems, including microspheres, coacervate droplets and phospholipid membrane structures (liposomes), have been suggested as protocell models. These, however, lack key cellular characteristics, such as the ability to replicate or to dock with extracellular species. Here, we report a simple method for the de novo creation of synthetic cell mimics in the form of giant polymeric vesicles (polymersomes), which are capable of behavior approaching that of living cells. These polymersomes form by self-assembly, under electroformation conditions, of amphiphilic, glycosylated block copolymers in aqueous solution. The glycosylated exterior of the resulting polymeric giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) allows their selective interaction with carbohydrate-binding receptor-functionalized particles, in a manner reminiscent of the cell-surface docking of virus particles. We believe that this is the first example of a simple protocell model displaying cell-like behavior through a native receptor-ligand interaction. PMID:27576579

  3. Giant Polymersome Protocells Dock with Virus Particle Mimics via Multivalent Glycan-Lectin Interactions.

    PubMed

    Kubilis, Artur; Abdulkarim, Ali; Eissa, Ahmed M; Cameron, Neil R

    2016-08-31

    Despite the low complexity of their components, several simple physical systems, including microspheres, coacervate droplets and phospholipid membrane structures (liposomes), have been suggested as protocell models. These, however, lack key cellular characteristics, such as the ability to replicate or to dock with extracellular species. Here, we report a simple method for the de novo creation of synthetic cell mimics in the form of giant polymeric vesicles (polymersomes), which are capable of behavior approaching that of living cells. These polymersomes form by self-assembly, under electroformation conditions, of amphiphilic, glycosylated block copolymers in aqueous solution. The glycosylated exterior of the resulting polymeric giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) allows their selective interaction with carbohydrate-binding receptor-functionalized particles, in a manner reminiscent of the cell-surface docking of virus particles. We believe that this is the first example of a simple protocell model displaying cell-like behavior through a native receptor-ligand interaction.

  4. Giant Polymersome Protocells Dock with Virus Particle Mimics via Multivalent Glycan-Lectin Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubilis, Artur; Abdulkarim, Ali; Eissa, Ahmed M.; Cameron, Neil R.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the low complexity of their components, several simple physical systems, including microspheres, coacervate droplets and phospholipid membrane structures (liposomes), have been suggested as protocell models. These, however, lack key cellular characteristics, such as the ability to replicate or to dock with extracellular species. Here, we report a simple method for the de novo creation of synthetic cell mimics in the form of giant polymeric vesicles (polymersomes), which are capable of behavior approaching that of living cells. These polymersomes form by self-assembly, under electroformation conditions, of amphiphilic, glycosylated block copolymers in aqueous solution. The glycosylated exterior of the resulting polymeric giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) allows their selective interaction with carbohydrate-binding receptor-functionalized particles, in a manner reminiscent of the cell-surface docking of virus particles. We believe that this is the first example of a simple protocell model displaying cell-like behavior through a native receptor-ligand interaction.

  5. Simulations of energetic particles interacting with nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate test-particle diffusion in dynamical turbulence based on a numerical approach presented before. For the turbulence we employ the nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence model which takes into account wave propagation effects as well as damping effects. We compute numerically diffusion coefficients of energetic particles along and across the mean magnetic field. We focus on turbulence and particle parameters which should be relevant for the solar system and compare our findings with different interplanetary observations. We vary different parameters such as the dissipation range spectral index, the ratio of the turbulence bendover scales, and the magnetic field strength in order to explore the relevance of the different parameters. We show that the bendover scales as well as the magnetic field ratio have a strong influence on diffusion coefficients whereas the influence of the dissipation range spectral index is weak. The best agreement with solar wind observations can be found for equal bendover scales and a magnetic field ratio of δ B / B0 = 0.75.

  6. Particle model for nonlocal heat transport in fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Bufferand, H; Ciraolo, G; Ghendrih, Ph; Lepri, S; Livi, R

    2013-02-01

    We present a simple stochastic, one-dimensional model for heat transfer in weakly collisional media as fusion plasmas. Energies of plasma particles are treated as lattice random variables interacting with a rate inversely proportional to their energy schematizing a screened Coulomb interaction. We consider both the equilibrium (microcanonical) and nonequilibrium case in which the system is in contact with heat baths at different temperatures. The model exhibits a characteristic length of thermalization that can be associated with an interaction mean free path and one observes a transition from ballistic to diffusive regime depending on the average energy of the system. A mean-field expression for heat flux is deduced from system heat transport properties. Finally, it is shown that the nonequilibrium steady state is characterized by long-range correlations.

  7. Coupled electrostatic and material surface stresses yield anomalous particle interactions and deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, B. A. Nikolayev, I.; Sheppard, C. J.

    2016-04-14

    Like-charges repel, and opposite charges attract. This fundamental tenet is a result of Coulomb's law. However, the electrostatic interactions between dielectric particles remain topical due to observations of like-charged particle attraction and the self-assembly of colloidal systems. Here, we show, using both an approximate description and an exact solution of Maxwell's equations, that nonlinear charged particle forces result even for linear material systems and can be responsible for anomalous electrostatic interactions such as like-charged particle attraction and oppositely charged particle repulsion. Furthermore, these electrostatic interactions and the deformation of such particles have fundamental implications for our understanding of macroscopic electrodynamics.

  8. Solar Wind Acceleration Mechanisms: Suprathermal Electron Effects Versus Wave-Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, S. W.; Chang, T.

    2001-12-01

    Various physical mechanisms have been considered as possible drivers of the solar wind. One of the possible acceleration mechanisms was suggested to be due to the heat flux generated by the suprathermal electrons in the solar wind [Olbert, 1982]. Such an idea has been applied to the ionospheric polar wind with photoelectrons playing the role of the suprathermal population [Tam et al., 1995, 1998], and has successfully addressed the various features observed by satellites. It has been shown that in the absence of wave-particle interactions, the suprathermal electron population can increase the ambipolar electric field, leading to higher ion velocities in the polar wind. More recently, we have investigated the effects of kinetic wave-particle interactions as a solar wind acceleration mechanism [Tam and Chang, 1999]. Our study also took into account Coulomb collisions and the global kinetic effects due to the suprathermal electron population. The study showed that these combined effects may account for the bulk acceleration of the solar wind. The wave-particle interactions, in particular, can lead to the preferential heating of the helium ions over the protons, as well as the occasionally observed double-peaked proton velocity distributions. In this study, we investigate the role of the suprathermal electron population in the acceleration of the solar wind. The results of our studies indicate that in the presence of strong wave-particle interactions, the contribution by the suprathermal electron effects becomes insignificant in the solar wind acceleration. This conclusion, however, may or may not be true for the weak wave-driven case. With strong wave-particle interactions, a recently introduced semi-kinetic model [Vocks and Marsch, 2001] which was based on reduced ion distributions, massless electron fluid, and an assumed electron temperature profile seems to be able to generate results that are consistent with those obtained with our more complete solar wind

  9. Atoms and Ions Interacting with Particles and Fields: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robicheaux, Francis

    2014-09-18

    This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms with particles and fields. The duration of the grant was the 10 year period from 8/2003 to 8/2013. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, postdocs, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 65 peer reviewed publications over these 10 years with 8 of the publications in Physical Review Letters; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B, ...). I will disuss the results for the periods of time relevant for each grant period.

  10. Dynamics of particle--turbulence interaction at the dissipative scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Dam, Nico; van de Water, Willem; JM Burgerscentrum Collaboration; COST Action, Particles in Turbulence Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    We present results of a novel phosphorescent tagging technique that is particularly suited to study particle-laden flows. Using phosphorescent droplets we probe the dynamics of particle-turbulence interaction at the dissipative length scales. We create a cloud of droplets within a chamber capable of generating homogeneous, isotropic turbulence with zero-mean flow. The droplets have Stokes number St ~ 1 , and the flow is intensely turbulent, with Reynolds number Reλ ~ 500 . Using a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser, we can tag a variety of volumes, such as thin slabs or thin, pencil-like cylinders. The droplets in these volumes glow during a few Kolmogorov times. By tracking the fate of pencil-shaped clouds using a fast (5 kHz) camera, we come to the surprising conclusion that they disperse faster than fluid elements, with a spreading rate reaching a maximum at St ~ 2 . Sheets of tagged droplets display preferential concentration at work; we discuss statistical quantities that can capture these events. This project is funded by Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM).

  11. Microscopic theory of polymer-mediated interactions between spherical particles

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.P.; Schweizer, K.S.

    1998-12-01

    We develop an analytic integral equation theory for treating polymer-induced effects on the structure and thermodynamics of dilute suspensions of hard spheres. Results are presented for the potential of mean force, free energy of insertion per particle into a polymer solution, and the second virial coefficient between spheres. The theory makes predictions for all size ratios between the spheres and the polymer coil dimension. Based on the Percus{endash}Yevick (PY) closure, the attractive polymer-induced depletion interaction is predicted to be too weak under athermal conditions to induce a negative value for the second virial coefficient, B{sub 2}{sup cc}, between spheres in the colloidal limit when the spheres are much larger than the coil size. A nonmonotonic dependence of the second virial coefficient on polymer concentration occurs for small enough particles, with the largest polymer-mediated attractions and most negative B{sub 2}{sup cc} occurring near the dilute{endash}semidilute crossover concentration. Predictions for the polymer-mediated force between spheres are compared to the results of computer simulations and scaling theory. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Nonthermal production of weakly interacting massive particles and the subgalactic structure of the universe.

    PubMed

    Lin, W B; Huang, D H; Zhang, X; Brandenberger, R

    2001-02-05

    There is increasing evidence that conventional cold dark matter (CDM) models lead to conflicts between observations and numerical simulations of dark matter halos on subgalactic scales, which rules out the favored candidates for CDM, namely weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). We propose a mechanism of nonthermal production of WIMPs and study its implications on the power spectrum. Our results show that, in this context, WIMPs as candidates for dark matter can work well both on large scales and on subgalactic scales.

  13. Neural Networks for Modeling and Control of Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Chase, B. E.; Edstrom, D.; Milton, S. V.; Stabile, P.

    2016-04-01

    Myriad nonlinear and complex physical phenomena are host to particle accelerators. They often involve a multitude of interacting systems, are subject to tight performance demands, and should be able to run for extended periods of time with minimal interruptions. Often times, traditional control techniques cannot fully meet these requirements. One promising avenue is to introduce machine learning and sophisticated control techniques inspired by artificial intelligence, particularly in light of recent theoretical and practical advances in these fields. Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, neural networks are particularly well-suited to modeling, control, and diagnostic analysis of complex, nonlinear, and time-varying systems, as well as systems with large parameter spaces. Consequently, the use of neural network-based modeling and control techniques could be of significant benefit to particle accelerators. For the same reasons, particle accelerators are also ideal test-beds for these techniques. Moreover, many early attempts to apply neural networks to particle accelerators yielded mixed results due to the relative immaturity of the technology for such tasks. For the purpose of this paper is to re-introduce neural networks to the particle accelerator community and report on some work in neural network control that is being conducted as part of a dedicated collaboration between Fermilab and Colorado State University (CSU). We also describe some of the challenges of particle accelerator control, highlight recent advances in neural network techniques, discuss some promising avenues for incorporating neural networks into particle accelerator control systems, and describe a neural network-based control system that is being developed for resonance control of an RF electron gun at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, including initial experimental results from a benchmark controller.

  14. Neural Networks for Modeling and Control of Particle Accelerators

    DOE PAGES

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Chase, B. E.; ...

    2016-04-01

    Myriad nonlinear and complex physical phenomena are host to particle accelerators. They often involve a multitude of interacting systems, are subject to tight performance demands, and should be able to run for extended periods of time with minimal interruptions. Often times, traditional control techniques cannot fully meet these requirements. One promising avenue is to introduce machine learning and sophisticated control techniques inspired by artificial intelligence, particularly in light of recent theoretical and practical advances in these fields. Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, neural networks are particularly well-suited to modeling, control, and diagnostic analysis of complex, nonlinear, and time-varying systems,more » as well as systems with large parameter spaces. Consequently, the use of neural network-based modeling and control techniques could be of significant benefit to particle accelerators. For the same reasons, particle accelerators are also ideal test-beds for these techniques. Moreover, many early attempts to apply neural networks to particle accelerators yielded mixed results due to the relative immaturity of the technology for such tasks. For the purpose of this paper is to re-introduce neural networks to the particle accelerator community and report on some work in neural network control that is being conducted as part of a dedicated collaboration between Fermilab and Colorado State University (CSU). We also describe some of the challenges of particle accelerator control, highlight recent advances in neural network techniques, discuss some promising avenues for incorporating neural networks into particle accelerator control systems, and describe a neural network-based control system that is being developed for resonance control of an RF electron gun at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, including initial experimental results from a benchmark controller.« less

  15. Object Oriented Design and the Standard Model of particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovaca, Samir

    2007-04-01

    Inspired by the computer as both tool and metaphor, a new path emerges toward understanding life, physics, and existence. The path leads throughout all of nature, from the interior of cells to inside black holes. This view of science is based on the idea that information is the ultimate ``substance'' from which all things are made. Exploring this view, we will focus on Object - Oriented (OO) design as one of the most important designs in software development. The OO design views the world as composed of objects with well defined properties. The dynamics is pictured as interactions among objects. Interactions are mediated by messages that objects exchange with each other. This description closely resembles the view of the elementary particles world created by the Standard Model of particle physics. The object model (OM) provides a theoretical foundation upon which the OO design is built. The OM is based on the principles of abstraction, encapsulation, modularity and hierarchy. We will show that the Standard Model of particle physics follows