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Sample records for model previously developed

  1. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. PMID:26590280

  2. Interpreting "Personality" Taxonomies: Why Previous Models Cannot Capture Individual-Specific Experiencing, Behaviour, Functioning and Development. Major Taxonomic Tasks Still Lay Ahead.

    PubMed

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    As science seeks to make generalisations, a science of individual peculiarities encounters intricate challenges. This article explores these challenges by applying the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) and by exploring taxonomic "personality" research as an example. Analyses of researchers' interpretations of the taxonomic "personality" models, constructs and data that have been generated in the field reveal widespread erroneous assumptions about the abilities of previous methodologies to appropriately represent individual-specificity in the targeted phenomena. These assumptions, rooted in everyday thinking, fail to consider that individual-specificity and others' minds cannot be directly perceived, that abstract descriptions cannot serve as causal explanations, that between-individual structures cannot be isomorphic to within-individual structures, and that knowledge of compositional structures cannot explain the process structures of their functioning and development. These erroneous assumptions and serious methodological deficiencies in widely used standardised questionnaires have effectively prevented psychologists from establishing taxonomies that can comprehensively model individual-specificity in most of the kinds of phenomena explored as "personality", especially in experiencing and behaviour and in individuals' functioning and development. Contrary to previous assumptions, it is not universal models but rather different kinds of taxonomic models that are required for each of the different kinds of phenomena, variations and structures that are commonly conceived of as "personality". Consequently, to comprehensively explore individual-specificity, researchers have to apply a portfolio of complementary methodologies and develop different kinds of taxonomies, most of which have yet to be developed. Closing, the article derives some meta-desiderata for future research on individuals' "personality".

  3. MCNP HPGe detector benchmark with previously validated Cyltran model.

    PubMed

    Hau, I D; Russ, W R; Bronson, F

    2009-05-01

    An exact copy of the detector model generated for Cyltran was reproduced as an MCNP input file and the detection efficiency was calculated similarly with the methodology used in previous experimental measurements and simulation of a 280 cm(3) HPGe detector. Below 1000 keV the MCNP data correlated to the Cyltran results within 0.5% while above this energy the difference between MCNP and Cyltran increased to about 6% at 4800 keV, depending on the electron cut-off energy.

  4. Guidelines of the previous consensus conference and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Beck, I T

    1997-09-01

    This article reviews the major changes that have occurred since the last Canadian consensus conference on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which was held four years ago. There were developments in the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease and improvements in the methods of its investigation and management. Esophageal and extraesophageal complications have also been better defined. Since 1992 new knowledge on nitric oxide has been gained and several new inflammatory cytokines have been developed. Improved understanding of the mechanism of the hypersensitive esophagus helped to explain the presence of clinical symptoms with normal endoscopic findings. This also improved interpretation of the role of 24 h pH monitoring and 24 h pH with motility recording. There is better understanding of the role of H2 receptor antagonists and prokinetics and an increasing confidence in the long term safety of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The most important changes occurred in surgery with the introduction of laparoscopic fundoplication. Patients with Barrett's esophagus who are too ill for esophagectomy may now be enrolled in surveillance because it is possible to deal with dysplasia and small cancers with photodynamic therapy. As an introductory lecture to the consensus conference, this article also deals with the subject of health economics and discusses the necessity and the dangers involved in devising treatment guidelines. It indicates that guidelines change with advancing knowledge, and emphasizes that physicians' primary duty is toward their patients. Therefore, guidelines devised here should be adjusted to the individual needs of patients. Organizational aspects of the present conference are also described.

  5. Validation of SWAT+ at field level and comparison with previous SWAT models in simulating hydrologic quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAO, J.; White, M. J.; Bieger, K.; Yen, H.; Arnold, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been adopted by many researches to assess water quantity and quality in watersheds around the world. As the demand increases in facilitating model support, maintenance, and future development, the SWAT source code and data have undergone major modifications over the past few years. To make the model more flexible in terms of interactions of spatial units and processes occurring in watersheds, a completely revised version of SWAT (SWAT+) was developed to improve SWAT's ability in water resource modelling and management. There are only several applications of SWAT+ in large watersheds, however, no study pays attention to validate the new model at field level and assess its performance. To test the basic hydrologic function of SWAT+, it was implemented in five field cases across five states in the U.S. and compared the SWAT+ created results with that from the previous models at the same fields. Additionally, an automatic calibration tool was used to test which model is easier to be calibrated well in a limited number of parameter adjustments. The goal of the study was to evaluate the performance of SWAT+ in simulating stream flow on field level at different geographical locations. The results demonstrate that SWAT+ demonstrated similar performance with previous SWAT model, but the flexibility offered by SWAT+ via the connection of different spatial objects can result in a more accurate simulation of hydrological processes in spatial, especially for watershed with artificial facilities. Autocalibration shows that SWAT+ is much easier to obtain a satisfied result compared with the previous SWAT. Although many capabilities have already been enhanced in SWAT+, there exist inaccuracies in simulation. This insufficiency will be improved with advancements in scientific knowledge on hydrologic process in specific watersheds. Currently, SWAT+ is prerelease, and any errors are being addressed.

  6. Validation of Three Previously Developed Short Forms of the Beck Depression Inventory for Youth: A Replication.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Jaime E; Liptak, Cori; Recklitis, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    Three previously developed short forms of the Beck Depression Inventory-Youth (BDI-Y) were validated against the standard 20-item BDI-Y; 168 adolescent survivors completed the standard and short-form versions of the BDI-Y. The short forms were evaluated for internal consistency and compared with the standard BDI-Y using correlation coefficients and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The three short forms had good internal consistency (α > 0.85), high correlations with the total BDI-Y scale (r > 0.85), and good discrimination compared with the standard BDI-Y cutoff score (area under the ROC curve >0.95). Consistent with prior findings, strong psychometric properties of an eight-item short form support its use as a screening measure for adolescent cancer survivors.

  7. Hepatic steatosis development with four weeks of physical inactivity in previously active, hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Linden, Melissa A; Meers, Grace M; Ruebel, Meghan L; Jenkins, Nathan T; Booth, Frank W; Laughlin, M Harold; Ibdah, Jamal A; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity-induced prevention of hepatic steatosis is maintained during short-term (7-day) transitions to an inactive state; however, whether these protective effects are present under a longer duration of physical inactivity is largely unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether previous physical activity had protective effects on hepatic steatosis and metabolic health following 4 wk of physical inactivity. Four-week old, hyperphagic, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats were randomly assigned to either a sedentary group for 16 wk (OLETF-SED), given access to running wheels for 16 wk with wheels locked 5 h (OLETF-WL5hr) or given access to running wheels for 12 wk with wheels locked 4 wk (OLETF-WL4wk) prior to death. Four weeks of physical inactivity caused hepatic steatosis development, but liver triglycerides remained 60% lower than OLETF-SED (P < 0.01), and this was associated with only a partial loss in activity-induced improvements in body composition, serum lipids, and glycemic control. Total hepatic mitochondrial palmitate oxidation, citrate synthase, and β-HAD activity returned to SED levels following 4 wk of inactivity, whereas markers of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis remained relatively suppressed following 4 wk of inactivity. In addition, 4 wk of inactivity caused a complete loss of activity-induced increases in serum IL-6 and reductions in regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), and a partial loss in reductions in leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α. In conclusion, 4 wk of physical inactivity does not result in a complete loss in physical activity-induced benefits but does cause deterioration in the liver phenotype and overall metabolic health in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

  8. Do Postpartum Levels of Apolipoproteins Prospectively Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus?

    PubMed

    Lappas, Martha; Georgiou, Harry M; Velagic, Anida; Willcox, Jane C; Permezel, Michael; Shub, Alexis

    2018-03-12

    The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is greater in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Apolipoprotein (Apo) species have been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine if circulating levels of Apo species can predict development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous GDM. Apo AI, Apo AII, Apo B, Apo CII, Apo CIII and Apo E levels were measured in 95 women with normal glucose tolerance, 12 weeks following an index GDM pregnancy. Women were assessed for up to 10 years for the development of type 2 diabetes. Postpartum Apo CIII levels, and Apo CIII/Apo AI, Apo CIII/Apo AII, Apo CIII/Apo CII, Apo CIII/Apo E and Apo E/Apo CIII ratios were significantly and positively associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. After controlling for age and BMI, these associations, except for the Apo E/Apo CIII ratio, remained significant. In a clinical model of prediction of type 2 diabetes that included age, BMI, and pregnancy and postnatal fasting glucose, the addition of Apo CIII levels, Apo CIII/Apo AI, Apo CIII/Apo AII, Apo CIII/Apo CII, and Apo CIII/Apo E resulted in a net reclassification improvement of 16.2%. High Apo CIII levels and the Apo CIII/Apo AI, Apo CIII/Apo AII, Apo CIII/Apo CII, and Apo CIII/Apo E ratios are all significant risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes in women with a previous GDM pregnancy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Discovery of previously unrecognised local faults in London, UK, using detailed 3D geological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiss, Don; Haslam, Richard

    2013-04-01

    In parts of London, faulting introduces lateral heterogeneity to the local ground conditions, especially where construction works intercept the Palaeogene Lambeth Group. This brings difficulties to the compilation of a ground model that is fully consistent with the ground investigation data, and so to the design and construction of engineering works. However, because bedrock in the London area is rather uniform at outcrop, and is widely covered by Quaternary deposits, few faults are shown on the geological maps of the area. This paper discusses a successful resolution of this problem at a site in east central London, where tunnels for a new underground railway station are planned. A 3D geological model was used to provide an understanding of the local geological structure, in faulted Lambeth Group strata, that had not been possible by other commonly-used methods. This model includes seven previously unrecognised faults, with downthrows ranging from about 1 m to about 12 m. The model was constructed in the GSI3D geological modelling software using about 145 borehole records, including many legacy records, in an area of 850 m by 500 m. The basis of a GSI3D 3D geological model is a network of 2D cross-sections drawn by a geologist, generally connecting borehole positions (where the borehole records define the level of the geological units that are present), and outcrop and subcrop lines for those units (where shown by a geological map). When the lines tracing the base of each geological unit within the intersecting cross-sections are complete and mutually consistent, the software is used to generate TIN surfaces between those lines, so creating a 3D geological model. Even where a geological model is constructed as if no faults were present, changes in apparent dip between two data points within a single cross-section can indicate that a fault is present in that segment of the cross-section. If displacements of similar size with the same polarity are found in a series

  10. Gestational hypothyroidism: development of mild hypothyroidism in early pregnancy in previously euthyroid women.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Karen R; Cataldo, Nicholas A; Hubbard, Janice A; Malizia, Beth A; Steinkampf, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    To determine the proportion of euthyroid women attending a fertility practice who develop hypothyroidism in very early pregnancy (gestational hypothyroidism [GHT]), and to examine the association of GHT with exogenous gonadotropin treatment. Retrospective cohort study. A private reproductive medicine practice. All healthy women (N = 94) with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss, TSH level <2.5 mIU/L, negative thyroid peroxidase antibodies at initial evaluation, and not taking thyroid medication, who conceived during an 18-month period. Usual fertility care; 30 women who had received exogenous gonadotropins. Serum TSH level at the time of pregnancy detection. Gestational hypothyroidism (TSH ≥ 2.5 mIU/L) developed in 23 of 94 women (24%). The mean increase in serum TSH level from initial evaluation to early pregnancy was 0.45 ± 0.08 [SE] mIU/L. There was a trend toward the association of GHT with use of exogenous gonadotropins. Gestational hypothyroidism was positively associated with initial prepregnancy TSH level. Euthyroid women may develop mild hypothyroidism in early pregnancy, especially after exogenous gonadotropin treatment. Appropriate vigilance will allow for timely levothyroxine treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ignition and Growth Modeling of Detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% VITON) Using New and Previously Obtained Experimental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig

    2017-06-01

    An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% Viton) was developed using new and previously obtained experimental data on: cylinder test expansion; wave curvature; failure diameter; and laser interferometric copper and tantalum foil free surface velocities and LiF interface particle velocity histories. A reaction product JWL EOS generated by the CHEETAH code compared favorably with the existing, well normalized LX-04 product JWL when both were used with the Ignition and Growth model. Good agreement with all existing experimental data was obtained. Keywords: LX-04, HMX, detonation, Ignition and Growth PACS:82.33.Vx, 82.40.Fp This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Mechanical and histological characterization of the abdominal muscle. A previous step to modelling hernia surgery.

    PubMed

    Hernández, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Calvo, B; Doblaré, M; Bellón, J M

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study are to experimentally characterize the passive elastic behaviour of the rabbit abdominal wall and to develop a mechanical constitutive law which accurately reproduces the obtained experimental results. For this purpose, tissue samples from New Zealand White rabbits 2150±50 (g) were mechanically tested in vitro. Mechanical tests, consisting of uniaxial loading on tissue samples oriented along the craneo-caudal and the perpendicular directions, respectively, revealed the anisotropic non-linear mechanical behaviour of the abdominal tissues. Experiments were performed considering the composite muscle (including external oblique-EO, internal oblique-IO and transverse abdominis-TA muscle layers), as well as separated muscle layers (i.e., external oblique, and the bilayer formed by internal oblique and transverse abdominis). Both the EO muscle layer and the IO-TA bilayer demonstrated a stiffer behaviour along the transversal direction to muscle fibres than along the longitudinal one. The fibre arrangement was measured by means of a histological study which confirmed that collagen fibres are mainly responsible for the passive mechanical strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the degree of anisotropy of the abdominal composite muscle turned out to be less pronounced than those obtained while studying the EO and IO-TA separately. Moreover, a phenomenological constitutive law was used to capture the measured experimental curves. A Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was used to fit the model constants to reproduce the experimental curves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using a New Crustal Thickness Model to Test Previous Candidate Lunar Basins and to Search for New Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. M.; Frey, H. V.

    2012-01-01

    A new crustal thickness model was used to test the viability of 110 candidate large lunar basins previously identified using older topographic and crustal thickness data as well as photogeologic data. The new model was also used to search for new candidate lunar basins greater than 300 km in diameter. We eliminated 11 of 27 candidates previously identified in the older crustal thickness model, and found strong evidence for at least 8 new candidates.

  14. New Ages for Gorgona Island, Colombia: Implications for Previous Petrogenetic and Tectonic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano Duran, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.; Ferrari, L.

    2007-05-01

    reliable plateau and/or isochron ages. Only one basaltic sample, located in the western coast, yielded an age comparable with those previously reported in the literature. For two basalts intercalated with komatiites and a gabbro exposed in the north-eastern coast of the island we obtained younger ages, similar to those reported for some mafic and ultramafic rocks along the Pacific coast of Colombia. The two sets of ages for the ultramafic suite of Gorgona also correspond to different petrologic types. The depleted rocks in the eastern coast are younger than the enriched basalts and picrites located in the southern and western part of the island with ages around 90 Ma, suggesting a more complex tectonic evolution with the accretion of at least two different blocks. This eventually questions the "single plume" model for the formation of the Gorgona Island plateau.

  15. Can Patients Who Develop Cerebral Death in Fulminant Liver Failure Despite Liver Transplantation Be Previously Forseen?

    PubMed

    Sarici, K B; Karakas, S; Otan, E; Ince, V; Koc, C; Koc, S; Bayraktar, H; Aydin, C; Kayaalp, C; Gungor, S; Kablan, Y; Yilmaz, S

    2017-04-01

    The outcome of medical treatment is worse in fulminant liver failure (FLF) developing on acute or chronic ground. Recently, liver transplantations with the use of living and cadaveric donors have been performed in these diseases and good results obtained. In this study, we aimed to present the factors affecting the recovery of cerebral functions after liver transplantation in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) developing in FLF, to identify irreversible patient groups and to prevent unnecessary liver transplantation. In Inonu University's Liver Transplant Institute, 69 patients who made an emergency notice to the National Coordination Center for liver transplantation owing to FLF from January 2012 to December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 52 patients who underwent liver transplantation and recovered normal brain function, and group 2 had 17 patients who underwent liver transplantation and did not recover normal brain function and had cerebral death. All patients were evaluated before surgery for clinical encephalopathy stage, light reflex, and convulsions. Groups were compared and assessed according to age (>40, 10-40 and <10 years), body mass index, etiologic factor, preoperative laboratory values, transplantation type, mortality, and encephalopathy level. Multivariate analysis was done for specific parameters. Prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), and total bilirubin values were significantly different between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding ammonia and lactate levels. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding sodium and potassium levels from serum electrolytes. However, the averages of both groups were within normal limits. pH and total bilirubin levels were meaningful for multivariate analysis. HE reversibility, mortality, and morbidity are important in patients with HE who undergo liver

  16. Planning policy, sustainability and housebuilder practices: The move into (and out of?) the redevelopment of previously developed land

    PubMed Central

    Karadimitriou, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the transformations of the housebuilding industry under the policy requirement to build on previously developed land (PDL). This requirement was a key lever in promoting the sustainable urban development agenda of UK governments from the early 1990s to 2010 and has survived albeit somewhat relaxed and permutated in the latest National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). The paper therefore looks at the way in which the policy push towards densification and mixed use affected housebuilders’ business strategy and practices and their ability to cope with the 2007 downturn of the housing market and its aftermath. It also points out the eventual feedback of some of these practices into planning policy. Following the gradual shift of British urban policy focus towards sustainability which started in the early 1990s, new configurations of actors, new skills, strategies and approaches to managing risk emerged in property development and housebuilding. There were at least two ways in which housebuilders could have responded to the requirements of developing long term mixed use high density projects on PDL. One way was to develop new products and to employ practices and combinations of practices involving phasing, a flexible approach to planning applications and innovative production methods. Alternatively, they could approach PDL development as a temporary turn of policy or view mixed use high density schemes as a niche market to be explored without drastically overhauling the business model of the entire firm. These transformations of the UK housebuilding sector were unfolding during a long period of buoyancy in the housing market which came to an end in 2007. Very little is known both about how housebuilder strategies and production practices evolved during the boom years as well as about how these firms coped with the effects of the 2007 market downturn. The paper draws on published data (company annual reports, government statistics) and primary

  17. Planning policy, sustainability and housebuilder practices: The move into (and out of?) the redevelopment of previously developed land.

    PubMed

    Karadimitriou, Nikos

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores the transformations of the housebuilding industry under the policy requirement to build on previously developed land (PDL). This requirement was a key lever in promoting the sustainable urban development agenda of UK governments from the early 1990s to 2010 and has survived albeit somewhat relaxed and permutated in the latest National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF). The paper therefore looks at the way in which the policy push towards densification and mixed use affected housebuilders' business strategy and practices and their ability to cope with the 2007 downturn of the housing market and its aftermath. It also points out the eventual feedback of some of these practices into planning policy. Following the gradual shift of British urban policy focus towards sustainability which started in the early 1990s, new configurations of actors, new skills, strategies and approaches to managing risk emerged in property development and housebuilding. There were at least two ways in which housebuilders could have responded to the requirements of developing long term mixed use high density projects on PDL. One way was to develop new products and to employ practices and combinations of practices involving phasing, a flexible approach to planning applications and innovative production methods. Alternatively, they could approach PDL development as a temporary turn of policy or view mixed use high density schemes as a niche market to be explored without drastically overhauling the business model of the entire firm. These transformations of the UK housebuilding sector were unfolding during a long period of buoyancy in the housing market which came to an end in 2007. Very little is known both about how housebuilder strategies and production practices evolved during the boom years as well as about how these firms coped with the effects of the 2007 market downturn. The paper draws on published data (company annual reports, government statistics) and primary

  18. 34 CFR 606.24 - How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when awarding a development grant? 606.24 Section 606.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION...

  19. 34 CFR 607.24 - How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when awarding a development grant? 607.24 Section 607.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION...

  20. [Incidence and clinical risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Vigo, P; Álvarez-Silvares, E; Alves-Pérez M T; Domínguez-Sánchez, J; González-González, A

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes is considered a variant of diabetes mellitus as they share a common pathophysiological basis: insulin resistance in target and insufficient secretion of it by pancreatic p-cell bodies. Pregnancy is a unique physiological situation provides an opportunity to identify future risk of diabetes mellitus. To determine the long-term incidence of diabetes mellitus in women who have previously been diagnosed with gestational diabetes and identifying clinical risk factors for developing the same. nested case-control cohort study. 671 patients between 1996 and 2009 were diagnosed with gestational diabetes were selected. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was estimated and 2 subgroups were formed: Group A or cases: women who develop diabetes mellitus after diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Group B or control: random sample of 71 women with a history of gestational diabetes in the follow-up period remained normoglycemic. Both groups were studied up to 18 years postpartum. By studying Kaplan Meier survival of the influence of different gestational variables it was obtained in the later development of diabetes mellitus with time parameter and COX models for categorical variables were applied. Significant variables were studied by multivariate Cox analysis. In all analyzes the Hazard ratio was calculated with confidence intervals at 95%. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was 10.3% in patients with a history of gestational diabetes. They were identified as risk factors in the index pregnancy to later development of diabetes mellitus: greater than 35 and younger than 27 years maternal age, BMI greater than 30 kg/m2, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, insulin therapy, poor metabolic control and more than a complicated pregnancy with gestational diabetes. Clinical factors have been identified in the pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes that determine a higher probability of progression to diabetes mellitus in the medium and long term.

  1. Previous Institutionalization Is Followed by Broader Amygdala-Hippocampal-PFC Network Connectivity during Aversive Learning in Human Development.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Lumian, Daniel S; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Gee, Dylan G; Goff, Bonnie; Fareri, Dominic S; Caldera, Christina; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-15

    Early institutional care can be profoundly stressful for the human infant, and, as such, can lead to significant alterations in brain development. In animal models, similar variants of early adversity have been shown to modify amygdala-hippocampal-prefrontal cortex development and associated aversive learning. The current study examined this rearing aberration in human development. Eighty-nine children and adolescents who were either previously institutionalized (PI youth; N = 46; 33 females and 13 males; age range, 7-16 years) or were raised by their biological parents from birth (N = 43; 22 females and 21 males; age range, 7-16 years) completed an aversive-learning paradigm while undergoing functional neuroimaging, wherein visual cues were paired with either an aversive sound (CS+) or no sound (CS-). For the PI youth, better aversive learning was associated with higher concurrent trait anxiety. Both groups showed robust learning and amygdala activation for CS+ versus CS- trials. However, PI youth also exhibited broader recruitment of several regions and increased hippocampal connectivity with prefrontal cortex. Stronger connectivity between the hippocampus and ventromedial PFC predicted significant improvements in future anxiety (measured 2 years later), and this was particularly true within the PI group. These results suggest that for humans as well as for other species, early adversity alters the neurobiology of aversive learning by engaging a broader prefrontal-subcortical circuit than same-aged peers. These differences are interpreted as ontogenetic adaptations and potential sources of resilience. Prior institutionalization is a significant form of early adversity. While nonhuman animal research suggests that early adversity alters aversive learning and associated neurocircuitry, no prior work has examined this in humans. Here, we show that youth who experienced prior institutionalization, but not comparison youth, recruit the hippocampus during aversive

  2. Response surface models for effects of temperature and previous growth sodium chloride on growth kinetics of Salmonella typhimurium on cooked chicken breast.

    PubMed

    Oscar, T P

    1999-12-01

    Response surface models were developed and validated for effects of temperature (10 to 40 degrees C) and previous growth NaCl (0.5 to 4.5%) on lag time (lambda) and specific growth rate (mu) of Salmonella Typhimurium on cooked chicken breast. Growth curves for model development (n = 55) and model validation (n = 16) were fit to a two-phase linear growth model to obtain lambda and mu of Salmonella Typhimurium on cooked chicken breast. Response surface models for natural logarithm transformations of lambda and mu as a function of temperature and previous growth NaCl were obtained by regression analysis. Both lambda and mu of Salmonella Typhimurium were affected (P < 0.0001) by temperature but not by previous growth NaCl. Models were validated against data not used in their development. Mean absolute relative error of predictions (model accuracy) was 26.6% for lambda and 15.4% for mu. Median relative error of predictions (model bias) was 0.9% for lambda and 5.2% for mu. Results indicated that the models developed provided reliable predictions of lambda and mu of Salmonella Typhimurium on cooked chicken breast within the matrix of conditions modeled. In addition, results indicated that previous growth NaCl (0.5 to 4.5%) was not a major factor affecting subsequent growth kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium on cooked chicken breast. Thus, inclusion of previous growth NaCl in predictive models may not significantly improve our ability to predict growth of Salmonella spp. on food subjected to temperature abuse.

  3. Treatment with Ca2+ ionophore improves embryo development and outcome in cases with previous developmental problems: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Ebner, T; Oppelt, P; Wöber, M; Staples, P; Mayer, R B; Sonnleitner, U; Bulfon-Vogl, S; Gruber, I; Haid, A E; Shebl, O

    2015-01-01

    Does calcium ionophore treatment (A23187, calcimycin) improve embryo development and outcome in patients with a history of developmental problems/arrest? Application of A23187 leads to increased rates of cleavage to 2-cell stage, blastocyst formation and clinical pregnancy/live birth. Studies on lower animals indicate that changes in intracellular free calcium trigger and regulate the events of cell division. In humans, calcium fluctuations were detected with a peak shortly before cell division. Interestingly, these calcium oscillations disappeared in arrested embryos. Mitotic division blocked with a Ca(2+) chelator could be restored by means of ionophores in an animal model. This prospective, multicenter (five Austrian centers), uncontrolled intervention study (duration 1 year) includes 57 patients who provided informed consent. Inclusion criteria were complete embryo developmental arrest in a previous cycle (no transfer), complete developmental delay (no morula/blastocyst on Day 5), or reduced blastocyst formation on Day 5 (≤15%). Severe male factor patients and patients with <30% fertilization rate after ICSI were excluded because these would be routine indications for ionophore usage. The total of the 57 immediately preceding cycles in the same patients constituted the control cycles/control group. In the treatment cycles, all metaphase II-oocytes were exposed to a commercially available ready-to-use ionophore for 15 min immediately after ICSI. After a three-step washing procedure, in vitro culture was performed as in the control cycles, up to blastocyst stage when achievable. Fertilization rate did not differ (75.4 versus 73.2%); however, further cleavage to 2-cell stage was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the ionophore group (98.5%) when compared with the control cycles (91.9%). In addition, significantly more (P < 0.05) blastocysts formed on Day 5 in the study compared with the control group (47.6 versus 5.5%, respectively) and this was associated with

  4. Develop a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensey, Tyler S.

    2013-01-01

    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  5. Development of a Simple Tool for Identifying Alcohol Use Disorder in Female Korean Drinkers from Previous Questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Seok Joon; Suh, Won Yoon; Youn, Kwangmi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a simple tool for identifying alcohol use disorders in female Korean drinkers from previous questionnaires. This research was conducted on 400 women who consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the past month and visited the health promotion center at Chungnam National University Hospital between June 2013 to May 2014. Drinking habits and alcohol use disorders were assessed by structured interviews using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition diagnostic criteria. The subjects were also asked to answer the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-Consumption, CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener), TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, Kut down), TACE (Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut down, Eye-opener), and NET (Normal drinker, Eye-opener, Tolerance) questionnaires. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of each question of the questionnaires on alcohol use disorders was assessed. After combining two questions with the largest AUROC, it was compared to other previous questionnaires. Among the 400 subjects, 58 (14.5%) were identified as having an alcohol use disorder. Two questions with the largest AUROC were question no. 7 in AUDIT, "How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking?" and question no. 5 in AUDIT, "How often during the past year have you failed to do what was normally expected from you because of drinking?" with an AUROC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.886 (0.850-0.915) and 0.862 (0.824-0.894), respectively. The AUROC (95% CI) of the combination of the two questions was 0.958 (0.934-0.976) with no significant difference as compared to the existing AUDIT with the largest AUROC. The above results suggest that the simple tool consisting of questions no. 5 and no. 7 in AUDIT is useful in identifying alcohol use disorders in Korean female drinkers.

  6. Incidence and risk factors for inhibitor development in previously untreated severe haemophilia A patients born between 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Vézina, C; Carcao, M; Infante-Rivard, C; Lillicrap, D; Stain, A M; Paradis, E; Teitel, J; Rivard, G E

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitor development (ID) in previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe haemophilia A (FVIII ≤ 0.01 IU mL(-1) ). All Canadian Haemophilia Treatment Centres completed a questionnaire on patients born between September 2005 and August 2010 and followed for up to 7 years. Eligible patients had at least 20 exposure days (ED) or had developed an inhibitor. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for risk factors to develop an inhibitor were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. A total of 99 haemophilia A PUPs were studied. Thirty-four (34%) developed an inhibitor (24/34 of high titre). Inhibitors developed in 25/63 (40%) patients with a high-risk mutation. ID was most frequent in Aboriginals (86%). Dose intensity (IU kg(-1)  day(-1) X number of ED) at first exposure to factor VIII (FVIII) was associated with a crude OR increase of 1.10 (95% CI: 0.99-1.23) with each increase of 100 dose-intensity units. Haemarthrosis and intracranial bleeding as the indication for first exposure to FVIII concentrate were associated with a crude OR for ID of 7.63 (95% CI: 2.14-27.17) and 5.08 (95% CI: 1.11-23.31) respectively. ID according to FVIII concentrate used was: Advate (®) 18/50 (36%), Kogenate FS(®) or Helixate FS(®) 15/36 (42%), Wilate(®) 0/11 and Xyntha(®) 1/2. In multivariate analysis, Aboriginal ethnicity (OR = 11.69; 95% CI: 1.11-122.86) and haemarthrosis (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.08-18.61) were statistically significant. The cumulative incidence of ID in severe haemophilia A PUPs was 34% and varied according to ethnicity, type of bleeding at first ED, type of FVIII product and dose intensity at first exposure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cancer Model Development Centers

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Model Development Centers (CMDCs) are the NCI-funded contributors to the HCMI. They are tasked with producing next-generation cancer models from clinical samples. The cancer models will encompass tumor types that are rare, originate from patients from underrepresented populations, or lack precision therapy. These models will be annotated with clinical and genomic data and will become a community resource.

  8. Postpartum IGF-I and IGFBP-2 levels are prospectively associated with the development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lappas, M; Jinks, D; Shub, A; Willcox, J C; Georgiou, H M; Permezel, M

    2016-12-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In the general population, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if circulating IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 levels 12weeks following a GDM pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 levels were measured in 98 normal glucose tolerant women, 12weeks following an index GDM pregnancy using enzyme immunoassay. Women were assessed for up to 10years for the development of overt type 2 diabetes. Among the 98 women with previous GDM, 21 (21%) developed diabetes during the median follow-up period of 8.5years. After adjusting for age and BMI, IGF-I and IGFBP-2 were significantly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. In a clinical model of prediction of type 2 diabetes that included age, BMI, pregnancy fasting glucose and postnatal fasting glucose, the addition of IGF-I and IGFBP-2 resulted in an improvement in the net reclassification index of 17.8%. High postpartum IGF-I and low postpartum IGFBP-2 levels are a significant risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in women with a previous history of GDM. This is the first report that identifies IGF-I and IGFBP-2 as a potential biomarker for the prediction of type 2 diabetes in women with a history of GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The reliability of the Associate Platinum digital foot scanner in measuring previously developed footprint characteristics: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Papuga, M Owen; Burke, Jeanmarie R

    2011-02-01

    An ink pad and paper, pressure-sensitive platforms, and photography have previously been used to collect footprint data used in clinical assessment. Digital scanners have been widely used more recently to collect such data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of a flatbed digital image scanning technology to capture footprint data. This study used a repeated-measures design on 32 (16 male 16 female) healthy subjects. The following measured indices of footprint were recorded from 2-dimensional images of the plantar surface of the foot recorded with an Associate Platinum (Foot Levelers Inc, Roanoke, VA) digital foot scanner: Staheli index, Chippaux-Smirak index, arch angle, and arch index. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values were calculated to evaluate intrarater, interday, and interclinician reliability. The ICC values for intrarater reliability were greater than or equal to .817, indicating an excellent level of reproducibility in assessing the collected images. Analyses of variance revealed that there were no significant differences between raters for each index (P > .05). The ICC values also indicated excellent reliability (.881-.971) between days and clinicians in all but one of the indices of footprint, arch angle (.689), with good reliability between clinicians. The full-factorial analysis of variance model did not reveal any interaction effects (P > .05), which indicated that indices of footprint were not changing across days and clinicians. Scanning technology used in this study demonstrated good intra- and interrater reliability measurements of footprint indices, as demonstrated by high ICC values. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptomic Analysis in a Drosophila Model Identifies Previously Implicated and Novel Pathways in the Therapeutic Mechanism in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Priyanka; Mohammad, Farhan; Sharma, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    We have taken advantage of a newly described Drosophila model to gain insights into the potential mechanism of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a group of drugs that are widely used in the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric conditions besides epilepsy. In the recently described Drosophila model that is inspired by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling epileptogenesis in rodents, chronic PTZ treatment for 7 days causes a decreased climbing speed and an altered CNS transcriptome, with the latter mimicking gene expression alterations reported in epileptogenesis. In the model, an increased climbing speed is further observed 7 days after withdrawal from chronic PTZ. We used this post-PTZ withdrawal regime to identify potential AED mechanism. In this regime, treatment with each of the five AEDs tested, namely, ethosuximide, gabapentin, vigabatrin, sodium valproate, and levetiracetam, resulted in rescuing of the altered climbing behavior. The AEDs also normalized PTZ withdrawal induced transcriptomic perturbation in fly heads; whereas AED untreated flies showed a large number of up- and down-regulated genes which were enriched in several processes including gene expression and cell communication, the AED treated flies showed differential expression of only a small number of genes that did not enrich gene expression and cell communication processes. Gene expression and cell communication related upregulated genes in AED untreated flies overrepresented several pathways – spliceosome, RNA degradation, and ribosome in the former category, and inositol phosphate metabolism, phosphatidylinositol signaling, endocytosis, and hedgehog signaling in the latter. Transcriptome remodeling effect of AEDs was overall confirmed by microarray clustering that clearly separated the profiles of AED treated and untreated flies. Besides being consistent with previously implicated pathways, our results provide evidence for a role of other pathways in psychiatric drug

  11. Voyager Development Test Model

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-05

    This archival photo shows the encapsulation of the Voyager Development Test Model at NASA's Kennedy Space Center's Eastern Test Range. The picture was taken on October 8, 1976. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21730

  12. Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) After Previous Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy Is Feasible and Safe in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Miles, Luke F; Frelich, Matthew J; Gould, Jon C; Dua, Kulwinder S; Jensen, Eric S; Kastenmeier, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and difficulty of performing the per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure in the setting of a prior Heller myotomy using a survival porcine model. Four pigs underwent laparoscopic Heller myotomy with Dor partial anterior fundoplication followed by the POEM performed 4 weeks later. Two additional pigs served as controls, undergoing only the POEM. All procedures were completed without complications. The revisional POEM was not significantly more difficult than POEM controls based on procedure time, POEM procedure components, or procedure difficulty scores. Revisional POEM had a longer mean operative time when compared with Heller myotomy (126.0 vs. 83.8 min; P<0.01) but had a lower total difficulty score (28.6 vs. 52.1; P≪0.01). A POEM after previous Heller myotomy is safe and feasible in the porcine model and has potential as an option for patients suffering from recurrent or persistent symptoms after failed surgical myotomy.

  13. ATMOSPHERIC MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task provides credible state of the art air quality models and guidance for use in implementation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and PM. This research effort is to develop and improve air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMA...

  14. Development of Visual Selection in 3- to 9-Month-Olds: Evidence from Saccades to Previously Ignored Locations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amso, Dima; Johnson, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    We examined changes in the efficiency of visual selection over the first postnatal year with an adapted version of a "spatial negative priming" paradigm. In this task, when a previously ignored location becomes the target to be selected, responses to it are impaired, providing a measure of visual selection. Oculomotor latencies to target selection…

  15. 34 CFR 606.24 - How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... awarding a development grant? (a)(1) In addition to evaluating an application under the selection criteria..., including, but not limited to, the applicant's success in institutionalizing practices developed and...

  16. Probabilistic Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Develop a Probabilistic Model for the Solar Energetic Particle Environment. Develop a tool to provide a reference solar particle radiation environment that: 1) Will not be exceeded at a user-specified confidence level; 2) Will provide reference environments for: a) Peak flux; b) Event-integrated fluence; and c) Mission-integrated fluence. The reference environments will consist of: a) Elemental energy spectra; b) For protons, helium and heavier ions.

  17. Developments in Coastal Ocean Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.

    2001-12-01

    Capabilities in modeling continental shelf flow fields have improved markedly in the last several years. Progress is being made toward the long term scientific goal of utilizing numerical circulation models to interpolate, or extrapolate, necessarily limited field measurements to provide additional full-field information describing the behavior of, and providing dynamical rationalizations for, complex observed coastal flow. The improvement in modeling capabilities has been due to several factors including an increase in computer power and, importantly, an increase in experience of modelers in formulating relevant numerical experiments and in analyzing model results. We demonstrate present modeling capabilities and limitations by discussion of results from recent studies of shelf circulation off Oregon and northern California (joint work with Newberger, Gan, Oke, Pullen, and Wijesekera). Strong interactions between wind-forced coastal currents and continental shelf topography characterize the flow regimes in these cases. Favorable comparisons of model and measured alongshore currents and other variables provide confidence in the model-produced fields. The dependence of the mesoscale circulation, including upwelling and downwelling fronts and flow instabilities, on the submodel used to parameterize the effects of small scale turbulence, is discussed. Analyses of model results to provide explanations for the observed, but previously unexplained, alongshore variability in the intensity of coastal upwelling, which typically results in colder surface water south of capes, and the observed development in some locations of northward currents near the coast in response to the relaxation of southward winds, are presented.

  18. 40 CFR 60.4208 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary CI ICE produced in previous model years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... installing stationary CI ICE produced in previous model years? 60.4208 Section 60.4208 Protection of... or installing stationary CI ICE produced in previous model years? (a) After December 31, 2008, owners and operators may not install stationary CI ICE (excluding fire pump engines) that do not meet the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4236 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary SI ICE produced in previous model years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... installing stationary SI ICE produced in previous model years? 60.4236 Section 60.4236 Protection of... installing stationary SI ICE produced in previous model years? (a) After July 1, 2010, owners and operators may not install stationary SI ICE with a maximum engine power of less than 500 HP that do not meet the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4208 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary CI ICE produced in previous model years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... installing stationary CI ICE produced in previous model years? 60.4208 Section 60.4208 Protection of... or installing stationary CI ICE produced in previous model years? (a) After December 31, 2008, owners and operators may not install stationary CI ICE (excluding fire pump engines) that do not meet the...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4208 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary CI ICE produced in previous model years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... installing stationary CI ICE produced in previous model years? 60.4208 Section 60.4208 Protection of... or installing stationary CI ICE produced in previous model years? (a) After December 31, 2008, owners and operators may not install stationary CI ICE (excluding fire pump engines) that do not meet the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4236 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model year? 60.4236 Section 60.4236 Protection of... installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model year? (a) After July 1, 2010, owners and operators may not install stationary SI ICE with a maximum engine power of less than 500 HP that do not meet...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4208 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary CI ICE produced in the previous model...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... installing stationary CI ICE produced in the previous model year? 60.4208 Section 60.4208 Protection of... or installing stationary CI ICE produced in the previous model year? (a) After December 31, 2008, owners and operators may not install stationary CI ICE (excluding fire pump engines) that do not meet the...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4236 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary SI ICE produced in previous model years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... installing stationary SI ICE produced in previous model years? 60.4236 Section 60.4236 Protection of... installing stationary SI ICE produced in previous model years? (a) After July 1, 2010, owners and operators may not install stationary SI ICE with a maximum engine power of less than 500 HP that do not meet the...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4236 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model year? 60.4236 Section 60.4236 Protection of... installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model year? (a) After July 1, 2010, owners and operators may not install stationary SI ICE with a maximum engine power of less than 500 HP that do not meet...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4236 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary SI ICE produced in previous model years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... installing stationary SI ICE produced in previous model years? 60.4236 Section 60.4236 Protection of... installing stationary SI ICE produced in previous model years? (a) After July 1, 2010, owners and operators may not install stationary SI ICE with a maximum engine power of less than 500 HP that do not meet the...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4208 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary CI ICE produced in the previous model...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... installing stationary CI ICE produced in the previous model year? 60.4208 Section 60.4208 Protection of... or installing stationary CI ICE produced in the previous model year? (a) After December 31, 2008, owners and operators may not install stationary CI ICE (excluding fire pump engines) that do not meet the...

  8. Software development: Stratosphere modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    A more comprehensive model for stratospheric chemistry and transport theory was developed for the purpose of aiding predictions of changes in the stratospheric ozone content as a consequence of natural and anthropogenic processes. This new and more advanced stratospheric model is time dependent and the dependent variables are zonal means of the relevant meteorological quantities which are functions of latitude and height. The model was constructed by the best mathematical approach on a large IBM S360 in American National Standard FORTRAN. It will be both a scientific tool and an assessment device used to evaluate other models. The interactions of dynamics, photochemistry and radiation in the stratosphere can be governed by a set of fundamental dynamical equations.

  9. 34 CFR 607.24 - How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 607.24 How... the Strengthening Institutions Program that expired within five years of the year when the development...

  10. 34 CFR 607.24 - How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 607.24 How... the Strengthening Institutions Program that expired within five years of the year when the development...

  11. 34 CFR 607.24 - How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 607.24 How... the Strengthening Institutions Program that expired within five years of the year when the development...

  12. 34 CFR 607.24 - How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make an Award? § 607.24 How... the Strengthening Institutions Program that expired within five years of the year when the development...

  13. Inflatable Antenna for CubeSat: Extension of the Previously Developed S-Band Design to the X-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babuscia, Alessandra; Choi, Thomas; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Thangavelautham, Jekan; Ravichandran, Mithun; Chandra, Aman

    2015-01-01

    The inflatable antenna for CubeSat is a 1 meter antenna reflector designed with one side reflective Mylar, another side clear Mylar with a patch antenna at the focus. The development of this technology responds to the increasing need for more capable communication systems to allow CubeSats to operate autonomously in interplanetary missions. An initial version of the antenna for the S-Band was developed and tested in both anechoic chamber and vacuum chamber. Recent developments in transceivers and amplifiers for CubeSat at X-band motivated the extension from the S-Band to the X-Band. This paper describes the process of extending the design of the antenna to the X-Band focusing on patch antenna redesign, new manufacturing challenges and initial results of experimental tests.

  14. Training Module on the Development of Best Modeling Practices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module continues the fundamental concepts outlined in the previous modules. Objectives are to identify the ‘best modeling practices’ and strategies for the Development Stage of the model life-cycle and define the steps of model development.

  15. Physiological water model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Susan

    1993-01-01

    previous model of normal renal function in man. To test the validity of the proposed kidney model, results predicted by the model will be compared to actual data involving injected or ingested fluids and subsequent urine flow rates. Comparison of the model simulation to actual data following the ingestion of 1 liter of water is shown. The model simulation is also shown with actual data following the intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline.

  16. Rectenna thermal model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadiramangalam, Murall; Alden, Adrian; Speyer, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Deploying rectennas in space requires adapting existing designs developed for terrestrial applications to the space environment. One of the major issues in doing so is to understand the thermal performance of existing designs in the space environment. Toward that end, a 3D rectenna thermal model has been developed, which involves analyzing shorted rectenna elements and finite size rectenna element arrays. A shorted rectenna element is a single element whose ends are connected together by a material of negligible thermal resistance. A shorted element is a good approximation to a central element of a large array. This model has been applied to Brown's 2.45 GHz rectenna design. Results indicate that Brown's rectenna requires redesign or some means of enhancing the heat dissipation in order for the diode temperature to be maintained below 200 C above an output power density of 620 W/sq.m. The model developed in this paper is very general and can be used for the analysis and design of any type of rectenna design of any frequency.

  17. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is,. responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) is a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The purpose of the UCTS is to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems s:luring their development. As an intern at KSC, my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (drier) to model in Matlab. The drier was a Catch All replaceable core type filter-drier. The filter-drier provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-drier also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink to help aid in my assignment. The filter-drier was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure, velocity and temperature of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my model filter-drier in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements.

  18. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  19. Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier (HBOC) Development in Trauma: Previous Regulatory Challenges, Lessons Learned, and a Path Forward.

    PubMed

    Keipert, Peter E

    2017-01-01

    Historically, hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) were being developed as "blood substitutes," despite their transient circulatory half-life (~ 24 h) vs. transfused red blood cells (RBCs). More recently, HBOC commercial development focused on "oxygen therapeutic" indications to provide a temporary oxygenation bridge until medical or surgical interventions (including RBC transfusion, if required) can be initiated. This included the early trauma trials with HemAssist ® (BAXTER), Hemopure ® (BIOPURE) and PolyHeme ® (NORTHFIELD) for resuscitating hypotensive shock. These trials all failed due to safety concerns (e.g., cardiac events, mortality) and certain protocol design limitations. In 2008 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) put all HBOC trials in the US on clinical hold due to the unfavorable benefit:risk profile demonstrated by various HBOCs in different clinical studies in a meta-analysis published by Natanson et al. (2008). During standard resuscitation in trauma, organ dysfunction and failure can occur due to ischemia in critical tissues, which can be detected by the degree of lactic acidosis. SANGART'S Phase 2 trauma program with MP4OX therefore added lactate >5 mmol/L as an inclusion criterion to enroll patients who had lost sufficient blood to cause a tissue oxygen debt. This was key to the successful conduct of their Phase 2 program (ex-US, from 2009 to 2012) to evaluate MP4OX as an adjunct to standard fluid resuscitation and transfusion of RBCs. In 2013, SANGART shared their Phase 2b results with the FDA, and succeeded in getting the FDA to agree that a planned Phase 2c higher dose comparison study of MP4OX in trauma could include clinical sites in the US. Unfortunately, SANGART failed to secure new funding and was forced to terminate development and operations in Dec 2013, even though a regulatory path forward with FDA approval to proceed in trauma had been achieved.

  20. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  1. Modeling dynamic processes at stage of formation of parts previously subjected to high-energy laser effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, A. E.; Maksarov, V. V.; Timofeev, D. Y.

    2018-03-01

    The present paper states the impact of a technological system on piece’s roughness and shape accuracy via simulation modeling. For this purpose, a theory was formulated and a mathematical model was generated to justify self-oscillations in a system. The method of oscillations eliminations based on workpiece’s high-energy laser irradiation with the purpose of further processing were suggested in compliance with the adopted theory and model. Modeling the behaviour of a system with the transient phenomenon indicated the tendency of reducing self-oscillations in unstable processing modes, which has a positive effect under the conditions of practical implementation over piece’s roughness and accuracy.

  2. Developing New Models for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffle, Carla J.; Fore, Janet; Allen, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop new models for collection development in academic libraries, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Highlights include changes in the organizational chart; focusing on users' information goals and needs; integrative services; shared resources; interlibrary loans; digital technology; and funding. (LRW)

  3. SSME structural dynamic model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, M. J.; Tilley, D. M.; Welch, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) as a complete assembly, with detailed emphasis on LOX and High Fuel Turbopumps is developed. The advantages of both complete engine dynamics, and high fidelity modeling are incorporated. Development of this model, some results, and projected applications are discussed.

  4. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-v...

  5. Strategies for developing competency models.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Anne F; Tondora, Janis; Hoge, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    There is an emerging trend within healthcare to introduce competency-based approaches in the training, assessment, and development of the workforce. The trend is evident in various disciplines and specialty areas within the field of behavioral health. This article is designed to inform those efforts by presenting a step-by-step process for developing a competency model. An introductory overview of competencies, competency models, and the legal implications of competency development is followed by a description of the seven steps involved in creating a competency model for a specific function, role, or position. This modeling process is drawn from advanced work on competencies in business and industry.

  6. Development of an Internet-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy Program (ENGAGE) for Parents of Children Previously Treated for Cancer: Participatory Action Research Approach.

    PubMed

    Wikman, Anna; Kukkola, Laura; Börjesson, Helene; Cernvall, Martin; Woodford, Joanne; Grönqvist, Helena; von Essen, Louise

    2018-04-18

    Parenting a child through cancer is a distressing experience, and a subgroup of parents report negative long-term psychological consequences years after treatment completion. However, there is a lack of evidence-based psychological interventions for parents who experience distress in relation to a child's cancer disease after end of treatment. One aim of this study was to develop an internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) for parents of children previously treated for cancer. Another aim was to identify acceptable procedures for future feasibility and efficacy studies testing and evaluating the intervention. Participatory action research methodology was used. The study included face-to-face workshops and related Web-based exercises. A total of 6 parents (4 mothers, 2 fathers) of children previously treated for cancer were involved as parent research partners. Moreover, 2 clinical psychologists were involved as expert research partners. Research partners and research group members worked collaboratively throughout the study. Data were analyzed iteratively using written summaries of the workshops and Web-based exercises parallel to data collection. A 10-week, internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) was developed in collaboration with parent research partners and expert research partners. The content of the intervention, mode and frequency of e-therapist support, and the individualized approach for feedback were modified based on the research partner input. Shared solutions were reached regarding the type and timing of support from an e-therapist (eg, initial video or telephone call, multiple methods of e-therapist contact), duration and timing of intervention (eg, 10 weeks, 30-min assessments), and the removal of unnecessary support functions (eg, removal of chat and forum functions). Preferences for study procedures in

  7. Validation of a predictive model for survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin for extrapolation to a previous history of frozen storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A predictive model for survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin was evaluated for its ability to predict survival and growth of the same organism after frozen storage for 6 days at -20 C. Experimental methods used to collect data for model development were the same as tho...

  8. Discussion and revision of the mathematical modeling tool described in the previously published article "Modeling HIV Transmission risk among Mozambicans prior to their initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy".

    PubMed

    Cassels, Susan; Pearson, Cynthia R; Kurth, Ann E; Martin, Diane P; Simoni, Jane M; Matediana, Eduardo; Gloyd, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    Mathematical models are increasingly used in social and behavioral studies of HIV transmission; however, model structures must be chosen carefully to best answer the question at hand and conclusions must be interpreted cautiously. In Pearson et al. (2007), we presented a simple analytically tractable deterministic model to estimate the number of secondary HIV infections stemming from a population of HIV-positive Mozambicans and to evaluate how the estimate would change under different treatment and behavioral scenarios. In a subsequent application of the model with a different data set, we observed that the model produced an unduly conservative estimate of the number of new HIV-1 infections. In this brief report, our first aim is to describe a revision of the model to correct for this underestimation. Specifically, we recommend adjusting the population-level sexually transmitted infection (STI) parameters to be applicable to the individual-level model specification by accounting for the proportion of individuals uninfected with an STI. In applying the revised model to the original data, we noted an estimated 40 infections/1000 HIV-positive persons per year (versus the original 23 infections/1000 HIV-positive persons per year). In addition, the revised model estimated that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) along with syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) treatments combined could reduce HIV-1 transmission by 72% (versus 86% according to the original model). The second aim of this report is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mathematical models in the field and the implications of model interpretation. We caution that simple models should be used for heuristic purposes only. Since these models do not account for heterogeneity in the population and significantly simplify HIV transmission dynamics, they should be used to describe general characteristics of the epidemic and demonstrate the importance or sensitivity of parameters in the

  9. Pilipino American Identity Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadal, Kevin L.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the identity development of F/Pilipino Americans. Because of a distinct history and culture that differentiates them from other Asian groups, F/Pilipino Americans may experience a different ethnic identity development than other Asian Americans. A nonlinear 6-stage ethnic identity development model is proposed to promote…

  10. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  11. LAPAROSCOPY AFTER PREVIOUS LAPAROTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Godinjak, Zulfo; Idrizbegović, Edin; Begić, Kerim

    2006-01-01

    Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for lap-aroscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previous laparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured. PMID:17177649

  12. Space Flight Cable Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spak, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates the modeling efforts presented in last year's VSGC conference paper, "Model Development for Cable-Harnessed Beams." The focus is narrowed to modeling of space-flight cables only, as a reliable damped cable model is not yet readily available and is necessary to continue modeling cable-harnessed space structures. New experimental data is presented, eliminating the low-frequency noise that plagued the first year's efforts. The distributed transfer function method is applied to a single section of space flight cable for Euler-Bernoulli and shear beams. The work presented here will be developed into a damped cable model that can be incorporated into an interconnected beam-cable system. The overall goal of this work is to accurately predict natural frequencies and modal damping ratios for cabled space structures.

  13. Animal models of neoplastic development.

    PubMed

    Pitot, H C

    2001-01-01

    The basic animal model for neoplastic development used by regulatory agencies is the two-year chronic bioassay developed more than 30 years ago and based on the presumed mechanism of action of a few potential chemical carcinogens. Since that time, a variety of other model carcinogenic systems have been developed, usually involving shorter duration, single organ endpoints, multistage models, and those in genetically-engineered mice. The chronic bioassay is still the "gold standard" of regulatory agencies despite a number of deficiencies, while in this country the use of shorter term assays based on single organ endpoints has not been popular. The multistage model of carcinogenesis in mouse epidermis actually preceded the development of the chronic two-year bioassay, but it was not until multistage models in other organ systems were developed that the usefulness of such systems became apparent. Recently, several genetically-engineered mouse lines involving mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes have been proposed as additional model systems for use in regulatory decisions. It is likely that a combination of several of these model systems may be most useful in both practical and basic applications of cancer prevention and therapy.

  14. Kantian Model of Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Hyun Sub

    A Kantian model of moral development already tested on adolescents was further tested on normal and delinquent Korean adults. The model, based on the philosophy of Kant, starts its causality from the self, moves from the self to parental images, advances from parental images to duty and legality, and moves from duty and legality to a moral…

  15. A Predictive Model Has Identified Tick-Borne Encephalitis High-Risk Areas in Regions Where No Cases Were Reported Previously, Poland, 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, Pawel; Rubikowska, Barbara; Bratkowski, Jakub; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Rosinska, Magdalena

    2018-04-04

    During 1999–2012, 77% of the cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were recorded in two out of 16 Polish provinces. However, historical data, mostly from national serosurveys, suggest that the disease could be undetected in many areas. The aim of this study was to identify which routinely-measured meteorological, environmental, and socio-economic factors are associated to TBE human risk across Poland, with a particular focus on areas reporting few cases, but where serosurveys suggest higher incidence. We fitted a zero-inflated Poisson model using data on TBE incidence recorded in 108 NUTS-5 administrative units in high-risk areas over the period 1999–2012. Subsequently we applied the best fitting model to all Polish municipalities. Keeping the remaining variables constant, the predicted rate increased with the increase of air temperature over the previous 10–20 days, precipitation over the previous 20–30 days, in forestation, forest edge density, forest road density, and unemployment. The predicted rate decreased with increasing distance from forests. The map of predicted rates was consistent with the established risk areas. It predicted, however, high rates in provinces considered TBE-free. We recommend raising awareness among physicians working in the predicted high-risk areas and considering routine use of household animal surveys for risk mapping.

  16. A Predictive Model Has Identified Tick-Borne Encephalitis High-Risk Areas in Regions Where No Cases Were Reported Previously, Poland, 1999–2012

    PubMed Central

    Rubikowska, Barbara; Bratkowski, Jakub; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Vanwambeke, Sophie O.

    2018-01-01

    During 1999–2012, 77% of the cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were recorded in two out of 16 Polish provinces. However, historical data, mostly from national serosurveys, suggest that the disease could be undetected in many areas. The aim of this study was to identify which routinely-measured meteorological, environmental, and socio-economic factors are associated to TBE human risk across Poland, with a particular focus on areas reporting few cases, but where serosurveys suggest higher incidence. We fitted a zero-inflated Poisson model using data on TBE incidence recorded in 108 NUTS-5 administrative units in high-risk areas over the period 1999–2012. Subsequently we applied the best fitting model to all Polish municipalities. Keeping the remaining variables constant, the predicted rate increased with the increase of air temperature over the previous 10–20 days, precipitation over the previous 20–30 days, in forestation, forest edge density, forest road density, and unemployment. The predicted rate decreased with increasing distance from forests. The map of predicted rates was consistent with the established risk areas. It predicted, however, high rates in provinces considered TBE-free. We recommend raising awareness among physicians working in the predicted high-risk areas and considering routine use of household animal surveys for risk mapping. PMID:29617333

  17. Prognosis model for stand development

    Treesearch

    Albert R. Stage

    1973-01-01

    Describes a set of computer programs for developing prognoses of the development of existing stand under alternative regimes of management. Calibration techniques, modeling procedures, and a procedure for including stochastic variation are described. Implementation of the system for lodgepole pine, including assessment of losses attributed to an infestation of mountain...

  18. Is Uric Acid a Missing Link between Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and the Development of Type 2 Diabetes at a Later Time of Life?

    PubMed

    Molęda, Piotr; Fronczyk, Aneta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Majkowska, Lilianna

    2016-01-01

    A high level of uric acid (UA) is a strong, independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relationship between UA levels and the development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) remains unclear. The aim of study was to evaluate the UA levels in pGDM women in relation to their current nutritional status and carbohydrate metabolism. 199 women with pGDM diagnoses based on oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) 5-12 years previously and a control group of 50 women without pGDM. The assessment included anthropometric parameters, body composition (Tanita SC-330S), current OGTT, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-%B), HbA1c, lipids, and uric acid. No differences between groups were found in terms of age, time from the index pregnancy, anthropometric parameters, lipids or creatinine levels. The incidences of overweight and obesity were similar. Carbohydrate abnormalities were more frequent in the pGDM group than the control group (43.2% vs 12.0% p<0.001). The women with pGDM had significantly higher fasting glucose, HbA1c, glucose and insulin levels in the OGTTs, but similar HOMA-IR values. Their UA levels were significantly higher (258±58 vs 230±50 μmol/L, p<0.005) and correlated with BMI and the severity of carbohydrate disorders. The normal weight and normoglycemic pGDM women also demonstrated higher UA levels than a similar control subgroup (232±48 vs 208±48 μmol/L, p<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlations of UA level with BMI (β = 0.38, 95% CI 0.25-0.51, p<0.0001), creatinine level (β = 0.23, 95% CI 0.11-0.35, p<0.0005), triglycerides (β = 0.20, 95% CI 0.07-0.33, p<0.005) and family history of diabetes (β = 0.13, 95% CI 0.01-0.25, p<0.05). In logistic regression analysis, the association between higher UA level (defined as value ≥297 μmol/L) and presence of any carbohydrate metabolism disorder (IFG, IGT or diabetes) was statistically significant (odds ratio

  19. OSPREY Model Development Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel, volatile radionuclides will be discharged to the atmosphere if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Methods are being developed, via adsorption and absorption unit operations, to capture these radionuclides. It is necessary to model these unit operations to aid in the evaluation of technologies and in the future development of an advanced used nuclear fuel processing plant. A collaboration between Fuel Cycle Research and Development Offgas Sigma Team member INL and a NEUP grant including ORNL, Syracuse University,more » and Georgia Institute of Technology has been formed to develop off gas models and support off gas research. Georgia Institute of Technology is developing fundamental level model to describe the equilibrium and kinetics of the adsorption process, which are to be integrated with OSPREY. This report discusses the progress made on expanding OSPREY to be multiple component and the integration of macroscale and microscale level models. Also included in this report is a brief OSPREY user guide.« less

  20. VARTM Model Development and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Technical Monitor); Dowling, Norman E.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, a comprehensive Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process simulation model was developed and verified. The model incorporates resin flow through the preform, compaction and relaxation of the preform, and viscosity and cure kinetics of the resin. The computer model can be used to analyze the resin flow details, track the thickness change of the preform, predict the total infiltration time and final fiber volume fraction of the parts, and determine whether the resin could completely infiltrate and uniformly wet out the preform.

  1. A Testbed for Model Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, J. A.; Van der Tol, C.; Kornfeld, A.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon cycle and land-surface models used in global simulations need to be computationally efficient and have a high standard of software engineering. These models also make a number of scaling assumptions to simplify the representation of complex biochemical and structural properties of ecosystems. This makes it difficult to use these models to test new ideas for parameterizations or to evaluate scaling assumptions. The stripped down nature of these models also makes it difficult to "connect" with current disciplinary research which tends to be focused on much more nuanced topics than can be included in the models. In our opinion/experience this indicates the need for another type of model that can more faithfully represent the complexity ecosystems and which has the flexibility to change or interchange parameterizations and to run optimization codes for calibration. We have used the SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes) model in this way to develop, calibrate, and test parameterizations for solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence, OCS exchange and stomatal parameterizations at the canopy scale. Examples of the data sets and procedures used to develop and test new parameterizations are presented.

  2. Deformable human body model development

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has beenmore » incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.« less

  3. Developing + Using Models in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd; Neilson, Drew; Oh, Phil Seok

    2013-01-01

    Of the eight practices of science identified in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" (NRC 2012), helping students develop and use models has been identified by many as an anchor (Schwarz and Passmore 2012; Windschitl 2012). In instruction, disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and scientific practices can be meaningfully…

  4. USEPA Resistance Management Model development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA requires registrants of plant incorporated protectant (PIP) crops to provide information relating to the time frame for pest resistance development related to the control traits of the crop. Simulation models are used to evaluate the future conditions for resistance de...

  5. Modeling plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2004-02-01

    Computational plant models or 'virtual plants' are increasingly seen as a useful tool for comprehending complex relationships between gene function, plant physiology, plant development, and the resulting plant form. The theory of L-systems, which was introduced by Lindemayer in 1968, has led to a well-established methodology for simulating the branching architecture of plants. Many current architectural models provide insights into the mechanisms of plant development by incorporating physiological processes, such as the transport and allocation of carbon. Other models aim at elucidating the geometry of plant organs, including flower petals and apical meristems, and are beginning to address the relationship between patterns of gene expression and the resulting plant form.

  6. Previous ISD Program Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    report. The detail required for such a review would be unwieldy and would comsume inordinate amounts of time. The result of the document review will...attempts have been made at writing specific behavioral objectives (SBOs). These, however, have proven to be inadequate in that they are not stated in... behavioral terms (e.g., "will understand," "will have a knowledge of," etc.). C. Development of CRO/CRTs? In nearly all cases, ISD teams are just

  7. A Computational Model of Spatial Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Kazuo; Sashima, Akio; Phillips, Steven

    Psychological experiments on children's development of spatial knowledge suggest experience at self-locomotion with visual tracking as important factors. Yet, the mechanism underlying development is unknown. We propose a robot that learns to mentally track a target object (i.e., maintaining a representation of an object's position when outside the field-of-view) as a model for spatial development. Mental tracking is considered as prediction of an object's position given the previous environmental state and motor commands, and the current environment state resulting from movement. Following Jordan & Rumelhart's (1992) forward modeling architecture the system consists of two components: an inverse model of sensory input to desired motor commands; and a forward model of motor commands to desired sensory input (goals). The robot was tested on the `three cups' paradigm (where children are required to select the cup containing the hidden object under various movement conditions). Consistent with child development, without the capacity for self-locomotion the robot's errors are self-center based. When given the ability of self-locomotion the robot responds allocentrically.

  8. Molecular and mathematical modeling analyses of inter-island transmission of rabies into a previously rabies-free island in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mariko; Demetria, Catalino S; Manalo, Daria L; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Kamigaki, Taro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Philippines and dog bites are a major cause of rabies cases in humans. The rabies control program has not been successful in eliminating rabies because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Therefore, more effective and feasible strategies for rabies control are urgently required in the country. To control rabies, it is very important to know if inter-island transmission can occur because rabies can become endemic once the virus is introduced in areas that previously had no reported cases. Our molecular epidemiological study suggests that inter-island transmission events can occur; therefore, we further investigated these inter-island transmission using phylogenetic and modeling approaches. We investigate inter-island transmission between Luzon and Tablas Islands in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis and mathematical modeling demonstrate that there was a time lag of several months to a year from rabies introduction to initial case detection, indicating the difficulties in recognizing the initial rabies introductory event. There had been no rabies cases reported in Tablas Island; however, transmission chain was sustained on this island after the introduction of rabies virus because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Across the islands, a rabies control program should include control of inter-island dog transportation and rabies vaccination to avoid viral introduction from the outside and to break transmission chains after viral introduction. However, this program has not yet been completely implemented and transmission chains following inter-island virus transmission are still observed. Local government units try to control dog transport; however, it should be more strictly controlled, and a continuous rabies control program should be implemented to prevent rabies spread even in rabies-free areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing a mediation model of psychotherapy process and outcome in psychodynamic psychotherapy: Previous client distress, psychodynamic techniques, dyadic working alliance, and current client distress.

    PubMed

    Kivlighan, Dennis M; Hill, Clara E; Ross, Katherine; Kline, Kathryn; Furhmann, Amy; Sauber, Elizabeth

    2018-01-05

    To test a sequential model of psychotherapy process and outcome, we included previous client distress, therapist psychodynamic techniques, dyadic working alliance, and current client distress. For 114 sets of eight-session segments in 40 cases of psychodynamic psychotherapy, clients completed the Outcome Questionnaire-45 and Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32 after the first and final session, judges reliably coded one middle sessions on the Psychodynamic subscale of the Multitheoretical List of Therapeutic Interventions, and clients and therapists completed the Working Alliance Inventory after every session. Results indicated that higher use of psychodynamic techniques was associated with higher levels of the working alliance, which in turn was associated decreased client distress; and working alliance was higher later in psychotherapy. There was a significant indirect effect of psychodynamic techniques on decreases in distress mediated by the working alliance. Implications for theory, practice, and research are provided. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: Conducted a longitudinal, latent variable examination of the relationships of psychodynamic techniques and working alliance on client distress. Psychodynamic techniques have an indirect effect on decreases in client distress through the dyadic working alliance.

  10. Space market model development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the research program, Space Market Model Development Project, (Phase 1) were: (1) to study the need for business information in the commercial development of space; and (2) to propose a design for an information system to meet the identified needs. Three simultaneous research strategies were used in proceeding toward this goal: (1) to describe the space business information which currently exists; (2) to survey government and business representatives on the information they would like to have; and (3) to investigate the feasibility of generating new economical information about the space industry.

  11. What Will Be the Impact of Programs of Study? A Preliminary Assessment Based on Similar Previous Initiatives, State Plans for Implementation, and Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Kosine, Natalie R.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides background to inform the implementation of Programs of Study (POS) as required by grantees of funds authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006. The report is a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of previous similar initiatives and an examination of the implications…

  12. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  13. The impact of previous para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the localization of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; de Meneses e Silva, João Marcos; de Moura Torres-de-Melo, José Ricardo; Pinheiro, Karine Bessa Porto; Rocha, João Ivo Xavier

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper discusses the influence of a para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the location of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model. METHODS: The sentinel lymph node was marked with technetium-99, which was injected into the subareolar skin of the cranial breast. After the marker had migrated to the axilla, an arcuate para-areolar incision was performed 2 cm from the nipple in the upper outer quadrant. Patent blue dye was then injected above the upper border of the incision. At the marked site, an axillary incision was made, and the sentinel lymph node was identified by gamma probe and/or by direct visualization of the dye. The agreement between the two injection sites and the two sentinel lymph node identification methods was determined. Our sample group consisted of 40 cranial breasts of 23 adult females of the species Canis familiaris. The data were analyzed by using the McNemar test and by determining the kappa agreement coefficient. RESULT: Our findings showed that in 95% of the breasts, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of technetium-99 m into the subareolar region, and in 82% of the cases, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of patent blue dye above the upper border of the incision. The methods agreed 82% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: Previous para-areolar incisions in the upper outer quadrant did not interfere significantly with the biopsy when the dye was injected above the upper border of the incision. PMID:21915493

  14. Thermal Effects Modeling Developed for Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    1998-01-01

    Applying smart materials in aeropropulsion systems may improve the performance of aircraft engines through a variety of vibration, noise, and shape-control applications. To facilitate the experimental characterization of these smart structures, researchers have been focusing on developing analytical models to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of these materials. One focus of current research efforts has been directed toward incorporating a comprehensive thermal analysis modeling capability. Typically, temperature affects the behavior of smart materials by three distinct mechanisms: Induction of thermal strains because of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch 1. Pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric elements; 2. Temperature-dependent changes in material properties; and 3. Previous analytical models only investigated the first two thermal effects mechanisms. However, since the material properties of piezoelectric materials generally vary greatly with temperature (see the graph), incorporating temperature-dependent material properties will significantly affect the structural deflections, sensory voltages, and stresses. Thus, the current analytical model captures thermal effects arising from all three mechanisms through thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. These constitutive equations were incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of smart structures in thermal environments. Corresponding finite element equations were formulated and implemented for both the beam and plate elements to provide a comprehensive thermal effects modeling capability.

  15. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    . The maturity of individual scientific domains differs considerably. • Technologically and organisationally many different RI components have to be integrated. Individual systems are often complex and have a long-term history. Existing approaches are on different maturity levels, e.g. in relation to the standardisation of interfaces. • The concrete implementation process consists of independent and often parallel development activities. In many cases no detailed architectural blue-print for the envisioned system exists. • Most of the funding currently available for RI implementation is provided on a project basis. To increase the synergies in infrastructure development the authors propose a specific RI Maturity Model (RIMM) that is specifically qualified for open system-of-system environments. RIMM is based on the concepts of Capability Maturity Models for organisational development, concretely the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM) specifying the technical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation [1]. The model is complemented by the identification and integration of growth factors (according to the Nolan Stages Theory [2]). These factors include supply and demand factors. Supply factors comprise available resources, e.g., data, services and IT-management capabilities including organisations and IT-personal. Demand factors are the overall application portfolio for RIs but also the skills and requirements of scientists and communities using the infrastructure. RIMM thus enables a balanced development process of RI and RI components by evaluating the status of the supply and demand factors in relation to specific levels of interoperability. [1] Tolk, A., Diallo, A., Turnitsa, C. (2007): Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 5 - Number 5. [2

  16. Testing Software Development Project Productivity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkin, Ilya

    Software development is an increasingly influential factor in today's business environment, and a major issue affecting software development is how an organization estimates projects. If the organization underestimates cost, schedule, and quality requirements, the end results will not meet customer needs. On the other hand, if the organization overestimates these criteria, resources that could have been used more profitably will be wasted. There is no accurate model or measure available that can guide an organization in a quest for software development, with existing estimation models often underestimating software development efforts as much as 500 to 600 percent. To address this issue, existing models usually are calibrated using local data with a small sample size, with resulting estimates not offering improved cost analysis. This study presents a conceptual model for accurately estimating software development, based on an extensive literature review and theoretical analysis based on Sociotechnical Systems (STS) theory. The conceptual model serves as a solution to bridge organizational and technological factors and is validated using an empirical dataset provided by the DoD. Practical implications of this study allow for practitioners to concentrate on specific constructs of interest that provide the best value for the least amount of time. This study outlines key contributing constructs that are unique for Software Size E-SLOC, Man-hours Spent, and Quality of the Product, those constructs having the largest contribution to project productivity. This study discusses customer characteristics and provides a framework for a simplified project analysis for source selection evaluation and audit task reviews for the customers and suppliers. Theoretical contributions of this study provide an initial theory-based hypothesized project productivity model that can be used as a generic overall model across several application domains such as IT, Command and Control

  17. Teachers' Continuing Professional Development: Framing a Model of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, John; Kinder, Kay

    2014-01-01

    In order to contribute towards the construction of an empirically-grounded theory of effective continuing professional development (CPD), this paper seeks to develop a model of the effects of teachers' CPD or in-service education and training (INSET). It builds on an earlier typology of INSET outcomes and compares it to two previous classification…

  18. JEDI Geothermal Model | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Geothermal Model JEDI Geothermal Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Geothermal Model allows users to estimate economic development impacts from geothermal projects and includes

  19. JEDI Biofuels Models | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Biofuels Models JEDI Biofuels Models The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) biofuel models allow users to estimate economic development impacts from biofuel projects and include default

  20. JEDI International Model | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models |

    Science.gov Websites

    NREL International Model JEDI International Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) International Model allows users to estimate economic development impacts from international

  1. JEDI Coal Model | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Coal Model JEDI Coal Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Coal Model allow users to estimate economic development impacts from coal projects and includes default information that can

  2. JEDI Petroleum Model | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Petroleum Model JEDI Petroleum Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Petroleum Model allows users to estimate economic development impacts from petroleum projects and includes default

  3. Development of reliable pavement models.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-05-01

    The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by : the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit : response surface, in plac...

  4. Radiation Environment Modeling for Spacecraft Design: New Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet; Xapsos, Mike; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Ladbury, Ray

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on various new space radiation environment models for spacecraft design is described. The topics include: 1) The Space Radiatio Environment; 2) Effects of Space Environments on Systems; 3) Space Radiatio Environment Model Use During Space Mission Development and Operations; 4) Space Radiation Hazards for Humans; 5) "Standard" Space Radiation Environment Models; 6) Concerns about Standard Models; 7) Inadequacies of Current Models; 8) Development of New Models; 9) New Model Developments: Proton Belt Models; 10) Coverage of New Proton Models; 11) Comparison of TPM-1, PSB97, AP-8; 12) New Model Developments: Electron Belt Models; 13) Coverage of New Electron Models; 14) Comparison of "Worst Case" POLE, CRESELE, and FLUMIC Models with the AE-8 Model; 15) New Model Developments: Galactic Cosmic Ray Model; 16) Comparison of NASA, MSU, CIT Models with ACE Instrument Data; 17) New Model Developmemts: Solar Proton Model; 18) Comparison of ESP, JPL91, KIng/Stassinopoulos, and PSYCHIC Models; 19) New Model Developments: Solar Heavy Ion Model; 20) Comparison of CREME96 to CREDO Measurements During 2000 and 2002; 21) PSYCHIC Heavy ion Model; 22) Model Standardization; 23) Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models; and 24) Summary.

  5. Effects of Film Modeling on the Reduction of Anxiety-Related Behaviors in Individuals Varying in Level of Previous Experience in the Stress Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, Barbara G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Evaluated influence of film preparation on children undergoing dental sessions with respect to peer modeling v demonstration of procedures and amount of information. Children exposed to peer-model videotaped presentations immediately preceding their restorative treatment exhibited fewer disruptive behaviors and less apprehension than those…

  6. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II

    SciTech Connect

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at three beam power levels, 6, 12 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was observed. This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiations.more » The previous report described an initial analysis performed on a geometry that had not been updated to reflect the as-built solution vessel. Here, the as-built geometry is used. Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations were performed on the updated geometry, and these results were used to define the power deposition profile for the CFD analyses, which were performed using Fluent, Ver. 16.2. CFD analyses were performed for the 12 and 15 kW irradiations, and further improvements to the model were incorporated, including the consideration of power deposition in nearby vessel components, gas mixture composition, and bubble size distribution. The temperature results of the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.« less

  7. Predictive models of moth development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Degree-day models link ambient temperature to insect life-stages, making such models valuable tools in integrated pest management. These models increase management efficacy by predicting pest phenology. In Wisconsin, the top insect pest of cranberry production is the cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis v...

  8. A Reply to the Comment on "Assessing Discrepancies Between Previous Plate Kinematic Models of Mesozoic Iberia and Their Constraints" by Barnett-Moore Et Al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett-Moore, N.; Font, E.; Neres, M.

    2017-12-01

    We welcome the comments of van Hinsbergen et al. (2017) on the recent efforts of Barnett-Moore et al. (2016). Specifically, van Hinsbergen et al. (2017) raise concerns about two of the major conclusions made by Barnett-Moore et al. (2016). First, Barnett-Moore et al. (2016) choose to negate the Cretaceous Iberian paleomagnetic database as a viable plate kinematic constraint on the plate motions of Mesozoic Iberia. This conclusion, criticized by van Hinsbergen et al. (2017), was based on citing the previous efforts of Neres et al. (2012, 2013), which exposed several shortcomings, elaborated on below, within this data set. Second, van Hinsbergen et al. (2017) criticize Barnett-Moore et al. (2016) for dismissing mantle tomographic interpretations in support of a preserved Cretaceous Pyrenean "subducted slab" beneath northern Africa. Below, we have addressed each of these major criticisms from van Hinsbergen et al. (2017) in a two-section layout, similar to their comment above.

  9. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction - poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models requires a lot data, such as the chemical-specific parameters and in vivo pharmacokinetic data. Previously-developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be great resource for supporting the constr...

  10. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Previous Highlights

    Science.gov Websites

    Cloud. More Information October 23, 2015 It's a Family Matter! The third family of fundamental particles 40 years ago (1975). Evidence of this third family of fundamental particles inspired confidence in

  11. Curriculum Development: A Philosophical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Presenting models based on the philosophies of Carl Rogers, John Dewey, Erich Fromm, and Jean-Paul Sartre, this paper proposes a philosophical approach to education and concludes with pragmatic suggestions concerning teaching based on a fully-functioning-person model. The fully-functioning person is characterized as being open to experience,…

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Model for Chemoimmunotherapy Options in Patients with Previously Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Unsuitable for Full-Dose Fludarabine-Based Therapy.

    PubMed

    Becker, Ursula; Briggs, Andrew H; Moreno, Santiago G; Ray, Joshua A; Ngo, Phuong; Samanta, Kunal

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil (GClb) in untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia unsuitable for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy. A Markov model was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of GClb versus other chemoimmunotherapy options. The model comprised three mutually exclusive health states: "progression-free survival (with/without therapy)", "progression (refractory/relapsed lines)", and "death". Each state was assigned a health utility value representing patients' quality of life and a specific cost value. Comparisons between GClb and rituximab plus chlorambucil or only chlorambucil were performed using patient-level clinical trial data; other comparisons were performed via a network meta-analysis using information gathered in a systematic literature review. To support the model, a utility elicitation study was conducted from the perspective of the UK National Health Service. There was good agreement between the model-predicted progression-free and overall survival and that from the CLL11 trial. On incorporating data from the indirect treatment comparisons, it was found that GClb was cost-effective with a range of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios below a threshold of £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, and remained so during deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses under various scenarios. GClb was estimated to increase both quality-adjusted life expectancy and treatment costs compared with several commonly used therapies, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios below commonly referenced UK thresholds. This article offers a real example of how to combine direct and indirect evidence in a cost-effectiveness analysis of oncology drugs. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development III

    SciTech Connect

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development” and “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at beam power levels between 6 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was recorded. The previous report2 described the Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis performed on the as-built solution vesselmore » geometry. The CFD simulations in the current analysis were performed using Ansys Fluent, Ver. 17.2. The same power profiles determined from MCNP calculations in earlier work were used for the 12 and 15 kW simulations. The primary goal of the current work is to calculate the temperature profiles for the 12 and 15 kW cases using reasonable estimates for the gas generation rate, based on images of the bubbles recorded during the irradiations. Temperature profiles resulting from the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.« less

  14. RECEPTOR MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source apportionment (receptor) models are mathematical procedures for identifying and quantifying the sources of ambient air pollutants and their effects at a site (the receptor), primarily on the basis of species concentration measurements at the receptor, and generally without...

  15. Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    In the current STK model, a set of areas was defined for two reasons: To provide visual assistance during ship and aircraft route planning; and To...RF), electro-optic (EO), infrared (IR), and visual Partially Met The free version of STK can only generate simple generic sensors RQ-04 The model...25 APPENDIX A PLATFORM OBJECT ROUTE PLANNING PROCEDURE ............. A-1 APPENDIX B STK INSTALLATION

  16. El Paso's Organizational Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de los Santos, Gilberto

    1975-01-01

    The success of El Paso Community College (Texas) is attributed to its early definition of instructional thrusts including: systematizing and individualizing instruction; increasing awareness, sensitivity, and appreciation of the culture of the students; development of staff bilingual capabilities; development of staff teams versed in management by…

  17. Global history of the ancient monocot family Araceae inferred with models accounting for past continental positions and previous ranges based on fossils.

    PubMed

    Nauheimer, Lars; Metzler, Dirk; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-09-01

    The family Araceae (3790 species, 117 genera) has one of the oldest fossil records among angiosperms. Ecologically, members of this family range from free-floating aquatics (Pistia and Lemna) to tropical epiphytes. Here, we infer some of the macroevolutionary processes that have led to the worldwide range of this family and test how the inclusion of fossil (formerly occupied) geographical ranges affects biogeographical reconstructions. Using a complete genus-level phylogeny from plastid sequences and outgroups representing the 13 other Alismatales families, we estimate divergence times by applying different clock models and reconstruct range shifts under different models of past continental connectivity, with or without the incorporation of fossil locations. Araceae began to diversify in the Early Cretaceous (when the breakup of Pangea was in its final stages), and all eight subfamilies existed before the K/T boundary. Early lineages persist in Laurasia, with several relatively recent entries into Africa, South America, South-East Asia and Australia. Water-associated habitats appear to be ancestral in the family, and DNA substitution rates are especially high in free-floating Araceae. Past distributions inferred when fossils are included differ in nontrivial ways from those without fossils. Our complete genus-level time-scale for the Araceae may prove to be useful for ecological and physiological studies. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Comment on "Assessing Discrepancies Between Previous Plate Kinematic Models of Mesozoic Iberia and Their Constraints" by Barnett-Moore Et Al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Spakman, Wim; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; van der Meer, Douwe G.

    2017-12-01

    In their recent paper, Barnett-Moore et al. (2016) reflect on current models of Iberian plate motion in the Jurassic and Cretaceous as well as ongoing debates on the reliability of the various types of kinematic data that form independent constraints on Iberia's motion relative to Eurasia. They question the validity of various marine geophysical, seismic, tomographic, geological, and paleomagnetic data sets from the Bay of Biscay, Central Atlantic Ocean, and Iberia for kinematic reconstruction of Iberia and conclude that neither models invoking Aptian-Albian transtension, nor compression, are consistent with currently available data. An important element in their analysis is that they discard the large paleomagnetic data set from the Jurassic and Cretaceous from Iberia based on perceived limitations of that data set. In addition, they argue that seismic tomographic images exclude a scenario of subduction in the Aptian-Albian in the Pyrenees, and based on this "question the validity of current plate reconstructions, their constraints, and geodynamic scenarios, which are in support of this scenario [e.g., Vissers et al., 2016]." We welcome the discussion raised by Barnett-Moore et al. (2016) on the reliability and usefulness of paleomagnetic data as independent constraint for Iberia's plate motion in the Mesozoic. Taking these paleomagnetic data at face value, Vissers et al. (2016) recently showed that these are consistent with an 40° counterclockwise rotation of Iberia in the Aptian, requiring up to 500 km of Aptian convergence across the Pyrenees, that is, through subduction. In this comment, we aim to critically assess whether and how the concerns on the quality of paleomagnetic data raised by Barnett-Moore et al. (2016) may allow for an alternative explanation, particularly one with a Mesozoic rotation of Iberia that is small enough so as to not requiring subduction. We also reassess whether seismic tomographic images indeed refute subduction scenarios, using 8

  19. Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to moremore » reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets

  20. Modeling of Karachaganak field development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadvakasov, A. A.; Shamsutdinova, G. F.; Almukhametova, E. M.; Gabdrakhmanov, N. Kh

    2018-05-01

    Management of a geological deposit includes the study and analysis of oil recovery, identification of factors influencing production performance and oil-bearing rock flooding, reserve recovery and other indicators characterizing field development in general. Regulation of oil deposits exploitation is a mere control over the fluid flow within a reservoir, which is ensured through the designed system of development via continuous improvement of production and injection wells placement, optimum performance modes, service conditions of downhole and surface oil-field equipment taking into account various changes and physical-geological properties of a field when using modern equipment to obtain the best performance indicators.

  1. Manager Development: A Conceptual Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-31

    Leader Behavior: A Summary. (Technical Report No. 40 on ONR Contract). Rochester, New York, 1972. Vroom , V . H . & E. L. Deci. "The stability of...36-49. Vroom , V . H . & K. R. MacCrimmon "Toward a stochastic model of managerial careers", Administrative Science Quarterly, June, 1968, 26-46. 6...34 ( Vroom and MacCrimmon, 1968). Expanded by White (1970), this approach deems careers not as the result of individual characteristics and motives , but as

  2. JEDI Wind Models | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Wind Models JEDI Wind Models The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Wind model allows the user to estimate economic development impacts from wind power generation projects. JEDI Wind has default information that can be used to run a generic impacts analysis assuming wind industry averages

  3. A Model for Learning Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilfoil, W. R.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the way in which people perceive learning and the impact of these perceptions on teaching methods within the context of learning development in distance education. The context could, in fact, be any type of teaching and learning environment. The point is to balance approaches to teaching and learning depending on student…

  4. Class Model Development Using Business Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skersys, Tomas; Gudas, Saulius

    New developments in the area of computer-aided system engineering (CASE) greatly improve processes of the information systems development life cycle (ISDLC). Much effort is put into the quality improvement issues, but IS development projects still suffer from the poor quality of models during the system analysis and design cycles. At some degree, quality of models that are developed using CASE tools can be assured using various. automated. model comparison, syntax. checking procedures. It. is also reasonable to check these models against the business domain knowledge, but the domain knowledge stored in the repository of CASE tool (enterprise model) is insufficient (Gudas et al. 2004). Involvement of business domain experts into these processes is complicated because non- IT people often find it difficult to understand models that were developed by IT professionals using some specific modeling language.

  5. Maize sugary enhancer1 (se1) is a presence-absence variant of a previously uncharacterized gene and development of educational videos to raise the profile of plant breeding and improve curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro von Mogel, Karl J.

    Carbohydrate metabolism is a biologically, economically, and culturally important process in crop plants. Humans have selected many crop species such as maize (Zea mays L.) in ways that have resulted in changes to carbohydrate metabolic pathways, and understanding the underlying genetics of this pathway is therefore exceedingly important. A previously uncharacterized starch metabolic pathway mutant, sugary enhancer1 (se1), is a recessive modifier of sugary1 (su1) sweet corn that increases the sugar content while maintaining an appealing creamy texture. This allele has been incorporated into many sweet corn varieties since its discovery in the 1970s, however, testing for the presence of this allele has been difficult. A genetic stock was developed that allowed the presence of se1 to be visually scored in segregating ears, which were used to genetically map se1 to the deletion of a single gene model located on the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 2. An analysis of homology found that this gene is specific to monocots, and the gene is expressed in the endosperm and developing leaf. The se1 allele increased water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) and decreased amylopectin in maize endosperm, but there was no overall effect on starch content in mature leaves due to se1. This discovery will lead to a greater understanding of starch metabolism, and the marker developed will assist in breeding. There is a present need for increased training for plant breeders to meet the growing needs of the human population. To raise the profile of plant breeding among young students, a series of videos called Fields of Study was developed. These feature interviews with plant breeders who talk about what they do as plant breeders and what they enjoy about their chosen profession. To help broaden the education of students in college biology courses, and assist with the training of plant breeders, a second video series, Pollination Methods was developed. Each video focuses on one or two

  6. Development of a Linear Stirling Model with Varying Heat Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2007-01-01

    The linear model of the Stirling system developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been extended to include a user-specified heat input. Previously developed linear models were limited to the Stirling convertor and electrical load. They represented the thermodynamic cycle with pressure factors that remained constant. The numerical values of the pressure factors were generated by linearizing GRC s non-linear System Dynamic Model (SDM) of the convertor at a chosen operating point. The pressure factors were fixed for that operating point, thus, the model lost accuracy if a transition to a different operating point were simulated. Although the previous linear model was used in developing controllers that manipulated current, voltage, and piston position, it could not be used in the development of control algorithms that regulated hot-end temperature. This basic model was extended to include the thermal dynamics associated with a hot-end temperature that varies over time in response to external changes as well as to changes in the Stirling cycle. The linear model described herein includes not only dynamics of the piston, displacer, gas, and electrical circuit, but also the transient effects of the heater head thermal inertia. The linear version algebraically couples two separate linear dynamic models, one model of the Stirling convertor and one model of the thermal system, through the pressure factors. The thermal system model includes heat flow of heat transfer fluid, insulation loss, and temperature drops from the heat source to the Stirling convertor expansion space. The linear model was compared to a nonlinear model, and performance was very similar. The resulting linear model can be implemented in a variety of computing environments, and is suitable for analysis with classical and state space controls analysis techniques.

  7. NC truck network model development research.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    This research develops a validated prototype truck traffic network model for North Carolina. The model : includes all counties and metropolitan areas of North Carolina and major economic areas throughout the : U.S. Geographic boundaries, population a...

  8. Developing deterioration models for Wyoming bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-05-01

    Deterioration models for the Wyoming Bridge Inventory were developed using both stochastic and deterministic models. : The selection of explanatory variables is investigated and a new method using LASSO regression to eliminate human bias : in explana...

  9. ANIMAL MODELS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thesis of this chapter has been that spatial delayed alternation versus position discrimination learning can serve as a valuable rodent model of cognitive development in neurotoxicology. his model captures dual process conceptualizations of memory in human neuropsychology and...

  10. Yield model development project implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambroziak, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

  11. Simulation model calibration and validation : phase II : development of implementation handbook and short course.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-01-01

    A previous study developed a procedure for microscopic simulation model calibration and validation and evaluated the procedure via two relatively simple case studies using three microscopic simulation models. Results showed that default parameters we...

  12. Cognitive Components Underpinning the Development of Model-Based Learning

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Tracey C.S.; Bryce, Nessa V.; Hartley, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcement learning theory distinguishes “model-free” learning, which fosters reflexive repetition of previously rewarded actions, from “model-based” learning, which recruits a mental model of the environment to flexibly select goal-directed actions. Whereas model-free learning is evident across development, recruitment of model-based learning appears to increase with age. However, the cognitive processes underlying the development of model-based learning remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined whether age-related differences in cognitive processes underlying the construction and flexible recruitment of mental models predict developmental increases in model-based choice. In a cohort of participants aged 9–25, we examined whether the abilities to infer sequential regularities in the environment (“statistical learning”), maintain information in an active state (“working memory”) and integrate distant concepts to solve problems (“fluid reasoning”) predicted age-related improvements in model-based choice. We found that age-related improvements in statistical learning performance did not mediate the relationship between age and model-based choice. Ceiling performance on our working memory assay prevented examination of its contribution to model-based learning. However, age-related improvements in fluid reasoning statistically mediated the developmental increase in the recruitment of a model-based strategy. These findings suggest that gradual development of fluid reasoning may be a critical component process underlying the emergence of model-based learning. PMID:27825732

  13. Cognitive components underpinning the development of model-based learning.

    PubMed

    Potter, Tracey C S; Bryce, Nessa V; Hartley, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    Reinforcement learning theory distinguishes "model-free" learning, which fosters reflexive repetition of previously rewarded actions, from "model-based" learning, which recruits a mental model of the environment to flexibly select goal-directed actions. Whereas model-free learning is evident across development, recruitment of model-based learning appears to increase with age. However, the cognitive processes underlying the development of model-based learning remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined whether age-related differences in cognitive processes underlying the construction and flexible recruitment of mental models predict developmental increases in model-based choice. In a cohort of participants aged 9-25, we examined whether the abilities to infer sequential regularities in the environment ("statistical learning"), maintain information in an active state ("working memory") and integrate distant concepts to solve problems ("fluid reasoning") predicted age-related improvements in model-based choice. We found that age-related improvements in statistical learning performance did not mediate the relationship between age and model-based choice. Ceiling performance on our working memory assay prevented examination of its contribution to model-based learning. However, age-related improvements in fluid reasoning statistically mediated the developmental increase in the recruitment of a model-based strategy. These findings suggest that gradual development of fluid reasoning may be a critical component process underlying the emergence of model-based learning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. SSME structural dynamic model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) is a major component of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) powerhead. The device is a three stage centrifugal pump that is directly driven by a two stage hot gas turbine. The purpose of the pump is to deliver fuel (liquid hydrogen) from the low pressure fuel turbopump (LPFTP) through the main fuel valve (MFV) to the thrust chamber coolant circuits. In doing so, the pump pressurizes the fuel from an inlet pressure of approximately 178 psi to a discharge pressure of over 6000 psi. At full power level (FPL), the pump rotates at a speed of over 37,000 rpm while generating approximately 77,000 horsepower. Obviously, a pump failure at these speeds and power levels could jeopardize the mission. Results are summarized for work in which the solutions obtained from analytical models of the fuel turbopump impellers are compared with the results obtained from dynamic tests.

  15. Development of mathematical models of environmental physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Selected articles concerned with mathematical or simulation models of human thermoregulation are presented. The articles presented include: (1) development and use of simulation models in medicine, (2) model of cardio-vascular adjustments during exercise, (3) effective temperature scale based on simple model of human physiological regulatory response, (4) behavioral approach to thermoregulatory set point during exercise, and (5) importance of skin temperature in sweat regulation.

  16. No Previous Public Services Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  17. An Aristotelian Model of Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderse, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Despite the Aristotelian renaissance in the philosophy of education, the development of virtue has not received much attention. This is unfortunate, because an attempt to draft an Aristotelian model of moral development can help philosophers to evaluate the contribution Aristotelian virtue ethics can make to our understanding of moral development,…

  18. Animal models in the research of abdominal aortic aneurysms development.

    PubMed

    Patelis, N; Moris, D; Schizas, D; Damaskos, C; Perrea, D; Bakoyiannis, C; Liakakos, T; Georgopoulos, S

    2017-12-20

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent and potentially life threatening disease. Many animal models have been developed to simulate the natural history of the disease or test preclinical endovascular devices and surgical procedures. The aim of this review is to describe different methods of AAA induction in animal models and report on the effectiveness of the methods described in inducing an analogue of a human AAA. The PubMed database was searched for publications with titles containing the following terms "animal" or "animal model(s)" and keywords "research", "aneurysm(s)", "aorta", "pancreatic elastase", "Angiotensin", "AngII" "calcium chloride" or "CaCl(2)". Starting date for this search was set to 2004, since previously bibliography was already covered by the review of Daugherty and Cassis (2004). We focused on animal studies that reported a model of aneurysm development and progression. A number of different approaches of AAA induction in animal models has been developed, used and combined since the first report in the 1960's. Although specific methods are successful in AAA induction in animal models, it is necessary that these methods and their respective results are in line with the pathophysiology and the mechanisms involved in human AAA development. A researcher should know the advantages/disadvantages of each animal model and choose the appropriate model.

  19. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD), a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and software reliability, has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices.After a brief overview of the TDD process and my experience in applying the methodology for development activities at Goddard, I will delve more deeply into some of the challenges that are posed by numerical and scientific software as well as tools and implementation approaches that should address those challenges.

  20. Development of Accommodation Models for Soldiers in Vehicles: Squad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Data from a previous study of Soldier posture and position were analyzed to develop statistical...range of seat height and seat back angle. All of the models include the effects of body armor and body borne gear. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Anthropometry

  1. Gene Regulation Networks for Modeling Drosophila Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mjolsness, E.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter will very briefly introduce and review some computational experiments in using trainable gene regulation network models to simulate and understand selected episodes in the development of the fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster.

  2. Mathematical Model Development and Simulation Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Ronald C.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in support of the Contact Dynamics 6DOF Facility and the Flight Robotics Lab at NASA/ MSFC in the areas of Mathematical Model Development and Simulation Support.

  3. Development of the TRANSIMS Environmental Model

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-06-01

    The TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System (TRANSIMS) is one part the multi-track Travel Model Improvement Program under joint development by the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Energy. ...

  4. Agent Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.

    2005-12-01

    We present the initial stages of development of new agent-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple agent-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using extremely simple cellular agent models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such modelsmore » do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in agent-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep agent behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful agent-based model to a general circulation model.3« less

  5. A Development Model for Foreign Police

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    automated fingerprint identification system. And lastly, it sought to provide training to Malian and other regional police on countering money laundering and...A DEVELOPMENT MODEL FOR FOREIGN POLICE A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in...13-06-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2013 – JUNE 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A DEVELOPMENT MODEL FOR

  6. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) events was conducted to ascertain their relevance to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to perhaps several of the AvSP top ten TC. That data also identified several primary causes and contributing factors for RI events that served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events. The system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of RI events in particular, and to improve runway safety in general. The development, structure and assessment of that BBN for RI events by a Subject Matter Expert panel are documented in this paper.

  7. The PEARL Model of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgin, Mert

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses perception (P), environment (E), action (A), relationship (R), and locality (L) as the social indicators of sustainable development (SD), the capital letters of which label the PEARL model. The paper refers to PEARL with regard to three aspects to elaborate the promises and limits of the model. Theoretically; it discusses…

  8. Survey of Instructional Development Models. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Kent L.; Branch, Robert Maribe

    This ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) monograph updates and expands upon earlier ERIC publications on the topic of instructional development (ID) models. This monograph presents a brief history of ID models, describes a taxonomy for classifying them, provides examples from each of the categories in the taxonomy, and describes trends…

  9. Sectioning Clay Models Makes Anatomy & Development Tangible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Carina Endres; Howell, James Endres

    2010-01-01

    Clay models have proved to be useful teaching aids for many topics in biology that depend on three-dimensional reasoning. Students studying embryonic development struggle to mentally reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of embryos and larvae by observing prepared slides of cross-sectional slices. Students who build clay models of embryos…

  10. MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR FY08 CMAQ RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task provides credible state of the art air quality models and guidance for use in implementation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and PM. This research effort is to develop and improve air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMA...

  11. Developing Modelling Lenses among Practicing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh; Tabach, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Growing awareness of the importance of modelling activities in mathematics education has raised the question of whether teachers are prepared to facilitate the engagement of students in such activities. The current study investigates the effects of how teachers cope with modelling activities in developing their abilities to identify modelling…

  12. A Generic Modeling Process to Support Functional Fault Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Bis, Rachael A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional fault models (FFMs) are qualitative representations of a system's failure space that are used to provide a diagnostic of the modeled system. An FFM simulates the failure effect propagation paths within a system between failure modes and observation points. These models contain a significant amount of information about the system including the design, operation and off nominal behavior. The development and verification of the models can be costly in both time and resources. In addition, models depicting similar components can be distinct, both in appearance and function, when created individually, because there are numerous ways of representing the failure space within each component. Generic application of FFMs has the advantages of software code reuse: reduction of time and resources in both development and verification, and a standard set of component models from which future system models can be generated with common appearance and diagnostic performance. This paper outlines the motivation to develop a generic modeling process for FFMs at the component level and the effort to implement that process through modeling conventions and a software tool. The implementation of this generic modeling process within a fault isolation demonstration for NASA's Advanced Ground System Maintenance (AGSM) Integrated Health Management (IHM) project is presented and the impact discussed.

  13. A biophysical model of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berry development

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Alistair J.

    2013-01-01

    A model of kiwifruit berry development is presented, building on the model of Fishman and Génard used for peach fruit. That model has been extended to incorporate a number of important features of kiwifruit growth. First, the kiwifruit berry is attached to the stem through a pedicel/receptacle complex which contributes significantly to the hydraulic resistance between the stem and the fruit, and this resistance changes considerably during the season. Second, much of the carbohydrate in kiwifruit berries is stored as starch until the fruit matures late in the season, when the starch hydrolyses to soluble sugars. This starch storage has a major effect on the osmotic potential of the fruit, so an existing model of kiwifruit starch dynamics was included in the model. Using previously published approaches, we also included elasticity and extended the modelling period to cover both the cell division and cell expansion phases of growth. The resulting model showed close simulation of field observations of fresh weight, dry matter, starch, and soluble solids in kiwifruit. Comparison with continuous measurements of fruit diameter confirmed that elasticity was needed to adequately simulate observed diurnal variation in fruit size. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the model is particularly sensitive to variation in inputs relating to water (stem water potential and the humidity of the air), and to parameters controlling cell expansion (cell wall extensibility). Some limitations in the model structure were identified, suggesting that a revised model including current apoplastic/symplastic concepts needs to be developed. PMID:24123250

  14. A biophysical model of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berry development.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alistair J; Minchin, Peter E H; Clearwater, Michael J; Génard, Michel

    2013-12-01

    A model of kiwifruit berry development is presented, building on the model of Fishman and Génard used for peach fruit. That model has been extended to incorporate a number of important features of kiwifruit growth. First, the kiwifruit berry is attached to the stem through a pedicel/receptacle complex which contributes significantly to the hydraulic resistance between the stem and the fruit, and this resistance changes considerably during the season. Second, much of the carbohydrate in kiwifruit berries is stored as starch until the fruit matures late in the season, when the starch hydrolyses to soluble sugars. This starch storage has a major effect on the osmotic potential of the fruit, so an existing model of kiwifruit starch dynamics was included in the model. Using previously published approaches, we also included elasticity and extended the modelling period to cover both the cell division and cell expansion phases of growth. The resulting model showed close simulation of field observations of fresh weight, dry matter, starch, and soluble solids in kiwifruit. Comparison with continuous measurements of fruit diameter confirmed that elasticity was needed to adequately simulate observed diurnal variation in fruit size. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the model is particularly sensitive to variation in inputs relating to water (stem water potential and the humidity of the air), and to parameters controlling cell expansion (cell wall extensibility). Some limitations in the model structure were identified, suggesting that a revised model including current apoplastic/symplastic concepts needs to be developed.

  15. Development and Integration of Control System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young K.

    1998-01-01

    The computer simulation tool, TREETOPS, has been upgraded and used at NASA/MSFC to model various complicated mechanical systems and to perform their dynamics and control analysis with pointing control systems. A TREETOPS model of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-1) dynamics and control system was developed to evaluate the AXAF-I pointing performance for Normal Pointing Mode. An optical model of Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) was also developed and its optical performance analysis was done using the MACOS software.

  16. An Innovative Model for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Sharon; O'Neill, Susan; Thompson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers an innovative model of continuing professional development in addressing the needs of children with literacy difficulties, namely the Special Educational Needs Continuing Professional Development Literacy Project. Stranmillis University College, in partnership with St Mary's University College, Belfast secured £4.06 million…

  17. Some Recent Developments in Turbulence Closure Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Turbulence closure models are central to a good deal of applied computational fluid dynamical analysis. Closure modeling endures as a productive area of research. This review covers recent developments in elliptic relaxation and elliptic blending models, unified rotation and curvature corrections, transition prediction, hybrid simulation, and data-driven methods. The focus is on closure models in which transport equations are solved for scalar variables, such as the turbulent kinetic energy, a timescale, or a measure of anisotropy. Algebraic constitutive representations are reviewed for their role in relating scalar closures to the Reynolds stress tensor. Seamless and nonzonal methods, which invoke a single closure model, are reviewed, especially detached eddy simulation (DES) and adaptive DES. Other topics surveyed include data-driven modeling and intermittency and laminar fluctuation models for transition prediction. The review concludes with an outlook.

  18. Development of a working Hovercraft model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, S. H. Mohamed; Syam, K.; Jaafar, A. A.; Mohamad Sharif, M. F.; Ghazali, M. R.; Ibrahim, W. I.; Atan, M. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the development process to fabricate a working hovercraft model. The purpose of this study is to design and investigate of a fully functional hovercraft, based on the studies that had been done. The different designs of hovercraft model had been made and tested but only one of the models is presented in this paper. In this thesis, the weight, the thrust, the lift and the drag force of the model had been measured and the electrical and mechanical parts are also presented. The processing unit of this model is Arduino Uno by using the PSP2 (Playstation 2) as the controller. Since our prototype should be functioning on all kind of earth surface, our model also had been tested in different floor condition. They include water, grass, cement and tile. The Speed of the model is measured in every case as the respond variable, Current (I) as the manipulated variable and Voltage (V) as the constant variable.

  19. Testing Strategies for Model-Based Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Whalen, Mike; Rajan, Ajitha; Miller, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an approach for testing artifacts generated in a model-based development process. This approach divides the traditional testing process into two parts: requirements-based testing (validation testing) which determines whether the model implements the high-level requirements and model-based testing (conformance testing) which determines whether the code generated from a model is behaviorally equivalent to the model. The goals of the two processes differ significantly and this report explores suitable testing metrics and automation strategies for each. To support requirements-based testing, we define novel objective requirements coverage metrics similar to existing specification and code coverage metrics. For model-based testing, we briefly describe automation strategies and examine the fault-finding capability of different structural coverage metrics using tests automatically generated from the model.

  20. Limitations of JEDI Models | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models |

    Science.gov Websites

    precise forecast. The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are input-output based models for assessing economic impacts and jobs, including JEDI (see Chapter 5, pp. 136-142). The most not reflect many other economic impacts that could affect real-world impacts on jobs from the project

  1. Development of a Permafrost Modeling Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Jafarov, E. E.; Piper, M.; Schaefer, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Permafrost is seen as an essential Arctic climate indicator, and feedback of thawing permafrost to the global climate system through the impacts on the global carbon cycle remain an important research topic. Observations can assess the current state of permafrost, but models are eventually essential to make predictions of future permafrost extent. The purpose of our project, which we call PermaModel, is to develop an easy-to-access and comprehensive cyberinfrastructure aimed at promoting and improving permafrost modeling. The PermaModel Integrated Modeling Toolbox (IMT) includes three permafrost models of increasing complexity. The IMT will be housed within the existing cyberinfrastructure of the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS), and made publically accessible through the CSDMS Web Modeling Tool (WMT). The WMT will provide easy online access to students, scientists, and stakeholders who want to use permafrost models, but lack the expertise. We plan to include multiple sets of sample inputs, representing a variety of conditions and locations, to enable immediate use of the IMT. We present here the first permafrost model, which is envisioned to be the most suitable for teaching purposes. The model promotes understanding of a 1D heat equation and permafrost active layer dynamics under monthly temperature/climate drivers in an online environment. Modeling labs are presented through the CSDMS Educational Repository and we solicit feedback from faculty for further design of these resources.

  2. Development of NASA's Models and Simulations Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertch, William J.; Zang, Thomas A.; Steele, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    From the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, there were several NASA-wide actions that were initiated. One of these actions was to develop a standard for development, documentation, and operation of Models and Simulations. Over the course of two-and-a-half years, a team of NASA engineers, representing nine of the ten NASA Centers developed a Models and Simulation Standard to address this action. The standard consists of two parts. The first is the traditional requirements section addressing programmatics, development, documentation, verification, validation, and the reporting of results from both the M&S analysis and the examination of compliance with this standard. The second part is a scale for evaluating the credibility of model and simulation results using levels of merit associated with 8 key factors. This paper provides an historical account of the challenges faced by and the processes used in this committee-based development effort. This account provides insights into how other agencies might approach similar developments. Furthermore, we discuss some specific applications of models and simulations used to assess the impact of this standard on future model and simulation activities.

  3. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction

    PubMed Central

    Grulke, Christopher M.; Chang, Daniel T.; Brooks, Raina D.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Phillips, Martin B.; Hypes, Ethan D.; Fair, Matthew J.; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Johnson, Jeffre; Dary, Curtis C.; Tan, Yu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be a great resource for the construction of models pertaining to new chemicals. A PBPK knowledgebase was compiled and developed from existing PBPK-related articles and used to develop new models. From 2,039 PBPK-related articles published between 1977 and 2013, 307 unique chemicals were identified for use as the basis of our knowledgebase. Keywords related to species, gender, developmental stages, and organs were analyzed from the articles within the PBPK knowledgebase. A correlation matrix of the 307 chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase was calculated based on pharmacokinetic-relevant molecular descriptors. Chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase were ranked based on their correlation toward ethylbenzene and gefitinib. Next, multiple chemicals were selected to represent exact matches, close analogues, or non-analogues of the target case study chemicals. Parameters, equations, or experimental data relevant to existing models for these chemicals and their analogues were used to construct new models, and model predictions were compared to observed values. This compiled knowledgebase provides a chemical structure-based approach for identifying PBPK models relevant to other chemical entities. Using suitable correlation metrics, we demonstrated that models of chemical analogues in the PBPK knowledgebase can guide the construction of PBPK models for other chemicals. PMID:26871706

  4. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingtao; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock; Grulke, Christopher M; Chang, Daniel T; Brooks, Raina D; Leonard, Jeremy A; Phillips, Martin B; Hypes, Ethan D; Fair, Matthew J; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Johnson, Jeffre; Dary, Curtis C; Tan, Yu-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be a great resource for the construction of models pertaining to new chemicals. A PBPK knowledgebase was compiled and developed from existing PBPK-related articles and used to develop new models. From 2,039 PBPK-related articles published between 1977 and 2013, 307 unique chemicals were identified for use as the basis of our knowledgebase. Keywords related to species, gender, developmental stages, and organs were analyzed from the articles within the PBPK knowledgebase. A correlation matrix of the 307 chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase was calculated based on pharmacokinetic-relevant molecular descriptors. Chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase were ranked based on their correlation toward ethylbenzene and gefitinib. Next, multiple chemicals were selected to represent exact matches, close analogues, or non-analogues of the target case study chemicals. Parameters, equations, or experimental data relevant to existing models for these chemicals and their analogues were used to construct new models, and model predictions were compared to observed values. This compiled knowledgebase provides a chemical structure-based approach for identifying PBPK models relevant to other chemical entities. Using suitable correlation metrics, we demonstrated that models of chemical analogues in the PBPK knowledgebase can guide the construction of PBPK models for other chemicals.

  5. Developing a Learning Progression for Number Sense Based on the Rule Space Model in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu; Yan, Yue; Xin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The current study focuses on developing the learning progression of number sense for primary school students, and it applies a cognitive diagnostic model, the rule space model, to data analysis. The rule space model analysis firstly extracted nine cognitive attributes and their hierarchy model from the analysis of previous research and the…

  6. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  7. Home healthcare nurse retention and patient outcome model: discussion and model development.

    PubMed

    Ellenbecker, Carol Hall; Cushman, Margaret

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses additions to an empirically tested model of home healthcare nurse retention. An argument is made that the variables of shared decision-making and organizational commitment be added to the model based on the authors' previous research and additional evidence from the literature. Previous research testing the home healthcare nurse retention model established empirical relationships between nurse, agency, and area characteristics to nurse job satisfaction, intent to stay, and retention. Unexplained model variance prompted a new literature search to augment understanding of nurse retention and patient and agency outcomes. Data come from the authors' previous research, and a literature search from 1990 to 2011 on the topics organizational commitment, shared decision-making, nurse retention, patient outcomes and agency performance. The literature provides a rationale for the additional variables of shared decision-making and affective and continuous organizational commitment, linking these variables to nurse job satisfaction, nurse intent to stay, nurse retention and patient outcomes and agency performance. Implications for nursing.  The new variables in the model suggest that all agencies, even those not struggling to retain nurses, should develop interventions to enhance nurse job satisfaction to assure quality patient outcomes. The new nurse retention and patient outcome model increases our understanding of nurse retention. An understanding of the relationship among these variables will guide future research and the development of interventions to create and maintain nursing work environments that contribute to nurse affective agency commitment, nurse retention and quality of patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices. Of course, scientific/technical software differs from other software categories in a number of important respects, but I nonetheless believe that TDD is quite applicable to the development of such software and has the potential to significantly improve programmer productivity and code quality within the scientific community. After a detailed introduction to TDD, I will present the experience within the Software Systems Support Office (SSSO) in applying the technique to various scientific applications. This discussion will emphasize the various direct and indirect benefits as well as some of the difficulties and limitations of the methodology. I will conclude with a brief description of pFUnit, a unit testing framework I co-developed to support test-driven development of parallel Fortran applications.

  9. Development of Ensemble Model Based Water Demand Forecasting Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyun-Han; So, Byung-Jin; Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Byung-Seop

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, Smart Water Grid (SWG) concept has globally emerged over the last decade and also gained significant recognition in South Korea. Especially, there has been growing interest in water demand forecast and optimal pump operation and this has led to various studies regarding energy saving and improvement of water supply reliability. Existing water demand forecasting models are categorized into two groups in view of modeling and predicting their behavior in time series. One is to consider embedded patterns such as seasonality, periodicity and trends, and the other one is an autoregressive model that is using short memory Markovian processes (Emmanuel et al., 2012). The main disadvantage of the abovementioned model is that there is a limit to predictability of water demands of about sub-daily scale because the system is nonlinear. In this regard, this study aims to develop a nonlinear ensemble model for hourly water demand forecasting which allow us to estimate uncertainties across different model classes. The proposed model is consist of two parts. One is a multi-model scheme that is based on combination of independent prediction model. The other one is a cross validation scheme named Bagging approach introduced by Brieman (1996) to derive weighting factors corresponding to individual models. Individual forecasting models that used in this study are linear regression analysis model, polynomial regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines(MARS), SVM(support vector machine). The concepts are demonstrated through application to observed from water plant at several locations in the South Korea. Keywords: water demand, non-linear model, the ensemble forecasting model, uncertainty. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Projects for Developing Eco-Innovation Technologies (GT-11-G-02-001-6)

  10. Constraints and Opportunities in GCM Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin; Clune, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 30 years climate models have evolved from relatively simple representations of a few atmospheric processes to complex multi-disciplinary system models which incorporate physics from bottom of the ocean to the mesopause and are used for seasonal to multi-million year timescales. Computer infrastructure over that period has gone from punchcard mainframes to modern parallel clusters. Constraints of working within an ever evolving research code mean that most software changes must be incremental so as not to disrupt scientific throughput. Unfortunately, programming methodologies have generally not kept pace with these challenges, and existing implementations now present a heavy and growing burden on further model development as well as limiting flexibility and reliability. Opportunely, advances in software engineering from other disciplines (e.g. the commercial software industry) as well as new generations of powerful development tools can be incorporated by the model developers to incrementally and systematically improve underlying implementations and reverse the long term trend of increasing development overhead. However, these methodologies cannot be applied blindly, but rather must be carefully tailored to the unique characteristics of scientific software development. We will discuss the need for close integration of software engineers and climate scientists to find the optimal processes for climate modeling.

  11. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  12. Turbulence Modeling Validation, Testing, and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Coakley, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to provide accurate numerical solutions for selected flow fields and to compare and evaluate the performance of selected turbulence models with experimental results. Four popular turbulence models have been tested and validated against experimental data often turbulent flows. The models are: (1) the two-equation k-epsilon model of Wilcox, (2) the two-equation k-epsilon model of Launder and Sharma, (3) the two-equation k-omega/k-epsilon SST model of Menter, and (4) the one-equation model of Spalart and Allmaras. The flows investigated are five free shear flows consisting of a mixing layer, a round jet, a plane jet, a plane wake, and a compressible mixing layer; and five boundary layer flows consisting of an incompressible flat plate, a Mach 5 adiabatic flat plate, a separated boundary layer, an axisymmetric shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and an RAE 2822 transonic airfoil. The experimental data for these flows are well established and have been extensively used in model developments. The results are shown in the following four sections: Part A describes the equations of motion and boundary conditions; Part B describes the model equations, constants, parameters, boundary conditions, and numerical implementation; and Parts C and D describe the experimental data and the performance of the models in the free-shear flows and the boundary layer flows, respectively.

  13. Preform Characterization in VARTM Process Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hubert, Pascal; Loos, Alfred C.; Kellen, Charles B.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is a Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) process where both resin injection and fiber compaction are achieved under pressures of 101.3 kPa or less. Originally developed over a decade ago for marine composite fabrication, VARTM is now considered a viable process for the fabrication of aerospace composites (1,2). In order to optimize and further improve the process, a finite element analysis (FEA) process model is being developed to include the coupled phenomenon of resin flow, preform compaction and resin cure. The model input parameters are obtained from resin and fiber-preform characterization tests. In this study, the compaction behavior and the Darcy permeability of a commercially available carbon fabric are characterized. The resulting empirical model equations are input to the 3- Dimensional Infiltration, version 5 (3DINFILv.5) process model to simulate infiltration of a composite panel.

  14. Model development for Ulysses and SOHO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide scientific expertise in solar physics and in the development and use of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of coronal structures for the computation of Lyman alpha scattered radiation in these structures. The specific objectives will be to run MHD models with new boundary conditions and compute resulting scattered solar Lyman alpha intensities, guided by results from the first series of boundary conditions.

  15. Reproducible model development in the cardiac electrophysiology Web Lab.

    PubMed

    Daly, Aidan C; Clerx, Michael; Beattie, Kylie A; Cooper, Jonathan; Gavaghan, David J; Mirams, Gary R

    2018-05-26

    The modelling of the electrophysiology of cardiac cells is one of the most mature areas of systems biology. This extended concentration of research effort brings with it new challenges, foremost among which is that of choosing which of these models is most suitable for addressing a particular scientific question. In a previous paper, we presented our initial work in developing an online resource for the characterisation and comparison of electrophysiological cell models in a wide range of experimental scenarios. In that work, we described how we had developed a novel protocol language that allowed us to separate the details of the mathematical model (the majority of cardiac cell models take the form of ordinary differential equations) from the experimental protocol being simulated. We developed a fully-open online repository (which we termed the Cardiac Electrophysiology Web Lab) which allows users to store and compare the results of applying the same experimental protocol to competing models. In the current paper we describe the most recent and planned extensions of this work, focused on supporting the process of model building from experimental data. We outline the necessary work to develop a machine-readable language to describe the process of inferring parameters from wet lab datasets, and illustrate our approach through a detailed example of fitting a model of the hERG channel using experimental data. We conclude by discussing the future challenges in making further progress in this domain towards our goal of facilitating a fully reproducible approach to the development of cardiac cell models. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model

    SciTech Connect

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL's researchers to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to also estimate the economic impacts of biofuels, coal, conventional hydro, concentrating solar power, geothermal, marine and hydrokinetic power, natural gas, photovoltaics, and transmission lines. This fact sheet focuses on JEDI for wind energy projects and is revised with 2017 figures.

  17. Model-Driven Development of Safety Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Whiteside, Iain

    2017-01-01

    We describe the use of model-driven development for safety assurance of a pioneering NASA flight operation involving a fleet of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) flying beyond visual line of sight. The central idea is to develop a safety architecture that provides the basis for risk assessment and visualization within a safety case, the formal justification of acceptable safety required by the aviation regulatory authority. A safety architecture is composed from a collection of bow tie diagrams (BTDs), a practical approach to manage safety risk by linking the identified hazards to the appropriate mitigation measures. The safety justification for a given unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operation can have many related BTDs. In practice, however, each BTD is independently developed, which poses challenges with respect to incremental development, maintaining consistency across different safety artifacts when changes occur, and in extracting and presenting stakeholder specific information relevant for decision making. We show how a safety architecture reconciles the various BTDs of a system, and, collectively, provide an overarching picture of system safety, by considering them as views of a unified model. We also show how it enables model-driven development of BTDs, replete with validations, transformations, and a range of views. Our approach, which we have implemented in our toolset, AdvoCATE, is illustrated with a running example drawn from a real UAS safety case. The models and some of the innovations described here were instrumental in successfully obtaining regulatory flight approval.

  18. Model Developments for Development of Improved Emissions Scenarios: Developing Purchasing-Power Parity Models, Analyzing Uncertainty, and Developing Data Sets for Gridded Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zili; Nordhaus, William

    2009-03-19

    In the duration of this project, we finished the main tasks set up in the initial proposal. These tasks include: setting up the basic platform in GAMS language for the new RICE 2007 model; testing various model structure of RICE 2007; incorporating PPP data set in the new RICE model; developing gridded data set for IA modeling.

  19. SSME structural dynamic model development, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, M. J.; Wilson, V. L.

    1985-01-01

    A set of test correlated mathematical models of the SSME High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) housing and rotor assembly was produced. New analysis methods within the EISI/EAL and SPAR systems were investigated and runstreams for future use were developed. The LOX pump models have undergone extensive modification since the first phase of this effort was completed. The rotor assembly from the original model was abandoned and a new, more detailed model constructed. A description of the new rotor math model is presented. Also, the pump housing model was continually modified as additional test data have become available. This model is documented along with measured test results. Many of the more advanced features of the EAL/SPAR finite element analysis system were exercised. These included the cyclic symmetry option, the macro-element procedures, and the fluid analysis capability. In addition, a new tool was developed that allows an automated analysis of a disjoint structure in terms of its component modes. A complete description of the implementation of the Craig-Bampton method is given along with two worked examples.

  20. Project Development Model | Integrated Energy Solutions | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    . The five elements of project fundamentals are: Baseline: Analyze the current situation for the site . The two-phase iterative model includes elements in project fundamentals and project development based State and Local Energy Data (SLED) tool, developed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy, to get

  1. Army Systems Engineering Career Development Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-28

    Report No. SERC -2014-TR-042-2 March 28, 2014 Army Systems Engineering Career Development Model Final Technical Report SERC -2014-TR-042-2 March 28...of Technology 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER SERC -2014-TR-042-2 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) DASD (SE) 10...distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This is the final report on SERC Research Task (RT)-104, which seeks to develop a Systems

  2. A new approach for developing adjoint models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, P. E.; Funke, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Many data assimilation algorithms rely on the availability of gradients of misfit functionals, which can be efficiently computed with adjoint models. However, the development of an adjoint model for a complex geophysical code is generally very difficult. Algorithmic differentiation (AD, also called automatic differentiation) offers one strategy for simplifying this task: it takes the abstraction that a model is a sequence of primitive instructions, each of which may be differentiated in turn. While extremely successful, this low-level abstraction runs into time-consuming difficulties when applied to the whole codebase of a model, such as differentiating through linear solves, model I/O, calls to external libraries, language features that are unsupported by the AD tool, and the use of multiple programming languages. While these difficulties can be overcome, it requires a large amount of technical expertise and an intimate familiarity with both the AD tool and the model. An alternative to applying the AD tool to the whole codebase is to assemble the discrete adjoint equations and use these to compute the necessary gradients. With this approach, the AD tool must be applied to the nonlinear assembly operators, which are typically small, self-contained units of the codebase. The disadvantage of this approach is that the assembly of the discrete adjoint equations is still very difficult to perform correctly, especially for complex multiphysics models that perform temporal integration; as it stands, this approach is as difficult and time-consuming as applying AD to the whole model. In this work, we have developed a library which greatly simplifies and automates the alternate approach of assembling the discrete adjoint equations. We propose a complementary, higher-level abstraction to that of AD: that a model is a sequence of linear solves. The developer annotates model source code with library calls that build a 'tape' of the operators involved and their dependencies, and

  3. A Brush Seals Program Modeling and Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Flower, Ralph; Howe, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Some events of a U.S. Army/NASA Lewis Research Center brush seals program are reviewed, and the development of ceramic brush seals is described. Some preliminary room-temperature flow data are modeled and compare favorably to the results of Ergun.

  4. A Model for Enhancing Online Course Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Evelyn; Kalata, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the growing demand for quality online education, Park University has adopted a model that provides a common framework for all of its online courses. Evelyn Knowles and Kathleen Kalata discuss the circumstances leading to the current system and describe the university's implementation of a course development process that ensures…

  5. CPAS Parachute Testing, Model Development, & Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is the human rated parachute system for the Orion vehicle used during re-entry. Similar to Apollo parachute design. Human rating requires additional system redundancy. A Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) project responsible for: Design; Development testing; Performance modeling; Fabrication; Qualification; Delivery

  6. Job Development and Placement: CETA Program Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Miriam; Sugarman, Marged

    One of a series on Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) program models, this monograph provides professionals employed in CETA programs with information on how job recruiting and searches take place to help them improve their job placement and development skills. The content is in four sections. The first section briefly covers the…

  7. Mechanical Model Development for Composite Structural Supercapacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Thomas E., Jr.; Santiago, Diana; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel composite structural supercapacitor concepts have recently been developed as a means both to store electrical charge and to provide modest mechanical load carrying capability. Double-layer composite supercapacitors are often fabricated by impregnating a woven carbon fiber fabric, which serves as the electrodes, with a structural polymer electrolyte. Polypropylene or a glass fabric is often used as the separator material. Recent research has been primarily limited to evaluating these composites experimentally. In this study, mechanical models based on the Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells (MSGMC) were developed and used to calculate the shear and tensile properties and response of two composite structural supercapacitors from the literature. The modeling approach was first validated against traditional composite laminate data. MSGMC models for composite supercapacitors were developed, and accurate elastic shear/tensile properties were obtained. It is envisioned that further development of the models presented in this work will facilitate the design of composite components for aerospace and automotive applications and can be used to screen candidate constituent materials for inclusion in future composite structural supercapacitor concepts.

  8. Modeling Sustainability in Product Development and Commercialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert C.; Rafinejad, Dariush

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the framework of a model that integrates strategic product development decisions with the product's impact on future conditions of resources and the environment. The impact of a product on stocks of nonrenewable sources and sinks is linked in a feedback loop to the cost of manufacturing and using the product…

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMSUMPTION ESTIMATION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives data on the distribution and usage of firewood, obtained from a pool of household wood use surveys. ased on a series of regression models developed using the STEPWISE procedure in the SAS statistical package, two variables appear to be most predictive of wood use...

  10. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Pilsner, B. H.; Mcknight, R. L.; Cook, T. S.; Hartle, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work performed to determine the predominat modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system and to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The primary TBC system consisted of a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat, an air plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 top coat, and a Rene' 80 substrate. The work was divided into 3 technical tasks. The primary failure mode to be addressed was loss of the zirconia layer through spalling. Experiments showed that oxidation of the bond coat is a significant contributor to coating failure. It was evident from the test results that the species of oxide scale initially formed on the bond coat plays a role in coating degradation and failure. It was also shown that elevated temperature creep of the bond coat plays a role in coating failure. An empirical model was developed for predicting the test life of specimens with selected coating, specimen, and test condition variations. In the second task, a coating life prediction model was developed based on the data from Task 1 experiments, results from thermomechanical experiments performed as part of Task 2, and finite element analyses of the TBC system during thermal cycles. The third and final task attempted to verify the validity of the model developed in Task 2. This was done by using the model to predict the test lives of several coating variations and specimen geometries, then comparing these predicted lives to experimentally determined test lives. It was found that the model correctly predicts trends, but that additional refinement is needed to accurately predict coating life.

  11. The Use of the Interconnected Model of Teacher Professional Growth for Understanding the Development of Science Teachers' Knowledge on Models and Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justi, Rosaria; van Driel, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Models play an important role in science education. However, previous research has revealed that science teachers' content knowledge, curricular knowledge, and pedagogical content knowledge on models and modelling are often incomplete or inadequate. From this perspective, a research project was designed which aimed at the development of beginning…

  12. Inducer analysis/pump model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gary C.

    1994-03-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design information in a productive manner. The main goal of this study was to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes an extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving zonal interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. In the present study, three key components of the turbopump, the inducer, impeller, and diffuser, were investigated by the proposed pump model, and the numerical results were benchmarked by the experimental data provided by Rocketdyne. For the numerical calculation of inducer flows with tip clearance, the turbulence model and grid spacing are very important. Meanwhile, the development of the cross-stream secondary flow, generated by curved blade passage and the flow through tip leakage, has a strong effect on the inducer flow. Hence, the prediction of the inducer performance critically depends on whether the numerical scheme of the pump model can simulate the secondary flow pattern accurately or not. The impeller and diffuser, however, are dominated by pressure-driven flows such that the effects of turbulence model and grid spacing (except near leading and trailing edges of blades) are less sensitive. The present CFD pump model has been proved to be an efficient and robust analytical tool for pump design due to its very compact numerical structure (requiring small memory), fast turnaround computing time, and versatility for different geometries.

  13. Inducer analysis/pump model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary C.

    1994-01-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design information in a productive manner. The main goal of this study was to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes an extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving zonal interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. In the present study, three key components of the turbopump, the inducer, impeller, and diffuser, were investigated by the proposed pump model, and the numerical results were benchmarked by the experimental data provided by Rocketdyne. For the numerical calculation of inducer flows with tip clearance, the turbulence model and grid spacing are very important. Meanwhile, the development of the cross-stream secondary flow, generated by curved blade passage and the flow through tip leakage, has a strong effect on the inducer flow. Hence, the prediction of the inducer performance critically depends on whether the numerical scheme of the pump model can simulate the secondary flow pattern accurately or not. The impeller and diffuser, however, are dominated by pressure-driven flows such that the effects of turbulence model and grid spacing (except near leading and trailing edges of blades) are less sensitive. The present CFD pump model has been proved to be an efficient and robust analytical tool for pump design due to its very compact numerical structure (requiring small memory), fast turnaround computing time, and versatility for different geometries.

  14. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis ofmore » the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In

  15. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo

    A heat pump clothes dryer (HPCD) is an innovative appliance that uses a vapor compression system to dry clothes. Air circulates in a closed loop through the drum, so no vent is required. The condenser heats air to evaporate moisture out of the clothes, and the evaporator condenses water out of the air stream. As a result, the HPCD can achieve 50% energy savings compared to a conventional electric resistance dryer. We developed a physics-based, quasi-steady-state HPCD system model with detailed heat exchanger and compressor models. In a novel approach, we applied a heat and mass transfer effectiveness model tomore » simulate the drying process of the clothes load in the drum. The system model is able to simulate the inherently transient HPCD drying process, to size components, and to reveal trends in key variables (e.g. compressor discharge temperature, power consumption, required drying time, etc.) The system model was calibrated using experimental data on a prototype HPCD. In the paper, the modeling method is introduced, and the model predictions are compared with experimental data measured on a prototype HPCD.« less

  16. A Comprehensive Model for Developing and Evaluating Study Abroad Programs in Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Syntia Dinora

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a model to guide the process of designing and evaluating study abroad programs, addressing particular stages and influential factors. The main purpose of the model is to serve as a basic structure for those who want to develop their own program or evaluate previous cultural immersion experiences. The model is based on the…

  17. Prediction of Chemical Function: Model Development and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast) project is developing both statistical and mechanism-based computational models for predicting exposures to thousands of chemicals, including those in consumer products. The high-throughput (HT) screening-level exposures developed under ExpoCast can be combined with HT screening (HTS) bioactivity data for the risk-based prioritization of chemicals for further evaluation. The functional role (e.g. solvent, plasticizer, fragrance) that a chemical performs can drive both the types of products in which it is found and the concentration in which it is present and therefore impacting exposure potential. However, critical chemical use information (including functional role) is lacking for the majority of commercial chemicals for which exposure estimates are needed. A suite of machine-learning based models for classifying chemicals in terms of their likely functional roles in products based on structure were developed. This effort required collection, curation, and harmonization of publically-available data sources of chemical functional use information from government and industry bodies. Physicochemical and structure descriptor data were generated for chemicals with function data. Machine-learning classifier models for function were then built in a cross-validated manner from the descriptor/function data using the method of random forests. The models were applied to: 1) predict chemi

  18. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, James T.; Hannan, Nelson A.; Perkins, Ken R.; Buksa, John H.; Worley, Brian A.; Dobranich, Dean

    1992-01-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. This is crucial for mission analysis and for control subsystem testing as well as for the modeling of various failure modes. Performance must be accurately predicted during steady-state and transient operation, including startup, shutdown, and post operation cooling. The development and application of verified and validated system models has the potential to reduce the design, testing, and cost and time required for the technology to reach flight-ready status. Since Oct. 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. The first level will provide rapid, parameterized calculations of overall system performance. Succeeding computer programs will provide analysis of each component in sufficient detail to guide the design teams and experimental efforts. The computer programs will allow simulation of the entire system to allow prediction of the integrated performance. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review.

  19. Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Xu, Ke

    2014-12-15

    This interim report presents progress towards the development of meso-scale models of magnetic behavior that incorporate microstructural information. Modeling magnetic signatures in irradiated materials with complex microstructures (such as structural steels) is a significant challenge. The complexity is addressed incrementally, using the monocrystalline Fe (i.e., ferrite) film as model systems to develop and validate initial models, followed by polycrystalline Fe films, and by more complicated and representative alloys. In addition, the modeling incrementally addresses inclusion of other major phases (e.g., martensite, austenite), minor magnetic phases (e.g., carbides, FeCr precipitates), and minor nonmagnetic phases (e.g., Cu precipitates, voids). The focus ofmore » the magnetic modeling is on phase-field models. The models are based on the numerical solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. From the computational standpoint, phase-field modeling allows the simulation of large enough systems that relevant defect structures and their effects on functional properties like magnetism can be simulated. To date, two phase-field models have been generated in support of this work. First, a bulk iron model with periodic boundary conditions was generated as a proof-of-concept to investigate major loop effects of single versus polycrystalline bulk iron and effects of single non-magnetic defects. More recently, to support the experimental program herein using iron thin films, a new model was generated that uses finite boundary conditions representing surfaces and edges. This model has provided key insights into the domain structures observed in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements. Simulation results for single crystal thin-film iron indicate the feasibility of the model for determining magnetic domain wall thickness and mobility in an externally applied field. Because the phase-field model dimensions are limited relative to the size of most specimens used

  20. Enabling PBPK model development through the application of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The creation of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for a new chemical requires the selection of an appropriate model structure and the collection of a large amount of data for parameterization. Commonly, a large proportion of the needed information is collected from previously published PBPK models for compounds analogous to the chemical of interest. A key difficulty in quickly developing new models is therefore the identification of appropriate chemical analogs within PBPK model literature. To reduce the burden on researchers of finding the appropriate literature to inform new modeling efforts, we sought to collect a comprehensive listing of chemicals contained in the corpus of PBPK articles and embed them into a chemically searchable database for facile analog identification. To cull the list of chemicals from PBPK literature, we investigated the use of three easily accessible methods: collecting chemicals via MeSH controlled vocabulary processing abstracts using OSCAR4 text-mining software, and annotating abstracts using chemicalize.org. In total, just over 300 unique compounds spanning a variety of chemical classes were identified as having completed PBPK models from over 1700 articles. Additional annotations of PBPK model details including species, lifestage, number of compartments, gender, and exposure routes were tabulated. These data were then imbedded into the Toxicokinetic Knowledge Base (TKKB), an internal website for chemicall

  1. Development of a career coaching model for medical students

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Yera

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Deciding on a future career path or choosing a career specialty is an important academic decision for medical students. The purpose of this study is to develop a career coaching model for medical students. Methods: This research was carried out in three steps. The first step was systematic review of previous studies. The second step was a need assessment of medical students. The third step was a career coaching model using the results acquired from the researched literature and the survey. Results: The career coaching stages were defined as three big phases: The career coaching stages were defined as the “crystallization” period (Pre-medical year 1 and 2), “specification” period (medical year 1 and 2), and “implementation” period (medical year 3 and 4). Conclusion: The career coaching model for medical students can be used in programming career coaching contents and also in identifying the outcomes of career coaching programs at an institutional level. PMID:26867586

  2. Development of a career coaching model for medical students.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yera

    2016-03-01

    Deciding on a future career path or choosing a career specialty is an important academic decision for medical students. The purpose of this study is to develop a career coaching model for medical students. This research was carried out in three steps. The first step was systematic review of previous studies. The second step was a need assessment of medical students. The third step was a career coaching model using the results acquired from the researched literature and the survey. The career coaching stages were defined as three big phases: The career coaching stages were defined as the "crystallization" period (Pre-medical year 1 and 2), "specification" period (medical year 1 and 2), and "implementation" period (medical year 3 and 4). The career coaching model for medical students can be used in programming career coaching contents and also in identifying the outcomes of career coaching programs at an institutional level.

  3. Development of a 3D bone marrow adipose tissue model.

    PubMed

    Fairfield, Heather; Falank, Carolyne; Farrell, Mariah; Vary, Calvin; Boucher, Joshua M; Driscoll, Heather; Liaw, Lucy; Rosen, Clifford J; Reagan, Michaela R

    2018-01-26

    Over the past twenty years, evidence has accumulated that biochemically and spatially defined networks of extracellular matrix, cellular components, and interactions dictate cellular differentiation, proliferation, and function in a variety of tissue and diseases. Modeling in vivo systems in vitro has been undeniably necessary, but when simplified 2D conditions rather than 3D in vitro models are used, the reliability and usefulness of the data derived from these models decreases. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop and validate reliable in vitro models to reproduce specific tissue-like structures and mimic functions and responses of cells in a more realistic manner for both drug screening/disease modeling and tissue regeneration applications. In adipose biology and cancer research, these models serve as physiologically relevant 3D platforms to bridge the divide between 2D cultures and in vivo models, bringing about more reliable and translationally useful data to accelerate benchtop to bedside research. Currently, no model has been developed for bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), a novel adipose depot that has previously been overlooked as "filler tissue" but has more recently been recognized as endocrine-signaling and systemically relevant. Herein we describe the development of the first 3D, BMAT model derived from either human or mouse bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We found that BMAT models can be stably cultured for at least 3 months in vitro, and that myeloma cells (5TGM1, OPM2 and MM1S cells) can be cultured on these for at least 2 weeks. Upon tumor cell co-culture, delipidation occurred in BMAT adipocytes, suggesting a bidirectional relationship between these two important cell types in the malignant BM niche. Overall, our studies suggest that 3D BMAT represents a "healthier," more realistic tissue model that may be useful for elucidating the effects of MAT on tumor cells, and tumor cells on MAT, to identify novel therapeutic

  4. Development of a finite element model of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Williams, K R; Blayney, A W; Rice, H J

    1996-01-01

    A representative finite element model of the healthy ear is developed commencing with a description of the decoupled isotropic tympanic membrane. This model was shown to vibrate in a manner similar to that found both numerically (1, 2) and experimentally (8). The introduction of a fibre system into the membrane matrix significantly altered the modes of vibration. The first mode "remains as a piston like movement as for the isotropic membrane. However, higher modes show a simpler vibration pattern similar to the second mode but with a varying axis of movement and lower amplitudes. The introduction of a malleus and incus does not change the natural frequencies or mode shapes of the membrane for certain support conditions. When constraints are imposed along the ossicular chain by simulation of a cochlear impedance term then significantly altered modes can occur. More recently a revised model of the ear has been developed by the inclusion of the outer ear canal. This discretisation uses geometries extracted from a Nuclear Magnetic resonance scan of a healthy subject and a crude inner ear model using stiffness parameters ultimately fixed through a parameter tuning process. The subsequently tuned model showed behaviour consistent with previous findings and should provide a good basis for subsequent modelling of diseased ears and assessment of the performance of middle ear prostheses.

  5. Development of a model for predicting NASA/MSFC program success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, Jeffrey; Miller, Tracy; Finley, Rosemary

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted during the execution of a previous contract (NAS8-36955/0039) firmly established the feasibility of developing a tool to aid decision makers in predicting the potential success of proposed projects. The final report from that investigation contains an outline of the method to be applied in developing this Project Success Predictor Model. As a follow-on to the previous study, this report describes in detail the development of this model and includes full explanation of the data-gathering techniques used to poll expert opinion. The report includes the presentation of the model code itself.

  6. Development of an energy storage tank model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Robert Christopher

    A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume. The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity. Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided.

  7. Model of the Product Development Lifecycle.

    SciTech Connect

    He, Sunny L.; Roe, Natalie H.; Wood, Evan

    2015-10-01

    While the increased use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf information technology equipment has presented opportunities for improved cost effectiveness and flexibility, the corresponding loss of control over the product's development creates unique vulnerabilities and security concerns. Of particular interest is the possibility of a supply chain attack. A comprehensive model for the lifecycle of hardware and software products is proposed based on a survey of existing literature from academic, government, and industry sources. Seven major lifecycle stages are identified and defined: (1) Requirements, (2) Design, (3) Manufacturing for hardware and Development for software, (4) Testing, (5) Distribution, (6) Use and Maintenance, andmore » (7) Disposal. The model is then applied to examine the risk of attacks at various stages of the lifecycle.« less

  8. Developing Soil Models for Dynamic Impact Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes fundamental soils characterization work performed at NASA Langley Research Center in support of the Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) Aeronautics Program and the Orion Landing System (LS) Advanced Development Program (ADP). LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark)1 soil impact model development and test-analysis correlation results are presented for: (1) a 38-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section, outfitted with four blocks of deployable energy absorbers (DEA), onto sand, and (2) a series of impact tests of a 1/2-scale geometric boilerplate Orion capsule onto soil. In addition, the paper will discuss LS-DYNA contact analysis at the soil/structure interface, methods used to estimate frictional forces, and the sensitivity of the model to density, moisture, and compaction.

  9. NASA: Model development for human factors interfacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an intensive literature review in the general topics of human error analysis, stress and job performance, and accident and safety analysis revealed no usable techniques or approaches for analyzing human error in ground or space operations tasks. A task review model is described and proposed to be developed in order to reduce the degree of labor intensiveness in ground and space operations tasks. An extensive number of annotated references are provided.

  10. Army Systems Engineering Career Development Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-15

    Army Systems Engineering Career Development Model Technical Report SERC -2015-TR-042-3 January 15, 2015 Principal Investigators: Dr...0021, RT 121 Report No. SERC -2015-TR-042-3 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...Technology The Systems Engineering Research Center ( SERC ) is a federally funded University Affiliated Research Center managed by Stevens Institute

  11. Army Systems Engineering Career Development Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-30

    Army Systems Engineering Career Development Model Interim Technical Report SERC -2014-TR-042-1 January 30, 2014 Principal Investigators Dr. Val...Gavito, Stevens Institute of Technology Dr. Michael Pennotti, Stevens Institute of Technology Task Order 004, RT 104 Report No. SERC -2014-TR-042-1...Institute of Technology 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER SERC -2014-TR-042-1 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) DASD

  12. Game dynamic model for yeast development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhijun

    2012-07-01

    Game theoretic models, along with replicator equations, have been applied successfully to the study of evolution of populations of competing species, including the growth of a population, the reaching of the population to an equilibrium state, and the evolutionary stability of the state. In this paper, we analyze a game model proposed by Gore et al. (Nature 456:253-256, 2009) in their recent study on the co-development of two mixed yeast strains. We examine the mathematical properties of this model with varying experimental parameters. We simulate the growths of the yeast strains and compare them with the experimental results. We also compute and analyze the equilibrium state of the system and prove that it is asymptotically and evolutionarily stable.

  13. Developing a model of plant hormone interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu Hua

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth and development is influenced by mutual interactions among plant hormones. The five classical plant hormones are auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. They are small diffusible molecules that easily penetrate between cells. In addition, newer classes of plant hormones have been identified such as brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and various small proteins or peptides. These hormones also play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. This review begins with a brief summary of the current findings on plant hormones. Based on this knowledge, a conceptual model about interactions among plant hormones is built so as to link and develop an understanding of the diverse functions of different plant hormones as a whole in plants. PMID:21406974

  14. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula, E-mail: a.bortoleto@sheffield.ac.uk; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology,more » an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of

  15. Development of a Cadaveric Model for Arthrocentesis.

    PubMed

    MacIver, Melissa A; Johnson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the development of a novel cadaveric model for future use in teaching arthrocentesis. In the clinical setting, animal safety is essential and practice is thus limited. Objectives of the study were to develop and compare a model to an unmodified cadaver by injecting one of two types of fluids to increase yield. The two fluids injected, mineral oil (MO) and hypertonic saline (HS), were compared to determine any difference on yield. Lastly, aspiration immediately after (T1) or three hours after (T2) injection were compared to determine any effect on diagnostic yield. Joints used included the stifle, elbow, and carpus in eight medium dog cadavers. Arthrocentesis was performed before injection (control) and yield measured. Test joints were injected with MO or HS and yield measured after range of motion (T1) and three hours post injection to simulate lab preparation (T2). Both models had statistically significantly higher yield compared with the unmodified cadaver in all joints at T1 and T2 (p<.05) with the exception of HST2 carpus. T2 aspiration had a statistically significant lower yield when compared to T1HS carpus, T1HS elbow, and T1MO carpus. Overall, irrespective of fluid volume or type, percent yield was lower in T2 compared to T1. No statistically significant difference was seen between HS and MO in most joints with the exception of MOT1 stifle and HST2 elbow. Within the time frame assessed, both models were acceptable. However, HS arthrocentesis models proved appropriate for student trial due to the difficult aspirations with MO.

  16. Developing Models for Predictive Climate Science

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B; Jones, Philip W

    2007-01-01

    The Community Climate System Model results from a multi-agency collaboration designed to construct cutting-edge climate science simulation models for a broad research community. Predictive climate simulations are currently being prepared for the petascale computers of the near future. Modeling capabilities are continuously being improved in order to provide better answers to critical questions about Earth's climate. Climate change and its implications are front page news in today's world. Could global warming be responsible for the July 2006 heat waves in Europe and the United States? Should more resources be devoted to preparing for an increase in the frequency of strongmore » tropical storms and hurricanes like Katrina? Will coastal cities be flooded due to a rise in sea level? The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), which archives all weather data for the nation, reports that global surface temperatures have increased over the last century, and that the rate of increase is three times greater since 1976. Will temperatures continue to climb at this rate, will they decline again, or will the rate of increase become even steeper? To address such a flurry of questions, scientists must adopt a systematic approach and develop a predictive framework. With responsibility for advising on energy and technology strategies, the DOE is dedicated to advancing climate research in order to elucidate the causes of climate change, including the role of carbon loading from fossil fuel use. Thus, climate science--which by nature involves advanced computing technology and methods--has been the focus of a number of DOE's SciDAC research projects. Dr. John Drake (ORNL) and Dr. Philip Jones (LANL) served as principal investigators on the SciDAC project, 'Collaborative Design and Development of the Community Climate System Model for Terascale Computers.' The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) is a fully-coupled global system that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of

  17. High-Fidelity Flash Lidar Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  18. Methodological Developments in Geophysical Assimilation Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christakos, George

    2005-06-01

    This work presents recent methodological developments in geophysical assimilation research. We revisit the meaning of the term "solution" of a mathematical model representing a geophysical system, and we examine its operational formulations. We argue that an assimilation solution based on epistemic cognition (which assumes that the model describes incomplete knowledge about nature and focuses on conceptual mechanisms of scientific thinking) could lead to more realistic representations of the geophysical situation than a conventional ontologic assimilation solution (which assumes that the model describes nature as is and focuses on form manipulations). Conceptually, the two approaches are fundamentally different. Unlike the reasoning structure of conventional assimilation modeling that is based mainly on ad hoc technical schemes, the epistemic cognition approach is based on teleologic criteria and stochastic adaptation principles. In this way some key ideas are introduced that could open new areas of geophysical assimilation to detailed understanding in an integrated manner. A knowledge synthesis framework can provide the rational means for assimilating a variety of knowledge bases (general and site specific) that are relevant to the geophysical system of interest. Epistemic cognition-based assimilation techniques can produce a realistic representation of the geophysical system, provide a rigorous assessment of the uncertainty sources, and generate informative predictions across space-time. The mathematics of epistemic assimilation involves a powerful and versatile spatiotemporal random field theory that imposes no restriction on the shape of the probability distributions or the form of the predictors (non-Gaussian distributions, multiple-point statistics, and nonlinear models are automatically incorporated) and accounts rigorously for the uncertainty features of the geophysical system. In the epistemic cognition context the assimilation concept may be used to

  19. Model for Simulating a Spiral Software-Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizell, Carolyn; Curley, Charles; Nayak, Umanath

    2010-01-01

    A discrete-event simulation model, and a computer program that implements the model, have been developed as means of analyzing a spiral software-development process. This model can be tailored to specific development environments for use by software project managers in making quantitative cases for deciding among different software-development processes, courses of action, and cost estimates. A spiral process can be contrasted with a waterfall process, which is a traditional process that consists of a sequence of activities that include analysis of requirements, design, coding, testing, and support. A spiral process is an iterative process that can be regarded as a repeating modified waterfall process. Each iteration includes assessment of risk, analysis of requirements, design, coding, testing, delivery, and evaluation. A key difference between a spiral and a waterfall process is that a spiral process can accommodate changes in requirements at each iteration, whereas in a waterfall process, requirements are considered to be fixed from the beginning and, therefore, a waterfall process is not flexible enough for some projects, especially those in which requirements are not known at the beginning or may change during development. For a given project, a spiral process may cost more and take more time than does a waterfall process, but may better satisfy a customer's expectations and needs. Models for simulating various waterfall processes have been developed previously, but until now, there have been no models for simulating spiral processes. The present spiral-process-simulating model and the software that implements it were developed by extending a discrete-event simulation process model of the IEEE 12207 Software Development Process, which was built using commercially available software known as the Process Analysis Tradeoff Tool (PATT). Typical inputs to PATT models include industry-average values of product size (expressed as number of lines of code

  20. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and application of earth system models.

    PubMed

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  2. Development and application of earth system models

    PubMed Central

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important “systems” problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981–2000 to 2091–2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether “climate engineering” is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better. PMID:22706645

  3. Space market model development project, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Hamel, Gary P.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a research project investigating information needs for space commercialization is described. The Space Market Model Development Project (SMMDP) was designed to help NASA identify the information needs of the business community and to explore means to meet those needs. The activity of the SMMDP is reviewed and a report of its operation via three sections is presented. The first part contains a brief historical review of the project since inception. The next part reports results of Phase 3, the most recent stage of activity. Finally, overall conclusions and observations based on the SMMDP research results are presented.

  4. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  5. [Educational model to develop trustworthy professional activities].

    PubMed

    Hamui-Sutton, Alicia; Varela-Ruiz, Margarita; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Torruco-García, Uri

    2015-01-01

    The reorganization of the national health system (SNS), enforces reflection and transformation on medical education in clinical contexts. The study presents an educational model to develop entrusted professionals activities (MEDAPROC) to train human resources in health with reliable knowledge, skills and attitudes to work in the shifting scenario of the SNS. The paper discusses international and national documents on skills in medicine. Based on the analysis of 8 domains, 50 skills and 13 entrusted professional activities (RPA) proposed by the Association of the American Medical College (AAMC) we propose a curriculum design, with the example of the undergraduate program of Gynecology and Obstetrics, with the intention to advance to internship and residency in a continuum that marks milestones and clinical practices. The pedagogical design of MEDAPROC was developed within three areas: 1) proposal of the AAMC; 2) curricular content of programs in pre and postgraduate education 3) organization of the daily agenda with academic mechanisms to develop the competencies, cover program items and develop clinical practice in deliberate learning activities, as well as milestones. The MEDAPROC offers versatility, student mobility and curricular flexibility in a system planed by academic units in diverse clinical settings.

  6. Modelling Inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries with Bayesian networks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Lopez-Puga, J.; Carmona-Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    Improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). This inter-dependency has been recognised with the adoption of the "Integrated Water Resources Management" principles that push for the integration of these various dimensions involved in WSS delivery to ensure an efficient and sustainable management. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector in particular in developing countries where WSS still represent an important leverage for livelihood improvement. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed a coherent database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 29 indicators from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data focusing on developing countries (Celine et al, 2011 under publication). The aim of this work is to model the WatSan4Dev dataset using probabilistic models to identify the key variables influencing or being influenced by the water supply and sanitation access levels. Bayesian Network Models are suitable to map the conditional dependencies between variables and also allows ordering variables by level of influence on the dependent variable. Separated models have been built for water supply and for sanitation because of different behaviour. The models are validated if complying with statistical criteria but either with scientific knowledge and literature. A two steps approach has been adopted to build the structure of the model; Bayesian network is first built for each thematic cluster of variables (e.g governance, agricultural pressure, or human development) keeping a detailed level for interpretation later one. A global model is then built based on significant indicators of each cluster being previously modelled. The structure of the

  7. Development of a leadership competency model.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Rose O; Bishop, Mary; Eggenberger, Terry; Karden, Ruth

    2007-02-01

    Although research findings support that the nurse manager has a pivotal role in influencing all aspects of the nursing environment, recruiting talented staff into these nursing leadership positions has become increasingly more difficult. There is a need to better understand the competencies needed by contemporary nurse managers and the challenges in the role. The purpose of this research was to explore the viewpoints of 120 nurse manager study participants on the contemporary nurse manager role and to gain perspective on the critical leadership skills and competencies to build a nursing leadership competency model. A grounded theory methodology was used in this study to capture the perspectives of the nurse managers interviewed about their role. Six competency categories emerged from the research findings to form a nursing leadership competency model. Two major themes identified from the data included the nurse manager role as a career choice and the stressors and challenges in the role. The results of this study led to the design of a nursing leadership competency model and confirmed that there is a need to formally develop and mentor our next generation of nurse leaders.

  8. Modeling Cervical Cancer Prevention in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jane J.; Brisson, Marc; Edmunds, W. John; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    Cytology-based screening has reduced cervical cancer mortality in countries able to implement, sustain and financially support organized programs that achieve broad coverage. These ongoing secondary prevention efforts considerably complicate the question of whether vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types -16 and 18 should be introduced. Policy questions focus primarily on the target ages of vaccination, appropriate ages for a temporary “catch-up” program, possible revisions in screening policies to optimize synergies with vaccination, including the increased used of HPV DNA testing, and the inclusion of boys in the vaccination program. Decision-analytic models are increasingly being developed to simulate disease burden and interventions in different settings in order to evaluate the benefits and cost-effectiveness of primary and secondary interventions for informed decision-making. This article is a focused review on existing mathematical models that have been used to evaluate HPV vaccination in the context of developed countries with existing screening programs. Despite variations in model assumptions and uncertainty in existing data, pre-adolescent vaccination of girls is consistently found to be attractive in the context of current screening practices, provided there is complete and lifelong vaccine protection and widespread vaccination coverage. Questions related to catch-up vaccination programs, potential benefits of other non-cervical cancer outcomes and inclusion of boys are subject to far more uncertainty, and results from these analyses have reached conflicting conclusions. Most analyses find that some catch-up vaccination is warranted but becomes increasingly unattractive as the catch-up age is extended, and vaccination of boys is unlikely to be cost-effective if reasonable levels of coverage are achieved in girls or coverage among girls can be improved. The objective of the review is to highlight points of consensus and qualitative

  9. Are we there yet? Tracking the development of new model systems

    Treesearch

    A. Abzhanov; C. Extavour; A. Groover; S. Hodges; H. Hoekstra; E. Kramer; A. Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that additional ‘model’ systems are needed to elucidate the genetic and developmental basis of organismal diversity. Whereas model system development previously required enormous investment, recent advances including the decreasing cost of DNA sequencing and the power of reverse genetics to study gene function are greatly facilitating...

  10. Developing Enhanced Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability Models: Integrating External Bio-Assay Data in QSAR Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenyi; Kim, Marlene T.; Sedykh, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Experimental Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB) permeability models for drug molecules are expensive and time-consuming. As alternative methods, several traditional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models have been developed previously. In this study, we aimed to improve the predictivity of traditional QSAR BBB permeability models by employing relevant public bio-assay data in the modeling process. Methods We compiled a BBB permeability database consisting of 439 unique compounds from various resources. The database was split into a modeling set of 341 compounds and a validation set of 98 compounds. Consensus QSAR modeling workflow was employed on the modeling set to develop various QSAR models. A five-fold cross-validation approach was used to validate the developed models, and the resulting models were used to predict the external validation set compounds. Furthermore, we used previously published membrane transporter models to generate relevant transporter profiles for target compounds. The transporter profiles were used as additional biological descriptors to develop hybrid QSAR BBB models. Results The consensus QSAR models have R2=0.638 for fivefold cross-validation and R2=0.504 for external validation. The consensus model developed by pooling chemical and transporter descriptors showed better predictivity (R2=0.646 for five-fold cross-validation and R2=0.526 for external validation). Moreover, several external bio-assays that correlate with BBB permeability were identified using our automatic profiling tool. Conclusions The BBB permeability models developed in this study can be useful for early evaluation of new compounds (e.g., new drug candidates). The combination of chemical and biological descriptors shows a promising direction to improve the current traditional QSAR models. PMID:25862462

  11. Analysis Of Navy Hornet Squadron Mishap Costs With Regard To Previously Flown Flight Hours

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    mishaps occur more frequently in a squadron when flight hours are reduced. This thesis correlates F/A-18 Hornet and Super Hornet squadron previously... correlated to the flight hours flown during the previous three and six months. A linear multivariate model was developed and used to analyze a dataset...hours are reduced. This thesis correlates F/A-18 Hornet and Super Hornet squadron previously flown flight hours with mishap costs. It uses a macro

  12. Recent developments for realistic solar models

    SciTech Connect

    Serenelli, Aldo M.

    2014-05-02

    The 'solar abundance problem' has triggered a renewed interest in revising the concept of SSM from different perspectives: 1) constituent microphysics: equation of state, nuclear rates, radiative opacities; 2) constituent macrophysics: the physical processes impact the evolution of the Sun and its present-day structure, e.g. dynamical processes induced by rotation, presence of magnetic fields; 3) challenge the hypothesis that the young Sun was chemically homogeneous: the possible interaction of the young Sun with its protoplanetary disk. Here, I briefly review and then present a (personal) view on recent advances and developments on solar modeling, part of them carried out asmore » attempts to solve the solar abundance problem.« less

  13. Developing Automatic Student Motivation Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destarianto, P.; Etikasari, B.; Agustianto, K.

    2018-01-01

    Achievement motivation is one of the internal factors in encouraging a person to perform the best activity in achieving its goals. The importance of achievement motivation must be possessed as an incentive to compete so that the person will always strive to achieve success and avoid failure. Based on this, the system is developed to determine the achievement motivation of students, so that students can do self-reflection in improving achievement motivation. The test results of the system using Naïve Bayes Classifier showed an average rate of accuracy of 91,667% in assessing student achievement motivation. By modeling the students ‘motivation generated by the system, students’ achievement motivation level can be known. This class of motivation will be used to determine appropriate counseling decisions, and ultimately is expected to improve student achievement motivation.

  14. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, C. M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Fritz, S., E-mail: stefan.fritz@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Vollherbst, D., E-mail: dominikvollherbst@web.de

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killedmore » and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver.« less

  15. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    A methodology is established to predict thermal barrier coating life in a environment similar to that experienced by gas turbine airfoils. Experiments were conducted to determine failure modes of the thermal barrier coating. Analytical studies were employed to derive a life prediction model. A review of experimental and flight service components as well as laboratory post evaluations indicates that the predominant mode of TBC failure involves thermomechanical spallation of the ceramic coating layer. This ceramic spallation involves the formation of a dominant crack in the ceramic coating parallel to and closely adjacent to the topologically complex metal ceramic interface. This mechanical failure mode clearly is influenced by thermal exposure effects as shown in experiments conducted to study thermal pre-exposure and thermal cycle-rate effects. The preliminary life prediction model developed focuses on the two major damage modes identified in the critical experiments tasks. The first of these involves a mechanical driving force, resulting from cyclic strains and stresses caused by thermally induced and externally imposed mechanical loads. The second is an environmental driving force based on experimental results, and is believed to be related to bond coat oxidation. It is also believed that the growth of this oxide scale influences the intensity of the mechanical driving force.

  16. Model development for naphthenic acids ozonation process.

    PubMed

    Al Jibouri, Ali Kamel H; Wu, Jiangning

    2015-02-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are toxic constituents of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which is generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. NAs consist mainly of carboxylic acids which are generally biorefractory. For the treatment of OSPW, ozonation is a very beneficial method. It can significantly reduce the concentration of NAs and it can also convert NAs from biorefractory to biodegradable. In this study, a factorial design (2(4)) was used for the ozonation of OSPW to study the influences of the operating parameters (ozone concentration, oxygen/ozone flow rate, pH, and mixing) on the removal of a model NAs in a semi-batch reactor. It was found that ozone concentration had the most significant effect on the NAs concentration compared to other parameters. An empirical model was developed to correlate the concentration of NAs with ozone concentration, oxygen/ozone flow rate, and pH. In addition, a theoretical analysis was conducted to gain the insight into the relationship between the removal of NAs and the operating parameters.

  17. Developing Understanding of Mathematical Modeling in Secondary Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anhalt, Cynthia Oropesa; Cortez, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the evolution of 11 prospective teachers' understanding of mathematical modeling through the implementation of a modeling module within a curriculum course in a secondary teacher preparation program. While the prospective teachers had not previously taken a course on mathematical modeling, they will be expected to include…

  18. Developing a model of chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingyang; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2011-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition that has a high incidence in the increasing elderly population of many countries. Pathologically, it is defined as a persistent liquefied hematoma in the subdural space more than 3 weeks old that is generally encased by a membraneous capsule. CSDHs likely originate after minor head trauma, with a key factor in its development being the potential for a subdural cavity to permit its expansion within, which is usually due to craniocerebral disproportion. The pathogenesis of CSDH has been attributed to osmotic or oncotic pressure differences, although measurements of these factors in the CSDH fluid do not support this theory. Current belief is that CSDH arises from recurrent bleeding in the subdural space, caused by a cycle of local angiogenesis, inflammation, coagulation and ongoing fibrinolysis. However, because of a lack of detailed knowledge about the precise mechanisms, treatment is often limited to surgical interventions that are invasive and often prone to recurrence. Thus, it is possible that an easily reproducible and representative animal model of CSDH would facilitate research in the pathogenesis of CSDH and aid with development of treatment options.

  19. LADEE Satellite Modeling and Simulation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael; Cannon, Howard; Frost, Chad

    2011-01-01

    As human activity on and around the Moon increases, so does the likelihood that our actions will have an impact on its atmosphere. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), a NASA satellite scheduled to launch in 2013, will orbit the Moon collecting composition, density, and time variability data to characterize the current state of the lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also test the concept of the "Modular Common Bus" spacecraft architecture, an effort to reduce both development time and cost by designing reusable, modular components for use in multiple missions with similar requirements. An important aspect of this design strategy is to both simulate the spacecraft and develop the flight code in Simulink, a block diagram-style programming language that allows easy algorithm visualization and performance testing. Before flight code can be tested, however, a realistic simulation of the satellite and its dynamics must be generated and validated. This includes all of the satellite control system components such as actuators used for force and torque generation and sensors used for inertial orientation reference. My primary responsibilities have included designing, integrating, and testing models for the LADEE thrusters, reaction wheels, star trackers, and rate gyroscopes.

  20. Developments in Atmosphere Revitalization Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Kittredge, Kenneth; Xoker, Robert F.; Cummings, Ramona; Gomez, Carlos F.

    2012-01-01

    "NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is pioneering new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit" (NASA 2012). These forays beyond the confines of earth's gravity will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also launch the supplies needed to sustain a crew over longer periods for exploration missions beyond earth's moon. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. Current efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art systems utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by evaluating structured sorbents, seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. These development efforts combine testing of sub-scale systems and multi-physics computer simulations to evaluate candidate approaches, select the best performing options, and optimize the configuration of the selected approach, which is then implemented in a full-scale integrated atmosphere revitalization test. This paper describes the development of atmosphere revitalization models and simulations. A companion paper discusses the hardware design and sorbent screening and characterization effort in support of the Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project within the AES program.

  1. Adolescent Psychosocial Development: A Review of Longitudinal Models and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This review used 4 types of longitudinal models (descriptive models, prediction models, developmental sequence models and longitudinal mediation models) to identify regular patterns of psychosocial development in adolescence. Eight patterns of adolescent development were observed across countries: (1) adolescent maturation in multiple…

  2. Teachers' Development Model to Authentic Assessment by Empowerment Evaluation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charoenchai, Charin; Phuseeorn, Songsak; Phengsawat, Waro

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Study teachers authentic assessment, teachers comprehension of authentic assessment and teachers needs for authentic assessment development. 2) To create teachers development model. 3) Experiment of teachers development model. 4) Evaluate effectiveness of teachers development model. The research is divided into 4…

  3. Developing a global model of magnetospheric substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, J. R.

    1990-09-01

    Competing models of magnetospheric substorms are discussed. The definitions of the three substorm phases are presented, and the advantages and drawbacks of the near-earth X-line model, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling model, low-latitude boundary layer model, and thermal catastrophe model are examined. It is shown that the main challenge to achieving a quantitative understanding of the magnetospheric signatures of substorms is to understand the anomalous dissipation processes in collisionless plasmas.

  4. The Moral Development of the Child: An Integrated Model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2013-01-01

    Previous theories of moral development such as those by Piaget and Kohlberg usually focused on the cognitive or rational aspect, and seldom included the affective aspect in their construction. The characteristics of the stages of moral development in the present paper are elaborated with special reference to psychological needs, altruism and human relationships, and justice reasoning. The three stages are: (1) Physical Survival, Selfishness, and Obedience, (2) Love Needs, Reciprocal Altruism, and Instrumental Purpose; and (3) Belongingness Needs, Primary Group Altruism, and Mutual Interpersonal Expectations. At Stage 1, a deep and profound attachment to parents, empathy toward the significant others, and obedience to authorities all contribute to the physical survival of a person at this stage. People at Stage 2 are self-protective, dominant, exploitative, and opportunistic. The need to love and to be loved is gratified on the basis of reciprocal altruism. People at Stage 3 have a strong desire to gratify their belongingness needs to a primary group. They are willing to sacrifice for the benefits of the group at great cost. While the psychological needs and altruism are related to the affective aspect of moral development, the justice reasoning is related to the cognitive aspect. The proposed theoretical model attempts to integrate the affective and cognitive aspects of moral development, and prototypic responses to questions related to hypothetical moral dilemmas are presented to substantiate the proposed stage structures. It is hypothesized that the sequence of these three stages is invariant of person and culture. PMID:24350226

  5. The moral development of the child: an integrated model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2013-01-01

    Previous theories of moral development such as those by Piaget and Kohlberg usually focused on the cognitive or rational aspect, and seldom included the affective aspect in their construction. The characteristics of the stages of moral development in the present paper are elaborated with special reference to psychological needs, altruism and human relationships, and justice reasoning. The three stages are: (1) Physical Survival, Selfishness, and Obedience, (2) Love Needs, Reciprocal Altruism, and Instrumental Purpose; and (3) Belongingness Needs, Primary Group Altruism, and Mutual Interpersonal Expectations. At Stage 1, a deep and profound attachment to parents, empathy toward the significant others, and obedience to authorities all contribute to the physical survival of a person at this stage. People at Stage 2 are self-protective, dominant, exploitative, and opportunistic. The need to love and to be loved is gratified on the basis of reciprocal altruism. People at Stage 3 have a strong desire to gratify their belongingness needs to a primary group. They are willing to sacrifice for the benefits of the group at great cost. While the psychological needs and altruism are related to the affective aspect of moral development, the justice reasoning is related to the cognitive aspect. The proposed theoretical model attempts to integrate the affective and cognitive aspects of moral development, and prototypic responses to questions related to hypothetical moral dilemmas are presented to substantiate the proposed stage structures. It is hypothesized that the sequence of these three stages is invariant of person and culture.

  6. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur.


    Bioenergetics modeling is particularly useful when research questions involve multiple species and trophic levels (e.g. plankton communities). Bioenergetics models are mass-balance equations where the energy acquired from food is partitioned between maintenance costs, waste products, and growth (Winberg 1956). Specifically, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model (Hanson et al. 1997) is widely used in fisheries science. Researchers have extensively tested, reviewed, and improved on this modeling approach for over 30 years (Petersen et al. 2008). Development of a bioenergetics model for any species requires three key components: 1) determine physiological parameters for the model through laboratory experiments or incorporate data from a closely related species, 2) corroboration of the model with growth and consumption estimates from independent research, and 3) error analysis of model parameters.


    Wisconsin bioenergetics models have been parameterized for

  7. Transcription factors in pancreatic development. Animal models.

    PubMed

    Martin, Merce; Hauer, Viviane; Messmer, Mélanie; Orvain, Christophe; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    Through the analysis of genetically modified mice a hierarchy of transcription factors regulating pancreas specification, endocrine destiny as well as endocrine subtype specification and differentiation has been established. In addition to conventional approaches such as transgenic technologies and gene targeting, recombinase fate mapping in mice has been key in establishing the lineage relationship between progenitor cells and their progeny in understanding pancreas formation. Moreover, the design of specific mouse models to conditionally express transcription factors in different populations of progenitor cells has revealed to what extent transcription factors required for islet cell development are also sufficient to induce endocrine differentiation and the importance of the competence of progenitor cells to respond to the genetic program implemented by these factors. Taking advantage of this basic science knowledge acquired in rodents, immature insulin-producing cells have recently been differentiated in vitro from human embryonic stem cells. Taken together these major advances emphasize the need to gain further in-depth knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling beta-cell differentiation in mice to generate functional beta-cells in the future that could be used for cell therapy in diabetes.

  8. Multivariate dynamical modelling of structural change during development.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Gabriel; Ridgway, Gerard R; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Ashburner, John; Penny, Will

    2017-02-15

    Here we introduce a multivariate framework for characterising longitudinal changes in structural MRI using dynamical systems. The general approach enables modelling changes of states in multiple imaging biomarkers typically observed during brain development, plasticity, ageing and degeneration, e.g. regional gray matter volume of multiple regions of interest (ROIs). Structural brain states follow intrinsic dynamics according to a linear system with additional inputs accounting for potential driving forces of brain development. In particular, the inputs to the system are specified to account for known or latent developmental growth/decline factors, e.g. due to effects of growth hormones, puberty, or sudden behavioural changes etc. Because effects of developmental factors might be region-specific, the sensitivity of each ROI to contributions of each factor is explicitly modelled. In addition to the external effects of developmental factors on regional change, the framework enables modelling and inference about directed (potentially reciprocal) interactions between brain regions, due to competition for space, or structural connectivity, and suchlike. This approach accounts for repeated measures in typical MRI studies of development and aging. Model inversion and posterior distributions are obtained using earlier established variational methods enabling Bayesian evidence-based comparisons between various models of structural change. Using this approach we demonstrate dynamic cortical changes during brain maturation between 6 and 22 years of age using a large openly available longitudinal paediatric dataset with 637 scans from 289 individuals. In particular, we model volumetric changes in 26 bilateral ROIs, which cover large portions of cortical and subcortical gray matter. We account for (1) puberty-related effects on gray matter regions; (2) effects of an early transient growth process with additional time-lag parameter; (3) sexual dimorphism by modelling parameter

  9. SYSTEMS BIOLOGY MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    System biology models holistically describe, in a quantitative fashion, the relationships between different levels of a biologic system. Relationships between individual components of a system are delineated. System biology models describe how the components of the system inter...

  10. Developing a Toolkit for Model Evaluation Using Speleothem Isotope Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas-Bru, L.; Deininger, M.; Harrison, S.

    2017-12-01

    Speleothems can provide high-resolution records of changes in both climate and atmospheric composition. These records have the potential to be used to document regional changes in mean climate and climate variability on annual to centennial timescales. They can also be used to refine our understanding of regional changes in climate forcings, such as dust and volcanic aerosols, through time. Many climate models now explicitly include isotopic tracers, and thus the isotopic records from speleothems can be used for model evaluation. Previous attempts to compile speleothem data have not provided a globally-comprehensive synthesis, nor have they provided assessments of measurement, chronological or interpretation uncertainties. SISAL (Speleothem Isotopes Synthesis and Analysis) is a new community-based working groupsponsored by Past Global Changes (PAGES) to synthesise the 500+speleothem isotopic records available globallyand develop a public-accessdatabase, that can be used both to explore past climate changes and in model evaluation. This presentation will showcase preliminary syntheses for the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka), the mid-Holocene (6 ka) and the Last Millennium (850-1850 CE).

  11. Development of estrogen receptor beta binding prediction model using large sets of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Gong, Ping; Zhang, Chaoyang; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2017-11-03

    We developed an ER β binding prediction model to facilitate identification of chemicals specifically bind ER β or ER α together with our previously developed ER α binding model. Decision Forest was used to train ER β binding prediction model based on a large set of compounds obtained from EADB. Model performance was estimated through 1000 iterations of 5-fold cross validations. Prediction confidence was analyzed using predictions from the cross validations. Informative chemical features for ER β binding were identified through analysis of the frequency data of chemical descriptors used in the models in the 5-fold cross validations. 1000 permutations were conducted to assess the chance correlation. The average accuracy of 5-fold cross validations was 93.14% with a standard deviation of 0.64%. Prediction confidence analysis indicated that the higher the prediction confidence the more accurate the predictions. Permutation testing results revealed that the prediction model is unlikely generated by chance. Eighteen informative descriptors were identified to be important to ER β binding prediction. Application of the prediction model to the data from ToxCast project yielded very high sensitivity of 90-92%. Our results demonstrated ER β binding of chemicals could be accurately predicted using the developed model. Coupling with our previously developed ER α prediction model, this model could be expected to facilitate drug development through identification of chemicals that specifically bind ER β or ER α .

  12. Development of climate data storage and processing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okladnikov, I. G.; Gordov, E. P.; Titov, A. G.

    2016-11-01

    We present a storage and processing model for climate datasets elaborated in the framework of a virtual research environment (VRE) for climate and environmental monitoring and analysis of the impact of climate change on the socio-economic processes on local and regional scales. The model is based on a «shared nothings» distributed computing architecture and assumes using a computing network where each computing node is independent and selfsufficient. Each node holds a dedicated software for the processing and visualization of geospatial data providing programming interfaces to communicate with the other nodes. The nodes are interconnected by a local network or the Internet and exchange data and control instructions via SSH connections and web services. Geospatial data is represented by collections of netCDF files stored in a hierarchy of directories in the framework of a file system. To speed up data reading and processing, three approaches are proposed: a precalculation of intermediate products, a distribution of data across multiple storage systems (with or without redundancy), and caching and reuse of the previously obtained products. For a fast search and retrieval of the required data, according to the data storage and processing model, a metadata database is developed. It contains descriptions of the space-time features of the datasets available for processing, their locations, as well as descriptions and run options of the software components for data analysis and visualization. The model and the metadata database together will provide a reliable technological basis for development of a high- performance virtual research environment for climatic and environmental monitoring.

  13. A Deterministic Interfacial Cyclic Oxidation Spalling Model. Part 1; Model Development and Parametric Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2002-01-01

    An equation has been developed to model the iterative scale growth and spalling process that occurs during cyclic oxidation of high temperature materials. Parabolic scale growth and spalling of a constant surface area fraction have been assumed. Interfacial spallation of the only the thickest segments was also postulated. This simplicity allowed for representation by a simple deterministic summation series. Inputs are the parabolic growth rate constant, the spall area fraction, oxide stoichiometry, and cycle duration. Outputs include the net weight change behavior, as well as the total amount of oxygen and metal consumed, the total amount of oxide spalled, and the mass fraction of oxide spalled. The outputs all follow typical well-behaved trends with the inputs and are in good agreement with previous interfacial models.

  14. Instructional Technology Professional Development Evaluation: Developing a High Quality Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge A.; McEwen, Beryl C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The literature contains very few studies that focused on evaluating the impact of professional development activities on student learning. And, many of these studies failed to determine whether the professional development activities met their primary goal--to improve the learning process. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use…

  15. JEDI Marine and Hydrokinetic Power Model | Jobs and Economic Development

    Science.gov Websites

    Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Marine Hydrokinetic Model allows users to estimate economic development impacts from marine hydrokinetic projects and includes default information

  16. How Qualitative Methods Can be Used to Inform Model Development.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Samantha; Jowett, Susan; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Decision-analytic models play a key role in informing healthcare resource allocation decisions. However, there are ongoing concerns with the credibility of models. Modelling methods guidance can encourage good practice within model development, but its value is dependent on its ability to address the areas that modellers find most challenging. Further, it is important that modelling methods and related guidance are continually updated in light of any new approaches that could potentially enhance model credibility. The objective of this article was to highlight the ways in which qualitative methods have been used and recommended to inform decision-analytic model development and enhance modelling practices. With reference to the literature, the article discusses two key ways in which qualitative methods can be, and have been, applied. The first approach involves using qualitative methods to understand and inform general and future processes of model development, and the second, using qualitative techniques to directly inform the development of individual models. The literature suggests that qualitative methods can improve the validity and credibility of modelling processes by providing a means to understand existing modelling approaches that identifies where problems are occurring and further guidance is needed. It can also be applied within model development to facilitate the input of experts to structural development. We recommend that current and future model development would benefit from the greater integration of qualitative methods, specifically by studying 'real' modelling processes, and by developing recommendations around how qualitative methods can be adopted within everyday modelling practice.

  17. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.

  18. Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development II

    SciTech Connect

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-10-28

    The work presented in this report is a continuation of the work described in the May 2015 report, “Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development”. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model aims to predict the temperature and bubble volume fraction in an aqueous solution of uranium. These values affect the reactivity of the fissile solution, so it is important to be able to calculate them and determine their effects on the reaction. Part A of this report describes some of the parameter comparisons performed on the CFD model using Fluent. Part B describes the coupling of the Fluent model with amore » Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) neutron transport model. The fuel tank geometry is the same as it was in the May 2015 report, annular with a thickness-to-height ratio of 0.16. An accelerator-driven neutron source provides the excitation for the reaction, and internal and external water cooling channels remove the heat. The model used in this work incorporates the Eulerian multiphase model with lift, wall lubrication, turbulent dispersion and turbulence interaction. The buoyancy-driven flow is modeled using the Boussinesq approximation, and the flow turbulence is determined using the k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) model. The dispersed turbulence multiphase model is employed to capture the multiphase turbulence effects.« less

  19. JEDI Publications | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    use of, or sometimes a discussion of, the JEDI models and their application to economic impact model. 2015 JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (Factsheet). 2015. NREL/FS-5000-64129 Economic Development Impact (JEDI) User Reference Guide: Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model. NREL/TP-6A20

  20. A Neuroconstructivist Model of Past Tense Development and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermann, Gert; Ruh, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    We present a neural network model of learning and processing the English past tense that is based on the notion that experience-dependent cortical development is a core aspect of cognitive development. During learning the model adds and removes units and connections to develop a task-specific final architecture. The model provides an integrated…

  1. Development of an Instructional Quality Assurance Model in Nursing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajpru, Haruthai; Pasiphol, Shotiga; Wongwanich, Suwimon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional quality assurance model in nursing science. The study was divided into 3 phases; (1) to study the information for instructional quality assurance model development (2) to develop an instructional quality assurance model in nursing science and (3) to audit and the assessment of the developed…

  2. Simulation Modeling of Software Development Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calavaro, G. F.; Basili, V. R.; Iazeolla, G.

    1996-01-01

    A simulation modeling approach is proposed for the prediction of software process productivity indices, such as cost and time-to-market, and the sensitivity analysis of such indices to changes in the organization parameters and user requirements. The approach uses a timed Petri Net and Object Oriented top-down model specification. Results demonstrate the model representativeness, and its usefulness in verifying process conformance to expectations, and in performing continuous process improvement and optimization.

  3. [Cutaneous melanoma associated with previous nevus].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María P; Barengo, Mónica; Mainardi, Claudio; Garay, Iliana; Kurpis, María; Ruiz Lascano, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The malignant melanoma is a neoplasia originated from the melanocytes located in the skin and other locations. Even though there is not information regarding its incidence and prevalence in our country, its most important risk factors are known. The melanoma can originate de novo or from previous melanocytic lesions. The concept that a melanocytic nevus can serve as a precursor lesion is supported by clinical and histological evidence. An observational, retrospective and analytical study was carried out in the Hospital Privado de Córdoba. The objective was to determine which is the frequency of association of malignant melanomas that develop on previous nevus. A total of 134 melanomas were analyzed. In 32 cases (24%), the melanomas were histologically associated with nevus, in individuals with Breslow's depth bigger than 1 mm the percentage of association was 16.3% while in those exhibiting Breslow smaller than 1 mm the percentage of association was 38.1%. Having evaluated the melanomas in relation to the Breslow and Clark classification, we observed that the nevus associated melanoma group showed less Breslow thickness and low Clark levels, which, by statistical analysis were shown to be significant predictors of the probabilty of finding this association (p < 0.027). This study demonstrates that the tumor thickness by itself is an independent predictive factor of the association melanoma-nevus. However, the rest of the variables studied did not throw significant results from the statistical point of view. In conclusion, patients must be educated for the control of new pigmented injuries as well as for the modification of preexisting nevi.

  4. Development of the Integrated Communication Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2008-01-01

    Human communication is a critical issue in personal life. It also should be the indispensable core element of general education curriculum in universities and colleges. Based on literature analysis and the author's clinical observation, the importance of human communication, functions of model, and often seen human communication models were…

  5. DEVELOPING MEANINGFUL COHORTS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes numerous statistical analyses focused on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), used by many exposure modelers as the basis for data on what people do and where they spend their time. In doing so, modelers ...

  6. Developing a Model of Occupational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egner, Joan Roos; And Others

    Review of the literature in counseling, sociology, psychology, and organizational behavior failed to yield a model satisfactory for a comprehensive research framework investigating why people choose different occupations. Rational and irrational occupational decision making models were unsatisfactory in capturing the many dimensions of the…

  7. Development of a model to assess environmental performance, concerning HSE-MS principles.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, M; Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, F; Karbassi, A R; Roayaei, E; Nikoomaram, H

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of the present study was to develop a valid and appropriate model to evaluate companies' efficiency and environmental performance, concerning health, safety, and environmental management system principles. The proposed model overcomes the shortcomings of the previous models developed in this area. This model has been designed on the basis of a mathematical method known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In order to differentiate high-performing companies from weak ones, one of DEA nonradial models named as enhanced Russell graph efficiency measure has been applied. Since some of the environmental performance indicators cannot be controlled by companies' managers, it was necessary to develop the model in a way that it could be applied when discretionary and/or nondiscretionary factors were involved. The model, then, has been modified on a real case that comprised 12 oil and gas general contractors. The results showed the relative efficiency, inefficiency sources, and the rank of contractors.

  8. Previous Violent Events and Mental Health Outcomes in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973

  9. Place-Based Investment Model of Talent Development: A Proposed Model for Developing and Reinvesting Talents within the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Kristina Ayers; Seward, Kristen K.

    2016-01-01

    The place-based investment model (PBIM) of talent development is a programming model for developing talents of high-potential youth in ways that could serve as an investment in the community. In this article, we discuss the PBIM within rural contexts. The model is grounded in three theories--Moon's personal talent development theory, Sternberg's…

  10. Activity Theory in Information Systems Research and Practice: Theoretical Underpinnings for an Information Systems Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mursu, Anja; Luukkonen, Irmeli; Toivanen, Marika; Korpela, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of information systems is to facilitate work activities: here we consider how Activity Theory can be applied in information systems development. Method. The requirements for an analytical model for emancipatory, work-oriented information systems research and practice are specified. Previous research work in Activity…

  11. Multimedia-modeling integration development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pelton, Mitchell A.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2002-09-02

    There are many framework systems available; however, the purpose of the framework presented here is to capitalize on the successes of the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) and Multi-media Multi-pathway Multi-receptor Risk Assessment (3MRA) methodology as applied to the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule (HWIR) while focusing on the development of software tools to simplify the module developer?s effort of integrating a module into the framework.

  12. JEDI Transmission Line Model | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models

    Science.gov Websites

    , reasonable default values are provided. Individual projects may vary and when possible, project specific data Line Model rel. TL12.23.16. JEDI Transmission Line Model User Reference Guide Using MS Excel 2007 When ;High." Set the level to "Medium" or "Low" and then re-open the JEDI worksheet

  13. Landfill mining: Development of a cost simulation model.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pinkel, Michael; Polansek, Stephanie; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Landfill mining permits recovering secondary raw materials from landfills. Whether this purpose is economically feasible, however, is a matter of various aspects. One is the amount of recoverable secondary raw material (like metals) that can be exploited with a profit. Other influences are the costs for excavation, for processing the waste at the landfill site and for paying charges on the secondary disposal of waste. Depending on the objectives of a landfill mining project (like the recovery of a ferrous and/or a calorific fraction) these expenses and revenues are difficult to assess in advance. This situation complicates any previous assessment of the economic feasibility and is the reason why many landfills that might be suitable for landfill mining are continuingly operated as active landfills, generating aftercare costs and leaving potential hazards to later generations. This article presents a newly developed simulation model for landfill mining projects. It permits identifying the quantities and qualities of output flows that can be recovered by mining and by mobile on-site processing of the waste based on treatment equipment selected by the landfill operator. Thus, charges for disposal and expected revenues from secondary raw materials can be assessed. Furthermore, investment, personnel, operation, servicing and insurance costs are assessed and displayed, based on the selected mobile processing procedure and its throughput, among other things. For clarity, the simulation model is described in this article using the example of a real Austrian sanitary landfill. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Development of large Area Covering Height Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2014-04-01

    Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting

  15. Clinical Predictive Modeling Development and Deployment through FHIR Web Services

    PubMed Central

    Khalilia, Mohammed; Choi, Myung; Henderson, Amelia; Iyengar, Sneha; Braunstein, Mark; Sun, Jimeng

    2015-01-01

    Clinical predictive modeling involves two challenging tasks: model development and model deployment. In this paper we demonstrate a software architecture for developing and deploying clinical predictive models using web services via the Health Level 7 (HL7) Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) standard. The services enable model development using electronic health records (EHRs) stored in OMOP CDM databases and model deployment for scoring individual patients through FHIR resources. The MIMIC2 ICU dataset and a synthetic outpatient dataset were transformed into OMOP CDM databases for predictive model development. The resulting predictive models are deployed as FHIR resources, which receive requests of patient information, perform prediction against the deployed predictive model and respond with prediction scores. To assess the practicality of this approach we evaluated the response and prediction time of the FHIR modeling web services. We found the system to be reasonably fast with one second total response time per patient prediction. PMID:26958207

  16. Clinical Predictive Modeling Development and Deployment through FHIR Web Services.

    PubMed

    Khalilia, Mohammed; Choi, Myung; Henderson, Amelia; Iyengar, Sneha; Braunstein, Mark; Sun, Jimeng

    2015-01-01

    Clinical predictive modeling involves two challenging tasks: model development and model deployment. In this paper we demonstrate a software architecture for developing and deploying clinical predictive models using web services via the Health Level 7 (HL7) Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) standard. The services enable model development using electronic health records (EHRs) stored in OMOP CDM databases and model deployment for scoring individual patients through FHIR resources. The MIMIC2 ICU dataset and a synthetic outpatient dataset were transformed into OMOP CDM databases for predictive model development. The resulting predictive models are deployed as FHIR resources, which receive requests of patient information, perform prediction against the deployed predictive model and respond with prediction scores. To assess the practicality of this approach we evaluated the response and prediction time of the FHIR modeling web services. We found the system to be reasonably fast with one second total response time per patient prediction.

  17. Modeling Low Impact Development Alternatives with SWIMM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Water (OW) is actively promoting the use of Low Impact Development (LID) practices to help protect and restore water quality in urban and developing areas. Such practices support the concepts of green infrastructure and sustain...

  18. Leadership Development Model for Shelby County Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobia, F. Jane; Smith, Elizabeth F.; Wood, Leah Anne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors impacting program quality in leadership development programs as a means to inform the Shelby County School System of effective practices in leadership development. The qualitative research design method was used to explore two school systems identified through a comprehensive review of research as…

  19. Instructional Developer as Content Specialist: Three Case Studies Utilizing the Instructional Development-Operations Research Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Stephen M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a 3-phase model (content research, specification, delivery) for instructional development-operations research and describes its application in developing courses in zoology, geology, and paleontology. (MER)

  20. Model Development for VDE Computations in NIMROD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunkers, K. J.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2017-10-01

    Vertical displacement events (VDEs) and the disruptions associated with them have potential for causing considerable physical damage to ITER and other tokamak experiments. We report on simulations of generic axisymmetric VDEs and a vertically unstable case from Alcator C-MOD using the NIMROD code. Previous calculations have been done with closures for heat flux and viscous stress. Initial calculations show that halo current width is dependent on temperature boundary conditions, and so transport together with plasma-surface interaction may play a role in determining halo currents in experiments. The behavior of VDEs with Braginskii thermal conductivity and viscosity closures and Spitzer-like resistivity are investigated for both the generic axisymmetric VDE case and the C-MOD case. This effort is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Award Numbers DE-FG02-06ER54850 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  1. High-Energy Pulsar Models: Developments and New Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    The past few years have seen a major advance in observational knowledge of high-energy (HE) pulsars. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and AGILE have increased the number of known gamma-ray pulsars by an order of magnitude, its members being divided roughly equally among millisecond pulsars (MSPs), young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. Many new and diverse emission characteristics are being measured, while radio and X-ray follow-up observations increase the pulsar detection rate and enrich our multiwavelength picture of these extreme sources. The wealth of new data has provided impetus for further development and improvement of existing theoretical pulsar models. Geometric light curve (LC) modelling has uncovered three broad classes into which HE pulsars fall: those where the radio profile leads, is aligned with, or lags the gamma-ray profile. For example, the original MSP and original black widow system are members of the second class, requiring co-located emission regions and thereby breaking with traditional notions of radio emission origin. These models imply narrow accelerator gaps in the outer magnetosphere, indicating copious pair production even in MSP magnetospheres that were previously thought to be pair-starved. The increased quality and variety of the LCs necessitate construction of ever more sophisticated models. We will review progress in global magnetosphere solutions which specify a finite conductivity on field lines above the stellar surface, filling the gap between the standard vacuum and force-free (FF; plasma-filled) models. The possibility of deriving phase-resolved spectra for the brightest pulsars, coupled with the fact that the HE pulsar population is sizable enough to allow sampling of various pulsar geometries, will enable much more stringent testing of future radiation models. Reproduction of the observed phase-resolved behavior of this disparate group will be one of the next frontiers in pulsar science, impacting on

  2. A toolbox and a record for scientific model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellman, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Scientific computation can benefit from software tools that facilitate construction of computational models, control the application of models, and aid in revising models to handle new situations. Existing environments for scientific programming provide only limited means of handling these tasks. This paper describes a two pronged approach for handling these tasks: (1) designing a 'Model Development Toolbox' that includes a basic set of model constructing operations; and (2) designing a 'Model Development Record' that is automatically generated during model construction. The record is subsequently exploited by tools that control the application of scientific models and revise models to handle new situations. Our two pronged approach is motivated by our belief that the model development toolbox and record should be highly interdependent. In particular, a suitable model development record can be constructed only when models are developed using a well defined set of operations. We expect this research to facilitate rapid development of new scientific computational models, to help ensure appropriate use of such models and to facilitate sharing of such models among working computational scientists. We are testing this approach by extending SIGMA, and existing knowledge-based scientific software design tool.

  3. RFI and SCRIMP Model Development and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Sayre, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) processes are becoming promising technologies in the manufacturing of primary composite structures in the aircraft industry as well as infrastructure. A great deal of work still needs to be done on efforts to reduce the costly trial-and-error methods of VARTM processing that are currently in practice today. A computer simulation model of the VARTM process would provide a cost-effective tool in the manufacturing of composites utilizing this technique. Therefore, the objective of this research was to modify an existing three-dimensional, Resin Film Infusion (RFI)/Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) model to include VARTM simulation capabilities and to verify this model with the fabrication of aircraft structural composites. An additional objective was to use the VARTM model as a process analysis tool, where this tool would enable the user to configure the best process for manufacturing quality composites. Experimental verification of the model was performed by processing several flat composite panels. The parameters verified included flow front patterns and infiltration times. The flow front patterns were determined to be qualitatively accurate, while the simulated infiltration times over predicted experimental times by 8 to 10%. Capillary and gravitational forces were incorporated into the existing RFI/RTM model in order to simulate VARTM processing physics more accurately. The theoretical capillary pressure showed the capability to reduce the simulated infiltration times by as great as 6%. The gravity, on the other hand, was found to be negligible for all cases. Finally, the VARTM model was used as a process analysis tool. This enabled the user to determine such important process constraints as the location and type of injection ports and the permeability and location of the high-permeable media. A process for a three-stiffener composite panel was proposed. This configuration evolved from the variation of the process

  4. The development of an integrated Indonesian health care model using Kano's model, quality function deployment and balanced scorecard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonny, Zagloed, Teuku Yuri M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to present an integrated health care model for Indonesian health care industry. Based on previous researches, there are two health care models in the industry such as decease- and patient-centered care models. In their developments, the patient-centered care model is widely applied due to its capability in reducing cost and improving quality simultaneously. However, there is still no comprehensive model resulting in cost reduction, quality improvement, patient satisfaction and hospital profitability simultaneously. Therefore, this research is intended to develop that model. In doing so, first, a conceptual model using Kano's Model, Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is developed to generate several important elements of the model as required by stakeholders. Then, a case study of an Indonesian hospital is presented to evaluate the validity of the model using correlation analysis. As a result, it can be concluded that the model is validated implying several managerial insights among its elements such as l) leadership (r=0.85) and context of the organization (r=0.77) improve operations; 2) planning (r=0.96), support process (r=0.87) and continual improvement (r=0.95) also improve operations; 3) operations improve customer satisfaction (r=0.89) and financial performance (r=0.93) and 4) customer satisfaction improves the financial performance (0.98).

  5. Green Pea and Garlic Puree Model Food Development for Thermal Pasteurization Process Quality Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Liu, Fang

    2017-07-01

    Development and selection of model foods is a critical part of microwave thermal process development, simulation validation, and optimization. Previously developed model foods for pasteurization process evaluation utilized Maillard reaction products as the time-temperature integrators, which resulted in similar temperature sensitivity among the models. The aim of this research was to develop additional model foods based on different time-temperature integrators, determine their dielectric properties and color change kinetics, and validate the optimal model food in hot water and microwave-assisted pasteurization processes. Color, quantified using a * value, was selected as the time-temperature indicator for green pea and garlic puree model foods. Results showed 915 MHz microwaves had a greater penetration depth into the green pea model food than the garlic. a * value reaction rates for the green pea model were approximately 4 times slower than in the garlic model food; slower reaction rates were preferred for the application of model food in this study, that is quality evaluation for a target process of 90 °C for 10 min at the cold spot. Pasteurization validation used the green pea model food and results showed that there were quantifiable differences between the color of the unheated control, hot water pasteurization, and microwave-assisted thermal pasteurization system. Both model foods developed in this research could be utilized for quality assessment and optimization of various thermal pasteurization processes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Developing deterioration models for Nebraska bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-07-01

    Nebraska Bridge Management System (NBMS) was developed in 1999 to assist in optimizing budget allocation for : the maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement needs of highway bridges. This requires the prediction of bridge : deterioration to calcula...

  7. Modeling defect trends for iterative development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Spanguolo, J. N.

    2003-01-01

    The Employment of Defects (EoD) approach to measuring and analyzing defects seeks to identify and capture trends and phenomena that are critical to managing software quality in the iterative software development lifecycle at JPL.

  8. Development and application of air quality models at the US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of the development and application of air quality models at the U.S. EPA, particularly focused on the development and application of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model developed within the Computation Exposure Division (CED) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). This presentation will provide a simple overview of air quality model development and application geared toward a non-technical student audience. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  9. A Conceptual Model of Career Development to Enhance Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Nancy Creighton

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, refine, and validate a conceptual model of career development to enhance the academic motivation of community college students. To achieve this end, a straw model was built from the theoretical and empirical research literature. The model was then refined and validated through three rounds of a Delphi…

  10. A Leadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…

  11. Planned Educational Change: Developing an Operational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, K. A.; Russell, H. H.

    This speech presents a model for implementing educational change. The author conceptualizes seven temporally sequenced stages of educational change, including (1) agreement to begin; (2) establishment of an organization; (3) selection of problems and goals; (4) study of available solutions; (5) pilot trials; (6) adopt, adapt, reject decisions; and…

  12. Using Hybrid Modeling to Develop Innovative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Brenda; Avans, Diana

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a hybrid activities model that physical educators can use with students in grades four and above to create virtually a limitless array of novel games. A brief introduction to the basic theory is followed by descriptions of some hybrid games. Hybrid games are typically the result of merging two traditional sports or other…

  13. Developing a Drosophila Model of Schwannomatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    the entire Drosophila melanogaster genome and compared...et al., 2009; Hanahan and Weinberg, 2011). Over the last decade, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has become an important model system for cancer...studies. Reduced redundancy in the Drosophila genome compared with that of humans, coupled with the ability to conduct large-scale genetic screens

  14. Administrator Training and Development: Conceptual Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Gerald R.

    A conceptual model for an individualized training program for school administrators integrates processes, characteristics, and tasks through theory training and application. Based on an application of contingency theory, it provides a system matching up administrative candidates' needs in three areas (administrative process, administrative…

  15. Experimental animal modelling for TB vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Pere-Joan; Williams, Ann

    2017-03-01

    Research for a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis is an urgent medical need. The current vaccine, BCG, has demonstrated a non-homogenous efficacy in humans, but still is the gold standard to be improved upon. In general, the main indicator for testing the potency of new candidates in animal models is the reduction of the bacillary load in the lungs at the acute phase of the infection. Usually, this reduction is similar to that induced by BCG, although in some cases a weak but significant improvement can be detected, but none of candidates are able to prevent establishment of infection. The main characteristics of several laboratory animals are reviewed, reflecting that none are able to simulate the whole characteristics of human tuberculosis. As, so far, no surrogate of protection has been found, it is important to test new candidates in several models in order to generate convincing evidence of efficacy that might be better than that of BCG in humans. It is also important to investigate the use of "in silico" and "ex vivo" models to better understand experimental data and also to try to replace, or at least reduce and refine experimental models in animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. JEDI Natural Gas Model | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Natural Gas Model JEDI Natural Gas Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Natural Gas model allows users to estimate economic development impacts from natural gas power generation -specific data should be used to obtain the best estimate of economic development impacts. This model has

  17. A model for developing disability confidence.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Sally; Cancelliere, Sara

    2017-05-15

    Many clinicians, educators, and employers lack disability confidence which can affect their interactions with, and inclusion of people with disabilities. Our objective was to explore how disability confidence developed among youth who volunteered with children who have a disability. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews (16 without a disability, 14 with disabilities), with youth aged 15-25. We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, thematic approach. We identified four main themes that led to the progression of disability confidence including: (1) "disability discomfort," referring to lacking knowledge about disability and experiencing unease around people with disabilities; (2) "reaching beyond comfort zone" where participants increased their understanding of disability and became sensitized to difference; (3) "broadened perspectives" where youth gained exposure to people with disabilities and challenged common misperceptions and stereotypes; and (4) "disability confidence" which includes having knowledge of people with disabilities, inclusive, and positive attitudes towards them. Volunteering is one way that can help to develop disability confidence. Youth with and without disabilities both reported a similar process of developing disability confidence; however, there were nuances between the two groups. Implications for Rehabilitation The development of disability confidence is important for enhancing the social inclusion of people with disabilities. Volunteering with people who have a disability, or a disability different from their own, can help to develop disability confidence which involves positive attitudes, empathy, and appropriate communication skills. Clinicians, educators, and employers should consider promoting working with disabled people through such avenues as volunteering or service learning to gain disability confidence.

  18. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Jeff A. Nichols; ...

    2014-12-31

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmentalmore » effects.« less

  19. Development of a laboratory demonstration model active cleaning device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration model of a device for removing contaminant films from optical surfaces in space was developed. The development of a plasma tube, which would produce the desired cleaning effects under high vacuum conditions, represented the major problem in the program. This plasma tube development is discussed, and the resulting laboratory demonstration-model device is described.

  20. Development of a rotor wake-vortex model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Certain empirical rotor wake and turbulence relationships were developed using existing low speed rotor wave data. A tip vortex model was developed by replacing the annulus wall with a row of image vortices. An axisymmetric turbulence spectrum model, developed in the context of rotor inflow turbulence, was adapted to predicting the turbulence spectrum of the stator gust upwash.

  1. Enabling Accessibility Through Model-Based User Interface Development.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Daniel; Peissner, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive user interfaces (AUIs) can increase the accessibility of interactive systems. They provide personalized display and interaction modes to fit individual user needs. Most AUI approaches rely on model-based development, which is considered relatively demanding. This paper explores strategies to make model-based development more attractive for mainstream developers.

  2. Kohlberg's Moral Development Model: Cohort Influences on Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Ashleah

    An overview of Kohlberg's theory of moral development is presented; three interviews regarding the theory are reported, and the author's own moral development is compared to the model; finally, a critique of the theory is addressed along with recommendations for future enhancement. Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral development, also referred to…

  3. Developing model asphalt systems using molecular simulation : final model.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-01

    Computer based molecular simulations have been used towards developing simple mixture compositions whose : physical properties resemble those of real asphalts. First, Monte Carlo simulations with the OPLS all-atom force : field were used to predict t...

  4. Update on GOCART Model Development and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Dongchul

    2013-01-01

    Recent results from the GOCART and GMI models are reported. They include: Updated emission inventories for anthropogenic and volcano sources, satellite-derived vegetation index for seasonal variations of dust emission, MODIS-derived smoke AOT for assessing uncertainties of biomass-burning emissions, long-range transport of aerosol across the Pacific Ocean, and model studies on the multi-decadal trend of regional and global aerosol distributions from 1980 to 2010, volcanic aerosols, and nitrate aerosols. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  5. New Developments in Magnetostatic Cleanliness Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehlem, K.; Wiegand, A.; Weickert, S.

    2012-05-01

    The paper describes improvements and extensions of the multiple magnetic dipole modeling method (MDM) for cleanliness verification which had been introduced by the author1 in 1977 and then applied during 3 decades to numerous international projects. The solutions of specific modeling problems which had been left unsolved so far, are described in the present paper. Special attention is given to the ambiguities of MDM solutions caused by the limited data coverage available. Constraint handling by the constraint-free NLP solver, optimal MDM sizing and multiple-point far-field compensation techniques are presented. The recent extension of the MDM method to field gradient data is formulated and demonstrated by an example. Finally, a complex MDM application (Ulysses) is presented. Finally, a short description of the MDM software GAMAG, recently introduced by the author1, is given.

  6. Development of Mouse Lung Deposition Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    information on deposition of ultrafine particles in the URT of mice either by measurements or theoretical modeling. Comparison of the nasal structure of... ultrafine particles in rats to be extended to mice. Based on measurements in the nasal casts of rats, Cheng et al. [12] obtained the following...expression for losses of ultrafine particles in the nasal passages of rats by Brownian diffusion during inhalation and exhalation. γβα− − −=η QD

  7. Developing a Drosophila Model of Schwannomatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become an important model system for cancer studies. Reduced redundancy in the Drosophila genome compared with that of...of high-resolution deletion coverage of the Drosophila melanogaster genome . Nat. Genet. 36, 288-292. Pastor-Pareja, J. C., Wu, M. and Xu. T. (2008...microarray analysis of the entire Drosophila melanogaster genome and compared gene expression profiles of wild type, dCap-D3 and rbf1 mutant

  8. Consumer Protection, Leadership Models, and Training and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Donald G.; Heun, Richard E.

    This paper examines several models of leadership style that are widely used in staff development workshops and seminars for managers. The discussion focuses mainly on the implications and possible dangers for training subjects of these models, which include two-factor models, such as those of Barnard and Halpin, and orthogonal grid models, such as…

  9. Sustainability Assessment Model in Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Omar, Badrul

    2017-08-01

    Faster and more efficient development of innovative and sustainable products has become the focus for manufacturing companies in order to remain competitive in today’s technologically driven world. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. Furthermore, consumers, investors, shareholders and even competitors are basing their decisions on what to buy or invest in, from whom, and also on what company report, and sustainability is one of a critical component. In this research, a new methodology of sustainability assessment in product development for Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of green project management, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This method will help design engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable design concept evaluation, enable them to make better-informed decisions before finalising their choice and consequently create value to the company or industry. The new framework is expected to provide an alternative to existing methods.

  10. Development toward School Readiness: A Holistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, Alan Kibbe

    2015-01-01

    A systemic analysis of early childhood development factors explains the variance in school readiness among representative U.S. 5-year-olds. The underlying theory incorporates a set of causally interactive endogenous variables that are hypothesized to be driven by the effects of three exogenous variables: parental education, immigrant status and…

  11. MULTI-MEDIA MODELING : RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by ORD in collaboration with OSW, the Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Risk Assessment (3MRA) national risk assessment methodology is designed to assess risks at sites containing source(s) of contamination that may release contaminants to the environment. Or...

  12. Leadership Development for Teachers: Models and Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Wm. V.

    Studies have shown that a commitment to any change, including curricular program, student policy, or educational innovation, is best obtained by involving those who are most affected by the change. Staff development and inservice education programs are longer-lasting and more positively received when the instructional staff are part of the…

  13. East Spar field models new development techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, K.S.

    1997-05-01

    In recent years, Western Australia`s (WA`s) offshore E and P sector has become a fertile area for field development experimentation and innovation. The region features perhaps the largest concentration of subsea wells and floating production systems outside of the North Sea and Brazil. By all estimates, this trend should continue, given the backlog of discovered fields that increasingly qualify for development through technological progress. One of the most unique projects on the North West Shelf (NWS), East Spar gas and condensate field was completed in late 1996, only three-and-a-half years after it was discovered. On behalf of its partners, operatormore » Western Mining Corp. developed East Spar through an alliance framework with its primary contractors. This unusual relationship proved extremely beneficial for solving technical and logistical problems while still keeping the project on a fast track. The paper discusses the background of the project, field control and Navigation, Communication and Control (NCC) buoy development, subsea systems, processing facilities and logistical review.« less

  14. Mentoring: A Model for Leadership Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    There appears to be a paucity of research on mentoring senior leaders (Hobson & Sharp, 2005) and yet a growing interest in the development of leadership through experience (Abra "et al.," 2003; McCauley "et al.," 1998). This paper therefore presents and evaluates a case study of a pilot mentoring scheme and programme for…

  15. Model Vocational Curriculum Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake Stevens School District No. 4, WA.

    This guidance instrument (student four-year planning form), middle school program, and student learning objectives for all career and vocational education courses to be changed or added represent the products of a Lake Stevens School District, Washington, curriculum development project. The guidance instrument is a form to be completed by…

  16. Community Work Development: A Marketing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Como, Perry; Hagner, David

    This manual is concerned with developing community-based work for persons with disabilities, particularly disabled workers in segregated settings and individuals who are considered not yet ready for or capable of work. The first part of the publication deals with the following topics: the concepts of community, work, and severe disabilities; the…

  17. Development of a Linear Stirling System Model with Varying Heat Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2007-01-01

    The linear model of the Stirling system developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been extended to include a user-specified heat input. Previously developed linear models were limited to the Stirling convertor and electrical load. They represented the thermodynamic cycle with pressure factors that remained constant. The numerical values of the pressure factors were generated by linearizing GRC's nonlinear System Dynamic Model (SDM) of the convertor at a chosen operating point. The pressure factors were fixed for that operating point, thus, the model lost accuracy if a transition to a different operating point were simulated. Although the previous linear model was used in developing controllers that manipulated current, voltage, and piston position, it could not be used in the development of control algorithms that regulated hot-end temperature. This basic model was extended to include the thermal dynamics associated with a hot-end temperature that varies over time in response to external changes as well as to changes in the Stirling cycle. The linear model described herein includes not only dynamics of the piston, displacer, gas, and electrical circuit, but also the transient effects of the heater head thermal inertia. The linear version algebraically couples two separate linear dynamic models, one model of the Stirling convertor and one model of the thermal system, through the pressure factors. The thermal system model includes heat flow of heat transfer fluid, insulation loss, and temperature drops from the heat source to the Stirling convertor expansion space. The linear model was compared to a nonlinear model, and performance was very similar. The resulting linear model can be implemented in a variety of computing environments, and is suitable for analysis with classical and state space controls analysis techniques.

  18. FEASIBILITY STUDY ON EXECUTIVE PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT FOR BASIN ECOSYSTEMS MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project was undertaken in order to provide a feasibility study in developing and implementing a complete executive program to interface automatically various basin-wide water quality models for use by relatively inexperienced modelers. This executive program should ultimately...

  19. Feature and Statistical Model Development in Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Inho

    All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects. These structural degradations are often imperceptible, but they can severely affect the structural performance of a component, thereby severely decreasing its service life. Although previous studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have revealed extensive prior knowledge on the parts of SHM processes, such as the operational evaluation, data processing, and feature extraction, few studies have been conducted from a systematical perspective, the statistical model development. The first part of this dissertation, the characteristics of inverse scattering problems, such as ill-posedness and nonlinearity, reviews ultrasonic guided wave-based structural health monitoring problems. The distinctive features and the selection of the domain analysis are investigated by analytically searching the conditions of the uniqueness solutions for ill-posedness and are validated experimentally. Based on the distinctive features, a novel wave packet tracing (WPT) method for damage localization and size quantification is presented. This method involves creating time-space representations of the guided Lamb waves (GLWs), collected at a series of locations, with a spatially dense distribution along paths at pre-selected angles with respect to the direction, normal to the direction of wave propagation. The fringe patterns due to wave dispersion, which depends on the phase velocity, are selected as the primary features that carry information, regarding the wave propagation and scattering. The following part of this dissertation presents a novel damage-localization framework, using a fully automated process. In order to construct the statistical model for autonomous damage localization deep-learning techniques, such as restricted Boltzmann machine and deep belief network

  20. Development and test of selected model pedestrian safety regulations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-04-01

    Two model regulations to remove parking--one from suburban streets in daylight hours and one on the last 50 feet of the approach to crosswalks--were designed in previous work to prevent pedestrian dart and dash accidents by removing screening vehicle...

  1. Pneumococcal meningitis: development of a new animal model

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Benjamin P.C.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Clark, Graeme M.; O’Leary, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Hypothesis The rat is a suitable animal to establish a model for the study of pneumococcal meningitis post cochlear implantation Background There has been an increase in the number of cases of cochlear implant-related meningitis. The most common organism identified was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Whether cochlear implantation increases the risk of pneumococcal meningitis in healthy subjects without other risk factors remains to be determined. Previous animal studies do not focus on the pathogenesis and risk of pneumococcal meningitis post implantation and are based on relatively small animal numbers, making it difficult to assess the cause and effect relationship. There is, therefore, a need to develop a new animal model allowing direct examination of the pathogenesis of meningitis in the presence of a cochlear implant. Methods Eighteen non-implanted rats were infected with 1× 106 and 1 × 108 colony forming units (CFU) of a clinical isolate of S. pneumoniae via three different inoculation routes (middle ear, inner ear and intraperitoneal) to examine for evidence of meningitis over 24 hours. Six implanted rats were infected with the highest amount of bacteria possible for each route of inoculation (4 × 1010 CFU intraperitoneal, 3 × 108CFU middle ear, 1 × 106 CFU inner ear) to examine for evidence of meningitis with the presence of an implant. Histological pattern of cochlear infections for each of the three different inoculating routes were examined. Results Pneumococcal meningitis was evident in all 6 implanted animals for each of the three different routes of inoculation. Once in the inner ear, bacteria were found to enter the central nervous system either via the cochlear aqueduct or canaliculi perforantes of osseous spiral lamina, reaching the perineural and perivascular space then the internal acoustic meatus. The rate, extent and pattern of infection within the cochleae depended on the route of inoculation. Finally, there was no evidence of pneumococcal

  2. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J. T.; Sheffler, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this program is to establish a methodology to predict Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) life on gas turbine engine components. The approach involves experimental life measurement coupled with analytical modeling of relevant degradation modes. The coating being studied is a flight qualified two layer system, designated PWA 264, consisting of a nominal ten mil layer of seven percent yttria partially stabilized zirconia plasma deposited over a nominal five mil layer of low pressure plasma deposited NiCoCrAlY. Thermal barrier coating degradation modes being investigated include: thermomechanical fatigue, oxidation, erosion, hot corrosion, and foreign object damage.

  3. On the Logical Development of Statistical Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    David Steinberg, and Jean Wallis for their helpful cosments to a preliminary draft of this work. -21- REFERENCES [1] Anscombe, F. J. and Tukey, J. W ...effect of a known vector x of predictor variables. In this way we obtain an explicative-static or type 11 model and -3- W .- r󈧬 41 U) 3 0) H + N 1 0...dependency is: Yt M it + ut p(ut ) - U It P(ut M-t) - I - t (2.1) t W P01 + Vt-1(P11 - P0 1) where Yt can only have the values zero and one, p is its

  4. Millimeter Wave Radio Frequency Propagation Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-28

    two. According to the Beer - Lambert law , this term is defined as the absorption coefficient. When n’’ is positive, radiation is absorbed. If it is...4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply...size distribution has a power- law relationship to rainfall rate. From this knowledge, coefficients were developed based on Marshall and Palmer, Laws

  5. Materials Database Development for Ballistic Impact Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    A set of experimental data is being generated under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Supersonics project to help create and validate accurate computational impact models of jet engine impact events. The data generated will include material property data generated at a range of different strain rates, from 1x10(exp -4)/sec to 5x10(exp 4)/sec, over a range of temperatures. In addition, carefully instrumented ballistic impact tests will be conducted on flat plates and curved structures to provide material and structural response information to help validate the computational models. The material property data and the ballistic impact data will be generated using materials from the same lot, as far as possible. It was found in preliminary testing that the surface finish of test specimens has an effect on measured high strain rate tension response of AL2024. Both the maximum stress and maximum elongation are greater on specimens with a smoother finish. This report gives an overview of the testing that is being conducted and presents results of preliminary testing of the surface finish study.

  6. Modeling the development of written language

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Foorman, Barbara; Foster, Elizabeth; Wilson, Laura Gehron; Tschinkel, Erika; Kantor, Patricia Thatcher

    2011-01-01

    Alternative models of the structure of individual and developmental differences of written composition and handwriting fluency were tested using confirmatory factor analysis of writing samples provided by first- and fourth-grade students. For both groups, a five-factor model provided the best fit to the data. Four of the factors represented aspects of written composition: macro-organization (use of top sentence and number and ordering of ideas), productivity (number and diversity of words used), complexity (mean length of T-unit and syntactic density), and spelling and punctuation. The fifth factor represented handwriting fluency. Handwriting fluency was correlated with written composition factors at both grades. The magnitude of developmental differences between first grade and fourth grade expressed as effect sizes varied for variables representing the five constructs: large effect sizes were found for productivity and handwriting fluency variables; moderate effect sizes were found for complexity and macro-organization variables; and minimal effect sizes were found for spelling and punctuation variables. PMID:22228924

  7. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  8. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, K. D.; Demasi, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology was established to predict thermal barrier coating life in an environment simulative of that experienced by gas turbine airfoils. Specifically, work is being conducted to determine failure modes of thermal barrier coatings in the aircraft engine environment. Analytical studies coupled with appropriate physical and mechanical property determinations are being employed to derive coating life prediction model(s) on the important failure mode(s). An initial review of experimental and flight service components indicates that the predominant mode of TBC failure involves thermomechanical spallation of the ceramic coating layer. This ceramic spallation involves the formation of a dominant crack in the ceramic coating parallel to and closely adjacent to the metal-ceramic interface. Initial results from a laboratory test program designed to study the influence of various driving forces such as temperature, thermal cycle frequency, environment, and coating thickness, on ceramic coating spalling life suggest that bond coat oxidation damage at the metal-ceramic interface contributes significantly to thermomechanical cracking in the ceramic layer. Low cycle rate furnace testing in air and in argon clearly shows a dramatic increase of spalling life in the non-oxidizing environments.

  9. JEDI Conventional Hydropower Model | Jobs and Economic Development Impact

    Science.gov Websites

    Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Conventional Hydropower Model allows users to estimate economic development impacts from conventional hydropower projects and includes default information that can be

  10. JEDI Concentrating Solar Power Model | Jobs and Economic Development Impact

    Science.gov Websites

    Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Concentrating Solar Power Model allows users to estimate economic development impacts from concentrating solar power projects and includes default information that can be

  11. Helmet Sensor - Transfer Function and Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    These events could be exposure to blast events (IEDs), ballistic  impacts , and/or blunt  impacts .  The sensors record orthogonal accelerations and blast...during  impact , the measured helmet response will be  different from the head response.  The objective of this effort is the characterize the...numerical equations or  models) that approximate head exposures based on the observed helmet response.  The physical testing included ballistic  impact

  12. Developing Cognitive Models for Social Simulation from Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, Jonathan K.; Lieberman, Stephen

    The representation of human behavior and cognition continues to challenge the modeling and simulation community. The use of survey and polling instruments to inform belief states, issue stances and action choice models provides a compelling means of developing models and simulations with empirical data. Using these types of data to population social simulations can greatly enhance the feasibility of validation efforts, the reusability of social and behavioral modeling frameworks, and the testable reliability of simulations. We provide a case study demonstrating these effects, document the use of survey data to develop cognitive models, and suggest future paths forward for social and behavioral modeling.

  13. Computational Modeling Develops Ultra-Hard Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Glenn Research Center's Mechanical Components Branch developed a spiral bevel or face gear test rig for testing thermal behavior, surface fatigue, strain, vibration, and noise; a full-scale, 500-horsepower helicopter main-rotor transmission testing stand; a gear rig that allows fundamental studies of the dynamic behavior of gear systems and gear noise; and a high-speed helical gear test for analyzing thermal behavior for rotorcraft. The test rig provides accelerated fatigue life testing for standard spur gears at speeds of up to 10,000 rotations per minute. The test rig enables engineers to investigate the effects of materials, heat treat, shot peen, lubricants, and other factors on the gear's performance. QuesTek Innovations LLC, based in Evanston, Illinois, recently developed a carburized, martensitic gear steel with an ultra-hard case using its computational design methodology, but needed to verify surface fatigue, lifecycle performance, and overall reliability. The Battelle Memorial Institute introduced the company to researchers at Glenn's Mechanical Components Branch and facilitated a partnership allowing researchers at the NASA Center to conduct spur gear fatigue testing for the company. Testing revealed that QuesTek's gear steel outperforms the current state-of-the-art alloys used for aviation gears in contact fatigue by almost 300 percent. With the confidence and credibility provided by the NASA testing, QuesTek is commercializing two new steel alloys. Uses for this new class of steel are limitless in areas that demand exceptional strength for high throughput applications.

  14. Development of 3D Oxide Fuel Mechanics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B. W.; Casagranda, A.; Pitts, S. A.

    This report documents recent work to improve the accuracy and robustness of the mechanical constitutive models used in the BISON fuel performance code. These developments include migration of the fuel mechanics models to be based on the MOOSE Tensor Mechanics module, improving the robustness of the smeared cracking model, implementing a capability to limit the time step size based on material model response, and improving the robustness of the return mapping iterations used in creep and plasticity models.

  15. A Distributed Online Curriculum and Courseware Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durdu, Pinar Onay; Yalabik, Nese; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2009-01-01

    A distributed online curriculum and courseware development model (DONC[superscript 2]) is developed and tested in this study. Courseware development teams which may work in different institutions who need to develop high quality, reduced cost, on time products will be the users of DONC[superscript 2]. The related features from the disciplines of…

  16. Gsflow-py: An integrated hydrologic model development tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, M.; Niswonger, R. G.; Morton, C.; Henson, W.; Huntington, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated hydrologic modeling encompasses a vast number of processes and specifications, variable in time and space, and development of model datasets can be arduous. Model input construction techniques have not been formalized or made easily reproducible. Creating the input files for integrated hydrologic models (IHM) requires complex GIS processing of raster and vector datasets from various sources. Developing stream network topology that is consistent with the model resolution digital elevation model is important for robust simulation of surface water and groundwater exchanges. Distribution of meteorologic parameters over the model domain is difficult in complex terrain at the model resolution scale, but is necessary to drive realistic simulations. Historically, development of input data for IHM models has required extensive GIS and computer programming expertise which has restricted the use of IHMs to research groups with available financial, human, and technical resources. Here we present a series of Python scripts that provide a formalized technique for the parameterization and development of integrated hydrologic model inputs for GSFLOW. With some modifications, this process could be applied to any regular grid hydrologic model. This Python toolkit automates many of the necessary and laborious processes of parameterization, including stream network development and cascade routing, land coverages, and meteorological distribution over the model domain.

  17. Developments in optical modeling methods for metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Mark P.

    1999-06-01

    Despite the fact that in recent years the scanning electron microscope has come to dominate the linewidth measurement application for wafer manufacturing, there are still many applications for optical metrology and alignment. These include mask metrology, stepper alignment, and overlay metrology. Most advanced non-optical lithographic technologies are also considering using topics for alignment. In addition, there have been a number of in-situ technologies proposed which use optical measurements to control one aspect or another of the semiconductor process. So optics is definitely not dying out in the semiconductor industry. In this paper a description of recent advances in optical metrology and alignment modeling is presented. The theory of high numerical aperture image simulation for partially coherent illumination is discussed. The implications of telecentric optics on the image simulation is also presented. Reciprocity tests are proposed as an important measure of numerical accuracy. Diffraction efficiencies for chrome gratings on reticles are one good way to test Kirchoff's approximation as compared to rigorous calculations. We find significant differences between the predictions of Kirchoff's approximation and rigorous methods. The methods for simulating brightfield, confocal, and coherence probe microscope imags are outlined, as are methods for describing aberrations such as coma, spherical aberration, and illumination aperture decentering.

  18. Model Guided Design and Development Process for an Electronic Health Record Training Program

    PubMed Central

    He, Ze; Marquard, Jenna; Henneman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Effective user training is important to ensure electronic health record (EHR) implementation success. Though many previous studies report best practice principles and success and failure stories, current EHR training is largely empirically-based and often lacks theoretical guidance. In addition, the process of training development is underemphasized and underreported. A white paper by the American Medical Informatics Association called for models of user training for clinical information system implementation; existing instructional development models from learning theory provide a basis to meet this call. We describe in this paper our experiences and lessons learned as we adapted several instructional development models to guide our development of EHR user training. Specifically, we focus on two key aspects of this training development: training content and training process. PMID:28269940

  19. Development of Virtual Blade Model for Modelling Helicopter Rotor Downwash in OpenFOAM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Development of Virtual Blade Model for Modelling Helicopter Rotor Downwash in OpenFOAM Stefano Wahono Aerospace...Georgia Institute of Technology. The OpenFOAM predicted result was also shown to compare favourably with ANSYS Fluent predictions. RELEASE...UNCLASSIFIED Development of Virtual Blade Model for Modelling Helicopter Rotor Downwash in OpenFOAM Executive Summary The Infrared

  20. Mechanistic considerations in benzene physiological model development.

    PubMed

    Medinsky, M A; Kenyon, E M; Seaton, M J; Schlosser, P M

    1996-12-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene in humans are well documented and include aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, the risks of leukemia at low exposure concentrations have not been established. A combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) may be necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene, perhaps due in part to the synergistic effect of phenol on myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of hydroquinone to the reactive metabolite benzoquinone. Because benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. In vitro studies of the metabolic oxidation of benzene, phenol, and hydroquinone are consistent with the mechanism of competitive interaction among the metabolites. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes such as enzymatic oxidation and deactivation processes such as conjugation and excretion. Phenol, the primary benzene metabolite, can undergo both oxidation and conjugation. Thus the potential exists for competition among various enzymes for phenol. Zonal localization of phase I and phase II enzymes in various regions of the liver acinus also impacts this competition. Biologically based dosimetry models that incorporate the important determinants of benzene flux, including interactions with other chemicals, will enable prediction of target tissue doses of benzene and metabolites at low exposure concentrations relevant for humans.

  1. A stochastic optimization model under modeling uncertainty and parameter certainty for groundwater remediation design--part I. Model development.

    PubMed

    He, L; Huang, G H; Lu, H W

    2010-04-15

    Solving groundwater remediation optimization problems based on proxy simulators can usually yield optimal solutions differing from the "true" ones of the problem. This study presents a new stochastic optimization model under modeling uncertainty and parameter certainty (SOMUM) and the associated solution method for simultaneously addressing modeling uncertainty associated with simulator residuals and optimizing groundwater remediation processes. This is a new attempt different from the previous modeling efforts. The previous ones focused on addressing uncertainty in physical parameters (i.e. soil porosity) while this one aims to deal with uncertainty in mathematical simulator (arising from model residuals). Compared to the existing modeling approaches (i.e. only parameter uncertainty is considered), the model has the advantages of providing mean-variance analysis for contaminant concentrations, mitigating the effects of modeling uncertainties on optimal remediation strategies, offering confidence level of optimal remediation strategies to system designers, and reducing computational cost in optimization processes. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a coupled hydrological - hydrodynamic model for probabilistic catchment flood inundation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Niall; Freer, Jim; Coxon, Gemma; Dunne, Toby; Neal, Jeff; Bates, Paul; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy; Parkin, Geoff

    2017-04-01

    Computationally efficient flood inundation modelling systems capable of representing important hydrological and hydrodynamic flood generating processes over relatively large regions are vital for those interested in flood preparation, response, and real time forecasting. However, such systems are currently not readily available. This can be particularly important where flood predictions from intense rainfall are considered as the processes leading to flooding often involve localised, non-linear spatially connected hillslope-catchment responses. Therefore, this research introduces a novel hydrological-hydraulic modelling framework for the provision of probabilistic flood inundation predictions across catchment to regional scales that explicitly account for spatial variability in rainfall-runoff and routing processes. Approaches have been developed to automate the provision of required input datasets and estimate essential catchment characteristics from freely available, national datasets. This is an essential component of the framework as when making predictions over multiple catchments or at relatively large scales, and where data is often scarce, obtaining local information and manually incorporating it into the model quickly becomes infeasible. An extreme flooding event in the town of Morpeth, NE England, in 2008 was used as a first case study evaluation of the modelling framework introduced. The results demonstrated a high degree of prediction accuracy when comparing modelled and reconstructed event characteristics for the event, while the efficiency of the modelling approach used enabled the generation of relatively large ensembles of realisations from which uncertainty within the prediction may be represented. This research supports previous literature highlighting the importance of probabilistic forecasting, particularly during extreme events, which can be often be poorly characterised or even missed by deterministic predictions due to the inherent

  3. A Model-Driven Development Method for Management Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Keinosuke; Mori, Naoki

    Traditionally, a Management Information System (MIS) has been developed without using formal methods. By the informal methods, the MIS is developed on its lifecycle without having any models. It causes many problems such as lack of the reliability of system design specifications. In order to overcome these problems, a model theory approach was proposed. The approach is based on an idea that a system can be modeled by automata and set theory. However, it is very difficult to generate automata of the system to be developed right from the start. On the other hand, there is a model-driven development method that can flexibly correspond to changes of business logics or implementing technologies. In the model-driven development, a system is modeled using a modeling language such as UML. This paper proposes a new development method for management information systems applying the model-driven development method to a component of the model theory approach. The experiment has shown that a reduced amount of efforts is more than 30% of all the efforts.

  4. A Model for the Development of University Curricula in Nanoelectronics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruun, E.; Nielsen, I.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is having an increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering and in physics. Major influencers affecting developments in university programmes related to nanoelectronics are discussed and a model for university programme development is described. The model takes into account that nanotechnology affects not only…

  5. School Nurse Summer Institute: A Model for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Marianne; Barta, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The components of a professional development model designed to empower school nurses to become leaders in school health services is described. The model was implemented during a 3-day professional development institute that included clinical and leadership components, especially coalition building, with two follow-up sessions in the fall and…

  6. Knowledge Management Model: Practical Application for Competency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustri, Denise; Miura, Irene; Takahashi, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present a knowledge management (KM) conceptual model for competency development and a case study in a law service firm, which implemented the KM model in a competencies development program. Design/methodology/approach: The case study method was applied according to Yin (2003) concepts, focusing a six-professional group…

  7. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling and Controls Development for Supersonic Propulsion System Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George; Paxson, Daniel E.; Stuber, Eric; Woolwine, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers the propulsion system component modeling and controls development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic simulation for an inlet and engine that can be used for an overall vehicle (APSE) model. The focus here is on developing a methodology for the propulsion model integration, which allows for controls design that prevents inlet instabilities and minimizes the thrust oscillation experienced by the vehicle. Limiting thrust oscillations will be critical to avoid exciting vehicle aeroelastic modes. Model development includes both inlet normal shock position control and engine rotor speed control for a potential supersonic commercial transport. A loop shaping control design process is used that has previously been developed for the engine and verified on linear models, while a simpler approach is used for the inlet control design. Verification of the modeling approach is conducted by simulating a two-dimensional bifurcated inlet and a representative J-85 jet engine previously used in a NASA supersonics project. Preliminary results are presented for the current supersonics project concept variable cycle turbofan engine design.

  8. Model-Based Development of Automotive Electronic Climate Control Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakade, Rupesh; Murugesan, Mohan; Perugu, Bhupal; Nair, Mohanan

    With increasing complexity of software in today's products, writing and maintaining thousands of lines of code is a tedious task. Instead, an alternative methodology must be employed. Model-based development is one candidate that offers several benefits and allows engineers to focus on the domain of their expertise than writing huge codes. In this paper, we discuss the application of model-based development to the electronic climate control software of vehicles. The back-to-back testing approach is presented that ensures flawless and smooth transition from legacy designs to the model-based development. Simulink report generator to create design documents from the models is presented along with its usage to run the simulation model and capture the results into the test report. Test automation using model-based development tool that support the use of unique set of test cases for several testing levels and the test procedure that is independent of software and hardware platform is also presented.

  9. An investigation of jogging biomechanics using the full-body lumbar spine model: Model development and validation.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Margaret E; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2016-05-03

    The ability of a biomechanical simulation to produce results that can translate to real-life situations is largely dependent on the physiological accuracy of the musculoskeletal model. There are a limited number of freely-available, full-body models that exist in OpenSim, and those that do exist are very limited in terms of trunk musculature and degrees of freedom in the spine. Properly modeling the motion and musculature of the trunk is necessary to most accurately estimate lower extremity and spinal loading. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a more physiologically accurate OpenSim full-body model. By building upon three previously developed OpenSim models, the full-body lumbar spine (FBLS) model, comprised of 21 segments, 30 degrees-of-freedom, and 324 musculotendon actuators, was developed. The five lumbar vertebrae were modeled as individual bodies, and coupled constraints were implemented to describe the net motion of the spine. The eight major muscle groups of the lumbar spine were modeled (rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, multifidus, quadratus lumborum, psoas major, and latissimus dorsi), and many of these muscle groups were modeled as multiple fascicles allowing the large muscles to act in multiple directions. The resulting FBLS model׳s trunk muscle geometry, maximal isometric joint moments, and simulated muscle activations compare well to experimental data. The FBLS model will be made freely available (https://simtk.org/home/fullbodylumbar) for others to perform additional analyses and develop simulations investigating full-body dynamics and contributions of the trunk muscles to dynamic tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    CMAQ model research and development is currently following two tracks at the Atmospheric Modeling Division of the USEPA. Public releases of the community model system for research and policy analysis is continuing on an annual interval with the latest release scheduled for Augus...

  11. The Development of a Secondary School Health Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriring, Srinual; Erawan, Prawit; Sriwarom, Monoon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to: 1) involved a survey of information relating to secondary school health, 2) involved the construction of a model of health assessment and a handbook for using the model in secondary school, 3) develop an assessment model for secondary school. The research included 3 phases. (1) involved a survey of…

  12. Gravity model development for precise orbit computations for satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, James G.; Lerch, Francis, J.; Smith, David E.; Klosko, Steven M.; Pavlis, Erricos

    1986-01-01

    Two preliminary gravity models developed as a first step in reaching the TOPEX/Poseidon modeling goals are discussed. They were obtained by NASA-Goddard from an analysis of exclusively satellite tracking observations. With the new Preliminary Gravity Solution-T2 model, an improved global estimate of the field is achieved with an improved description of the geoid.

  13. Interpreting JEDI Results | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models |

    Science.gov Websites

    NREL Interpreting JEDI Results Interpreting JEDI Results The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models estimate the number of jobs and economic impacts associated with power generation Economic activity in input-output models is typically assessed in three categories. NREL's JEDI models

  14. A Dynamic Systems Theory Model of Visual Perception Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coté, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a model for understanding the development of visual perception from a dynamic systems theory perspective. It contrasts to a hierarchical or reductionist model that is often found in the occupational therapy literature. In this proposed model vision and ocular motor abilities are not foundational to perception, they are seen…

  15. Development of a Model for Whole Brain Learning of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleton, Saramarie; Muller, Anton

    2011-01-01

    In this report, a model was developed for whole brain learning based on Curry's onion model. Curry described the effect of personality traits as the inner layer of learning, information-processing styles as the middle layer of learning, and environmental and instructional preferences as the outer layer of learning. The model that was developed…

  16. Using Modeling Tasks to Facilitate the Development of Percentages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh; Peled, Irit

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the development of percentages knowledge by seventh graders given a sequence of activities starting with a realistic modeling task, in which students were expected to create a model that would facilitate the reinvention of percentages. In the first two activities, students constructed their own pricing model using fractions and…

  17. Predictive and mechanistic multivariate linear regression models for reaction development

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Celine B.; Guo, Jing-Yao

    2018-01-01

    Multivariate Linear Regression (MLR) models utilizing computationally-derived and empirically-derived physical organic molecular descriptors are described in this review. Several reports demonstrating the effectiveness of this methodological approach towards reaction optimization and mechanistic interrogation are discussed. A detailed protocol to access quantitative and predictive MLR models is provided as a guide for model development and parameter analysis. PMID:29719711

  18. Modeling Instruction: The Impact of Professional Development on Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Frick, Tasha M.; Barker, Heather L.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Modeling Instruction holds the potential for transforming science instruction and improving student achievement. Key to the success of Modeling Instruction, however, is the fidelity of implementation of its curriculum. This qualitative study examined the impact of Modeling Instruction professional development on participating teachers'…

  19. Design and Development of a Microscopic Model for Polarization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petridou, E.; Psillos, D.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Viiri, J.

    2009-01-01

    As research shows that the knowledge and use of models and modelling by teachers is limited, particularly for predicting phenomena, we developed and applied a sequence of three representations of a simulated model focusing on polarization and specifically showing the behaviour of an atom, and forces exerted on a dipole and an insulator, when a…

  20. Development of the NASA Digital Astronaut Project Muscle Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Pennline, James A.; Thompson, W. K.; Humphreys, B. T.; Ryder, J. W.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Mulugeta, L.

    2015-01-01

    This abstract describes development work performed on the NASA Digital Astronaut Project Muscle Model. Muscle atrophy is a known physiological response to exposure to a low gravity environment. The DAP muscle model computationally predicts the change in muscle structure and function vs. time in a reduced gravity environment. The spaceflight muscle model can then be used in biomechanical models of exercise countermeasures and spaceflight tasks to: 1) develop site specific bone loading input to the DAP bone adaptation model over the course of a mission; 2) predict astronaut performance of spaceflight tasks; 3) inform effectiveness of new exercise countermeasures concepts.

  1. Simulation Model Development for Icing Effects Flight Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, Billy P.; Dickes, Edward G.; Gingras, David R.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    A high-fidelity simulation model for icing effects flight training was developed from wind tunnel data for the DeHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft. First, a flight model of the un-iced airplane was developed and then modifications were generated to model the icing conditions. The models were validated against data records from the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research flight test program with only minimal refinements being required. The goals of this program were to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a simulator for training pilots to recognize and recover from icing situations and to establish a process for modeling icing effects to be used for future training devices.

  2. Review and developments of dissemination models for airborne carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.

    1980-01-01

    Dissemination prediction models were reviewed to determine their applicability to a risk assessment for airborne carbon fibers. The review showed that the Gaussian prediction models using partial reflection at the ground agreed very closely with a more elaborate diffusion analysis developed for the study. For distances beyond 10,000 m the Gaussian models predicted a slower fall-off in exposure levels than the diffusion models. This resulting level of conservatism was preferred for the carbon fiber risk assessment. The results also showed that the perfect vertical-mixing models developed herein agreed very closely with the diffusion analysis for all except the most stable atmospheric conditions.

  3. Previous Experience Not Required: Contextualizing the Choice to Teach School-Based Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Adam A.; Smith, Amy R.; Smalley, Scott W.; Miller, Courtney

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify key career choice items which lead students without previous experience in school-based agricultural education (SBAE) to pursuing agricultural education. The Ag Ed FIT-Choice® model adapted by Lawver (2009) and developed by Richardson and Watt (2006) provided the investigative framework to design this…

  4. Reusable Component Model Development Approach for Parallel and Distributed Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng; Yao, Yiping; Chen, Huilong; Yao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Model reuse is a key issue to be resolved in parallel and distributed simulation at present. However, component models built by different domain experts usually have diversiform interfaces, couple tightly, and bind with simulation platforms closely. As a result, they are difficult to be reused across different simulation platforms and applications. To address the problem, this paper first proposed a reusable component model framework. Based on this framework, then our reusable model development approach is elaborated, which contains two phases: (1) domain experts create simulation computational modules observing three principles to achieve their independence; (2) model developer encapsulates these simulation computational modules with six standard service interfaces to improve their reusability. The case study of a radar model indicates that the model developed using our approach has good reusability and it is easy to be used in different simulation platforms and applications. PMID:24729751

  5. Development and Application of Numerical Models for Reactive Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-15

    Shear Layers: Ill. Effect of Convective Mach number Raafat H. Guirguis Abstract Model This paper addresses some of the fundamental We have made the...OTIC FILE COPY / 0 00 DTIC N~l 9 ELECTE D CbBA9-OI Development and Application of Numerical Models for Reactive Flows Berkeley Research Associates...Laboratory for Computa- tional Physics (LCP), hav focused on developing mathematical and computational models which accurately and efficiently describe the

  6. Emissions and dispersion modeling system (EDMS). Its development and application at airports and airbases

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, M.T.; Segal, H.M.

    1994-06-01

    A new complex source microcomputer model has been developed for use at civil airports and Air Force bases. This paper describes both the key features of this model and its application in evaluating the air quality impact of new construction projects at three airports: one in the United States and two in Canada. The single EDMS model replaces the numerous models previously required to assess the air quality impact of pollution sources at airports. EDMS also employs a commercial data base to reduce the time and manpower required to accurately assess and document the air quality impact of airfield operations.more » On July 20, 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the final rule (Federal Register, 7/20/93, page 38816) to add new models to the Guideline on Air Quality Models. At that time EDMS was incorporated into the Guideline as an Appendix A model. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  7. Performance of fire behavior fuel models developed for the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model

    Treesearch

    Robert Ziel; W. Matt Jolly

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, 40 new fire behavior fuel models were published for use with the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model. These new models are intended to augment the original 13 developed in 1972 and 1976. As a compiled set of quantitative fuel descriptions that serve as input to the Rothermel model, the selected fire behavior fuel model has always been critical to the resulting...

  8. Investigating the Relationship between Students' Views of Scientific Models and Their Development of Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Lin, Jang-Long

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the nature of models and engaging in modeling practice have been emphasized in science education. However, few studies discuss the relationships between students' views of scientific models and their ability to develop those models. Hence, this study explores the relationship between students' views of scientific models and their…

  9. Development and evaluation of thermal model reduction algorithms for spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiml, Michael; Suderland, Martin; Reiss, Philipp; Czupalla, Markus

    2015-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the topic of the reduction of thermal models of spacecraft. The work presented here has been conducted in cooperation with the company OHB AG, formerly Kayser-Threde GmbH, and the Institute of Astronautics at Technische Universität München with the goal to shorten and automatize the time-consuming and manual process of thermal model reduction. The reduction of thermal models can be divided into the simplification of the geometry model for calculation of external heat flows and radiative couplings and into the reduction of the underlying mathematical model. For simplification a method has been developed which approximates the reduced geometry model with the help of an optimization algorithm. Different linear and nonlinear model reduction techniques have been evaluated for their applicability in reduction of the mathematical model. Thereby the compatibility with the thermal analysis tool ESATAN-TMS is of major concern, which restricts the useful application of these methods. Additional model reduction methods have been developed, which account to these constraints. The Matrix Reduction method allows the approximation of the differential equation to reference values exactly expect for numerical errors. The summation method enables a useful, applicable reduction of thermal models that can be used in industry. In this work a framework for model reduction of thermal models has been created, which can be used together with a newly developed graphical user interface for the reduction of thermal models in industry.

  10. Developing rural palliative care: validating a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Mary Lou; Williams, Allison; DeMiglio, Lily; Mettam, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to validate a conceptual model for developing palliative care in rural communities. This model articulates how local rural healthcare providers develop palliative care services according to four sequential phases. The model has roots in concepts of community capacity development, evolves from collaborative, generalist rural practice, and utilizes existing health services infrastructure. It addresses how rural providers manage challenges, specifically those related to: lack of resources, minimal community understanding of palliative care, health professionals' resistance, the bureaucracy of the health system, and the obstacles of providing services in rural environments. Seven semi-structured focus groups were conducted with interdisciplinary health providers in 7 rural communities in two Canadian provinces. Using a constant comparative analysis approach, focus group data were analyzed by examining participants' statements in relation to the model and comparing emerging themes in the development of rural palliative care to the elements of the model. The data validated the conceptual model as the model was able to theoretically predict and explain the experiences of the 7 rural communities that participated in the study. New emerging themes from the data elaborated existing elements in the model and informed the requirement for minor revisions. The model was validated and slightly revised, as suggested by the data. The model was confirmed as being a useful theoretical tool for conceptualizing the development of rural palliative care that is applicable in diverse rural communities.

  11. Development and Validation of a Musculoskeletal Model of the Fully Articulated Thoracolumbar Spine and Rib Cage

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Alexander G.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Anderson, Dennis E.

    2015-01-01

    We developed and validated a fully articulated model of the thoracolumbar spine in opensim that includes the individual vertebrae, ribs, and sternum. To ensure trunk muscles in the model accurately represent muscles in vivo, we used a novel approach to adjust muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and position using computed tomography (CT) scans of the trunk sampled from a community-based cohort. Model predictions of vertebral compressive loading and trunk muscle tension were highly correlated to previous in vivo measures of intradiscal pressure (IDP), vertebral loading from telemeterized implants and trunk muscle myoelectric activity recorded by electromyography (EMG). PMID:25901907

  12. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Developed for the Response of Multiphase Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    A new high-fidelity micromechanics model has been developed under funding from the NASA Glenn Research Center for predicting the response of multiphase materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures. The model's analytical framework is based on the homogenization technique, but the method of solution for the local displacement and stress fields borrows concepts previously employed in constructing the higher order theory for functionally graded materials. The resulting closed-form macroscopic and microscopic constitutive equations, valid for both uniaxial and multiaxial loading of periodic materials with elastic and inelastic constitutive phases, can be incorporated into a structural analysis computer code. Consequently, this model now provides an alternative, accurate method.

  13. A system dynamics approach to develop a recovery model in the Malaysian automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad-Ali, N.; Ghazilla, R. A. R.; Abdul-Rashid, S. H.; Sakundarini, N.; Ahmad-Yazid, A.; Stephenie, L.

    2017-06-01

    Design strategies play a significant role to enhance recovery effectiveness at the end of product life cycle. By reviewing previous study, there are many factors involved to enhance recovery effectiveness but limited to linking design strategies factors in holistic and dynamics view. Proposed method are explained and an initial model for end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) recovery model illustrated in graphical and numerical data is presented. However this is limited to authors understanding and preliminary data which requires collaboration between designers and other stakeholders to develop a model based on actual situation.

  14. International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) Model

    SciTech Connect

    International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy projects. Building on a similar model for the United States, I-JEDI was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the U.S. government's Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support partner countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector.

  15. Development of a global aerosol model using a two-dimensional sectional method: 1. Model design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.

    2017-08-01

    This study develops an aerosol module, the Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation version 2 (ATRAS2), and implements the module into a global climate model, Community Atmosphere Model. The ATRAS2 module uses a two-dimensional (2-D) sectional representation with 12 size bins for particles from 1 nm to 10 μm in dry diameter and 8 black carbon (BC) mixing state bins. The module can explicitly calculate the enhancement of absorption and cloud condensation nuclei activity of BC-containing particles by aging processes. The ATRAS2 module is an extension of a 2-D sectional aerosol module ATRAS used in our previous studies within a framework of a regional three-dimensional model. Compared with ATRAS, the computational cost of the aerosol module is reduced by more than a factor of 10 by simplifying the treatment of aerosol processes and 2-D sectional representation, while maintaining good accuracy of aerosol parameters in the simulations. Aerosol processes are simplified for condensation of sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, organic aerosol formation, coagulation, and new particle formation processes, and box model simulations show that these simplifications do not substantially change the predicted aerosol number and mass concentrations and their mixing states. The 2-D sectional representation is simplified (the number of advected species is reduced) primarily by the treatment of chemical compositions using two interactive bin representations. The simplifications do not change the accuracy of global aerosol simulations. In part 2, comparisons with measurements and the results focused on aerosol processes such as BC aging processes are shown.

  16. Development of Models for Regional Cardiac Surgery Centers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Choon Seon; Park, Nam Hee; Sim, Sung Bo; Yun, Sang Cheol; Ahn, Hye Mi; Kim, Myunghwa; Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Myo Jeong; Kim, Hyunsu; Chee, Hyun Keun; Oh, Sanggi; Kang, Shinkwang; Lee, Sok-Goo; Shin, Jun Ho; Kim, Keonyeop; Lee, Kun Sei

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop the models for regional cardiac surgery centers, which take regional characteristics into consideration, as a policy measure that could alleviate the concentration of cardiac surgery in the metropolitan area and enhance the accessibility for patients who reside in the regions. Methods To develop the models and set standards for the necessary personnel and facilities for the initial management plan, we held workshops, debates, and conference meetings with various experts. Results After partitioning the plan into two parts (the operational autonomy and the functional comprehensiveness), three models were developed: the ‘independent regional cardiac surgery center’ model, the ‘satellite cardiac surgery center within hospitals’ model, and the ‘extended cardiac surgery department within hospitals’ model. Proposals on personnel and facility management for each of the models were also presented. A regional cardiac surgery center model that could be applied to each treatment area was proposed, which was developed based on the anticipated demand for cardiac surgery. The independent model or the satellite model was proposed for Chungcheong, Jeolla, North Gyeongsang, and South Gyeongsang area, where more than 500 cardiac surgeries are performed annually. The extended model was proposed as most effective for the Gangwon and Jeju area, where more than 200 cardiac surgeries are performed annually. Conclusion The operation of regional cardiac surgery centers with high caliber professionals and quality resources such as optimal equipment and facility size, should enhance regional healthcare accessibility and the quality of cardiac surgery in South Korea. PMID:28035295

  17. Thermal Model Development for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; DelCorso, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Thermal analysis for the Ares I-X vehicle has involved extensive thermal model integration, since thermal models of vehicle elements came from several different NASA and industry organizations. Many valuable lessons were learned in terms of model integration and validation. Modeling practices such as submodel, analysis group and symbol naming were standardized to facilitate the later model integration. Upfront coordination of coordinate systems, timelines, units, symbols and case scenarios was very helpful in minimizing integration rework. A process for model integration was developed that included pre-integration runs and basic checks of both models, and a step-by-step process to efficiently integrate one model into another. Extensive use of model logic was used to create scenarios and timelines for avionics and air flow activation. Efficient methods of model restart between case scenarios were developed. Standardization of software version and even compiler version between organizations was found to be essential. An automated method for applying aeroheating to the full integrated vehicle model, including submodels developed by other organizations, was developed.

  18. Normal Brain-Skull Development with Hybrid Deformable VR Models Simulation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation framework for a clinical application involving skull-brain co-development in infants, leading to a platform for craniosynostosis modeling. Craniosynostosis occurs when one or more sutures are fused early in life, resulting in an abnormal skull shape. Surgery is required to reopen the suture and reduce intracranial pressure, but is difficult without any predictive model to assist surgical planning. We aim to study normal brain-skull growth by computer simulation, which requires a head model and appropriate mathematical methods for brain and skull growth respectively. On the basis of our previous model, we further specified suture model into fibrous and cartilaginous sutures and develop algorithm for skull extension. We evaluate the resulting simulation by comparison with datasets of cases and normal growth.

  19. Developing a model of adolescent friendship formation on the internet.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M; Schouten, Alexander P

    2005-10-01

    Previous research has been largely silent about what precisely influences online friendship formation and has ignored motives for online communication as potential explanations. Drawing on a sample of 493 adolescents, this study tested a path model of adolescent friendship formation including as predictors introversion/extraversion, online self-disclosure, motive for social compensation, and frequency of online communication. Our path analysis showed that extraverted adolescents self-disclosed and communicated online more frequently, which, in turn, facilitated the formation of online friendships. Introverted adolescents, by contrast, were more strongly motivated to communicate online to compensate for lacking social skills. This increased their chances of making friends online. Among introverted adolescents, a stronger motive for social compensation also led to more frequent online communication and online self-disclosure, resulting in more online friendships. The model suggests that the antecedents of online friendship formation are more complex than previously assumed and that motives for online communication should be studied more closely.

  20. Development of a Conservative Model Validation Approach for Reliable Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    CIE 2015 August 2-5, 2015, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [DRAFT] DETC2015-46982 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONSERVATIVE MODEL VALIDATION APPROACH FOR RELIABLE...obtain a conservative simulation model for reliable design even with limited experimental data. Very little research has taken into account the...3, the proposed conservative model validation is briefly compared to the conventional model validation approach. Section 4 describes how to account

  1. An Investigation of Jogging Biomechanics using the Full-Body Lumbar Spine Model: Model Development and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Margaret E.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a biomechanical simulation to produce results that can translate to real-life situations is largely dependent on the physiological accuracy of the musculoskeletal model. There are a limited number of freely-available, full-body models that exist in OpenSim, and those that do exist are very limited in terms of trunk musculature and degrees of freedom in the spine. Properly modeling the motion and musculature of the trunk is necessary to most accurately estimate lower extremity and spinal loading. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a more physiologically accurate OpenSim full-body model. By building upon three previously developed OpenSim models, the Full-Body Lumbar Spine (FBLS) model, comprised of 21 segments, 30 degrees-of-freedom, and 324 musculotendon actuators, was developed. The five lumbar vertebrae were modeled as individual bodies, and coupled constraints were implemented to describe the net motion of the spine. The eight major muscle groups of the lumbar spine were modeled (rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, multifidus, quadratus lumborum, psoas major, and latissimus dorsi), and many of these muscle groups were modeled as multiple fascicles allowing the large muscles to act in multiple directions. The resulting FBLS model's trunk muscle geometry, maximal isometric joint moments, and simulated muscle activations compare well to experimental data. The FBLS model will be made freely available (https://simtk.org/home/fullbodylumbar) for others to perform additional analyses and develop simulations investigating full-body dynamics and contributions of the trunk muscles to dynamic tasks. PMID:26947033

  2. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  3. Development and evaluation of a physics-based windblown dust emission scheme implemented in the CMAQ modeling system

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new windblown dust emission treatment was incorporated in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This new model treatment has been built upon previously developed physics-based parameterization schemes from the literature. A distinct and novel feature of t...

  4. Design, development, and application of LANDIS-II, a spatial landscape simulation model with flexible temporal and spatial resolution

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Scheller; James B. Domingo; Brian R. Sturtevant; Jeremy S. Williams; Arnold Rudy; Eric J. Gustafson; David J. Mladenoff

    2007-01-01

    We introduce LANDIS-II, a landscape model designed to simulate forest succession and disturbances. LANDIS-II builds upon and preserves the functionality of previous LANDIS forest landscape simulation models. LANDIS-II is distinguished by the inclusion of variable time steps for different ecological processes; our use of a rigorous development and testing process used...

  5. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  6. Models of Latent Tuberculosis: Their Salient Features, Limitations, and Development

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kamlesh; Jhamb, Sarbjit Singh; Singh, Prati Pal

    2011-01-01

    Latent tuberculosis is a subclinical condition caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which affects about one-third of the population across the world. To abridge the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, it is necessary to have active drugs against latent form of M. tuberculosis. Therefore, it is imperative to devise in vitro and models of latent tuberculosis to explore potential drugs. In vitro models such as hypoxia, nutrient starvation, and multiple stresses are based on adverse conditions encountered by bacilli in granuloma. Bacilli experience oxygen depletion condition in hypoxia model, whereas the nutrient starvation model is based on deprivation of total nutrients from a culture medium. In the multiple stress model dormancy is induced by more than one type of stress. In silico mathematical models have also been developed to predict the interactions of bacilli with the host immune system and to propose structures for potential anti tuberculosis compounds. Besides these in vitro and in silico models, there are a number of in vivo animal models like mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, etc. Although they simulate human latent tuberculosis up to a certain extent but do not truly replicate human infection. All these models have their inherent merits and demerits. However, there is no perfect model for latent tuberculosis. Therefore, it is imperative to upgrade and refine existing models or develop a new model. However, battery of models will always be a better alternative to any single model as they will complement each other by overcoming their limitations. PMID:22219558

  7. A Teacher Professional Development Model for Teaching Socioscientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Katherine; Dawson, Vaille

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a three-pillared model for teaching socioscientific issues: teacher professional development; curriculum resources; and classroom support. A professional development program and curriculum resource based on the socioscientific issue of climate change was trialled with 75 Western Australian…

  8. Development of failure model for nickel cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a method for the life prediction of nickel cadmium cells is discussed. The approach described involves acquiring an understanding of the mechanisms of degradation and failure and at the same time developing nondestructive evaluation techniques for the nickel cadmium cells. The development of a statistical failure model which will describe the mechanisms of degradation and failure is outlined.

  9. Continued development of a detailed model of arc discharge dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beers, B. L.; Pine, V. W.; Ives, S. T.

    1982-01-01

    Using a previously developed set of codes (SEMC, CASCAD, ACORN), a parametric study was performed to quantify the parameters which describe the development of a single electron indicated avalanche into a negative tip streamer. The electron distribution function in Teflon is presented for values of the electric field in the range of four-hundred million volts/meter to four billon volts/meter. A formulation of the scattering parameters is developed which shows that the transport can be represented by three independent variables. The distribution of ionization sites is used to indicate an avalanche. The self consistent evolution of the avalanche is computed over the parameter range of scattering set.

  10. Main principles of developing exploitation models of semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradoboev, A. V.; Simonova, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper represents primary tasks, solutions of which allow to develop the exploitation modes of semiconductor devices taking into account complex and combined influence of ionizing irradiation and operation factors. The structure of the exploitation model of the semiconductor device is presented, which is based on radiation and reliability models. Furthermore, it was shown that the exploitation model should take into account complex and combine influence of various ionizing irradiation types and operation factors. The algorithm of developing the exploitation model of the semiconductor devices is proposed. The possibility of creating the radiation model of Schottky barrier diode, Schottky field-effect transistor and Gunn diode is shown based on the available experimental data. The basic exploitation model of IR-LEDs based upon double AlGaAs heterostructures is represented. The practical application of the exploitation models will allow to output the electronic products with guaranteed operational properties.

  11. Evolutionary Development of the Simulation by Logical Modeling System (SIBYL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Helen

    1995-01-01

    Through the evolutionary development of the Simulation by Logical Modeling System (SIBYL) we have re-engineered the expensive and complex IBM mainframe based Long-term Hardware Projection Model (LHPM) to a robust cost-effective computer based mode that is easy to use. We achieved significant cost reductions and improved productivity in preparing long-term forecasts of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hardware. The LHPM for the SSME is a stochastic simulation model that projects the hardware requirements over 10 years. SIBYL is now the primary modeling tool for developing SSME logistics proposals and Program Operating Plan (POP) for NASA and divisional marketing studies.

  12. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.

  13. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  14. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  15. The paradigm shift to an "open" model in drug development.

    PubMed

    Au, Regina

    2014-12-01

    The rising cost of healthcare, the rising cost for drug development, the patent cliff for Big pharma, shorter patent protection, decrease reimbursement, and the recession have made it more difficult for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry to develop drugs. Due to the unsustainable amount of time and money in developing a drug that will have a significant return on investment (ROI) it has become hard to sustain a robust pipeline. The industry is transforming its business model to meet these challenges. In essence a paradigm shift is occurring; the old "closed" model is giving way to a new "open" business model.

  16. Scripting MODFLOW Model Development Using Python and FloPy.

    PubMed

    Bakker, M; Post, V; Langevin, C D; Hughes, J D; White, J T; Starn, J J; Fienen, M N

    2016-09-01

    Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are commonly used to construct and postprocess numerical groundwater flow and transport models. Scripting model development with the programming language Python is presented here as an alternative approach. One advantage of Python is that there are many packages available to facilitate the model development process, including packages for plotting, array manipulation, optimization, and data analysis. For MODFLOW-based models, the FloPy package was developed by the authors to construct model input files, run the model, and read and plot simulation results. Use of Python with the available scientific packages and FloPy facilitates data exploration, alternative model evaluations, and model analyses that can be difficult to perform with GUIs. Furthermore, Python scripts are a complete, transparent, and repeatable record of the modeling process. The approach is introduced with a simple FloPy example to create and postprocess a MODFLOW model. A more complicated capture-fraction analysis with a real-world model is presented to demonstrate the types of analyses that can be performed using Python and FloPy. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Scripting MODFLOW model development using Python and FloPy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakker, Mark; Post, Vincent E. A.; Langevin, Christian D.; Hughes, Joseph D.; White, Jeremy; Starn, Jeffrey; Fienen, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are commonly used to construct and postprocess numerical groundwater flow and transport models. Scripting model development with the programming language Python is presented here as an alternative approach. One advantage of Python is that there are many packages available to facilitate the model development process, including packages for plotting, array manipulation, optimization, and data analysis. For MODFLOW-based models, the FloPy package was developed by the authors to construct model input files, run the model, and read and plot simulation results. Use of Python with the available scientific packages and FloPy facilitates data exploration, alternative model evaluations, and model analyses that can be difficult to perform with GUIs. Furthermore, Python scripts are a complete, transparent, and repeatable record of the modeling process. The approach is introduced with a simple FloPy example to create and postprocess a MODFLOW model. A more complicated capture-fraction analysis with a real-world model is presented to demonstrate the types of analyses that can be performed using Python and FloPy.

  18. Self-Identity Development Model of Oppressed People: Inclusive Model for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highlen, Pamela S.; And Others

    The Self-Identity Development Model of Oppressed People (SIDMOP) is a synthesis of several areas of psychology, including developmental, cross cultural, and spiritual literatures. SIDMOP provides an all-inclusive model of identity development for oppressed minorities in the United States, regardless of ethnicity. The model was formulated from the…

  19. Modeling Teacher Professional Development Through a Telescope Making Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, J. T.; Schleigh, S. P.; Lee, T. D.

    2010-08-01

    The International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) provides a springboard to develop innovative enduring educational programming directed toward astronomy education. We examine current professional development models focusing on astronomy and discuss the need for improvement. We propose a professional development design that follows the medical field philosophy using a low cost telescope making workshop as a vehicle to test and modify the model. The workshop promotes teacher content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and develops skills and confidence in an inquiry, integrative lesson. This model can be shared with professional development leaders, coordinators and teachers in any topic or level of education. Professional development designs such as the proposed promote excitement and interest in astronomy and makes it possible for underserved and economically depressed regions to have opportunities to promote the values of scientific investigation, STEM education, and public awareness of astronomy.

  20. Previous Open Rotor Research in the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industries, research establishments and universities discussed prospects for reducing Open Rotor noise and reviewed all technology programs, past and present, dedicated to Open Rotor engine concepts. This workshop was particularly timely because the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) plans to involve Independent Experts in late 2011 in assessing the noise of future low-carbon technologies including the open rotor.

  1. Development of Knowledge Management Model for Developing the Internal Quality Assurance in Educational Opportunity Expansion Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradabpech, Pipat; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Sriampai, Anan

    2015-01-01

    This research for: 1) to study the current situation and problem in KM, 2) to develop the KM Model, and 3) to evaluate the finding usage of the KM Model for developing the Internal Quality Assurance of Educational Opportunity Expansion Schools. There were 3 Phases of research implementation. Phase 1: the current situation and problem in KM, was…

  2. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  3. Expanding the Professional Development School Model: Developing Collaborative Partnerships with School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foust, Gretchen E.; Goslee, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    The Professional Development School (PDS) model, a successful collaborative partnership model between university teacher education programs and P-12 schools, focuses on ''preparing future educators, providing current educators with ongoing professional development, encouraging joint school-university faculty investigation of education-related…

  4. Ghosts in the machine: memory interference from the previous trial

    PubMed Central

    Ferdoash, Afreen; Snyder, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous memoranda can interfere with the memorization or storage of new information, a concept known as proactive interference. Studies of proactive interference typically use categorical memoranda and match-to-sample tasks with categorical measures such as the proportion of correct to incorrect responses. In this study we instead train five macaques in a spatial memory task with continuous memoranda and responses, allowing us to more finely probe working memory circuits. We first ask whether the memoranda from the previous trial result in proactive interference in an oculomotor delayed response task. We then characterize the spatial and temporal profile of this interference and ask whether this profile can be predicted by an attractor network model of working memory. We find that memory in the current trial shows a bias toward the location of the memorandum of the previous trial. The magnitude of this bias increases with the duration of the memory period within which it is measured. Our simulations using standard attractor network models of working memory show that these models easily replicate the spatial profile of the bias. However, unlike the behavioral findings, these attractor models show an increase in bias with the duration of the previous rather than the current memory period. To model a bias that increases with current trial duration we posit two separate memory stores, a rapidly decaying visual store that resists proactive interference effects and a sustained memory store that is susceptible to proactive interference. PMID:25376781

  5. Ghosts in the machine: memory interference from the previous trial.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Charalampos; Ferdoash, Afreen; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2015-01-15

    Previous memoranda can interfere with the memorization or storage of new information, a concept known as proactive interference. Studies of proactive interference typically use categorical memoranda and match-to-sample tasks with categorical measures such as the proportion of correct to incorrect responses. In this study we instead train five macaques in a spatial memory task with continuous memoranda and responses, allowing us to more finely probe working memory circuits. We first ask whether the memoranda from the previous trial result in proactive interference in an oculomotor delayed response task. We then characterize the spatial and temporal profile of this interference and ask whether this profile can be predicted by an attractor network model of working memory. We find that memory in the current trial shows a bias toward the location of the memorandum of the previous trial. The magnitude of this bias increases with the duration of the memory period within which it is measured. Our simulations using standard attractor network models of working memory show that these models easily replicate the spatial profile of the bias. However, unlike the behavioral findings, these attractor models show an increase in bias with the duration of the previous rather than the current memory period. To model a bias that increases with current trial duration we posit two separate memory stores, a rapidly decaying visual store that resists proactive interference effects and a sustained memory store that is susceptible to proactive interference. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Use of Model Payload for Europa Mission Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Kari; Klaasan, Ken; Susca, Sara; Oaida, Bogdan; Larson, Melora; Vanelli, Tony; Murray, Alex; Jones, Laura; Thomas, Valerie; Frank, Larry

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the basis for the Model Payload and how it was used to develop the mission design, observation and data acquisition strategy, needed spacecraft capabilities, spacecraft-payload interface needs, mission system requirements and operational scenarios.

  7. Family Environment and Cognitive Development: Twelve Analytic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Marjoribanks, Kevin

    1976-01-01

    The review indicates that refined measures of the family environment and the use of complex statistical models increase the understanding of the relationships between socioeconomic status, sibling variables, family environment, and cognitive development. (RC)

  8. Development of Gene Centric Modeling for Nutrient Cycling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    opportunity to participate in the development of a gene-centric model to help predict potential changes in the biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems that may arise from anthropogenic stressors and management decisions

  9. Initial development of prototype performance model for highway design

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has undertaken a multiyear project to develop the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM), which is a CADD-based integrated set of software tools to analyze a highway design to identify safety issues ...

  10. A model for the development of university curricula in nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruun, E.; Nielsen, I.

    2010-12-01

    Nanotechnology is having an increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering and in physics. Major influencers affecting developments in university programmes related to nanoelectronics are discussed and a model for university programme development is described. The model takes into account that nanotechnology affects not only physics but also electrical engineering and computer engineering because of the advent of new nanoelectronics devices. The model suggests that curriculum development tends to follow one of three major tracks: physics; electrical engineering; computer engineering. Examples of European curricula following this framework are identified and described. These examples may serve as sources of inspiration for future developments and the model presented may provide guidelines for a systematic selection of topics in the university programmes.

  11. CONCEPTUAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conceptual model development will focus on the effects of habitat alteration, nutrients,suspended and bedded sediments, and toxic chemicals on appropriate endpoints (individuals, populations, communities, ecosystems) across spatial scales (habitats, water body, watershed, region)...

  12. Prediction of Chemical Function: Model Development and Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast) project is developing both statistical and mechanism-based computational models for predicting exposures to thousands of chemicals, including those in consumer products. The high-throughput (...

  13. An Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ibrahim, Abdul Rahman H.

    1982-01-01

    The Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development calls for curriculum reform and innovation to be cybernetic so that all aspects of curriculum planning get adequate attention. (CJ)

  14. Development, Testing, and Validation of a Model-Based Tool to Predict Operator Responses in Unexpected Workload Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebok, Angelia; Wickens, Christopher; Sargent, Robert

    2015-01-01

    One human factors challenge is predicting operator performance in novel situations. Approaches such as drawing on relevant previous experience, and developing computational models to predict operator performance in complex situations, offer potential methods to address this challenge. A few concerns with modeling operator performance are that models need to realistic, and they need to be tested empirically and validated. In addition, many existing human performance modeling tools are complex and require that an analyst gain significant experience to be able to develop models for meaningful data collection. This paper describes an effort to address these challenges by developing an easy to use model-based tool, using models that were developed from a review of existing human performance literature and targeted experimental studies, and performing an empirical validation of key model predictions.

  15. Final Report of an Expansion of a Model for Development of Proficiency/Equivalency Tests for Clinical Laboratory Personnel, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Coll. of Medicine and Dentistry, Newark. School of Allied Health Professions.

    A project was conducted to expand a previously developed model for developing proficiency/equivalency tests to evaluate previously acquired knowledge and skill competencies in the areas of clinical microbiology and clinical hematology. Designed for a target group consisting of on-the-job trainees, military personnel, and medical laboratory…

  16. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    S. Hendrickson; S.Tegen

    2009-12-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local(usually state) level. First developed by NREL's Wind Powering America program to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to biofuels,concentrating solar power, coal, and natural gas power plants.

  17. Combat Service Support Model Development: BRASS - TRANSLOG - Army 21

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    throughout’the system. Transitional problems may address specific hardware and related software , such as the Standard Army Ammunition System ( SAAS ...FILE. 00 Cabat Service Support Model Development .,PASS TRANSLOG -- ARMY 21 0 Contract Number DAAK11-84-D-0004 Task Order #1 DRAFT REPOkT July 1984 D...Armament Systems, Inc. 211 West Bel Air Avenue P.O. Box 158 Aberdeen, MD 21001 8 8 8 2 1 S CORMIT SERVICE SUPPORT MODEL DEVELOPMENT BRASS -- TRANSLOG

  18. Mechanical model development of rolling bearing-rotor systems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongrui; Niu, Linkai; Xi, Songtao; Chen, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    The rolling bearing rotor (RBR) system is the kernel of many rotating machines, which affects the performance of the whole machine. Over the past decades, extensive research work has been carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of RBR systems. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no comprehensive review on RBR modelling has been reported yet. To address this gap in the literature, this paper reviews and critically discusses the current progress of mechanical model development of RBR systems, and identifies future trends for research. Firstly, five kinds of rolling bearing models, i.e., the lumped-parameter model, the quasi-static model, the quasi-dynamic model, the dynamic model, and the finite element (FE) model are summarized. Then, the coupled modelling between bearing models and various rotor models including De Laval/Jeffcott rotor, rigid rotor, transfer matrix method (TMM) models and FE models are presented. Finally, the paper discusses the key challenges of previous works and provides new insights into understanding of RBR systems for their advanced future engineering applications.

  19. Development of a Water Recovery System Resource Tracking Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Sargusingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah; Moore, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed to track water resources in an exploration vehicle using Regenerative Life Support (RLS) systems. The Resource Tracking Model (RTM) integrates the functions of all the vehicle components that affect the processing and recovery of water during simulated missions. The approach used in developing the RTM enables its use as part of a complete vehicle simulation for real time mission studies. Performance data for the components in the RTM is focused on water processing. The data provided to the model has been based on the most recent information available regarding the technology of the component. This paper will describe the process of defining the RLS system to be modeled, the way the modeling environment was selected, and how the model has been implemented. Results showing how the RLS components exchange water are provided in a set of test cases.

  20. Development of a Water Recovery System Resource Tracking Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Sarguishm, Miriam; Shull, Sarah; Moore, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed to track water resources in an exploration vehicle using regenerative life support (RLS) systems. The model integrates the functions of all the vehicle components that affect the processing and recovery of water during simulated missions. The approach used in developing the model results in the RTM being a part of of a complete vehicle simulation that can be used in real time mission studies. Performance data for the variety of components in the RTM is focused on water processing and has been defined based on the most recent information available for the technology of the component. This paper will describe the process of defining the RLS system to be modeled and then the way the modeling environment was selected and how the model has been implemented. Results showing how the variety of RLS components exchange water are provided in a set of test cases.

  1. Setting development goals using stochastic dynamical system models

    PubMed Central

    Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Bali Swain, Ranjula; Sumpter, David J. T.

    2017-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers. PMID:28241057

  2. Setting development goals using stochastic dynamical system models.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Shyam; Nicolis, Stamatios C; Bali Swain, Ranjula; Sumpter, David J T

    2017-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers.

  3. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of deltamethrin: Development of a rat and human diffusion-limited model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin in the rat. This model describes gastrointestinal tract absorption as a saturable process mediated by phase III efflux transporters which pump delta...

  4. Further Development of the PCRTM Model and RT Model Inter Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Qiguang; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Kizer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    New results for the development of the PCRTM model will be presented. The new results were used for IASI retrieval validation inter comparison and better results were obtained compare to other fast radiative transfer models.

  5. Developing models for cachexia and their implications in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Ebner, Nicole; von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan D; Springer, Jochen

    2015-07-01

    Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. Systemic inflammation plays a central role in its pathophysiology. As millions of patients are in a cachectic state of chronic disease, cachexia is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Difficulties in the recruitment and follow-up of clinical trials mean that well-characterized animal models are of great importance in developing cachexia therapies. However, some of the widely used animal models have limitations in procedural reproducibility or in recapitulating in the cachectic phenotype, which has warranted the development of novel models for cachexia. This review focuses on some of the currently developing rodent models designed to mimic each co-morbidity in cachexia. Through developing cancer models, researchers have been seeking more targets for intervention. In cardiac cachexia, technical issues have been overcome by transgenic models. Furthermore, the development of new animal models has enabled the elucidation of the roles of inflammation, anabolism/catabolism in muscle/fat tissue and anorexia on cachexia. As metabolic and inflammatory pathways in cachexia may compromise cardiac muscle, the analysis of cardiac function/tissue in non-cardiac cachexia may be a useful component of cachexia assessment common to different underlying diseases and pave the way for novel drug discovery.

  6. 78 FR 36089 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft Company) Model BAe.125 Series 800A... to Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft Company... Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft...

  7. New Models and Metaphors for Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains two reports from a poster session on new ideas and models in human resource development (HRD). The first presentation, "Two-way Customer-Service Provider Cycle" (Harriet V. Lawrence, Albert K. Wiswell), discusses a two-way supply cycle model that illustrates relational issues in customer service, including needs…

  8. Development of a Multidisciplinary Middle School Mathematics Infusion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Maria; Hecht, Deborah; Burghardt, M. David; Hacker, Michael; Saxman, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project "Mathematics, Science, and Technology Partnership" (MSTP) developed a multidisciplinary instructional model for connecting mathematics to science, technology and engineering content areas at the middle school level. Specifically, the model infused mathematics into middle school curriculum…

  9. Development of the Artistic Supervision Model Scale (ASMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapusuzoglu, Saduman; Dilekci, Umit

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop the Artistic Supervision Model Scale in accordance with the perception of inspectors and the elementary and secondary school teachers on artistic supervision. The lack of a measuring instrument related to the model of artistic supervision in the field of literature reveals the necessity of such study. 290…

  10. Developing the HTA core model for the online environment.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Kristian; Pasternack, Iris; Saarekas, Oskari; Raustia, Leena; Cleemput, Irina; Corio, Mirella; Endel, Gottfried; Frønsdal, Katrine; Imaz, Iñaki; Kleijnen, Sarah; Kristensen, Finn; Rüther, Alric; Werkö, Sophie; Cerbo, Marina

    2014-11-01

    A framework for collaborative production and sharing of HTA information, the HTA Core Model, was originally developed within EUnetHTA in 2006-08. In this paper, we describe the further development of the Model to allow implementation and utilization of the Model online. The aim was to capture a generic HTA process that would allow effective use of the HTA Core Model and resulting HTA information while at the same time not interfering with HTA agencies' internal processes. The work was coordinated by a development team in Finland, supported by an international expert group. Two pilot testing rounds were organized among EUnetHTA agencies and two extensive core HTA projects tested the tool in a real setting. The final work was also formally validated by a group of HTA agencies. The HTA Core Model Online--available at http://www.corehta.info--is a web site hosting a) a tool to allow electronic utilization of the HTA Core Model and b) a database of produced HTA information. While access to the HTA information is free to all, the production features are currently available to EUnetHTA member agencies only. A policy was crafted to steer the use of the Model and produced information. We have successfully enabled electronic use of the HTA Core Model and agreed on a policy for its utilization. The system is already being used in subsequent HTA projects within EUnetHTA Joint Action 2. Identified shortcomings and further needs will be addressed in subsequent development.

  11. Development, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of LASH model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many hydrologic models have been developed to help manage natural resources all over the world. Nevertheless, most models have presented a high complexity regarding data base requirements, as well as, many calibration parameters. This has brought serious difficulties for applying them in watersheds ...

  12. JEDI Methodology | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Methodology JEDI Methodology The intent of the Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models costs) to demonstrate the employment and economic impacts that will likely result during the estimate of overall economic impacts from specific scenarios. Please see Limitations of JEDI Models for

  13. Improving Intercultural Competence in the Classroom: A Reflective Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Jing Betty

    2016-01-01

    To meet the increased demand for international business education that prepares college students for studying, living, or working overseas, I propose a four-stage reflective development model to be used in the traditional classroom context to enhance intercultural competence for undergraduate students. I employ the model in a personal development…

  14. Children's Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment: Model Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Walsh, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a model of children's conceptions of two key career development processes: career choice and career attainment. The model of children's understanding of career choice and attainment was constructed with developmental research and theory into children's understanding of allied phenomena such as their understanding of illness,…

  15. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  16. The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

  17. Dynamic Modeling for Development and Education: From Concepts to Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Geert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The general aim of the article is to teach the reader how to transform conceptual models of change, development, and learning into mathematical expressions and how to use these equations to build dynamic models by means of the widely used spreadsheet program Excel. The explanation is supported by a number of Excel files, which the reader can…

  18. Examining of Model Eliciting Activities Developed by Mathematics Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Ayse Tekin; Hidiroglu, Çaglar Naci; Güzel, Esra Bukova

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the model eliciting activities developed by the mathematics student teachers in the context of the principles of the model eliciting activities. The participants of the study conducted as a case study design were twenty one mathematics student teachers working on seven groups. The data collection tools were…

  19. Turbulence model development and application at Lockheed Fort Worth Company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian R.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation demonstrates that computationally efficient k-l and k-kl turbulence models have been developed and implemented at Lockheed Fort Worth Company. Many years of experience have been gained applying two equation turbulence models to complex three-dimensional flows for design and analysis.

  20. Benchmark Dose Software Development and Maintenance Ten Berge Cxt Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is intended to provide an overview of beta version 1.0 of the implementation of a concentration-time (CxT) model originally programmed and provided by Wil ten Berge (referred to hereafter as the ten Berge model). The recoding and development described here represent ...

  1. Development of the Next Generation Air Quality Modeling System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A next generation air quality modeling system is being developed at the U.S. EPA to enable modeling of air quality from global to regional to (eventually) local scales. We envision that the system will have three configurations: 1. Global meteorology with seamless mesh refinemen...

  2. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

    PubMed

    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  3. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  4. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  5. Preseason Perceived Physical Capability and Previous Injury.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Aaron; Haegele, Lauren E; Lucas, Jean; Uhl, Timothy L

    2015-09-01

    Patient opinion about the ability to perform athletic maneuvers is important after injury; however, prospective assessment of self-perceived physical capability for athletes before the beginning of a season is lacking. To perform a descriptive analysis of knee, shoulder, and elbow self-perceived measures of physical capability specific to athletics and to compare the measures between athletes with and without a history of injury. Cross-sectional study. Preparticipation physical examinations. A total of 738 collegiate athletes (486 men, 251 women; age = 19 ± 1 years) were administered questionnaires after receiving medical clearance to participate in their sports. Of those athletes, 350 reported a history of injury. Athletes self-reported a history of knee, shoulder, or elbow injury. Perceived physical capability of the 3 joints was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sport and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score. We conducted nonparametric analysis to determine if scores differed between athletes with and without a history of injury. Median values for the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sports and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score for all athletes were 100. Median values for perceived physical capability of athletes with a history of injury were 3 to 12 points lower for each questionnaire before the start of the season (P < .001). Our study provided descriptive values for individual perceived knee, shoulder, and elbow physical capability of collegiate athletes participating in 19 sports. Athletes who did not report previous injuries perceived their physical capabilities to be nearly perfect, which could set the goal for these athletes to return to participation after injury. Athletes reporting previous injuries perceived less physical

  6. Animal models of ocular angiogenesis: from development to pathologies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Hsiu; Wang, Zhongxiao; Sun, Ye; Chen, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Pathological angiogenesis in the eye is an important feature in the pathophysiology of many vision-threatening diseases, including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, as well as corneal diseases with abnormal angiogenesis. Development of reproducible and reliable animal models of ocular angiogenesis has advanced our understanding of both the normal development and the pathobiology of ocular neovascularization. These models have also proven to be valuable experimental tools with which to easily evaluate potential antiangiogenic therapies beyond eye research. This review summarizes the current available animal models of ocular angiogenesis. Models of retinal and choroidal angiogenesis, including oxygen-induced retinopathy, laser-induced choroidal neovascularization, and transgenic mouse models with deficient or spontaneous retinal/choroidal neovascularization, as well as models with induced corneal angiogenesis, are widely used to investigate the molecular and cellular basis of angiogenic mechanisms. Theoretical concepts and experimental protocols of these models are outlined, as well as their advantages and potential limitations, which may help researchers choose the most suitable models for their investigative work.-Liu, C.-H., Wang, Z., Sun, Y., Chen, J. Animal models of ocular angiogenesis: from development to pathologies. © FASEB.

  7. Development of a new global radiation belt model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Angelica; Boscher, Daniel; Bourdarie, Sébastien; Lazaro, Didier; Maget, Vincent; Ecoffet, Robert; Rolland, Guy; Standarovski, Denis

    2017-04-01

    The well known AP8 and AE8 NASA models are commonly used in the industry to specify the radiation belt environment. Unfortunately, there are some limitations in the use of these models, first due to the covered energy range, but also because in some regions of space, there are discrepancies between the predicted average values and the measurements. Therefore, our aim is to develop a radiation belt model, covering a large region of space and energy, from LEO altitudes to GEO and above, and from plasma to relativistic particles. The aim for the first version of this new model is to correct the AP8 and AE8 models where they are deficient or not defined. At geostationary, we developed ten years ago for electrons the IGE-2006 model which was proven to be more accurate than AE8, and used commonly in the industry, covering a broad energy range, from 1keV to 5MeV. From then, a proton model for geostationary orbit was also developed for material applications, followed by the OZONE model covering a narrower energy range but the whole outer electron belt, a SLOT model to asses average electron values for 2model, which provides high energy proton flux values at low altitudes. As most of these models were developed using more than a solar cycle of measurements, these measurements being checked, cross calibrated and filtered, we have no doubt that the obtained averages are more accurate than AP8 and AE8 for these particular locations. These local models were validated along different orbit with independent data sets or effect measurements. We will use a cache file system to switch between models, in order to obtain at each location in space and energy point the most reliable value. Of course, the way the model is developed is well suited to add new local developments or to include international partnership. The first beta version of this new Global radiation belt model will be presented during the conference.

  8. Formulation of consumables management models. Development approach for the mission planning processor working model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    The mission planning processor is a user oriented tool for consumables management and is part of the total consumables subsystem management concept. The approach to be used in developing a working model of the mission planning processor is documented. The approach includes top-down design, structured programming techniques, and application of NASA approved software development standards. This development approach: (1) promotes cost effective software development, (2) enhances the quality and reliability of the working model, (3) encourages the sharing of the working model through a standard approach, and (4) promotes portability of the working model to other computer systems.

  9. A four phase development model for integrated care services in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Minkman, Mirella MN; Ahaus, Kees TB; Huijsman, Robbert

    2009-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary and interorganizational arrangements for the delivery of coherent integrated care are being developed in a large number of countries. Although there are many integrated care programs worldwide, the process of developing these programs and interorganizational collaboration is described in the literature only to a limited extent. The purpose of this study is to explore how local integrated care services are developed in the Netherlands, and to conceptualize and operationalize a development model of integrated care. Methods The research is based on an expert panel study followed by a two-part questionnaire, designed to identify the development process of integrated care. Essential elements of integrated care, which were developed in a previous Delphi and Concept Mapping Study, were analyzed in relation to development process of integrated care. Results Integrated care development can be characterized by four developmental phases: the initiative and design phase; the experimental and execution phase; the expansion and monitoring phase; and the consolidation and transformation phase. Different elements of integrated care have been identified in the various developmental phases. Conclusion The findings provide a descriptive model of the development process that integrated care services can undergo in the Netherlands. The findings have important implications for integrated care services, which can use the model as an instrument to reflect on their current practices. The model can be used to help to identify improvement areas in practice. The model provides a framework for developing evaluation designs for integrated care arrangements. Further research is recommended to test the developed model in practice and to add international experiences. PMID:19261176

  10. School nurse summer institute: a model for professional development.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Marianne; Barta, Kathleen

    2004-06-01

    The components of a professional development model designed to empower school nurses to become leaders in school health services is described. The model was implemented during a 3-day professional development institute that included clinical and leadership components, especially coalition building, with two follow-up sessions in the fall and spring. Coalition building is an important tool to enhance the influence of the school nurse in improving the health of individuals, families, and communities. School nurses and nursing educators with expertise in the specialty of school nursing could replicate this model in their own regions.

  11. Development of a multi-ensemble Prediction Model for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasseur, G. P.; Bouarar, I.; Petersen, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the EU-sponsored Panda and MarcoPolo Projects, a multi-model prediction system including 7 models has been developed. Most regional models use global air quality predictions provided by the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service and downscale the forecast at relatively high spatial resolution in eastern China. The paper will describe the forecast system and show examples of forecasts produced for several Chinese urban areas and displayed on a web site developed by the Dutch Meteorological service. A discussion on the accuracy of the predictions based on a detailed validation process using surface measurements from the Chinese monitoring network will be presented.

  12. Leadership Identity Development: Challenges in Applying a Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komives, Susan R.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.; Wagner, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The leadership identity development (LID) grounded theory (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005) and related LID model (Komives, Longerbeam, Owen, Mainella, & Osteen, 2006) present a framework for understanding how individual college students develop the social identity of being collaborative, relational leaders…

  13. Development of Prototype Driver Models for Highway Design: Research Update

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-06-01

    One of the high-priority research areas of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is the development of the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM). The goal of the IHSDM research program is to develop a systematic approach that will allow...

  14. A Competency-Based Model for Youth Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seemiller, Corey

    2018-01-01

    Whether they are in a leadership program, participate in an organization, or engage in school-based extra-curricular activities, there does not appear to be a shortage of leadership development opportunities for youth. Despite the prominence of these experiences, the lack of youth leadership development models available for educators can pose a…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF MODELING PROTOCOLS FOR USE IN DETERMINING SEDIMENT TMDLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling protocols for use in determining sediment TMDLs are being developed to provide the Office of Water, Regions and the States with assistance in determining TMDLs for sediment impaired water bodies. These protocols will supplement the protocols developed by the Office of W...

  16. An Evidence-Based Practitioner's Model for Adolescent Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehm, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for youth leadership education based on adolescent development and leadership research in an effort to provide practitioners with a practical blueprint to aid their creation and implementation of high school leadership programs. By focusing on student leader development areas which school level educators can affect,…

  17. Stage Structure of Moral Development: A Comparison of Alternative Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hau, Kit-Tai

    This study evaluated the stage structure of several quasi-simplex and non-simplex models of moral development in two domains of moral development in a British and a Chinese sample. Analyses were based on data reported by Sachs (1992): the Chinese sample consisted of 1,005 students from grade 9 to post-college, and the British sample consisted of…

  18. The Arctic Climate Modeling Program: Professional Development for Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) offered yearlong science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professional development to teachers in rural Alaska. Teacher training focused on introducing youth to workforce technologies used in Arctic research. Due to challenges in making professional development accessible to rural teachers, ACMP…

  19. Developing Mindful Learners Model: A 21st Century Ecological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry

    The Developing Mindful Learners Model (DMLM), developed within the framework of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory, connects three factors--content, framework, and world vision--for the purpose of helping underachieving students to become more "mindful": i.e., to become one who welcomes new ideas, considers more than one…

  20. Development of a distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling framework

    Treesearch

    Satoshi Hirabayashi; Charles N. Kroll; David J. Nowak

    2012-01-01

    A distributed air pollutant dry deposition modeling systemwas developed with a geographic information system (GIS) to enhance the functionality of i-Tree Eco (i-Tree, 2011). With the developed system, temperature, leaf area index (LAI) and air pollutant concentration in a spatially distributed form can be estimated, and based on these and other input variables, dry...

  1. Academic Talent Development Programs: A Best Practices Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagné, Françoys

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe how schools should structure the development of academic talent at all levels of the K-12 educational system. Adopting as its theoretical framework the "Differentiating Model of Giftedness and Talent," the author proposes (a) a formal definition of academic talent development (ATD) inspired by the principles…

  2. Model Development and Replication: Introducing and Sustaining Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Corinne W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the three-decade experience in model development and replication and in introducing and sustaining organization change of Child Development Resources (CDR), of Williamsburg, Virginia. CDR provides an integrated system of services for children with disabilities and developmental delays as well as for children who are at risk.…

  3. Development of machine learning models for diagnosis of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Jae; Cho, Kyong Jin; Oh, Sejong

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to develop machine learning models that have strong prediction power and interpretability for diagnosis of glaucoma based on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and visual field (VF). We collected various candidate features from the examination of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and visual field (VF). We also developed synthesized features from original features. We then selected the best features proper for classification (diagnosis) through feature evaluation. We used 100 cases of data as a test dataset and 399 cases of data as a training and validation dataset. To develop the glaucoma prediction model, we considered four machine learning algorithms: C5.0, random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and k-nearest neighbor (KNN). We repeatedly composed a learning model using the training dataset and evaluated it by using the validation dataset. Finally, we got the best learning model that produces the highest validation accuracy. We analyzed quality of the models using several measures. The random forest model shows best performance and C5.0, SVM, and KNN models show similar accuracy. In the random forest model, the classification accuracy is 0.98, sensitivity is 0.983, specificity is 0.975, and AUC is 0.979. The developed prediction models show high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC in classifying among glaucoma and healthy eyes. It will be used for predicting glaucoma against unknown examination records. Clinicians may reference the prediction results and be able to make better decisions. We may combine multiple learning models to increase prediction accuracy. The C5.0 model includes decision rules for prediction. It can be used to explain the reasons for specific predictions.

  4. Development and validation of a new population-based simulation model of osteoarthritis in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R; Abbott, J H

    2018-04-01

    To describe the construction and preliminary validation of a new population-based microsimulation model developed to analyse the health and economic burden and cost-effectiveness of treatments for knee osteoarthritis (OA) in New Zealand (NZ). We developed the New Zealand Management of Osteoarthritis (NZ-MOA) model, a discrete-time state-transition microsimulation model of the natural history of radiographic knee OA. In this article, we report on the model structure, derivation of input data, validation of baseline model parameters against external data sources, and validation of model outputs by comparison of the predicted population health loss with previous estimates. The NZ-MOA model simulates both the structural progression of radiographic knee OA and the stochastic development of multiple disease symptoms. Input parameters were sourced from NZ population-based data where possible, and from international sources where NZ-specific data were not available. The predicted distributions of structural OA severity and health utility detriments associated with OA were externally validated against other sources of evidence, and uncertainty resulting from key input parameters was quantified. The resulting lifetime and current population health-loss burden was consistent with estimates of previous studies. The new NZ-MOA model provides reliable estimates of the health loss associated with knee OA in the NZ population. The model structure is suitable for analysis of the effects of a range of potential treatments, and will be used in future work to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of recommended interventions within the NZ healthcare system. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a Stirling System Dynamic Model With Enhanced Thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    The Stirling Convertor System Dynamic Model developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is a software model developed from first principles that includes the mechanical and mounting dynamics, the thermodynamics, the linear alternator, and the controller of a free-piston Stirling power convertor, along with the end user load. As such it represents the first detailed modeling tool for fully integrated Stirling convertor-based power systems. The thermodynamics of the model were originally a form of the isothermal Stirling cycle. In some situations it may be desirable to improve the accuracy of the Stirling cycle portion of the model. An option under consideration is to enhance the SDM thermodynamics by coupling the model with Gedeon Associates Sage simulation code. The result will be a model that gives a more accurate prediction of the performance and dynamics of the free-piston Stirling convertor. A method of integrating the Sage simulation code with the System Dynamic Model is described. Results of SDM and Sage simulation are compared to test data. Model parameter estimation and model validation are discussed.

  6. Development of a Stirling System Dynamic Model with Enhanced Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2005-02-01

    The Stirling Convertor System Dynamic Model developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is a software model developed from first principles that includes the mechanical and mounting dynamics, the thermodynamics, the linear alternator, and the controller of a free-piston Stirling power convertor, along with the end user load. As such it represents the first detailed modeling tool for fully integrated Stirling convertor-based power systems. The thermodynamics of the model were originally a form of the isothermal Stirling cycle. In some situations it may be desirable to improve the accuracy of the Stirling cycle portion of the model. An option under consideration is to enhance the SDM thermodynamics by coupling the model with Gedeon Associates' Sage simulation code. The result will be a model that gives a more accurate prediction of the performance and dynamics of the free-piston Stirling convertor. A method of integrating the Sage simulation code with the System Dynamic Model is described. Results of SDM and Sage simulation are compared to test data. Model parameter estimation and model validation are discussed.

  7. Linking Goal-Oriented Requirements and Model-Driven Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Oscar; Giachetti, Giovanni

    In the context of Goal-Oriented Requirement Engineering (GORE) there are interesting modeling approaches for the analysis of complex scenarios that are oriented to obtain and represent the relevant requirements for the development of software products. However, the way to use these GORE models in an automated Model-Driven Development (MDD) process is not clear, and, in general terms, the translation of these models into the final software products is still manually performed. Therefore, in this chapter, we show an approach to automatically link GORE models and MDD processes, which has been elaborated by considering the experience obtained from linking the i * framework with an industrially applied MDD approach. The linking approach proposed is formulated by means of a generic process that is based on current modeling standards and technologies in order to facilitate its application for different MDD and GORE approaches. Special attention is paid to how this process generates appropriate model transformation mechanisms to automatically obtain MDD conceptual models from GORE models, and how it can be used to specify validation mechanisms to assure the correct model transformations.

  8. A Study on Reflection in In-Service Teacher Development: Introducing Reflective Practitioner Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayapinar, Ulas

    2016-01-01

    To date, studies on reflection seem to lack concern for in-service teacher development. This article proposes a new EFL reflective practitioner development model (RPDM) for an in-service program that is not only based on the principles of reflection, but that also measures teachers' reflective and self-efficacy development. Focusing on the…

  9. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  10. Non-steady state simulation of BOM removal in drinking water biofilters: model development.

    PubMed

    Hozalski, R M; Bouwer, E J

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to simulate the non-steady-state behavior of biologically-active filters used for drinking water treatment. The biofilter simulation model called "BIOFILT" simulates the substrate (biodegradable organic matter or BOM) and biomass (both attached and suspended) profiles in a biofilter as a function of time. One of the innovative features of BIOFILT compared to previous biofilm models is the ability to simulate the effects of a sudden loss in attached biomass or biofilm due to filter backwash on substrate removal performance. A sensitivity analysis of the model input parameters indicated that the model simulations were most sensitive to the values of parameters that controlled substrate degradation and biofilm growth and accumulation including the substrate diffusion coefficient, the maximum rate of substrate degradation, the microbial yield coefficient, and a dimensionless shear loss coefficient. Variation of the hydraulic loading rate or other parameters that controlled the deposition of biomass via filtration did not significantly impact the simulation results.

  11. Development of a dynamic computational model of social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E; Hekler, Eric B; Adams, Marc A; Buman, Matthew P; Pavel, Misha; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is among the most influential theories of behavior change and has been used as the conceptual basis of health behavior interventions for smoking cessation, weight management, and other health behaviors. SCT and other behavior theories were developed primarily to explain differences between individuals, but explanatory theories of within-person behavioral variability are increasingly needed as new technologies allow for intensive longitudinal measures and interventions adapted from these inputs. These within-person explanatory theoretical applications can be modeled as dynamical systems. SCT constructs, such as reciprocal determinism, are inherently dynamical in nature, but SCT has not been modeled as a dynamical system. This paper describes the development of a dynamical system model of SCT using fluid analogies and control systems principles drawn from engineering. Simulations of this model were performed to assess if the model performed as predicted based on theory and empirical studies of SCT. This initial model generates precise and testable quantitative predictions for future intensive longitudinal research. Dynamic modeling approaches provide a rigorous method for advancing health behavior theory development and refinement and for guiding the development of more potent and efficient interventions.

  12. Geospatial Modelling Approach for 3d Urban Densification Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.

    2016-06-01

    With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D). The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.

  13. Climate, weather, space weather: model development in an operational context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, Doris

    2018-05-01

    Aspects of operational modeling for climate, weather, and space weather forecasts are contrasted, with a particular focus on the somewhat conflicting demands of "operational stability" versus "dynamic development" of the involved models. Some common key elements are identified, indicating potential for fruitful exchange across communities. Operational model development is compelling, driven by factors that broadly fall into four categories: model skill, basic physics, advances in computer architecture, and new aspects to be covered, from costumer needs over physics to observational data. Evaluation of model skill as part of the operational chain goes beyond an automated skill score. Permanent interaction between "pure research" and "operational forecast" people is beneficial to both sides. This includes joint model development projects, although ultimate responsibility for the operational code remains with the forecast provider. The pace of model development reflects operational lead times. The points are illustrated with selected examples, many of which reflect the author's background and personal contacts, notably with the Swiss Weather Service and the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany. In view of current and future challenges, large collaborations covering a range of expertise are a must - within and across climate, weather, and space weather. To profit from and cope with the rapid progress of computer architectures, supercompute centers must form part of the team.

  14. Multiscale Modeling in the Clinic: Drug Design and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, Colleen E.; An, Gary; Cannon, William R.

    A wide range of length and time scales are relevant to pharmacology, especially in drug development, drug design and drug delivery. Therefore, multi-scale computational modeling and simulation methods and paradigms that advance the linkage of phenomena occurring at these multiple scales have become increasingly important. Multi-scale approaches present in silico opportunities to advance laboratory research to bedside clinical applications in pharmaceuticals research. This is achievable through the capability of modeling to reveal phenomena occurring across multiple spatial and temporal scales, which are not otherwise readily accessible to experimentation. The resultant models, when validated, are capable of making testable predictions tomore » guide drug design and delivery. In this review we describe the goals, methods, and opportunities of multi-scale modeling in drug design and development. We demonstrate the impact of multiple scales of modeling in this field. We indicate the common mathematical techniques employed for multi-scale modeling approaches used in pharmacology and present several examples illustrating the current state-of-the-art regarding drug development for: Excitable Systems (Heart); Cancer (Metastasis and Differentiation); Cancer (Angiogenesis and Drug Targeting); Metabolic Disorders; and Inflammation and Sepsis. We conclude with a focus on barriers to successful clinical translation of drug development, drug design and drug delivery multi-scale models.« less

  15. Development of constitutive model for composites exhibiting time dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupure, L.; Joffe, R.; Varna, J.; Nyström, B.

    2013-12-01

    Regenerated cellulose fibres and their composites exhibit highly nonlinear behaviour. The mechanical response of these materials can be successfully described by the model developed by Schapery for time-dependent materials. However, this model requires input parameters that are experimentally determined via large number of time-consuming tests on the studied composite material. If, for example, the volume fraction of fibres is changed we have a different material and new series of experiments on this new material are required. Therefore the ultimate objective of our studies is to develop model which determines the composite behaviour based on behaviour of constituents of the composite. This paper gives an overview of problems and difficulties, associated with development, implementation and verification of such model.

  16. A Software Development Simulation Model of a Spiral Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizell, Carolyn; Malone, Linda

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for simulation models of software development processes other than the waterfall because processes such as spiral development are becoming more and more popular. The use of a spiral process can make the inherently difficult job of cost and schedule estimation even more challenging due to its evolutionary nature, but this allows for a more flexible process that can better meet customers' needs. This paper will present a discrete event simulation model of spiral development that can be used to analyze cost and schedule effects of using such a process in comparison to a waterfall process.

  17. Disability identity development model: Voices from the ADA-generation.

    PubMed

    Forber-Pratt, Anjali J; Zape, Marianne P

    2017-04-01

    For persons with disabilities, 2015 was a historic year, marking the 25th anniversary of the Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and the 40th anniversary of the passing of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It is important to consider the effects of this fundamental shift towards equal opportunity and participation on persons with disabilities' identity development. In practice, however, there are few empirical studies that have looked at this phenomenon and even fewer models of disability identity development. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the disability identity development of college students with disabilities. At two research sites, we conducted individual interviews and observations with 17 college students with varying disabilities, and used in vivo and structural coding analysis to identify and develop themes. The results of this study led to establishing a model of psychosocial identity development for individuals with disabilities. The model highlights four developmental statuses: acceptance, relationship, adoption and engagement. Sharing voices from the participants themselves, we also provide commentary on the possible impacts of this work for healthcare professionals and areas for future research. Our findings suggest that this model of psychosocial disability identity development can help to provide an understanding of the psychological processes that individuals with disabilities go through. The model also has application as a framework for healthcare professionals and psychologists who are working with individuals with disabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Model Development: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Power management and distribution (PMAD) models were developed in the early 1990's to model candidate architectures for various Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions. They were used to generate "ballpark" component mass estimates to support conceptual PMAD system design studies. The initial set of models was provided to NASA Lewis Research Center (since renamed Glenn Research Center) in 1992. They were developed to estimate the characteristics of power conditioning components predicted to be available in the 2005 timeframe. Early 90's component and device designs and material technologies were projected forward to the 2005 timeframe, and algorithms reflecting those design and material improvements were incorporated into the models to generate mass, volume, and efficiency estimates for circa 2005 components. The models are about ten years old now and NASA GRC requested a review of them to determine if they should be updated to bring them into agreement with current performance projections or to incorporate unforeseen design or technology advances. This report documents the results of this review and the updated power conditioning models and new transmission line models generated to estimate post 2005 PMAD system masses and sizes. This effort continues the expansion and enhancement of a library of PMAD models developed to allow system designers to assess future power system architectures and distribution techniques quickly and consistently.

  19. Development of Macroscale Models of UO 2 Fuel Sintering and Densification using Multiscale Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenquist, Ian; Tonks, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Light water reactor fuel pellets are fabricated using sintering to final densities of 95% or greater. During reactor operation, the porosity remaining in the fuel after fabrication decreases further due to irradiation-assisted densification. While empirical models have been developed to describe this densification process, a mechanistic model is needed as part of the ongoing work by the NEAMS program to develop a more predictive fuel performance code. In this work we will develop a phase field model of sintering of UO 2 in the MARMOT code, and validate it by comparing to published sintering data. We will then add themore » capability to capture irradiation effects into the model, and use it to develop a mechanistic model of densification that will go into the BISON code and add another essential piece to the microstructure-based materials models. The final step will be to add the effects of applied fields, to model field-assisted sintering of UO 2. The results of the phase field model will be validated by comparing to data from field-assisted sintering. Tasks over three years: 1. Develop a sintering model for UO 2 in MARMOT 2. Expand model to account for irradiation effects 3. Develop a mechanistic macroscale model of densification for BISON« less

  20. Development of Coarse Grained Models for Long Chain Alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, Gaurav; Sternfield, Samuel; Hwang, In Chul; Rick, Steven; Kumar, Revati; Rick Group Team; Kumar Group Team

    Modeling aggregation in aqueous solution is a challenge for molecular simulations as it involves long time scales, a range of length scales, and the correct balance of hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. We have developed a coarse-grained model fast enough for the rapid testing of molecular structures for their aggregation properties. This model, using the Stillinger-Weber potential, achieves efficiency through a reduction in the number of interaction sites and the use of short-ranged interactions. The model can be two to three orders of magnitude more efficient than conventional all atom simulations, yet through a careful parameterization process and the use of many-body interactions can be remarkably accurate. We have developed models for long chain alkanes in water that reproduce the thermodynamics and structure of water-alkane and liquid alkane systems.

  1. Analysis of an algae-based CELSS. I - Model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Little, Frank E.; Makela, Merry E.; Patterson, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    A steady state chemical model and computer program have been developed for a life support system and applied to trade-off studies. The model is based on human demand for food and oxygen determined from crew metabolic needs. The model includes modules for water recycle, waste treatment, CO2 removal and treatment, and food production. The computer program calculates rates of use and material balance for food, O2, the recycle of human waste and trash, H2O, N2, and food production/supply. A simple noniterative solution for the model has been developed using the steady state rate equations for the chemical reactions. The model and program have been used in system sizing and subsystem trade-off studies of a partially closed life support system.

  2. On the Development of Parameterized Linear Analytical Longitudinal Airship Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric A.; Johnson, Joseph R.; Bayard, David S.; Elfes, Alberto; Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore Titan, a moon of Saturn, airships must be able to traverse the atmosphere autonomously. To achieve this, an accurate model and accurate control of the vehicle must be developed so that it is understood how the airship will react to specific sets of control inputs. This paper explains how longitudinal aircraft stability derivatives can be used with airship parameters to create a linear model of the airship solely by combining geometric and aerodynamic airship data. This method does not require system identification of the vehicle. All of the required data can be derived from computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel testing. This alternate method of developing dynamic airship models will reduce time and cost. Results are compared to other stable airship dynamic models to validate the methods. Future work will address a lateral airship model using the same methods.

  3. Myxoid atypical fibroxanthoma: a previously undescribed variant.

    PubMed

    Patton, A; Page, R; Googe, P B; King, R

    2009-11-01

    Atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) are dermal-based cutaneous tumors typically found in sun-damaged skin of the elderly. Histologic variants include spindle cell, clear cell, osteoid, osteoclastic, chondroid, pigmented, and granular cell. To date, myxoid change in AFX, has not been described. Four cases were retrieved from the consultation and surgical pathology files of Knoxville Dermatopathology Laboratory, Knoxville, Tennessee during a 4-year period. The clinical and histologic findings were reviewed and Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and panel of immunohistochemical stains was obtained. All 4 lesions occurred as solitary lesions in elderly males on the head and neck (2 cases) and upper extremity (2 cases). Histologically all tumors demonstrated a well-circumscribed, cellular lesion centered in the dermis and composed of a mix of atypical pleomorphic and spindle cells in a prominent myxomatous background. A junctional component was absent and the tumors did not arise from the epidermis or adnexal structures. Subcutaneous involvement was absent in all cases. Tumor cells were negative for melanocytic and epithelial markers. Positive staining was noted with CD10 (3/4 cases) and vimentin (4/4 cases). Myxoid change in AFX is rare and previously undescribed in the English literature. Myxoid change may be a prominent finding in benign and malignant cutaneous tumors and awareness of this variant of AFX will avoid misdiagnosis.

  4. CAMS confirmation of previously reported meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.

  5. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    PubMed

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  6. Theoretical study of gas hydrate decomposition kinetics--model development.

    PubMed

    Windmeier, Christoph; Oellrich, Lothar R

    2013-10-10

    In order to provide an estimate of the order of magnitude of intrinsic gas hydrate dissolution and dissociation kinetics, the "Consecutive Desorption and Melting Model" (CDM) is developed by applying only theoretical considerations. The process of gas hydrate decomposition is assumed to comprise two consecutive and repetitive quasi chemical reaction steps. These are desorption of the guest molecule followed by local solid body melting. The individual kinetic steps are modeled according to the "Statistical Rate Theory of Interfacial Transport" and the Wilson-Frenkel approach. All missing required model parameters are directly linked to geometric considerations and a thermodynamic gas hydrate equilibrium model.

  7. Recent Developments on the Turbulence Modeling Resource Website (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumssey, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Langley Turbulence Model Resource (TMR) website has been active for over five years. Its main goal of providing a one-stop, easily accessible internet site for up-to-date information on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models remains unchanged. In particular, the site strives to provide an easy way for users to verify their own implementations of widely-used turbulence models, and to compare the results from different models for a variety of simple unit problems covering a range of flow physics. Some new features have been recently added to the website. This paper documents the site's features, including recent developments, future plans, and open questions.

  8. Development and experimental verification of an intraocular scattering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chong-Jhih; Jhong, Tian-Siang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2011-10-01

    An intraocular scattering model was constructed in human eye model and experimentally verified. According to the biometric data, the volumetric scattering in crystalline lens and diffusion at retina fundus were developed. The scattering parameters of cornea, including particle size and obscuration ratio, were varied to make the veiling luminance of the eye model matching the CIE disability glare general formula. By replacing the transparent lens with a cataractous lens, the disability glare curve of cataracts was generated and compared with that of transparent lenses. The MTF of the intraocular scattering model showed nice correspondence with the data measured by a double-pass experiment.

  9. Development and Application of Nonlinear Land-Use Regression Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champendal, Alexandre; Kanevski, Mikhail; Huguenot, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    The problem of air pollution modelling in urban zones is of great importance both from scientific and applied points of view. At present there are several fundamental approaches either based on science-based modelling (air pollution dispersion) or on the application of space-time geostatistical methods (e.g. family of kriging models or conditional stochastic simulations). Recently, there were important developments in so-called Land Use Regression (LUR) models. These models take into account geospatial information (e.g. traffic network, sources of pollution, average traffic, population census, land use, etc.) at different scales, for example, using buffering operations. Usually the dimension of the input space (number of independent variables) is within the range of (10-100). It was shown that LUR models have some potential to model complex and highly variable patterns of air pollution in urban zones. Most of LUR models currently used are linear models. In the present research the nonlinear LUR models are developed and applied for Geneva city. Mainly two nonlinear data-driven models were elaborated: multilayer perceptron and random forest. An important part of the research deals also with a comprehensive exploratory data analysis using statistical, geostatistical and time series tools. Unsupervised self-organizing maps were applied to better understand space-time patterns of the pollution. The real data case study deals with spatial-temporal air pollution data of Geneva (2002-2011). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has caught our attention. It has effects on human health and on plants; NO2 contributes to the phenomenon of acid rain. The negative effects of nitrogen dioxides on plants are the reduction of the growth, production and pesticide resistance. And finally, the effects on materials: nitrogen dioxide increases the corrosion. The data used for this study consist of a set of 106 NO2 passive sensors. 80 were used to build the models and the remaining 36 have constituted

  10. AAL service development loom--from the idea to a marketable business model.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Johannes; Auinger, Klemens

    2015-01-01

    The Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) market is still in an early stage of development. Previous approaches of comprehensive AAL services are mostly supply-side driven and focused on hardware and software. Usually this type of AAL solutions does not lead to a sustainable success on the market. Research and development increasingly focuses on demand and customer requirements in addition to the social and legal framework. The question is: How can a systematic performance measurement strategy along a service development process support the market-ready design of a concrete business model for AAL service? Within the EU funded research project DALIA (Assistant for Daily Life Activities at Home) an iterative service development process uses an adapted Osterwalder business model canvas. The application of a performance measurement index (PMI) to support the process has been developed and tested. Development of an iterative service development model using a supporting PMI. The PMI framework is developed throughout the engineering of a virtual assistant (AVATAR) as a modular interface to connect informal carers with necessary and useful services. Future research should seek to ensure that the PMI enables meaningful transparency regarding targeting (e.g. innovative AAL service), design (e.g. functional hybrid AAL service) and implementation (e.g. marketable AAL support services). To this end, a further reference to further testing practices is required. The aim must be to develop a weighted PMI in the context of further research, which supports both the service engineering and the subsequent service management process.

  11. Development of the Mathematical Model for Ingot Quality Forecasting with Consideration of Thermal and Physical Characteristics of Mould Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, K. N.; Loginov, A. M.; Gusev, M. P.; Zarubin, S. V.; Nikonov, S. V.; Krasnov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the results of physical modelling of the mould powder skull in the gap between an ingot and the mould. Based on the results obtained from this and previous works, the mathematical model of mould powder behaviour in the gap and its influence on formation of surface defects was developed. The results of modelling satisfactorily conform to the industrial data on ingot surface defects.

  12. Investigation on the Practicality of Developing Reduced Thermal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, Giancarlo; Yang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the spacecraft design and development process, detailed instrument thermal models are created to simulate their on-orbit behavior and to ensure that they do not exceed any thermal limits. These detailed models, while generating highly accurate predictions, can sometimes lead to long simulation run times, especially when integrated with a spacecraft observatory model. Therefore, reduced models containing less detail are typically produced in tandem with the detailed models so that results may be more readily available, albeit less accurate. In the current study, both reduced and detailed instrument models are integrated with their associated spacecraft bus models to examine the impact of instrument model reduction on run time and accuracy. Preexisting instrument bus thermal model pairs from several projects were used to determine trends between detailed and reduced thermal models; namely, the Mirror Optical Bench (MOB) on the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) spacecraft, Advanced Topography Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2), and the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). Hot and cold cases were run for each model to capture the behavior of the models at both thermal extremes. It was found that, though decreasing the number of nodes from a detailed to reduced model brought about a reduction in the run-time, a large time savings was not observed, nor was it a linear relationship between the percentage of nodes reduced and time saved. However, significant losses in accuracy were observed with greater model reduction. It was found that while reduced models are useful in decreasing run time, there exists a threshold of reduction where, once exceeded, the loss in accuracy outweighs the benefit from reduced model runtime.

  13. Hydraulic modeling development and application in water resources engineering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, Francisco J.; Yang, Chih Ted; Wang, Lawrence K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modeling has become widespread in water resources engineering and science to study rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions. For example, computer models are commonly used to forecast anthropogenic effects on the environment, and to help provide advanced mitigation measures against catastrophic events such as natural and dam-break floods. Linking hydraulic models to vegetation and habitat models has expanded their use in multidisciplinary applications to the riparian corridor. Implementation of these models in software packages on personal desktop computers has made them accessible to the general engineering community, and their use has been popularized by the need of minimal training due to intuitive graphical user interface front ends. Models are, however, complex and nontrivial, to the extent that even common terminology is sometimes ambiguous and often applied incorrectly. In fact, many efforts are currently under way in order to standardize terminology and offer guidelines for good practice, but none has yet reached unanimous acceptance. This chapter provides a view of the elements involved in modeling surface flows for the application in environmental water resources engineering. It presents the concepts and steps necessary for rational model development and use by starting with the exploration of the ideas involved in defining a model. Tangible form of those ideas is provided by the development of a mathematical and corresponding numerical hydraulic model, which is given with a substantial amount of detail. The issues of model deployment in a practical and productive work environment are also addressed. The chapter ends by presenting a few model applications highlighting the need for good quality control in model validation.

  14. The practical use of simplicity in developing ground water models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The advantages of starting with simple models and building complexity slowly can be significant in the development of ground water models. In many circumstances, simpler models are characterized by fewer defined parameters and shorter execution times. In this work, the number of parameters is used as the primary measure of simplicity and complexity; the advantages of shorter execution times also are considered. The ideas are presented in the context of constructing ground water models but are applicable to many fields. Simplicity first is put in perspective as part of the entire modeling process using 14 guidelines for effective model calibration. It is noted that neither very simple nor very complex models generally produce the most accurate predictions and that determining the appropriate level of complexity is an ill-defined process. It is suggested that a thorough evaluation of observation errors is essential to model development. Finally, specific ways are discussed to design useful ground water models that have fewer parameters and shorter execution times.

  15. Development of PBPK Models for Gasoline in Adult and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Concern for potential developmental effects of exposure to gasoline-ethanol blends has grown along with their increased use in the US fuel supply. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for these complex mixtures were developed to address dosimetric issues related to selection of exposure concentrations for in vivo toxicity studies. Sub-models for individual hydrocarbon (HC) constituents were first developed and calibrated with published literature or QSAR-derived data where available. Successfully calibrated sub-models for individual HCs were combined, assuming competitive metabolic inhibition in the liver, and a priori simulations of mixture interactions were performed. Blood HC concentration data were collected from exposed adult non-pregnant (NP) rats (9K ppm total HC vapor, 6h/day) to evaluate performance of the NP mixture model. This model was then converted to a pregnant (PG) rat mixture model using gestational growth equations that enabled a priori estimation of life-stage specific kinetic differences. To address the impact of changing relevant physiological parameters from NP to PG, the PG mixture model was first calibrated against the NP data. The PG mixture model was then evaluated against data from PG rats that were subsequently exposed (9K ppm/6.33h gestation days (GD) 9-20). Overall, the mixture models adequately simulated concentrations of HCs in blood from single (NP) or repeated (PG) exposures (within ~2-3 fold of measured values of

  16. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion and Excursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) event data was conducted to ascertain the relevance of this data to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to several of the AvSP top ten TC and identified numerous primary causes and contributing factors of RI events. The statistical analysis served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events, also previously reported. Through literature searches and data analysis, this RI event network has now been extended to also model runway excursion (RE) events. These RI and RE event networks have been further modified and vetted by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel. The combined system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI and RE events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of runway safety incidents/accidents, and to improve runway safety in general. The development and structure of the BBN for both RI and RE events are documented in this paper.

  17. Challenges in Developing Models Describing Complex Soil Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunek, J.; Jacques, D.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative mechanistic models that consider basic physical, mechanical, chemical, and biological processes have the potential to be powerful tools to integrate our understanding of complex soil systems, and the soil science community has often called for models that would include a large number of these diverse processes. However, once attempts have been made to develop such models, the response from the community has not always been overwhelming, especially after it discovered that these models are consequently highly complex, requiring not only a large number of parameters, not all of which can be easily (or at all) measured and/or identified, and which are often associated with large uncertainties, but also requiring from their users deep knowledge of all/most of these implemented physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes. Real, or perceived, complexity of these models then discourages users from using them even for relatively simple applications, for which they would be perfectly adequate. Due to the nonlinear nature and chemical/biological complexity of the soil systems, it is also virtually impossible to verify these types of models analytically, raising doubts about their applicability. Code inter-comparisons, which is then likely the most suitable method to assess code capabilities and model performance, requires existence of multiple models of similar/overlapping capabilities, which may not always exist. It is thus a challenge not only to developed models describing complex soil systems, but also to persuade the soil science community in using them. As a result, complex quantitative mechanistic models are still an underutilized tool in soil science research. We will demonstrate some of the challenges discussed above on our own efforts in developing quantitative mechanistic models (such as HP1/2) for complex soil systems.

  18. The development of the Professional Values Model in Nursing.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ayla; Boz, İlkay

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important criteria for professionalism is accumulation of knowledge that is usable in professional practice. Nursing models and theories are important elements of accumulating nursing knowledge and have a chance to guarantee the ethical professional practice. In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of models in nursing research and newly created terminology has started to be used in nursing. In this study, a new model, termed as the Professional Values Model, developed by the authors was described. Concepts comprising the conceptual framework of the model and relations between the concepts were explained. It is assumed that awareness about concepts of the model will increase not only the patients' satisfaction with nursing care, but also the nurses' job satisfaction and quality of nursing care. Contemporary literature has been reviewed and synthesized to develop this theoretical paper on the Professional Values Model in nursing. Having high values in nursing increases job satisfaction, which results in the improvement of patient care and satisfaction. Also, individual characteristics are effective in the determination of individual needs, priorities, and values. This relation, proved through research about the Professional Values Model, has been explained. With development of these concepts, individuals' satisfaction with care and nurses' job satisfaction will be enhanced, which will increase the quality of nursing care. Most importantly, nurses can take proper decisions about ethical dilemmas and take ethical action when they take these values into consideration when giving care. The Professional Values Model seems suitable for nurse managers and it is expected that testing will improve it. Implementation of the Professional Values Model by nurse managers may increase motivation of nurses they work with. It is suggested that guidance by the Professional Values Model may help in enhancement of motivation efforts of the nurse managers

  19. The effects of previous hysterectomy on lupus.

    PubMed

    Namjou, B; Scofield, R H; Kelly, J A; Goodmon, E l; Aberle, T; Bruner, G R; Harley, J B

    2009-10-01

    Hysterectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in United States, and currently, one in three women in United States has had a hysterectomy by the age of 60 years. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common autoimmune disease and especially targets women of childbearing age at least 10 times higher than men, which reflects the major role of female sex hormones. In this retrospective study, we evaluate the potential effects of previous hysterectomy in our lupus cohort. Data collected from study subject questionnaires were obtained from the Lupus Family Registry and Repository (LFRR) at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation. Hysterectomy data were available from 3389 subjects. SLE patients with a positive history of hysterectomy have been selected and compared with matched lupus patients with a negative history of hysterectomy and healthy controls. Association analyses were performed, and the P values and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. SLE patients with a negative history of hysterectomy more likely had kidney nephritis or positive anti-dsDNA than age-matched SLE patients with a history of hysterectomy before disease onset. This effect was independent of ethnicity with an OR of 6.66 (95% CI = 3.09-14.38, P = 1.00 x 10(-8)) in European patients and 2.74 (95% CI = 1.43-5.25, P = 0.001) in African-Americans. SLE patients with a positive history of hysterectomy before disease onset also had a later age of disease onset (P = 0.0001) after adjustment for age and race. Our findings support the notion that the influence of female sex hormones in SLE and various clinical findings are tremendous and that surgical menopause such as this could significantly affect the outcome of disease and clinical manifestations.

  20. Recent Developments of the Florida Public Hurricane Loss Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocke, S.; Shin, D. W.; Annane, B.

    2016-12-01

    Catastrophe models are used extensively by the insurance industry to estimate losses due to natural hazards such as hurricanes and earthquakes. In the state of Florida, primary insurers for hurricane damage to residential properties are required by law to use certified catastrophe models to establish their premiums and capital reserves. The Florida Public Hurricane Loss Model (FPHLM) is one of only five certified catastrophe models in Florida, and the only non-commercial model certified. The FPHLM has been funded through the Florida Legislature and is overseen by the Florida Office of Insurance Regulation (OIR). The model was developed by a consortium of universities and private consultants primary located in Florida, but includes some partners outside of the state. The FPHLM has met Florida requirements since 2006 and has undergone continuous evolution to maintain state-of-the-art capabilities and changes in state requirements established by the Florida Commission on Hurricane Loss Projection Methodology. Recently the model has been undergoing major enhancement to incorporate damage due to flooding, which not only includes hurricane floods but floods due to all potential natural hazards. This work is being done in anticipation of future changes in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) that will bring private insurers to the flood market. The model will incorporate a surge model as well as an inland flood model. We will present progress on these recent enhancements along with additional progress of the model.