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Sample records for model theoretical aspects

  1. Theoretical aspects of hybrid chiral bag models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, P. J.

    1984-09-01

    In hybrid chiral bag models (HCBM's) the quarks are the source for the pion field outside the bag. If we want to solve this model with a classical external soliton solution and quantized fermions, it is necessary to evaluate the vacuum expectation values (VEV's) of those operators that contain fermion fields and appear in the boundary conditions. When the external solution is the so-called hedgehog solution, π-->(r-->,t)=fπθ(r)r^, the relevant VEV is i16π<0 | d2s[ψ―,(τ-->.r^)γ5exp(iτ-->.r^γ5θ)ψ] | 0>=2θ16πη+C0(θ)R, where η is a cutoff parameter (η-->0). To obtain this result we have used a multiple-reflection expansion of the Green's function, while C0(θ) is evaluated numerically. We discuss the infinite contribution in the above VEV, and show that 4πC0(θ)R is precisely the derivative of the Casimir energy with respect to θ. We also discuss some solutions of the HCBM for bag radii varying from 0 to ∞.

  2. Theoretical Aspects of Dromedaryfoil.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    Seginer were taken on a Yoshihara "A" supercritical airfoil. Steinle and Gross used a 64A010 airfoil. All the data points lie within the theoretical...experimental data that for the same airfoil, either 64A410 or 64A010 , the higher the angle of attack, the sooner the limiting pressure is reached. The...shock 13 Stivers, L.S., Jr., "Effects of Subsonic Mach Numbers on the Forces and Pressure Distributions on Four NACA 64A-Series Airfoil Sections at

  3. Space Service Market (Theoretical Aspect)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V. F.; Prisniakova, L. M.

    The authors propose a mathematical model of the demand and supply in the market economics and in the market of space services, in particular. A theoretical demand formula and a real curve demand are compared. The market equilibrium price is defined. The space market dynamics is studied. The calculations are carried out for the parameters which are close to the market of space services.

  4. Bergström-Boyce model for nonlinear finite rubber viscoelasticity: theoretical aspects and algorithmic treatment for the FE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal, Hüsnü; Kaliske, Michael

    2009-11-01

    One of the successful approaches to model the time-dependent behaviour of elastomers is proposed by Bergström and Boyce (JMPS 46:931-954, 1998). The model is micromechanically inspired from the relaxation of a single entangled chain in a polymer gel matrix. Although the theory of inelasticity based on multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient is well established, the complexity of the nonlinear evolution law as well as the nonlinear equilibrium and non-equilibrium material response necessitates a precise description of the algorithmic setting. This contribution presents for the first time a novel numerical implementation of the Bergström-Boyce model in the context of finite element analysis and elaborates theoretical aspects of the model. The thermodynamical consistency of the evolution law is proven and a parameter study with respect to the material parameters has been carried out. The agreement of the model with the recent experimental data is investigated.

  5. Theoretical aspects of pollutant stress.

    PubMed

    Ballach, H J

    1998-01-01

    Symptoms of tree damage observed in Europe and overseas are often described as premature senescence. However, our own experiments with fumigated poplars have shown that the term premature senescence is misleading if undue emphasis is placed on features common to both normal and premature senescence. Consequently, the term should be replaced by a concrete description of the stress symptom noted, e.g. premature leaf loss or premature starch degradation. Such stress symptoms are usually unspecific - just like the mechanisms of stress avoidance or stress tolerance themselves. A stress model taking account of ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects is presented; it is shown that the different stress phases are influenced by various factors, e.g. the photosynthetic capacity of the leaves. The stress reactions displayed by fumigated poplars serve as illustrations for this model. Different species of the genus Populus can be classified as more or less pure C-strategists. It is postulated that this group of plants, in particular, is disturbed by various stress parameters, such as air pollutants, if shoot growth or metabolite transport is impaired.

  6. Theoretical aspects of heterogeneous catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Santen, R. A.

    Quantum chemical aspects of chemical bonding to metal surfaces are discussed. It is demonstrated that a Frontier Orbital Theory of chemisorption can be developed in which the group orbital local density of states at the Fermi level replaces the HOMO and LUMO interactions familiar in organic or organo-metallic chemistry. This appears to be a useful tool to describe elementary reactions at metal surfaces. Dissociation of the H2 molecule and hydrogen atom recombination is analysed in detail. Symmetry considerations can be applied. It is shown that the interaction with antisymmetric group orbitais lowers the activation energies. Such orbitais are also available at s-valence electron metal surfaces as long as the molecule interacts in bridging coordination sites. One finds that the interaction with metal d-valence electrons stabilizes coordination in the atop position. The relative contribution to bonding of metal s and d-valence electrons differs significantly for the transition metals. It is not only a function of metal-electron occupation, number, but also of the row in the periodic system in which the metal is placed. This information is used to explain the different hydrogenolysis behaviour of Ni and Pt.

  7. Theoretical aspects of calcium signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pencea, Corneliu Stefan

    2001-08-01

    Experiments investigating intracellular calcium dynamics have revealed that calcium signals differentially affect a variety of intracellular processes, from fertilization and cell development and differentiation to subsequent cellular activity, ending with cell death. As an intracellular messenger, calcium transmits information within and between cells, thus regulating their activity. To control such a variety of processes, calcium signals have to be very flexible and also precisely regulated. The cell uses a calcium signaling ``toolkit'', where calcium ions can act in different contexts of space, amplitude and time. For different tasks, the cell selects the particular signal, or combination of signals, that triggers the appropriate physiological response. The physical foundations of such a versatile cellular signaling toolkit involving calcium are not completely understood, despite important experimental and theoretical progress made recently. The declared goal of this work is to investigate physical mechanisms on which the propagation of differential signals can be based. The dynamics of calcium near a cluster of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) activated calcium channels has been investigated analytically and numerically. Our work has demonstrated that clusters of different IP3 receptors can show similar bistable behavior, but differ in both the transient and long term dynamics. We have also investigated the conditions under which a calcium signal propagates between a pair of localized stores. We have shown that the propagation of the signal across a random distribution of such stores shows a percolation transition manifested in the shape of the wave front. More importantly, our work indicates that specific distribution of stores can be interpreted as calcium circuits that can perform important signal analyzing task, from unidirectional propagation and coincidence detection to a complete set of logic gates. We believe that phenomena like the ones described are

  8. Theoretical aspects of the agile mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace M.; Fernsler, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A planar plasma mirror which can be oriented electronically could have the capability of providing electronic steering of a microwave beam in a radar or electronic warfare system. This system is denoted the agile mirror. A recent experiment has demonstrated such a planar plasma and the associated microwave reflection. This plasma was produced by a hollow cathode glow discharge, where the hollow cathode was a grooved metallic trench in a Lucite plate. Various theoretical aspects of this configuration of an agile mirror are examined here.

  9. Theoretical aspects and modelling of cellular decision making, cell killing and information-processing in photodynamic therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this report is to provide a mathematical model of the mechanism for making binary fate decisions about cell death or survival, during and after Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) treatment, and to supply the logical design for this decision mechanism as an application of rate distortion theory to the biochemical processing of information by the physical system of a cell. Methods Based on system biology models of the molecular interactions involved in the PDT processes previously established, and regarding a cellular decision-making system as a noisy communication channel, we use rate distortion theory to design a time dependent Blahut-Arimoto algorithm where the input is a stimulus vector composed of the time dependent concentrations of three PDT related cell death signaling molecules and the output is a cell fate decision. The molecular concentrations are determined by a group of rate equations. The basic steps are: initialize the probability of the cell fate decision, compute the conditional probability distribution that minimizes the mutual information between input and output, compute the cell probability of cell fate decision that minimizes the mutual information and repeat the last two steps until the probabilities converge. Advance to the next discrete time point and repeat the process. Results Based on the model from communication theory described in this work, and assuming that the activation of the death signal processing occurs when any of the molecular stimulants increases higher than a predefined threshold (50% of the maximum concentrations), for 1800s of treatment, the cell undergoes necrosis within the first 30 minutes with probability range 90.0%-99.99% and in the case of repair/survival, it goes through apoptosis within 3-4 hours with probability range 90.00%-99.00%. Although, there is no experimental validation of the model at this moment, it reproduces some patterns of survival ratios of predicted experimental data. Conclusions

  10. Acting Out; Theoretical and Clinical Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt, Lawrence Edwin, Ed.; Weissman, Stuart L.

    The beneficial and harmful effects of acting out are studied in a series of short essays by numerous authors. Included are four articles on the theoretical and dynamic considerations of acting out, along with five clinical manifestations of acting out involving suicide and criminality in adolescents and adults. Special forms of harmful acting out…

  11. Theoretical aspects of WS₂ nanotube chemical unzipping.

    PubMed

    Kvashnin, D G; Antipina, L Yu; Sorokin, P B; Tenne, R; Golberg, D

    2014-07-21

    Theoretical analysis of experimental data on unzipping multilayered WS₂ nanotubes by consequent intercalation of lithium atoms and 1-octanethiol molecules [C. Nethravathi, et al., ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 7311] is presented. The radial expansion of the tube was described using continuum thin-walled cylinder approximation with parameters evaluated from ab initio calculations. Assuming that the attractive driving force of the 1-octanethiol molecule is its reaction with the intercalated Li ions ab initio calculations of a 1-octanethiol molecule bonding with Li(+) were carried out. In addition, the non-chemical interactions of the 1-octanethiol dipole with an array of positive point charges representing Li(+) were taken into account. Comparing between the energy gain from these interactions and the elastic strain energy of the nanotube allows us to evaluate a value for the tube wall deformation after the implantation of 1-octanethiol molecules. The ab initio molecular dynamics simulation confirmed our estimates and demonstrated that a strained WS₂ nanotube, with a decent concentration of 1-octanethiol molecules, should indeed be unzipped into the WS₂ nanoribbon.

  12. Brain stimulation using electromagnetic sources: theoretical aspects.

    PubMed

    Heller, L; van Hulsteyn, D B

    1992-07-01

    We prove that, at the frequencies generally proposed for extracranial stimulation of the brain, it is not possible, using any superposition of external current sources, to produce a three-dimensional local maximum of the electric field strength inside the brain. The maximum always occurs on a boundary where the conductivity jumps in value. Nevertheless, it may be possible to achieve greater two-dimensional focusing and shaping of the electric field than is currently available. Towards this goal we have used the reciprocity theorem to present a uniform treatment of the electric field inside a conducting medium produced by a variety of sources: an external magnetic dipole (current loop), an external electric dipole (linear antenna), and surface and depth electrodes. This formulation makes use of the lead fields from magneto- and electroencephalography. For the special case of a system with spherically symmetric conductivity, we derive a simple analytic formula for the electric field due to an external magnetic dipole. This formula is independent of the conductivity profile and therefore embraces spherical models with any number of shells. This explains the "insensitivity" to the skull's conductivity that has been described in numerical studies. We also present analytic formulas for the electric field due to an electric dipole, and also surface and depth electrodes, for the case of a sphere of constant conductivity.

  13. Subduction modelling with ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cédric; Spakman, Wim; Quinquis, Matthieu; Buiter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We make use of the promising features of ASPECT, especially Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), for modelling lithosphere subduction in 2D and 3D geometries. The AMR allows for mesh refinement where needed and mesh coarsening in regions less important to the parameters under investigation. In the context of subduction, this amounts to having very small grid cells at material interfaces and larger cells in more uniform mantle regions. As lithosphere subduction modelling is not standard to ASPECT, we explore the necessary adaptive grid refinement and test ASPECT with widely accepted benchmarks. We showcase examples of mechanical and thermo-mechanical oceanic subduction in which we vary the number of materials making up the overriding and subducting plates as well as the rheology (from linear viscous to more complicated rheologies). Both 2D and 3D geometries are used, as ASPECT easily extends to three dimensions (Kronbichler et al. 2012). Based on these models, we discuss the advection of compositional fields coupled to material properties and the ability of AMR to trace the slab's path through the mantle. Kronbichler, M., T. Heister and W. Bangerth (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29.

  14. Chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1987-02-01

    Two-dimensional classical chiral models of field theory are considered, the main attention being paid on geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of these models is that the interaction is inserted not by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the manifold. These models are in many respects analogous to non-Abelian gauge theories and as became clear recently, they are also important for the superstring theory which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  15. Preventive chemotherapy in human helminthiasis: theoretical and operational aspects.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, A-F; Montresor, A; Chitsulo, L; Engels, D; Savioli, L

    2011-12-01

    Preventive chemotherapy (PC), the large-scale distribution of anthelminthic drugs to population groups at risk, is the core intervention recommended by the WHO for reducing morbidity and transmission of the four main helminth infections, namely lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. The strategy is widely implemented worldwide but its general theoretical foundations have not been described so far in a comprehensive and cohesive manner. Starting from the information available on the biological and epidemiological characteristics of helminth infections, as well as from the experience generated by disease control and elimination interventions across the world, we extrapolate the fundamentals and synthesise the principles that regulate PC and justify its implementation as a sound and essential public health intervention. The outline of the theoretical aspects of PC contributes to a thorough understanding of the different facets of this strategy and helps comprehend opportunities and limits of control and elimination interventions directed against helminth infections.

  16. Current status of single-molecule spectroscopy: Theoretical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, YounJoon; Barkai, Eli; Silbey, Robert J.

    2002-12-01

    We survey the current status of single-molecule spectroscopy in the view point of theoretical aspects. After an explanation of basic concepts in single-molecule spectroscopy, we focus on the following topics: (1) line shape phenomena in disordered media, (2) photon counting statistics for time-dependent fluctuations in single-molecule spectroscopy, (3) fluorescence intensity fluctuations for nonergodic systems, (4) time-resolved single-molecule fluorescence for conformational dynamics of single biomolecules, (5) single-molecule reaction dynamics at room temperature, and (6) quantum jump method of single quantum system. We conclude this paper with some open questions and perspectives of single-molecule spectroscopy.

  17. Production of Electroweak Bosons at Hadron Colliders: Theoretical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangano, Michelangelo L.

    2016-10-01

    Since the W± and Z0 discovery, hadron colliders have provided a fertile ground, in which continuously improving measurements and theoretical predictions allow to precisely determine the gauge boson properties, and to probe the dynamics of electroweak and strong interactions. This article will review, from a theoretical perspective, the role played by the study, at hadron colliders, of electroweak boson production properties, from the better understanding of the proton structure, to the discovery and studies of the top quark and of the Higgs, to the searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model.

  18. Some theoretical aspects of quantum mechanical equations in Rindler space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Soma; Chakrabarty, Somenath

    2017-03-01

    In this article we have investigated theoretical aspects of the solutions of some of the quantum mechanical problems in Rindler space. We have developed formalisms for the exact analytical solutions for the relativistic equations, along with the approximate form of solutions for the Schrödinger equation. The Hamiltonian operator in Rindler space is found to be non-Hermitian in nature, whereas the energy eigen values are observed to be real in nature. We have noticed that the sole reason behind such real behavior is the PT -symmetric form of the Hamiltonian operator. We have also observed that the energy eigen values are negative, lineraly quantized and the quantum mechanical system becomes more and more bound with the increase in the strength of gravitational field strength produced by the strongly gravitating objects, e.g., black holes, which is classical in nature.

  19. Supersymmetric chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1989-03-01

    We consider classical supersymmetric chiral models of field theory and focus our attention on the geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of such models is that the interaction is not introduced by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the target manifold. In many aspects these models are analogous to gauge theories and, as became clear recently, they are also important for superstring theory, which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  20. Theoretical models for supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1981-09-21

    The results of recent numerical simulations of supernova explosions are presented and a variety of topics discussed. Particular emphasis is given to (i) the nucleosynthesis expected from intermediate mass (10sub solar less than or equal to M less than or equal to 100 Msub solar) Type II supernovae and detonating white dwarf models for Type I supernovae, (ii) a realistic estimate of the ..gamma..-line fluxes expected from this nucleosynthesis, (iii) the continued evolution, in one and two dimensions, of intermediate mass stars wherein iron core collapse does not lead to a strong, mass-ejecting shock wave, and (iv) the evolution and explosion of vary massive stars (M greater than or equal to 100 Msub solar of both Population I and III. In one dimension, nuclear burning following a failed core bounce does not appear likely to lead to a supernova explosion although, in two dimensions, a combination of rotation and nuclear burning may do so. Near solar proportions of elements from neon to calcium and very brilliant optical displays may be created by hypernovae, the explosions of stars in the mass range 100 M/sub solar/ to 300 M/sub solar/. Above approx. 300 M/sub solar/ a black hole is created by stellar collapse following carbon ignition. Still more massive stars may be copious producers of /sup 4/He and /sup 14/N prior to their collapse on the pair instability.

  1. Observations of the 18.6-year cycle of air pressure and a theoretical model to explain certain aspects of this signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, D. P.; Currie, R. G.

    1993-07-01

    Evidence from barometric data in Japan, USSR, southern Europe, southern Africa, and South America shows that air pressure variations with period near 18.6-years can attain amplitudes as high as 0.9 mb, and are identified as induced by the luni-solar constituent tide M n (M for moon and n for nodal). Luni-solar waveforms commonly exhibit modulation effects due to the superposition of a longer period component with 180° changes in phase. Thus, the waveform amplitudes can be highly nonstationary. Pressure gradients at this period over subcontinental distances show that the amplitudes imply nonequilibrium conditions. A theoretical coupling mechanism between E-W and N-S wind systems and the Coriolis force is envoked to explain the sub-continental extent and the, sometimes abrupt, amplitude changes of the pressure systems over small distances.

  2. [Theoretical aspects of rehabilitation and occupational health of pilots].

    PubMed

    Vartbaronov, R A; Koliagin, V Ia; Karlov, V N; Krylov, Iu V; Chernov, O E

    1995-01-01

    Some theoretical aspects of the rehabilitation problem and its interaction with the problem of professional health of pilot have been discussed in this paper. The authors have proposed methodologic approaches to the essence of medical and professional rehabilitation; classification of the main directions and types of rehabilitation, the principles of its application in flying practice as well as the question about economic advisability have been studied. As the main lines of medical rehabilitation there suggests the nosologic, psychologic and physiologic, professional (singly) rehabilitation with consideration of the labile and base components of professional health of pilot. As the base principle of rehabilitation there advances an etiopathogenic approach to the use of different means and methods of rehabilitation treatment and correction of a changed functional state. General requirements upon provision of multilevel, differential, individual, accessible and adequate rehabilitation are formulated. The method to calculate the economic effect of rehabilitation measures at the expense of savings in costs of pilot personnel by increasing the flight longevity and decreasing the number of flights necessary for maintaining the given level of combat effectiveness is proposed. The classifier of the main directions and types of rehabilitation is presented.

  3. Advances in multiscale theoretical analysis and imaging aspects of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shockro, Jennifer

    The work presented in this dissertation is focused on two aspects related to turbulent flow. The first of these is the one-dimensional theoretical analysis of the logarithmic spiral in terms of fractal dimension and spectrum. The second is on imaging methodologies and analysis of turbulent jet scalar interfaces in atmospheric conditions, with broad applicability to various studies where turbulence has a key role, such as urban contaminant dispersion or free space laser communications. The logarithmic spiral is of particular interest to studies of turbulence and natural phenomena as it appears frequently in nature with the "Golden Ratio" and is thought to play an important role in turbulent mixing. It is also an inherently anisotropic geometric structure and therefore provides information towards examining phenomena in which anisotropic properties might be expected to appear and is thought to be present as a structure within the fine scales of the turbulent hierarchy. In this work it is subjected to one-dimensional theoretical analysis, focusing on the development of a probability density function (pdf) for the spiral and the relation of the pdf to its fractal dimension. Results indicate that the logarithmic spiral does not have a constant fractal dimension and thus that it does not exhibit any form of self-similar statistical behavior, supporting previous theoretical suppositions about behavior at the fine scales within the turbulent hierarchy. A signal is developed from the pdf in order to evaluate its power spectrum. Results of this analysis provide information about the manner in which energy is carried at different scales of the spiral. To our knowledge, the logarithmic spiral in particular has not yet been examined in this fashion in literature. In order to further investigate this object, the multiscale minima meshless (M(3) ) method isextended and employed computationally to the two-dimensional logarithmic spiral as well as to experimental images of a

  4. Richard H. Bolt's work on theoretical aspects of room acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    From about 1940 to 1950 Dick Bolt undertook a number of studies of the transmission of sound in a room. These were mostly theoretical and appear to have had two sources of inspiration: the work of Wente at Bell Laboratories in the 1930s, and Philip Morse's work on the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of idealized rooms in the early 1940s. In 1944, the Reviews of Modern Physics published in its April issue a single paper-that of Dick Bolt and Phil Morse, titled ``Sound waves in rooms.'' This tour de force took the viewpoint that a deterministic calculation of the modes of an idealized room could reveal important features of the acoustics of less ideal spaces. The relations between wall impedance and modal damping for axial, tangential, and oblique modes and the construction of direct fields from modal expansions are worthy of special note. Perturbation analysis is used to couple idealized modes as a first attempt to deal with ``real'' rooms and the transition to ergodic behavior. This work then led Bolt to a number of studies of the irregularity of spacing of modal resonance frequencies, which had some influence, in turn, on models of modal distributions in Statistical Energy Analysis.

  5. INFRARED AND RAMAN VIBRATIONAL OPTICAL ACTIVITY: Theoretical and Experimental Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafie, Laurence A.

    1997-10-01

    Advances in the field of vibrational optical activity (VOA) are reviewed over the past decade. Topics are surveyed with an emphasis on the theoretical and instrumental progress in both vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA). Applications of VOA to stereochemical and biological problems are reviewed, with a bias toward new kinds of experiments made possible by theoretical and instrumental advances. In the field of VCD, the most notable advances have taken place in the quality and size of ab initio calculations of VOA intensities and in the quality of step-scan Fourier transform instrumentation. For ROA, the most dramatic progress has occurred in the areas of theoretical formulation and high-throughput instrumentation. Applications of VOA now include all major classes of biological and pharmaceutical molecules. VOA's importance as a diagnostic tool will likely grow as the control of molecular chirality increases in research and industrial areas.

  6. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  7. Theoretical Models of Generalized Quasispecies.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nathaniel; Atsmon-Raz, Yoav; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical modeling of quasispecies has progressed in several directions. In this chapter, we review the works of Emmanuel Tannenbaum, who, together with Eugene Shakhnovich at Harvard University and later with colleagues and students at Ben-Gurion University in Beersheva, implemented one of the more useful approaches, by progressively setting up various formulations for the quasispecies model and solving them analytically. Our review will focus on these papers that have explored new models, assumed the relevant mathematical approximations, and proceeded to analytically solve for the steady-state solutions and run stochastic simulations . When applicable, these models were related to real-life problems and situations, including changing environments, presence of chemical mutagens, evolution of cancer and tumor cells , mutations in Escherichia coli, stem cells , chromosomal instability (CIN), propagation of antibiotic drug resistance , dynamics of bacteria with plasmids , DNA proofreading mechanisms, and more.

  8. Theoretical aspects of product formation from the NCO + NO reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.C.; He, Y. ); Melius, C.F. )

    1993-09-09

    The reaction of NCO with NO, an important elementary process involved in the reduction of NO[sub x] by HNCO, has been studied theoretically using the BAC-MP4 technique in conjunction with RRKM calculations. The computed molecular structures and thermochemical data for various intermediates and transition states suggest that the reaction takes place primarily via the singlet, ground electronic state OCNNO molecule according to the following mechanism; (step a) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] N[sub 2]O + CO; (step b) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] c-OCNNO[minus] N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2]. The formation of N[sub 2]O + CO occurs by the fragmentation of the singlet OCNNO intermediate step (a), whereas the production of N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2] by cyclization-fragmentation occurs via step b. The tight transition states leading to the formation of these products, coupled with the loose entrance channel, give rise to the experimentally observed strong negative temperature dependence which can be quantitatively accounted for by the results of RRKM calculations based on the BAC-MP4 data. The experimentally measured product branching ratio for channels a and b could be accounted for theoretically by lowering the calculated energy barrier for step a by 3.6 kcal/mol, corresponding to about 15% of the barrier height. 22 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Gauge Theoretic Aspects of the Geometric Langlands Correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Chris

    In their revolutionary 2006 paper, Kapustin and Witten described a fascinating bridge between geometric representation theory and the quantum theory of supersymmetric gauge fields. They explained how, by performing a suitable topological twist, one can obtain categories of sheaves on moduli stacks of holomorphic and flat G-bundles as categories of boundary conditions in supersymmetric gauge theories, and why the physical phenomenon of S-duality should yield a conjectural equivalence of categories known as the geometric Langlands correspondence. In this thesis, I begin to make some of the structures introduced by Kapustin-Witten and other theoretical physicists mathematically rigorous, with the eventual aim of systematically using the huge amount of structure possessed by the panoply of supersymmetric gauge theories in the theoretical physics literature to draw new insights about geometric representation theory. The present work consists of two distinct approaches. Firstly I give a construction of a generalization of abelian gauge theories using the mathematical structure of a factorization algebra, and explain how S-duality for these theories can be described as a version of the Fourier transform. Then, I explain how to construct classical supersymmetric gauge theories using derived algebraic geometry, introduce an appropriate notion of twisting for such theories, and prove that the twists introduced by Kapustin and Witten yield the moduli stacks of interest for the geometric Langlands correspondence.

  10. Computational and theoretical aspects of biomolecular structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.E.; Berendzen, J.; Catasti, P., Chen, X.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report for a project that sought to evaluate and develop theoretical, and computational bases for designing, performing, and analyzing experimental studies in structural biology. Simulations of large biomolecular systems in solution, hydrophobic interactions, and quantum chemical calculations for large systems have been performed. We have developed a code that implements the Fast Multipole Algorithm (FMA) that scales linearly in the number of particles simulated in a large system. New methods have been developed for the analysis of multidimensional NMR data in order to obtain high resolution atomic structures. These methods have been applied to the study of DNA sequences in the human centromere, sequences linked to genetic diseases, and the dynamics and structure of myoglobin.

  11. Theoretical Transport Model for Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Elsayed Mohammad

    In the present thesis work a theoretical transport model is suggested to study the anomalous transport of plasma particles and energy across the axisymmetric equilibrium toroidal magnetic flux surfaces in tokamaks. The model suggests a linear combination of two transport mechanisms; drift waves, which dominate the transport in the core region, and resistive ballooning modes, which dominate the transport in the edge region. The resulting unified model has been used in a predictive transport code to simulate the plasma transport in different tokamak experiments operating in both the ohmic heating phase and the low confinement mode (L-mode). For ohmic plasma, the model was used to study the saturation of energy confinement time at high plasma density. The effect of the resistive ballooning mode as a possible cause of the saturation phenomena has been investigated together with the effect of the ion temperature gradient mode. For the low confinement mode plasmas, the study has emphasized on using the model to obtain a scaling law for the energy confinement time with the various plasma parameters compared to the scaling laws that are derived based on fitting the experimental data.

  12. Theoretical aspects of WS2 nanotube chemical unzipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvashnin, D. G.; Antipina, L. Yu.; Sorokin, P. B.; Tenne, R.; Golberg, D.

    2014-06-01

    Theoretical analysis of experimental data on unzipping multilayered WS2 nanotubes by consequent intercalation of lithium atoms and 1-octanethiol molecules [C. Nethravathi, et al., ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 7311] is presented. The radial expansion of the tube was described using continuum thin-walled cylinder approximation with parameters evaluated from ab initio calculations. Assuming that the attractive driving force of the 1-octanethiol molecule is its reaction with the intercalated Li ions ab initio calculations of a 1-octanethiol molecule bonding with Li+ were carried out. In addition, the non-chemical interactions of the 1-octanethiol dipole with an array of positive point charges representing Li+ were taken into account. Comparing between the energy gain from these interactions and the elastic strain energy of the nanotube allows us to evaluate a value for the tube wall deformation after the implantation of 1-octanethiol molecules. The ab initio molecular dynamics simulation confirmed our estimates and demonstrated that a strained WS2 nanotube, with a decent concentration of 1-octanethiol molecules, should indeed be unzipped into the WS2 nanoribbon.

  13. Interactions between adhesion and friction—I. Theoretical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganghoffer, J. F.; Schultz, J.

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between adhesion and friction are investigated, considering that there is a third thin layer separating the two sliding bodies, submitted to continuous damage; both solids are supposed linearly elastic, and the third body behaves as an elastoplastic damaged material. From a thermodynamic framework, three-dimensional coupled elasto-plastic damage evolution equations are derived. The gradient of the damage variable is introduced in the free energy of the intermediate layer, so that the model accounts for the intrinsic cohesion of the layer; nevertheless, it is assumed that the gradient is associated to a reversible behaviour. The three-dimensional friction model obtained is applicable to situations where the third body is either a polymeric or a metallic material. Using an asymptotic expansion method, a two-dimensional model of the third body is then derived; the limit solution of the asymptotic expansion is such that the displacement field varies linearly through the thickness of the layer—the stress field is constant—whereas the damage can vary. Assuming then that the damage is constant through the intermediate layer, a two-dimensional constitutive law for two bodies interacting through a thin third elastoplastic body is obtained, which accounts for adhesion effects. We lastly derive generalised friction laws including the effect of adhesion on friction, in which the friction coefficient is a function of a scalar adhesion variable.

  14. An Alternative Architecture for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Theoretical and Implementational Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelepithis, Petros A. M.; Goodfellow, Robin

    1992-01-01

    Highlights some theoretical aspects of an alternative architecture for intelligent tutoring systems, introduces a prototype research tool in the domain of workcell scheduling, and suggests future theoretical and implementational work. Topics discussed include the roles of the user as domain expert and learner and the representation of domain…

  15. The Origin of the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe: Theoretical and Statistical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Yeinzon

    2005-07-01

    We review some theoretical and statistical aspects of the origin of the large-scale structure in the Universe, in view of the two most widely known and accepted scenarios: the inflaton and the curvaton scenarios. Among the theoretical aspects, we point out the impossibility of having a low inflationary energy scale in the simplest curvaton model. A couple of modifications to the simplest setup are explored, corresponding to the implementation of a second (thermal) inflationary period whose end makes the curvaton field `heavy', triggering either its oscillations or immediate decay. Low scale inflation is then possible to attain with H_ast being as low as 1 TeV. Among the statistical aspects, we study the bispectrum B_zeta(k_1,k_2,k_3) of the primordial curvature perturbation zeta whose normalisation fnl gives information about the level of non-gaussianity in zeta. In connection with fnl, several conserved and/or gauge invariant quantities described as the second-order curvature perturbation have been given in the literature. We review each of these quantities showing how to interpret one in terms of the others, and analyze the respective expected fnl in both the inflaton and the curvaton scenarios as well as in other less known models for the generation of primordial perturbations and/or non-gaussianities. The delta N formalism turns out to be a powerful technique to compute fnl in multi-component slow-roll inflation, as the knowledge of the evolution of some family of unperturbed universes is the only requirement. We present for the first time this formalism and apply it to selected examples.

  16. Theoretical aspects of Magic Angle Spinning - Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.

    PubMed

    Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Vega, Shimon; Feintuch, Akiva

    2015-09-01

    Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) combined with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has been proven in recent years to be a very powerful method for increasing solid-state NMR signals. Since the advent of biradicals such as TOTAPOL to increase the nuclear polarization new classes of radicals, with larger molecular weight and/or different spin properties have been developed. These have led to unprecedented signal gain, with varying results for different experimental parameters, in particular the microwave irradiation strength, the static field, and the spinning frequency. Recently it has been demonstrated that sample spinning imposes DNP enhancement processes that differ from the active DNP mechanism in static samples as upon sample spinning the DNP enhancements are the results of energy level anticrossings occurring periodically during each rotor cycle. In this work we present experimental results with regards to the MAS frequency dependence of the DNP enhancement profiles of four nitroxide-based radicals at two different sets of temperature, 110 and 160K. In fact, different magnitudes of reduction in enhancement are observed with increasing spinning frequency. Our simulation code for calculating MAS-DNP powder enhancements of small model spin systems has been improved to extend our studies of the influence of the interaction and relaxation parameters on powder enhancements. To achieve a better understanding we simulated the spin dynamics of a single three-spin system {ea-eb-n} during its steady state rotor periods and used the Landau-Zener formula to characterize the influence of the different anti-crossings on the polarizations of the system and their necessary action for reaching steady state conditions together with spin relaxation processes. Based on these model calculations we demonstrate that the maximum steady state nuclear polarization cannot become larger than the maximum polarization difference between the two electrons during the steady state rotor cycle. This

  17. Reduction of melting temperature and enthalpy of drug crystals: theoretical aspects.

    PubMed

    Hasa, Dritan; Voinovich, Dario; Perissutti, Beatrice; Grassi, Gabriele; Fiorentino, Simona; Farra, Rossella; Abrami, Michela; Colombo, Italo; Grassi, Mario

    2013-09-27

    This review deals with the mathematical models describing the reduction of melting temperature and enthalpy of solids in the nano-size range. In particular, the attention focuses on the thermodynamic based models that are theoretically solid and can be suitably used in the case of organic drugs. Indeed, while much effort has been put in the past to study the melting of metal nano-crystals, little work has been done for organic drug nano-crystals. However, due to the high potential of drug nano-crystals (their solubility increases with size reduction), this theme has become more and more important in the pharmaceutical field. Accordingly, this review, after illustrating the physical frame of drug melting, focuses on the thermodynamic aspects required to describe the melting of spherical and not spherical nano-crystals. Finally, the reliability of some models is tested against the results coming from X-rays analysis in the case of two organic drugs (griseofulvin and nifedipine). This test proved models strength.

  18. Theoretical models for trace gas preconcentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihyun

    2013-11-01

    Muntz et al., in 2004 and 2011, had attempted to describe theoretical models about the shape of a main flow channel and the concentration ratio of trace gas for a Continuous Flow-Through Trace Gas Preconcentrator by concepts of net flux and mass flow rate respectively. The possibilities were suggested to obtain theoretical models for the preconcentrator even through they were not satisfied with experimental results, because the theoretical models were only considered for free molecular flow. In this study, new theoretical models based on net flux and mass flow rate have been applied for each regime; free molecular flow, transition flow, and hydrodynamic flow. There are comprehensive numerical models to describe entire regimes with the new theoretical models induced by mass flow rate, but the new theoretical models induced by net flux can be only obtained for the hydrodynamic flow. The numerical predictions were compared with existing experimental results of the prototype of the preconcentrator. The numerical predictions of hydrodynamic and transition flows by mass flow rate were close to the experimental results, but other cases were different to the experimental data. Nevertheless, the theoretical models can provide the possibility to develop the theory of preconcentrator.

  19. Aspects of skeletal muscle modelling.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marcelo; Herzog, Walter

    2003-01-01

    The modelling of skeletal muscle raises a number of philosophical questions, particularly in the realm of the relationship between different possible levels of representation and explanation. After a brief incursion into this area, a list of desiderata is proposed as a guiding principle for the construction of a viable model, including: comprehensiveness, soundness, experimental consistency, predictive ability and refinability. Each of these principles is illustrated by means of simple examples. The presence of internal constraints, such as incompressibility, may lead to counterintuitive results. A one-panel example is exploited to advocate the use of the principle of virtual work as the ideal tool to deal with these situations. The question of stability in the descending limb of the force-length relation is addressed and a purely mechanical analogue is suggested. New experimental results confirm the assumption that fibre stiffness is positive even in the descending limb. The indeterminacy of the force-sharing problem is traditionally resolved by optimizing a, presumably, physically meaningful target function. After presenting some new results in this area, based on a separation theorem, it is suggested that a more fundamental approach to the problem is the abandoning of optimization criteria in favour of an explicit implementation of activation criteria. PMID:14561335

  20. Theoretical Model of Granular Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, Eli

    1998-03-01

    Experimental studies show that the density of a vibrated granular material evolves from a low density initial state into a higher density final steady state. The relaxation towards the final state follows an anomalously slow inverse logarithmic law. As the density increases, a growing number of grains have to be rearranged to create voids large enough to accommodate a particle. The time for such rearrangements diverges exponentially thereby leading to the logarithmic relaxation. We propose an analytically tractable stochastic process in one dimension that models the excluded volume interaction between grains. In addition to the relaxation towards the steady state, this model predicts the experimentally observed Gaussian distributions and spectrums of the steady state density fluctuations. Work done in collaboration with J. B. Knight, E. R. Nowak, P. L. Krapivsky, H. M. Jaeger, and S. R. Nagel. 1. P. L. Krapivsky and E. Ben-Naim, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 6778 (1994). 2. J. B. Knight, C. G. Fandrich, C. N. Lau, H. M. Jaeger, and S. R. Nagel, Phys. Rev. E 51, 3957 (1995). 3. E. Ben-Naim, J. B. Knight, E. R. Nowak, H. M. Jaeger, and S. R. Nagel, Physica D, in press.

  1. Theoretical Modeling of Interstellar Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The chemistry of complex interstellar organic molecules will be described. Gas phase processes that may build large carbon-chain species in cold molecular clouds will be summarized. Catalytic reactions on grain surfaces can lead to a large variety of organic species, and models of molecule formation by atom additions to multiply-bonded molecules will be presented. The subsequent desorption of these mixed molecular ices can initiate a distinctive organic chemistry in hot molecular cores. The general ion-molecule pathways leading to even larger organics will be outlined. The predictions of this theory will be compared with observations to show how possible organic formation pathways in the interstellar medium may be constrained. In particular, the success of the theory in explaining trends in the known interstellar organics, in predicting recently-detected interstellar molecules, and, just as importantly, non-detections, will be discussed.

  2. Focus Article: Theoretical aspects of vapor/gas nucleation at structured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloni, Simone; Giacomello, Alberto; Casciola, Carlo Massimo

    2016-12-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation is the preferential means of formation of a new phase. Gas and vapor nucleation in fluids under confinement or at textured surfaces is central for many phenomena of technological relevance, such as bubble release, cavitation, and biological growth. Understanding and developing quantitative models for nucleation is the key to control how bubbles are formed and to exploit them in technological applications. An example is the in silico design of textured surfaces or particles with tailored nucleation properties. However, despite the fact that gas/vapor nucleation has been investigated for more than one century, many aspects still remain unclear and a quantitative theory is still lacking; this is especially true for heterogeneous systems with nanoscale corrugations, for which experiments are difficult. The objective of this focus article is analyzing the main results of the last 10-20 years in the field, selecting few representative works out of this impressive body of the literature, and highlighting the open theoretical questions. We start by introducing classical theories of nucleation in homogeneous and in simple heterogeneous systems and then discuss their extension to complex heterogeneous cases. Then we describe results from recent theories and computer simulations aimed at overcoming the limitations of the simpler theories by considering explicitly the diffuse nature of the interfaces, atomistic, kinetic, and inertial effects.

  3. Theoretical models of helicopter rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkings, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    For low speed rotors, it is shown that unsteady load models are only partially successful in predicting experimental levels. A theoretical model is presented which leads to the concept of unsteady thickness noise. This gives better agreement with test results. For high speed rotors, it is argued that present models are incomplete and that other mechanisms are at work. Some possibilities are briefly discussed.

  4. Linearization methods for optimizing the low thrust spacecraft trajectory: Theoretical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmerchuk, P. V.

    2016-12-01

    The theoretical aspects of the modified linearization method, which makes it possible to solve a wide class of nonlinear problems on optimizing low-thrust spacecraft trajectories (V. V. Efanov et al., 2009; V. V. Khartov et al., 2010) are examined. The main modifications of the linearization method are connected with its refinement for optimizing the main dynamic systems and design parameters of the spacecraft.

  5. Theoretical analysis of the electrical aspects of the basic electro-impulse problem in aircraft de-icing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. A.; Schrag, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of modeling the electrical system aspects of a coil and metal target configuration resembling a practical electro-impulse deicing (EIDI) installation, and a simple circuit for providing energy to the coil, was presented. The model was developed in sufficient theoretical detail to allow the generation of computer algorithms for the current in the coil, the magnetic induction on both surfaces of the target, the force between the coil and target, and the impulse delivered to the target. These algorithms were applied to a specific prototype EIDI test system for which the current, magnetic fields near the target surfaces, and impulse were previously measured.

  6. Laboratory Modeling of Aspects of Large Fires,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-30

    7 -7 g~L AD-A153 152 DNA-TR- 84-18 LABORATORY MODELING OF ASPECTS OF LARGE FIRES G.F. Carrier "URARY F.E. Fendell b DVSO R.D. Fleeter N. Got L.M...I1I TITLE (include Socurty Olassihicarion) LABORATORY MODELING OF ASPECTS OF LARGE FIRES 12. PERSONAL AUrHoR(S G.F. Carrier F.E. Fendell R.D. Fleeter N...Motorbuch Verlag.___ Caidin, M. (1960). A Torch to the Enemy: the Fire Raid on Tokyo. New York, NY: Ballantine. Carrier, G. F., Fendell , F. E., and

  7. An improved theoretical model of acoustic agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Song, L. ); Koopmann, G.H. . Center for Acoustics and Vibration); Hoffmann, T.L. )

    1994-04-01

    An improved theoretical model is developed to describe the acoustic agglomeration of particles entrained in a gas medium. The improvements to the present theories are twofold: first, wave scattering is included in the orthokinetic interaction of particles and second, hydrodynamic interaction, shown to be an important agglomeration mechanism for certain operation conditions, is incorporated into the model. The influence of orthokinetic and hydrodynamic interactions introduce associated convergent velocities that cause particles to approach each other and collide. The convergent velocities are related with an acoustic agglomeration frequency function (AAFF) through a semi-statistical method. This function is the key parameter for the theoretical simulation of acoustic agglomeration.

  8. Hybrid quantum teleportation: A theoretical model

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    Hybrid quantum teleportation – continuous-variable teleportation of qubits – is a promising approach for deterministically teleporting photonic qubits. We propose how to implement it with current technology. Our theoretical model shows that faithful qubit transfer can be achieved for this teleportation by choosing an optimal gain for the teleporter’s classical channel.

  9. Modelling sociocognitive aspects of students' learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koponen, I. T.; Kokkonen, T.; Nousiainen, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present a computational model of sociocognitive aspects of learning. The model takes into account a student's individual cognition and sociodynamics of learning. We describe cognitive aspects of learning as foraging for explanations in the epistemic landscape, the structure (set by instructional design) of which guides the cognitive development through success or failure in foraging. We describe sociodynamic aspects as an agent-based model, where agents (learners) compare and adjust their conceptions of their own proficiency (self-proficiency) and that of their peers (peer-proficiency) in using explanatory schemes of different levels. We apply the model here in a case involving a three-tiered system of explanatory schemes, which can serve as a generic description of some well-known cases studied in empirical research on learning. The cognitive dynamics lead to the formation of dynamically robust outcomes of learning, seen as a strong preference for a certain explanatory schemes. The effects of social learning, however, can account for half of one's success in adopting higher-level schemes and greater proficiency. The model also predicts a correlation of dynamically emergent interaction patterns between agents and the learning outcomes.

  10. Theoretical Modeling for Hepatic Microwave Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Punit

    2010-01-01

    Thermal tissue ablation is an interventional procedure increasingly being used for treatment of diverse medical conditions. Microwave ablation is emerging as an attractive modality for thermal therapy of large soft tissue targets in short periods of time, making it particularly suitable for ablation of hepatic and other tumors. Theoretical models of the ablation process are a powerful tool for predicting the temperature profile in tissue and resultant tissue damage created by ablation devices. These models play an important role in the design and optimization of devices for microwave tissue ablation. Furthermore, they are a useful tool for exploring and planning treatment delivery strategies. This review describes the status of theoretical models developed for microwave tissue ablation. It also reviews current challenges, research trends and progress towards development of accurate models for high temperature microwave tissue ablation. PMID:20309393

  11. Simple theoretical models for composite rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valisetty, R. R.; Rehfield, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of theoretical rotor blade structural models for designs based upon composite construction is discussed. Care was exercised to include a member of nonclassical effects that previous experience indicated would be potentially important to account for. A model, representative of the size of a main rotor blade, is analyzed in order to assess the importance of various influences. The findings of this model study suggest that for the slenderness and closed cell construction considered, the refinements are of little importance and a classical type theory is adequate. The potential of elastic tailoring is dramatically demonstrated, so the generality of arbitrary ply layup in the cell wall is needed to exploit this opportunity.

  12. Theoretical and experimental aspects of chaos control by time-delayed feedback.

    PubMed

    Just, Wolfram; Benner, Hartmut; Reibold, Ekkehard

    2003-03-01

    We review recent developments for the control of chaos by time-delayed feedback methods. While such methods are easily applied even in quite complex experimental context the theoretical analysis yields infinite-dimensional differential-difference systems which are hard to tackle. The essential ideas for a general theoretical approach are sketched and the results are compared to electronic circuits and to high power ferromagnetic resonance experiments. Our results show that the control performance can be understood on the basis of experimentally accessible quantities without resort to any model for the internal dynamics.

  13. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  14. Propagation studies using a theoretical ionosphere model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M.

    1973-01-01

    The mid-latitude ionospheric and neutral atmospheric models are coupled with an advanced three dimensional ray tracing program to see what success would be obtained in predicting the wave propagation conditions and to study to what extent the use of theoretical ionospheric models is practical. The Penn State MK 1 ionospheric model, the Mitra-Rowe D region model, and the Groves' neutral atmospheric model are used throughout this work to represent the real electron densities and collision frequencies. The Faraday rotation and differential Doppler velocities from satellites, the propagation modes for long distance high frequency propagation, the group delays for each mode, the ionospheric absorption, and the spatial loss are all predicted.

  15. Modeling generic aspects of ideal fibril formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Many different proteins self-aggregate into insoluble fibrils growing apically by reversible addition of elementary building blocks. But beyond this common principle, the modalities of fibril formation are very disparate, with various intermediate forms which can be reshuffled by minor modifications of physico-chemical conditions or amino-acid sequences. To bypass this complexity, the multifaceted phenomenon of fibril formation is reduced here to its most elementary principles defined for a linear prototype of fibril. Selected generic features, including nucleation, elongation, and conformational recruitment, are modeled using minimalist hypotheses and tools, by separating equilibrium from kinetic aspects and in vitro from in vivo conditions. These reductionist approaches allow to bring out known and new rudiments, including the kinetic and equilibrium effects of nucleation, the dual influence of elongation on nucleation, the kinetic limitations on nucleation and fibril numbers, and the accumulation of complexes in vivo by rescue from degradation. Overlooked aspects of these processes are also pointed: the exponential distribution of fibril lengths can be recovered using various models because it is attributable to randomness only. It is also suggested that the same term "critical concentration" is used for different things, involved in either nucleation or elongation.

  16. Modeling generic aspects of ideal fibril formation

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, D.

    2016-01-21

    Many different proteins self-aggregate into insoluble fibrils growing apically by reversible addition of elementary building blocks. But beyond this common principle, the modalities of fibril formation are very disparate, with various intermediate forms which can be reshuffled by minor modifications of physico-chemical conditions or amino-acid sequences. To bypass this complexity, the multifaceted phenomenon of fibril formation is reduced here to its most elementary principles defined for a linear prototype of fibril. Selected generic features, including nucleation, elongation, and conformational recruitment, are modeled using minimalist hypotheses and tools, by separating equilibrium from kinetic aspects and in vitro from in vivo conditions. These reductionist approaches allow to bring out known and new rudiments, including the kinetic and equilibrium effects of nucleation, the dual influence of elongation on nucleation, the kinetic limitations on nucleation and fibril numbers, and the accumulation of complexes in vivo by rescue from degradation. Overlooked aspects of these processes are also pointed: the exponential distribution of fibril lengths can be recovered using various models because it is attributable to randomness only. It is also suggested that the same term “critical concentration” is used for different things, involved in either nucleation or elongation.

  17. A Theoretical Model of Water and Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Q.; Konar, M.; Reimer, J.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Lin, X.; Zeng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Water is an essential factor of agricultural production. Agriculture, in turn, is globalized through the trade of food commodities. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model of a small open economy that explicitly incorporates water resources. The model emphasizes three tradeoffs involving water decision-making that are important yet not always considered within the existing literature. One tradeoff focuses on competition for water among different sectors when there is a shock to one of the sectors only, such as trade liberalization and consequent higher demand for the product. A second tradeoff concerns the possibility that there may or may not be substitutes for water, such as increased use of sophisticated irrigation technology as a means to increase crop output in the absence of higher water availability. A third tradeoff explores the possibility that the rest of the world can be a source of supply or demand for a country's water-using products. A number of propositions are proven. For example, while trade liberalization tends to increase water use, increased pressure on water supplies can be moderated by way of a tax that is derivable with observable economic phenomena. Another example is that increased riskiness of water availability tends to cause water users to use less water than would be the case under profit maximization. These theoretical model results generate hypotheses that can be tested empirically in future work.

  18. Approaching nanoscale oxides: models and theoretical methods.

    PubMed

    Bromley, Stefan T; Moreira, Ibério de P R; Neyman, Konstantin M; Illas, Francesc

    2009-09-01

    This tutorial review deals with the rapidly developing area of modelling oxide materials at the nanoscale. Top-down and bottom-up modelling approaches and currently used theoretical methods are discussed with the help of a selection of case studies. We show that the critical oxide nanoparticle size required to be beyond the scale where every atom counts to where structural and chemical properties are essentially bulk-like (the scalable regime) strongly depends on the structural and chemical parameters of the material under consideration. This oxide-dependent behaviour with respect to size has fundamental implications with respect to their modelling. Strongly ionic materials such as MgO and CeO(2), for example, start to exhibit scalable-to-bulk crystallite-like characteristics for nanoparticles consisting of about 100 ions. For such systems there exists an overlap in nanoparticle size where both top-down and bottom-up theoretical techniques can be applied and the main problem is the choice of the most suitable computational method. However, for more covalent systems such TiO(2) or SiO(2) the onset of the scalable regime is still unclear and for intermediate sized nanoparticles there exists a gap where neither bottom-up nor top-down modelling are fully adequate. In such difficult cases new efforts to design adequate models are required. Further exacerbating these fundamental methodological concerns are oxide nanosystems exhibiting complex electronic and magnetic behaviour. Due to the need for a simultaneous accurate treatment of the atomistic, electronic and spin degrees of freedom for such systems, the top-down vs. bottom-up separation is still large, and only few studies currently exist.

  19. Theoretical model for FCGR near the threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanteigne, Jacques; Baïlon, Jean-Paul

    1981-03-01

    A theoretical model for fatigue crack growth rate at low and near threshold stress intensity factor is developed. The crack tip is assumed to be a semicircular notch of radius ρ and incremental crack growth occurs along a distance 4ρ ahead of the crack tip. After analysis of the stress and strain distribution ahead of the crack tip, a relationship between the strain range and the stress intensity range is proposed. It is then assumed that Manson-Coffin cumulative rule can be applied to a region of length 4ρ from the crack tip, where strain reversal occurs. Finally, a theoretical equation giving the fatigue crack growth rate is obtained and applied to several materials (316L stainless steel, 300M alloy steel, 70-30 α brass, 2618A and 7025 aluminum alloys). It is found that the model can be used to correlate fatigue crack growth rates with the mechanical properties of the materials, and to determine the threshold stress intensity factor, once the crack tip radius α is obtained from the previous data.

  20. A theoretical model of water and trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Qian; Konar, Megan; Reimer, Jeffrey J.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Lin, Xiaowen; Zeng, Ruijie

    2016-03-01

    Water is an essential input for agricultural production. Agriculture, in turn, is globalized through the trade of agricultural commodities. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model that emphasizes four tradeoffs involving water-use decision-making that are important yet not always considered in a consistent framework. One tradeoff focuses on competition for water among different economic sectors. A second tradeoff examines the possibility that certain types of agricultural investments can offset water use. A third tradeoff explores the possibility that the rest of the world can be a source of supply or demand for a country's water-using commodities. The fourth tradeoff concerns how variability in water supplies influences farmer decision-making. We show conditions under which trade liberalization affect water use. Two policy scenarios to reduce water use are evaluated. First, we derive a target tax that reduces water use without offsetting the gains from trade liberalization, although important tradeoffs exist between economic performance and resource use. Second, we show how subsidization of water-saving technologies can allow producers to use less water without reducing agricultural production, making such subsidization an indirect means of influencing water use decision-making. Finally, we outline conditions under which riskiness of water availability affects water use. These theoretical model results generate hypotheses that can be tested empirically in future work.

  1. A control theoretic model of the forearm.

    PubMed

    Rehbinder, H; Martin, C

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, a control theoretic model of the forearm is developed and analyzed, and a computational method for predicting muscle activations necessary to generate specified motions is described. A detailed geometric model of the forearm kinematics, including the carrying angle and models of how the biceps and the supinator tendons wrap around the bones, is used. Also, including a dynamics model, the final model is a system of differential equations where the muscle activations play the role of control signals. Due to the large number of muscles, the problem of finding muscle activations is redundant, and this problem is solved by an optimization procedure. The computed muscle activations for ballistic movements clearly recaptures the triphasic ABC (Activation-Braking-Clamping) pattern. It is also transparent, from the muscle activation patterns, how the muscles cooperate and counteract in order to accomplish desired motions. A comparison with previously reported experimental data is included and the model predictions can be seen to be partially in agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Theoretical model of crystal growth shaping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarchenko, V. A.; Uspenski, V. S.; Tatarchenko, E. V.; Nabot, J. Ph.; Duffar, T.; Roux, B.

    1997-10-01

    A theoretical investigation of the crystal growth shaping process is carried out on the basis of the dynamic stability concept. The capillary dynamic stability of shaped crystal growth processes for various forms of the liquid menisci is analyzed using the mathematical model of the phenomena in the axisymmetric case. The catching boundary condition of the capillary boundary problem is considered and the limits of its application for shaped crystal growth modeling are discussed. The static stability of a liquid free surface is taken into account by means of the Jacobi equation analysis. The result is that a large number of menisci having drop-like shapes are statically unstable. A few new non-traditional liquid meniscus shapes (e.g., bubbles and related shapes) are proposed for the case of a catching boundary condition.

  3. Studies of Chinese speakers with dysarthria: informing theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Tara L

    2010-01-01

    Most theoretical models of dysarthria have been developed based on research using individuals speaking English or other Indo-European languages. Studies of individuals with dysarthria speaking other languages can allow investigation into the universality of such models, and the interplay between language-specific and language-universal aspects of dysarthria. In this article, studies of Cantonese- and Mandarin-Chinese speakers with dysarthria are reviewed. The studies focused on 2 groups of speakers: those with cerebral palsy and those with Parkinson's disease. Key findings are compared with similar studies of English speakers. Since Chinese is tonal in nature, the impact of dysarthria on lexical tone has received considerable attention in the literature. The relationship between tone [which involves fundamental frequency (F(0)) control at the syllable level] and intonation (involving F(0) control at the sentential level) has received more recent attention. Many findings for Chinese speakers with dysarthria support earlier findings for English speakers, thus affirming the language-universal aspect of dysarthria. However, certain differences, which can be attributed to the distinct phonologies of Cantonese and Mandarin, highlight the language-specific aspects of the condition.

  4. Electron microscopy and theoretical modeling of cochleates.

    PubMed

    Nagarsekar, Kalpa; Ashtikar, Mukul; Thamm, Jana; Steiniger, Frank; Schacher, Felix; Fahr, Alfred; May, Sylvio

    2014-11-11

    Cochleates are self-assembled cylindrical condensates that consist of large rolled-up lipid bilayer sheets and represent a novel platform for oral and systemic delivery of therapeutically active medicinal agents. With few preceding investigations, the physical basis of cochleate formation has remained largely unexplored. We address the structure and stability of cochleates in a combined experimental/theoretical approach. Employing different electron microscopy methods, we provide evidence for cochleates consisting of phosphatidylserine and calcium to be hollow tubelike structures with a well-defined constant lamellar repeat distance and statistically varying inner and outer radii. To rationalize the relation between inner and outer radii, we propose a theoretical model. Based on the minimization of a phenomenological free energy expression containing a bending, adhesion, and frustration contribution, we predict the optimal tube dimensions of a cochleate and estimate ratios of material constants for cochleates consisting of phosphatidylserines with varied hydrocarbon chain structures. Knowing and understanding these ratios will ultimately benefit the successful formulation of cochleates for drug delivery applications.

  5. Workload Modeling and Workload Management: Recent Theoretical Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Workload Modeling and Workload Management : Recent Theoretical Developments by Raja Parasuraman and Ericka Rovira ARL-CR-0562 April...Proving Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-CR-0562 April 2005 Workload Modeling and Workload Management : Recent Theoretical Developments Raja...Workload Modeling and Workload Management : Recent Theoretical Developments 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 62716-AH70

  6. A theoretical model of flotation deinking efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, F.; Heindel, T.J.

    1997-06-01

    The associated probabilities of each microprocess occurring in flotation deinking are employed in the development of a kinetic or population balance-type model of the overall flotation process. The overall model contains two kinetic constants: The first, k{sub 1}, governs the overall probability of a free ink particle successfully being intercepted by and adhering to an air bubble; the second, k{sub 2}, is a measure of the probability that a particle/bubble aggregate pair will become unstable and split to yield a new free ink particle. The solution to the kinetic model is presented in terms of k{sub 1} and k{sub 2}, which are themselves functions of system parameters such as bubble and particle physical properties (e.g., diameter, density) and fluid properties (e.g., viscosity, surface tension). From this solution, a definition of theoretical flotation efficiency is presented, as well as definitions of other system performance parameters, and selected predictions are displayed.

  7. Theoretical aspects and the experience of studying spectra of low-frequency microseisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birialtsev, E.; Vildanov, A.; Eronina, E.; Rizhov, D.; Rizhov, V.; Sharapov, I.

    2009-04-01

    The appearance of low-frequency spectral anomalies in natural microseismic noise over oil and gas deposits is observed since 1989 in different oil and gas regions (S. Arutunov, S. Dangel, G. Goloshubin). Several methods of prospecting and exploration of oil and gas deposits based on this effect (NTK ANCHAR, Spectraseis AG). There are several points of view (S. Arutunov, E. Birialtsev, Y. Podladchikov) about the physical model of effect which are based on fundamentally different geophysical mechanisms. One of them is based on the hypothesis of generation of the microseismic noise in to an oil and gas reservoir. Another point of view is based on the mechanism of the filtering microseismic noise in the geological medium where oil and gas reservoir is the contrast layer. For the first hypothesis an adequate quantity physical-mathematical model is absent. Second hypothesis has a discrepancy of distribution energy on theoretical calculated frequencies of waveguides «ground surface - oil deposit» eigenmodes. The fundamental frequency (less than 1 Hz for most cases) should have a highest amplitude as opposed to the regular observation range is 1-10 Hz. During 2005-2008 years by specialists of «Gradient» JSC were processed microsesmic signals from more 50 geological objects. The parameters of low-frequency anomalies were compared with medium properties (porosity, saturation and viscosity) defined according to drilling, allowed to carry out a statistical analysis and to establish some correlation. This paper presents results of theoretical calculation of spectra of microseisms in the zone of oil and gas deposits by mathematical modeling of propagation of seismic waves and comparing spectra of model microseisms with actually observed. Mathematical modeling of microseismic vibrations spectra showed good correlation of theoretical spectra and observed in practice. This is proof the applicability of microseismic methods of exploration for oil and gas. Correlation between

  8. A Review on the Wettability of Dental Implant Surfaces: Theoretical and Experimental Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Frank; Gittens, Rolando A.; Scheideler, Lutz; Marmur, Abraham; Boyan, Barbara D.; Schwartz, Zvi; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The surface wettability of biomaterials determines the biological cascade of events at the biomaterial/host interface. Wettability is modulated by surface characteristics, such as surface chemistry and surface topography. However, the design of current implant surfaces focuses mainly on specific micro- and nanotopographical features and is still far from predicting the concomitant wetting behavior. There is an increasing interest in understanding the wetting mechanisms of implant surfaces and the role of wettability on the biological response at the implant/bone or implant/soft tissue interface. Fundamental knowledge related to the influence of surface roughness (i.e., a quantification of surface topography) on titanium and titanium alloy surface wettability, and the different associated wetting regimes, can improve our understanding of the role of wettability of rough implant surfaces on the biological outcome. Such an approach has been applied to biomaterial surfaces only in a limited way. Focusing on titanium dental and orthopaedic implants, the present study reviews the current knowledge on the wettability of biomaterial surfaces, encompassing basic and applied aspects that include measurement techniques, thermodynamic aspects of wetting, and models predicting topographical and roughness effects on the wetting behavior. PMID:24590162

  9. Theoretical Models of Sunspot Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. H.

    Recent progress in theoretical modeling of a sunspot is reviewed. The observed properties of umbral dots are well reproduced by realistic simulations of magnetoconvection in a vertical, monolithic magnetic field. To understand the penumbra, it is useful to distinguish between the inner penumbra, dominated by bright filaments containing slender dark cores, and the outer penumbra, made up of dark and bright filaments of comparable width with corresponding magnetic fields differing in inclination by some 30° and strong Evershed flows in the dark filaments along nearly horizontal or downward-plunging magnetic fields. The role of magnetic flux pumping in submerging magnetic flux in the outer penumbra is examined through numerical experiments, and different geometric models of the penumbral magnetic field are discussed in the light of high-resolution observations. Recent, realistic numerical MHD simulations of an entire sunspot have succeeded in reproducing the salient features of the convective pattern in the umbra and the inner penumbra. The siphon-flow mechanism still provides the best explanation of the Evershed flow, particularly in the outer penumbra where it often consists of cool, supersonic downflows.

  10. Information-Theoretic Perspectives on Geophysical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Grey

    2016-04-01

    practice of science (except by Gong et al., 2013, whose fundamental insight is the basis for this talk), and here I offer two examples of practical methods that scientists might use to approximately measure ontological information. I place this practical discussion in the context of several recent and high-profile experiments that have found that simple out-of-sample statistical models typically (vastly) outperform our most sophisticated terrestrial hydrology models. I offer some perspective on several open questions about how to use these findings to improve our models and understanding of these systems. Cartwright, N. (1983) How the Laws of Physics Lie. New York, NY: Cambridge Univ Press. Clark, M. P., Kavetski, D. and Fenicia, F. (2011) 'Pursuing the method of multiple working hypotheses for hydrological modeling', Water Resources Research, 47(9). Cover, T. M. and Thomas, J. A. (1991) Elements of Information Theory. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience. Cox, R. T. (1946) 'Probability, frequency and reasonable expectation', American Journal of Physics, 14, pp. 1-13. Csiszár, I. (1972) 'A Class of Measures of Informativity of Observation Channels', Periodica Mathematica Hungarica, 2(1), pp. 191-213. Davies, P. C. W. (1990) 'Why is the physical world so comprehensible', Complexity, entropy and the physics of information, pp. 61-70. Gong, W., Gupta, H. V., Yang, D., Sricharan, K. and Hero, A. O. (2013) 'Estimating Epistemic & Aleatory Uncertainties During Hydrologic Modeling: An Information Theoretic Approach', Water Resources Research, 49(4), pp. 2253-2273. Jaynes, E. T. (2003) Probability Theory: The Logic of Science. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Nearing, G. S. and Gupta, H. V. (2015) 'The quantity and quality of information in hydrologic models', Water Resources Research, 51(1), pp. 524-538. Popper, K. R. (2002) The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Routledge. Van Horn, K. S. (2003) 'Constructing a logic of plausible inference: a guide to cox's theorem

  11. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Different Cluster Set Structures: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tufano, James J; Brown, Lee E; Haff, G Gregory

    2017-03-01

    Tufano, JJ, Brown, LE, and Haff, GG. Theoretical and practical aspects of different cluster set structures: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 848-867, 2017-When performing a set of successive repetitions, fatigue ensues and the quality of performance during subsequent repetitions contained in the set decreases. Oftentimes, this response may be beneficial because fatigue may stimulate the neuromuscular system to adapt, resulting in a super-compensatory response. However, there are instances in which accumulated fatigue may be detrimental to training or performance adaptations (i.e., power development). In these instances, the ability to recover and maintain repetition performance would be considered essential. By providing intermittent rest between individual repetitions or groups of repetitions within a set, an athlete is able to acutely alleviate fatigue, allowing performance to remain relatively constant throughout an exercise session. Within the scientific literature, a set that includes intermittent rest between individual repetitions or groups of repetitions within a set is defined as a cluster set. Recently, cluster sets (CS) have received more attention as researchers have begun to examine the acute and chronic responses to this relatively novel set structure. However, much of the rest period terminology within the literature lacks uniformity and many authors attempt to compare largely different protocols with the same terminology. Additionally, the present body of scientific literature has mainly focused on the effects of CS on power output, leaving the effects of CS on strength and hypertrophy relatively unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to further delineate cluster set terminology, describe the acute and chronic responses of CS, and explain the need for further investigation of the effects of CS.

  12. How prayer heals: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Levin, J S

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical model that outlines various possible explanations for the healing effects of prayer. Four classes of mechanisms are defined on the basis of whether healing has naturalistic or supernatural origins and whether it operates locally or nonlocally. Through this framework, most of the currently proposed hypotheses for understanding absent healing and other related phenomena-hypotheses that invoke such concepts as subtle energy, psi, consciousness, morphic fields, and extended mind-are shown to be no less naturalistic than the Newtonian, mechanistic forces of allopathic biomedicine so often derided for their materialism. In proposing that prayer may heal through nonlocal means according to mechanisms and theories proposed by the new physics, Dossey is almost alone among medical scholars in suggesting the possible limitations and inadequacies of hypotheses based on energies, forces, and fields. Yet even such nonlocal effects can be conceived of as naturalistic; that is, they are explained by physical laws that may be unbelievable or unfamiliar to most physicians but that are nonetheless becoming recognized as operant laws of the natural universe. The concept of the supernatural, however, is something altogether different, and is, by definition, outside of or beyond nature. Herein may reside an either wholly or partly transcendent Creator-God who is believed by many to heal through means that transcend the laws of the created universe, both its local and nonlocal elements, and that are thus inherently inaccessible to and unknowable by science. Such an explanation for the effects of prayer merits consideration and, despite its unprovability by medical science, should not be dismissed out of hand.

  13. Theoretical Counseling Orientation: An Initial Aspect of Professional Orientation and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, James Lloyd, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on counselor development suggests that the development of a professional identity is a fundamental aspect of counselor training. The unique demands placed on counselors to integrate aspects of both personal and professional identity into the therapeutic process (Skovholt & Ronnestad, 1995) make development of a professional…

  14. MOOCs--Theoretical and Practical Aspects: Comparison of Selected Research Results: Poland, Russia, Ukraine, and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Ogrodzka-Mazur, Ewa; Szafranska-Gajdzica, Anna; Morze, Nataliia; Makhachashvili, Rusudan; Noskova, Tatiana; Pavlova, Tatiana; Yakovleva, Olga; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    Many higher education students are interested in MOOCs. At the same time, numerous questions are still without answers: formal aspects of participation in MOOCs, the type of motivation on the part of students for participation in MOOCs, quality of MOOCs, students' opinions about type, structure, contents, communication in MOOCs and other aspects.…

  15. Theoretical aspects of dynamic nuclear polarization in the solid state - The solid effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovav, Yonatan; Feintuch, Akiva; Vega, Shimon

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization has gained high popularity in recent years, due to advances in the experimental aspects of this methodology for increasing the NMR and MRI signals of relevant chemical and biological compounds. The DNP mechanism relies on the microwave (MW) irradiation induced polarization transfer from unpaired electrons to the nuclei in a sample. In this publication we present nuclear polarization enhancements of model systems in the solid state at high magnetic fields. These results were obtained by numerical calculations based on the spin density operator formalism. Here we restrict ourselves to samples with low electron concentrations, where the dipolar electron-electron interactions can be ignored. Thus the DNP enhancement of the polarizations of the nuclei close to the electrons is described by the Solid Effect mechanism. Our numerical results demonstrate the dependence of the polarization enhancement on the MW irradiation power and frequency, the hyperfine and nuclear dipole-dipole spin interactions, and the relaxation parameters of the system. The largest spin system considered in this study contains one electron and eight nuclei. In particular, we discuss the influence of the nuclear concentration and relaxation on the polarization of the core nuclei, which are coupled to an electron, and are responsible for the transfer of polarization to the bulk nuclei in the sample via spin diffusion.

  16. ASPECT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Able to deploy within one hour of notification, EPA's Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) is the nation’s only airborne real-time chemical and radiological detection, infrared and photographic imagery platform.

  17. Theoretical Models of Parental HIV Disclosure: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    This review critically examined three major theoretical models related to parental HIV disclosure (i.e., the Four-Phase Model, the Disclosure Decision Making Model, and the Disclosure Process Model), and the existing studies that could provide empirical support to these models or their components. For each model, we briefly reviewed its theoretical background, described its components and or mechanisms, and discussed its strengths and limitations. The existing empirical studies supported most theoretical components in these models. However, hypotheses related to the mechanisms proposed in the models have not yet tested due to a lack of empirical evidence. This review also synthesized alternative theoretical perspectives and new issues in disclosure research and clinical practice that may challenge the existing models. The current review underscores the importance of including components related to social and cultural contexts in theoretical frameworks, and calls for more adequately designed empirical studies in order to test and refine existing theories and to develop new ones. PMID:22866903

  18. A theoretical study of conformational aspects and energy transfer between terthiophene and quinquethiophene in perhydrotriphenylene inclusion compounds.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Sergio O

    2008-09-21

    A theoretical study of models with supramolecular architecture of co-inclusion compounds based on the host perhydrotriphenylene and guests terthiophene and quinquethiophene (PHTP:T3,T5) is carried out to elucidate in detail the conformational aspects of the oligomeric guest species in the PHTP matrix host. The factors that direct the geometry, location and separation of terthiophene and quinquethiophene within the channels of the PHTP host have been studied using semi-empirical and ab initio calculations. The movement of the guests inside the channel is subject to constraints preventing free rotations or axial displacements along the nanochannel. Optimal arrangement and the general trend of the relative order between T3 and T5 in the (PHTP:T3,T5) co-inclusion compound is obtained. Furthermore, excited state calculations allow the explanation of the spectral shifts of the included species in terms of the planarization of their geometries. An analysis of the energy transfer processes between the T3-T5 donor-acceptor pair based on the configurational details of the co-inclusion compound conclude that efficient transfer proceeds only through two different and perpendicular windows for the T3 --> T5 transfer. The results emphasize the importance for better understanding of the directional details of the energy transfer mechanisms in this kind of one-dimensional systems.

  19. [Nursing practice based on theoretical models: a qualitative study of nurses' perception].

    PubMed

    Amaducci, Giovanna; Iemmi, Marina; Prandi, Marzia; Saffioti, Angelina; Carpanoni, Marika; Mecugni, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many faculty argue that theory and theorizing are closely related to the clinical practice, that the disciplinary knowledge grows, more relevantly, from the specific care context in which it takes place and, moreover, that knowledge does not proceed only by the application of general principles of the grand theories to specific cases. Every nurse, in fact, have  a mental model, of what may or may not be aware, that motivate and substantiate every action and choice of career. The study describes what the nursing theoretical model is; the mental model and the tacit  knowledge underlying it. It identifies the explicit theoretical model of the professional group that rapresents nursing partecipants, aspects of continuity with the theoretical model proposed by this degree course in Nursing.. Methods Four focus groups were made which were attended by a total of 22 nurses, rapresentatives of almost every Unit of Reggio Emilia Hospital's. We argue that the theoretical nursing model of each professional group is the result of tacit knowledge, which help to define the personal mental model, and the theoretical model, which explicitly underlying theoretical content learned applied consciously and reverted to / from nursing practice. Reasoning on the use of theory in practice has allowed us to give visibility to a theoretical model explicitly nursing authentically oriented to the needs of the person, in all its complexity in specific contexts.

  20. Parallel path aspects of transmission modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kavicky, J.A.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    1996-11-01

    This paper examines the present methods and modeling techniques available to address the effects of parallel flows resulting from various firm and short-term energy transactions. A survey of significant methodologies is conducted to determine the present status of parallel flow transaction modeling. The strengths and weaknesses of these approaches are identified to suggest areas of further modeling improvements. The motivating force behind this research is to improve transfer capability assessment accuracy by suggesting a real-time modeling environment that adequately represents the influences of parallel flows while recognizing operational constraints and objectives.

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Theoretical Model of the Hyperarousal Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Charles Stewart E.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a frequent and distressing mental disorder, about which much remains to be learned. It is a heterogeneous disorder; the hyperarousal subtype (about 70% of occurrences and simply termed PTSD in this paper) is the topic of this article, but the dissociative subtype (about 30% of occurrences and likely involving quite different brain mechanisms) is outside its scope. A theoretical model is presented that integrates neuroscience data on diverse brain regions known to be involved in PTSD, and extensive psychiatric findings on the disorder. Specifically, the amygdala is a multifunctional brain region that is crucial to PTSD, and processes peritraumatic hyperarousal on grounded cognition principles to produce hyperarousal symptoms. Amygdala activity also modulates hippocampal function, which is supported by a large body of evidence, and likewise amygdala activity modulates several brainstem regions, visual cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), to produce diverse startle, visual, memory, numbing, anger, and recklessness symptoms. Additional brain regions process other aspects of peritraumatic responses to produce further symptoms. These contentions are supported by neuroimaging, neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral evidence. Collectively, the model offers an account of how responses at the time of trauma are transformed into an extensive array of the 20 PTSD symptoms that are specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth edition. It elucidates the neural mechanisms of a specific form of psychopathology, and accords with the Research Domain Criteria framework. PMID:24772094

  2. Models for some aspects of atmospheric vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    A frictionless adiabatic model is used to study the growth of random vortices in an atmosphere with buoyant instability and vertical wind shear, taking account of the effects of axial drag, heat transfer and precipitation-induced downdrafts. It is found that downdrafts of tornadic magnitude may occur in negatively buoyant columns. The radial-inflow velocity required to maintain a given maximum tangential velocity in a tornado is determined by using a turbulent vortex model. A tornado model which involves a rotating parent cloud as well as buoyancy and precipitation effects is also discussed.

  3. Empathy and Child Neglect: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paul, Joaquin; Guibert, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present an explanatory theory-based model of child neglect. This model does not address neglectful behaviors of parents with mental retardation, alcohol or drug abuse, or severe mental health problems. In this model parental behavior aimed to satisfy a child's need is considered a helping behavior and, as a consequence, child neglect…

  4. Electronic and vibrational spectra of matrix isolated anthracene radical cations - Experimental and theoretical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szczepanski, Jan; Vala, Martin; Talbi, Dahbia; Parisel, Olivier; Ellinger, Yves

    1993-01-01

    The IR vibrational and visible/UV electronic absorption spectra of the anthracene cation, An(+), were studied experimentally, in argon matrices at 12 K, as well as theoretically, using ab initio calculations for the vibrational modes and enhanced semiempirical methods with configuration interaction for the electronic spectra. It was found that both approaches predicted well the observed photoelectron spectrum. The theoretical IR intensities showed some remarkable differences between neutral and ionized species (for example, the CH in-plane bending modes and CC in-plane stretching vibrations were predicted to increase by several orders of magnitude upon ionization). Likewise, estimated experimental IR intensities showed a significant increase in the cation band intensities over the neutrals. The implication of these findings for the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations are responsible for the unidentified IR emission bands from interstellar space is discussed.

  5. Statistical aspects of modeling the labor curve.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Troendle, James; Grantz, Katherine L; Reddy, Uma M

    2015-06-01

    In a recent review by Cohen and Friedman, several statistical questions on modeling labor curves were raised. This article illustrates that asking data to fit a preconceived model or letting a sufficiently flexible model fit observed data is the main difference in principles of statistical modeling between the original Friedman curve and our average labor curve. An evidence-based approach to construct a labor curve and establish normal values should allow the statistical model to fit observed data. In addition, the presence of the deceleration phase in the active phase of an average labor curve was questioned. Forcing a deceleration phase to be part of the labor curve may have artificially raised the speed of progression in the active phase with a particularly large impact on earlier labor between 4 and 6 cm. Finally, any labor curve is illustrative and may not be instructive in managing labor because of variations in individual labor pattern and large errors in measuring cervical dilation. With the tools commonly available, it may be more productive to establish a new partogram that takes the physiology of labor and contemporary obstetric population into account.

  6. Expanding universe: thermodynamical aspects from different models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sridip; Biswas, Ritabrata

    2012-11-01

    The pivotal point of the paper is to discuss the behavior of temperature, pressure, energy density as a function of volume along with determination of caloric EoS from following two model: w( z)= w 0+ w 1ln(1+ z) & w(z)=-1+(1+z)/3A1+2A2(1+z)/A_{0+2A1(1+z)+A2(1+z)2 }. The time scale of instability for this two models is discussed. In the paper we then generalize our result and arrive at general expression for energy density irrespective of the model. The thermodynamical stability for both of the model and the general case is discussed from this viewpoint. We also arrive at a condition on the limiting behavior of thermodynamic parameter to validate the third law of thermodynamics and interpret the general mathematical expression of integration constant U 0 (what we get while integrating energy conservation equation) physically relating it to number of micro states. The constraint on the allowed values of the parameters of the models is discussed which ascertains stability of universe. The validity of thermodynamical laws within apparent and event horizon is discussed.

  7. Theoretical aspects of light-element alloys under extremely high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ji

    In this Dissertation, we present theoretical studies on the geometric and electronic structure of light-element alloys under high pressure. The first three Chapters are concerned with specific compounds, namely, SiH 4, CaLi2 and BexLi1- x, and associated structural and electronic phenomena, arising in our computational studies. In the fourth Chapter, we attempt to develop a unified view of the relationship between the electronic and geometric structure of light-element alloys under pressure, by focusing on the states near the Fermi level in these metals.

  8. In situ models, physico-chemical aspects.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M

    1994-07-01

    In situ (intra-oral) caries models are used for two purposes. First, they provide information about oral physiological processes. Such information helps to detail our knowledge of the oral ecosystem and to verify conclusions from in vitro experiments. Second, in situ models are utilized to test preventive agents in the phase between laboratory testing and clinical trials. Most investigations involving enamel inserts have been aimed at testing new dentifrices. The experimental designs of such studies usually do not allow one to draw conclusions on physico-chemical processes, e.g., because of single point measurements. Studies of model parameters (lesion type, lesion severity, and de/remineralization in time) constitute only a minority of the research reports. The most striking observation obtained with in situ models has been the significant differences in de/remineralization observed among individuals and, more importantly, within one individual during different time periods and between different sites in the same mouth (for review, see ten Cate et al., 1992). Regardless of this, some general findings can be inferred: During in situ demineralization, up to 62 vol% microns/day may be removed from enamel. For dentin specimens, this value may be as high as 89 vol% microns/day. For remineralization, during fluoride dentifrice treatment, a median deposition rate of 0.7%/day (for lesions with integrated mineral loss values between 2000 and 4000 vol% microns) is found. The rate of deposition seems to be correlated with the extent of the pre-formed lesion. This suggests that the number of sites (crystallite surface) available for calcium phosphate precipitation is an important parameter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Ocean modelling aspects for drift applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephane, L.; Pierre, D.

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, many authorities in charge of rescue-at-sea operations lean on operational oceanography products to outline research perimeters. Moreover, current fields estimated with sophisticated ocean forecasting systems can be used as input data for oil spill/ adrift object fate models. This emphasises the necessity of an accurate sea state forecast, with a mastered level of reliability. This work focuses on several problems inherent to drift modeling, dealing in the first place with the efficiency of the oceanic current field representation. As we want to discriminate the relevance of a particular physical process or modeling option, the idea is to generate series of current fields of different characteristics and then qualify them in term of drift prediction efficiency. Benchmarked drift scenarios were set up from real surface drifters data, collected in the Mediterranean sea and off the coasts of Angola. The time and space scales that we are interested in are about 72 hr forecasts (typical timescale communicated in case of crisis), for distance errors that we hope about a few dozen of km around the forecast (acceptable for reconnaissance by aircrafts) For the ocean prediction, we used some regional oceanic configurations based on the NEMO 2.3 code, nested into Mercator 1/12° operational system. Drift forecasts were computed offline with Mothy (Météo France oil spill modeling system) and Ariane (B. Blanke, 1997), a Lagrangian diagnostic tool. We were particularly interested in the importance of the horizontal resolution, vertical mixing schemes, and any processes that may impact the surface layer. The aim of the study is to ultimately point at the most suitable set of parameters for drift forecast use inside operational oceanic systems. We are also motivated in assessing the relevancy of ensemble forecasts regarding determinist predictions. Several tests showed that mis-described observed trajectories can finally be modelled statistically by using uncertainties

  10. A Theoretical Framework for Physics Education Research: Modeling Student Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redish, Edward F.

    2004-01-01

    Education is a goal-oriented field. But if we want to treat education scientifically so we can accumulate, evaluate, and refine what we learn, then we must develop a theoretical framework that is strongly rooted in objective observations and through which different theoretical models of student thinking can be compared. Much that is known in the…

  11. A theoretical framework to obtain interface's shapes during the high-temperature annealing of high-aspect-ratio gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castez, Marcos F.; Salvarezza, Roberto C.; Nakamura, Jun; Sudoh, Koichi

    2010-09-01

    High-temperature annealing applied to solid samples produces important morphological modifications on their surfaces, particularly in high-aspect-ratio gratings. We show, how by means of a framework based in a nonlinear analysis of the Mullins' equation [J. Appl. Phys. 28, 333 (1957)], we can mathematically reproduce surface's shapes just by measuring a few characteristic features of the interfaces (essentially pattern's amplitudes and wavelengths). We compared our results with experimental data on silicon samples, finding a close agreement between experimental shapes and those theoretically predicted. The introduced framework could be particularly useful in those situations where no cross-sectional information were available.

  12. Theoretical aspects of cellular decision-making and information-processing.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Kamimura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic biological processes have extraordinary complexity and variety at the sub-cellular, intra-cellular, and multi-cellular levels. In dealing with such complex phenomena, conceptual and theoretical frameworks are crucial, which enable us to understand seemingly different intra- and inter-cellular phenomena from unified viewpoints. Decision-making is one such concept that has attracted much attention recently. Since a number of cellular behavior can be regarded as processes to make specific actions in response to external stimuli, decision-making can cover and has been used to explain a broad range of different cellular phenomena [Balázsi et al. (Cell 144(6):910, 2011), Zeng et al. (Cell 141(4):682, 2010)]. Decision-making is also closely related to cellular information-processing because appropriate decisions cannot be made without exploiting the information that the external stimuli contain. Efficiency of information transduction and processing by intra-cellular networks determines the amount of information obtained, which in turn limits the efficiency of subsequent decision-making. Furthermore, information-processing itself can serve as another concept that is crucial for understanding of other biological processes than decision-making. In this work, we review recent theoretical developments on cellular decision-making and information-processing by focusing on the relation between these two concepts.

  13. [Practical and theoretical aspects of cost-benefit relations in viscerosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, K H; Heimbucher, J; Geiger, D; Thiede, A

    1997-01-01

    The necessity of limiting health care costs requires adequate service recording and quality control even in visceral surgery. In this field, the safety of the anastomoses is of greatest importance. Anastomoses at risk are esophageal connections to jejunum or colon and deep rectal anastomoses. At these locations expensive suture devices, such as stapling instruments, can be used in a cost saving aspect, if they help to increase anastomotic safety, time saving and expansion of surgical indication. Manual sutures thus represent the cheapest anastomotic technique as continuous sutures would cost between DM 10.- to 20.- and single stitch sutures between DM 60.- and 100.-. A surgical school should prevalently aim at training manual anastomoses, while special anastomotic techniques should only complete the skill for selected indications. The overall staff expenditure for extended operations amounts around DM 600.- per hour respectively DM 10.- per minute. Time for surgery might be shortened by auxiliary tools as much as to perform an additional operation. However, a circular stapler anastomosis that costs between DM 650.- to 850.- is twice as expensive as manual sutures notwithstanding the double time needed. In the past years, the necessity for a rational use of different anastomotic techniques has shown to be mandatory since, increasingly, financial aspects of health economy require cost benefit calculations in visceral surgery.

  14. Some aspects of generating unit availability models

    SciTech Connect

    Debnath, K.; Billinton, R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of some of the basic generating unit performance data from the North American Electric Reliability Council - Generating Availability Data System (NERC-GADS) and the Canadian Electrical Association - Equipment Reliability Information System (CEA-ERIS) reporting procedures. The paper also illustrates some of the additional information which can be produced from the continuous state monitoring procedure used by the CEA. This is illustrated by Weibull analysis of state residence time distributions, consideration of the effect of low operating factors for conventional fossil units and modified models for peaking units.

  15. Towards aspect-oriented functional–structural plant modelling

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Mikolaj; Seleznyova, Alla N.; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Hanan, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) are used to integrate knowledge and test hypotheses of plant behaviour, and to aid in the development of decision support systems. A significant amount of effort is being put into providing a sound methodology for building them. Standard techniques, such as procedural or object-oriented programming, are not suited for clearly separating aspects of plant function that criss-cross between different components of plant structure, which makes it difficult to reuse and share their implementations. The aim of this paper is to present an aspect-oriented programming approach that helps to overcome this difficulty. Methods The L-system-based plant modelling language L+C was used to develop an aspect-oriented approach to plant modelling based on multi-modules. Each element of the plant structure was represented by a sequence of L-system modules (rather than a single module), with each module representing an aspect of the element's function. Separate sets of productions were used for modelling each aspect, with context-sensitive rules facilitated by local lists of modules to consider/ignore. Aspect weaving or communication between aspects was made possible through the use of pseudo-L-systems, where the strict-predecessor of a production rule was specified as a multi-module. Key Results The new approach was used to integrate previously modelled aspects of carbon dynamics, apical dominance and biomechanics with a model of a developing kiwifruit shoot. These aspects were specified independently and their implementation was based on source code provided by the original authors without major changes. Conclusions This new aspect-oriented approach to plant modelling is well suited for studying complex phenomena in plant science, because it can be used to integrate separate models of individual aspects of plant development and function, both previously constructed and new, into clearly organized, comprehensive FSPMs. In

  16. Modeling Aspects of Two-Bead Microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, Christel; Forest, M. Gregory

    2008-07-01

    We revisit the Mason and Weitz (Phys. Rev. Lett., 74, 1995) and Levine and Lubensky (Phys. Rev. Lett., 85, 2000) analysis for one- and two-bead microrheology. Our first motivation is the possibility of drawing inferences from experimental data about local diffusive properties of individual beads and nonlocal dynamic moduli of the medium separating the two beads. Our second motivation is the ability to perform direct numerical simulations of hydrodynamically coupled Brownian beads in soft matter. For both goals, we first must have a model for the coupling between these two transport properties. We reformulate the coupled generalized Langevin equations (GLE) following the scalar GLE analysis of Fricks et al. (J. Appl. Math., 2008), assuming an exponential series parametrization of both local and nonlocal memory kernels. We then show the two-bead GLE model can be represented as a vector Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, which allows for a fast and statistically accurate numerical simulation of coupled bead paths (time series) and of ensemble-averaged statistics of the process. In this proceedings, we announce the framework to accomplish these two goals of inversion and direct simulation.

  17. Theoretical analysis and modeling for nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccarani, Giorgio; Gnani, Elena; Gnudi, Antonio; Reggiani, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we review the evolution of Microelectronics and its transformation into Nanoelectronics, following the predictions of Moore's law, and some of the issues related with this evolution. Next, we discuss the requirements of device modeling and the solutions proposed throughout the years to address the physical effects related with an extreme device miniaturization, such as hot-electron effects, band splitting into multiple sub-bands, quasi-ballistic transport and electron tunneling. The most important physical models are shortly highlighted, and a few simulation results of heterojunction TFETs are reported and discussed.

  18. Theoretical models of synaptic short term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Matthias H.

    2013-01-01

    Short term plasticity is a highly abundant form of rapid, activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. A shared set of mechanisms can cause both depression and enhancement of the postsynaptic response at different synapses, with important consequences for information processing. Mathematical models have been extensively used to study the mechanisms and roles of short term plasticity. This review provides an overview of existing models and their biological basis, and of their main properties. Special attention will be given to slow processes such as calcium channel inactivation and the effect of activation of presynaptic autoreceptors. PMID:23626536

  19. a Theoretical Model of a Superheated Liquid Droplet Neutron Detector.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Mark Joseph

    Neutrons can interact with the atoms in superheated liquid droplets which are suspended in a viscous matrix material, resulting in the formation of charged recoil ions. These ions transfer energy to the liquid, sometimes resulting in the droplets vaporizing and producing observable bubbles. Devices employing this mechanism are known as superheated liquid droplet detectors, or bubble detectors. The basis of bubble detector operation is identical to that of bubble chambers, which have been well characterized by researchers such as Wilson, Glaser, Seitz, and others since the 1950's. Each of the microscopic superheated liquid droplets behaves like an independent bubble chamber. This dissertation presents a theoretical model which considers the three principal aspects of detector operation: nuclear reactions, charged particle energy deposition, and thermodynamic bubble formation. All possible nuclear reactions were examined and those which could reasonably result in recoil ions sufficiently energetic to vaporize a droplet were analyzed in detail. Feasible interactions having adequate cross sections include elastic and inelastic scattering, n-proton, and n-alpha reactions. Ziegler's TRansport of Ions in Matter (TRIM) code was used to calculate the ions' stopping powers in various compounds based on the ionic energies predicted by standard scattering distributions. If the ions deposit enough energy in a small enough volume then the entire droplet will vaporize without further energy input. Various theories as to the vaporization of droplets by ionizing radiation were studied and a novel method of predicting the critical (minimum) energy was developed. This method can be used to calculate the minimum required stopping power for the ion, from which the threshold neutron energy is obtainable. Experimental verification of the model was accomplished by measuring the response of two different types of bubble detectors to monoenergetic thermal neutrons, as well as to neutrons

  20. Surface activity of Janus particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces: Theoretical and experimental aspects.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rodriguez, Miguel Angel; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Cabrerizo-Vilchez, Miguel Angel; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2016-07-01

    Since de Gennes coined in 1992 the term Janus particle (JP), there has been a continued effort to develop this field. The purpose of this review is to present the most relevant theoretical and experimental results obtained so far on the surface activity of amphiphilic JPs at fluid interfaces. The surface activity of JPs at fluid-fluid interfaces can be experimentally determined using two different methods: the classical Langmuir balance or the pendant drop tensiometry. The second method requires much less amount of sample than the first one, but it has also some experimental limitations. In all cases collected here the JPs exhibited a higher surface or interfacial activity than the corresponding homogeneous particles. This reveals the significant advantage of JPs for the stabilization of emulsions and foams.

  1. Theoretical and applied aspects of night vision goggle resolution and visual acuity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee; Pinkus, Alan R.

    2007-04-01

    The image quality of night vision goggles is often expressed in terms of visual acuity, resolution or modulation transfer function. The primary reason for providing a measure of image quality is the underlying assumption that the image quality metric correlates with the level of visual performance that one could expect when using the device, for example, target detection or target recognition performance. This paper provides a theoretical analysis of the relationships between these three image quality metrics: visual acuity, resolution and modulation transfer function. Results from laboratory and field studies were used to relate these metrics to visual performance. These results can also be applied to non-image intensifier based imaging systems such as a helmet-mounted display coupled to an imaging sensor.

  2. A Theoretical Model for Selective Exposure Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roloff, Michael E.; Noland, Mark

    This study tests the basic assumptions underlying Fishbein's Model of Attitudes by correlating an individual's selective exposure to types of television programs (situation comedies, family drama, and action/adventure) with the attitudinal similarity between individual attitudes and attitudes characterized on the programs. Twenty-three college…

  3. Aspect-Oriented Model-Driven Software Product Line Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groher, Iris; Voelter, Markus

    Software product line engineering aims to reduce development time, effort, cost, and complexity by taking advantage of the commonality within a portfolio of similar products. The effectiveness of a software product line approach directly depends on how well feature variability within the portfolio is implemented and managed throughout the development lifecycle, from early analysis through maintenance and evolution. This article presents an approach that facilitates variability implementation, management, and tracing by integrating model-driven and aspect-oriented software development. Features are separated in models and composed of aspect-oriented composition techniques on model level. Model transformations support the transition from problem to solution space models. Aspect-oriented techniques enable the explicit expression and modularization of variability on model, template, and code level. The presented concepts are illustrated with a case study of a home automation system.

  4. Implementing Subduction Models in the New Mantle Convection Code Aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, Katrina; Billen, Magali

    2014-05-01

    The geodynamic community has utilized various numerical modeling codes as scientific questions arise and computer processing power increases. Citcom, a widely used mantle convection code, has limitations and vulnerabilities such as temperature overshoots of hundreds or thousands degrees Kelvin (i.e., Kommu et al., 2013). Recently Aspect intended as a more powerful cousin, is in active development with additions such as Adaptable Mesh Refinement (AMR) and improved solvers (Kronbichler et al., 2012). The validity and ease of use of Aspect is important to its survival and role as a possible upgrade and replacement to Citcom. Development of publishable models illustrates the capacity of Aspect. We present work on the addition of non-linear solvers and stress-dependent rheology to Aspect. With a solid foundational knowledge of C++, these additions were easily added into Aspect and tested against CitcomS. Time-dependent subduction models akin to those in Billen and Hirth (2007) are built and compared in CitcomS and Aspect. Comparison with CitcomS assists in Aspect development and showcases its flexibility, usability and capabilities. References: Billen, M. I., and G. Hirth, 2007. Rheologic controls on slab dynamics. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. Kommu, R., E. Heien, L. H. Kellogg, W. Bangerth, T. Heister, E. Studley, 2013. The Overshoot Phenomenon in Geodynamics Codes. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. M. Kronbichler, T. Heister, W. Bangerth, 2012, High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophys. J. Int.

  5. Theoretical Tinnitus Framework: A Neurofunctional Model

    PubMed Central

    Ghodratitoostani, Iman; Zana, Yossi; Delbem, Alexandre C. B.; Sani, Siamak S.; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Sanchez, Tanit G.

    2016-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus is the conscious (attended) awareness perception of sound in the absence of an external source and can be classified as an auditory phantom perception. Earlier literature establishes three distinct states of conscious perception as unattended, attended, and attended awareness conscious perception. The current tinnitus development models depend on the role of external events congruently paired with the causal physical events that precipitate the phantom perception. We propose a novel Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model to indicate that the conscious (attended) awareness perception of phantom sound is essential in activating the cognitive-emotional value. The cognitive-emotional value plays a crucial role in governing attention allocation as well as developing annoyance within tinnitus clinical distress. Structurally, the Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model includes the peripheral auditory system, the thalamus, the limbic system, brainstem, basal ganglia, striatum, and the auditory along with prefrontal cortices. Functionally, we assume the model includes presence of continuous or intermittent abnormal signals at the peripheral auditory system or midbrain auditory paths. Depending on the availability of attentional resources, the signals may or may not be perceived. The cognitive valuation process strengthens the lateral-inhibition and noise canceling mechanisms in the mid-brain, which leads to the cessation of sound perception and renders the signal evaluation irrelevant. However, the “sourceless” sound is eventually perceived and can be cognitively interpreted as suspicious or an indication of a disease in which the cortical top-down processes weaken the noise canceling effects. This results in an increase in cognitive and emotional negative reactions such as depression and anxiety. The negative or positive cognitive-emotional feedbacks within the top-down approach may have no relation to the previous experience of the patients. They can also be

  6. Theoretical Tinnitus Framework: A Neurofunctional Model.

    PubMed

    Ghodratitoostani, Iman; Zana, Yossi; Delbem, Alexandre C B; Sani, Siamak S; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Sanchez, Tanit G

    2016-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus is the conscious (attended) awareness perception of sound in the absence of an external source and can be classified as an auditory phantom perception. Earlier literature establishes three distinct states of conscious perception as unattended, attended, and attended awareness conscious perception. The current tinnitus development models depend on the role of external events congruently paired with the causal physical events that precipitate the phantom perception. We propose a novel Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model to indicate that the conscious (attended) awareness perception of phantom sound is essential in activating the cognitive-emotional value. The cognitive-emotional value plays a crucial role in governing attention allocation as well as developing annoyance within tinnitus clinical distress. Structurally, the Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model includes the peripheral auditory system, the thalamus, the limbic system, brainstem, basal ganglia, striatum, and the auditory along with prefrontal cortices. Functionally, we assume the model includes presence of continuous or intermittent abnormal signals at the peripheral auditory system or midbrain auditory paths. Depending on the availability of attentional resources, the signals may or may not be perceived. The cognitive valuation process strengthens the lateral-inhibition and noise canceling mechanisms in the mid-brain, which leads to the cessation of sound perception and renders the signal evaluation irrelevant. However, the "sourceless" sound is eventually perceived and can be cognitively interpreted as suspicious or an indication of a disease in which the cortical top-down processes weaken the noise canceling effects. This results in an increase in cognitive and emotional negative reactions such as depression and anxiety. The negative or positive cognitive-emotional feedbacks within the top-down approach may have no relation to the previous experience of the patients. They can also be

  7. Theoretical Modelling of Sound Radiation from Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, I.; Rozlan, S. A. M.; Yusoff, A.; Madlan, M. A.; Chan, S. W.

    2017-01-01

    Recently the development of aerospace, automotive and building industries demands the use of lightweight materials such as thin plates. However, the plates can possibly add to significant vibration and sound radiation, which eventually lead to increased noise in the community. So, in this study, the fundamental concept of sound pressure radiated from a simply-supported thin plate (SSP) was analyzed using the derivation of mathematical equations and numerical simulation of ANSYS®. The solution to mathematical equations of sound radiated from a SSP was visualized using MATLAB®. The responses of sound pressure level were measured at far field as well as near field in the frequency range of 0-200 Hz. Result shows that there are four resonance frequencies; 12 Hz, 60 Hz, 106 Hz and 158 Hz were identified which represented by the total number of the peaks in the frequency response function graph. The outcome also indicates that the mathematical derivation correlated well with the simulation model of ANSYS® in which the error found is less than 10%. It can be concluded that the obtained model is reliable and can be applied for further analysis such as to reduce noise emitted from a vibrating thin plate.

  8. Communication training for aircrews: A review of theoretical and pragmatic aspects of training program design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda

    1987-01-01

    This study is the final report of a project studying methods of communications training applicable to both civilian and military aviation personnel, including multiperson teams or single pilot fixed wing or rotary wing aircraft. A review is provided of a number of theories proposed as relevant for producing training materials for improved communications. Criteria are given for evaluating the applicability of training programs to the aviation environment, and these criteria are applied to United Airlines' Resources Management Training, as well as to a number of commercially available general purpose training programs. The report considers in detail assertiveness training and grid management training, examining their theoretical background and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. It was found that there are substantive difficulties in assessing the effectiveness of both training programs, as well as problems with the theories underlying them. However, because the aviation environment offers unique advantages for studying the effectiveness of communications training, recommendations are made on the design of appropriate training programs and on procedures that might be used to validate them.

  9. STED Nanoscopy with Time-Gated Detection: Theoretical and Experimental Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Schönle, Andreas; Ta, Haisen; Han, Kyu Young; Moneron, Gael; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.

    2013-01-01

    In a stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope the region in which fluorescence markers can emit spontaneously shrinks with continued STED beam action after a singular excitation event. This fact has been recently used to substantially improve the effective spatial resolution in STED nanoscopy using time-gated detection, pulsed excitation and continuous wave (CW) STED beams. We present a theoretical framework and experimental data that characterize the time evolution of the effective point-spread-function of a STED microscope and illustrate the physical basis, the benefits, and the limitations of time-gated detection both for CW and pulsed STED lasers. While gating hardly improves the effective resolution in the all-pulsed modality, in the CW-STED modality gating strongly suppresses low spatial frequencies in the image. Gated CW-STED nanoscopy is in essence limited (only) by the reduction of the signal that is associated with gating. Time-gated detection also reduces/suppresses the influence of local variations of the fluorescence lifetime on STED microscopy resolution. PMID:23349884

  10. Bicuspid aortic valve: theoretical and clinical aspects of concomitant ascending aorta replacement.

    PubMed

    De Sá, Mauro Paes Leme; Bastos, Eduardo Sergio; Murad, Henrique

    2009-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is associated with annuloaortic ectasia, dissection and ascending aortic aneurysm. The high incidence of this congenital malformation and aortic disease suggests a close correlation between the two phenomena. Abnormalities in different phases of cell migration of the neural crest might be responsible for the occurrence of abnormalities in the aortic valve, media layer of the ascending aorta and vessels of the aortic arch. Previous studies have shown that patients with normal BAV or slight dysfunction may present with dilation of the aortic root. The hemodynamic changes caused by BAV without stenosis or insufficiency seem to be an insufficient explanation for these findings. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the molecular and hystological aspects of this disease. We found a reduced fibrillin-1 content in both ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk as a possible cause. Histologically, the ascending aorta can present cystic medial necrosis and elastic fragmentation, similar to Marfan's disease. Some authors concluded that many patients, mainly those with aortic regurgitation, should have the aortic valve and the ascending aorta replaced at the same procedure, even if a mild dilatation (45 mm) is present in patients with BAV if life expectancy is anticipated to be greater than 10 years to prevent further aneurysms or ruptures.

  11. LHD Plasma Modeling and Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Murakami, Sadayoshi; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    The transport/heating modeling and equilibrium/stability analysis have been carried out for LHD (Large Helical Device) plasmas. A new simulation code TOTAL (TOroidal Transport Analysis Linkage) is developed, which consists of the 3-dimensional equilibrium code VMEC including bootstrap current and 1-dimensional transport code HTRANS including helical-ripple transport determined as well as anomalous transport. This code clarified the favorable effect of bootstrap current on the neoclassical confinement in LHD. The 3-dimensional stability analysis using CAS3D code has been done and clarified the ballooning mode structure peculiar to the LHD high-beta plasmas. The 5-dimensional simulation code has been developed to analyze the NBI or ECH heating power depositions in LHD plasmas, and the particle orbit effects of high-energy particles are clarified. The plasma rotation analysis is also carried out related to the possibility of the electric-field transition and the plasma confinement improvement in LHD.

  12. Theoretical modelling of epigenetically modified DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alexandra Teresa Pires; Gouveia, Maria Leonor; Raju Kanna, Charan; Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S.; Platts, Jamie; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2015-01-01

    We report herein a set of calculations designed to examine the effects of epigenetic modifications on the structure of DNA. The incorporation of methyl, hydroxymethyl, formyl and carboxy substituents at the 5-position of cytosine is shown to hardly affect the geometry of CG base pairs, but to result in rather larger changes to hydrogen-bond and stacking binding energies, as predicted by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) methods. The same modifications within double-stranded GCG and ACA trimers exhibit rather larger structural effects, when including the sugar-phosphate backbone as well as sodium counterions and implicit aqueous solvation. In particular, changes are observed in the buckle and propeller angles within base pairs and the slide and roll values of base pair steps, but these leave the overall helical shape of DNA essentially intact. The structures so obtained are useful as a benchmark of faster methods, including molecular mechanics (MM) and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. We show that previously developed MM parameters satisfactorily reproduce the trimer structures, as do QM/MM calculations which treat bases with dispersion-corrected DFT and the sugar-phosphate backbone with AMBER. The latter are improved by inclusion of all six bases in the QM region, since a truncated model including only the central CG base pair in the QM region is considerably further from the DFT structure. This QM/MM method is then applied to a set of double-stranded DNA heptamers derived from a recent X-ray crystallographic study, whose size puts a DFT study beyond our current computational resources. These data show that still larger structural changes are observed than in base pairs or trimers, leading us to conclude that it is important to model epigenetic modifications within realistic molecular contexts. PMID:26448859

  13. The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

  14. Dynamics in Higher Education Politics: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauko, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model for analysing dynamics in higher education politics (DHEP). Theoretically the model draws on the conceptual history of political contingency, agenda-setting theories and previous research on higher education dynamics. According to the model, socio-historical complexity can best be analysed along two dimensions: the…

  15. Theoretical model of the helium pinhole microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, Adrià Salvador; Bracco, Gianangelo; Holst, Bodil

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the development of neutral helium microscopes has gained increasing interest. The low energy, charge neutrality, and inertness of the helium atoms makes helium microscopy an attractive candidate for the imaging of a range of samples. The simplest neutral helium microscope is the so-called pinhole microscope. It consists of a supersonic expansion helium beam collimated by two consecutive apertures (skimmer and pinhole), which together determine the beam spot size and hence the resolution at a given working distance to the sample. Due to the high ionization potential of neutral helium atoms, it is difficult to build efficient helium detectors. Therefore, it is crucial to optimize the microscope design to maximize the intensity for a given resolution and working distance. Here we present an optimization model for the helium pinhole microscope system. We show that for a given resolution and working distance, there is a single intensity maximum. Further we show that with present-day state-of-the-art detector technology (ionization efficiency 1 ×10-3 ), a resolution of the order of 600 nm at a working distance of 3 mm is possible. In order to make this quantification, we have assumed a Lambertian reflecting surface and calculated the beam spot size that gives a signal 100 cts/s within a solid angle of 0.02 π sr, following an existing design. Reducing the working distance to the micron range leads to an improved resolution of around 40 nm.

  16. A theoretical model of asymmetric wave ripples.

    PubMed

    Blondeaux, P; Foti, E; Vittori, G

    2015-01-28

    The time development of ripples under sea waves is investigated by means of the weakly nonlinear stability analysis of a flat sandy bottom subjected to the viscous oscillatory flow that is present in the boundary layer at the bottom of propagating sea waves. Second-order effects in the wave steepness are considered, to take into account the presence of the steady drift generated by the surface waves. Hence, the work of Vittori & Blondeaux (1990 J. Fluid Mech. 218, 19-39 (doi:10.1017/S002211209000091X)) is extended by considering steeper waves and/or less deep waters. As shown by the linear analysis of Blondeaux et al. (2000 Eur. J. Mech. B 19, 285-301 (doi:10.1016/S0997-7546(90)00106-I)), because of the presence of a steady velocity component in the direction of wave propagation, ripples migrate at a constant rate that depends on sediment and wave characteristics. The weakly nonlinear analysis shows that the ripple profile is no longer symmetric with respect to ripple crests and troughs and the symmetry index is computed as a function of the parameters of the problem. In particular, a relationship is determined between the symmetry index and the strength of the steady drift. A fair agreement between model results and laboratory data is obtained, albeit further data and analyses are necessary to determine the behaviour of vortex ripples and to be conclusive.

  17. Testing a Theoretical Model of Immigration Transition and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to develop a theoretical model to explain the relationships between immigration transition and midlife women's physical activity and test the relationships among the major variables of the model. A theoretical model, which was developed based on transitions theory and the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity theory, consists of 4 major variables, including length of stay in the United States, country of birth, level of acculturation, and midlife women's physical activity. To test the theoretical model, a secondary analysis with data from 127 Hispanic women and 123 non-Hispanic (NH) Asian women in a national Internet study was used. Among the major variables of the model, length of stay in the United States was negatively associated with physical activity in Hispanic women. Level of acculturation in NH Asian women was positively correlated with women's physical activity. Country of birth and level of acculturation were significant factors that influenced physical activity in both Hispanic and NH Asian women. The findings support the theoretical model that was developed to examine relationships between immigration transition and physical activity; it shows that immigration transition can play an essential role in influencing health behaviors of immigrant populations in the United States. The NH theoretical model can be widely used in nursing practice and research that focus on immigrant women and their health behaviors. Health care providers need to consider the influences of immigration transition to promote immigrant women's physical activity.

  18. Cognitive Aspects of Change in Drawings: A Neo-Piagetian Theoretical Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morra, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    This study reconsiders a series of drawing tasks (Goodnow, 1978) in which children have to modify their stereotypical drawing of the human figure to represent a person in movement. Another task, in which children have to differentiate the drawing of a kangaroo from that of a person, is also considered. According to a neo-Piagetian model of drawing…

  19. Modeling the Illocutionary Aspects of Information-Seeking Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitter, Stefan; Stein, Adelheit

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of discourse modeling in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics focuses on a dialog model that incorporates the illocutionary aspects of information-seeking dialogs. The relevance of a theory developed for the analysis of written texts--Rhetorical Structure Theory--is explained, and future work is discussed. (25…

  20. Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy nuclear physics. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1994-12-05

    Significant progress has been made in the current project year in the development of chiral soliton model and its applications to the electroweak structure of the nucleon and the Delta (1232) resonance. Further progress also has been made in the application of the perturbative QCD (pQCD) and the study of physics beyond the standard model. The postdoctoral associate and the graduate student working towards his Ph.D. degree have both made good progress. The review panel of the DOE has rated this program as a ``strong, high priority`` one. A total of fifteen research communications -- eight journal papers and, conference reports and seven other communications -- have been made during the project year so far. The principal investigator is a member of the Physics Advisory Committee of two nuclear accelerator facilities.

  1. Theoretical Aspects of Torque Responses in Spur Gearing due to Mesh Stiffness Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, J.-H.; Lin, A.-D.

    2003-03-01

    In this study, an analytical formulation of the dynamic behaviour of a spur gear pair is derived. A two-step mesh stiffness model is assumed to account for the time-varying stiffness during tooth engagement. The tooth error model proposed by Kasuba et al. is employed to characterise the tooth error effect on the transmitted torque spectrum. The analytic frequency spectrum of the transmitted torque is formulated by using the corresponding Fourier series. Numerical results have shown that the frequency spectra of the transmitted torque are dominated by the mesh stiffness alternation and the contact ratio of the mating gear pair. Furthermore, the amplitude and frequency modulations introduced by a harmonic input torque and tooth profile error have also been studied.

  2. Energy transfer method in membrane studies: some theoretical and practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Galina P; Domanov, Yegor A

    2002-06-28

    Some applications of resonance energy transfer (RET) method to distance estimation in membrane systems are considered. The model of energy transfer between donors and acceptors randomly distributed over parallel planes localized at the outer and inner membrane leaflets is presented. It is demonstrated that RET method can provide evidence for specific orientation of the fluorophore relative to the lipid-water interface. An approach to estimating the depth of the protein penetration in lipid bilayer is suggested.

  3. Theoretical aspects of dynamic nuclear polarization in the solid state--spin temperature and thermal mixing.

    PubMed

    Hovav, Yonatan; Feintuch, Akiva; Vega, Shimon

    2013-01-07

    Dynamic nuclear polarization is a method which allows for a dramatic increase of the NMR signals due to polarization transfer between electrons and their neighboring nuclei, via microwave irradiation. These experiments have become popular in recent years due to the ability to create hyper-polarized chemically and biologically relevant molecules, in frozen glass forming mixtures containing free radicals. Three mechanisms have been proposed for the polarization transfer between electrons and their surrounding nuclei in such non-conducting samples: the solid effect and cross effect mechanisms, which are based on quantum mechanics and relaxation on small spin systems, and thermal mixing, which originates from the thermodynamic macroscopic notion of spin temperature. We have recently introduced a spin model, which is based on the density matrix formalism and includes relaxation, and applied it to study the solid effect and cross effect mechanisms on small spin systems. In this publication we use the same model to describe the thermal mixing mechanism, and the creation of spin temperature. This is obtained without relying on the spin temperature formalism. Simulations of small model systems are used on systems with homogeneously and inhomogeneously broadened EPR lines. For the case of a homogeneously broadened line we show that the nuclear enhancement results from the thermal mixing and solid effect mechanisms, and that spin temperatures are created in the system. In the inhomogeneous case the enhancements are attributed to the solid effect and cross effect mechanisms, but not thermal mixing.

  4. A graph-theoretic approach to modeling metabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Eric; Johnson, Mark; Tsai, Chun-che

    1991-08-01

    The metabolic pathways of medazepam, oxazepam, and diazepam were modeled using graph-theoretic transforms which are incorporable into computer-assisted metabolic analysis programs. The information, represented in the form of a graph-theoretic transform kit, which was obtained from these pathways was then used to predict the metabolites of other benzodiazepine compounds. The transform kits gave statistically significant predictions with respect to a statistical method for evaluating the performance of the transform kits.

  5. Theoretical aspects of tidal and planetary wave propagation at thermospheric heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volland, H.; Mayr, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    A simple semiquantitative model is presented which allows analytic solutions of tidal and planetary wave propagation at thermospheric heights. This model is based on perturbation approximation and mode separation. The effects of viscosity and heat conduction are parameterized by Rayleigh friction and Newtonian cooling. Because of this simplicity, one gains a clear physical insight into basic features of atmospheric wave propagation. In particular, we discuss the meridional structures of pressure and horizontal wind (the solutions of Laplace's equation) and their modification due to dissipative effects at thermospheric heights. Furthermore, we solve the equations governing the height structure of the wave modes and arrive at a very simple asymptotic solution valid in the upper part of the thermosphere. That 'system transfer function' of the thermosphere allows one to estimate immediately the reaction of the thermospheric wave mode parameters such as pressure, temperature, and winds to an external heat source of arbitrary temporal and spatial distribution. Finally, the diffusion effects of the minor constituents due to the global wind circulation are discussed, and some results of numerical calculations are presented.

  6. Theoretical models for near forward light scattering by a Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    A number of experimental elastic light scattering studies have been performed in the past few years with the aim of developing automated in vivo tools for differentiating a healthy red blood cell from a Plasmodium falciparum infected cell. This paper examines some theoretical aspects of the problem. An attempt has been made to simulate the scattering patterns of healthy as well as infected individual red blood cells. Two models, namely, a homogeneous sphere model and a coated sphere model have been considered. The scattering patterns predicted by these models are examined. A possible method for discriminating infected red blood cells from healthy ones has been suggested.

  7. Indirect Search of Dark Matter in Space: Theoretical and Phenomenological Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirelli, Marco

    Dark Matter constitutes more that 80% of the total amount of matter in the Universe, yet almost nothing is known about its nature. A powerful investigation technique is that of searching for the products of annihilations of Dark Matter particles in the galactic halo, on top of the ordinary cosmic rays. Recent data from the PAMELA and FERMI satellites and a number of balloon experiment have reported unexpected excesses in the measured uxes of cosmic rays. Are these the first direct evidences for Dark Matter? If yes, which DM models and candidates can explain these anomalies (in terms of annihilations) and what do they imply for future searches? What are the constraints from gamma rays measurements and cosmology? [Saclay T-09/222, CERN-PH-TH/2009-252

  8. Theoretical aspects of self-assembly of proteins: A Kirkwood-Buff-theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2013-06-01

    A new approach to the problem of self-assembly of proteins induced by temperature, pressure, or changes in solute concentration is presented. The problem is formulated in terms of Le Chatelier principle, and a solution is sought in terms of the Kirkwood-Buff theory of solutions. In this article we focus on the pressure and solute effects on the association-dissociation equilibrium. We examine the role of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic effects. We argue that the latter are more important than the former. The solute effect, on the other hand, depends on the preferential solvation of the monomer and the aggregate with respect to solvent and co-solvent molecules. An experimental approach based on model compounds to study these effects is suggested.

  9. Culture and Developmental Trajectories: A Discussion on Contemporary Theoretical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Carvalho, Rafael Vera Cruz; Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Martins, Gabriela Dal Forno; Vieira, Mauro Luís

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to describe, compare and discuss the theoretical models proposed by Patricia Greenfield, Çigdem Kagitçibasi and Heidi Keller. Their models have the common goal of understanding the developmental trajectories of self based on dimensions of autonomy and relatedness that are structured according to specific cultural and environmental…

  10. An anisotropic subgrid stress model for high aspect ratio grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Robert; Haering, Sigfried

    2016-11-01

    Standard algebraic eddy viscosity subgrid stress models are formulated based on scalar measures of the local grid, and implicitly assume that the resolution is isotropic. However, complex simulation domains and computational costs associated with problems of engineering interest often necessitate grids with high aspect ratio cells. We present an anisotropic extension of Metias and Lesieur's structure function subgrid stress model. Unlike existing algebraic SGS models, this model is constructed directly through the composition of resolution and resolved turbulence anisotropy. Comparisons with filtered DNS of forced isotropic homogeneous turbulence show the model to significantly outperform general isotropic SGS models with increasing resolution anisotropy.

  11. Rotor-stator contact dynamics using a non-ideal drive—Theoretical and experimental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahriri, Said; Weber, Hans I.; Santos, Ilmar F.; Hartmann, Henning

    2012-09-01

    The possible contact between rotor and stator is considered a serious malfunction that may lead to catastrophic failure. Rotor rub is seen as a secondary phenomenon caused by a primary source, i.e. sudden mass unbalance, instabilities generated by aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces in seals and bearings among others. The contact event gives rise to normal and friction forces exerted on the rotor at impact events. The friction force plays a significant role by transferring some rotational energy of the rotor to lateral motion. A mathematical model has been developed to capture this for a conventional backup annular guide setup. It is reasonable to superpose an impact condition to the rub, where the rotor spin energy can be fully transformed into rotor lateral movements. Using a nonideal drive, i.e. an electric motor without any kind of velocity feedback control, it is even possible to stop the rotor spin under rubbing conditions. All the rotational energy will be transformed in a kind of "self-excited" rotor lateral vibration with repeated impacts against the housing. This paper studies the impact motion of a rotor impacting a conventional backup annular guide for the case of dry and lubricated inner surface of the guide. For the dry surface case, the experimental and numerical analysis shows that the rotational energy is fully transformed into lateral motion and the rotor spin is stopped. Based on this study this paper proposes a new unconventional backup bearing design in order to reduce the rub related severity in friction and center the rotor at impact events. The analysis shows that the rotor at impacts is forced to the center of the backup bearing and the lateral motion is mitigated. As a result of this, the rotor spin is kept constant.

  12. Catalytic aspects of metallophthalocyanines adsorbed on gold-electrode. Theoretical exploration of the binding nature role.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Rojas, Sebastián; Sierra-Rosales, Paulina; Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro; Arratia-Pérez, Ramiro; Zagal, José Heráclito; Mendizábal, Fernando

    2016-10-26

    The need of deeper insights regarding the inner working of catalysts represents a current challenge in the search of new ways to tune their activities towards new chemical transformations. Within this field, metallophthalocyanines-based (MPc) electrocatalysis has gained tremendous attention due to their versatility, low cost, great stability and excellent turn-over properties. In this concern, here we present a quantum chemical study of the formation of supramolecular complexes based on the adsorption of MPcs on gold substrates, and the effect of the substrate on their electrocatalytic properties. For this purpose, we used iron- (FePc), cobalt- (CoPc) and copper-phthalocyanines (CuPc). To model the gold surface we used two gold clusters of different sizes, given by Au26 and Au58 accounting for gold electrode Au(111) surface. Thus, both electronic and binding strength features of the adsorption process between the complexes were analyzed in detail in order to gain a deeper description of the nature of the MPc-Au(111) formation, by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, at the PBE and TPSS levels including the dispersive contribution according to the Grimme approach (D3). Our results show that dispersion forces rule the MPc-gold interaction, with binding strengths ranging between 61 and 153 kcal mol(-1), in agreement to the reported experimental data. To provide a detailed picture of our findings we used the non-covalent interactions index (NCIs) analysis, which offers additional chemical insights regarding the forces that control their interaction strength. Finally, our calculations revealed that among the three MPcs, CuPc required less energy for its oxidation. However, the removal of the electron involves a tremendous decrease of the MPc-gold surface interaction strength thus suggesting its desorption, which would prevent the required reversibility of the redox reaction, explaining its low performance observed experimentally.

  13. Theoretical Model of God: The Key to Correct Exploration of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalanov, Temur Z.

    2007-04-01

    The problem of the correct approach to exploration of the Universe cannot be solved if there is no solution of the problem of existence of God (Creator, Ruler) in science. In this connection, theoretical proof of existence of God is proposed. The theoretical model of God -- as scientific proof of existence of God -- is the consequence of the system of the formulated axioms. The system of the axioms contains, in particular, the following premises: (1) all objects formed (synthesized) by man are characterized by the essential property: namely, divisibility into aspects; (2) objects which can be mentally divided into aspects are objects formed (synthesized); (3) the system ``Universe'' is mentally divided into aspects. Consequently, the Universe represents the system formed (synthesized); (4) the theorem of existence of God (i.e. Absolute, Creator, Ruler) follows from the principle of logical completeness of system of concepts: if the formed (synthesized) system ``Universe'' exists, then God exists as the Absolute, the Creator, the Ruler of essence (i.e. information) and phenomenon (i.e. material objects). Thus, the principle of existence of God -- the content of the theoretical model of God -- must be a starting-point and basis of correct gnosiology and science of 21 century.

  14. Aspects of the Cognitive Model of Physics Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    Various aspects of the cognitive model of physics problem solving are discussed in detail including relevant cues, encoding, memory, and input stimuli. The learning process involved in the recognition of familiar and non-familiar sensory stimuli is highlighted. Its four components include selection, acquisition, construction, and integration. The…

  15. Using Spreadsheets to Teach Aspects of Biology Involving Mathematical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Kevin; Nicholls, Mike; Ponsonby, David

    2004-01-01

    Some aspects of biology, for example the Hardy-Weinberg simulation of population genetics or modelling heat flow in lizards, have an undeniable mathematical basis. Students can find the level of mathematical skill required to deal with such concepts to be an insurmountable hurdle to understanding. If not used effectively, spreadsheet models…

  16. Chosen aspects of modeling and control of quadrotor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiski, Radosław; Błachuta, Marian

    2012-11-01

    This article is presenting the extended model of quadrotor platform together with a bespoken control system based on optimal approach. It highlights particular aspects of the derived model, such as inclusion of rotor gyroscopic effects and thrust generation based on momentum theory. The controller's behavior is tested by simulations. Comparisons with literature-available solutions to the problem of full quadrotor optimal control are made and important differences exposed. Conclusions are drawn and future work proposed.

  17. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  18. The Theoretical Foundation for Intercultural Business Communication: A Conceptual Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varner, Iris I.

    2000-01-01

    Develops a theoretical framework for intercultural business communication which sets it apart from intercultural communication and international business. Presents a model that discusses the intercultural, business, and communication strategies that are part of intercultural business communication. Examines how past articles in the field fit into…

  19. Organizational Learning and Product Design Management: Towards a Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiva-Gomez, Ricardo; Camison-Zornoza, Cesar; Lapiedra-Alcami, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of four Spanish ceramics companies were used to construct a theoretical model of 14 factors essential to organizational learning. One set of factors is related to the conceptual-analytical phase of the product design process and the other to the creative-technical phase. All factors contributed to efficient product design management…

  20. The Theoretical Basis of the Effective School Improvement Model (ESI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerens, Jaap; Demeuse, Marc

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the process of theoretical reflection that preceded the development and empirical verification of a model of "effective school improvement". The focus is on basic mechanisms that could be seen as underlying "getting things in motion" and change in education systems. Four mechanisms are distinguished:…

  1. Path Analysis Tests of Theoretical Models of Children's Memory Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, Darlene; Miller, Patricia H.; Ferron, John; Cunningham, Walter R.

    2004-01-01

    Path analysis was used to test theoretical models of relations among variables known to predict differences in children's memory--strategies, capacity, and metamemory. Children in kindergarten to fourth grade (chronological ages 5 to 11) performed different memory tasks. Several strategies (i.e., sorting, clustering, rehearsal, and self-testing)…

  2. Science and Mathematics Together: Implementing a Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Berlin-White Integrated Science and Mathematics Model, which includes six aspects: (1) ways of learning; (2) ways of knowing; (3) content knowledge; (4) process and thinking skills; (5) attitudes and perceptions; and (6) teaching strategies. Presents a classroom example on the topic of natural selection. (Contains 20 references.)…

  3. Assessing Students' Understandings of Biological Models and their Use in Science to Evaluate a Theoretical Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünkorn, Juliane; Belzen, Annette Upmeier zu; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-07-01

    Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical evaluation). Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present the results of an empirical evaluation of a conjoint theoretical framework. The theoretical framework integrates relevant research findings and comprises five aspects which are subdivided into three levels each: nature of models, multiple models, purpose of models, testing, and changing models. The study was conducted with a sample of 1,177 seventh to tenth graders (aged 11-19 years) using open-ended items. The data were analysed by identifying students' understandings of models (nature of models and multiple models) and their use in science (purpose of models, testing, and changing models), and comparing as well as assigning them to the content of the theoretical framework. A comprehensive category system of students' understandings was thus developed. Regarding the empirical evaluation, the students' understandings of the nature and the purpose of models were sufficiently described by the theoretical framework. Concerning the understandings of multiple, testing, and changing models, additional initial understandings (only one model possible, no testing of models, and no change of models) need to be considered. This conjoint and now empirically tested framework for students' understandings can provide a common basis for future science education research. Furthermore, evidence-based indications can be provided for teachers and their instructional practice.

  4. Modeling and Composing Scenario-Based Requirements with Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araujo, Joao; Whittle, Jon; Ki, Dae-Kyoo

    2004-01-01

    There has been significant recent interest, within the Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) community, in representing crosscutting concerns at various stages of the software lifecycle. However, most of these efforts have concentrated on the design and implementation phases. We focus in this paper on representing aspects during use case modeling. In particular, we focus on scenario-based requirements and show how to compose aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios so that they can be simulated as a whole. Non-aspectual scenarios are modeled as UML sequence diagram. Aspectual scenarios are modeled as Interaction Pattern Specifications (IPS). In order to simulate them, the scenarios are transformed into a set of executable state machines using an existing state machine synthesis algorithm. Previous work composed aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios at the sequence diagram level. In this paper, the composition is done at the state machine level.

  5. A Generalized Information Theoretical Model for Quantum Secret Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chen-Ming; Li, Zhi-Hui; Xu, Ting-Ting; Li, Yong-Ming

    2016-11-01

    An information theoretical model for quantum secret sharing was introduced by H. Imai et al. (Quantum Inf. Comput. 5(1), 69-80 2005), which was analyzed by quantum information theory. In this paper, we analyze this information theoretical model using the properties of the quantum access structure. By the analysis we propose a generalized model definition for the quantum secret sharing schemes. In our model, there are more quantum access structures which can be realized by our generalized quantum secret sharing schemes than those of the previous one. In addition, we also analyse two kinds of important quantum access structures to illustrate the existence and rationality for the generalized quantum secret sharing schemes and consider the security of the scheme by simple examples.

  6. A theoretical model for smoking prevention studies in preteen children.

    PubMed

    McGahee, T W; Kemp, V; Tingen, M

    2000-01-01

    The age of the onset of smoking is on a continual decline, with the prime age of tobacco use initiation being 12-14 years. A weakness of the limited research conducted on smoking prevention programs designed for preteen children (ages 10-12) is a well-defined theoretical basis. A theoretical perspective is needed in order to make a meaningful transition from empirical analysis to application of knowledge. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1977, 1986), the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), and other literature linking various concepts to smoking behaviors in preteens were used to develop a model that may be useful for smoking prevention studies in preteen children.

  7. Electromechanical properties of smart aggregate: theoretical modeling and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianjun; Kong, Qingzhao; Shi, Zhifei; Song, Gangbing

    2016-09-01

    Smart aggregate (SA), as a piezoceramic-based multi-functional device, is formed by sandwiching two lead zirconate titanate (PZT) patches with copper shielding between a pair of solid-machined cylindrical marble blocks with epoxy. Previous researches have successfully demonstrated the capability and reliability of versatile SAs to monitor the structural health of concrete structures. However, the previous works concentrated mainly on the applications of SAs in structural health monitoring; no reasonable theoretical model of SAs was proposed. In this paper, electromechanical properties of SAs were investigated using a proposed theoretical model. Based on one dimensional linear theory of piezo-elasticity, the dynamic solutions of a SA subjected to an external harmonic voltage were solved. Further, the electric impedance of the SA was computed, and the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies were calculated based on derived equations. Numerical analysis was conducted to discuss the effects of the thickness of epoxy layer and the dimension of PZT patch on the fundamental resonance and anti-resonance frequencies as well as the corresponding electromechanical coupling factor. The dynamic solutions based on the proposed theoretical model were further experimentally verified with two SA samples. The fundamental resonance and anti-resonance frequencies of SAs show good agreements in both theoretical and experimental results. The presented analysis and results contribute to the overall understanding of SA properties and help to optimize the working frequencies of SAs in structural health monitoring of civil structures.

  8. Towards a theoretical model on medicines as a health need.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Peláez, Claudia Marcela; Soares, Luciano; Rover, Marina Raijche Mattozo; Blatt, Carine Raquel; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje; Rossi Buenaventura, Francisco Augusto; Restrepo, Luis Guillermo; Latorre, María Cristina; López, José Julián; Bürgin, María Teresa; Silva, Consuelo; Leite, Silvana Nair; Mareni Rocha, Farias

    2017-04-01

    Medicines are considered one of the main tools of western medicine to resolve health problems. Currently, medicines represent an important share of the countries' healthcare budget. In the Latin America region, access to essential medicines is still a challenge, although countries have established some measures in the last years in order to guarantee equitable access to medicines. A theoretical model is proposed for analysing the social, political, and economic factors that modulate the role of medicines as a health need and their influence on the accessibility and access to medicines. The model was built based on a narrative review about health needs, and followed the conceptual modelling methodology for theory-building. The theoretical model considers elements (stakeholders, policies) that modulate the perception towards medicines as a health need from two perspectives - health and market - at three levels: international, national and local levels. The perception towards medicines as a health need is described according to Bradshaw's categories: felt need, normative need, comparative need and expressed need. When those different categories applied to medicines coincide, the patients get access to the medicines they perceive as a need, but when the categories do not coincide, barriers to access to medicines are created. Our theoretical model, which holds a broader view about the access to medicines, emphasises how power structures, interests, interdependencies, values and principles of the stakeholders could influence the perception towards medicines as a health need and the access to medicines in Latin American countries.

  9. Design, modelling and simulation aspects of an ankle rehabilitation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racu, C. M.; Doroftei, I.

    2016-08-01

    Ankle injuries are amongst the most common injuries of the lower limb. Besides initial treatment, rehabilitation of the patients plays a crucial role for future activities and proper functionality of the foot. Traditionally, ankle injuries are rehabilitated via physiotherapy, using simple equipment like elastic bands and rollers, requiring intensive efforts of therapists and patients. Thus, the need of robotic devices emerges. In this paper, the design concept and some modelling and simulation aspects of a novel ankle rehabilitation device are presented.

  10. A sequential decision-theoretic model for medical diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Li, Aiping; Jin, Songchang; Zhang, Lumin; Jia, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Although diagnostic expert systems using a knowledge base which models decision-making of traditional experts can provide important information to non-experts, they tend to duplicate the errors made by experts. Decision-Theoretic Model (DTM) is therefore very useful in expert system since they prevent experts from incorrect reasoning under uncertainty. For the diagnostic expert system, corresponding DTM and arithmetic are studied and a sequential diagnostic decision-theoretic model based on Bayesian Network is given. In the model, the alternative features are categorized into two classes (including diseases features and test features), then an arithmetic for prior of test is provided. The different features affect other features weights are also discussed. Bayesian Network is adopted to solve uncertainty presentation and propagation. The model can help knowledge engineers model the knowledge involved in sequential diagnosis and decide evidence alternative priority. A practical example of the models is also presented: at any time of the diagnostic process the expert is provided with a dynamically updated list of suggested tests in order to support him in the decision-making problem about which test to execute next. The results show it is better than the traditional diagnostic model which is based on experience.

  11. Advancing Women Scientists: Exploring a Theoretically Grounded Climate Change Workshop Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Barbara; Prochaska, Janice; Mederer, Helen; Harlow, Lisa; Sherman, Karen

    Universities in the United States have an increasing need to recruit the best and the brightest faculty to remain globally competitive, but the majority of schools share a profile that includes a low percentage of women in most of the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines. Changes in university culture are needed to enable departmental diversity growth, to expand offerings and perspectives, and to strengthen the view that STEM is an attractive choice for female students and prospective faculty. This paper describes the theoretical models used to develop a prototype workshop series implemented in departments to help faculty progress in their readiness to advance women scientists, defined as collaborating, mentoring, sharing resources, and generating support through community. The three theoretical underpinnings are the gender-as-structure theory of organizational change, Appreciative Inquiry, and the Transtheoretical Model. These workshops are one aspect of the climate change efforts implemented by the ADVANCE program of the University of Rhode Island.

  12. Epidemiologic Considerations in Network Modeling of Theoretical Disease Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    of this type of intervention include the oral polio vaccine, which like wild-type polio virus is spread by fecal-oral route, and, potentially...RTO-MP-IST-063 11 - 1 Epidemiologic Considerations in Network Modeling of Theoretical Disease Events Marcus Lem, MD, MHSc, FRCP(C...the armament of public health and epidemiology . Epidemiologists and communicable disease control researchers have been turning to network analysis to

  13. Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed.

  14. Visual backward masking: Modeling spatial and temporal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, Frouke; Ernst, Udo

    2008-01-01

    In modeling visual backward masking, the focus has been on temporal effects. More specifically, an explanation has been sought as to why strongest masking can occur when the mask is delayed with respect to the target. Although interesting effects of the spatial layout of the mask have been found, only a few attempts have been made to model these phenomena. Here, we elaborate a structurally simple model which employs lateral excitation and inhibition together with different neural time scales to explain many spatial and temporal aspects of backward masking. We argue that for better understanding of visual masking, it is vitally important to consider the interplay of spatial and temporal factors together in one single model. PMID:20517501

  15. Information theoretic model selection applied to supernovae data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesiada, Marek

    2007-02-01

    Current advances in observational cosmology suggest that our Universe is flat and dominated by dark energy. There are several different theoretical ideas invoked to explain the dark energy with relatively little guidance of which one of them might be right. Therefore the emphasis of ongoing and forthcoming research in this field shifts from estimating specific parameters of the cosmological model to the model selection. In this paper we apply an information theoretic model selection approach based on the Akaike criterion as an estimator of Kullback Leibler entropy. Although this approach has already been used by some authors in a similar context, this paper provides a more systematic introduction to the Akaike criterion. In particular, we present the proper way of ranking the competing models on the basis of Akaike weights (in Bayesian language: posterior probabilities of the models). This important ingredient is lacking from alternative studies dealing with cosmological applications of the Akaike criterion. Of the many particular models of dark energy we focus on four: quintessence, quintessence with a time varying equation of state, the braneworld scenario and the generalized Chaplygin gas model, and test them on Riess's gold sample. As a result we obtain that the best model—in terms of the Akaike criterion—is the quintessence model. The odds suggest that although there exist differences in the support given to specific scenarios by supernova data, most of the models considered receive similar support. The only exception is the Chaplygin gas which is considerably less supported. One can also note that models similar in structure, e.g. ΛCDM, quintessence and quintessence with a variable equation of state, are closer to each other in terms of Kullback Leibler entropy. Models having different structure, e.g. Chaplygin gas and the braneworld scenario, are more distant (in the Kullback Leibler sense) from the best one.

  16. The Thomas–Fermi quark model: Non-relativistic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Quan Wilcox, Walter

    2014-02-15

    The first numerical investigation of non-relativistic aspects of the Thomas–Fermi (TF) statistical multi-quark model is given. We begin with a review of the traditional TF model without an explicit spin interaction and find that the spin splittings are too small in this approach. An explicit spin interaction is then introduced which entails the definition of a generalized spin “flavor”. We investigate baryonic states in this approach which can be described with two inequivalent wave functions; such states can however apply to multiple degenerate flavors. We find that the model requires a spatial separation of quark flavors, even if completely degenerate. Although the TF model is designed to investigate the possibility of many-quark states, we find surprisingly that it may be used to fit the low energy spectrum of almost all ground state octet and decuplet baryons. The charge radii of such states are determined and compared with lattice calculations and other models. The low energy fit obtained allows us to extrapolate to the six-quark doubly strange H-dibaryon state, flavor symmetric strange states of higher quark content and possible six quark nucleon–nucleon resonances. The emphasis here is on the systematics revealed in this approach. We view our model as a versatile and convenient tool for quickly assessing the characteristics of new, possibly bound, particle states of higher quark number content. -- Highlights: • First application of the statistical Thomas–Fermi quark model to baryonic systems. • Novel aspects: spin as generalized flavor; spatial separation of quark flavor phases. • The model is statistical, but the low energy baryonic spectrum is successfully fit. • Numerical applications include the H-dibaryon, strange states and nucleon resonances. • The statistical point of view does not encourage the idea of bound many-quark baryons.

  17. EISCAT velocity patterns for theoretical plasma convection models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rishbeth, H.; Sojka, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical line-of-sight velocities, as would be observed by the EISCAT radar, are computed for idealized models of plasma convection in the polar ionosphere. The calculations give the velocity as a function of range and Universal Time. For several variants of the Volland and Heelis convection models, how the maxima, minima and reversals of velocity depend on beam azimuth is examined. The analysis is designed to be applied to data from the UK-POLAR experiment, an example of which is shown.

  18. Theoretical models of ultrasonic inspection and their validation

    SciTech Connect

    Birchall, D.; Daniels, W.; Hawker, B.M.; Ramsey, A.T.; Temple, J.A.G.

    1994-12-31

    In response to the perception of demands by the public for higher than ever standards of safety, the nuclear industry in Britain embarked on an extensive program of nuclear safety research in support of the safety case for the new Sizewell B pressurized water reactor, which is now approaching completion. A suite of diverse computer models, of various aspects of ultrasonic inspection, is described, ranging from transducer design to ray-tracing in anisotropic stainless steel weldments or complex geometries. These provide aids to inspection design, verification, validation and data analysis, but the models must also be validated.

  19. Polarisers in the focal domain: Theoretical model and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Maluenda, David; Juvells, Ignasi; Carnicer, Artur

    2017-02-13

    Polarisers are one of the most widely used devices in optical set-ups. They are commonly used with paraxial beams that propagate in the normal direction of the polariser plane. Nevertheless, the conventional projection character of these devices may change when the beam impinges a polariser with a certain angle of incidence. This effect is more noticeable if polarisers are used in optical systems with a high numerical aperture, because multiple angles of incidence have to be taken into account. Moreover, the non-transverse character of highly focused beams makes the problem more complex and strictly speaking, the Malus' law does not apply. In this paper we develop a theoretical framework to explain how ideal polarisers affect the behavior of highly focused fields. In this model, the polarisers are considered as birefringent plates, and the vector behaviour of focused fields is described using the plane-wave angular spectrum approach. Experiments involving focused fields were conducted to verify the theoretical model and a satisfactory agreement between theoretical and experimental results was found.

  20. Polarisers in the focal domain: Theoretical model and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Maluenda, David; Juvells, Ignasi; Carnicer, Artur

    2017-02-01

    Polarisers are one of the most widely used devices in optical set-ups. They are commonly used with paraxial beams that propagate in the normal direction of the polariser plane. Nevertheless, the conventional projection character of these devices may change when the beam impinges a polariser with a certain angle of incidence. This effect is more noticeable if polarisers are used in optical systems with a high numerical aperture, because multiple angles of incidence have to be taken into account. Moreover, the non-transverse character of highly focused beams makes the problem more complex and strictly speaking, the Malus’ law does not apply. In this paper we develop a theoretical framework to explain how ideal polarisers affect the behavior of highly focused fields. In this model, the polarisers are considered as birefringent plates, and the vector behaviour of focused fields is described using the plane-wave angular spectrum approach. Experiments involving focused fields were conducted to verify the theoretical model and a satisfactory agreement between theoretical and experimental results was found.

  1. Polarisers in the focal domain: Theoretical model and experimental validation

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Maluenda, David; Juvells, Ignasi; Carnicer, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Polarisers are one of the most widely used devices in optical set-ups. They are commonly used with paraxial beams that propagate in the normal direction of the polariser plane. Nevertheless, the conventional projection character of these devices may change when the beam impinges a polariser with a certain angle of incidence. This effect is more noticeable if polarisers are used in optical systems with a high numerical aperture, because multiple angles of incidence have to be taken into account. Moreover, the non-transverse character of highly focused beams makes the problem more complex and strictly speaking, the Malus’ law does not apply. In this paper we develop a theoretical framework to explain how ideal polarisers affect the behavior of highly focused fields. In this model, the polarisers are considered as birefringent plates, and the vector behaviour of focused fields is described using the plane-wave angular spectrum approach. Experiments involving focused fields were conducted to verify the theoretical model and a satisfactory agreement between theoretical and experimental results was found. PMID:28191817

  2. Dynamical aspects in modeling long cantilevering workpieces in tool grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Payrebrune, K. M.; Kröger, M.

    2015-10-01

    Tool grinding is a complex process in which temporal dynamics of workpiece and grinding wheel, and the material removal process itself, affect the quality of the workpiece. Many existing models already provide the option to study the dynamics of workpiece and grinding wheel or cutting forces and material removal processes, but mostly do not combine these aspects. Here, workpiece dynamics are studied in relation to its structural and geometrical changing properties during machining, and are used to simulate the vibrations and deformation of the workpiece during grinding. In combination with models for the grinding wheel and the material removal process, dependencies of the workpiece dynamics on the workpieces quality are studied and results from this hybrid model are in excellent agreement with empirical measurements. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the significant effects of deformations of the workpiece on its final geometry.

  3. Aspects of Mathematical Modelling of Pressure Retarded Osmosis.

    PubMed

    Anissimov, Yuri G

    2016-02-03

    In power generating terms, a pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) energy generating plant, on a river entering a sea or ocean, is equivalent to a hydroelectric dam with a height of about 60 meters. Therefore, PRO can add significantly to existing renewable power generation capacity if economical constrains of the method are resolved. PRO energy generation relies on a semipermeable membrane that is permeable to water and impermeable to salt. Mathematical modelling plays an important part in understanding flows of water and salt near and across semipermeable membranes and helps to optimize PRO energy generation. Therefore, the modelling can help realizing PRO energy generation potential. In this work, a few aspects of mathematical modelling of the PRO process are reviewed and discussed.

  4. Aspects of Mathematical Modelling of Pressure Retarded Osmosis

    PubMed Central

    Anissimov, Yuri G.

    2016-01-01

    In power generating terms, a pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) energy generating plant, on a river entering a sea or ocean, is equivalent to a hydroelectric dam with a height of about 60 meters. Therefore, PRO can add significantly to existing renewable power generation capacity if economical constrains of the method are resolved. PRO energy generation relies on a semipermeable membrane that is permeable to water and impermeable to salt. Mathematical modelling plays an important part in understanding flows of water and salt near and across semipermeable membranes and helps to optimize PRO energy generation. Therefore, the modelling can help realizing PRO energy generation potential. In this work, a few aspects of mathematical modelling of the PRO process are reviewed and discussed. PMID:26848696

  5. A Modified Theoretical Model of Intrinsic Hardness of Crystalline Solids.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun

    2016-09-08

    Super-hard materials have been extensively investigated due to their practical importance in numerous industrial applications. To stimulate the design and exploration of new super-hard materials, microscopic models that elucidate the fundamental factors controlling hardness are desirable. The present work modified the theoretical model of intrinsic hardness proposed by Gao. In the modification, we emphasize the critical role of appropriately decomposing a crystal to pseudo-binary crystals, which should be carried out based on the valence electron population of each bond. After modification, the model becomes self-consistent and predicts well the hardness values of many crystals, including crystals composed of complex chemical bonds. The modified model provides fundamental insights into the nature of hardness, which can facilitate the quest for intrinsic super-hard materials.

  6. A Modified Theoretical Model of Intrinsic Hardness of Crystalline Solids

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    Super-hard materials have been extensively investigated due to their practical importance in numerous industrial applications. To stimulate the design and exploration of new super-hard materials, microscopic models that elucidate the fundamental factors controlling hardness are desirable. The present work modified the theoretical model of intrinsic hardness proposed by Gao. In the modification, we emphasize the critical role of appropriately decomposing a crystal to pseudo-binary crystals, which should be carried out based on the valence electron population of each bond. After modification, the model becomes self-consistent and predicts well the hardness values of many crystals, including crystals composed of complex chemical bonds. The modified model provides fundamental insights into the nature of hardness, which can facilitate the quest for intrinsic super-hard materials. PMID:27604165

  7. Healing from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual violence throughout the lifespan, referred to as the Sexual Violence Study, yielded a subsample of 48 women and 47 men who had experienced childhood sexual abuse. During semistructured, open-ended interviews, they were asked to describe their experiences with healing from childhood sexual abuse and other victimization throughout their lives. Constructivist grounded theory methods were used with these data to develop constructs and hypotheses about healing. For the Sexual Violence Study, frameworks were developed to describe the participants' life patterns, parenting experiences, disclosures about sexual violence, spirituality, and altruism. Several analytic techniques were used to synthesize the findings of these frameworks to develop an overarching theoretical model that describes healing from childhood sexual abuse. The model includes four stages of healing, five domains of functioning, and six enabling factors that facilitate movement from one stage to the next. The findings indicate that healing is a complex and dynamic trajectory. The model can be used to alert clinicians to a variety of processes and enabling factors that facilitate healing in several domains and to guide discussions on important issues related to healing from childhood sexual abuse.

  8. Theoretical approaches to modeling interfacial structure and EXAFS data

    SciTech Connect

    Schenter, G.K.; McCarthy, M.I.; Chacon-Taylor, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    Understanding the molecular scale processes that control the fate and transport of contaminant metals through the subsurface is a key goal of molecular environmental research. Extended Xray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectra is a powerful experimental technique for determining the structure of solvated metal ions at mineral interfaces. The interpretation of these data is aided by theoretical models of the interfacial chemistry and physics. Using ab initio based potential models and classical mechanics simulations, we are able to predict the structure of (M+)aq/mineral interfaces. We will discuss both the development of the ab initio based classical electrostatic potentials for modeling the interaction between molecules and surfaces and the simulation techniques used to model dynamical processes of ions at water/mineral interfaces. This information is then used as input for calculations of the corresponding EXAFS spectra as a function of temperature and surface topology. Theoretical predicted spectra for Na+(H2O)n clusters on MgO (001) will be presented, emphasizing trends in the observed EXAFS spectra with cluster size, temperature, and surface topology (flat surface, edge and corner MgO sites).

  9. Game-Theoretic Models of Information Overload in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgs, Christian; Chayes, Jennifer; Karrer, Brian; Meeder, Brendan; Ravi, R.; Reagans, Ray; Sayedi, Amin

    We study the effect of information overload on user engagement in an asymmetric social network like Twitter. We introduce simple game-theoretic models that capture rate competition between celebrities producing updates in such networks where users non-strategically choose a subset of celebrities to follow based on the utility derived from high quality updates as well as disutility derived from having to wade through too many updates. Our two variants model the two behaviors of users dropping some potential connections (followership model) or leaving the network altogether (engagement model). We show that under a simple formulation of celebrity rate competition, there is no pure strategy Nash equilibrium under the first model. We then identify special cases in both models when pure rate equilibria exist for the celebrities: For the followership model, we show existence of a pure rate equilibrium when there is a global ranking of the celebrities in terms of the quality of their updates to users. This result also generalizes to the case when there is a partial order consistent with all the linear orders of the celebrities based on their qualities to the users. Furthermore, these equilibria can be computed in polynomial time. For the engagement model, pure rate equilibria exist when all users are interested in the same number of celebrities, or when they are interested in at most two. Finally, we also give a finite though inefficient procedure to determine if pure equilibria exist in the general case of the followership model.

  10. Modeling semantic aspects for cross-media image indexing.

    PubMed

    Monay, Florent; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    To go beyond the query-by-example paradigm in image retrieval, there is a need for semantic indexing of large image collections for intuitive text-based image search. Different models have been proposed to learn the dependencies between the visual content of an image set and the associated text captions, then allowing for the automatic creation of semantic indices for unannotated images. The task, however, remains unsolved. In this paper, we present three alternatives to learn a Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model (PLSA) for annotated images, and evaluate their respective performance for automatic image indexing. Under the PLSA assumptions, an image is modeled as a mixture of latent aspects that generates both image features and text captions, and we investigate three ways to learn the mixture of aspects. We also propose a more discriminative image representation than the traditional Blob histogram, concatenating quantized local color information and quantized local texture descriptors. The first learning procedure of a PLSA model for annotated images is a standard EM algorithm, which implicitly assumes that the visual and the textual modalities can be treated equivalently. The other two models are based on an asymmetric PLSA learning, allowing to constrain the definition of the latent space on the visual or on the textual modality. We demonstrate that the textual modality is more appropriate to learn a semantically meaningful latent space, which translates into improved annotation performance. A comparison of our learning algorithms with respect to recent methods on a standard dataset is presented, and a detailed evaluation of the performance shows the validity of our framework.

  11. Information-Theoretic Benchmarking of Land Surface Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Grey; Mocko, David; Kumar, Sujay; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Xia, Youlong

    2016-04-01

    Benchmarking is a type of model evaluation that compares model performance against a baseline metric that is derived, typically, from a different existing model. Statistical benchmarking was used to qualitatively show that land surface models do not fully utilize information in boundary conditions [1] several years before Gong et al [2] discovered the particular type of benchmark that makes it possible to *quantify* the amount of information lost by an incorrect or imperfect model structure. This theoretical development laid the foundation for a formal theory of model benchmarking [3]. We here extend that theory to separate uncertainty contributions from the three major components of dynamical systems models [4]: model structures, model parameters, and boundary conditions describe time-dependent details of each prediction scenario. The key to this new development is the use of large-sample [5] data sets that span multiple soil types, climates, and biomes, which allows us to segregate uncertainty due to parameters from the two other sources. The benefit of this approach for uncertainty quantification and segregation is that it does not rely on Bayesian priors (although it is strictly coherent with Bayes' theorem and with probability theory), and therefore the partitioning of uncertainty into different components is *not* dependent on any a priori assumptions. We apply this methodology to assess the information use efficiency of the four land surface models that comprise the North American Land Data Assimilation System (Noah, Mosaic, SAC-SMA, and VIC). Specifically, we looked at the ability of these models to estimate soil moisture and latent heat fluxes. We found that in the case of soil moisture, about 25% of net information loss was from boundary conditions, around 45% was from model parameters, and 30-40% was from the model structures. In the case of latent heat flux, boundary conditions contributed about 50% of net uncertainty, and model structures contributed

  12. Theoretical models for coronary vascular biomechanics: Progress & challenges

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Sarah L.; Alastruey, Jordi; Beard, Daniel A.; Bovendeerd, Peter H.M.; Davies, Peter F.; Jayaraman, Girija; Jensen, Oliver E.; Lee, Jack; Parker, Kim H.; Popel, Aleksander S.; Secomb, Timothy W.; Siebes, Maria; Sherwin, Spencer J.; Shipley, Rebecca J.; Smith, Nicolas P.; van de Vosse, Frans N.

    2013-01-01

    A key aim of the cardiac Physiome Project is to develop theoretical models to simulate the functional behaviour of the heart under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Heart function is critically dependent on the delivery of an adequate blood supply to the myocardium via the coronary vasculature. Key to this critical function of the coronary vasculature is system dynamics that emerge via the interactions of the numerous constituent components at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Here, we focus on several components for which theoretical approaches can be applied, including vascular structure and mechanics, blood flow and mass transport, flow regulation, angiogenesis and vascular remodelling, and vascular cellular mechanics. For each component, we summarise the current state of the art in model development, and discuss areas requiring further research. We highlight the major challenges associated with integrating the component models to develop a computational tool that can ultimately be used to simulate the responses of the coronary vascular system to changing demands and to diseases and therapies. PMID:21040741

  13. Theoretical modeling techniques and their impact on tumor immunology.

    PubMed

    Woelke, Anna Lena; Murgueitio, Manuela S; Preissner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Currently, cancer is one of the leading causes of death in industrial nations. While conventional cancer treatment usually results in the patient suffering from severe side effects, immunotherapy is a promising alternative. Nevertheless, some questions remain unanswered with regard to using immunotherapy to treat cancer hindering it from being widely established. To help rectify this deficit in knowledge, experimental data, accumulated from a huge number of different studies, can be integrated into theoretical models of the tumor-immune system interaction. Many complex mechanisms in immunology and oncology cannot be measured in experiments, but can be analyzed by mathematical simulations. Using theoretical modeling techniques, general principles of tumor-immune system interactions can be explored and clinical treatment schedules optimized to lower both tumor burden and side effects. In this paper, we aim to explain the main mathematical and computational modeling techniques used in tumor immunology to experimental researchers and clinicians. In addition, we review relevant published work and provide an overview of its impact to the field.

  14. Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided. PMID:20195441

  15. A theoretical model for uni-directional ant trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayacan, Ozhan

    2011-03-01

    A theoretical model of uni-directional ant traffic, motivated by the motion of ants in trail is proposed. Two different type of ants, one of which smells very well and the other does not, are considered. The flux of ants in this model is investigated as functions of the probability of evaporation rate of pheromone. The obtained results indicate that the mean velocity of the ants varies non-monotonically with their density. In addition, it is observed that phase transition in the flux and the mean velocity vs. density occurs at certain density for a fixed evaporation rate. The effective hopping probability is investigated as well depending on the evaporation rate of pheromone. It is worth to note that the proposed model can be generalized for vehicular traffic on freeways.

  16. NONHOMOGENEOUS TERMS IN THE UNSTEADY FLOW EQUATIONS: MODELING ASPECTS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, Chintu; Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Baltzer, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    A study is in progress to identify the relative significance, effects, and benefits attributable to the use of one-dimensional, unsteady, open-channel, flow-simulation models employing a variety of nonhomogeneous terms in their equation formulations. Nonhomogeneous terms being analyzed include those representing bed slope, frictional resistance, nonprismatic channel geometry, lateral flow, and (surface) wind stress. After an initial theoretical discussion, the results of a set of numerical experiments are presented that demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships and intercomparisons achieved by neglect or improper treatment of important nonhomogeneous terms. Preliminary results of this study are discussed and presented in this paper, both in the form of qualitative considerations and quantitative tabular findings. These results are expected to yield a definitive set of guidelines and suggestions useful to model engineers.

  17. Collective aspects of protein folding illustrated by a toy model

    SciTech Connect

    Stillinger, F.H.; Head-Gordon, T.

    1995-09-01

    A simple toy model for polypeptides serves as a testbed to illuminate some nonlocal, or collective, aspects of protein folding phenomena. The model is two dimensional and has only two amino acids, but involves a continuous range of backbone bend angles. Global potential energy minima and their folding structures have been determined for leading members of two special and contrasting polypeptide sequences, center doped and Fibonacci, named descriptively for their primary structures. The results display the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking, elastic strain, and substantial conformational variation for specific embedded amino acid strings. We conclude that collective variables generated by the primary amino acid structure may be required for fully effective protein folding predictors, including those based on neural networks.

  18. Perturbative and nonperturbative aspects of heterotic sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaoyi

    Supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models are interesting from various perspectives. They are useful for understanding the most fundamental theory of our world, and for low-energy effective model-building. Mathematically, they make surprising connections between different exciting areas such as complex geometry, deformation theory, quantum algebra and topology. In this thesis, we study perturbative and nonperturbative aspects of sigma models with N = (0, 2) supersymmetry, with an emphasize on a possible version of extended 4d/2d correspondence. We showed that in some N = (0, 2) models, β functions calculated through Feynman graphs can be reproduced by nonrenormalization theorems. And the result can further be compared with the supercurrent analysis. These cases including linear models, minimal CP(1) model (other CP(N) models are obstructed by global anomaly) together with its extended cousins, and heterotic CP(N) models. Nonperturbatively we built the instanton measure for minimal CP(1) model and its (0, 2)-extended cousins. The instanton measure bears similarity to the instanton measure for 4d super-Yang-Mills theories. Through this analogy, there seems to be a correspondence between N = 1 theories in 4d and N = (0, 2) theories in 2d, which extends previous results initiated by Edalati-Tong and Shifman-Yung. An interesting by-product is also obtained during the procedure, which shows that for non-minimal (globally anomaly-free) N = (0, 2) models with CP(1) as target spaces, there seems always exist certain infrared fixed points, induced by the behavior of chiral fermions.

  19. Accuracy Analysis of a Box-wing Theoretical SRP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhao, Qunhe; Guo, Rui

    2016-07-01

    For Beidou satellite navigation system (BDS) a high accuracy SRP model is necessary for high precise applications especially with Global BDS establishment in future. The BDS accuracy for broadcast ephemeris need be improved. So, a box-wing theoretical SRP model with fine structure and adding conical shadow factor of earth and moon were established. We verified this SRP model by the GPS Block IIF satellites. The calculation was done with the data of PRN 1, 24, 25, 27 satellites. The results show that the physical SRP model for POD and forecast for GPS IIF satellite has higher accuracy with respect to Bern empirical model. The 3D-RMS of orbit is about 20 centimeters. The POD accuracy for both models is similar but the prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model is more than doubled. We tested 1-day 3-day and 7-day orbit prediction. The longer is the prediction arc length, the more significant is the improvement. The orbit prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model for 1-day, 3-day and 7-day arc length are 0.4m, 2.0m, 10.0m respectively. But they are 0.9m, 5.5m and 30m with Bern empirical model respectively. We apply this means to the BDS and give out a SRP model for Beidou satellites. Then we test and verify the model with Beidou data of one month only for test. Initial results show the model is good but needs more data for verification and improvement. The orbit residual RMS is similar to that with our empirical force model which only estimate the force for along track, across track direction and y-bias. But the orbit overlap and SLR observation evaluation show some improvement. The remaining empirical force is reduced significantly for present Beidou constellation.

  20. Graph Theoretical Model of a Sensorimotor Connectome in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stobb, Michael; Peterson, Joshua M.; Mazzag, Borbala; Gahtan, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes) of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons represent known cell types in zebrafish larvae, and connections were set stochastically following rules based on biological literature. Thus, our model is a uniquely detailed computational representation of a vertebrate connectome. The connectome has low overall connection density, with 2.45% of all possible connections, a value within the physiological range. We used graph theoretical tools to compare the zebrafish connectome graph to small-world, random and structured random graphs of the same size. For each type of graph, 100 randomly generated instantiations were considered. Degree distribution (the number of connections per neuron) varied more in the zebrafish graph than in same size graphs with less biological detail. There was high local clustering and a short average path length between nodes, implying a small-world structure similar to other neural connectomes and complex networks. The graph was found not to be scale-free, in agreement with some other neural connectomes. An experimental lesion was performed that targeted three model brain neurons, including the Mauthner neuron, known to control fast escape turns. The lesion decreased the number of short paths between sensory and motor neurons analogous to the behavioral effects of the same lesion in zebrafish. This model is expandable and can be used to organize and interpret a growing database of information on the zebrafish connectome. PMID:22624008

  1. Graph theoretical model of a sensorimotor connectome in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stobb, Michael; Peterson, Joshua M; Mazzag, Borbala; Gahtan, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes) of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons represent known cell types in zebrafish larvae, and connections were set stochastically following rules based on biological literature. Thus, our model is a uniquely detailed computational representation of a vertebrate connectome. The connectome has low overall connection density, with 2.45% of all possible connections, a value within the physiological range. We used graph theoretical tools to compare the zebrafish connectome graph to small-world, random and structured random graphs of the same size. For each type of graph, 100 randomly generated instantiations were considered. Degree distribution (the number of connections per neuron) varied more in the zebrafish graph than in same size graphs with less biological detail. There was high local clustering and a short average path length between nodes, implying a small-world structure similar to other neural connectomes and complex networks. The graph was found not to be scale-free, in agreement with some other neural connectomes. An experimental lesion was performed that targeted three model brain neurons, including the Mauthner neuron, known to control fast escape turns. The lesion decreased the number of short paths between sensory and motor neurons analogous to the behavioral effects of the same lesion in zebrafish. This model is expandable and can be used to organize and interpret a growing database of information on the zebrafish connectome.

  2. Impulses and Physiological States in Theoretical Models of Nerve Membrane

    PubMed Central

    FitzHugh, Richard

    1961-01-01

    Van der Pol's equation for a relaxation oscillator is generalized by the addition of terms to produce a pair of non-linear differential equations with either a stable singular point or a limit cycle. The resulting “BVP model” has two variables of state, representing excitability and refractoriness, and qualitatively resembles Bonhoeffer's theoretical model for the iron wire model of nerve. This BVP model serves as a simple representative of a class of excitable-oscillatory systems including the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model of the squid giant axon. The BVP phase plane can be divided into regions corresponding to the physiological states of nerve fiber (resting, active, refractory, enhanced, depressed, etc.) to form a “physiological state diagram,” with the help of which many physiological phenomena can be summarized. A properly chosen projection from the 4-dimensional HH phase space onto a plane produces a similar diagram which shows the underlying relationship between the two models. Impulse trains occur in the BVP and HH models for a range of constant applied currents which make the singular point representing the resting state unstable. PMID:19431309

  3. Category-theoretic models of algebraic computer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    A computer system is said to be algebraic if it contains nodes that implement unconventional computation paradigms based on universal algebra. A category-based approach to modeling such systems that provides a theoretical basis for mapping tasks to these systems' architecture is proposed. The construction of algebraic models of general-purpose computations involving conditional statements and overflow control is formally described by a reflector in an appropriate category of algebras. It is proved that this reflector takes the modulo ring whose operations are implemented in the conventional arithmetic processors to the Łukasiewicz logic matrix. Enrichments of the set of ring operations that form bases in the Łukasiewicz logic matrix are found.

  4. A Lifecourse Model of Multimorbidity Resilience: Theoretical and Research Developments.

    PubMed

    Wister, Andrew V; Coatta, Katherine L; Schuurman, Nadine; Lear, Scott A; Rosin, Miriam; MacKey, Dawn

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to advance a Lifecourse Model of Multimorbidity Resilience. It focuses on the ways in which individuals face adversities associated with multimorbidity and regain a sense of wellness through a complex, dynamic phenomenon termed resilience. A comprehensive review of 112 publications (between 1995 and 2015) was conducted using several comprehensive electronic data bases. Two independent researchers extracted and synthesized resilience literature with specific applications to chronic illness. The article outlines five stages of theoretical development of resilience, synthesizes these with the aging and chronic illness literature, builds a rationale for a lifecourse approach to resilience, and applies the model to multimorbidity. Cultivating and maintaining resilience is fundamental to functioning and quality of life for those with multimorbidity. We found that there are a number of gaps in both basic and applied research that need to be filled to advance knowledge and practice based on resilience approaches.

  5. Development of theoretical models of integrated millimeter wave antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid; Schaubert, Daniel H.

    1991-12-01

    Extensive radiation patterns for Linear Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) Single Elements are presented. The directivity of LTSA elements is predicted correctly by taking the cross polarized pattern into account. A moment method program predicts radiation patterns for air LTSAs with excellent agreement with experimental data. A moment method program was also developed for the task LTSA Array Modeling. Computations performed with this program are in excellent agreement with published results for dipole and monopole arrays, and with waveguide simulator experiments, for more complicated structures. Empirical modeling of LTSA arrays demonstrated that the maximum theoretical element gain can be obtained. Formulations were also developed for calculating the aperture efficiency of LTSA arrays used in reflector systems. It was shown that LTSA arrays used in multibeam systems have a considerable advantage in terms of higher packing density, compared with waveguide feeds. Conversion loss of 10 dB was demonstrated at 35 GHz.

  6. Development of theoretical models of integrated millimeter wave antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid; Schaubert, Daniel H.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive radiation patterns for Linear Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) Single Elements are presented. The directivity of LTSA elements is predicted correctly by taking the cross polarized pattern into account. A moment method program predicts radiation patterns for air LTSAs with excellent agreement with experimental data. A moment method program was also developed for the task LTSA Array Modeling. Computations performed with this program are in excellent agreement with published results for dipole and monopole arrays, and with waveguide simulator experiments, for more complicated structures. Empirical modeling of LTSA arrays demonstrated that the maximum theoretical element gain can be obtained. Formulations were also developed for calculating the aperture efficiency of LTSA arrays used in reflector systems. It was shown that LTSA arrays used in multibeam systems have a considerable advantage in terms of higher packing density, compared with waveguide feeds. Conversion loss of 10 dB was demonstrated at 35 GHz.

  7. Formulation and computational aspects of plasticity and damage models with application to quasi-brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Schreyer, H.L.

    1995-09-01

    The response of underground structures and transportation facilities under various external loadings and environments is critical for human safety as well as environmental protection. Since quasi-brittle materials such as concrete and rock are commonly used for underground construction, the constitutive modeling of these engineering materials, including post-limit behaviors, is one of the most important aspects in safety assessment. From experimental, theoretical, and computational points of view, this report considers the constitutive modeling of quasi-brittle materials in general and concentrates on concrete in particular. Based on the internal variable theory of thermodynamics, the general formulations of plasticity and damage models are given to simulate two distinct modes of microstructural changes, inelastic flow and degradation of material strength and stiffness, that identify the phenomenological nonlinear behaviors of quasi-brittle materials. The computational aspects of plasticity and damage models are explored with respect to their effects on structural analyses. Specific constitutive models are then developed in a systematic manner according to the degree of completeness. A comprehensive literature survey is made to provide the up-to-date information on prediction of structural failures, which can serve as a reference for future research.

  8. Phenomenological aspects of no-scale inflation models

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2015-10-01

    We discuss phenomenological aspects of inflationary models wiith a no-scale supergravity Kähler potential motivated by compactified string models, in which the inflaton may be identified either as a Kähler modulus or an untwisted matter field, focusing on models that make predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that are similar to the Starobinsky model. We discuss possible patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, exhibiting examples of the pure no-scale type m{sub 0}=B{sub 0}=A{sub 0}=0, of the CMSSM type with universal A{sub 0} and m{sub 0}≠0 at a high scale, and of the mSUGRA type with A{sub 0}=B{sub 0}+m{sub 0} boundary conditions at the high input scale. These may be combined with a non-trivial gauge kinetic function that generates gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}≠0, or one may have a pure gravity mediation scenario where trilinear terms and gaugino masses are generated through anomalies. We also discuss inflaton decays and reheating, showing possible decay channels for the inflaton when it is either an untwisted matter field or a Kähler modulus. Reheating is very efficient if a matter field inflaton is directly coupled to MSSM fields, and both candidates lead to sufficient reheating in the presence of a non-trivial gauge kinetic function.

  9. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    SciTech Connect

    Caudell, Thomas P.; Watson, Patrick; McDaniel, Mark A.; Eichenbaum, Howard B.; Cohen, Neal J.; Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  10. A theoretical model of sheath fold morphology in simple shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reber, Jacqueline E.; Dabrowski, Marcin; Galland, Olivier; Schmid, Daniel W.

    2013-04-01

    Sheath folds are highly non-cylindrical structures often associated with shear zones. The geometry of sheath folds, especially cross-sections perpendicular to the stretching direction that display eye-patterns, have been used in the field to deduce kinematic information such as shear sense and bulk strain type. However, how sheath folds form and how they evolve with increasing strain is still a matter of debate. We investigate the formation of sheath folds around a weak inclusion acting as a slip surface in simple shear by means of an analytical model. We systematically vary the slip surface orientation and shape and evaluate the impact on the evolving eye-pattern. In addition we compare our results to existing classifications. Based on field observations it has been suggested that the shear sense of a shear zone can be determined by knowing the position of the center of an eye-pattern and the closing direction of the corresponding sheath fold. In our modeled sheath folds we can observe for a given strain that the center of the eye-structure is subject to change in height with respect to the upper edge of the outermost closed contour for different cross-sections perpendicular to the shear direction. This results in a large variability in layer thickness, questioning the usefulness of sheath folds as shear sense indicators. The location of the center of the eye structure, however, is largely invariant to the initial configurations of the slip surface as well as to strain. It has been suggested that the ratio of the aspect ratio of the innermost and outermost closed contour in eye-patterns could be linked to the bulk strain type based on filed observations. We apply this classification to our modeled sheath folds and we observe that the values of the aspect ratios of the closed contours within the eye-pattern are dependent on the strain and the cross-section location. The ratio (R') of the aspect ratios of the outermost closed contour (Ryz) and the innermost closed

  11. Theoretical model of blood flow measurement by diffuse correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakadžić, Sava; Boas, David A.; Carp, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a noninvasive method to quantify tissue perfusion from measurements of the intensity temporal autocorrelation function of diffusely scattered light. However, DCS autocorrelation function measurements in tissue better match theoretical predictions based on the diffusive motion of the scatterers than those based on a model where the advective nature of blood flow dominates the stochastic properties of the scattered light. We have recently shown using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and assuming a simplistic vascular geometry and laminar flow profile that the diffusive nature of the DCS autocorrelation function decay is likely a result of the shear-induced diffusion of the red blood cells. Here, we provide theoretical derivations supporting and generalizing the previous MC results. Based on the theory of diffusing-wave spectroscopy, we derive an expression for the autocorrelation function along the photon path through a vessel that takes into account both diffusive and advective scatterer motion, and we provide the solution for the DCS autocorrelation function in a semi-infinite geometry. We also derive the correlation diffusion and correlation transfer equation, which can be applied for an arbitrary sample geometry. Further, we propose a method to take into account realistic vascular morphology and flow profile.

  12. Theoretical models and computer simulations of neural learning systems.

    PubMed

    Salu, Y

    1984-11-07

    It has been generally assumed for a long time that learning is accomplished in the central nervous system (CNS) by modifying strengths of ties between neurons. Various mechanisms may contribute to this process, but it is not known which are the specific mechanisms, and what are the rules by which they operate. Theoretical models, which are based on that general assumption are introduced. The purpose of the models is to suggest plausible ways by which learned information may be stored in the neural network, and be retrieved when it is needed. The networks in the models consist of four basic subunits, in accordance with identified units in the CNS: sensing, response, feeling, and control, plus association areas. The suggested operation rules are based on established operation rules of individual neurons, and assumed rules when neurons in groups are considered. Computer simulations are done, to check the consistency of the models, and to illustrate how they work. They simulate how an hypothetical kitten learns part of its environment, and show how relevant information may be stored and retrieved in its neuronal network. The suggested mechanisms could be examined in experiments, albeit not easy ones to conduct.

  13. Group theoretical modeling of thermal explosion with reactant consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibragimov, Ranis N.; Dameron, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Today engineering and science researchers routinely confront problems in mathematical modeling involving nonlinear differential equations. Many mathematical models formulated in terms of nonlinear differential equations can be successfully treated and solved by Lie group methods. Lie group analysis is especially valuable in investigating nonlinear differential equations, for its algorithms act as reliably as for linear cases. The aim of this article is to provide the group theoretical modeling of the symmetrical heating of an exothermally reacting medium with approximations to the body's temperature distribution similar to those made by Thomas [17] and Squire [15]. The quantitative results were found to be in a good agreement with Adler and Enig in [1], where the authors were comparing the integral curves corresponding to the critical conditions for the first-order reaction. Further development of the modeling by including the critical temperature is proposed. Overall, it is shown, in particular, that the application of Lie group analysis allows one to extend the previous analytic results for the first order reactions to nth order ones.

  14. Solute Model or Cellular Energy Model: Practical and Theoretical Aspects of Thirst During Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-16

    greatest rate of water loss, by far, is represented in a healthy individual by eccrine sweating which most physiologists would agree can be sustained...designed to equate water requirements with the various losses (respiratory, urinary, skin and sweat ). Let us look briefly at these as a partial inventory of...manifestation of the body’s osmotic control. Hypertonicity, ADH Release and Thirst Although the solute composition of the extracellular compartment is

  15. Experimental verification of theoretical model for speckle intensity excursion areas

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, T.L.; Harvey, J.E.; Hefele, D.

    1994-12-31

    Speckle is inherently an interference phenomenon produced when a rough object or turbulent medium introduces some degree of randomness to a reflected or transmitted electromagnetic field. Speckle characteristics are therefore a major concern in many laser imaging or wave propagation applications. For many applications, a detailed description of speckle size as a function of intensity threshold level is desirable. Extensive experimental measurements of average speckle size as a function of intensity threshold level were therefore made for several different targets and illumination conditions. The authors then compare these measurements with a theoretical model for excursion areas of speckle intensity. Excellent agreement is obtained for intensity threshold levels greater than approximately twice the mean intensity level.

  16. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  17. Modeling of rolling element bearing mechanics. Theoretical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, David H.; Greenhill, Lyn M.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the theoretical basis for the Rolling Element Bearing Analysis System (REBANS) analysis code which determines the quasistatic response to external loads or displacement of three types of high-speed rolling element bearings: angular contact ball bearings; duplex angular contact ball bearings; and cylindrical roller bearings. The model includes the effects of bearing ring and support structure flexibility. It is comprised of two main programs: the Preprocessor for Bearing Analysis (PREBAN) which creates the input files for the main analysis program; and Flexibility Enhanced Rolling Element Bearing Analysis (FEREBA), the main analysis program. A companion report addresses the input instructions for and features of the computer codes. REBANS extends the capabilities of the SHABERTH (Shaft and Bearing Thermal Analysis) code to include race and housing flexibility, including such effects as dead band and preload springs.

  18. Model structure and control of bone remodeling: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Pivonka, Peter; Zimak, Jan; Smith, David W; Gardiner, Bruce S; Dunstan, Colin R; Sims, Natalie A; Martin, T John; Mundy, Gregory R

    2008-08-01

    It is generally accepted that RANKL is highly expressed in osteoblast precursor cells while OPG is highly expressed in mature osteoblasts, but to date no functional utility to the BMU has been proposed for this particular ligand-decoy-receptor expression profile. As discovered in the mid 90s, the RANK-RANKL-OPG signaling cascade is a major signaling pathway regulating bone remodeling. In this paper we study theoretically the functional implications of particular RANKL/OPG expression profiles on bone volume. For this purpose we formulate an extended bone-cell dynamics model describing functional behaviour of basic multicellular units (BMUs) responsible for bone resorption and formation. This model incorporates the RANK-RANKL-OPG signaling together with the regulating action of TGF-beta on bone cells. The bone-cell population model employed here builds on the work of Lemaire et al. (2004) [1], but incorporates the following significant modifications: (i) addition of a rate equation describing changes in bone volume with time as the key 'output function' tracking functional behaviour of BMUs, (ii) a rate equation describing release of TGF-beta from the bone matrix, (iii) expression of OPG and RANKL on both osteoblastic cell lines, and (iv) modified activator/repressor functions. Using bone volume as a functional selection criterion, we find that there is a preferred arrangement for ligand expression on particular cell types, and further, that this arrangement coincides with biological observations. We then investigate the model parameter space combinatorially, searching for preferred 'groupings' of changes in differentiation rates of various cell types. Again, a criterion of bone volume change is employed to identify possible ways of optimally controlling BMU responses. While some combinations of changes in differentiation rates are clearly unrealistic, other combinations of changes in differentiation rates are potentially functionally significant. Most importantly

  19. A theoretical compartment model for antigen kinetics in the skin.

    PubMed

    Römgens, Anne M; Bader, Dan L; Bouwstra, Joke A; Oomens, Cees W J

    2016-03-10

    The skin is a promising location for vaccination with its abundant population of antigen capturing and presenting cells. The development of new techniques, such as the use of microneedles, can facilitate the delivery of vaccines into the skin. In recent years, many different types of microneedle arrays have been designed. However, their geometry and arrangement within an array may be optimized to trigger sufficient antigen presenting cells. A computational model can support the rational design of microneedle arrays. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to describe the distribution and kinetics of a delivered antigen within the skin using a theoretical compartment model, which included binding of antigens to receptors and their uptake by cells, and to determine which parameters should be measured to validate the model for a specific application. Multiple simulations were performed using a high and low antigen delivery dose and a range of values for the rate constants. The results indicated that the cells were highly saturated when a high dose was applied, while for a low dose saturation was only reached in 5% of the simulations. This was caused by the difference in the ratio between the administered dose and the available binding sites and suggests the dose should be adapted to the number of cells and receptors for a specific compound. The sensitivity analysis of the model parameters confirmed that the initial dose and receptor concentrations were indeed the two parameters that had the largest influence on the variance in antigen concentrations within the cells and circulation at equilibrium. Hence, these parameters are important to be measured in vivo. The presented pharmacokinetics model can be used in future computational models to predict the influence of microneedle array geometry to optimize their design.

  20. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects.

    PubMed

    Latz, Arnulf; Zausch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory.

  1. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Zausch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Summary The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory. PMID:25977870

  2. Statistical Aspects of Microheterogeneous Rock Fracture: Observations and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiying; Chudnovsky, Alexander; Wong, George; Dudley, John W.

    2013-05-01

    Rocks and other geomaterials are heterogeneous materials, with a well-recognized hierarchy of defects from micro-heterogeneities on the grain level to a large-scale network of cracks and layering structures. Their nature create a challenge for determining macroscopic properties, particularly for properties that are scale dependent, complicating both the property measurement and its appropriate application in modeling. This paper discusses the concept of a "representative volume", which is commonly used in modeling microheterogeneous but statistically homogeneous material by an effective homogeneous continuum. The foundation of this concept is presented, along with its limitations in dealing with properties like strength and fracture toughness that exhibit a scale effect. This limitation is illustrated with a study of brittle fracture of a concrete where it is considered a model for statistically homogeneous rock. The study includes determining a scaling rule for the scale effect in fracture toughness, and shows that the fracture of brittle materials like rocks and concrete appears in the form of highly tortuous, stochastic paths. This reflects a complex interaction between a crack and pre-existing as well as newly formed micro-defects controlled by chance, and results in a large scatter of all fracture-related parameters. This behavior suggests a synthesis of fracture mechanics with probability and statistics, and so a brief exposition of statistical fracture mechanics (SFM) that addresses the statistical aspects of fracture is also presented. SFM is a formalism that combines fracture mechanics methods with probability theory and serves as the basis for an adequate modeling of brittle fracture.

  3. Phenomenological aspects of no-scale inflation models

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A.G.; Olive, Keith A.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. E-mail: garciagarcia@physics.umn.edu E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu

    2015-10-01

    We discuss phenomenological aspects of inflationary models wiith a no-scale supergravity Kähler potential motivated by compactified string models, in which the inflaton may be identified either as a Kähler modulus or an untwisted matter field, focusing on models that make predictions for the scalar spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r that are similar to the Starobinsky model. We discuss possible patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, exhibiting examples of the pure no-scale type m{sub 0} = B{sub 0} = A{sub 0} = 0, of the CMSSM type with universal A{sub 0} and m{sub 0} ≠ 0 at a high scale, and of the mSUGRA type with A{sub 0} = B{sub 0} + m{sub 0} boundary conditions at the high input scale. These may be combined with a non-trivial gauge kinetic function that generates gaugino masses m{sub 1/2} ≠ 0, or one may have a pure gravity mediation scenario where trilinear terms and gaugino masses are generated through anomalies. We also discuss inflaton decays and reheating, showing possible decay channels for the inflaton when it is either an untwisted matter field or a Kähler modulus. Reheating is very efficient if a matter field inflaton is directly coupled to MSSM fields, and both candidates lead to sufficient reheating in the presence of a non-trivial gauge kinetic function.

  4. Theoretical models for the dynamics of liquid crystalline polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubal, Charu Vaman

    The research encompassed by this work aims to improve the understanding of the physical behavior embodied by the Doi theory of Liquid Crystalline Polymers (LCPs), to develop more accurate, efficient, and robust numerical and computational schemes to obtain theoretical predictions, and to extend the model to describe industrially relevant LCP systems more closely. The mechanisms behind the unusual phenomena exhibited by the Doi theory in simple shear flow is examined by performing nonlinear systems analysis of an approximated version of the theory. A more accurate approximation to the theory is developed and is shown to faithfully reproduce results from the unapproximated theory over a wide range of parameters. A novel solution algorithm for general polymer kinetic theory problems, based on particle methods, is presented and analyzed in the context of application to the Doi theory. This technique is used to study the behavior of LCPs in shear flow and to determine how slight perturbations of simple shear can lead to dramatic changes in dynamical and rheological properties. Finally, the nematic broken rod model for flexible LCPs is developed and the behavior of the model in simple shear flow is explored for both highly flexible and nearly rigid rods.

  5. Computational Graph Theoretical Model of the Zebrafish Sensorimotor Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Joshua M.; Stobb, Michael; Mazzag, Bori; Gahtan, Ethan

    2011-11-01

    Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience and has been the focus of extensive current research [4, 3]. The best quantitative approach to analyze the acquired data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success [3, 1]. We present a graph theoretical model with vertices and edges representing neurons and synaptic connections, respectively. Our system is the zebrafish posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway. The goal of our analysis is to elucidate mechanisms of information processing in this neural pathway by comparing the mathematical properties of its graph to those of other, previously described graphs. We create a zebrafish model based on currently known anatomical data. The degree distributions and small-world measures of this model is compared to small-world, random and 3-compartment random graphs of the same size (with over 2500 nodes and 160,000 connections). We find that the zebrafish graph shows small-worldness similar to other neural networks and does not have a scale-free distribution of connections.

  6. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Ming, LI; Shinn-Yi, CHOU

    2016-01-01

    The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254

  7. PREFACE: First International Congress of the International Association of Inverse Problems (IPIA): Applied Inverse Problems 2007: Theoretical and Computational Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    2008-07-01

    This volume represents the proceedings of the fourth Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) international conference and the first congress of the Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) which was held in Vancouver, Canada, June 25 29, 2007. The organizing committee was formed by Uri Ascher, University of British Columbia, Richard Froese, University of British Columbia, Gary Margrave, University of Calgary, and Gunther Uhlmann, University of Washington, chair. The conference was part of the activities of the Pacific Institute of Mathematical Sciences (PIMS) Collaborative Research Group on inverse problems (http://www.pims.math.ca/scientific/collaborative-research-groups/past-crgs). This event was also supported by grants from NSF and MITACS. Inverse Problems (IP) are problems where causes for a desired or an observed effect are to be determined. They lie at the heart of scientific inquiry and technological development. The enormous increase in computing power and the development of powerful algorithms have made it possible to apply the techniques of IP to real-world problems of growing complexity. Applications include a number of medical as well as other imaging techniques, location of oil and mineral deposits in the earth's substructure, creation of astrophysical images from telescope data, finding cracks and interfaces within materials, shape optimization, model identification in growth processes and, more recently, modelling in the life sciences. The series of Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) Conferences aims to provide a primary international forum for academic and industrial researchers working on all aspects of inverse problems, such as mathematical modelling, functional analytic methods, computational approaches, numerical algorithms etc. The steering committee of the AIP conferences consists of Heinz Engl (Johannes Kepler Universität, Austria), Joyce McLaughlin (RPI, USA), William Rundell (Texas A&M, USA), Erkki Somersalo (Helsinki University of Technology

  8. Multilayer coating for higher accelerating fields in superconducting radio-frequency cavities: a review of theoretical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2017-02-01

    The theory of the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) multilayer structure for application in superconducting accelerating cavities is reviewed. The theoretical field limit, optimum layer thicknesses and material combination, and surface resistance are discussed for the SIS structure and are also reviewed for the superconductor-superconductor bilayer structure.

  9. Improvements to Nuclear Data and Its Uncertainties by Theoretical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Danon, Yaron; Nazarewicz, Witold; Talou, Patrick

    2013-02-18

    This project addresses three important gaps in existing evaluated nuclear data libraries that represent a significant hindrance against highly advanced modeling and simulation capabilities for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). This project will: Develop advanced theoretical tools to compute prompt fission neutrons and gamma-ray characteristics well beyond average spectra and multiplicity, and produce new evaluated files of U and Pu isotopes, along with some minor actinides; Perform state-of-the-art fission cross-section modeling and calculations using global and microscopic model input parameters, leading to truly predictive fission cross-sections capabilities. Consistent calculations for a suite of Pu isotopes will be performed; Implement innovative data assimilation tools, which will reflect the nuclear data evaluation process much more accurately, and lead to a new generation of uncertainty quantification files. New covariance matrices will be obtained for Pu isotopes and compared to existing ones. The deployment of a fleet of safe and efficient advanced reactors that minimize radiotoxic waste and are proliferation-resistant is a clear and ambitious goal of AFCI. While in the past the design, construction and operation of a reactor were supported through empirical trials, this new phase in nuclear energy production is expected to rely heavily on advanced modeling and simulation capabilities. To be truly successful, a program for advanced simulations of innovative reactors will have to develop advanced multi-physics capabilities, to be run on massively parallel super- computers, and to incorporate adequate and precise underlying physics. And all these areas have to be developed simultaneously to achieve those ambitious goals. Of particular interest are reliable fission cross-section uncertainty estimates (including important correlations) and evaluations of prompt fission neutrons and gamma-ray spectra and uncertainties.

  10. A theoretical model for the Lorentz force particle analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, René; Tao, Zhen; Wang, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    In a previous paper [X. Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 120, 014903 (2016)], several experimental devices have been presented, which demonstrate the efficiency of electromagnetic techniques for detecting and sizing electrically insulating particles entrained in the flow of a molten metal. In each case, a non-uniform magnetic field is applied across the flow of the electrically conducting liquid, thereby generating a braking Lorentz force on this moving medium and a reaction force on the magnet, which tends to be entrained in the flow direction. The purpose of this letter is to derive scaling laws for this Lorentz force from an elementary theoretical model. For simplicity, as in the experiments, the flowing liquid is modeled as a solid body moving with a uniform velocity U. The eddy currents in the moving domain are derived from the classic induction equation and Ohm's law, and expressions for the Lorentz force density j ×B and for its integral over the entire moving domain follow. The insulating particles that are eventually present and entrained with this body are then treated as small disturbances in a classic perturbation analysis, thereby leading to scaling laws for the pulses they generate in the Lorentz force. The purpose of this letter is both to illustrate the eddy currents without and with insulating particles in the electrically conducting liquid and to derive a key relation between the pulses in the Lorentz force and the main parameters (particle volume and dimensions of the region subjected to the magnetic field).

  11. A game theoretic model of drug launch in India.

    PubMed

    Bhaduri, Saradindu; Ray, Amit Shovon

    2006-01-01

    There is a popular belief that drug launch is delayed in developing countries like India because of delayed transfer of technology due to a 'post-launch' imitation threat through weak intellectual property rights (IPR). In fact, this belief has been a major reason for the imposition of the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights regime under the WTO. This construct undermines the fact that in countries like India, with high reverse engineering capabilities, imitation can occur even before the formal technology transfer, and fails to recognize the first mover advantage in pharmaceutical markets. This paper argues that the first mover advantage is important and will vary across therapeutic areas, especially in developing countries with diverse levels of patient enlightenment and quality awareness. We construct a game theoretic model of incomplete information to examine the delay in drug launch in terms of costs and benefits of first move, assumed to be primarily a function of the therapeutic area of the new drug. Our model shows that drug launch will be delayed only for external (infective/communicable) diseases, while drugs for internal, non-communicable diseases (accounting for the overwhelming majority of new drug discovery) will be launched without delay.

  12. Modeling, Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Lunar Photoelectron Sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Andrew Reinhold

    2011-08-01

    The Moon, lacking an atmosphere and a global magnetic field, is directly exposed to both solar ultraviolet radiation and a variety of ambient plasmas. On the lunar dayside, a photoelectron sheath develops and the surface typically charges positively since the photoemission current is at least an order-of-magnitude greater than any ambient current. This sheath dominates the nearsurface plasma environment and controls the charging, levitation and transport of micron-sized dust grains. In this thesis, we first model the lunar near-surface plasma environment via a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code. The sheath potential, electric field and plasma densities are presented over a wide range of plasma parameters. Additionally, the charging and transport of micron- and submicron sized dust grains is modeled via a test-particle approach in an attempt to explain Apolloera observations of lunar dust dynamics. Secondly, we present a comparison of the particle-in-cell results with theoretical, kinetic derivations of the lunar photoelectron sheath. We extend previous theories to include the presence of a kappa-distribution for the solar wind electrons. Finally, we present a comparison of in-situ measurements of the lunar photoelectron sheet in the terrestrial plasma sheet by the Lunar Prospector Electron Reflectometer with particle-in-cell simulations to confirm the presence of non-monotonic sheath potentials above the Moon. Future work in all three sections, (simulation, theory and observation) is presented as a guide for continuing research.

  13. The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Darcher, Alana; Negi, Lobsang T; Raison, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here, we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another's affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work.

  14. The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Darcher, Alana; Negi, Lobsang T.; Raison, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here, we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another’s affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work. PMID:25729374

  15. Empirical STORM-E Model. [I. Theoretical and Observational Basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Xu, Xiaojing; Bilitza, Dieter; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2013-01-01

    Auroral nighttime infrared emission observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite is used to develop an empirical model of geomagnetic storm enhancements to E-region peak electron densities. The empirical model is called STORM-E and will be incorporated into the 2012 release of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The proxy for characterizing the E-region response to geomagnetic forcing is NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) derived from the TIMED/SABER 4.3 lm channel limb radiance measurements. The storm-time response of the NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER is sensitive to auroral particle precipitation. A statistical database of storm-time to climatological quiet-time ratios of SABER-observed NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER are fit to widely available geomagnetic indices using the theoretical framework of linear impulse-response theory. The STORM-E model provides a dynamic storm-time correction factor to adjust a known quiescent E-region electron density peak concentration for geomagnetic enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation. Part II of this series describes the explicit development of the empirical storm-time correction factor for E-region peak electron densities, and shows comparisons of E-region electron densities between STORM-E predictions and incoherent scatter radar measurements. In this paper, Part I of the series, the efficacy of using SABER-derived NO+(v) VER as a proxy for the E-region response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances is presented. Furthermore, a detailed description of the algorithms and methodologies used to derive NO+(v) VER from SABER 4.3 lm limb emission measurements is given. Finally, an assessment of key uncertainties in retrieving NO+(v) VER is presented

  16. Theoretical perspectives concerning positive aspects of caring for elderly persons with dementia: stress/adaptation and existentialism.

    PubMed

    Farran, C J

    1997-04-01

    Research concerning caregivers of persons with dementia has predominantly been guided by a stress/adaptation paradigm. This paradigm, however, does not fully address the issue of how caregivers manage to do so well under difficult circumstances. Existentialism offers an alternate theoretical view for exploring this issue. This article compares and contrasts these two paradigms-their key elements, strengths, and limitations, and areas of convergence and divergence. It identifies implications for future theory development, research, and clinical practice.

  17. Testing Models: A Key Aspect to Promote Teaching Activities Related to Models and Modelling in Biology Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biology teachers' (N = 148) understanding of models and modelling (MoMo), their model-related teaching activities and relations between the two. A framework which distinguishes five aspects of MoMo in science ("nature of models," "multiple models," "purpose of models," "testing…

  18. Sequence design in lattice models by graph theoretical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjeev, B. S.; Patra, S. M.; Vishveshwara, S.

    2001-01-01

    A general strategy has been developed based on graph theoretical methods, for finding amino acid sequences that take up a desired conformation as the native state. This problem of inverse design has been addressed by assigning topological indices for the monomer sites (vertices) of the polymer on a 3×3×3 cubic lattice. This is a simple design strategy, which takes into account only the topology of the target protein and identifies the best sequence for a given composition. The procedure allows the design of a good sequence for a target native state by assigning weights for the vertices on a lattice site in a given conformation. It is seen across a variety of conformations that the predicted sequences perform well both in sequence and in conformation space, in identifying the target conformation as native state for a fixed composition of amino acids. Although the method is tested in the framework of the HP model [K. F. Lau and K. A. Dill, Macromolecules 22, 3986 (1989)] it can be used in any context if proper potential functions are available, since the procedure derives unique weights for all the sites (vertices, nodes) of the polymer chain of a chosen conformation (graph).

  19. Comparisons Between Experimental Transport Analysis and Theoretical Modeling on LHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo; LHD Group

    2000-10-01

    Helical plasma confinement system has a great advantage in producing steady-state high performance plasmas with built-in divertor. For the experimental analysis and predictive simulation of helical and tokamak plasmas, a simulation code TOTAL (TOroidal Transport Analysis Linkage) has been developed and is applied to the Large Helical Device (LHD, R=3.6 ~3.9m, B<3.0T ) experiments. In the LHD experiment, the global plasma confinement is ~1.5-2 times better than the well-known confinement scaling laws, and effective transport diffusivity is same order of magnitude of neoclassical ion transport with the assumption of Ti=Te. The radial electric field has been measured and roughly agrees with theoretical neoclassical values. The simple drift wave transport models are also compared with experimental values. The impurity dynamics are calculated using predictive part of the TOTAL code, and compared with the "breathing plasma" dynamics, and the role of high-Z impurity are clarified. For the analysis of high beta plasmas, local ballooning mode analysis will be added in this TOTAL code, and optimized configurations for the future MHR reactor will be searched.

  20. A Game-Theoretic Model of Marketing Skin Whiteners.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies consistently find that people in less developed countries tend to regard light or "white" skin, particularly among women, as more desirable or superior. This is a study about the marketing of skin whiteners in these countries, where over 80 percent of users are typically women. It proceeds from the following premises: a) Purely market or policy-oriented approaches toward the risks and harms of skin whitening are cost-inefficient; b) Psychosocial and informational factors breed uninformed and risky consumer choices that favor toxic skin whiteners; and c) Proliferation of toxic whiteners in a competitive buyer's market raises critical supplier accountability issues. Is intentional tort a rational outcome of uncooperative game equilibria? Can voluntary cooperation nonetheless evolve between buyers and sellers of skin whiteners? These twin questions are key to addressing the central paradox in this study: A robust and expanding buyer's market, where cheap whitening products abound at a high risk to personal and societal health and safety. Game-theoretic modeling of two-player and n-player strategic interactions is proposed in this study for both its explanatory and predictive value. Therein also lie its practical contributions to the economic literature on skin whitening.

  1. Theoretical model for electrophilic oxygen atom insertion into hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, R.D.; Su, M.D. ); Andres, J.L. Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI ); McDouall, J.J.W. )

    1993-06-30

    A theoretical model suggesting the mechanistic pathway for the oxidation of saturated-alkanes to their corresponding alcohols and ketones is described. Water oxide (H[sub 2]O-O) is employed as a model singlet oxygen atom donor. Molecular orbital calculations with the 6-31G basis set at the MP2, QCISD, QCISD(T), CASSCF, and MRCI levels of theory suggest that oxygen insertion by water oxide occurs by the interaction of an electrophilic oxygen atom with a doubly occupied hydrocarbon fragment orbital. The electrophilic oxygen approaches the hydrocarbon along the axis of the atomic carbon p orbital comprising a [pi]-[sub CH(2)] or [pi]-[sub CHCH(3)] fragment orbital to form a carbon-oxygen [sigma] bond. A concerted hydrogen migration to an adjacent oxygen lone pair of electrons affords the alcohol insertion product in a stereoselective fashion with predictable stereochemistry. Subsequent oxidation of the alcohol to a ketone (or aldehyde) occurs in a similar fashion and has a lower activation barrier. The calculated (MP4/6-31G*//MP2/6-31G*) activation barriers for oxygen atom insertion into the C-H bonds of methane, ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, and methanol are 10.7, 8.2, 3.9, 4.8, 4.5, and 3.3 kcal/mol, respectively. We use ab initio molecular orbital calculations in support of a frontier MO theory that provides a unique rationale for both the stereospecificity and the stereoselectivity of insertion of electrophilic oxygen and related electrophiles into the carbon-hydrogen bond. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation.

  3. A New Theoretical Model of Big-Bang Evidence as a Consequence of Global Symmetry Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetissian, Ara K.

    2007-08-01

    Problems and hardships in identification and understanding of physical quintessence of several phenomena in Cosmology such are Big-Bang of tremendously dense and hot matter with Baryons' asymmetry, Hubble's expansion Law, Cosmic Microwave Radiation, Dark Energy and Dark Matter, obviously require alternative investigations of additional theoretical aspects and corresponding models of early Universe both for Radiation and Baryonic periods. According to this aspiration and taking into consideration results from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe one postulate an assumption of possibility of baryons (may be also antibaryons!) Bose-Einstein condensation in the early Universe due to their Cooper-pairing. The thermodynamical equilibrium between extrahigh energy photons and Bose-condensed baryonic matter is consider and evaluate the macro-parameters of the possible hydrostatic stable baryonic configuration of Universal scale. A new theoretical model of Big-Bang evidence is predicted as a consequence of Global Symmetry breakdown from the Bose-Einstein statistics to Fermi-Dirac one when the matter pressure due to Pauli exclusion principle spasmodically increasing outside more than 2.5×10^5 times.

  4. Deconvolution-Based CT and MR Brain Perfusion Measurement: Theoretical Model Revisited and Practical Implementation Details.

    PubMed

    Fieselmann, Andreas; Kowarschik, Markus; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Hornegger, Joachim; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Deconvolution-based analysis of CT and MR brain perfusion data is widely used in clinical practice and it is still a topic of ongoing research activities. In this paper, we present a comprehensive derivation and explanation of the underlying physiological model for intravascular tracer systems. We also discuss practical details that are needed to properly implement algorithms for perfusion analysis. Our description of the practical computer implementation is focused on the most frequently employed algebraic deconvolution methods based on the singular value decomposition. In particular, we further discuss the need for regularization in order to obtain physiologically reasonable results. We include an overview of relevant preprocessing steps and provide numerous references to the literature. We cover both CT and MR brain perfusion imaging in this paper because they share many common aspects. The combination of both the theoretical as well as the practical aspects of perfusion analysis explicitly emphasizes the simplifications to the underlying physiological model that are necessary in order to apply it to measured data acquired with current CT and MR scanners.

  5. The interacting gaps model: reconciling theoretical and numerical approaches to limit-order models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchnik, Lev; Slanina, Frantisek; Solomon, Sorin

    2003-12-01

    We consider the emergence of power-law tails in the returns distribution of limit-order driven markets. We explain a previously observed clash between the theoretical and numerical studies of such models. We introduce a solvable model that interpolates between the previous studies and agrees with each of them in the relevant limit.

  6. [Theoretical and experimental aspects of detection of counterfeit and inferior quality products among pharmaceuticals produced from oilplants].

    PubMed

    Fetisova, A N; Popkov, V A

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of their own empiric studies, the authors substantiate principle approaches to and criteria of the detection of counterfeit and inferior quality products among pharmaceuticals and biologically active food supplements produced of oilplants with a non-specific composition of fatty acid acylglyceroles. To detect counterfeit and inferior quality products effectively, the authors offer the optimal sequence of procedures including the following steps: organoleptic analysis; measurement of the main compositional and qualitative parameters (density, refractive index, saponification number, acid number, iodine number, oxidability index, percentage of unsaponifiables, and total content of carotenes converting into beta-carotene); theoretical calculation of the composition of fatty acids and glyceroles based on the empiric compositional and qualitative values, including the calculation of average relative molecular mass of the fatty acids, and the proportion of acylglyceroles and glycerin in the objects.

  7. Theoretical model of the helium zone plate microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador Palau, Adrià; Bracco, Gianangelo; Holst, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    Neutral helium microscopy is a new technique currently under development. Its advantages are the low energy, charge neutrality, and inertness of the helium atoms, a potential large depth of field, and the fact that at thermal energies the helium atoms do not penetrate into any solid material. This opens the possibility, among others, for the creation of an instrument that can measure surface topology on the nanoscale, even on surfaces with high aspect ratios. One of the most promising designs for helium microscopy is the zone plate microscope. It consists of a supersonic expansion helium beam collimated by an aperture (skimmer) focused by a Fresnel zone plate onto a sample. The resolution is determined by the focal spot size, which depends on the size of the skimmer, the optics of the system, and the velocity spread of the beam through the chromatic aberrations of the zone plate. An important factor for the optics of the zone plate is the width of the outermost zone, corresponding to the smallest opening in the zone plate. The width of the outermost zone is fabrication limited to around 10 nm with present-day state-of-the-art technology. Due to the high ionization potential of neutral helium atoms, it is difficult to build efficient helium detectors. Therefore, it is crucial to optimize the microscope design to maximize the intensity for a given resolution and width of the outermost zone. Here we present an optimization model for the helium zone plate microscope. Assuming constant resolution and width of the outermost zone, we are able to reduce the problem to a two-variable problem (zone plate radius and object distance) and we show that for a given beam temperature and pressure, there is always a single intensity maximum. We compare our model with the highest-resolution zone plate focusing images published and show that the intensity can be increased seven times. Reducing the width of the outermost zone to 10 nm leads to an increase in intensity of more than 8000

  8. A Dual Aspect Process Model of Intensive Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Intensive Interaction is an empirically researched approach to developing fundamental communication and sociability for people with severe and profound learning disabilities and/or autism. However, it is the author's contention that certain aspects of Intensive Interaction are not universally conceptualised in a uniform manner, and that there are…

  9. Imaging of chlorophyll a fluorescence: theoretical and practical aspects of an emerging technique for the monitoring of photosynthetic performance.

    PubMed

    Oxborough, Kevin

    2004-05-01

    The development of chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence imaging systems has greatly increased the versatility of Chl a fluorometry as a non-invasive technique for the investigation of photosynthesis in plants and algae. For example, systems that image at the microscopic level have made it possible to measure PSII photochemical efficiencies from chloroplasts within intact leaves and from individual algal cells within mixed populations, while systems that image over much larger areas have been used to investigate heterogeneous patterns of photosynthetic performance across leaves and in screening programmes that image tens or even hundreds of plants simultaneously. In addition, it is now practical to use fluorescence imaging systems as real-time, multi-channel fluorometers, which can be used to record continuous fluorescence traces from multiple leaves, plants, or algal cells. This paper discusses some of the theoretical and practical issues associated with the imaging of Chl a fluorescence and with Chl a fluorometry in general. This discussion includes a review of the most commonly used Chl a fluorescence parameters.

  10. Theoretical Aspects of Differential Scanning Calorimetry as a Tool for the Studies of Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Pharmaceutical Solid Phase Transitions.

    PubMed

    Faroongsarng, Damrongsak

    2016-06-01

    Although differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a non-equilibrium technique, it has been used to gain energetic information that involves phase equilibria. DSC has been widely used to characterize the equilibrium melting parameters of small organic pharmaceutical compounds. An understanding of how DSC measures an equilibrium event could make for a better interpretation of the results. The aim of this mini-review was to provide a theoretical insight into the DSC measurement to obtain the equilibrium thermodynamics of a phase transition especially the melting process. It was demonstrated that the heat quantity obtained from the DSC thermogram (ΔH) was related to the thermodynamic enthalpy of the phase transition (ΔH (P) ) via: ΔH = ΔH (P) /(1 + K (- 1)) where K was the equilibrium constant. In melting, the solid and liquefied phases presumably coexist resulting in a null Gibbs free energy that produces an infinitely larger K. Thus, ΔH could be interpreted as ΔH (P). Issues of DSC investigations on melting behavior of crystalline solids including polymorphism, degradation impurity due to heating in situ, and eutectic melting were discussed. In addition, DSC has been a tool for determination of the impurity based on an ideal solution of the melt that is one of the official methods used to establish the reference standard.

  11. Theoretical analysis of the electrical aspects of the basic electro-impulse problem in aircraft de-icing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert A.; Schrag, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    A method of modelling a system consisting of a cylindrical coil with its axis perpendicular to a metal plate of finite thickness, and a simple electrical circuit for producing a transient current in the coil, is discussed in the context of using such a system for de-icing aircraft surfaces. A transmission line model of the coil and metal plate is developed as the heart of the system model. It is shown that this transmission model is central to calculation of the coil impedance, the coil current, the magnetic fields established on the surfaces of the metal plate, and the resultant total force between the coil and the plate. FORTRAN algorithms were developed for numerical calculation of each of these quantities, and the algorithms were applied to an experimental prototype system in which these quantities had been measured. Good agreement is seen to exist between the predicted and measured results.

  12. Presenting a Theoretical Model of Four Conceptions of Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Aviv

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual study will question the ways different epistemological conceptions of citizenship and education influence the characteristics of civic education. While offering a new theoretical framework, the different undercurrent conceptions that lay at the base of the civic education process shall be brought forth. With the use of the method…

  13. Iodine and disinfection: theoretical study on mode of action, efficiency, stability, and analytical aspects in the aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, W

    1999-05-01

    deduce general qualities of aqueous iodine solutions, such as reactivity, stability, and analytical aspects, and to estimate major disinfection-orientated properties such as microbicidal activity, irritation, and incorporation effects. Though the calculations consider primarily preparations devoid of polymeric organic compounds capable of complexing iodine species, the results can be largely transferred to iodophoric preparations.

  14. Pathways in coal thermolysis: a theoretical and experimental study with model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ekpenyong, I.A.; Virk, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of coal thermolysis were investigated, including how the chemical structures of aromatics, hydroaromatics, and alcohols affect their reactivities as hydrogen donors and acceptors in coal processing. The susceptibilities of substructural entities in coals to fragmentation via a number of thermal pericyclic and free radical mechanisms were probed, as were the factors governing relative reactivities within series of such coal model compounds. The theoretical part of the work applied perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) and frontier orbital theories, in conjunction with ..pi..- and pseudo-..pi.. MO's, to the study of model compound reactivity. This enabled prediction of reactivity patterns of H-donors, H-acceptors and coal-like structures as functions of their ..pi..- and sigma-bond configurations, including heteroatomic effects. Experimentally, the liquid phase reactions of the coal model compound PhOCH/sub 2/Ph (Benzyl phenyl ether, BPE) were detailed for the first time in each of four hydronaphthalene H-donor solvents in the temperature range 220/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C. The thermolysis of BPE exhibited a pronounced dependence on solvent structure, both with respect to product selectivities and reaction kinetics. BPE thermolysis pathways were delineated as involving (a) rearrangement, leading to isomerization, (b) hydrogenations, leading ultimately to PhOH and PhCH/sub 3/ products, and (c) addition reactions, engendering heavy products. Pathways (b) and (c) are competitive and, in each, self-reactions of BPE-derivatives vie against reactions between these and the donor solvent. Of the detailed free radical and pericyclic reaction mechanisms postulated, the latter rationalized many more facets of the BPE results than the former. The theoretical and experimental results were appraised against previous coal thermolysis literature.

  15. Modelling drying kinetics of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.): theoretical and empirical models, and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J; Clemente, G; Sanjuán, N; Bon, J

    2014-01-01

    The drying kinetics of thyme was analyzed by considering different conditions: air temperature of between 40°C  and 70°C , and air velocity of 1 m/s. A theoretical diffusion model and eight different empirical models were fitted to the experimental data. From the theoretical model application, the effective diffusivity per unit area of the thyme was estimated (between 3.68 × 10(-5) and 2.12 × 10 (-4) s(-1)). The temperature dependence of the effective diffusivity was described by the Arrhenius relationship with activation energy of 49.42 kJ/mol. Eight different empirical models were fitted to the experimental data. Additionally, the dependence of the parameters of each model on the drying temperature was determined, obtaining equations that allow estimating the evolution of the moisture content at any temperature in the established range. Furthermore, artificial neural networks were developed and compared with the theoretical and empirical models using the percentage of the relative errors and the explained variance. The artificial neural networks were found to be more accurate predictors of moisture evolution with VAR ≥ 99.3% and ER ≤ 8.7%.

  16. Some Aspects of Mathematical Model of Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    There are some mathematical learning models of collaborative learning, with which we can learn how students obtain knowledge and we expect to design effective education. We put together those models and classify into three categories; model by differential equations, so-called Ising spin and a stochastic process equation. Some of the models do not…

  17. An Extensible Aspect-Oriented Modeling Environment for Constructing Domain-Specific Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubayashi, Naoyasu; Kamei, Yasutaka

    AspectM, an aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) language, provides not only basic modeling constructs but also an extension mechanism called metamodel access protocol (MMAP) that allows a modeler to modify the metamodel. MMAP consists of metamodel extension points, extension operations, and primitive predicates for navigating the metamodel. Although the notion of MMAP is useful, it needs tool support. This paper proposes a method for implementing a MMAP-based AspectM support tool. It consists of model editor, model weaver, and model verifier. We introduce the notion of edit-time structural reflection and extensible model weaving. Using these mechanisms, a modeler can easily construct domain-specific languages (DSLs). We show a case study using the AspectM support tool and discuss the effectiveness of the extension mechanism provided by MMAP. As a case study, we show a UML-based DSL for describing the external contexts of embedded systems.

  18. The Synthesis of a Theoretical Model of Student Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, John P.

    Models that have appeared in the student attrition literature in the past decade and behavioral models from the social sciences that may help explain the dropout process are examined, and an attempt is made to synthesize a causal model of student attrition. The models of Tinto, Spady, and Rootman in the area of student attrition, and models of…

  19. Development of Children's Creative Visual Imagination: A Theoretical Model and Enhancement Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziedziewicz, Dorota; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new theoretical model of creative imagination and its applications in early education. The model sees creative imagination as composed of three inter-related components: vividness of images, their originality, and the level of transformation of imageries. We explore the theoretical and practical consequences of this new…

  20. Theoretical Model of Development of Information Competence among Students Enrolled in Elective Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhumasheva, Anara; Zhumabaeva, Zaida; Sakenov, Janat; Vedilina, Yelena; Zhaxylykova, Nuriya; Sekenova, Balkumis

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the research topic of creating a theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses. In order to examine specific features of the theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses, we performed an analysis of…

  1. A Model of Resource Allocation in Public School Districts: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.

    This paper formulates a comprehensive model of resource allocation in a local public school district. The theoretical framework specified could be applied equally well to any number of local public social service agencies. Section 1 develops the theoretical model describing the process of resource allocation. This involves the determination of the…

  2. Multiscale Aspects of Modeling Gas-Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Buesser, B.; Gröhn, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol reactors are utilized to manufacture nanoparticles in industrially relevant quantities. The development, understanding and scale-up of aerosol reactors can be facilitated with models and computer simulations. This review aims to provide an overview of recent developments of models and simulations and discuss their interconnection in a multiscale approach. A short introduction of the various aerosol reactor types and gas-phase particle dynamics is presented as a background for the later discussion of the models and simulations. Models are presented with decreasing time and length scales in sections on continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics models. PMID:23729992

  3. High-Energy Aspects of Solar Flares: Observations and Models

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Guo, Fan

    2015-07-21

    The paper begins by describing the structure of the Sun, with emphasis on the corona. The Sun is a unique plasma laboratory, which can be probed by Sun-grazing comets, and is the driver of space weather. Energization and particle acceleration mechanisms in solar flares is presented; magnetic reconnection is key is understanding stochastic acceleration mechanisms. Then coupling between kinetic and fluid aspects is taken up; the next step is feedback of atmospheric response to the acceleration process – rapid quenching of acceleration. Future challenges include applications of stochastic acceleration to solar energetic particles (SEPs), Fermi γ-rays observations, fast-mode magnetosonic wave trains in a funnel-shaped wave guide associated with flare pulsations, and the new SMEX mission IRIS (Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph),

  4. Models of collective cell spreading with variable cell aspect ratio: A motivation for degenerate diffusion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Matthew J.; Baker, Ruth E.; McCue, Scott W.

    2011-02-01

    Continuum diffusion models are often used to represent the collective motion of cell populations. Most previous studies have simply used linear diffusion to represent collective cell spreading, while others found that degenerate nonlinear diffusion provides a better match to experimental cell density profiles. In the cell modeling literature there is no guidance available with regard to which approach is more appropriate for representing the spreading of cell populations. Furthermore, there is no knowledge of particular experimental measurements that can be made to distinguish between situations where these two models are appropriate. Here we provide a link between individual-based and continuum models using a multiscale approach in which we analyze the collective motion of a population of interacting agents in a generalized lattice-based exclusion process. For round agents that occupy a single lattice site, we find that the relevant continuum description of the system is a linear diffusion equation, whereas for elongated rod-shaped agents that occupy L adjacent lattice sites we find that the relevant continuum description is connected to the porous media equation (PME). The exponent in the nonlinear diffusivity function is related to the aspect ratio of the agents. Our work provides a physical connection between modeling collective cell spreading and the use of either the linear diffusion equation or the PME to represent cell density profiles. Results suggest that when using continuum models to represent cell population spreading, we should take care to account for variations in the cell aspect ratio because different aspect ratios lead to different continuum models.

  5. Theoretical modeling and properties of class DIII topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakosai, Sho; Tanaka, Yukio; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically study topological superconductors (TSCs) with time-reversal (TR) symmetry in one- and two-dimensions (1D and 2D). In 2D, we introduce bilayer system with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI), and find that the interplay between SOI and degrees of freedom of layers induces unconventional pairing states, which are topologically nontrivial and have the helical Majorana edge channels. We also find that a usual quantum nanowire on unconventional superconductor becomes a 1D TSC by means of the proximity effect. Majorana fermions at the ends of the wire offer a unique opportunity to relate fermion parity and non-local spin correlations.

  6. [The ontogenetic model of gravitation and weightlessness: theoretical and applied aspects].

    PubMed

    Meĭgal, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    In the review we discuss the earlier postulated [1] natural motor strategies which are dependent on gravitation and temperature and which evolve during the human life span. The first of them, FM-strategy is the characteristic of the intrauterine immersion in the amniotic fluid and ofmicrogravitation in the spaceflight (G - 0). It is based on domination of fast muscle fibers and phasic movements and forms the fetal strategy to survive in heating, strongly hypoxic, albeit normal for fetus, immersion. In the adults, adaptive response separately to microgravitation, heat stress and hypoxia also shifts muscle fiber properties to faster values. In accordance with that paradigm the process of parturition can be considered as equivalent to cosmonaut's/astronaut's transition from microgravitation back to Earth gravitation (G = 1) during landing. This new GE-strategy) is opposite to the FM-strategy, because it decreases the motor unit firing and "slows" the activity of muscle fibers. The next, SJ-strategy is the characteristic of normal ageing that causes further dominance of slow motor units, thus simulating hypergravitation (>1G). Cooling evokes similar adaptive reactions. The synergy of sensory inputs which act across the motor system within the above said motor strategies suggests their mutual substitution. Thus, even moderate cooling may serve as partial "surrogate" for gravitation (approximately 0.2G), that could be utilized as a prophylactic countermeasure for unfavorable effects of the long term space flight.

  7. Multiscale Modeling of Particle-Solidification Front Dynamics, Part 3: Theoretical Aspects and Parametric Study (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    TH T d TT ρ κγλ −⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛−= 3 (5) The last term on the right accounts for the Gibbs- Thomson effect . The γsl is the solid-liquid interfacial...fusion per unit mass. The Gibbs- Thomson effect reduces the magnitude of the curvature of the solidification front (i.e. it tends to flatten the...affects the temperature at which the solidification front solidifies through the Gibbs- Thomson effect , viz.: mm sl sl mi Td T H TT 3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛−−= λ

  8. Design and implementation of a calibrated hyperspectral small-animal imager: Practical and theoretical aspects of system optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavesley, Silas Josiah

    Pre-clinical imaging has been an important development within the bioscience and pharmacology fields. A rapidly growing area within these fields is small animal fluorescence imaging, in which molecularly targeted fluorescent probes are used to non-invasively image internal events on a gross anatomical scale. Small-animal fluorescence imaging has transitioned from a research technique to pre-clinical technology very quickly, due to its molecular specificity, low cost, and relative ease of use. In addition, its potential uses in gene therapy and as a translational technology are becoming evident. This thesis outlines the development of an alternative modality for small animal/tissue imaging, using hyperspectral techniques to enable the collection of fluorescence images at different excitation and emission wavelengths. In specific, acousto-optical tunable filters (AOTFs) were used to construct emission-wavelength-scanning and excitation-wavelength-scanning small animal fluorescence imagers. Statistical, classification, and unmixing algorithms have been employed to extract specific fluorescent-dye information from hyperspectral image sets. In this work, we have designed and implemented hyperspectral imaging and analysis techniques to remove background autofluorescence from the desired fluorescence signal, resulting in highly specific and localized fluorescence. Therefore, in practice, it is possible to more accurately pin-point the location and size of diagnostic anatomical markers (e.g. tumors) labeled with fluorescent probes. Furthermore, multiple probes can be individually distinguished. In addition to imaging hardware and acquisition and analysis software, we have designed an optical tissue phantom for quality control and inter-system comparison. The phantom has been modeled using Monte Carlo techniques. The culmination of this work results in an understanding of the advantages and complexities in applying hyperspectral techniques to small animal fluorescence

  9. Theoretical Modelling of Self-Assembly of Molecular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, Manuela; Martsinovich, Natalia; Kantorovich, Lev

    2008-03-01

    The phenomenon of self-assembly of atomic and molecular superstructures on crystal surfaces has attracted an increasing interest in nanotechnology. Self-organised nano-templates where the self-assembled monolayer traps other molecules with selected functional properties, can be used as building blocks for larger nanoscale structures. These superstructures can form chiral domains ranging from 1D chains to 2D monolayers. In particular, there have been many scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)studies of self-assembly of melamine, perylene tetra-carboxylic di-imide(PTCDI) or perylene tetra-carboxylic di-anhydride (PTCDA) molecules on the Au(111). STM images of these networks do not reveal the exact details of the intermolecular bonding and process of network growth. It is therefore the task of theory to determine the exact atomic structure of these networks. We present a theoretical study of self-assembly of molecular networks based on different molecules by using a systematic approach to build molecular superstructures. The energies of these structures are calculated using the density-functional theory SIESTA code. The theoretically predicted monolayer structures are in very good agreement with the results of STM measurements.

  10. Improvement of receptor model use in analytical aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chu-Fang; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    In this study, four certified particle standards including NIST SRM 1648 urban particulate matter, BCR Reference Material No. 176 city waste incineration ash, NIST SRM 2709 San Joaquin soil, and NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash were used to simulate ambient particulate matter. Twenty-five samples were prepared with the four certified particulate standards. A total of 23 elements were analyzed per sample, 19 by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, three by IC, and one element, Si, by spectrophotometer. Results showed that combining the three IC-analyzed ionic species with the 19 ICP-AES/MS analyzed elements into the CMB model did not improve the source identification significantly. In addition, when all 23 analyzed chemical species per sample were used in the CMB model, they were still not good enough to effectively make the parameters of the CMB model fit the statistical criteria. Some of high variation and low recovery chemical species, i.e. Cd, V, Sb, etc., may have caused poor CMB model simulation. Omitting some poor quality analyzed species (such as relative analysis error >20%) could improve the CMB model simulation. Therefore, high quality chemical species data are important for the CMB model. In addition, co-linearity of source profiles also affects the CMB model; combining the co-linear sources could enhance the solubility of the CMB model. In this study, a two-step procedure was developed for CMB model simulation to improve source identification.

  11. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  12. Building a Theoretical Model of Metacognitive Processes in Complex Modeling Activities: A Window into the Development of Students' Metacognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Rae

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical model of metacognition in complex modeling activities has been developed based on existing frameworks, by synthesizing the re-conceptualization of metacognition at multiple levels by looking at the three sources that trigger metacognition. Using the theoretical model as a framework, this study was designed to explore how students'…

  13. Information-theoretic model comparison unifies saliency metrics

    PubMed Central

    Kümmerer, Matthias; Wallis, Thomas S. A.; Bethge, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Learning the properties of an image associated with human gaze placement is important both for understanding how biological systems explore the environment and for computer vision applications. There is a large literature on quantitative eye movement models that seeks to predict fixations from images (sometimes termed “saliency” prediction). A major problem known to the field is that existing model comparison metrics give inconsistent results, causing confusion. We argue that the primary reason for these inconsistencies is because different metrics and models use different definitions of what a “saliency map” entails. For example, some metrics expect a model to account for image-independent central fixation bias whereas others will penalize a model that does. Here we bring saliency evaluation into the domain of information by framing fixation prediction models probabilistically and calculating information gain. We jointly optimize the scale, the center bias, and spatial blurring of all models within this framework. Evaluating existing metrics on these rephrased models produces almost perfect agreement in model rankings across the metrics. Model performance is separated from center bias and spatial blurring, avoiding the confounding of these factors in model comparison. We additionally provide a method to show where and how models fail to capture information in the fixations on the pixel level. These methods are readily extended to spatiotemporal models of fixation scanpaths, and we provide a software package to facilitate their use. PMID:26655340

  14. The common fate model for dyadic data: variations of a theoretically important but underutilized model.

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Thomas; Kenny, David A

    2012-02-01

    Studying dyads, very often there is a theoretical construct that has an effect on both members, such as relationship harmony or shared environment. To model such influences, the common fate model (CFM) is often the most appropriate approach. In this article, we address conceptual and statistical issues in the use of the standard CFM and present a series of variations, all of which are estimated by structural equation modeling (SEM). For indistinguishable dyad members (e.g., gay couples), we describe the use of a multilevel SEM method. Throughout the paper, we draw connections to the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). We also discuss the analysis of hybrid models that combines both the CFM and the APIM. The models are illustrated using data from heterosexual couples.

  15. College Students Solving Chemistry Problems: A Theoretical Model of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Glynn, Shawn M.

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in chemistry problem solving was tested on undergraduate science majors enrolled in a chemistry course. The model was based on Anderson's "Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational" (ACT-R) theory. The model shows how conceptualization, self-efficacy, and strategy interact and contribute to the successful solution of quantitative,…

  16. Theoretical model for a Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    A model for the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter is presented. The model predicts a bandwidth of 0.6 GHz and a transmission peak of 0.98 for a filter operating on the Cs (D2) line. The model includes hyperfine effects and is valid for arbitrary magnetic fields.

  17. Theoretical-Numerical Study of Feasibility of Use of Winglets on Low Aspect Ration Wings at Subsonic and Transonic Mach Numbers to Reduce Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, John M.; Liaw, Paul; Cerney, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical design study was conducted to assess the drag reduction potential of winglets installed on a series of low aspect ratio wings at a design point of M=0.8, C sub L=0.3. Wing-winglet and wing-alone design geometries were obtained for wings of aspect ratios between 1.75 and 2.67, having leading edge sweep angles between 45 and 60 deg. Winglet length was fixed at 15% of wing semispan. To assess the relative performance between wing-winglet and wing-alone configurations, the PPW nonlinear extended small disturbance potential flow code was utilized. This model has proven to yield plausible transonic flow field simulations for the series of low aspect ratio configurations selected. Predicted decreases in pressure drag coefficient for the wing-winglet configurations relative to the corresponding wing-alone planform are about 15% at the design point. Predicted decreases in wing-winglet total drag coefficient are about 12%, relative to the corresponding wing-alone design. Longer winglets (25% of the wing semispan) yielded decreases in the pressure drag of up to 22% and total drag of up to 16.4%. These predicted drag coefficient reductions are comparable to reductions already demonstrated by actual winglet designs installed on higher aspect ratio transport type aircraft.

  18. Are animal models relevant to key aspects of human parturition?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Bryan F; Taggart, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    Preterm birth remains the most serious complication of pregnancy and is associated with increased rates of infant death or permanent neurodevelopmental disability. Our understanding of the regulation of parturition remains inadequate. The scientific literature, largely derived from rodent animal models, suggests two major mechanisms regulating the timing of parturition: the withdrawal of the steroid hormone progesterone and a proinflammatory response by the immune system. However, available evidence strongly suggests that parturition in the human has significantly different regulators and mediators from those in most of the animal models. Our objectives are to critically review the data and concepts that have arisen from use of animal models for parturition and to rationalize the use of a new model. Many animal models have contributed to advances in our understanding of the regulation of parturition. However, we suggest that those animals dependent on progesterone withdrawal to initiate parturition clearly have a limitation to their translation to the human. In such models, a linear sequence of events (e.g., luteolysis, progesterone withdrawal, uterine activation, parturition) gives rise to the concept of a "trigger" mechanism. Conversely, we propose that human parturition may arise from the concomitant maturation of several systems in parallel. We have termed this novel concept "modular accumulation of physiological systems" (MAPS). We also emphasize the urgency to determine the precise role of the immune system in the process of parturition in situations other than intrauterine infection. Finally, we accentuate the need to develop a nonprimate animal model whose physiology is more relevant to human parturition. We suggest that the guinea pig displays several key physiological characteristics of gestation that more closely resemble human pregnancy than do currently favored animal models. We conclude that the application of novel concepts and new models are

  19. Theoretical and experimental modeling of a rail gun accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznyj, V. B.; Zagorskij, A. V.; Katsnel'Son, S. S.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Plekhanov, A. V.

    1993-04-01

    Results of a series of experiments in the acceleration of macrobodies are analyzed using an integral model of a current arc and a quasi-1D magnetic gasdynamic model. The integral model uses gasdynamic equations averaged by the size of a plasma pump and equations based on the second Kirchhoff's law for electrical current. The quasi-1D model is based on 1D magnetic gasdynamic equations for mean values of density, pressure, velocity, and internal power. Electromagnetic parameters are determined from Maxwell integral equations. It is concluded that the proposed models take into account the major mechanisms of momentum loss and are capable of adequately describing electromagnetic rail accelerators.

  20. A graph theoretical perspective of a drug abuse epidemic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyabadza, F.; Mukwembi, S.; Rodrigues, B. G.

    2011-05-01

    A drug use epidemic can be represented by a finite number of states and transition rules that govern the dynamics of drug use in each discrete time step. This paper investigates the spread of drug use in a community where some users are in treatment and others are not in treatment, citing South Africa as an example. In our analysis, we consider the neighbourhood prevalence of each individual, i.e., the proportion of the individual’s drug user contacts who are not in treatment amongst all of his or her contacts. We introduce parameters α∗, β∗ and γ∗, depending on the neighbourhood prevalence, which govern the spread of drug use. We examine how changes in α∗, β∗ and γ∗ affect the system dynamics. Simulations presented support the theoretical results.

  1. Theoretical model for a thin cylindrical film optical fiber fluorosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    The analytical treatment of power efficiency (P(eff) is undertaken for the case of a positively guiding optical fiber with a thin-film source distributed in the core-cladding interface. The approach adopts the exact solution of the cylindrical optical fiber with an infinite cladding to account for differences between the indices of refraction of the core and the cladding. The excitation of low-loss leaky modes by the cladding is ignored, and only the injection by the evanescent field is considered. The formulas permit the analysis of the power-injection efficiency of fibers with arbitrary differences in indices of refraction. P(eff) does not always increase with V number, but rather varies slightly with wavelength and fiber-core radius and varies significantly with the difference in the indices of refraction. The theoretical results of the work are of interest for designing an atomic-O chemical sensor based on evanescent-wave coupling.

  2. Theoretical development of a simplified wheelset model to evaluate collision-induced derailments of rolling stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Jeong Seo; Choi, Se Young

    2012-06-01

    A theoretical method is proposed to predict and evaluate collision-induced derailments of rolling stock by using a simplified wheelset model and is verified with dynamic simulations. Because the impact forces occurring during collision are transmitted from the car body to the bogies and axles through suspensions, rolling stock leads to derailment as a result of the combination of horizontal and vertical impact forces applied to the axle and a simplified wheelset model enforced at the axle can be used to theoretically formulate derailment behaviors. The derailment type depends on the combination of the horizontal and vertical forces, the flange angle and the friction coefficient. According to collision conditions, wheel-climb, wheel-lift or roll-over derailment can occur between the wheel and the rail. In this theoretical derailment model of a simplified wheelset, the derailment types are classified as Slip-up, Slip/roll-over, Climb-up, Climb/roll-over and pure Roll-over according to the derailment mechanisms between the wheel and the rail and the theoretical conditions needed to generate each derailment mechanism are proposed. The theoretical wheelset model is verified by dynamic simulation and its applicability is demonstrated by comparing the simulation results of the theoretical wheelset model with those of an actual wheelset model. The theoretical derailment wheelset model is in good agreement with the virtual testing model simulation for a collision-induced derailment of rolling stock.

  3. Theoretical aspects of Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Mariano; Palombo, Alessandro; Cucina, Alessandra

    2013-05-01

    The natural world consists of hierarchical levels of complexity that range from subatomic particles and molecules to ecosystems and beyond. This implies that, in order to explain the features and behavior of a whole system, a theory might be required that would operate at the corresponding hierarchical level, i.e. where self-organization processes take place. In the past, biological research has focused on questions that could be answered by a reductionist program of genetics. The organism (and its development) was considered an epiphenomenona of its genes. However, a profound rethinking of the biological paradigm is now underway and it is likely that such a process will lead to a conceptual revolution emerging from the ashes of reductionism. This revolution implies the search for general principles on which a cogent theory of biology might rely. Because much of the logic of living systems is located at higher levels, it is imperative to focus on them. Indeed, both evolution and physiology work on these levels. Thus, by no means Systems Biology could be considered a 'simple' 'gradual' extension of Molecular Biology.

  4. Deterministic versus stochastic aspects of superexponential population growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosjean, Nicolas; Huillet, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Deterministic population growth models with power-law rates can exhibit a large variety of growth behaviors, ranging from algebraic, exponential to hyperexponential (finite time explosion). In this setup, selfsimilarity considerations play a key role, together with two time substitutions. Two stochastic versions of such models are investigated, showing a much richer variety of behaviors. One is the Lamperti construction of selfsimilar positive stochastic processes based on the exponentiation of spectrally positive processes, followed by an appropriate time change. The other one is based on stable continuous-state branching processes, given by another Lamperti time substitution applied to stable spectrally positive processes.

  5. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Visual Backward Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Frouke; Luksys, Gediminas; Gerstner, Wulfram; Herzog, Michael H.; Ernst, Udo

    2008-01-01

    Visual backward masking is a versatile tool for understanding principles and limitations of visual information processing in the human brain. However, the mechanisms underlying masking are still poorly understood. In the current contribution, the authors show that a structurally simple mathematical model can explain many spatial and temporal…

  6. Insights on non-perturbative aspects of TMDs from models

    SciTech Connect

    H. Avakian, A. Efremov, P. Schweitzer, O. Teryaev, F. Yuan, P. Zavada

    2009-12-01

    Transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions are a key ingredient in the description of spin and azimuthal asymmetries in deep-inelastic scattering processes. Recent results from non-perturbative calculations in effective approaches are reviewed, with focus on relations among different parton distribution functions in QCD and models.

  7. Geometric Aspects of Force Controllability for a Swimming Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khapalov, A. Y.

    2008-02-15

    We study controllability properties (swimming capabilities) of a mathematical model of an abstract object which 'swims' in the 2-D Stokes fluid. Our goal is to investigate how the geometric shape of this object affects the forces acting upon it. Such problems are of interest in biology and engineering applications dealing with propulsion systems in fluids.

  8. Response of a panel to a supersonic turbulent boundary layer - Studies on a theoretical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, D. H. Y.; Maestrello, L.; Padula, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the response of a clamped panel to a supersonic turbulent boundary layer, based on a recently developed theoretical model, is presented. It is demonstrated that the model incorporates the effect of coupling between the panel motion and the flow of the surrounding fluid. Further, a Ritz-Galerkin method is used to obtain approximate solutions for the statistics of the panel response to the turbulence. The numerical results are compared with previous experimental data and the theoretical model is assessed.

  9. Construction of Theoretical Model for Antiterrorism: From Reflexive Game Theory Viewpoint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    19th ICCRTS “C2 AGILITY: LESSONS LEARNED FROM RESEARCH AND OPERATIONS.” Construction of Theoretical Model for Antiterrorism: From Reflexive Game...of Theoretical Model for Antiterrorism: From Reflexive Game Theory Viewpoint 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...use of Reflexive Game Theory (RGT) for modeling the processes of decision making by terrorists. In the antiterrorist operations, an expert plays an

  10. Experimental observations and theoretical models for beam-beam phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, S.

    1981-03-01

    The beam-beam interaction in storage rings exhibits all the characteristics of nonintegrable dynamical systems. Here one finds all kinds of resonances, closed orbits, stable and unstable fixed points, stochastic layers, chaotic behavior, diffusion, etc. The storage ring itself being an expensive device nevertheless while constructed and put into operation presents a good opportunity of experimentally studying the long-time behavior of both conservative (proton machines) and nonconservative (electron machines) dynamical systems - the number of bunch-bunch interactions routinely reaches values of 10/sup 10/-10/sup 11/ and could be increased by decreasing the beam current. At the same time the beam-beam interaction puts practical limits for the yield of the storage ring. This phenomenon not only determines the design value of main storage ring parameters (luminosity, space charge parameters, beam current), but also in fact prevents many of the existing storage rings from achieving design parameters. Hence, the problem has great practical importance along with its enormous theoretical interest. A brief overview of the problem is presented.

  11. Theoretical Tools in Modeling Communication and Language Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreto, Vittorio

    Statistical physics has proven to be a very fruitful framework to describe phenomena outside the realm of traditional physics. In social phenomena, the basic constituents are not particles but humans and every individual interacts with a limited number of peers, usually negligible compared to the total number of people in the system. In spite of that, human societies are characterized by stunning global regularities that naturally call for a statistical physics approach to social behavior, i.e., the attempt to understand regularities at large scale as collective effects of the interaction among single individuals, considered as relatively simple entities. This is the paradigm of Complex Systems: an assembly of many interacting (and simple) units whose collective behavior is not trivially deducible from the knowledge of the rules governing their mutual interactions. In this chapter we review the main theoretical concepts and tools that physics can borrow to socially-motivated problems. Despite their apparent diversity, most research lines in social dynamics are actually closely connected from the point of view of both the methodologies employed and, more importantly, of the general phenomenological questions, e.g., what are the fundamental interaction mechanisms leading to the emergence of consensus on an issue, a shared culture, a common language or a collective motion?

  12. Ignition temperature of magnesium powder clouds: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Chunmiao, Yuan; Chang, Li; Gang, Li; Peihong, Zhang

    2012-11-15

    Minimum ignition temperature of dust clouds (MIT-DC) is an important consideration when adopting explosion prevention measures. This paper presents a model for determining minimum ignition temperature for a magnesium powder cloud under conditions simulating a Godbert-Greenwald (GG) furnace. The model is based on heterogeneous oxidation of metal particles and Newton's law of motion, while correlating particle size, dust concentration, and dust dispersion pressure with MIT-DC. The model predicted values in close agreement with experimental data and is especially useful in predicting temperature and velocity change as particles pass through the furnace tube.

  13. Micro-capillary aerosol focusing device: theoretical modeling, experimental verification, and device fabrication.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoey, Justin; Akhatov, Iskander; Swenson, Orven; Schulz, Doug

    2007-11-01

    A theoretical model for the focusing of aerosol particles in a linearly-varying micro-capillary with a diameter on the order of 100 microns is presented. This theoretical model is experimentally verified by visualizing an aerosol beam of silver-ink aerosol particles of approximately 1 micron in diameter emitted from a micro-capillary. Additional validation is presented in the deposited lines where linewidth is a function of aerosol beamwidth. From the theoretical model a new design for the focusing of aerosol particles is developed, physically produced, and experimentally validated. The new device will be implemented in the areas of high frequency RFID manufacturing, and the semiconductor industry.

  14. Modeling and design aspects of active caloric regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2015-03-01

    A cooling device based on a solid caloric material using, for example, the elastocaloric, magnetocaloric, barocaloric or electrocaloric effect has the potential to replace vapor-compression based systems for a variety of applications. Any caloric device using a solid refrigerant may benefit from using a regenerative cycle to increase the operating temperature span. This presentation shows how all active caloric regenerators can be modeled using similar techniques and how they are related to passive regenerator performance. The advantages and disadvantages of using a regenerative cycle are also discussed. The issue of hysteresis in caloric materials is investigated from a system/thermodynamic standpoint and the effects on cooling power and efficiency are quantified using a numerical model of an active regenerator using model caloric materials with assumed properties. The implementation in a working device will be discussed for elastocaloric and magnetocaloric cooling devices. It is shown that demagnetization effects for magnetocaloric systems and stress concentration effects in elastocaloric system reduce the overall effect in the regenerator and care must be taken in regenerator design for both technologies. Other loss mechanisms outside the regenerator such as heat leaks are also discussed. Finally, experimental results for active magnetic regenerative cooler are given for a range of operating conditions. The most recently published device uses a regenerator consisting of Gd and three alloys of GdY and has demonstrated a COP over 3.

  15. Theoretical model of impact damage in structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, B. M.; Kobayashi, A. S.; Emery, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanistically consistent model of impact damage based on elastic failures due to tensile and shear overloading. An elastic axisymmetric finite element model is used to determine the dynamic stresses generated by a single particle impact. Local failures in a finite element are assumed to occur when the primary/secondary principal stresses or the maximum shear stress reach critical tensile or shear stresses, respectively. The succession of failed elements thus models macrocrack growth. Sliding motions of cracks, which closed during unloading, are resisted by friction and the unrecovered deformation represents the 'plastic deformation' reported in the literature. The predicted ring cracks on the contact surface, as well as the cone cracks, median cracks, radial cracks, lateral cracks, and damage-induced porous zones in the interior of hot-pressed silicon nitride plates, matched those observed experimentally. The finite element model also predicted the uplifting of the free surface surrounding the impact site.

  16. Design theoretic analysis of three system modeling frameworks.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2007-05-01

    This paper analyzes three simulation architectures from the context of modeling scalability to address System of System (SoS) and Complex System problems. The paper first provides an overview of the SoS problem domain and reviews past work in analyzing model and general system complexity issues. It then identifies and explores the issues of vertical and horizontal integration as well as coupling and hierarchical decomposition as the system characteristics and metrics against which the tools are evaluated. In addition, it applies Nam Suh's Axiomatic Design theory as a construct for understanding coupling and its relationship to system feasibility. Next it describes the application of MATLAB, Swarm, and Umbra (three modeling and simulation approaches) to modeling swarms of Unmanned Flying Vehicle (UAV) agents in relation to the chosen characteristics and metrics. Finally, it draws general conclusions for analyzing model architectures that go beyond those analyzed. In particular, it identifies decomposition along phenomena of interaction and modular system composition as enabling features for modeling large heterogeneous complex systems.

  17. Theoretical models for duct acoustic propagation and radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, Walter

    1991-01-01

    The development of computational methods in acoustics has led to the introduction of analysis and design procedures which model the turbofan inlet as a coupled system, simultaneously modeling propagation and radiation in the presence of realistic internal and external flows. Such models are generally large, require substantial computer speed and capacity, and can be expected to be used in the final design stages, with the simpler models being used in the early design iterations. Emphasis is given to practical modeling methods that have been applied to the acoustical design problem in turbofan engines. The mathematical model is established and the simplest case of propagation in a duct with hard walls is solved to introduce concepts and terminologies. An extensive overview is given of methods for the calculation of attenuation in uniform ducts with uniform flow and with shear flow. Subsequent sections deal with numerical techniques which provide an integrated representation of duct propagation and near- and far-field radiation for realistic geometries and flight conditions.

  18. The Grain Structure of Castings: Some Aspects of Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellawell, A.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of the modelling of the solidification of castings is typically tested against observed cooling curves and the final grain structures and sizes. Without thermo solutal convection, equiaxed grain formation is promoted by introduction of heterogeneous substrates into the melt, as grain refiners. With efficient thermo solutal convection, dendrite fragments from the mushy zone can act as an intrinsic source of equiaxed grains and resort to grain refining additions is unnecessary. The mechanisms of dendrite fragmentation and transport of these fragments are briefly considered.

  19. Ray-theoretical modeling of secondary microseism P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farra, V.; Stutzmann, E.; Gualtieri, L.; Schimmel, M.; Ardhuin, F.

    2016-09-01

    Secondary microseism sources are pressure fluctuations close to the ocean surface. They generate acoustic P waves that propagate in water down to the ocean bottom where they are partly reflected and partly transmitted into the crust to continue their propagation through the Earth. We present the theory for computing the displacement power spectral density of secondary microseism P waves recorded by receivers in the far field. In the frequency domain, the P-wave displacement can be modeled as the product of (1) the pressure source, (2) the source site effect that accounts for the constructive interference of multiply reflected P waves in the ocean, (3) the propagation from the ocean bottom to the stations and (4) the receiver site effect. Secondary microseism P waves have weak amplitudes, but they can be investigated by beamforming analysis. We validate our approach by analysing the seismic signals generated by typhoon Ioke (2006) and recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network. Backprojecting the beam onto the ocean surface enables to follow the source motion. The observed beam centroid is in the vicinity of the pressure source derived from the ocean wave model WAVEWATCH IIIR. The pressure source is then used for modeling the beam and a good agreement is obtained between measured and modeled beam amplitude variation over time. This modeling approach can be used to invert P-wave noise data and retrieve the source intensity and lateral extent.

  20. Modeling socioeconomic and ecologic aspects of land-use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Pedlowski, M.A.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.

    1992-01-01

    Land use change is one of the major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Prevalent types of land-use change include replacing forests with agriculture, mines or ranches; forest degradation from collection of firewood; and forest logging. A global effect of wide-scale deforestation is an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, which may affect climate. Regional effects include loss of biodiversity and disruption of hydrologic regimes. Local effects include soil erosion, siltation and decreases in soil fertility, loss of extractive reserves, and disruption of indigenous people. Modeling land use change requires combining socioeconomic and ecological factors because socioeconomic forces frequently initiate land-use change and are affected by the subsequent ecological degradation. This paper describes a modeling system that integrates submodels of human colonization and impacts to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land use scenarios. Immigration which follows road building or paving is a major factor in the rapid deforestation of previously inaccessible areas. Roads facilitate colonization, allow access for large machines, and provide transportation routes for mort of raw materials and produce.

  1. Semiotic aspects of control and modeling relations in complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, C.

    1996-08-01

    A conceptual analysis of the semiotic nature of control is provided with the goal of elucidating its nature in complex systems. Control is identified as a canonical form of semiotic relation of a system to its environment. As a form of constraint between a system and its environment, its necessary and sufficient conditions are established, and the stabilities resulting from control are distinguished from other forms of stability. These result from the presence of semantic coding relations, and thus the class of control systems is hypothesized to be equivalent to that of semiotic systems. Control systems are contrasted with models, which, while they have the same measurement functions as control systems, do not necessarily require semantic relations because of the lack of the requirement of an interpreter. A hybrid construction of models in control systems is detailed. Towards the goal of considering the nature of control in complex systems, the possible relations among collections of control systems are considered. Powers arguments on conflict among control systems and the possible nature of control in social systems are reviewed, and reconsidered based on our observations about hierarchical control. Finally, we discuss the necessary semantic functions which must be present in complex systems for control in this sense to be present at all.

  2. A control theoretic model of driver steering behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donges, E.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative description of driver steering behavior such as a mathematical model is presented. The steering task is divided into two levels: (1) the guidance level involving the perception of the instantaneous and future course of the forcing function provided by the forward view of the road, and the response to it in an anticipatory open-loop control mode; (2) the stabilization level whereby any occuring deviations from the forcing function are compensated for in a closed-loop control mode. This concept of the duality of the driver's steering activity led to a newly developed two-level model of driver steering behavior. Its parameters are identified on the basis of data measured in driving simulator experiments. The parameter estimates of both levels of the model show significant dependence on the experimental situation which can be characterized by variables such as vehicle speed and desired path curvature.

  3. Theoretical modeling of electron mobility in superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, Frédéric; Bonifaci, Nelly; von Haeften, Klaus; Eloranta, Jussi

    2016-07-01

    The Orsay-Trento bosonic density functional theory model is extended to include dissipation due to the viscous response of superfluid 4He present at finite temperatures. The viscous functional is derived from the Navier-Stokes equation by using the Madelung transformation and includes the contribution of interfacial viscous response present at the gas-liquid boundaries. This contribution was obtained by calibrating the model against the experimentally determined electron mobilities from 1.2 K to 2.1 K along the saturated vapor pressure line, where the viscous response is dominated by thermal rotons. The temperature dependence of ion mobility was calculated for several different solvation cavity sizes and the data are rationalized in the context of roton scattering and Stokes limited mobility models. Results are compared to the experimentally observed "exotic ion" data, which provides estimates for the corresponding bubble sizes in the liquid. Possible sources of such ions are briefly discussed.

  4. Theoretical model of HZE particle fragmentation by hydrogen targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L.W.; Cucinotta, F. A; Bagga, R.; Tripathi, R. K.

    1996-01-01

    The fragmenting of high energy, heavy ions (HZE particles) by hydrogen targets is an important, physical process in several areas of space radiation research. In this work quantum mechanical optical model methods for estimating cross sections for HZE particle fragmentation by hydrogen targets are presented. The cross sections are calculated using a modified abrasion-ablation collision formalism adapted from a nucleus-nucleus collision model. Elemental and isotopic production cross sections are estimated and compared with reported measurements for the breakup of neon, sulphur, and iron, nuclei at incident energies between 400 and 910 Mev/nucleon. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.

  5. Variable aspect ratio method in the Xu-White model for shear-wave velocity estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jun-Yu; Yue, Cheng-Qi; Liang, Yi-Qiang; Song, Zhi-Xiang; Ling, Su; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Shear-wave velocity logs are useful for various seismic interpretation applications, including bright spot analyses, amplitude-versus-offset analyses and multicomponent seismic interpretations. This paper presents a method for predicting the shear-wave velocity of argillaceous sandstone from conventional log data and experimental data, based on Gassmann's equations and the Xu-White model. This variable aspect ratio method takes into account all the influences of the matrix nature, shale content, porosity size and pore geometry, and the properties of pore fluid of argillaceous sandstone, replacing the fixed aspect ratio assumption in the conventional Xu-White model. To achieve this, we first use the Xu-White model to derive the bulk and shear modulus of dry rock in a sand-clay mixture. Secondly, we use Gassmann's equations to calculate the fluid-saturated elastic properties, including compressional and shear-wave velocities. Finally, we use the variable aspect ratio method to estimate the shear-wave velocity. The numerical results indicate that the variable aspect ratio method provides an important improvement in the application of the Xu-White model for sand-clay mixtures and allows for a variable aspect ratio log to be introduced into the Xu-White model instead of the constant aspect ratio assumption. This method shows a significant improvement in predicting velocities over the conventional Xu-White model.

  6. Theoretical Investigation of Optical Computing Based on Neural Network Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-29

    34 Cognitive and Psychological Computation with Neu- ral Models," IEEE Trans. Sys., Man, and cyber., SMC-13, p. 799, 1983. 20’ K. Nakano, "Association-A...7),482(1986). 211 F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics : Perceptron and the The- ory of Brain Mechanisms, Spartan Books, Washington,(1961). 22

  7. Multiaxial cyclic ratcheting in coiled tubing -- Part 1: Theoretical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rolovic, R.; Tipton, S.M.

    2000-04-01

    Coiled tubing is a long, continuous string of steel tubing that is used in the oil well drilling and servicing industry. Bending strains imposed on coiled tubing as it is deployed and retrieved from a well are considerably into the plastic regime and can be as high as 3%. Progressive growth of tubing diameter occurs when tubing is cyclically bent-straightened under constant internal pressure, regardless of the fact that the hoop stress imposed by typical pressure levels is well below the material's yield strength. A new incremental plasticity model is proposed in this study that can predict multiaxial cyclic ratcheting in coiled tubing more accurately than the conventional plasticity models. A new hardening rule is presented based on published experimental observations. The model also implements a new plastic modulus function. The predictions based on the new theory correlate well with experimental results presented in Part 2 of this paper. Some previously unexpected trends in coiled tubing deformation behavior were observed and correctly predicted using the proposed model.

  8. Theoretical Modeling of Josephson Junctions for Digital Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-29

    the Mott insulator-superfluid transition in the Bose Hubbard model", National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersberg (November, 2002...Phys. Rev. B 69, 165105--1-5 (2004). [20] D. 0. Demchencko, A. V. Joura, and J. K. Freericks, Effect of particle-hole asymmetry on the Mott- Hubbard

  9. Photoabsorption spectrum of helium trimer cation—Theoretical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kalus, René; Karlický, František; Lepetit, Bruno; Paidarová, Ivana; Gadea, Florent Xavier

    2013-11-28

    The photoabsorption spectrum of He{sub 3}{sup +} is calculated for two semiempirical models of intracluster interactions and compared with available experimental data reported in the middle UV range [H. Haberland and B. von Issendorff, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8773 (1995)]. Nuclear delocalization effects are investigated via several approaches comprising quantum samplings using either exact or approximate (harmonic) nuclear wavefunctions, as well as classical samplings based on the Monte Carlo methodology. Good agreement with the experiment is achieved for the model by Knowles et al., [Mol. Phys. 85, 243 (1995); Mol. Phys. 87, 827 (1996)] whereas the model by Calvo et al., [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 124308 (2011)] exhibits non-negligible deviations from the experiment. Predictions of far UV absorption spectrum of He{sub 3}{sup +}, for which no experimental data are presently available, are reported for both models and compared to each other as well as to the photoabsorption spectrum of He{sub 2}{sup +}. A simple semiempirical point-charge approximation for calculating transition probabilities is shown to perform well for He{sub 3}{sup +}.

  10. A Theoretical Model of Sexual Assault: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn W.; Humphrey, John A.

    Koss and Dinero's (1987) comprehensive developmental model of sexual aggression asserts that sexual assault is in part a result of early sexual experiences and family violence; that sexually aggressive behaviors may be predicted by such "releaser" variables as current sexual behavior, alcohol use, and peer group support; and that use of aggression…

  11. Testing Theoretical Models of Magnetic Damping Using an Air Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidaurre, Ana; Riera, Jaime; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Gimenez, Marcos H.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic braking is a long-established application of Lenz's law. A rigorous analysis of the laws governing this problem involves solving Maxwell's equations in a time-dependent situation. Approximate models have been developed to describe different experimental results related to this phenomenon. In this paper we present a new method for the…

  12. Strength of Si Wafers with Microcracks: A Theoretical Model; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Rupnowski, P.; Sopori, B.

    2008-05-01

    This paper concentrates on the modeling of the strength of photovoltaic (PV) wafers. First a multimodal Weibull distribution is presented for the strength of a silicon specimen with bulk, surface, and edge imperfections. Next, a specific case is analyzed of a PV wafer with surface damage that takes the form of subsurface microcracks.

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigation of high-level radiation sources used to model a heat input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, V. M.; Petrikevich, B. B.; Shcherbakov, A. A.

    1980-03-01

    This paper examines high-intensity xenon-filled radiation sources for heat load simulation. A mathematical model of the discharge is proposed, and results of a theoretical and an experimental investigation are presented.

  14. Motility of a model bristle-bot: A theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicconofri, Giancarlo; DeSimone, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Bristle-bots are legged robots that can be easily made out of a toothbrush head and a small vibrating engine. Despite their simple appearance, the mechanism enabling them to propel themselves by exploiting friction with the substrate is far from trivial. Numerical experiments on a model bristle-bot have been able to reproduce such a mechanism revealing, in addition, the ability to switch direction of motion by varying the vibration frequency. This paper provides a detailed account of these phenomena through a fully analytical treatment of the model. The equations of motion are solved through an expansion in terms of a properly chosen small parameter. The convergence of the expansion is rigorously proven. In addition, the analysis delivers formulas for the average velocity of the robot and for the frequency at which the direction switch takes place. A quantitative description of the mechanism for the friction modulation underlying the motility of the bristle-bot is also provided.

  15. Game-Theoretic Models of Conflict and Social Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-17

    been to provide qualitative analysis that give insights into the sources of political and social conflict and quantitative or computational methods ...the Econometric Society in 2011, and keynote addresses at the WINE conference, the Public Economic Theory Conference, and the State of the Art lecture...project, we developed a model for the analysis of spread of misinformation in societies. Our analysis is motivated by the widespread differences in

  16. A Theoretical Model for the Associative Nature of Conference Participation.

    PubMed

    Smiljanić, Jelena; Chatterjee, Arnab; Kauppinen, Tomi; Mitrović Dankulov, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Participation in conferences is an important part of every scientific career. Conferences provide an opportunity for a fast dissemination of latest results, discussion and exchange of ideas, and broadening of scientists' collaboration network. The decision to participate in a conference depends on several factors like the location, cost, popularity of keynote speakers, and the scientist's association with the community. Here we discuss and formulate the problem of discovering how a scientist's previous participation affects her/his future participations in the same conference series. We develop a stochastic model to examine scientists' participation patterns in conferences and compare our model with data from six conferences across various scientific fields and communities. Our model shows that the probability for a scientist to participate in a given conference series strongly depends on the balance between the number of participations and non-participations during his/her early connections with the community. An active participation in a conference series strengthens the scientist's association with that particular conference community and thus increases the probability of future participations.

  17. A Theoretical Model for the Associative Nature of Conference Participation

    PubMed Central

    Smiljanić, Jelena; Chatterjee, Arnab; Kauppinen, Tomi; Mitrović Dankulov, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Participation in conferences is an important part of every scientific career. Conferences provide an opportunity for a fast dissemination of latest results, discussion and exchange of ideas, and broadening of scientists’ collaboration network. The decision to participate in a conference depends on several factors like the location, cost, popularity of keynote speakers, and the scientist’s association with the community. Here we discuss and formulate the problem of discovering how a scientist’s previous participation affects her/his future participations in the same conference series. We develop a stochastic model to examine scientists’ participation patterns in conferences and compare our model with data from six conferences across various scientific fields and communities. Our model shows that the probability for a scientist to participate in a given conference series strongly depends on the balance between the number of participations and non-participations during his/her early connections with the community. An active participation in a conference series strengthens the scientist’s association with that particular conference community and thus increases the probability of future participations. PMID:26859404

  18. A dynamic game-theoretic model of parental care.

    PubMed

    Mcnamara, J M; Székely, T; Webb, J N; Houston, A I

    2000-08-21

    We present a model in which members of a mated pair decide whether to care for their offspring or desert them. There is a breeding season of finite length during which it is possible to produce and raise several batches of offspring. On deserting its offspring, an individual can search for a new mate. The probability of finding a mate depends on the number of individuals of each sex that are searching, which in turn depends upon the previous care and desertion decisions of all population members. We find the evolutionarily stable pattern of care over the breeding season. The feedback between behaviour and mating opportunity can result in a pattern of stable oscillations between different forms of care over the breeding season. Oscillations can also arise because the best thing for an individual to do at a particular time in the season depends on future behaviour of all population members. In the baseline model, a pair splits up after a breeding attempt, even if they both care for the offspring. In a version of the model in which a pair stays together if they both care, the feedback between behaviour and mating opportunity can lead to more than one evolutionarily stable form of care.

  19. The Impact of Personality on Training-Related Aspects of Motivation: Test of a Longitudinal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowold, Jens

    2007-01-01

    A model that proposed dispositional influences on training-related aspects of motivation was developed. More specifically, the model predicted influences of the Big Five personality variables on motivation to learn and transfer motivation, while controlling for general attitudes toward training. The model was tested empirically, drawing on a…

  20. Modeling and Theoretical Analysis of On-Chip Phase-Sensitive Amplifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We performed a theoretical study of phase-sentisitive amplification in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), so as to...wavelength mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) based on coupled-mode equations. The proposed model applies to all kinds of SOA...Unlimited UU UU UU UU 19-04-2016 1-Jun-2014 30-Nov-2015 Final Report: Modeling and Theoretical Analysis of On-Chip Phase-Sensitive Amplifiers The

  1. Filling high aspect ratio trenches by superconformal chemical vapor deposition: Predictive modeling and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjiao B.; Abelson, John R.

    2014-11-01

    Complete filling of a deep recessed structure with a second material is a challenge in many areas of nanotechnology fabrication. A newly discovered superconformal coating method, applicable in chemical vapor deposition systems that utilize a precursor in combination with a co-reactant, can solve this problem. However, filling is a dynamic process in which the trench progressively narrows and the aspect ratio (AR) increases. This reduces species diffusion within the trench and may drive the component partial pressures out of the regime for superconformal coating. We therefore derive two theoretical models that can predict the possibility for filling. First, we recast the diffusion-reaction equation for the case of a sidewall with variable taper angle. This affords a definition of effective AR, which is larger than the nominal AR due to the reduced species transport. We then derive the coating profile, both for superconformal and for conformal coating. The critical (most difficult) step in the filling process occurs when the sidewalls merge at the bottom of the trench to form the V shape. Experimentally, for the Mg(DMADB)2/H2O system and a starting AR = 9, this model predicts that complete filling will not be possible, whereas experimentally we do obtain complete filling. We then hypothesize that glancing-angle, long-range transport of species may be responsible for the better than predicted filling. To account for the variable range of species transport, we construct a ballistic transport model. This incorporates the incident flux from outside the structure, cosine law re-emission from surfaces, and line-of-sight transport between internal surfaces. We cast the transport probability between all positions within the trench into a matrix that represents the redistribution of flux after one cycle of collisions. Matrix manipulation then affords a computationally efficient means to determine the steady-state flux distribution and growth rate for a given taper angle. The

  2. The abelian confinement mechanism revisited: New aspects of the Georgi–Glashow model

    SciTech Connect

    Anber, Mohamed M.

    2014-02-15

    The confinement problem remains one of the most difficult problems in theoretical physics. An important step toward the solution of this problem is Polyakov’s work on abelian confinement. The Georgi–Glashow model is a natural testing ground for this mechanism which has been surprising us by its richness and wide applicability. In this work, we shed light on two new aspects of this model in 2+1 D. First, we develop a many-body description of the effective degrees of freedom. Namely, we consider a non-relativistic gas of W-bosons in the background of monopole–instanton plasma. Many-body treatment is a standard toolkit in condensed matter physics. However, we add a new twist by supplying the monopole–instantons as external background field. Using this construction along with a mean-field approximation, we calculate the form of the potential between two electric probes as a function of their separation. This potential is expressed in terms of the Meijer-G function which interpolates between logarithmic and linear behavior at small and large distances, respectively. Second, we develop a systematic approach to integrate out the effect of the W-bosons at finite temperature in the range 0≤Tmodel. Using a heat kernel expansion that takes into account the non-trivial thermal holonomy, we show that the partition function describes a three-dimensional two-component Coulomb gas. We repeat our analysis using the many-body description which yields the same result and provides a check on our formalism. At temperatures close to the deconfinement temperature, the gas becomes essentially two-dimensional recovering the partition function of the dual sine-Gordon model that was considered in a previous work. -- Highlights: • We consider the problem of abelian confinement in the Georgi–Glashow model from a new perspective. • We develop a many

  3. GSTARS computer models and their applications, part I: theoretical development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, C.T.; Simoes, F.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    GSTARS is a series of computer models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for alluvial river and reservoir sedimentation studies while the authors were employed by that agency. The first version of GSTARS was released in 1986 using Fortran IV for mainframe computers. GSTARS 2.0 was released in 1998 for personal computer application with most of the code in the original GSTARS revised, improved, and expanded using Fortran IV/77. GSTARS 2.1 is an improved and revised GSTARS 2.0 with graphical user interface. The unique features of all GSTARS models are the conjunctive use of the stream tube concept and of the minimum stream power theory. The application of minimum stream power theory allows the determination of optimum channel geometry with variable channel width and cross-sectional shape. The use of the stream tube concept enables the simulation of river hydraulics using one-dimensional numerical solutions to obtain a semi-two- dimensional presentation of the hydraulic conditions along and across an alluvial channel. According to the stream tube concept, no water or sediment particles can cross the walls of stream tubes, which is valid for many natural rivers. At and near sharp bends, however, sediment particles may cross the boundaries of stream tubes. GSTARS3, based on FORTRAN 90/95, addresses this phenomenon and further expands the capabilities of GSTARS 2.1 for cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transport in rivers and reservoirs. This paper presents the concepts, methods, and techniques used to develop the GSTARS series of computer models, especially GSTARS3. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  4. Theoretical models for the emergence of biomolecular homochirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Sara Imari

    Little is known about the emergence of life from nonliving precursors. A key missing-piece is the origin of homochirality: nearly all life is characterized by exclusively dextrorotary sugars and levorotary amino acids. The research presented in this thesis addresses the challenge of uncovering mechanisms for chiral symmetry breaking in a prebiotic environment and implications for the origin of life on Earth. Expanding on a well-known model for chiral selection through polymerization, and modeling the spatiotemporal dynamics starting from near-racemic initial conditions, it is demonstrated that the net chirality of molecular building blocks grows with the longest polymer in the reaction network (of length N) with critical behavior for the onset of chiral asymmetry determined by the value of N. This surprising result indicates that significant chiral asymmetry occurs only for systems which permit growth of long polymers. Expanding on this work, the effects of environmental disturbances on the evolution of chirality in prebiotic reaction-diffusion networks are studied via the implementation of a stochastic spatiotemporal Langevin equation. The results show that environmental interactions can have significant impact on the evolution of prebiotic chirality: the history of prebiotic chirality is therefore interwoven with the Earths early environmental history in a mechanism we call punctuated chirality. This result establishes that the onset of homochirality is not an isolated phenomenon: chiral selection must occur in tandem with the transition from chemistry to biology, otherwise the prebiotic soup is unstable to environmental events. Addressing the challenge of understanding the role of chirality in the transition from non-life to life, the diffusive slowdown of reaction networks induced, for example, through tidal cycles or evaporating pools, is modeled. The results of this study demonstrate that such diffusive slowdown leads to the stabilization of homochiral

  5. Theoretical modeling of the absorption spectrum of aqueous riboflavin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti-Polzi, Laura; Aschi, Massimiliano; Daidone, Isabella; Amadei, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    In this study we report the modeling of the absorption spectrum of riboflavin in water using a hybrid quantum/classical mechanical approach, the MD-PMM methodology. By means of MD-PMM calculations, with which the effect of riboflavin internal motions and of solvent interactions on the spectroscopic properties can be explicitly taken into account, we obtain an absorption spectrum in very good agreement with the experimental spectrum. In particular, the calculated peak maxima show a consistent improvement with respect to previous computational approaches. Moreover, the calculations show that the interaction with the environment may cause a relevant recombination of the gas-phase electronic states.

  6. Graph theoretical analysis of the energy landscape of model polymers.

    PubMed

    Baiesi, Marco; Bongini, Lorenzo; Casetti, Lapo; Tattini, Lorenzo

    2009-07-01

    In systems characterized by a rough potential-energy landscape, local energetic minima and saddles define a network of metastable states whose topology strongly influences the dynamics. Changes in temperature, causing the merging and splitting of metastable states, have nontrivial effects on such networks and must be taken into account. We do this by means of a recently proposed renormalization procedure. This method is applied to analyze the topology of the network of metastable states for different polypeptidic sequences in a minimalistic polymer model. A smaller spectral dimension emerges as a hallmark of stability of the global energy minimum and highlights a nonobvious link between dynamic and thermodynamic properties.

  7. Random walk on lattices: graph-theoretic approach to simulating long-range diffusion-attachment growth models.

    PubMed

    Limkumnerd, Surachate

    2014-03-01

    Interest in thin-film fabrication for industrial applications have driven both theoretical and computational aspects of modeling its growth. One of the earliest attempts toward understanding the morphological structure of a film's surface is through a class of solid-on-solid limited-mobility growth models such as the Family, Wolf-Villain, or Das Sarma-Tamborenea models, which have produced fascinating surface roughening behaviors. These models, however, restrict the motion of an incidence atom to be within the neighborhood of its landing site, which renders them inept for simulating long-distance surface diffusion such as that observed in thin-film growth using a molecular-beam epitaxy technique. Naive extension of these models by repeatedly applying the local diffusion rules for each hop to simulate large diffusion length can be computationally very costly when certain statistical aspects are demanded. We present a graph-theoretic approach to simulating a long-range diffusion-attachment growth model. Using the Markovian assumption and given a local diffusion bias, we derive the transition probabilities for a random walker to traverse from one lattice site to the others after a large, possibly infinite, number of steps. Only computation with linear-time complexity is required for the surface morphology calculation without other probabilistic measures. The formalism is applied, as illustrations, to simulate surface growth on a two-dimensional flat substrate and around a screw dislocation under the modified Wolf-Villain diffusion rule. A rectangular spiral ridge is observed in the latter case with a smooth front feature similar to that obtained from simulations using the well-known multiple registration technique. An algorithm for computing the inverse of a class of substochastic matrices is derived as a corollary.

  8. Random walk on lattices: Graph-theoretic approach to simulating long-range diffusion-attachment growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limkumnerd, Surachate

    2014-03-01

    Interest in thin-film fabrication for industrial applications have driven both theoretical and computational aspects of modeling its growth. One of the earliest attempts toward understanding the morphological structure of a film's surface is through a class of solid-on-solid limited-mobility growth models such as the Family, Wolf-Villain, or Das Sarma-Tamborenea models, which have produced fascinating surface roughening behaviors. These models, however, restrict the motion of an incidence atom to be within the neighborhood of its landing site, which renders them inept for simulating long-distance surface diffusion such as that observed in thin-film growth using a molecular-beam epitaxy technique. Naive extension of these models by repeatedly applying the local diffusion rules for each hop to simulate large diffusion length can be computationally very costly when certain statistical aspects are demanded. We present a graph-theoretic approach to simulating a long-range diffusion-attachment growth model. Using the Markovian assumption and given a local diffusion bias, we derive the transition probabilities for a random walker to traverse from one lattice site to the others after a large, possibly infinite, number of steps. Only computation with linear-time complexity is required for the surface morphology calculation without other probabilistic measures. The formalism is applied, as illustrations, to simulate surface growth on a two-dimensional flat substrate and around a screw dislocation under the modified Wolf-Villain diffusion rule. A rectangular spiral ridge is observed in the latter case with a smooth front feature similar to that obtained from simulations using the well-known multiple registration technique. An algorithm for computing the inverse of a class of substochastic matrices is derived as a corollary.

  9. A theoretical model of a molecular-motor-powered pump.

    PubMed

    Bull, Joseph L; Hunt, Alan J; Meyhöfer, Edgar

    2005-03-01

    The motion of a cylindrical bead in a fluid contained within a two-dimensional channel is investigated using the boundary element method as a model of a biomolecular-motor-powered microfluidics pump. The novelty of the pump lies in the use of motor proteins (kinesin) to power the bead motion and the few moving parts comprising the pump. The performance and feasibility of this pump design is investigated using two model geometries: a straight channel, and a curved channel with two concentric circular walls. In the straight channel geometry, it is shown that increasing the bead radius relative to the channel width, increases the flow rate at the expense of increasing the force the kinesins must generate in order to move the bead. Pump efficiency is generally higher for larger bead radii, and larger beads can support higher imposed loads. In the circular channel geometry, it is shown that bead rotation modifies the force required to move the bead and that shifting the bead inward slightly reduces the required force. Bead rotation has a minimal effect on flow rate. Recirculation regions, which can develop between the bead and the channel walls, influence the stresses and force on the bead. These results suggest this pump design is feasible, and the kinesin molecules provide sufficient force to deliver pico- to atto- l/s flows.

  10. Polarimetric signatures of sea ice. 1: Theoretical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    Physical, structral, and electromagnetic properties and interrelating processes in sea ice are used to develop a composite model for polarimetric backscattering signatures of sea ice. Physical properties of sea ice constituents such as ice, brine, air, and salt are presented in terms of their effects on electromagnetic wave interactions. Sea ice structure and geometry of scatterers are related to wave propagation, attenuation, and scattering. Temperature and salinity, which are determining factors for the thermodynamic phase distribution in sea ice, are consistently used to derive both effective permittivities and polarimetric scattering coefficients. Polarmetric signatures of sea ice depend on crystal sizes and brine volumes, which are affected by ice growth rates. Desalination by brine expulsion, drainage, or other mechanisms modifies wave penetration and scattering. Sea ice signatures are further complicated by surface conditions such as rough interfaces, hummocks, snow cover, brine skim, or slush layer. Based on the same set of geophysical parameters characterizing sea ice, a composite model is developed to calculate effective permittivities and backscattering covariance matrices at microwave frequencies to interpretation of sea ice polarimetric signatures.

  11. Polarimetric Signatures of Sea Ice. Part 1; Theoretical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    Physical, structural, and electromagnetic properties and interrelating processes in sea ice are used to develop a composite model for polarimetric backscattering signatures of sea ice. Physical properties of sea ice constituents such as ice, brine, air, and salt are presented in terms of their effects on electromagnetic wave interactions. Sea ice structure and geometry of scatterers are related to wave propagation, attenuation, and scattering. Temperature and salinity, which are determining factors for the thermodynamic phase distribution in sea ice, are consistently used to derive both effective permittivities and polarimetric scattering coefficients. Polarimetric signatures of sea ice depend on crystal sizes and brine volumes, which are affected by ice growth rates. Desalination by brine expulsion, drainage, or other mechanisms modifies wave penetration and scattering. Sea ice signatures are further complicated by surface conditions such as rough interfaces, hummocks, snow cover, brine skim, or slush layer. Based on the same set of geophysical parameters characterizing sea ice, a composite model is developed to calculate effective permittivities and backscattering covariance matrices at microwave frequencies for interpretation of sea ice polarimetric signatures.

  12. Theoretical models of Kapton heating in solar array geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to understand pyrolysis of Kapton in solar arrays, a computational heat transfer program was developed. This model allows for the different materials and widely divergent length scales of the problem. The present status of the calculation indicates that thin copper traces surrounded by Kapton and carrying large currents can show large temperature increases, but the other configurations seen on solar arrays have adequate heat sinks to prevent substantial heating of the Kapton. Electron currents from the ambient plasma can also contribute to heating of thin traces. Since Kapton is stable at temperatures as high as 600 C, this indicates that it should be suitable for solar array applications. There are indications that the adhesive sued in solar arrays may be a strong contributor to the pyrolysis problem seen in solar array vacuum chamber tests.

  13. Unified Field Theoretical Models from Generalized Affine Geometries II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

    2011-06-01

    The space-time structure of the new Unified Field Theory presented in previous reference (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 49:1288-1301, 2010) is analyzed from its SL(2C) underlying structure in order to make precise the notion of minimal coupling. To this end, the framework is the language of tensors and particularly differential forms and the condition a priory of the existence of a potential for the torsion is relaxed. We shown trough exact cosmological solutions from this model, where the geometry is Euclidean R⊗ O 3˜ R⊗ SU(2), the relation between the space-time geometry and the structure of the gauge group. Precisely this relation is directly connected with the relation of the spin and torsion fields. The solution of this model is explicitly compared with our previous ones and we find that: (i) the torsion is not identified directly with the Yang Mills type strength field, (ii) there exists a compatibility condition connected with the identification of the gauge group with the geometric structure of the space-time: this fact lead the identification between derivatives of the scale factor a( τ) with the components of the torsion in order to allows the Hosoya-Ogura ansatz (namely, the alignment of the isospin with the frame geometry of the space-time), (iii) this compatibility condition precisely mark the fact that local gauge covariance, coordinate independence and arbitrary space time geometries are harmonious concepts and (iv) of two possible structures of the torsion the "tratorial" form (the only one studied here) forbids wormhole configurations, leading only, cosmological instanton space-time in eternal expansion.

  14. A vortex model for forces and moments on low-aspect-ratio wings in side-slip with experimental validation.

    PubMed

    DeVoria, Adam C; Mohseni, Kamran

    2017-02-01

    This paper studies low-aspect-ratio ([Formula: see text]) rectangular wings at high incidence and in side-slip. The main objective is to incorporate the effects of high angle of attack and side-slip into a simplified vortex model for the forces and moments. Experiments are also performed and are used to validate assumptions made in the model. The model asymptotes to the potential flow result of classical aerodynamics for an infinite aspect ratio. The [Formula: see text] → 0 limit of a rectangular wing is considered with slender body theory, where the side-edge vortices merge into a vortex doublet. Hence, the velocity fields transition from being dominated by a spanwise vorticity monopole ([Formula: see text] ≫ 1) to a streamwise vorticity dipole ([Formula: see text] ∼ 1). We theoretically derive a spanwise loading distribution that is parabolic instead of elliptic, and this physically represents the additional circulation around the wing that is associated with reattached flow. This is a fundamental feature of wings with a broad-facing leading edge. The experimental measurements of the spanwise circulation closely approximate a parabolic distribution. The vortex model yields very agreeable comparison with direct measurement of the lift and drag, and the roll moment prediction is acceptable for [Formula: see text] ≤ 1 prior to the roll stall angle and up to side-slip angles of 20°.

  15. Modeling in Chemistry as Cultural Practice: A Theoretical Framework with Implications for Chemistry Education. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erduran, Sibel

    This paper reports on an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for the characterization of models and modeling that can be useful in application to chemistry education. The underlying argument marks a departure from an emphasis on concepts that are the outcomes of chemical inquiry about how knowledge growth occurs through modeling in chemistry.…

  16. A Measurement-Theoretic Analysis of the Fuzzy Logic Model of Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Court S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The fuzzy logic model of perception (FLMP) is analyzed from a measurement-theoretic perspective. The choice rule of FLMP is shown to be equivalent to a version of the Rasch model. In fact, FLMP can be reparameterized as a simple two-category logit model. (SLD)

  17. A beginner's guide to writing the nursing conceptual model-based theoretical rationale.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, Eileen; Manister, Nancy N

    2012-10-01

    Writing the theoretical rationale for a study can be a daunting prospect for novice researchers. Nursing's conceptual models provide excellent frameworks for placement of study variables, but moving from the very abstract concepts of the nursing model to the less abstract concepts of the study variables is difficult. Similar to the five-paragraph essay used by writing teachers to assist beginning writers to construct a logical thesis, the authors of this column present guidelines that beginners can follow to construct their theoretical rationale. This guide can be used with any nursing conceptual model but Neuman's model was chosen here as the exemplar.

  18. Theoretical modelling and experimental results of electromechanical actuation of an elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Calleja, Ricardo; Llovera-Segovia, Pedro; Dominguez, José Jorge; Carsí Rosique, Marta; Quijano Lopez, Alfredo

    2013-06-01

    Electromechanical actuation is a growing field of research today both for applications or theoretical modelling. The interaction between electric and mechanical constraints has been used for electromechanic actuators or generators based on elastomers. From a theoretical point of view, many recent works have been focused on uniaxial or biaxial stretching of elastomer plates with compliant electrodes. Free stretching or pre-strained samples have been theoretically modelled, mainly by neo-Hookean equations. In this work, we present theoretical and experimental results of electromechanic actuation of an elastomer (the widely used 3M VHB4910, an acrylic foam) in a pre-strained case and a free case. Experimental characterization of the material shows that the Ogden model gives the best accurate fitting of mechanical properties. Thus, a theoretical development based on this model is carried out in order to obtain the curves describing the electromechanical behaviour of the material. The mechanical instability related to wrinkling of the material is theoretically calculated and experimentally verified.

  19. Some aspects of mathematical and chemical modeling of complex chemical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemes, I.; Botar, L.; Danoczy, E.; Vidoczy, T.; Gal, D.

    1983-01-01

    Some theoretical questions involved in the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of complex chemical process are discussed. The analysis is carried out for the homogeneous oxidation of ethylbenzene in the liquid phase. Particular attention is given to the determination of the general characteristics of chemical systems from an analysis of mathematical models developed on the basis of linear algebra.

  20. [Palliative care decision making among the elderly and family: a theoretical model].

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, Julie; Beaulieu, Marie; Arcand, Marcel

    2011-03-01

    The elderly in palliative care are confronted with difficult decisions relating to treatments. The philosophy of palliative care, namely, including the patient and his/her family right away, leads the doctor to consult with the two parties involved when choosing a treatment. As no theoretical model allows us to understand how the decision-making process hinges on the trio (a capable elderly person, a family caregiver, and the doctor) in a context of palliative care, we propose one which was developed from three strategies of document analysis: theoretical synthesis, theoretical analysis, and theoretical derivation. According to our model, the decision-making process depends on individual factors influencing the decision of the participant, expectations and attitudes as to the role, the level of confidence amongst the parties involved, the manner in which they communicate with each other, their mutual understanding of the clinical and ethical issues, and, finally, their ability to cooperate.

  1. Single Droplet on Micro Square-Post Patterned Surfaces – Theoretical Model and Numerical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Y. Q.; Yan, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the wetting behaviors of single droplet on a micro square-post patterned surface with different geometrical parameters are investigated theoretically and numerically. A theoretical model is proposed for the prediction of wetting transition from the Cassie to Wenzel regimes. In addition, due to the limitation of theoretical method, a numerical simulation is performed, which helps get a view of dynamic contact lines, detailed velocity fields, etc., even if the droplet size is comparable with the scale of the surface micro-structures. It is found that the numerical results of the liquid drop behaviours on the square-post patterned surface are in good agreement with the predicted values by the theoretical model. PMID:26775561

  2. Theoretical modeling on the laser induced effect of liquid crystal optical phased beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoxian; Wang, Xiangru; Wu, Liang; Tan, Qinggui; Li, Man; Shang, Jiyang; Wu, Shuanghong; Huang, Ziqiang

    2017-01-01

    Non-mechanical laser beam steering has been reported previously in liquid crystal array devices. To be one of the most promising candidates to be practical non-mechanical laser deflector, its laser induced effect still has few theoretical model. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to analyze this laser induced effect of LC-OPA to evaluate the deterioration on phased beam steering. The model has three parts: laser induced thermal distribution; temperature dependence of material parameters and beam steering deterioration. After these three steps, the far field of laser beam is obtained to demonstrate the steering performance with the respect to the incident laser beam power and beam waist.

  3. Simple control-theoretic models of human steering activity in visually guided vehicle control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1991-01-01

    A simple control theoretic model of human steering or control activity in the lateral-directional control of vehicles such as automobiles and rotorcraft is discussed. The term 'control theoretic' is used to emphasize the fact that the model is derived from a consideration of well-known control system design principles as opposed to psychological theories regarding egomotion, etc. The model is employed to emphasize the 'closed-loop' nature of tasks involving the visually guided control of vehicles upon, or in close proximity to, the earth and to hypothesize how changes in vehicle dynamics can significantly alter the nature of the visual cues which a human might use in such tasks.

  4. A Game-Theoretic Model of Curriculum Integration and School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes a simple game-theoretic model of curriculum integration decision-making in a high school with academic and vocational tracks. The model is based on a formal theory of how curriculum integration affects learning. Teachers choose to include a curriculum integration unit in their classes only when it increases learning relative to…

  5. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  6. Cross-Cultural Teamwork in End User Computing: A Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bento, Regina F.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a theoretical model explaining how cultural influences may affect the open, dynamic system of a cross-cultural, end-user computing team. Discusses the relationship between cross-cultural factors and various parts of the model such as: input variables, the system itself, outputs, and implications for the management of such teams. (JKP)

  7. Game Object Model Version II: A Theoretical Framework for Educational Game Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amory, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Complex computer and video games may provide a vehicle, based on appropriate theoretical concepts, to transform the educational landscape. Building on the original game object model (GOM) a new more detailed model is developed to support concepts that educational computer games should: be relevant, explorative, emotive, engaging, and include…

  8. A Theoretical Model for Thin Film Ferroelectric Coupled Microstripline Phase Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, R. R.; Quereshi, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    Novel microwave phase shifters consisting of coupled microstriplines on thin ferroelectric films have been demonstrated recently. A theoretical model useful for predicting the propagation characteristics (insertion phase shift, dielectric loss, impedance, and bandwidth) is presented here. The model is based on a variational solution for line capacitance and coupled strip transmission line theory.

  9. Undergraduate Engineering Students' Beliefs, Coping Strategies, and Academic Performance: An Evaluation of Theoretical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Sass, Daniel A.; Guerra, Norma S.

    2012-01-01

    Research has identified factors associated with academic success by evaluating relations among psychological and academic variables, although few studies have examined theoretical models to understand the complex links. This study used structural equation modeling to investigate whether the relation between test anxiety and final course grades was…

  10. White Students' Experiences of Privilege and Socioeconomic Disparities: Toward a Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Michelle; Scoggin, Jennifer; Green, Patrick; Davi, Angelique

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed for the process relatively privileged white students go through as they become more aware of their own socioeconomic and other advantages and come to terms with these within their community service learning placements. The model is supported with journal reflections from service-learners placed in inner-city…

  11. Statistical aspects of carbon fiber risk assessment modeling. [fire accidents involving aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, D.; Miller, D. R.; Soland, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The probabilistic and statistical aspects of the carbon fiber risk assessment modeling of fire accidents involving commercial aircraft are examined. Three major sources of uncertainty in the modeling effort are identified. These are: (1) imprecise knowledge in establishing the model; (2) parameter estimation; and (3)Monte Carlo sampling error. All three sources of uncertainty are treated and statistical procedures are utilized and/or developed to control them wherever possible.

  12. Operational and research aspects of a radio-controlled model flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budd, Gerald D.; Gilman, Ronald L.; Eichstedt, David

    1993-01-01

    The operational and research aspects of a subscale, radio-controlled model flight test program are presented. By using low-cost free-flying models, an approach was developed for obtaining research-quality vehicle performance and aerodynamic information. The advantages and limitations learned by applying this approach to a specific flight test program are described. The research quality of the data acquired shows that model flight testing is practical for obtaining consistent and repeatable flight data.

  13. A comparative study of theoretical graph models for characterizing structural networks of human brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojin; Hu, Xintao; Jin, Changfeng; Han, Junwei; Liu, Tianming; Guo, Lei; Hao, Wei; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated both structural and functional brain networks via graph-theoretical methods. However, there is an important issue that has not been adequately discussed before: what is the optimal theoretical graph model for describing the structural networks of human brain? In this paper, we perform a comparative study to address this problem. Firstly, large-scale cortical regions of interest (ROIs) are localized by recently developed and validated brain reference system named Dense Individualized Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL) to address the limitations in the identification of the brain network ROIs in previous studies. Then, we construct structural brain networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Afterwards, the global and local graph properties of the constructed structural brain networks are measured using the state-of-the-art graph analysis algorithms and tools and are further compared with seven popular theoretical graph models. In addition, we compare the topological properties between two graph models, namely, stickiness-index-based model (STICKY) and scale-free gene duplication model (SF-GD), that have higher similarity with the real structural brain networks in terms of global and local graph properties. Our experimental results suggest that among the seven theoretical graph models compared in this study, STICKY and SF-GD models have better performances in characterizing the structural human brain network.

  14. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Witt, Regina R.; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care. PMID:27242567

  15. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.

  16. Using VCL as an Aspect-Oriented Approach to Requirements Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amálio, Nuno; Kelsen, Pierre; Ma, Qin; Glodt, Christian

    Software systems are becoming larger and more complex. By tackling the modularisation of crosscutting concerns, aspect orientation draws attention to modularity as a means to address the problems of scalability, complexity and evolution in software systems development. Aspect-oriented modelling (AOM) applies aspect-orientation to the construction of models. Most existing AOM approaches are designed without a formal semantics, and use multi-view partial descriptions of behaviour. This paper presents an AOM approach based on the Visual Contract Language (VCL): a visual language for abstract and precise modelling, designed with a formal semantics, and comprising a novel approach to visual behavioural modelling based on design by contract where behavioural descriptions are total. By applying VCL to a large case study of a car-crash crisis management system, the paper demonstrates how modularity of VCL's constructs, at different levels of granularity, help to tackle complexity. In particular, it shows how VCL's package construct and its associated composition mechanisms are key in supporting separation of concerns, coarse-grained problem decomposition and aspect-orientation. The case study's modelling solution has a clear and well-defined modular structure; the backbone of this structure is a collection of packages encapsulating local solutions to concerns.

  17. Models and Messengers of Resilience: A Theoretical Model of College Students' Resilience, Regulatory Strategy Use, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus L.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Kestler, Jessica L.; Cordova, Jackie R.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a theoretical model of college students' ratings of messengers of resilience and models of resilience, students' own perceived resilience, regulatory strategy use and achievement. A total of 116 undergraduates participated in this study. The results of a path analysis indicated that ratings of models of resilience had a direct effect on…

  18. An empirical comparison of information-theoretic selection criteria for multivariate behavior genetic models.

    PubMed

    Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2004-11-01

    Information theory provides an attractive basis for statistical inference and model selection. However, little is known about the relative performance of different information-theoretic criteria in covariance structure modeling, especially in behavioral genetic contexts. To explore these issues, information-theoretic fit criteria were compared with regard to their ability to discriminate between multivariate behavioral genetic models under various model, distribution, and sample size conditions. Results indicate that performance depends on sample size, model complexity, and distributional specification. The Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) is more robust to distributional misspecification than Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) under certain conditions, and outperforms AIC in larger samples and when comparing more complex models. An approximation to the Minimum Description Length (MDL; Rissanen, J. (1996). IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 42:40-47, Rissanen, J. (2001). IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 47:1712-1717) criterion, involving the empirical Fisher information matrix, exhibits variable patterns of performance due to the complexity of estimating Fisher information matrices. Results indicate that a relatively new information-theoretic criterion, Draper's Information Criterion (DIC; Draper, 1995), which shares features of the Bayesian and MDL criteria, performs similarly to or better than BIC. Results emphasize the importance of further research into theory and computation of information-theoretic criteria.

  19. Depression in Black Single Mothers: A Test of a Theoretical Model.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test a theoretical model of depression for Black single mothers. Participants were 208 Black single mothers, aged 18 to 45, recruited from community settings. The a priori over-identified recursive theoretical model was tested via the LISREL 9.1 program using a maximum likelihood estimation for structural equation modeling. The chi-square indicated that there was an excellent fit of the model with the data, χ(2)(1, N = 208) = .05, p = .82. The fit indices for the model were excellent. Path coefficients were statistically significant for seven out of eight of the direct paths within the model (p < .05). The two indirect paths were also statistically significant. The theory was supported and can be applied by health care professionals when working with depressed Black single mothers.

  20. Proof of concept of an artificial muscle: theoretical model, numerical model, and hardware experiment.

    PubMed

    Haeufle, D F B; Günther, M; Blickhan, R; Schmitt, S

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE), a parallel damper element (PDE), and a serial element (SE) exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, the contraction dynamics of this CE concept were analyzed in a numerical simulation of quick release experiments against different loads. A hyperbolic force-velocity relation was found. The results correspond to measurements of the contraction dynamics of a technical prototype. Deviations from the theoretical prediction could partly be explained by the low stiffness of the SE, which was modeled analog to the metal spring in the hardware prototype. The numerical model and hardware prototype together, are a proof of this CE concept and can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles. This opens up new vistas for the technical realization of natural movements with rehabilitation devices.

  1. A Model for the Social Aspects of Classroom Organization. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talavage, Joseph

    An initial effort is made to investigate social aspects of the classroom within a mathematical framework called general system theory. The objective of the study is to set the stage for a theory of social behavior in the large which, when verified, may be employed to guide computer simulations of detailed social situations. A model of a…

  2. Theoretical results on the tandem junction solar cell based on its Ebers-Moll transistor model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, C.; Vaughn, J.; Baraona, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional theoretical model of the tandem junction solar cell (TJC) with base resistivity greater than about 1 ohm-cm and under low level injection has been derived. This model extends a previously published conceptual model which treats the TJC as an npn transistor. The model gives theoretical expressions for each of the Ebers-Moll type currents of the illuminated TJC and allows for the calculation of the spectral response, I(sc), V(oc), FF and eta under variation of one or more of the geometrical and material parameters and 1MeV electron fluence. Results of computer calculations based on this model are presented and discussed. These results indicate that for space applications, both a high beginning of life efficiency, greater than 15% AM0, and a high radiation tolerance can be achieved only with thin (less than 50 microns) TJC's with high base resistivity (greater than 10 ohm-cm).

  3. Aspects of quantum corrections in a Lorentz-violating extension of the Abelian Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, L. C. T.; Fargnoli, H. G.; Baêta Scarpelli, A. P.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate new aspects related to the Abelian gauge-Higgs model with the addition of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw term. We focus on one-loop quantum corrections to the photon and Higgs sectors due to spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry and show that new finite and definite Lorentz-breaking terms are induced. Specifically in the gauge sector, a CPT-even aether term is induced. Besides, aspects of the one-loop renormalization of the background vector-dependent terms are discussed.

  4. How parents choose to use CAM: a systematic review of theoretical models

    PubMed Central

    Lorenc, Ava; Ilan-Clarke, Yael; Robinson, Nicola; Blair, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used throughout the UK and the Western world. CAM is commonly used for children and the decision-making process to use CAM is affected by numerous factors. Most research on CAM use lacks a theoretical framework and is largely based on bivariate statistics. The aim of this review was to identify a conceptual model which could be used to explain the decision-making process in parental choice of CAM. Methods A systematic search of the literature was carried out. A two-stage selection process with predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria identified studies using a theoretical framework depicting the interaction of psychological factors involved in the CAM decision process. Papers were critically appraised and findings summarised. Results Twenty two studies using a theoretical model to predict CAM use were included in the final review; only one examined child use. Seven different models were identified. The most commonly used and successful model was Andersen's Sociobehavioural Model (SBM). Two papers proposed modifications to the SBM for CAM use. Six qualitative studies developed their own model. Conclusion The SBM modified for CAM use, which incorporates both psychological and pragmatic determinants, was identified as the best conceptual model of CAM use. This model provides a valuable framework for future research, and could be used to explain child CAM use. An understanding of the decision making process is crucial in promoting shared decision making between healthcare practitioners and parents and could inform service delivery, guidance and policy. PMID:19386106

  5. Postscript: Making Important Distinctions--Diagnostic Models, Theoretical Models, and the Mnemonic Model of PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Mineka, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Our commentary was intended to stimulate discussion about what we perceive to be shortcomings of the mnemonic model and its research base, in the hope of shedding some light on key questions for understanding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In our view, Berntsen, Rubin, and Bohni have responded only to what they perceive to be shortcomings…

  6. On the Grammar and Model-Theoretic Semantics of Children's Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The paper shows informally how model-theoretical semantics may be used by a computer to give a straight-forward analysis of the meaning of children's language. This approach to semantics grows out of the main thrust of work in mathematical logic. It is discussed in the framework of generative grammar and is based on the application of the…

  7. How Students Experience and Navigate Transitions in Undergraduate Medical Education: An Application of Bourdieu's Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmer, Dorene F.; Richards, Boyd F.; Varpio, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Using Bourdieu's theoretical model as a lens for analysis, we sought to understand how students experience the undergraduate medical education (UME) milieu, focusing on how they navigate transitions from the preclinical phase, to the major clinical year (MCY), and to the preparation for residency phase. Twenty-two medical students participated in…

  8. E-Learning Systems Support of Collaborative Agreements: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Sandra; Quemada, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a theoretical model for developing integrated degree programmes through e-learning systems as stipulated by a collaboration agreement signed by two universities. We have analysed several collaboration agreements between universities at the national, European, and transatlantic level as well as various e-learning frameworks. A…

  9. A Game-Theoretic Model of Grounding for Referential Communication Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, William

    2009-01-01

    Conversational grounding theory proposes that language use is a form of rational joint action, by which dialog participants systematically and collaboratively add to their common ground of shared knowledge and beliefs. Following recent work applying "game theory" to pragmatics, this thesis develops a game-theoretic model of grounding that…

  10. Using Mathematics, Mathematical Applications, Mathematical Modelling, and Mathematical Literacy: A Theoretical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumcu, Hayal Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this theoretical study is to explore the relationships between the concepts of using mathematics in the daily life, mathematical applications, mathematical modelling, and mathematical literacy. As these concepts are generally taken as independent concepts in the related literature, they are confused with each other and it becomes…

  11. Rethinking High School Principal Compensation Practices: An Analysis of Salaries in South Carolina and Theoretical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Tim A.

    2012-01-01

    This study described the current state of principal salaries in South Carolina and compared the salaries of similar size schools by specific report card performance and demographic variables. Based on the findings, theoretical models were proposed, and comparisons were made with current salary data. School boards, human resource personnel and…

  12. Spiritual Wellness and Depression: Testing a Theoretical Model with Older Adolescents and Midlife Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2006-01-01

    Overall spiritual wellness, as well as 4 individual components of spiritual wellness, has been theoretically and empirically linked with depression. Prior to this investigation, no study has examined the relationship between spiritual wellness and depression by using a 4-component measurement model of spiritual wellness. In this study of older…

  13. How Career Variety Promotes the Adaptability of Managers: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaevli, Ayse; Tim Hall, Douglas T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model showing how managerial adaptability develops from career variety over the span of the person's career. By building on the literature of career theory, adult learning and development, and career adjustment, we offer a new conceptualization of managerial adaptability by identifying its behavioral, cognitive,…

  14. Theoretical values of various parameters in the Gummel-Poon model of a bipolar junction transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benumof, R.; Zoutendyk, J.

    1986-01-01

    Various parameters in the Gummel-Poon model of a bipolar junction transistor are expressed in terms of the basic structure of a transistor. A consistent theoretical approach is used which facilitates an understanding of the foundations and limitations of the derived formulas. The results enable one to predict how changes in the geometry and composition of a transistor would affect performance.

  15. Falling Chains as Variable-Mass Systems: Theoretical Model and Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Celia A.; Gordo, Paulo M.; Costa, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit, theoretically and experimentally, the fall of a folded U-chain and of a pile-chain. The model calculation implies the division of the whole system into two subsystems of variable mass, allowing us to explore the role of tensional contact forces at the boundary of the subsystems. This justifies, for instance, that the…

  16. Retaliation and antisocial punishment are overlooked in many theoretical models as well as behavioral experiments.

    PubMed

    Dreber, Anna; Rand, David G

    2012-02-01

    Guala argues that there is a mismatch between most laboratory experiments on costly punishment and behavior in the field. In the lab, experimental designs typically suppress retaliation. The same is true for most theoretical models of the co-evolution of costly punishment and cooperation, which a priori exclude the possibility of defectors punishing cooperators.

  17. A theoretical model to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model for leaders to use to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations. Leadership is needed to improve interpersonal relationships within the workforce. A workforce with a culture of internal conflict will be unable to achieve its full potential to delivery quality patient care.

  18. Models of the Bilingual Lexicon and Their Theoretical Implications for CLIL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Although many advances have been made in recent years concerning the theoretical dimensions of content and language integrated learning (CLIL), research still has to meet the necessity to come up with integrative models that adequately map the interrelation between content and language learning in CLIL contexts. This article will suggest that…

  19. A theoretical model of health-related outcomes of resilience in middle adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scoloveno, Robert

    2015-03-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge about the health outcomes of resilience during adolescence, making the study of health-related outcomes of resilience important. The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based just-identified model and to test the direct and indirect effects of resilience on hope, well-being, and health-promoting lifestyle in middle adolescents. The study used a correlational design. The final sample consisted of 311 middle adolescents, aged 15 to 17, who were recruited from a public high school. Participants responded to instrument packets in classroom settings. The structural equation model was tested with the LISREL 8.80 software program. All seven hypotheses were supported at a statistically significant level (p < .001). The results supported the theoretical propositions and the previous empirical findings that were used to create the theoretical model of health-related outcomes of resilience. Alternate models of outcomes of resilience need to be tested on adolescents.

  20. A novel game theoretic approach for modeling competitive information diffusion in social networks with heterogeneous nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha Mohammad Ali Kermani, Mehrdad; Fatemi Ardestani, Seyed Farshad; Aliahmadi, Alireza; Barzinpour, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    Influence maximization deals with identification of the most influential nodes in a social network given an influence model. In this paper, a game theoretic framework is developed that models a competitive influence maximization problem. A novel competitive influence model is additionally proposed that incorporates user heterogeneity, message content, and network structure. The proposed game-theoretic model is solved using Nash Equilibrium in a real-world dataset. It is shown that none of the well-known strategies are stable and at least one player has the incentive to deviate from the proposed strategy. Moreover, violation of Nash equilibrium strategy by each player leads to their reduced payoff. Contrary to previous works, our results demonstrate that graph topology, as well as the nodes' sociability and initial tendency measures have an effect on the determination of the influential node in the network.

  1. Ocean color spectrum calculations. [theoretical models relating oceanographic parameters to upwelling radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The development is considered of procedures for measuring a number of subsurface oceanographic parameters using remotely sensed ocean color data. It is proposed that the first step in this effort should be the development of adequate theoretical models relating the desired oceanographic parameters to the upwelling radiances to be observed. A portion of a contributory theoretical model is shown to be described by a modified single scattering approach based upon a simple treatment of multiple scattering. The resulting quasi-single scattering model can be used to predict the upwelling distribution of spectral radiance emerging from the sea. The shape of the radiance spectrum predicted by this model for clear ocean water shows encouraging agreement with measurments made at the edge of the Sargasso Sea off Cape Hatteras.

  2. Comparison of Theoretical Stresses and Deflections of Multicell Wings with Experimental Results Obtained from Plastic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zender, George W

    1956-01-01

    The experimental deflections and stresses of six plastic multicell-wing models of unswept, delta, and swept plan form are presented and compared with previously published theoretical results obtained by the electrical analog method. The comparisons indicate that the theory is reliable except for the evaluation of stresses in the vicinity of the leading edge of delta wings and the leading and trailing edges of swept wings. The stresses in these regions are questionable, apparently because of simplifications employed in idealizing the actual structure for theoretical purposes and because of local effects of concentrated loads.

  3. Cognitive-Existential Family Therapy: A Proposed Theoretical Integration Model for Pastoral Counselors.

    PubMed

    Saunders, James A

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental Christianity and psychology are frequently viewed as incompatible pursuits. However, proponents of the integrationist movement posit that pastoral counselors can utilize principles from psychology if they adopt the premise that all truth is God's truth. Assuming this perspective, Cognitive-Existential Family Therapy (CEFT) - a theoretical integration model compatible with Christian fundamentalism - is proposed. The philosophical assumptions and models of personality, health, and abnormality are explored. Additionally, the article provides an overview of the therapeutic process.

  4. Error control in the GCF: An information-theoretic model for error analysis and coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adeyemi, O.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of data-transmission errors within the Ground Communications Facility is analyzed in order to provide error control (both forward error correction and feedback retransmission) for improved communication. Emphasis is placed on constructing a theoretical model of errors and obtaining from it all the relevant statistics for error control. No specific coding strategy is analyzed, but references to the significance of certain error pattern distributions, as predicted by the model, to error correction are made.

  5. A theoretical model and analysis of composite membrane of a piezoresistive pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Meng; Bao, Hong-Quan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an analytical model of the composite membrane piezoresistive pressure sensor with the testing structure is established, which built the relationship between the electrostatic force and the material properties, dimension parameters of the sensor. By using the theoretical model of the sensor, it is easily to analyze the sensor's performance, to optimize the dimension of the sensor, and to make the step of calibrating to be getting fast and accurate.

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigation of high-level radiation sources used to model a heat input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, V. M.; Petrikevich, B. B.; Shcherbakov, A. A.

    1980-09-01

    A mathematical model of a wall-stabilized discharge is proposed for calculating the characteristics of high-intensity radiation sources used in high-temperature testing of materials and structures. The proposed model takes into consideration a number of processes and their effect on the total plasma absorption coefficient. These include photoionization of Xe atoms and ions and Xe bremsstrahlung. Theoretical calculations are verified by experiments carried out with a xenon arc lamp.

  7. Outperforming Game Theoretic Play with Opponent Modeling in Two Player Dominoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    with an evaluation function to predict the ending score in the leaf nodes. The algorithm then cycles this final score up through the nodes to the two...utility (or quantified outcome) in a 16 game situation. The first part of this section discusses the M* search algorithm that aids a game...theoretic approach by providing an opponent model to adversary search (MiniMax). The second part discusses research in applying opponent modeling to

  8. Refinement and validation of two digital Microwave Landing System (MLS) theoretical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duff, W. G.; Guarino, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Two digital microwave landing system theoretical models are considered which are generic models for the Doppler and scanning-beam frequency reference versions of the MLS. These models represent errors resulting from both system noise and discrete multipath. The data used for the validation effort were obtained from the Texas Instrument conventional scanning beam and the Hazeltine Doppler feasibility hardware versions of the MLS. Topics discussed include tape read software, time history plots, computation of power spectral density, smoothed power spectra, best-fit models, different equations for digital simulation, and discrete multipath errors.

  9. Establishment and validation for the theoretical model of the vehicle airbag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Jin, Yang; Xie, Lizhe; Chen, Chao

    2015-05-01

    The current design and optimization of the occupant restraint system (ORS) are based on numerous actual tests and mathematic simulations. These two methods are overly time-consuming and complex for the concept design phase of the ORS, though they're quite effective and accurate. Therefore, a fast and directive method of the design and optimization is needed in the concept design phase of the ORS. Since the airbag system is a crucial part of the ORS, in this paper, a theoretical model for the vehicle airbag is established in order to clarify the interaction between occupants and airbags, and further a fast design and optimization method of airbags in the concept design phase is made based on the proposed theoretical model. First, the theoretical expression of the simplified mechanical relationship between the airbag's design parameters and the occupant response is developed based on classical mechanics, then the momentum theorem and the ideal gas state equation are adopted to illustrate the relationship between airbag's design parameters and occupant response. By using MATLAB software, the iterative algorithm method and discrete variables are applied to the solution of the proposed theoretical model with a random input in a certain scope. And validations by MADYMO software prove the validity and accuracy of this theoretical model in two principal design parameters, the inflated gas mass and vent diameter, within a regular range. This research contributes to a deeper comprehension of the relation between occupants and airbags, further a fast design and optimization method for airbags' principal parameters in the concept design phase, and provides the range of the airbag's initial design parameters for the subsequent CAE simulations and actual tests.

  10. An Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Model with Temperature and Nozzle Aspect Ratio Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    An empirical model for jet-surface interaction (JSI) noise produced by a round jet near a flat plate is described and the resulting model evaluated. The model covers unheated and hot jet conditions (1 less than or equal to jet total temperature ratio less than or equal to 2.7) in the subsonic range (0.5 less than or equal to M(sub a) less than or equal to 0.9), surface lengths 0.6 less than or equal to (axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)/nozzle exit diameter) less than or equal to 10, and surface standoff distances (0 less than or equal to (radial distance from jet lipline to surface (inches)/axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)) less than or equal to 1) using only second-order polynomials to provide predictable behavior. The JSI noise model is combined with an existing jet mixing noise model to produce exhaust noise predictions. Fit quality metrics and comparisons to between the predicted and experimental data indicate that the model is suitable for many system level studies. A first-order correction to the JSI source model that accounts for the effect of nozzle aspect ratio is also explored. This correction is based on changes to the potential core length and frequency scaling associated with rectangular nozzles up to 8:1 aspect ratio. However, more work is needed to refine these findings into a formal model.

  11. Comparing a simple theoretical model for protein folding with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Henry, Eric R; Best, Robert B; Eaton, William A

    2013-10-29

    Advances in computing have enabled microsecond all-atom molecular dynamics trajectories of protein folding that can be used to compare with and test critical assumptions of theoretical models. We show that recent simulations by the Shaw group (10, 11, 14, 15) are consistent with a key assumption of an Ising-like theoretical model that native structure grows in only a few regions of the amino acid sequence as folding progresses. The distribution of mechanisms predicted by simulating the master equation of this native-centric model for the benchmark villin subdomain, with only two adjustable thermodynamic parameters and one temperature-dependent kinetic parameter, is remarkably similar to the distribution in the molecular dynamics trajectories.

  12. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  13. Illness and symptom perception: a theoretical approach towards an integrative measurement model.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sibylle; van den Berg, Robert A; Janssens, Thomas; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2011-04-01

    Several models have been proposed to conceptualize psychological representations of health, illness, and bodily sensations. These models differ as to the cognitive and affective components they include, whether they study the interaction of these components, and whether associations between psychological representations of bodily states and affective and behavioral reactions to these representations are considered conditional. These different conceptualizations and corresponding measurement approaches exist in parallel without resulting in synergistic effects or theoretical advancements within the field. In this paper, we review theoretical models on perception and attitudes and construct an integrative theoretical framework on psychological representation of bodily symptoms as well as more abstract representations of health and disease. The aim of this combination of approaches is to unify the strengths of different research domains in the conceptualization and measurement of mental representations of bodily states. Furthermore, the aim is to specify new, testable predictions and implications about the (conditional) relationship of these mental representations and affective and behavioral consequences. A core element in this integrative model is comparison. We review how comparison processes can change the cognitive and affective reference frame for illness and symptom perception and in turn affective and behavioral reactions. We discuss implications for measurement of illness and symptom representations as well as implications for clinical practice. Finally, we make suggestions for a research agenda to validate the proposed model as well as to address new questions derived from it.

  14. Aspects of model-based rocket engine condition monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Gerald R.; Helmicki, Arthur J.

    1994-01-01

    A rigorous propulsion system modelling method suitable for control and condition monitoring purposes is developed. Previously developed control oriented methods yielding nominal models for gaseous medium propulsion systems are extended to include both nominal and anomalous models for liquid mediums in the following two ways. First, thermodynamic and fluid dynamic properties for liquids such as liquid hydrogen are incorporated into the governing equations. Second, anomalous conditions are captured in ways compatible with existing system theoretic design tools so that anomalous models can be constructed. Control and condition monitoring based methods are seen as an improvement over some existing modelling methods because such methods typically do not rigorously lead to low order models nor do they provide a means for capturing anomalous conditions. Applications to the nominal SSME HPFP and degraded HPFP serve to illustrate the approach.

  15. Clusters of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation: Formation of short DNA fragments. I. Theoretical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Holley, W.R.; Chatterjee, A.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a general theoretical model for the interaction of ionizing radiation with chromatin. Chromatin is modeled as a 30-nm-diameter solenoidal fiber composed of 20 turns of nucleosomes, 6 nucleosomes per turn. Charged-particle tracks are modeled by partitioning the energy deposition between primary track core, resulting from glancing collisions with 100 eV or less per event, and {delta} rays due to knock-on collisions involving energy transfers > 100 eV. A Monte Carlo simulation incorporates damages due to the following molecular mechanisms: (1) ionization of water molecules leading to the formation of {circ}OH, {circ}H, e{sub aq}, etc.; {circ}OH attack on sugar molecules leading to strand breaks; {circ}OH attack on bases; direct ionization of the sugar molecules leading to strand breaks; direct ionization of the bases. Our calculations predict significant clustering of damage both locally, over regions up to 40 hp and over regions extending to several kilobase pairs. A characteristic feature of the regional damage predicted by our model is the production of short fragments of DNA associated with multiple nearby strand breaks. Such fragments have subsequently been detected experimentally and are reported in an accompanying paper after exposure to both high- and low-LET radiation. The overall measured yields agree well quantitatively with the theoretical predictions. Our theoretical results predict the existence of a strong peak at about 85 bp, which represents the revolution period about the nucleosome. Other peaks at multiples of about 1,000 bp correspond to the periodicity of the particular solenoid model of chromatin used in these calculations. Theoretical results in combination with experimental data on fragmentation spectra may help determine the consensus or average structure of the chromatin fibers in mammalian DNA. 27 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Clusters of DNA induced by ionizing radiation: formation of short DNA fragments. I. Theoretical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, W. R.; Chatterjee, A.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a general theoretical model for the interaction of ionizing radiation with chromatin. Chromatin is modeled as a 30-nm-diameter solenoidal fiber comprised of 20 turns of nucleosomes, 6 nucleosomes per turn. Charged-particle tracks are modeled by partitioning the energy deposition between primary track core, resulting from glancing collisions with 100 eV or less per event, and delta rays due to knock-on collisions involving energy transfers >100 eV. A Monte Carlo simulation incorporates damages due to the following molecular mechanisms: (1) ionization of water molecules leading to the formation of OH, H, eaq, etc.; (2) OH attack on sugar molecules leading to strand breaks: (3) OH attack on bases; (4) direct ionization of the sugar molecules leading to strand breaks; (5) direct ionization of the bases. Our calculations predict significant clustering of damage both locally, over regions up to 40 bp and over regions extending to several kilobase pairs. A characteristic feature of the regional damage predicted by our model is the production of short fragments of DNA associated with multiple nearby strand breaks. The shapes of the spectra of DNA fragment lengths depend on the symmetries or approximate symmetries of the chromatin structure. Such fragments have subsequently been detected experimentally and are reported in an accompanying paper (B. Rydberg, Radiat, Res. 145, 200-209, 1996) after exposure to both high- and low-LET radiation. The overall measured yields agree well quantitatively with the theoretical predictions. Our theoretical results predict the existence of a strong peak at about 85 bp, which represents the revolution period about the nucleosome. Other peaks at multiples of about 1,000 bp correspond to the periodicity of the particular solenoid model of chromatin used in these calculations. Theoretical results in combination with experimental data on fragmentation spectra may help determine the consensus or average structure of the

  17. Cleavage pattern of DNA caused by endonuclease: Theoretical modeling and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Shio; Liu, Li; Takinoue, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2010-02-01

    In apoptotic cells, genomic DNA molecules are fragmented into multiple fragments with lengths that are integer multiples of approximately 180-200 base pairs (bp), i.e., the size of a single nucleosome. Here we propose a simple mathematical model for interpreting this cleavage pattern of DNA. Under the condition of a purely stochastic cleavage process, we derive a time evolution of the probability distribution of the fragment length by a Poisson distribution. We examine the applicability of our model by analyzing experimental results with apoptotic cells. Our model enables us to satisfactorily interpret the experimental trends. Interestingly, this theoretical fitting of the experimental data provides kinetic information for the cleavage reaction.

  18. [Nursing and the environmental question: proposal of a theoretical model for the professional practice].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M C; Bertolozzi, M R

    1999-01-01

    Considering the side effects of environmental changes over the population's health, a theoretical model is proposed in this study in order to incorporate ecologic matters into the nursing practices. The reference for this work is the eco-socialist-marxist theory. The model is based on the analysis of the capitalist economic process, its production technologies and consumption. It is known that this economic model generates ecoinequalities and anthropogenic impacts that rebound on the health-disease profile of the population. The nursing action, permeated by ecological awareness, can prevent and also combat ecoinequalities and destructive human actions on the environment.

  19. C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp: Short and Long Distance activity from a Theoretical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capria, Maria Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; de Sanctis, Maria Cristina

    2002-06-01

    A theoretical model of the nucleus thermal evolutionand differentiation is used to simulatethe evolution along the orbit of the gasand dust emissions of comet Hale-Bopp. The model was already applied to this comet (Capria et al., 2000b): At that time only the results of the observations obtained shortly after the perihelion were available. Now much more data have been published and we present more refined and complete results about the production rates of gasand dust along the orbit and the internal stratigraphy. The results of our model on long distance activity and its explanation are also presented.

  20. A theoretical model to predict tensile deformation behavior of balloon catheter.

    PubMed

    Todo, Mitsugu; Yoshiya, Keiji; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    In this technical note, a simple theoretical model was proposed to express the tensile deformation and fracture of balloon catheter tested by the ISO standard using piece-wise linear force-displacement relations. The model was then validated by comparing with the tensile force-displacement behaviors of two types of typical balloon catheters clinically used worldwide. It was shown that the proposed model can effectively be used to express the tensile deformation behavior and easily be handled by physicians who are not familiar with mechanics of materials.

  1. A note on Black-Scholes pricing model for theoretical values of stock options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edeki, S. O.; Ugbebor, O. O.; Owoloko, E. A.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we consider some conditions that transform the classical Black-Scholes Model for stock options valuation from its partial differential equation (PDE) form to an equivalent ordinary differential equation (ODE) form. In addition, we propose a relatively new semi-analytical method for the solution of the transformed Black-Scholes model. The obtained solutions via this method can be used to find the theoretical values of the stock options in relation to their fair prices. In considering the reliability and efficiency of the models, we test some cases and the results are in good agreement with the exact solution.

  2. A Hebbian learning rule gives rise to mirror neurons and links them to control theoretic inverse models.

    PubMed

    Hanuschkin, A; Ganguli, S; Hahnloser, R H R

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are neurons whose responses to the observation of a motor act resemble responses measured during production of that act. Computationally, mirror neurons have been viewed as evidence for the existence of internal inverse models. Such models, rooted within control theory, map-desired sensory targets onto the motor commands required to generate those targets. To jointly explore both the formation of mirrored responses and their functional contribution to inverse models, we develop a correlation-based theory of interactions between a sensory and a motor area. We show that a simple eligibility-weighted Hebbian learning rule, operating within a sensorimotor loop during motor explorations and stabilized by heterosynaptic competition, naturally gives rise to mirror neurons as well as control theoretic inverse models encoded in the synaptic weights from sensory to motor neurons. Crucially, we find that the correlational structure or stereotypy of the neural code underlying motor explorations determines the nature of the learned inverse model: random motor codes lead to causal inverses that map sensory activity patterns to their motor causes; such inverses are maximally useful, by allowing the imitation of arbitrary sensory target sequences. By contrast, stereotyped motor codes lead to less useful predictive inverses that map sensory activity to future motor actions. Our theory generalizes previous work on inverse models by showing that such models can be learned in a simple Hebbian framework without the need for error signals or backpropagation, and it makes new conceptual connections between the causal nature of inverse models, the statistical structure of motor variability, and the time-lag between sensory and motor responses of mirror neurons. Applied to bird song learning, our theory can account for puzzling aspects of the song system, including necessity of sensorimotor gating and selectivity of auditory responses to bird's own song (BOS) stimuli.

  3. A proposed theoretical model to explain relative age effects in sport.

    PubMed

    Hancock, David J; Adler, Ashley L; Côté, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Exemplary scientific methods describe concepts and provide theories for further testing. For the field of relative age effects (RAEs) in sport, the scientific method appears to be limited to description. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical model to explain RAEs in sport, which researchers can use to test the effects, as well as to generate new hypotheses and recommendations. Herein, we argue that social agents have the largest influence on RAEs. Specifically, we propose that parents influence RAEs through Matthew effects, coaches influence RAEs through Pygmalion effects and athletes influence RAEs through Galatea effects. Integrating these three theories, we propose a model that explains RAEs through these various social agents. This paper provides a theoretical foundation from which researchers can further understand, explain and eventually use to create policies aimed at limiting the negative effect of relative age in sport.

  4. Theoretical modeling of the plasma-assisted catalytic growth and field emission properties of graphene sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Gupta, Neha

    2015-12-15

    A theoretical modeling for the catalyst-assisted growth of graphene sheet in the presence of plasma has been investigated. It is observed that the plasma parameters can strongly affect the growth and field emission properties of graphene sheet. The model developed accounts for the charging rate of the graphene sheet; number density of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms; various elementary processes on the surface of the catalyst nanoparticle; surface diffusion and accretion of ions; and formation of carbon-clusters and large graphene islands. In our investigation, it is found that the thickness of the graphene sheet decreases with the plasma parameters, number density of hydrogen ions and RF power, and consequently, the field emission of electrons from the graphene sheet surface increases. The time evolution of the height of graphene sheet with ion density and sticking coefficient of carbon species has also been examined. Some of our theoretical results are in compliance with the experimental observations.

  5. 3-D Human body models in C.A.D. : Anthropometric Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, C.; Steck, R.; Pineau, J. C.

    1986-07-01

    Modeling and simulation methods of man-machine systems are developed at the laboratory by interactive infography and C.A.D. technics. In order to better apprehend the morphological variability of populations we have enriched the 3-D model with a parametric function using classical anthropometric dimensions. We have selected reference, associate and complementary dimensions : lengths, breadths, circumferences and depths, which depend on operator's tasks and characteristics of workplaces. All anthropometric values come from the International Data Bank of Human Biometry of ERGODATA System. The utilization of the parametric function brings a quick and accurate description of morphology for theoretic subjects and can be used in C.A.D. analysis.

  6. Gatekeeper Training for Suicide Prevention: A Theoretical Model and Review of the Empirical Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    mental health interventions, screening with standardized instruments, restricted access to lethal means, and coping skills/self-referral training...on maladaptive coping regarding suicide inter- vention than the control group, but this effect was only true for females. Thus, sex moderated the...effect of training on maladaptive coping mechanisms. In contrast, a quasi-experimental A Theoretical Model and Review of the Empirical Literature 11

  7. Experimental and theoretical modeling of shrinkage damage formation in fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkov, V. N.; Rozenberg, B. A.

    1998-03-01

    The cure of a thermoset matrix in the formation of composites is always accompanied by chemical shrinkage that generates internal stresses. In composites with high fiber content, the matrix is cured under three-dimensionally constrained conditions. The results of the previous experimental and theoretical modeling of formation of shrinkage damage under these conditions in epoxy-amine systems are briefly discussed. The effect of the model geometry (tube and plate models), scale factor, cure schedule, and chemical structure of composites is analyzed. A theoretical model for predicting the possibility of formation of shrinkage damage in fiber composites is proposed. A regular square structure was considered. Analysis showed that the maximum level of shrinkage stress in the matrix at the ultimate fiber fraction ϕ+ was close to the stress level σ+ in an experimental long tube model, where the formation of shrinkage damage took place. The experimental results for the short tube model showed that the shrinkage damage in epoxy-amine systems occurred up to approximately σ+/3. The damage development took place within the whole range of fiber content from ϕ+ to ϕ* (where the shrinkage stress level was about σ+/3). In the long tube model, cohesive defects always nucleated inside the matrix. The damage grew, reached the inner surface of the tube, and then extended as adhesive debondings. A similar situation is expected in composites with a high fiber content. The damage considered is local, and the total monolithic character of a composite product is conserved.

  8. Modeling child-based theoretical reading constructs with struggling adult readers.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Alice O; Greenberg, Daphne; Morris, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether measurement constructs behind reading-related tests for struggling adult readers are similar to what is known about measurement constructs for children. The sample included 371 adults reading between the third-and fifth-grade levels, including 127 men and 153 English speakers of other languages. Using measures of skills and subskills, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test child-based theoretical measurement models of reading: an achievement model of reading skills, a core deficit model of reading subskills, and an integrated model containing achievement and deficit variables. Although the findings present the best measurement models, the contribution of this article is the description of the difficulties encountered when applying child-based assumptions to developing measurement models for struggling adult readers.

  9. Meta-Theoretical Contributions to the Constitution of a Model-Based Didactics of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariza, Yefrin; Lorenzano, Pablo; Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

    2016-10-01

    There is nowadays consensus in the community of didactics of science (i.e. science education understood as an academic discipline) regarding the need to include the philosophy of science in didactical research, science teacher education, curriculum design, and the practice of science education in all educational levels. Some authors have identified an ever-increasing use of the concept of `theoretical model', stemming from the so-called semantic view of scientific theories. However, it can be recognised that, in didactics of science, there are over-simplified transpositions of the idea of model (and of other meta-theoretical ideas). In this sense, contemporary philosophy of science is often blurred or distorted in the science education literature. In this paper, we address the discussion around some meta-theoretical concepts that are introduced into didactics of science due to their perceived educational value. We argue for the existence of a `semantic family', and we characterise four different versions of semantic views existing within the family. In particular, we seek to contribute to establishing a model-based didactics of science mainly supported in this semantic family.

  10. Theoretical modeling and experimental analysis of solar still integrated with evacuated tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Hitesh; Awasthi, Anuradha

    2016-12-01

    In this present research work, theoretical modeling of single slope, single basin solar still integrated with evacuated tubes has been performed based on energy balance equations. Major variables like water temperature, inner glass cover temperature and distillate output has been computed based on theoretical modeling. The experimental setup has been made from locally available materials and installed at Gujarat Power Engineering and Research Institute, Mehsana, Gujarat, India (23.5880°N, 72.3693°E) with 0.04 m depth during 6 months of time interval. From the series of experiments, it is found considerable increment in average distillate output of a solar still when integrated with evacuated tubes not only during daytime but also from night time. In all experimental cases, the correlation of coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation of theoretical modeling and experimental study found good agreement with 0.97 < r < 0.98 and 10.22 < e < 38.4% respectively.

  11. Development Mechanism of an Integrated Model for Training of a Specialist and Conceptual-Theoretical Activity of a Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marasulov, Akhmat; Saipov, Amangeldi; ?rymbayeva, Kulimkhan; Zhiyentayeva, Begaim; Demeuov, Akhan; Konakbaeva, Ulzhamal; Bekbolatova, Akbota

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the methodological-theoretical construction bases for development mechanism of an integrated model for a specialist's training and teacher's conceptual-theoretical activity. Using the methods of generalization of teaching experience, pedagogical modeling and forecasting, the authors determine the urgent problems…

  12. Reality-Theoretical Models-Mathematics: A Ternary Perspective on Physics Lessons in Upper-Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Lena; Hansson, Örjan; Juter, Kristina; Redfors, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role of mathematics during physics lessons in upper-secondary school. Mathematics is an inherent part of theoretical models in physics and makes powerful predictions of natural phenomena possible. Ability to use both theoretical models and mathematics is central in physics. This paper takes as a starting point that the…

  13. Representing general theoretical concepts in structural equation models: The role of composite variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Bollen, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) holds the promise of providing natural scientists the capacity to evaluate complex multivariate hypotheses about ecological systems. Building on its predecessors, path analysis and factor analysis, SEM allows for the incorporation of both observed and unobserved (latent) variables into theoretically-based probabilistic models. In this paper we discuss the interface between theory and data in SEM and the use of an additional variable type, the composite. In simple terms, composite variables specify the influences of collections of other variables and can be helpful in modeling heterogeneous concepts of the sort commonly of interest to ecologists. While long recognized as a potentially important element of SEM, composite variables have received very limited use, in part because of a lack of theoretical consideration, but also because of difficulties that arise in parameter estimation when using conventional solution procedures. In this paper we present a framework for discussing composites and demonstrate how the use of partially-reduced-form models can help to overcome some of the parameter estimation and evaluation problems associated with models containing composites. Diagnostic procedures for evaluating the most appropriate and effective use of composites are illustrated with an example from the ecological literature. It is argued that an ability to incorporate composite variables into structural equation models may be particularly valuable in the study of natural systems, where concepts are frequently multifaceted and the influence of suites of variables are often of interest. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  14. YAC 1.2.0: new aspects for coupling software in Earth system modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Moritz; Redler, René; Holfeld, Teresa; Yastremsky, Maxim

    2016-08-01

    A lightweight software library has been developed to realise the coupling of Earth system model components. The software provides parallelised two-dimensional neighbourhood search, interpolation, and communication for the coupling between any two model components. The software offers flexible coupling of physical fields defined on regular and irregular grids on the sphere without a priori assumptions about grid structure or grid element types. All supported grids can be combined with any of the supported interpolations. We describe the new aspects of our approach and provide an overview of the implemented functionality and of some algorithms we use. Preliminary performance measurements for a set of realistic use cases are presented to demonstrate the potential performance and scalability of our approach. YAC 1.2.0 is now used for the coupling of the model components in the Icosahedral Nonhydrostatic (ICON) general circulation model.

  15. On Utilizing Optimal and Information Theoretic Syntactic Modeling for Peptide Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Eser; Oommen, B. John; Cataltepe, Zehra

    Syntactic methods in pattern recognition have been used extensively in bioinformatics, and in particular, in the analysis of gene and protein expressions, and in the recognition and classification of bio-sequences. These methods are almost universally distance-based. This paper concerns the use of an Optimal and Information Theoretic (OIT) probabilistic model [11] to achieve peptide classification using the information residing in their syntactic representations. The latter has traditionally been achieved using the edit distances required in the respective peptide comparisons. We advocate that one can model the differences between compared strings as a mutation model consisting of random Substitutions, Insertions and Deletions (SID) obeying the OIT model. Thus, in this paper, we show that the probability measure obtained from the OIT model can be perceived as a sequence similarity metric, using which a Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based peptide classifier, referred to as OIT_SVM, can be devised.

  16. Emergence of structured interactions: from a theoretical model to pragmatic robotics.

    PubMed

    Revel, A; Andry, P

    2009-03-01

    In this article, we present two neural architectures for the control of socially interacting robots. Beginning with a theoretical model of interaction inspired by developmental psychology, biology and physics, we present two sub-cases of the model that can be interpreted as "turn-taking" and "synchrony" at the behavioral level. These neural architectures are both detailed and tested in simulation. A robotic experiment is even presented for the "turn-taking" case. We then discuss the interest of such behaviors for the development of further social abilities in robots.

  17. Theoretical modelling of the feedback stabilization of external MHD modes in toroidal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, M. S.; Chu, M. S.; Okabayashi, M.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2002-03-01

    A theoretical framework for understanding the feedback mechanism for stabilization of external MHD modes has been formulated. Efficient computational tools - the GATO stability code coupled with a substantially modified VACUUM code - have been developed to effectively design viable feedback systems against these modes. The analysis assumed a thin resistive shell and a feedback coil structure accurately modelled in θ and phi, albeit with only a single harmonic variation in phi. Time constants and induced currents in the enclosing resistive shell are calculated. An optimized configuration based on an idealized model has been computed for the DIII-D device. Up to 90% of the effectiveness of an ideal wall can be achieved.

  18. Knowledge-based immunosuppressive therapy for kidney transplant patients--from theoretical model to clinical integration.

    PubMed

    Seeling, Walter; Plischke, Max; de Bruin, Jeroen S; Schuh, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy is a risky necessity after a patient received a kidney transplant. To reduce risks, a knowledge-based system was developed that determines the right dosage of the immunosuppresive agent Tacrolimus. A theoretical model, to classify medication blood levels as well as medication adaptions, was created using data from almost 500 patients, and over 13.000 examinations. This model was then translated into an Arden Syntax knowledge base, and integrated directly into the hospital information system of the Vienna General Hospital. In this paper we give an overview of the construction and integration of such a system.

  19. Cohesive surface model for fracture based on a two-scale formulation: computational implementation aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, S.; Sánchez, P. J.; Podestá, J. M.; Blanco, P. J.; Huespe, A. E.; Feijóo, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper describes the computational aspects and numerical implementation of a two-scale cohesive surface methodology developed for analyzing fracture in heterogeneous materials with complex micro-structures. This approach can be categorized as a semi-concurrent model using the representative volume element concept. A variational multi-scale formulation of the methodology has been previously presented by the authors. Subsequently, the formulation has been generalized and improved in two aspects: (i) cohesive surfaces have been introduced at both scales of analysis, they are modeled with a strong discontinuity kinematics (new equations describing the insertion of the macro-scale strains, into the micro-scale and the posterior homogenization procedure have been considered); (ii) the computational procedure and numerical implementation have been adapted for this formulation. The first point has been presented elsewhere, and it is summarized here. Instead, the main objective of this paper is to address a rather detailed presentation of the second point. Finite element techniques for modeling cohesive surfaces at both scales of analysis (FE^2 approach) are described: (i) finite elements with embedded strong discontinuities are used for the macro-scale simulation, and (ii) continuum-type finite elements with high aspect ratios, mimicking cohesive surfaces, are adopted for simulating the failure mechanisms at the micro-scale. The methodology is validated through numerical simulation of a quasi-brittle concrete fracture problem. The proposed multi-scale model is capable of unveiling the mechanisms that lead from the material degradation phenomenon at the meso-structural level to the activation and propagation of cohesive surfaces at the structural scale.

  20. Theoretical foundation, methods, and criteria for calibrating human vibration models using frequency response functions

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Wu, John Z.

    2015-01-01

    While simulations of the measured biodynamic responses of the whole human body or body segments to vibration are conventionally interpreted as summaries of biodynamic measurements, and the resulting models are considered quantitative, this study looked at these simulations from a different angle: model calibration. The specific aims of this study are to review and clarify the theoretical basis for model calibration, to help formulate the criteria for calibration validation, and to help appropriately select and apply calibration methods. In addition to established vibration theory, a novel theorem of mechanical vibration is also used to enhance the understanding of the mathematical and physical principles of the calibration. Based on this enhanced understanding, a set of criteria was proposed and used to systematically examine the calibration methods. Besides theoretical analyses, a numerical testing method is also used in the examination. This study identified the basic requirements for each calibration method to obtain a unique calibration solution. This study also confirmed that the solution becomes more robust if more than sufficient calibration references are provided. Practically, however, as more references are used, more inconsistencies can arise among the measured data for representing the biodynamic properties. To help account for the relative reliabilities of the references, a baseline weighting scheme is proposed. The analyses suggest that the best choice of calibration method depends on the modeling purpose, the model structure, and the availability and reliability of representative reference data. PMID:26740726

  1. Theoretical modeling of 2D porous matrices with tunable architecture: From cruciform molecular building blocks to enantioselective adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasperski, Adam; Rżysko, Wojciech; Szabelski, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The ability of capturing guest molecules in a selective way is one of desirable properties of modern structured adsorbents. This refers to a wide class of guest molecules, especially to those which are chiral and whose enantiomers are to be efficiently separated. In this contribution, using Monte Carlo modeling, we show how simple molecular building blocks with cruciform shape can be used to create 2D porous matrices with tunable adsorptive properties. To that end we consider different self-assembled structures comprising cross-shaped molecules and probe their ability to retain model guest molecules differing in size and shape. In particular we focus on the adsorption of enantiomeric pairs on these substrates and quantify the associated selectivity. The obtained results show that a suitable choice of the building block, including size and aspect ratio allows for the creation of 2D functional matrices with programmed adsorption performance. The findings of our theoretical investigations can be helpful in designing molecular guest-host systems with potential applications in separations, sensing and heterogeneous catalysis.

  2. Impacts of noise on a field theoretical model of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, T. D.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P. J.; Haken, H.

    1999-03-01

    Salient properties of the spatio-temporal patterns in MEG recordings of human brain activity, such as macroscopic coherence of a limited number of modes and the occurrence of phase transitions, have been successfully described with the help of field theoretical models for the dendritic currents in the cortex. So far, however, these models have ignored the effects of noise which play an important role in the emergence of such properties. The present article provides a formal treatment of the effects of stochastic fluctuations in the vicinity of the phase transitions that were observed by Kelso in his so-called Julliard experiment [Fuchs et al., Phase transition in the human brain: spatial mode dynamics, Int. J. Bifurcation and Chaos 2 (1992) 917-939; H. Haken, Principles of Brain Functioning, Springer, Berlin, 1996; J.A.S. Kelso, Dynamic Patterns - The Self-organization of Brain and Behavior, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995]. To describe and examine these effects, the field theoretical model proposed by Jirsa and Haken [A field theory of electromagnetic brain activity, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 960-963; A derivation of a macroscopic field theory of the brain from the quasi-microscopic neural dynamics, Physica D 99 (1997) 503-526] was extended by incorporating Gaussian white noise. The extended model describes the stochastic properties of the most dominant spatio-temporal components, including stochastic variations of the amplitudes of the extracted spatial modes. Furthermore, the model captures critical phenomena such as critical slowing down and critical fluctuations, which are derived analytically. These theoretical results are generalized by means of numerical simulations of amplitude and phase dynamics.

  3. Designing m-learning for junior registrars--activation of a theoretical model of clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Boye, Niels; Nøhr, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The MINI-project aims at supporting junior registrars in the learning process of how to utilize their theoretical knowledge from Medical School in everyday clinical reasoning and practice. Due to the nature of the work--concurrent moving, learning and producing--we designed an m-learning application. This paper introduces the possibilities and challenges for design of the m-learning application based on a) analytical findings on learning and mobility as derived from the design case--an emergency medical ward b) theoretical perspectives on medical knowledge, and c) presentation of the design of an m-learning application. The design process was based on user-driven innovation and the paper discusses considerations on how to combine user-drive and generic models.

  4. Experimental verification of a theoretical model of an active cladding optical fiber fluorosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, Sacharia; Briant, Alvin L.; Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.; Nankung, Juock S.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to verify a theoretical model on the injection efficiency of sources in the cladding of an optical fiber. The theoretical results predicted an increase in the injection efficiency for higher differences in refractive indices between the core and cladding. The experimental apparatus used consisted of a glass rod 50 cm long, coated at one end with a thin film of fluorescent substance. The fluorescent substance was excited with side illumination, perpendicular to the rod axis, using a 476 nm Argon-ion laser. Part of the excited fluorescence was injected into the core and guided to a detector. The signal was measured for several different cladding refractive indices. The cladding consisted of sugar dissolved in water and the refractive index was changed by varying the sugar concentration in the solution. The results indicate that the power injected into the rod, due to evanescent wave injection, increases with the difference in refractive index which is in qualitative agreement with theory.

  5. Propagation predictions and studies using a ray tracing program combined with a theoretical ionospheric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. K.; Nisbet, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Radio wave propagation predictions are described in which modern comprehensive theoretical ionospheric models are coupled with ray-tracing programs. In the computer code described, a network of electron density and collision frequency parameters along a band about the great circle path is calculated by specifying the transmitter and receiver geographic coordinates, time, the day number, and the 2800-MHz solar flux. The ray paths are calculated on specifying the frequency, mode, range of elevation angles, and range of azimuth angles from the great circle direction. The current program uses a combination of the Penn State MKI E and F region models and the Mitra-Rowe D and E region model. Application of the technique to the prediction of satellite to ground propagation and calculation of oblique incidence propagation paths and absorption are described. The implications of the study to the development of the next generation of ionospheric models are discussed.

  6. A thematic analysis of theoretical models for translational science in nursing: mapping the field.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sandra A; Fisher, Cheryl A; Hastings, Clare E; Silverman, Leanne B; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and diversity of conceptual models in translational science may complicate rather than advance the use of theory. This paper offers a comparative thematic analysis of the models available to inform knowledge development, transfer, and utilization. Literature searches identified 47 models for knowledge translation. Four thematic areas emerged: (1) evidence-based practice and knowledge transformation processes, (2) strategic change to promote adoption of new knowledge, (3) knowledge exchange and synthesis for application and inquiry, and (4) designing and interpreting dissemination research. This analysis distinguishes the contributions made by leaders and researchers at each phase in the process of discovery, development, and service delivery. It also informs the selection of models to guide activities in knowledge translation. A flexible theoretical stance is essential to simultaneously develop new knowledge and accelerate the translation of that knowledge into practice behaviors and programs of care that support optimal patient outcomes.

  7. A Thematic Analysis of Theoretical Models for Translational Science in Nursing: Mapping the Field

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sandra A.; Fisher, Cheryl A.; Hastings, Clare E.; Silverman, Leanne B.; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The quantity and diversity of conceptual models in translational science may complicate rather than advance the use of theory. Purpose This paper offers a comparative thematic analysis of the models available to inform knowledge development, transfer, and utilization. Method Literature searches identified 47 models for knowledge translation. Four thematic areas emerged: (1) evidence-based practice and knowledge transformation processes; (2) strategic change to promote adoption of new knowledge; (3) knowledge exchange and synthesis for application and inquiry; (4) designing and interpreting dissemination research. Discussion This analysis distinguishes the contributions made by leaders and researchers at each phase in the process of discovery, development, and service delivery. It also informs the selection of models to guide activities in knowledge translation. Conclusions A flexible theoretical stance is essential to simultaneously develop new knowledge and accelerate the translation of that knowledge into practice behaviors and programs of care that support optimal patient outcomes. PMID:21074646

  8. A theoretical model for sampled grating DBR laser integrated with SOA and MZ modulator.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Jiang, Shan; Liu, Shuihua

    2009-09-14

    A theoretical model is presented for simulating the sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector (SGDBR) laser integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator. In this model, the active and passive sections are processed separately. The active region of laser and the SOA section are modeled by time domain traveling wave (TDTW) method. While the spectral properties of the SG and the MZ modulator are firstly calculated by Transfer-Matrix Method (TMM) and Beam Propagation Method (BPM), respectively, and then transformed into time domain using digital filter approach. Furthermore, the nonuniform carrier-dependence of gain and refractive index are also incorporated via Effective Bloch Equations (EBE). Compared with the full time-domain method, our model would be more flexible and efficient. The static and modulation performances of device are successfully simulated. This indicates that it can be a powerful platform for investigating the complex Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs).

  9. Bridging the gap between theoretical ecology and real ecosystems: modeling invertebrate community composition in streams.

    PubMed

    Schuwirth, Nele; Reichert, Peter

    2013-02-01

    For the first time, we combine concepts of theoretical food web modeling, the metabolic theory of ecology, and ecological stoichiometry with the use of functional trait databases to predict the coexistence of invertebrate taxa in streams. We developed a mechanistic model that describes growth, death, and respiration of different taxa dependent on various environmental influence factors to estimate survival or extinction. Parameter and input uncertainty is propagated to model results. Such a model is needed to test our current quantitative understanding of ecosystem structure and function and to predict effects of anthropogenic impacts and restoration efforts. The model was tested using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from a catchment of the Swiss Plateau. Even without fitting model parameters, the model is able to represent key patterns of the coexistence structure of invertebrates at sites varying in external conditions (litter input, shading, water quality). This confirms the suitability of the model concept. More comprehensive testing and resulting model adaptations will further increase the predictive accuracy of the model.

  10. Practical aspects of backward bifurcation in a mathematical model for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gerberry, David J

    2016-01-07

    In this work, we examine practical aspects of backward bifurcation for a data-based model of tuberculosis that incorporates multiple features which have previously been shown to produce backward bifurcation (e.g. exogenous reinfection and imperfect vaccination) and new considerations such as the treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) and the BCG vaccine's interference with detecting LTBI. Understanding the interplay between these multiple factors and backward bifurcation is particularly timely given that new diagnostic tests for LTBI detection could dramatically increase rates of both LTBI detection and vaccination in the coming decades. By establishing analytic thresholds for the existence of backward bifurcation, we identify those aspects of TB's complicated pathology that make backward bifurcation more or less likely to occur. We also examine the magnitude of the backward bifurcation produced by the model and its sensitivity to various model parameters. We find that backward bifurcation is unlikely to occur. While increased vaccine coverage and/or increased detection and treatment of LTBI can push the threshold for backward bifurcation into the region of biological plausibility, the resulting bifurcations may still be too small to have any noticeable epidemiological impact.

  11. Anorexia in human and experimental animal models: physiological aspects related to neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia, a loss of appetite for food, can be caused by various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, firstly, clinical aspects of anorexia nervosa are summarized in brief. Secondly, hypothalamic neuropeptides responsible for feeding regulation in each hypothalamic nucleus are discussed. Finally, three different types of anorexigenic animal models; dehydration-induced anorexia, cisplatin-induced anorexia and cancer anorexia-cachexia, are introduced. In conclusion, hypothalamic neuropeptides may give us novel insight to understand and find effective therapeutics strategy essential for various kinds of anorexia.

  12. Some aspects of the comparison of model and full-scale tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D W

    1926-01-01

    This paper was delivered before the Royal Aeronautical Society as the 1925 Wilbur Wright Memorial lecture. It treats the subject of scale effect from the standpoint of the engineer rather than the physicist, in that it shows what compromises are necessary to secure satisfactory engineering model test data and how these test data compare with full scale or with theoretical values. The paper consists essentially of three parts: (1) a brief exposition of the theory of dynamic similarity, (2) application of the theory to airplane model tests, illustrated by test data on airfoils from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics variable-density wind tunnel, and (3) application of the theory to propeller testing, illustrated by comparisons of model and full-scale results.

  13. Physiological hyperarousal: construct validity of a central aspect of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Joiner, T E; Steer, R A; Beck, A T; Schmidt, N B; Rudd, M D; Catanzaro, S J

    1999-05-01

    Physiological hyperarousal (PH) is an understudied component of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety. This study contributes to the literature on PH, the tripartite model, and anxiety and its disorders, using data from psychotherapy outpatients (n = 2,448), air force cadets (n = 1,335), and undergraduates (n = 284). Psychometrics and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that PH is a reliable, cohesive, discriminable, and valid construct. Compared with subjective anxiety, PH was more associated to panic versus mood disordered status, and to panic versus generalized anxiety disordered status. As hypothesized, an aspect of anxiety sensitivity (i.e., fear of body sensations) was particularly related to subjective anxiety in the presence of PH. Results support the PH construct as replicable, valid, and clinically important and support the utility of the tripartite and related models for understanding the relation of depressive and anxious syndromes.

  14. Aspect Ratio of Receiver Node Geometry based Indoor WLAN Propagation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Udaykumar; Bapat, Vishram N.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents validation of indoor wireless local area network (WLAN) propagation model for varying rectangular receiver node geometry. The rectangular client node configuration is a standard node arrangement in computer laboratories of academic institutes and research organizations. The model assists to install network nodes for the better signal coverage. The proposed model is backed by wide ranging real time received signal strength measurements at 2.4 GHz. The shadow fading component of signal propagation under realistic indoor environment is modelled with the dependency on varying aspect ratio of the client node geometry. The developed new model is useful in predicting indoor path loss for IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN. The new model provides better performance in comparison to well known International Telecommunication Union and free space propagation models. It is shown that the proposed model is simple and can be a useful tool for indoor WLAN node deployment planning and quick method for the best utilisation of the office space.

  15. Modeling drug-melanin interaction with theoretical linear solvation energy relationships.

    PubMed

    Lowrey, A H; Famini, G R; Loumbev, V; Wilson, L Y; Tosk, J M

    1997-10-01

    The affinity of drugs and other xenobiotic agents for melanin is a well-known phenomenon, often occurring with serious physiological consequences. For example, the interaction of anti-psychotic drugs with neuromelanin may play a pivotal role in the induction of extrapyramidal movement disorders associated with the chronic administration of phenothiazine and other neuroleptic agents. Little, however, is known about the complete nature of melanin-drug binding and the impact of these interactions on the physico-chemical properties of melanin. Data, such as binding affinities, can be analyzed using recently developed computational methods that combine mathematical models of chemical structure with statistical analysis. In particular, theoretical linear solvation energy relationships provide a convenient model for understanding and predicting biological, chemical, and physical properties. By using this modeling technique, drug-melanin binding of a set of 16 compounds has been analyzed with correlation analysis and a set of theoretical molecular parameters in order to better understand and characterize drug-melanin interactions. The resulting correlation equation supports a charge transfer model for drug-melanin complex formation and can also be used to estimate binding constants for related compounds.

  16. Theoretical Hill-type muscle and stability: numerical model and application.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, S; Günther, M; Rupp, T; Bayer, A; Häufle, D

    2013-01-01

    The construction of artificial muscles is one of the most challenging developments in today's biomedical science. The application of artificial muscles is focused both on the construction of orthotics and prosthetics for rehabilitation and prevention purposes and on building humanoid walking machines for robotics research. Research in biomechanics tries to explain the functioning and design of real biological muscles and therefore lays the fundament for the development of functional artificial muscles. Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from simple mechanical components. In this contribution, this theoretical yet biomechanical model is transferred to a numerical model and applied for presenting a proof-of-concept of a functional artificial muscle. Additionally, this validated theoretical model is used to determine force-velocity relations of different animal species that are based on the literature data from biological experiments. Moreover, it is shown that an antagonistic muscle actuator can help in stabilising a single inverted pendulum model in favour of a control approach using a linear torque generator.

  17. Theoretical Hill-Type Muscle and Stability: Numerical Model and Application

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, S.; Günther, M.; Rupp, T.; Bayer, A.; Häufle, D.

    2013-01-01

    The construction of artificial muscles is one of the most challenging developments in today's biomedical science. The application of artificial muscles is focused both on the construction of orthotics and prosthetics for rehabilitation and prevention purposes and on building humanoid walking machines for robotics research. Research in biomechanics tries to explain the functioning and design of real biological muscles and therefore lays the fundament for the development of functional artificial muscles. Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from simple mechanical components. In this contribution, this theoretical yet biomechanical model is transferred to a numerical model and applied for presenting a proof-of-concept of a functional artificial muscle. Additionally, this validated theoretical model is used to determine force-velocity relations of different animal species that are based on the literature data from biological experiments. Moreover, it is shown that an antagonistic muscle actuator can help in stabilising a single inverted pendulum model in favour of a control approach using a linear torque generator. PMID:24319495

  18. Validating Photogrammetric Orientation Steps by the Use of Relevant Theoretical Models. Implementation in the "ARPENTEUR" Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahiddine, A.; Seinturier, J.; Peloso, D.; Boulaassal, H.; Boï, J.-M.; Merad, D.; Drap, P.

    2013-07-01

    The new advance in photogrammetry using the automatic procedures such as the famous algorithm which was proposed by David Lowe (Lowe, 2004) features descriptors and matching (SIFT) and then the recent development of external orientation (Nister (Stewenius et alii, 2006) or Snavely (Snavely et alii, 2010)) have changed drastically the way of measuring space with photogrammetry. The complexity of the process and the huge quantity of processed data (thousands of photographs) makes difficult validating the different process steps. We propose in this paper several theoretical model generation methods in order to validate the complete photogrammetric orientation process. A theoretical photogrammetric model generation has been developed in order to produce photographs, photo orientation, 3D points and 2D observations according to some defined camera and a parametric photograph distribution in the scene. In addition the use of synthesis image software generation as POV-Ray allow us to generate set of photographs with pre-computed internal and external orientation in order to check the whole pipeline from feature extraction to Photographs External Orientation. We apply this model generation approach to several typical geometry of photogrammetric scene, stereo, parallel triplet, parallel strip and convergent models.

  19. Estimating Young's modulus of zona pellucida by micropipette aspiration in combination with theoretical models of ovum.

    PubMed

    Khalilian, Morteza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Chizari, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari

    2010-04-06

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is the spherical layer that surrounds the mammalian oocyte. The physical hardness of this layer plays a crucial role in fertilization and is largely unknown because of the lack of appropriate measuring and modelling methods. The aim of this study is to measure the biomechanical properties of the ZP of human/mouse ovum and to test the hypothesis that Young's modulus of the ZP varies with fertilization. Young's moduli of ZP are determined before and after fertilization by using the micropipette aspiration technique, coupled with theoretical models of the oocyte as an elastic incompressible half-space (half-space model), an elastic compressible bilayer (layered model) or an elastic compressible shell (shell model). Comparison of the models shows that incorporation of the layered geometry of the ovum and the compressibility of the ZP in the layered and shell models may provide a means of more accurately characterizing ZP elasticity. Evaluation of results shows that although the results of the models are different, all confirm that the hardening of ZP will increase following fertilization. As can be seen, different choices of models and experimental parameters can affect the interpretation of experimental data and lead to differing mechanical properties.

  20. The coupled effects of carbon and nitrogen on soil decomposition: A theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, B.; Finzi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a crucial role in the carbon (C) cycle, holding 2.5 times more carbon than plant biomass. Ecosystem models predict that climate warming will stimulate decomposition of soil carbon stocks, in turn leading to positive feedbacks on warming. Recent empirical studies and modeling work has revealed the importance of microbial physiology and exoenzyme kinetics in driving SOM decomposition. Existing mathematical models describe the microbial processes and biophysics involved in the decomposition. However, although decomposition by nitrogen-degrading enzymes is included in some models, nitrogen (N) does not drive model behavior and there are no reaction kinetics associated with the depolymerization or uptake of N. Additionally, very few empirically measured kinetic values exist for N-degrading enzymes or the uptake of N by microbes. This study proposes a theoretical model of SOM decomposition based on the principles of exoenzyme kinetics and microbial biophysics that explicitly links C and N through microbial uptake and SOM decomposition kinetics and by placing stoichiometric constraints on microbial growth and exoenzyme production. After constructing the model framework, the model was then used to test soil-carbon responses to warming, and to explore the importance of N uptake and depolymerization kinetics in driving decomposition. The model predictions suggest that the response of kinetics to temperature are more important than microbial responses in determining decomposition rates. Additionally, variations in the kinetics of N depolymerization affected decomposition rates, whereas N uptake kinetics and their effect on enzyme production had almost no effect. The model outputs were also compared to a C-only model framework in order to assess the effects of N on model behavior. The incorporation of N into a SOM decomposition model produced different, and in some cases, contradictory results as compared to a C-only model. Overall, these

  1. Multisensory Bayesian Inference Depends on Synapse Maturation during Training: Theoretical Analysis and Neural Modeling Implementation.

    PubMed

    Ursino, Mauro; Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa

    2017-03-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that in multisensory conditions, the brain performs a near-optimal Bayesian estimate of external events, giving more weight to the more reliable stimuli. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its progressive maturation in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. The aim of this letter is to analyze this problem with a neural network model of audiovisual integration, based on probabilistic population coding-the idea that a population of neurons can encode probability functions to perform Bayesian inference. The model consists of two chains of unisensory neurons (auditory and visual) topologically organized. They receive the corresponding input through a plastic receptive field and reciprocally exchange plastic cross-modal synapses, which encode the spatial co-occurrence of visual-auditory inputs. A third chain of multisensory neurons performs a simple sum of auditory and visual excitations. The work includes a theoretical part and a computer simulation study. We show how a simple rule for synapse learning (consisting of Hebbian reinforcement and a decay term) can be used during training to shrink the receptive fields and encode the unisensory likelihood functions. Hence, after training, each unisensory area realizes a maximum likelihood estimate of stimulus position (auditory or visual). In cross-modal conditions, the same learning rule can encode information on prior probability into the cross-modal synapses. Computer simulations confirm the theoretical results and show that the proposed network can realize a maximum likelihood estimate of auditory (or visual) positions in unimodal conditions and a Bayesian estimate, with moderate deviations from optimality, in cross-modal conditions. Furthermore, the model explains the ventriloquism illusion and, looking at the activity in the multimodal neurons, explains the automatic reweighting of auditory and visual inputs

  2. Theoretical model for the evaporation loss of PM2.5 during filter sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Nan; Lin, Sih-Fan; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Wu, Yueh-Chuen; Chen, Chung-Fang

    2015-05-01

    The evaporation losses of PM2.5 particles in eight different size ranges corresponding to the 4th-10th stages and after filter of the MOUDI were calculated theoretically and then integrated to obtain the total PM2.5 evaporation loss. Results show that when PM2.5 particles are nearly neutral with pH in the range of 7-8, the evaporated concentrations predicted by the present model agree well with the experimental data with an average absolute difference of 20.2 ± 11.1%. When PM2.5 aerosols are acidic with pH less than 3.5, additional loss of nitrate and chloride can occur due to chemical interactions between collected particles and strong acids which are not considered in the present model. Under pH neutral conditions, the theoretical model was then used to examine the effect of PM2.5 concentration, gas-to-particle ratio, ambient temperature and relative humidity on the extent of evaporation loss. Results show that evaporated PM2.5 concentration increases with increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity, PM2.5 concentration and gas-to-particle ratio.

  3. Carbon Nanotube Mats and Fibers with Irradiation-Improved Mechanical Characteristics: A Theoretical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Nordlund, K.

    2004-11-01

    We employ a theoretical model to calculate mechanical characteristics of macroscopic mats and fibers of single-walled carbon nanotubes. We further investigate irradiation-induced covalent bonds between nanotubes and their effects on the tensile strength of nanotube mats and fibers. We show that the stiffness and strength of the mats can be increased at least by an order of magnitude, and thus small-dose irradiation with energetic particles is a promising tool for making macroscopic nanotube materials with excellent mechanical characteristics.

  4. The mathematical and theoretical biology institute--a model of mentorship through research.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Erika T; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Wirkus, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article details the history, logistical operations, and design philosophy of the Mathematical and Theoretical Biology Institute (MTBI), a nationally recognized research program with an 18-year history of mentoring researchers at every level from high school through university faculty, increasing the number of researchers from historically underrepresented minorities, and motivating them to pursue research careers by allowing them to work on problems of interest to them and supporting them in this endeavor. This mosaic profile highlights how MTBI provides a replicable multi-level model for research mentorship.

  5. Hospital design and face-to-face interaction among clinicians: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that face-to-face interaction among clinicians in hospitals affects patient outcomes. How can face-to-face interaction among clinicians be influenced positively to improve patient outcomes in hospitals? So far, most strategies for improving face-to-face interaction in hospitals have focused on changing organizational culture. In contrast, this paper proposes a theoretical model that shows how spatial program and structure can help face-to-face interaction fulfill its purposes in hospitals by controlling the interfaces among different communities of clinicians.

  6. Morphology of synthetic chrysoberyl and alexandrite crystals: Analysis of experimental data and theoretical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromalova, N. A.; Eremin, N. N.; Dorokhova, G. I.; Urusov, V. S.

    2012-07-01

    A morphological analysis of chrysoberyl and alexandrite crystals obtained by flux crystallization has been performed. Seven morphological types of crystals are selected. The surface energies of the faces of chrysoberyl and alexandrite crystals and their isostructural analogs, BeCr2O4 and BeFe2O4, have been calculated by atomistic computer modeling using the Metadise program. A "combined" approach is proposed which takes into account both the structural geometry and the surface energy of the faces and thus provides better agreement between the theoretical and experimentally observed faceting of chrysoberyl and alexandrite crystals.

  7. Multimode cavity QED 2: Parameter dependence and limitations through theoretical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groszkowski, Peter; Leung, Nelson; Naik, Ravi; Chakram, Srivatsan; Schuster, David; Koch, Jens

    Superconducting circuits are well-established as promising building blocks for future quantum information processing devices. While in recent years gate and readout fidelities have improved significantly, superconducting qubits can still benefit greatly from added intrinsic robustness and improved error resilience. In this talk, we present results for qubits based on the modes of a 1d resonator array, where qubit manipulation and readout are achieved by interaction with a parametrically driven superconducting transmon. Through theoretical modeling, we provide insight into mode addressability as well as crosstalk, and their dependence on the system's size in various parameter regimes.

  8. Theoretical model for a background noise limited laser-excited optical filter for doubled Nd lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, Thomas M.; Garcia, Daniel F.

    1990-06-01

    A simple theoretical model for the calculation of the dependence of filter quantum efficiency versus laser pump power in an atomic Rb vapor laser-excited optical filter is reported. Calculations for Rb filter transitions that can be used to detect the practical and important frequency-doubled Nd lasers are presented. The results of these calculations show the filter's quantum efficiency versus the laser pump power. The required laser pump powers required range from 2.4 to 60 mW/sq cm of filter aperture.

  9. Theoretical model for a background noise limited laser-excited optical filter for doubled Nd lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Thomas M.; Garcia, Daniel F.

    1990-01-01

    A simple theoretical model for the calculation of the dependence of filter quantum efficiency versus laser pump power in an atomic Rb vapor laser-excited optical filter is reported. Calculations for Rb filter transitions that can be used to detect the practical and important frequency-doubled Nd lasers are presented. The results of these calculations show the filter's quantum efficiency versus the laser pump power. The required laser pump powers required range from 2.4 to 60 mW/sq cm of filter aperture.

  10. Theoretical models for microwave remote sensing of snow-covered sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, F. C.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1987-01-01

    The volume scattering effects of snow-covered sea ice are studied with a three-layer random medium model for microwave remote sensing. Theoretical results are illustrated by matching experimental data for dry snow-covered thick first-year sea ice at Point Barrow. The radar backscattering cross sections are seen to increase with snow cover for snow-covered sea ice, due to the increased scattering effects in the snow layer. The results derived can also be applied to passive remote sensing.

  11. FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF EPISODIC ACCRETION CHEMISTRY EXPLORED WITH SINGLE-POINT MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2012-07-20

    We explore a set of single-point chemical models to study the fundamental chemical aspects of episodic accretion in low-mass embedded protostars. Our goal is twofold: (1) to understand how the repeated heating and cooling of the envelope affects the abundances of CO and related species; and (2) to identify chemical tracers that can be used as a novel probe of the timescales and other physical aspects of episodic accretion. We develop a set of single-point models that serve as a general prescription for how the chemical composition of a protostellar envelope is altered by episodic accretion. The main effect of each accretion burst is to drive CO ice off the grains in part of the envelope. The duration of the subsequent quiescent stage (before the next burst hits) is similar to or shorter than the freeze-out timescale of CO, allowing the chemical effects of a burst to linger long after the burst has ended. We predict that the resulting excess of gas-phase CO can be observed with single-dish or interferometer facilities as evidence of an accretion burst in the past 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} yr.

  12. Effects of pump recycling technique on stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Al-Asadi, H A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Ajiya, M; Hitam, S; Saripan, M I; Mahdi, M A

    2010-10-11

    We develop a theoretical model that can be used to predict stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold in optical fibers that arises through the effect of Brillouin pump recycling technique. Obtained simulation results from our model are in close agreement with our experimental results. The developed model utilizes single mode optical fiber of different lengths as the Brillouin gain media. For 5-km long single mode fiber, the calculated threshold power for SBS is about 16 mW for conventional technique. This value is reduced to about 8 mW when the residual Brillouin pump is recycled at the end of the fiber. The decrement of SBS threshold is due to longer interaction lengths between Brillouin pump and Stokes wave.

  13. Inference of ICF implosion core mix using experimental data and theoretical mix modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrill, Leslie Welser; Haynes, Donald A; Cooley, James H; Sherrill, Manolo E; Mancini, Roberto C; Tommasini, Riccardo; Golovkin, Igor E; Haan, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (lCF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model predicted trends in the width of the mix layer as a function of initial shell thickness. These results contribute to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increasing confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.

  14. B → K∗ ℓ + ℓ - decays at large recoil in the Standard Model: a theoretical reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuchini, Marco; Fedele, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Mishima, Satoshi; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    We critically reassess the theoretical uncertainties in the Standard Model calculation of the B → K ∗ ℓ + ℓ - observables, focusing on the low q 2 region. We point out that even optimized observables are affected by sizable uncertainties, since hadronic contributions generated by current-current operators with charm are difficult to estimate, especially for q 2 ˜ 4 m c 2 ≃ 6.8 GeV2. We perform a detailed numerical analysis and present both predictions and results from the fit obtained using most recent data. We find that non-factorizable power corrections of the expected order of magnitude are sufficient to give a good description of current experimental data within the Standard Model. We discuss in detail the q 2 dependence of the corrections and their possible interpretation as shifts of the Standard Model Wilson coefficients.

  15. Theoretical analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruniow, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    2001-10-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) is applied to analyze the electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12. To accomplish this two model systems were considered: CN-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (dicyanocobinamide, DCC) and imidazole-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (cyanocobalamin, ImCC). For both models 30 lowest excited states were calculated together with transition dipole moments. When the results of TD-DFT calculations were directly compared with experiment it was found that the theoretical values systematically overestimate experimental data by approximately 0.5 eV. The uniform adjustment of the calculated transition energies allowed detailed analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models. All absorption bands in spectral range 2.0-5.0 eV were readily assigned. In particular, TD-DFT calculations were able to explain the origin of the shift of the lowest absorption band caused by replacement of the-CN axial ligand by imidazole.

  16. New theoretical model for convergent nozzle ejector in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yinhai; Li, Yanzhong

    A new theoretical model for the convergent nozzle ejector in the anode recirculation line of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system is established in this paper. A velocity function for analyzing the flow characteristics of the PEM ejector is proposed by employing a two-dimensional (2D) concave exponential curve. This treatment of velocity is an improvement compared to the conventional 1D "constant area mixing" or "constant pressure mixing" ejector theories. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique together with the data regression and parameter identification methods are applied in the determination of the velocity function's exponent. Based on the model, the anode recirculation performances of a hybrid PEM system are studied under various stack currents. Results show that the model is capable of evaluating the performance of ejector in both the critical mode and subcritical mode.

  17. The calculation of theoretical chromospheric models and the interpretation of solar spectra from rockets and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avrett, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    Models and spectra of sunspots were studied, because they are important to energy balance and variability discussions. Sunspot observations in the ultraviolet region 140 to 168 nn was obtained by the NRL High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph. Extensive photometric observations of sunspot umbrae and prenumbrae in 10 chanels covering the wavelength region 387 to 3800 nm were made. Cool star opacities and model atmospheres were computed. The Sun is the first testcase, both to check the opacity calculations against the observed solar spectrum, and to check the purely theoretical model calculation against the observed solar energy distribution. Line lists were finally completed for all the molecules that are important in computing statistical opacities for energy balance and for radiative rate calculations in the Sun (except perhaps for sunspots). Because many of these bands are incompletely analyzed in the laboratory, the energy levels are not well enough known to predict wavelengths accurately for spectrum synthesis and for detailed comparison with the observations.

  18. A new theoretical framework for modeling respiratory protection based on the beta distribution.

    PubMed

    Klausner, Ziv; Fattal, Eyal

    2014-08-01

    The problem of modeling respiratory protection is well known and has been dealt with extensively in the literature. Often the efficiency of respiratory protection is quantified in terms of penetration, defined as the proportion of an ambient contaminant concentration that penetrates the respiratory protection equipment. Typically, the penetration modeling framework in the literature is based on the assumption that penetration measurements follow the lognormal distribution. However, the analysis in this study leads to the conclusion that the lognormal assumption is not always valid, making it less adequate for analyzing respiratory protection measurements. This work presents a formulation of the problem from first principles, leading to a stochastic differential equation whose solution is the probability density function of the beta distribution. The data of respiratory protection experiments were reexamined, and indeed the beta distribution was found to provide the data a better fit than the lognormal. We conclude with a suggestion for a new theoretical framework for modeling respiratory protection.

  19. Game Theoretic Modeling of Water Resources Allocation Under Hydro-Climatic Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C.; Lall, U.; Siegfried, T.

    2005-12-01

    Typical hydrologic and economic modeling approaches rely on assumptions of climate stationarity and economic conditions of ideal markets and rational decision-makers. In this study, we incorporate hydroclimatic variability with a game theoretic approach to simulate and evaluate common water allocation paradigms. Game Theory may be particularly appropriate for modeling water allocation decisions. First, a game theoretic approach allows economic analysis in situations where price theory doesn't apply, which is typically the case in water resources where markets are thin, players are few, and rules of exchange are highly constrained by legal or cultural traditions. Previous studies confirm that game theory is applicable to water resources decision problems, yet applications and modeling based on these principles is only rarely observed in the literature. Second, there are numerous existing theoretical and empirical studies of specific games and human behavior that may be applied in the development of predictive water allocation models. With this framework, one can evaluate alternative orderings and rules regarding the fraction of available water that one is allowed to appropriate. Specific attributes of the players involved in water resources management complicate the determination of solutions to game theory models. While an analytical approach will be useful for providing general insights, the variety of preference structures of individual players in a realistic water scenario will likely require a simulation approach. We propose a simulation approach incorporating the rationality, self-interest and equilibrium concepts of game theory with an agent-based modeling framework that allows the distinct properties of each player to be expressed and allows the performance of the system to manifest the integrative effect of these factors. Underlying this framework, we apply a realistic representation of spatio-temporal hydrologic variability and incorporate the impact of

  20. Toward a Theoretical Model of Decision-Making and Resistance to Change among Higher Education Online Course Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Bucky J.

    2013-01-01

    Online course design is an emerging practice in higher education, yet few theoretical models currently exist to explain or predict how the diffusion of innovations occurs in this space. This study used a descriptive, quantitative survey research design to examine theoretical relationships between decision-making style and resistance to change…

  1. Theoretical model for mesoscopic-level scale-free self-organization of functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Piersa, Jaroslaw; Piekniewski, Filip; Schreiber, Tomasz

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we provide theoretical and numerical analysis of a geometric activity flow network model which is aimed at explaining mathematically the scale-free functional graph self-organization phenomena emerging in complex nervous systems at a mesoscale level. In our model, each unit corresponds to a large number of neurons and may be roughly seen as abstracting the functional behavior exhibited by a single voxel under functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the course of the dynamics, the units exchange portions of formal charge, which correspond to waves of activity in the underlying microscale neuronal circuit. The geometric model abstracts away the neuronal complexity and is mathematically tractable, which allows us to establish explicit results on its ground states and the resulting charge transfer graph modeling functional graph of the network. We show that, for a wide choice of parameters and geometrical setups, our model yields a scale-free functional connectivity with the exponent approaching 2, which is in agreement with previous empirical studies based on fMRI. The level of universality of the presented theory allows us to claim that the model does shed light on mesoscale functional self-organization phenomena of the nervous system, even without resorting to closer details of brain connectivity geometry which often remain unknown. The material presented here significantly extends our previous work where a simplified mean-field model in a similar spirit was constructed, ignoring the underlying network geometry.

  2. Experimental observation, theoretical models, and biomechanical inference in the study of mandibular form.

    PubMed

    Daegling, D J; Hylander, W L

    2000-08-01

    Experimental studies and mathematical models are disparate approaches for inferring the stress and strain environment in mammalian jaws. Experimental designs offer accurate, although limited, characterization of biomechanical behavior, while mathematical approaches (finite element modeling in particular) offer unparalleled precision in depiction of strain magnitudes, directions, and gradients throughout the mandible. Because the empirical (experimental) and theoretical (mathematical) perspectives differ in their initial assumptions and their proximate goals, the two methods can yield divergent conclusions about how masticatory stresses are distributed in the dentary. These different sources of inference may, therefore, tangibly influence subsequent biological interpretation. In vitro observation of bone strain in primate mandibles under controlled loading conditions offers a test of finite element model predictions. Two issues which have been addressed by both finite element models and experimental approaches are: (1) the distribution of torsional shear strains in anthropoid jaws and (2) the dissipation of bite forces in the human alveolar process. Not surprisingly, the experimental data and mathematical models agree on some issues, but on others exhibit discordance. Achieving congruence between these methods is critical if the nature of the relationship of masticatory stress to mandibular form is to be intelligently assessed. A case study of functional/mechanical significance of gnathic morphology in the hominid genus Paranthropus offers insight into the potential benefit of combining theoretical and experimental approaches. Certain finite element analyses claim to have identified a biomechanical problem unrecognized in previous comparative work, which, in essence, is that the enlarged transverse dimensions of the postcanine corpus may have a less important role in resisting torsional stresses than previously thought. Experimental data have identified

  3. Hydrazinolysis of 3-R-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazolin-2-ones. Synthetic and theoretical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sergeieva, Tetiana Yu; Voskoboynik, Oleksiy Yu; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Kovalenko, Sergiy I; Shishkina, Svitlana V; Shishkin, Oleg V; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2014-03-13

    It has been shown that heating of 3-R-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]quinazolin-2-ones with 5-fold excess of hydrazine hydrate in propanol-2 gave the corresponding 3-(2-aminophenyl)-6-R-1,2,4-triazin-5-ones with high yields. The mechanism of the reaction has been proposed based on the results of theoretical investigation at B3LYP and MP2 levels of theory. According to calculations, an attack of the hydrazine molecule on the C6═N7 double bond leads to ring-opening with N5-C6 bond cleavage. The process continues by addition of the second nucleophile molecule and elimination of the formazan fragment through a series of transformations that yield the target product.

  4. [Theoretical and physical aspects of excimer laser trabeculotomy (ELT) ab interno with the AIDA laser with a wave length of 308 mm].

    PubMed

    Walker, R; Specht, H

    2002-05-01

    Ablation of tissue structures containing and surrounded by water differs from tissue ablation at a surface, not only theoretically, but also in terms of outcome. In contrast to the situation often observed with surface ablation, it is shown that the trabecular meshwork in the anterior chamber of the eye can be ablated cleanly and accurately with the 308 nm Excimer laser without causing collateral thermal damage. The reason for this is that in the trabecular meshwork, the ratio of radiation-absorbing tissue to water--which absorbs very little energy--is very small. A marked cooling effect thus results, which permits the development of only a very small amount of collateral thermal damage at the boundaries of the ablation zone.

  5. Theoretical model atmosphere spectra used for the calibration of infrared instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decin, L.; Eriksson, K.

    2007-09-01

    Context: One of the key ingredients in establishing the relation between input signal and output flux from a spectrometer is accurate determination of the spectrophotometric calibration. In the case of spectrometers onboard satellites, the accuracy of this part of the calibration pedigree is ultimately linked to the accuracy of the set of reference spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that the spectrophotometric calibration is built on. Aims: In this paper, we deal with the spectrophotometric calibration of infrared (IR) spectrometers onboard satellites in the 2 to 200 μm wavelength range. We aim at comparing the different reference SEDs used for the IR spectrophotometric calibration. The emphasis is on the reference SEDs of stellar standards with spectral type later than A0, with special focus on the theoretical model atmosphere spectra. Methods: Using the MARCS model atmosphere code, spectral reference SEDs were constructed for a set of IR stellar standards (A dwarfs, solar analogs, G9-M0 giants). A detailed error analysis was performed to estimate proper uncertainties on the predicted flux values. Results: It is shown that the uncertainty on the predicted fluxes can be as high as 10%, but in case high-resolution observational optical or near-IR data are available, and IR excess can be excluded, the uncertainty on medium-resolution SEDs can be reduced to 1-2% in the near-IR, to ~3% in the mid-IR, and to ~5% in the far-IR. Moreover, it is argued that theoretical stellar atmosphere spectra are at the moment the best representations for the IR fluxes of cool stellar standards. Conclusions: When aiming at a determination of the spectrophotometric calibration of IR spectrometers better than 3%, effort should be put into constructing an appropriate set of stellar reference SEDs based on theoretical atmosphere spectra for some 15 standard stars with spectral types between A0 V and M0 III.

  6. Prefission Constriction of Golgi Tubular Carriers Driven by Local Lipid Metabolism: A Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, Tom; Luini, Alberto; Malhotra, Vivek; Burger, Koert N. J.; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Membrane transport within mammalian cells is mediated by small vesicular as well as large pleiomorphic transport carriers (TCs). A major step in the formation of TCs is the creation and subsequent narrowing of a membrane neck connecting the emerging carrier with the initial membrane. In the case of small vesicular TCs, neck formation may be directly induced by the coat proteins that cover the emerging vesicle. However, the mechanism underlying the creation and narrowing of a membrane neck in the generation of large TCs remains unknown. We present a theoretical model for neck formation based on the elastic model of membranes. Our calculations suggest a lipid-driven mechanism with a central role for diacylglycerol (DAG). The model is applied to a well-characterized in vitro system that reconstitutes TC formation from the Golgi complex, namely the pearling and fission of Golgi tubules induced by CtBP/BARS, a protein that catalyzes the conversion of lysophosphatidic acid into phosphatidic acid. In view of the importance of a PA-DAG cycle in the formation of Golgi TCs, we assume that the newly formed phosphatidic acid undergoes rapid dephosphorylation into DAG. DAG possesses a unique molecular shape characterized by an extremely large negative spontaneous curvature, and it redistributes rapidly between the membrane monolayers and along the membrane surface. Coupling between local membrane curvature and local lipid composition results, by mutual enhancement, in constrictions of the tubule into membrane necks, and a related inhomogeneous lateral partitioning of DAG. Our theoretical model predicts the exact dimensions of the constrictions observed in the pearling Golgi tubules. Moreover, the model is able to explain membrane neck formation by physiologically relevant mole fractions of DAG. PMID:14645071

  7. Theoretical modeling of fluid flow in cellular biological media: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kapellos, George E; Alexiou, Terpsichori S; Payatakes, Alkiviades C

    2010-06-01

    Fluid-structure interactions strongly affect, in multiple ways, the structure and function of cellular biological media, such as tissues, biofilms, and cell-entrapping gels. Mathematical models and computer simulation are important tools in advancing our understanding of these interactions, interpreting experimental observations, and designing novel processes and biomaterials. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey and highlight promising directions of future research on theoretical modeling of momentum transport in cellular biological media with focus on the formulation of governing equations and the calculation of material properties both theoretically and experimentally. With regard to the governing equations, significant work has been done with single-scale approaches (e.g. mixture theory), whereas traditional upscaling methods (e.g. homogenization, volume averaging) or multiscale equation-free approaches have received limited attention. The underlying concepts, strengths, and limitations of each approach, as well as examples of use in the field of biomaterials are presented. The current status of knowledge regarding the dependence of macroscopic material properties on the volume fractions, geometry, and intrinsic material properties of the constituent phases (cells, extracellular matrix and fluid) is also presented. The observation of conformational changes that occur at finer levels of the structural hierarchy during momentum transport, the correlation of macro-properties with geometrical and topological features of materials with heterogeneous and anisotropic microstructure, as well as the determination of dynamic material properties are among important challenges for future research.

  8. Transport of fluorobenzoate tracers in a vegetated hydrologic control volume: 2. Theoretical inferences and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queloz, Pierre; Carraro, Luca; Benettin, Paolo; Botter, Gianluca; Rinaldo, Andrea; Bertuzzo, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical analysis of transport in a controlled hydrologic volume, inclusive of two willow trees and forced by erratic water inputs, is carried out contrasting the experimental data described in a companion paper. The data refer to the hydrologic transport in a large lysimeter of different fluorobenzoic acids seen as tracers. Export of solute is modeled through a recently developed framework which accounts for nonstationary travel time distributions where we parameterize how output fluxes (namely, discharge and evapotranspiration) sample the available water ages in storage. The relevance of this work lies in the study of hydrologic drivers of the nonstationary character of residence and travel time distributions, whose definition and computation shape this theoretical transport study. Our results show that a large fraction of the different behaviors exhibited by the tracers may be charged to the variability of the hydrologic forcings experienced after the injection. Moreover, the results highlight the crucial, and often overlooked, role of evapotranspiration and plant uptake in determining the transport of water and solutes. This application also suggests that the ways evapotranspiration selects water with different ages in storage can be inferred through model calibration contrasting only tracer concentrations in the discharge. A view on upscaled transport volumes like hillslopes or catchments is maintained throughout the paper.

  9. Mechanisms of plasma-assisted catalyzed growth of carbon nanofibres: a theoretical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R.; Sharma, S. C.; Sharma, R.

    2017-02-01

    A theoretical model is developed to study the nucleation and catalytic growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) in a plasma environment. The model includes the charging of CNFs, the kinetics of the plasma species (neutrals, ions and electrons), plasma pretreatment of the catalyst film, and various processes unique to a plasma-exposed catalyst surface such as adsorption of neutrals, thermal dissociation of neutrals, ion induced dissociation, interaction between neutral species, stress exerted by the growing graphene layers and the growth of CNFs. Numerical calculations are carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the growth rate of CNFs decreases with the catalyst nanoparticle size. In addition, the effect of hydrogen on the catalyst nanoparticle size, CNF tip diameter, CNF growth rate, and the tilt angle of the graphene layers to the fiber axis are investigated. Moreover, it is also found that the length of CNFs increases with hydrocarbon number density. Our theoretical findings are in good agreement with experimental observations and can be extended to enhance the field emission characteristics of CNFs.

  10. Ultraviolet Properties of Primeval Galaxies: Theoretical Models from Stellar Population Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    2002-03-01

    The ultraviolet luminosity evolution of star-forming galaxies is explored from the theoretical point of view, especially focusing on the theory of UV energetics in simple and composite stellar populations and its relationship to the star formation rate and other main evolutionary parameters. Galaxy emission below λ<3000 Å directly correlates with actual star formation, not depending on the total mass of the system. A straightforward calibration is obtained, in this sense, from the theoretical models at 1600, 2000, and 2800 Å, and a full comparison is carried out with IUE data and other balloon-borne observations for local galaxies. The claimed role of late-type systems as prevailing contributors to the cosmic UV background is reinforced by our results; at 2000 Å, Im irregulars are found in fact nearly 4 orders of magnitude brighter than ellipticals, per unit luminous mass. The role of dust absorption in the observation of high-redshift galaxies is assessed, comparing the model output and observed spectral energy distribution of local galaxy samples. Similar to what we observe in our own galaxy, a quick evolution in the dust environment might be envisaged in primeval galaxies, with an increasing fraction of luminous matter that would escape the regions of harder and ``clumpy'' dust absorption on a timescale of some 107 yr, comparable to the lifetime of stars of 5-10 Msolar.

  11. Theoretical Performance Model and Initial Experimentation of a Baffled-Tube Ram Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glusman, Jeffrey F.

    The baffled-tube ram accelerator is an innovation in hypervelocity launch technology that allows the acceleration of axisymmetric projectiles in the velocity range of 500 to 3000 meters per second. This device has the potential to double the thrust performance of the conventional smooth-bore ram accelerator while reducing its minimum starting velocity. The baffled-tube ram accelerator utilizes a series of internal baffles to suppress the forward surge of a combustion driven shock wave, thus enabling operation in propellants having two to three times the energy release of those used with conventional smooth-bore ram accelerators. An experimental and theoretical investigation of this device is currently on-going at the University of Washington. Operation at velocities between 620 and 1220 meters per second has been demonstrated to date. Theoretical modeling indicates that momentum loss due to baffle interactions is a key factor in the baffled-tube ram accelerator, which reduces its performance. Nevertheless, baffled-tube experiments have demonstrated thrusts 30-100% greater than that of a smooth-bore ram accelerator operating at the same fill pressure. The design, modeling, and experimental results from a 38-mm-bore, two-meter-long baffled-tube ram accelerator apparatus are presented.

  12. Theoretical modeling for radiofrequency ablation: state-of-the-art and challenges for the future

    PubMed Central

    Berjano, Enrique J

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation is an interventional technique that in recent years has come to be employed in very different medical fields, such as the elimination of cardiac arrhythmias or the destruction of tumors in different locations. In order to investigate and develop new techniques, and also to improve those currently employed, theoretical models and computer simulations are a powerful tool since they provide vital information on the electrical and thermal behavior of ablation rapidly and at low cost. In the future they could even help to plan individual treatment for each patient. This review analyzes the state-of-the-art in theoretical modeling as applied to the study of radiofrequency ablation techniques. Firstly, it describes the most important issues involved in this methodology, including the experimental validation. Secondly, it points out the present limitations, especially those related to the lack of an accurate characterization of the biological tissues. After analyzing the current and future benefits of this technique it finally suggests future lines and trends in the research of this area. PMID:16620380

  13. Effect of cannabidiol in a MK-801-rodent model of aspects of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gururajan, Anand; Taylor, David Alan; Malone, Daniel Thomas

    2011-09-23

    Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid which, based on several previous preclinical and clinical reports, is purported to have antipsychotic potential. The purpose of this investigation was to further investigate if these effects would be seen using an MK-801-induced rat model of aspects of schizophrenia. MK-801 is an NMDA receptor-antagonist known to produce hyperactivity, deficits in prepulse inhibition and social withdrawal, behaviours which correlate well with some of the positive, cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Following a 4-day acclimatisation to the holding room, rats were acclimatised to startle chambers on day 5 and their prepulse inhibition (PPI) determined on day 6 following treatment with cannabidiol or vehicle and MK-801 or vehicle. On day 9, rats were acclimatised to the social interaction testing arena and on day 10, were tested for social interaction and locomotor activity following the same treatments. Cannabidiol treatment alone disrupted PPI and produced hyperactivity but had no effect on social behaviour. Cannabidiol had no effect on MK-801-induced disruption of PPI or hyperactivity but showed potential towards inhibiting MK-801-induced social withdrawal. As a comparator, we also tested the effect of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine which only partially reversed MK-801-induced disruption of PPI but was able to reverse MK-801-induced hyperactivity and social withdrawal. In conclusion, cannabidiol showed both propsychotic activity and partial antipsychotic activity in an MK-801-induced model of aspects of schizophrenia. Further behavioural studies would be required using a range of species, strains, animal models and testing paradigms to conclusively establish the antipsychotic potential of cannabidiol.

  14. Theoretical uncertainties due to AGN subgrid models in predictions of galaxy cluster observable properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.-Y. Karen; Sutter, P. M.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2012-12-01

    Cosmological constraints derived from galaxy clusters rely on accurate predictions of cluster observable properties, in which feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a critical component. In order to model the physical effects due to supermassive black holes (SMBH) on cosmological scales, subgrid modelling is required, and a variety of implementations have been developed in the literature. However, theoretical uncertainties due to model and parameter variations are not yet well understood, limiting the predictive power of simulations including AGN feedback. By performing a detailed parameter-sensitivity study in a single cluster using several commonly adopted AGN accretion and feedback models with FLASH, we quantify the model uncertainties in predictions of cluster integrated properties. We find that quantities that are more sensitive to gas density have larger uncertainties (˜20 per cent for Mgas and a factor of ˜2 for LX at R500), whereas TX, YSZ and YX are more robust (˜10-20 per cent at R500). To make predictions beyond this level of accuracy would require more constraints on the most relevant parameters: the accretion model, mechanical heating efficiency and size of feedback region. By studying the impact of AGN feedback on the scaling relations, we find that an anti-correlation exists between Mgas and TX, which is another reason why YSZ and YX are excellent mass proxies. This anti-correlation also implies that AGN feedback is likely to be an important source of intrinsic scatter in the Mgas-TX and LX-TX relations.

  15. Accountability and pediatric physician-researchers: are theoretical models compatible with Canadian lived experience?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Physician-researchers are bound by professional obligations stemming from both the role of the physician and the role of the researcher. Currently, the dominant models for understanding the relationship between physician-researchers' clinical duties and research duties fit into three categories: the similarity position, the difference position and the middle ground. The law may be said to offer a fourth "model" that is independent from these three categories. These models frame the expectations placed upon physician-researchers by colleagues, regulators, patients and research participants. This paper examines the extent to which the data from semi-structured interviews with 30 physician-researchers at three major pediatric hospitals in Canada reflect these traditional models. It seeks to determine the extent to which existing models align with the described lived experience of the pediatric physician-researchers interviewed. Ultimately, we find that although some physician-researchers make references to something like the weak version of the similarity position, the pediatric-researchers interviewed in this study did not describe their dual roles in a way that tightly mirrors any of the existing theoretical frameworks. We thus conclude that either physician-researchers are in need of better training regarding the nature of the accountability relationships that flow from their dual roles or that models setting out these roles and relationships must be altered to better reflect what we can reasonably expect of physician-researchers in a real-world environment. PMID:21974866

  16. Theoretical models for designing a 220-GHz folded waveguide backward wave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jin-Chi; Hu, Lin-Lin; Ma, Guo-Wu; Chen, Hong-Bin; Jin, Xiao; Chen, Huai-Bi

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the basic equations of beam-wave interaction for designing the 220 GHz folded waveguide (FW) backward wave oscillator (BWO) are described. On the whole, these equations are mainly classified into small signal model (SSM), large signal model (LSM), and simplified small signal model (SSSM). Using these linear and nonlinear one-dimensional (1D) models, the oscillation characteristics of the FW BWO of a given configuration of slow wave structure (SWS) can be calculated by numerical iteration algorithm, which is more time efficient than three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The SSSM expressed by analytical formulas is innovatively derived for determining the initial values of the FW SWS conveniently. The dispersion characteristics of the FW are obtained by equivalent circuit analysis. The space charge effect, the end reflection effect, the lossy wall effect, and the relativistic effect are all considered in our models to offer more accurate results. The design process of the FW BWO tube with output power of watt scale in a frequency range between 215 GHz and 225 GHz based on these 1D models is demonstrated. The 3D PIC method is adopted to verify the theoretical design results, which shows that they are in good agreement with each other. Project supported by the Innovative Research Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 426050502-2).

  17. Developing and testing a theoretical model linking work-family conflict to employee safety.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Jennifer C; Hammer, Leslie B

    2007-07-01

    Despite work-family conflict being recognized as a source of stress, no published research to our knowledge has considered how it negatively affects workplace safety. A theoretical model linking strain-based work-family conflict and employee safety was tested with 243 health care workers. Within this model, work-family conflict is conceptualized as a workplace hazard. As expected, strong work performance norms and high work overload were associated with higher work-family conflict; increased family-to-work conflict was associated with decreased compliance with safety rules and less willingness to participate in discretionary safety meetings. Work-to-family conflict, however, was not associated with safety. These findings underscore the importance of work redesign strategies that consider work performance norms and work-family conflict for expecting a return on investment in terms of a safer workplace.

  18. Submillimeter Absorption Spectroscopy in Semiconductor Manufacturing Plasmas and Comparison to Theoretical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helal, Yaser H.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Ewing, Paul R.; Agarwal, Ankur; Craver, Barry; Stout, Phillip J.; Armacost, Michael D.

    2015-06-01

    Plasmas used in the semiconductor manufacturing industry are of a similar nature to the environments often created for submillimeter spectroscopic study of astrophysical species. At the low operating pressures of these plasmas, submillimeter absorption spectroscopy is a method capable of measuring the abundances and temperatures of molecules, radicals, and ions without disturbing any of the properties of the plasma. These measurements provide details and insight into the interactions and reactions occurring within the plasma and their implications for semiconductor manufacturing processes. A continuous wave, 500 to 750 GHz, absorption spectrometer was designed and used to make measurements of species in semiconductor processing plasmas. Comparisons with expectations from theoretical plasma models provide a basis for validating and improving these models, which is a complex and difficult science itself. Furthermore, these comparisons are an evaluation for the use of submillimeter spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in manufacturing processes.

  19. Toward a unifying model of identification with groups: integrating theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Roccas, Sonia; Sagiv, Lilach; Schwartz, Shalom; Halevy, Nir; Eidelson, Roy

    2008-08-01

    Building on the contributions of diverse theoretical approaches, the authors present a multidimensional model of group identification. Integrating conceptions from the social identity perspective with those from research on individualism-collectivism, nationalism- patriotism, and identification with organizations, we propose four conceptually distinct modes of identification: importance (how much I view the group as part of who I am), commitment (how much I want to benefit the group), superiority (how much I view my group as superior to other groups), and deference (how much I honor, revere, and submit to the group's norms, symbols, and leaders). We present an instrument for assessing the four modes of identification and review initial empirical findings that validate the proposed model and show its utility in understanding antecedents and consequences of identification.

  20. Specification and misspecification of theoretical foundations and logic models for health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    While increasingly widespread use of behavior change theory is an advance for communication campaigns and their evaluation, such theories provide a necessary but not sufficient condition for theory-based communication interventions. Such interventions and their evaluations need to incorporate theoretical thinking about plausible mechanisms of message effect on health-related attitudes and behavior. Otherwise, strategic errors in message design and dissemination, and misspecified campaign logic models, insensitive to campaign effects, are likely to result. Implications of the elaboration likelihood model, attitude accessibility, attitude to the ad theory, exemplification, and framing are explored, and implications for campaign strategy and evaluation designs are briefly discussed. Initial propositions are advanced regarding a theory of campaign affect generalization derived from attitude to ad theory, and regarding a theory of reframing targeted health behaviors in those difficult contexts in which intended audiences are resistant to the advocated behavior or message.

  1. A unified theoretical framework for mapping models for the multi-state Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new unified theoretical framework to construct equivalent representations of the multi-state Hamiltonian operator and present several approaches for the mapping onto the Cartesian phase space. After mapping an F-dimensional Hamiltonian onto an F+1 dimensional space, creation and annihilation operators are defined such that the F+1 dimensional space is complete for any combined excitation. Commutation and anti-commutation relations are then naturally derived, which show that the underlying degrees of freedom are neither bosons nor fermions. This sets the scene for developing equivalent expressions of the Hamiltonian operator in quantum mechanics and their classical/semiclassical counterparts. Six mapping models are presented as examples. The framework also offers a novel way to derive such as the well-known Meyer-Miller model.

  2. From moral theory to penal attitudes and back: a theoretically integrated modeling approach.

    PubMed

    de Keijser, Jan W; van der Leeden, Rien; Jackson, Janet L

    2002-01-01

    From a moral standpoint, we would expect the practice of punishment to reflect a solid and commonly shared legitimizing framework. Several moral legal theories explicitly aim to provide such frameworks. Based on the theories of Retributivism, Utilitarianism, and Restorative Justice, this article first sets out to develop a theoretically integrated model of penal attitudes and then explores the extent to which Dutch judges' attitudes to punishment fit the model. Results indicate that penal attitudes can be measured in a meaningful way that is consistent with an integrated approach to moral theory. The general structure of penal attitudes among Dutch judges suggests a streamlined and pragmatic approach to legal punishment that is identifiably founded on the separate concepts central to moral theories of punishment. While Restorative Justice is frequently presented as an alternative paradigm, results show it to be smoothly incorporated within the streamlined approach.

  3. A theoretical derivation of the dilatancy equation for brittle rocks based on Maxwell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Huang, Houxu; Wang, Mingyang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the micro-cracks in the brittle rocks are assumed to be penny shaped and evenly distributed; the damage and dilatancy of the brittle rocks is attributed to the growth and expansion of numerous micro-cracks under the local tensile stress. A single crack's behaviour under the local tensile stress is generalized to all cracks based on the distributed damage mechanics. The relationship between the local tensile stress and the external loading is derived based on the Maxwell model. The damage factor corresponding to the external loading is represented using the p-alpha (p-α) model. A dilatancy equation that can build up a link between the external loading and the rock dilatancy is established. A test of dilatancy of a brittle rock under triaxial compression is conducted; the comparison between experimental results and our theoretical results shows good consistency.

  4. Spatial aspects of building and population exposure data and their implications for global earthquake exposure modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dell’Acqua, F.; Gamba, P.; Jaiswal, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses spatial aspects of the global exposure dataset and mapping needs for earthquake risk assessment. We discuss this in the context of development of a Global Exposure Database for the Global Earthquake Model (GED4GEM), which requires compilation of a multi-scale inventory of assets at risk, for example, buildings, populations, and economic exposure. After defining the relevant spatial and geographic scales of interest, different procedures are proposed to disaggregate coarse-resolution data, to map them, and if necessary to infer missing data by using proxies. We discuss the advantages and limitations of these methodologies and detail the potentials of utilizing remote-sensing data. The latter is used especially to homogenize an existing coarser dataset and, where possible, replace it with detailed information extracted from remote sensing using the built-up indicators for different environments. Present research shows that the spatial aspects of earthquake risk computation are tightly connected with the availability of datasets of the resolution necessary for producing sufficiently detailed exposure. The global exposure database designed by the GED4GEM project is able to manage datasets and queries of multiple spatial scales.

  5. On the mechanism of stomatocyte-echinocyte transformations of red blood cells: experiment and theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Tachev, K D; Danov, K D; Kralchevsky, P A

    2004-03-15

    This study represents an attempt to achieve a better understanding of the stomatocyte-echinocyte transition in the shape of red blood cells. We determined experimentally the index of cell shape at various ionic strengths and osmolarities for native and trypsin-treated human erythrocytes. For every given composition of the outer phase, we calculated the ionic strength in the cells and the transmembrane electric potential using a known theoretical model. Next, we described theoretically the electric double layers formed on both sides of the cell membrane, and derived expressions for the tensions of the two membrane leaflets. Taking into account that the cell-shape index depends on the tension difference between the two leaflets, we fitted the experimental data with the constructed physicochemical model. The model, which agrees well with the experiment, indicates that the tension difference between the two leaflets is governed by the different adsorptions of counterions at the two membrane surfaces, rather than by the direct contribution of the electric double layers to the membrane tension. Thus, with the rise of the ionic strength, the counterion adsorption increases stronger at the outer leaflet, whose stretching surface pressure becomes greater, and whose area expands relative to that of the inner leaflet. Hence, there is no contradiction between the bilayer-couple hypothesis and the electric double layer theory, if the latter is upgraded to account for the effect of counterion-adsorption on the membrane tension. The developed quantitative model can be applied to predict the shape index of cells upon a stomatocyte-discocyte-echinocyte transformation at varying composition of the outer medium.

  6. Comparative aspects of rodent and nonrodent animal models for mechanistic and translational diabetes research.

    PubMed

    Renner, Simone; Dobenecker, Britta; Blutke, Andreas; Zöls, Susanne; Wanke, Rüdiger; Ritzmann, Mathias; Wolf, Eckhard

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which currently affects 387 million people worldwide, is permanently rising in both adults and adolescents. Despite numerous treatment options, diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease with severe comorbidities, such as nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy, as well as cardiovascular disease. Therefore, animal models predictive of the efficacy and safety of novel compounds in humans are of great value to address the unmet need for improved therapeutics. Although rodent models provide important mechanistic insights, their predictive value for therapeutic outcomes in humans is limited. In recent years, the pig has gained importance for biomedical research because of its close similarity to human anatomy, physiology, size, and, in contrast to non-human primates, better ethical acceptance. In this review, anatomic, biochemical, physiological, and morphologic aspects relevant to diabetes research will be compared between different animal species, that is, mouse, rat, rabbit, pig, and non-human primates. The value of the pig as a model organism for diabetes research will be highlighted, and (dis)advantages of the currently available approaches for the generation of pig models exhibiting characteristics of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus will be discussed.

  7. Students' Levels of Understanding Models and Modelling in Biology: Global or Aspect-Dependent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krell, Moritz; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    It is argued that knowledge about models is an important part of a profound understanding of Nature of Science. Consequently, researchers have developed different "levels of understanding" to analyse students', teachers', or experts' comprehension of this topic. In some approaches, "global" levels of understanding have been…

  8. MIP models for connected facility location: A theoretical and computational study☆

    PubMed Central

    Gollowitzer, Stefan; Ljubić, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    This article comprises the first theoretical and computational study on mixed integer programming (MIP) models for the connected facility location problem (ConFL). ConFL combines facility location and Steiner trees: given a set of customers, a set of potential facility locations and some inter-connection nodes, ConFL searches for the minimum-cost way of assigning each customer to exactly one open facility, and connecting the open facilities via a Steiner tree. The costs needed for building the Steiner tree, facility opening costs and the assignment costs need to be minimized. We model ConFL using seven compact and three mixed integer programming formulations of exponential size. We also show how to transform ConFL into the Steiner arborescence problem. A full hierarchy between the models is provided. For two exponential size models we develop a branch-and-cut algorithm. An extensive computational study is based on two benchmark sets of randomly generated instances with up to 1300 nodes and 115,000 edges. We empirically compare the presented models with respect to the quality of obtained bounds and the corresponding running time. We report optimal values for all but 16 instances for which the obtained gaps are below 0.6%. PMID:25009366

  9. Defense of Cyber Infrastructures Against Cyber-Physical Attacks Using Game-Theoretic Models.

    PubMed

    Rao, Nageswara S V; Poole, Stephen W; Ma, Chris Y T; He, Fei; Zhuang, Jun; Yau, David K Y

    2016-04-01

    The operation of cyber infrastructures relies on both cyber and physical components, which are subject to incidental and intentional degradations of different kinds. Within the context of network and computing infrastructures, we study the strategic interactions between an attacker and a defender using game-theoretic models that take into account both cyber and physical components. The attacker and defender optimize their individual utilities, expressed as sums of cost and system terms. First, we consider a Boolean attack-defense model, wherein the cyber and physical subinfrastructures may be attacked and reinforced as individual units. Second, we consider a component attack-defense model wherein their components may be attacked and defended, and the infrastructure requires minimum numbers of both to function. We show that the Nash equilibrium under uniform costs in both cases is computable in polynomial time, and it provides high-level deterministic conditions for the infrastructure survival. When probabilities of successful attack and defense, and of incidental failures, are incorporated into the models, the results favor the attacker but otherwise remain qualitatively similar. This approach has been motivated and validated by our experiences with UltraScience Net infrastructure, which was built to support high-performance network experiments. The analytical results, however, are more general, and we apply them to simplified models of cloud and high-performance computing infrastructures.

  10. Theoretical vibro-acoustic modeling of acoustic noise transmission through aircraft windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloufi, Badr; Behdinan, Kamran; Zu, Jean

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a fully vibro-acoustic model for sound transmission across a multi-pane aircraft window is developed. The proposed model is efficiently applied for a set of window models to perform extensive theoretical parametric studies. The studied window configurations generally simulate the passenger window designs of modern aircraft classes which have an exterior multi-Plexiglas pane, an interior single acrylic glass pane and a dimmable glass ("smart" glass), all separated by thin air cavities. The sound transmission loss (STL) characteristics of three different models, triple-, quadruple- and quintuple-paned windows identical in size and surface density, are analyzed for improving the acoustic insulation performances. Typical results describing the influence of several system parameters, such as the thicknesses, number and spacing of the window panes, on the transmission loss are then investigated. In addition, a comparison study is carried out to evaluate the acoustic reduction capability of each window model. The STL results show that the higher frequencies sound transmission loss performance can be improved by increasing the number of window panels, however, the low frequency performance is decreased, particularly at the mass-spring resonances.

  11. Defense of Cyber Infrastructures Against Cyber-Physical Attacks Using Game-Theoretic Models

    DOE PAGES

    Rao, Nageswara S. V.; Poole, Stephen W.; Ma, Chris Y. T.; ...

    2015-04-06

    The operation of cyber infrastructures relies on both cyber and physical components, which are subject to incidental and intentional degradations of different kinds. Within the context of network and computing infrastructures, we study the strategic interactions between an attacker and a defender using game-theoretic models that take into account both cyber and physical components. The attacker and defender optimize their individual utilities expressed as sums of cost and system terms. First, we consider a Boolean attack-defense model, wherein the cyber and physical sub-infrastructures may be attacked and reinforced as individual units. Second, we consider a component attack-defense model wherein theirmore » components may be attacked and defended, and the infrastructure requires minimum numbers of both to function. We show that the Nash equilibrium under uniform costs in both cases is computable in polynomial time, and it provides high-level deterministic conditions for the infrastructure survival. When probabilities of successful attack and defense, and of incidental failures are incorporated into the models, the results favor the attacker but otherwise remain qualitatively similar. This approach has been motivated and validated by our experiences with UltraScience Net infrastructure, which was built to support high-performance network experiments. In conclusion, the analytical results, however, are more general, and we apply them to simplified models of cloud and high-performance computing infrastructures.« less

  12. Defense of Cyber Infrastructures Against Cyber-Physical Attacks Using Game-Theoretic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S. V.; Poole, Stephen W.; Ma, Chris Y. T.; He, Fei; Zhuang, Jun; Yau, David K. Y.

    2015-04-06

    The operation of cyber infrastructures relies on both cyber and physical components, which are subject to incidental and intentional degradations of different kinds. Within the context of network and computing infrastructures, we study the strategic interactions between an attacker and a defender using game-theoretic models that take into account both cyber and physical components. The attacker and defender optimize their individual utilities expressed as sums of cost and system terms. First, we consider a Boolean attack-defense model, wherein the cyber and physical sub-infrastructures may be attacked and reinforced as individual units. Second, we consider a component attack-defense model wherein their components may be attacked and defended, and the infrastructure requires minimum numbers of both to function. We show that the Nash equilibrium under uniform costs in both cases is computable in polynomial time, and it provides high-level deterministic conditions for the infrastructure survival. When probabilities of successful attack and defense, and of incidental failures are incorporated into the models, the results favor the attacker but otherwise remain qualitatively similar. This approach has been motivated and validated by our experiences with UltraScience Net infrastructure, which was built to support high-performance network experiments. In conclusion, the analytical results, however, are more general, and we apply them to simplified models of cloud and high-performance computing infrastructures.

  13. Comparison of statistical and theoretical habitat models for conservation planning: the benefit of ensemble prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Fearer, Todd M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Thompson, Frank R.; Nelson, Mark D.; Tirpak, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Selection of a modeling approach is an important step in the conservation planning process, but little guidance is available. We compared two statistical and three theoretical habitat modeling approaches representing those currently being used for avian conservation planning at landscape and regional scales: hierarchical spatial count (HSC), classification and regression tree (CRT), habitat suitability index (HSI), forest structure database (FS), and habitat association database (HA). We focused our comparison on models for five priority forest-breeding species in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region: Acadian Flycatcher, Cerulean Warbler, Prairie Warbler, Red-headed Woodpecker, and Worm-eating Warbler. Lacking complete knowledge on the distribution and abundance of each species with which we could illuminate differences between approaches and provide strong grounds for recommending one approach over another, we used two approaches to compare models: rank correlations among model outputs and comparison of spatial correspondence. In general, rank correlations were significantly positive among models for each species, indicating general agreement among the models. Worm-eating Warblers had the highest pairwise correlations, all of which were significant (P , 0.05). Red-headed Woodpeckers had the lowest agreement among models, suggesting greater uncertainty in the relative conservation value of areas within the region. We assessed model uncertainty by mapping the spatial congruence in priorities (i.e., top ranks) resulting from each model for each species and calculating the coefficient of variation across model ranks for each location. This allowed identification of areas more likely to be good targets of conservation effort for a species, those areas that were least likely, and those in between where uncertainty is higher and thus conservation action incorporates more risk. Based on our results, models developed independently for the same purpose

  14. Comparison of statistical and theoretical habitat models for conservation planning: the benefit of ensemble prediction.

    PubMed

    Jones-Farrand, D Todd; Fearer, Todd M; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Thompson, Frank R; Nelson, Mark D; Tirpak, John M

    2011-09-01

    Selection of a modeling approach is an important step in the conservation planning process, but little guidance is available. We compared two statistical and three theoretical habitat modeling approaches representing those currently being used for avian conservation planning at landscape and regional scales: hierarchical spatial count (HSC), classification and regression tree (CRT), habitat suitability index (HSI), forest structure database (FS), and habitat association database (HA). We focused our comparison on models for five priority forest-breeding species in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region: Acadian Flycatcher, Cerulean Warbler, Prairie Warbler, Red-headed Woodpecker, and Worm-eating Warbler. Lacking complete knowledge on the distribution and abundance of each species with which we could illuminate differences between approaches and provide strong grounds for recommending one approach over another, we used two approaches to compare models: rank correlations among model outputs and comparison of spatial correspondence. In general, rank correlations were significantly positive among models for each species, indicating general agreement among the models. Worm-eating Warblers had the highest pairwise correlations, all of which were significant (P < 0.05). Red-headed Woodpeckers had the lowest agreement among models, suggesting greater uncertainty in the relative conservation value of areas within the region. We assessed model uncertainty by mapping the spatial congruence in priorities (i.e., top ranks) resulting from each model for each species and calculating the coefficient of variation across model ranks for each location. This allowed identification of areas more likely to be good targets of conservation effort for a species, those areas that were least likely, and those in between where uncertainty is higher and thus conservation action incorporates more risk. Based on our results, models developed independently for the same purpose

  15. Models for Turbulent Plane Couette Flow Using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition: Moderate Aspect Ratio Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehlis, Jeff; Smith, Troy; Holmes, Philip; Faisst, Holger

    2002-11-01

    We model turbulent plane Couette flow for a moderate aspect ratio domain by expanding the velocity field as a sum of optimal modes calculated via the proper orthogonal decomposition from numerical data. Ordinary differential equations are obtained by Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes equations onto these modes. For a minimal truncation including only the most energetic modes having no streamwise variation, we show under quite general conditions the existence of linearly stable nontrivial fixed points, corresponding to a state in which the mean flow is coupled to streamwise vortices and their associated streaks. When the two next most energetic modes, still lacking streamwise variations, are included, chaos and heteroclinic cycles associated with the fixed points are found. The attractors involve repeated visits near unstable fixed points and periodic orbits corresponding to steady and periodically varying vortices, and account for a self-sustaining process in which vortices interact with the mean flow.

  16. Active aeroelastic control aspects of an aircraft wing by using synthetic jet actuators: modeling, simulations, experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, K.; Schober, S.; Stolk, M.; Marzocca, P.; De Breuker, R.; Abdalla, M.; Nicolini, E.; Gürdal, Z.

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses modeling, simulations and experimental aspects of active aeroelastic control on aircraft wings by using Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs). SJAs, a particular class of zero-net mass-flux actuators, have shown very promising results in numerous aeronautical applications, such as boundary layer control and delay of flow separation. A less recognized effect resulting from the SJAs is a momentum exchange that occurs with the flow, leading to a rearrangement of the streamlines around the airfoil modifying the aerodynamic loads. Discussions pertinent to the use of SJAs for flow and aeroelastic control and how these devices can be exploited for flutter suppression and for aerodynamic performances improvement are presented and conclusions are outlined.

  17. Cognitive Model of Animal Behavior to Comprehend an Aspect of Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migita, Masao; Moriyama, Tohru

    2004-08-01

    Most animal behaviors are considered to have been evolved through their own courses of natural selection. Since mechanisms of natural selection depend tightly on environments in which animals of interest inhabit, the environment for an animal appears a priori, and stimulus-response (S-R) relationships are stable as long as it returns constant benefit. We claim, however, no environment for an animal cannot be regarded as a priori and any animal can exhibit more elaborated behavior than S-R. In other words, every animal is more or less cognitive in terms that it may modify a meaning of stimulus. We introduce a minimal model to demonstrate the cognitive aspect of the pill bug's turn alternation (TA) behavior. The simulated pill bug can modify its own response pattern to the stimulus of water, though stable response appears to be prerequisite to TA behavior.

  18. Modeling of soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems. Part 2: Biodegradation aspects of soil vapor extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Campagnolo, J.F.; Akgerman, A.

    1995-12-31

    The biodegradation aspects of a previously presented model were examined with regard to the effect of vacuum and of uncertainty in the Monod reaction-rate constant on the bioreaction contribution. Data from the literature of Monod parameters were applied to the simulator to examine whether claims in the literature, of very significant biodegradation of non-halogenated aliphatics and aromatics by bioventing, were realistic. Generally, the conservative claim of 15% remediation by aerobic biodegradation was found to be realistic. Circumstances where the increase in vacuum had no positive effect on remediation time nor on remediation cost were presented. Predicting biological phenomena in nature is extremely difficult due to the influence of many variables and the impact of their interdependence on parametric sensitivity.

  19. Multinucleon short-range correlation model for nuclear spectral functions: Theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artiles, Oswaldo; Sargsian, Misak M.

    2016-12-01

    We develop a theoretical approach for nuclear spectral functions at high missing momenta and removal energies based on the multinucleon short-range correlation (SRC) model. The approach is based on the effective Feynman diagrammatic method which allows us to account for the relativistic effects important in the SRC domain. In addition to two-nucleon (2N) SRC with center of mass motion we also derive the contribution of three-nucleon SRCs to the nuclear spectral functions. The latter is modeled based on the assumption that 3N SRCs are a product of two sequential short-range nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions. This approach allows us to express the 3N SRC part of the nuclear spectral function as a convolution of two NN SRCs. Thus the knowledge of 2N SRCs allows us to model both two- and three-nucleon SRC contributions to the spectral function. The derivations of the spectral functions are based on two theoretical frameworks for evaluating covariant Feynman diagrams: In the first, referred to as virtual nucleon approximation, we reduce Feynman diagrams to the time ordered noncovariant diagrams by evaluating nucleon spectators in the SRC at their positive energy poles, neglecting explicitly the contribution from vacuum diagrams. In the second approach, referred to as light-front approximation, we formulate the boost invariant nuclear spectral function in the light-front reference frame in which case the vacuum diagrams are generally suppressed and the bound nucleon is described by its light-front variables such as momentum fraction, transverse momentum, and invariant mass.

  20. Bayesian Fundamentalism or Enlightenment? On the explanatory status and theoretical contributions of Bayesian models of cognition.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matt; Love, Bradley C

    2011-08-01

    The prominence of Bayesian modeling of cognition has increased recently largely because of mathematical advances in specifying and deriving predictions from complex probabilistic models. Much of this research aims to demonstrate that cognitive behavior can be explained from rational principles alone, without recourse to psychological or neurological processes and representations. We note commonalities between this rational approach and other movements in psychology - namely, Behaviorism and evolutionary psychology - that set aside mechanistic explanations or make use of optimality assumptions. Through these comparisons, we identify a number of challenges that limit the rational program's potential contribution to psychological theory. Specifically, rational Bayesian models are significantly unconstrained, both because they are uninformed by a wide range of process-level data and because their assumptions about the environment are generally not grounded in empirical measurement. The psychological implications of most Bayesian models are also unclear. Bayesian inference itself is conceptually trivial, but strong assumptions are often embedded in the hypothesis sets and the approximation algorithms used to derive model predictions, without a clear delineation between psychological commitments and implementational details. Comparing multiple Bayesian models of the same task is rare, as is the realization that many Bayesian models recapitulate existing (mechanistic level) theories. Despite the expressive power of current Bayesian models, we argue they must be developed in conjunction with mechanistic considerations to offer substantive explanations of cognition. We lay out several means for such an integration, which take into account the representations on which Bayesian inference operates, as well as the algorithms and heuristics that carry it out. We argue this unification will better facilitate lasting contributions to psychological theory, avoiding the pitfalls

  1. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    SciTech Connect

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Perna, Rosalba; Heng, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup –1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption

  2. Current theoretical models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): conceptual review and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Behar, Evelyn; DiMarco, Ilyse Dobrow; Hekler, Eric B; Mohlman, Jan; Staples, Alison M

    2009-12-01

    Theoretical conceptualizations of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) continue to undergo scrutiny and refinement. The current paper critiques five contemporary models of GAD: the Avoidance Model of Worry and GAD [Borkovec, T. D. (1994). The nature, functions, and origins of worry. In: G. Davey & F. Tallis (Eds.), Worrying: perspectives on theory assessment and treatment (pp. 5-33). Sussex, England: Wiley & Sons; Borkovec, T. D., Alcaine, O. M., & Behar, E. (2004). Avoidance theory of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. In: R. Heimberg, C. Turk, & D. Mennin (Eds.), Generalized anxiety disorder: advances in research and practice (pp. 77-108). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press]; the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model [Dugas, M. J., Letarte, H., Rheaume, J., Freeston, M. H., & Ladouceur, R. (1995). Worry and problem solving: evidence of a specific relationship. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 109-120; Freeston, M. H., Rheaume, J., Letarte, H., Dugas, M. J., & Ladouceur, R. (1994). Why do people worry? Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 791-802]; the Metacognitive Model [Wells, A. (1995). Meta-cognition and worry: a cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 301-320]; the Emotion Dysregulation Model [Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., Turk, C. L., & Fresco, D. M. (2002). Applying an emotion regulation framework to integrative approaches to generalized anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 85-90]; and the Acceptance-based Model of GAD [Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2002). Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive behavioral models. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 54-68]. Evidence in support of each model is critically reviewed, and each model's corresponding evidence-based therapeutic interventions are discussed. Generally speaking, the models share an

  3. Security Analysis of Smart Grid Cyber Physical Infrastructures Using Modeling and Game Theoretic Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2015-01-01

    Cyber physical computing infrastructures typically consist of a number of sites are interconnected. Its operation critically depends both on cyber components and physical components. Both types of components are subject to attacks of different kinds and frequencies, which must be accounted for the initial provisioning and subsequent operation of the infrastructure via information security analysis. Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic Agent Based Game Theoretic (ABGT) simulations. Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. We concentrated our analysis on the electric sector failure scenarios and impact analyses by the NESCOR Working Group Study, From the Section 5 electric sector representative failure scenarios; we extracted the four generic failure scenarios and grouped them into three specific threat categories (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) to the system. These specific failure scenarios serve as a demonstration of our simulation. The analysis using our ABGT simulation demonstrates how to model the electric sector functional domain using a set of rationalized game theoretic rules decomposed from the failure scenarios in terms of how those scenarios might impact the cyber physical infrastructure network with respect to CIA.

  4. Personality is of central concern to understand health: towards a theoretical model for health psychology

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets out the case that personality traits are central to health psychology. To achieve this, three aims need to be addressed. First, it is necessary to show that personality influences a broad range of health outcomes and mechanisms. Second, the simple descriptive account of Aim 1 is not sufficient, and a theoretical specification needs to be developed to explain the personality-health link and allow for future hypothesis generation. Third, once Aims 1 and 2 are met, it is necessary to demonstrate the clinical utility of personality. In this review I make the case that all three Aims are met. I develop a theoretical framework to understand the links between personality and health drawing on current theorising in the biology, evolution, and neuroscience of personality. I identify traits (i.e., alexithymia, Type D, hypochondriasis, and empathy) that are of particular concern to health psychology and set these within evolutionary cost-benefit analysis. The literature is reviewed within a three-level hierarchical model (individual, group, and organisational) and it is argued that health psychology needs to move from its traditional focus on the individual level to engage group and organisational levels. PMID:23772230

  5. Estimation of acoustical streaming: theoretical model, Doppler measurements and optical visualisation.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, A; Kowalewski, T; Secomski, W; Wójcik, J

    1998-02-01

    An approximate solution for the streaming velocity generated by flat and weakly focused transducers was derived by directly solving the Dirichlet boundary conditions for the Poisson equation, the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for the axial components of the streaming velocity. The theoretical model was verified experimentally using a 32 MHz pulsed Doppler unit. The experimental acoustical fields were produced by three different 4 mm diameter flat and focused transducers driven by the transmitter generating the average acoustic power within the range from 1 microW to 6 mW. The streaming velocity was measured along the ultrasonic beam from 0 to 2 cm. Streaming was induced in a solution of water and corn starch. The experimental results showed that for a given acoustic power the streaming velocity was independent of the starch density in water, changed from 0.3 to 40 grams of starch in 1 l of distilled water. For applied acoustic powers, the streaming velocity changed linearly from 0.2 to 40 mm/s. Both, the theoretical solutions for plane and focused waves and the experimental results were in good agreement. The streaming velocity field was also visualised using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) and two different evaluation methods. The first based on the FFT-based cross-correlation analysis between small sections for each pair of images and the second employing the algorithm of searching for local displacements between several images.

  6. Laboratory and theoretical models of planetary-scale instabilities and waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Research work is proceeding in theoretical, numerical, and experimental geophysical fluid dynamics leading up to a reflight of the GFFC (Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Experiment) on USML-2. The work is intended not only to generate ideas for future space experiments, but to provide fundamental results concerned with nonlinear and chaotic properties of thermal convection and baroclinic waves in terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. The major efforts are focussed on thermal convection in a rapidly rotating annulus relevant to Jovian atmospheric dynamics, and on the chaotic behavior of baroclinic waves relevant to the Earth's atmosphere. The approach, in preparation for USML-2, is primarily theoretical and numerical. Mechanistic process models are solved numerically in order to identify physical mechanisms that may be observed in the GFFC, and which are important in real geophysical applications. The results from numerical simulations of geophysical fluid flow (subject to rotation and stratification) are compared with previous GFFC experiments on Spacelab-3 and with existing and proposed terrestrial laboratory experiments of various types. Pattern recognition algorithms have been employed to generate low-dimensional descriptions of the highly nonlinear and turbulent numerical simulations. Such empirically truncated descriptions provide for simplified but robust physical interpretations of the dynamics, as well as yielding highly efficient computations of these chaotic flows.

  7. Sampling artifact in volume weighted velocity measurement. II. Detection in simulations and comparison with theoretical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Pengjie; Jing, Yipeng

    2015-02-01

    Measuring the volume weighted velocity power spectrum suffers from a severe systematic error due to imperfect sampling of the velocity field from the inhomogeneous distribution of dark matter particles/halos in simulations or galaxies with velocity measurement. This "sampling artifact" depends on both the mean particle number density n¯P and the intrinsic large scale structure (LSS) fluctuation in the particle distribution. (1) We report robust detection of this sampling artifact in N -body simulations. It causes ˜12 % underestimation of the velocity power spectrum at k =0.1 h /Mpc for samples with n¯ P=6 ×10-3 (Mpc /h )-3 . This systematic underestimation increases with decreasing n¯P and increasing k . Its dependence on the intrinsic LSS fluctuations is also robustly detected. (2) All of these findings are expected based upon our theoretical modeling in paper I [P. Zhang, Y. Zheng, and Y. Jing, Sampling artifact in volume weighted velocity measurement. I. Theoretical modeling, arXiv:1405.7125.]. In particular, the leading order theoretical approximation agrees quantitatively well with the simulation result for n¯ P≳6 ×10-4 (Mpc /h )-3 . Furthermore, we provide an ansatz to take high order terms into account. It improves the model accuracy to ≲1 % at k ≲0.1 h /Mpc over 3 orders of magnitude in n¯P and over typical LSS clustering from z =0 to z =2 . (3) The sampling artifact is determined by the deflection D field, which is straightforwardly available in both simulations and data of galaxy velocity. Hence the sampling artifact in the velocity power spectrum measurement can be self-calibrated within our framework. By applying such self-calibration in simulations, it is promising to determine the real large scale velocity bias of 1013M⊙ halos with ˜1 % accuracy, and that of lower mass halos with better accuracy. (4) In contrast to suppressing the velocity power spectrum at large scale, the sampling artifact causes an overestimation of the velocity

  8. The effects of the theoretical formalism and data selection on mantle models derived from waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mégnin, Charles; Romanowicz, Barbara

    1999-08-01

    Most global tomographic models to date are derived using a combination of surface wave (or normal-mode) data and body wave traveltime data. The traveltime approach limits the number of phases available for inversion by requiring them to be isolated on the seismogram. This may ultimately result in limiting the resolution of 3-D structure, at least in some depth ranges in the mantle. In a previous study, we successfully derived a degree 12 whole-mantle SH-velocity tomographic model (SAW12D) using exclusively waveform data. In that inversion, a normal-mode formalism suitable for body waveforms, the non-linear asymptotic coupling theory (NACT), was combined with a body wave windowing scheme, referred to as the `individual wavepacket' (IW) technique, which allows one to assign individual weights to different body wave energy packets. We here compare the relative merits of this choice of theoretical formalism and windowing scheme at different depth ranges in the mantle. Choosing as the reference a model obtained using 7500 transverse-component body wave and 8000 surface wave seismograms and the NACT and IW approaches, we discuss the relative performance of the path average approximation (PAVA), a zeroth-order theoretical approximation appropriate for single-mode surface waves, relative to NACT, and compare the IW windowing scheme with a more standard `full window' (FW) approach, in which a single time window is considered from the first body wave arrival to the fundamental-mode surface waves. The combination PAVA/FW is often used in global tomography to supplement the traveltime data. We show that although the quality of the image derived under the PAVA/FW formalism is very similar to that derived under NACT/IW in the first 300 km of the upper mantle, where the resolution is dominated by surface waves, it deteriorates at greater depths. Images of the lower mantle are shown to be strongly sensitive to the theoretical formalism. In contrast, the resolution of structure

  9. Cheminformatics aspects of high throughput screening: from robots to models: symposium summary.

    PubMed

    Jane Tseng, Y; Martin, Eric; G Bologa, Cristian; Shelat, Anang A

    2013-05-01

    The "Cheminformatics aspects of high throughput screening (HTS): from robots to models" symposium was part of the computers in chemistry technical program at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in Denver, Colorado during the fall of 2011. This symposium brought together researchers from high throughput screening centers and molecular modelers from academia and industry to discuss the integration of currently available high throughput screening data and assays with computational analysis. The topics discussed at this symposium covered the data-infrastructure at various academic, hospital, and National Institutes of Health-funded high throughput screening centers, the cheminformatics and molecular modeling methods used in real world examples to guide screening and hit-finding, and how academic and non-profit organizations can benefit from current high throughput screening cheminformatics resources. Specifically, this article also covers the remarks and discussions in the open panel discussion of the symposium and summarizes the following talks on "Accurate Kinase virtual screening: biochemical, cellular and selectivity", "Selective, privileged and promiscuous chemical patterns in high-throughput screening" and "Visualizing and exploring relationships among HTS hits using network graphs".

  10. Cheminformatics aspects of high throughput screening: from robots to models: symposium summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jane Tseng, Y.; Martin, Eric; G. Bologa, Cristian; Shelat, Anang A.

    2013-05-01

    The "Cheminformatics aspects of high throughput screening (HTS): from robots to models" symposium was part of the computers in chemistry technical program at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in Denver, Colorado during the fall of 2011. This symposium brought together researchers from high throughput screening centers and molecular modelers from academia and industry to discuss the integration of currently available high throughput screening data and assays with computational analysis. The topics discussed at this symposium covered the data-infrastructure at various academic, hospital, and National Institutes of Health-funded high throughput screening centers, the cheminformatics and molecular modeling methods used in real world examples to guide screening and hit-finding, and how academic and non-profit organizations can benefit from current high throughput screening cheminformatics resources. Specifically, this article also covers the remarks and discussions in the open panel discussion of the symposium and summarizes the following talks on "Accurate Kinase virtual screening: biochemical, cellular and selectivity", "Selective, privileged and promiscuous chemical patterns in high-throughput screening" and "Visualizing and exploring relationships among HTS hits using network graphs".

  11. A Novel Information-Theoretic Approach for Variable Clustering and Predictive Modeling Using Dirichlet Process Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Yang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In the era of big data, there are increasing interests on clustering variables for the minimization of data redundancy and the maximization of variable relevancy. Existing clustering methods, however, depend on nontrivial assumptions about the data structure. Note that nonlinear interdependence among variables poses significant challenges on the traditional framework of predictive modeling. In the present work, we reformulate the problem of variable clustering from an information theoretic perspective that does not require the assumption of data structure for the identification of nonlinear interdependence among variables. Specifically, we propose the use of mutual information to characterize and measure nonlinear correlation structures among variables. Further, we develop Dirichlet process (DP) models to cluster variables based on the mutual-information measures among variables. Finally, orthonormalized variables in each cluster are integrated with group elastic-net model to improve the performance of predictive modeling. Both simulation and real-world case studies showed that the proposed methodology not only effectively reveals the nonlinear interdependence structures among variables but also outperforms traditional variable clustering algorithms such as hierarchical clustering. PMID:27966581

  12. Laboratory and theoretical models of planetary-scale instabilities and waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, John E.; Toomre, Juri

    1990-01-01

    Meteorologists and planetary astronomers interested in large-scale planetary and solar circulations recognize the importance of rotation and stratification in determining the character of these flows. In the past it has been impossible to accurately model the effects of sphericity on these motions in the laboratory because of the invariant relationship between the uni-directional terrestrial gravity and the rotation axis of an experiment. Researchers studied motions of rotating convecting liquids in spherical shells using electrohydrodynamic polarization forces to generate radial gravity, and hence centrally directed buoyancy forces, in the laboratory. The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiments performed on Spacelab 3 in 1985 were analyzed. Recent efforts at interpretation led to numerical models of rotating convection with an aim to understand the possible generation of zonal banding on Jupiter and the fate of banana cells in rapidly rotating convection as the heating is made strongly supercritical. In addition, efforts to pose baroclinic wave experiments for future space missions using a modified version of the 1985 instrument led to theoretical and numerical models of baroclinic instability. Rather surprising properties were discovered, which may be useful in generating rational (rather than artificially truncated) models for nonlinear baroclinic instability and baroclinic chaos.

  13. A theoretical model for the initiation of debris flow in unconsolidated soil under hydrodynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C.-X.; Zhou, J.-W.; Cui, P.; Hao, M.-H.; Xu, F.-G.

    2014-06-01

    Debris flow is one of the catastrophic disasters in an earthquake-stricken area, and remains to be studied in depth. It is imperative to obtain an initiation mechanism and model of the debris flow, especially from unconsolidated soil. With flume experiments and field investigation on the Wenjiagou Gully debris flow induced from unconsolidated soil, it can be found that surface runoff can support the shear force along the slope and lead to soil strength decreasing, with fine particles migrating and forming a local relatively impermeable face. The surface runoff effect is the primary factor for accelerating the unconsolidated slope failure and initiating debris flow. Thus, a new theoretical model for the initiation of debris flow in unconsolidated soil was established by incorporating hydrodynamic theory and soil mechanics. This model was validated by a laboratory test and proved to be better suited for unconsolidated soil failure analysis. In addition, the mechanism analysis and the established model can provide a new direction and deeper understanding of debris flow initiation with unconsolidated soil.

  14. An information theoretic approach to select alternate subsets of predictors for data-driven hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, R.; Galelli, S.; Karakaya, G.; Ahipasaoglu, S. D.

    2016-11-01

    This work investigates the uncertainty associated to the presence of multiple subsets of predictors yielding data-driven models with the same, or similar, predictive accuracy. To handle this uncertainty effectively, we introduce a novel input variable selection algorithm, called Wrapper for Quasi Equally Informative Subset Selection (W-QEISS), specifically conceived to identify all alternate subsets of predictors in a given dataset. The search process is based on a four-objective optimization problem that minimizes the number of selected predictors, maximizes the predictive accuracy of a data-driven model and optimizes two information theoretic metrics of relevance and redundancy, which guarantee that the selected subsets are highly informative and with little intra-subset similarity. The algorithm is first tested on two synthetic test problems and then demonstrated on a real-world streamflow prediction problem in the Yampa River catchment (US). Results show that complex hydro-meteorological datasets are characterized by a large number of alternate subsets of predictors, which provides useful insights on the underlying physical processes. Furthermore, the presence of multiple subsets of predictors-and associated models-helps find a better trade-off between different measures of predictive accuracy commonly adopted for hydrological modelling problems.

  15. A Novel Information-Theoretic Approach for Variable Clustering and Predictive Modeling Using Dirichlet Process Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Yang, Hui

    2016-12-14

    In the era of big data, there are increasing interests on clustering variables for the minimization of data redundancy and the maximization of variable relevancy. Existing clustering methods, however, depend on nontrivial assumptions about the data structure. Note that nonlinear interdependence among variables poses significant challenges on the traditional framework of predictive modeling. In the present work, we reformulate the problem of variable clustering from an information theoretic perspective that does not require the assumption of data structure for the identification of nonlinear interdependence among variables. Specifically, we propose the use of mutual information to characterize and measure nonlinear correlation structures among variables. Further, we develop Dirichlet process (DP) models to cluster variables based on the mutual-information measures among variables. Finally, orthonormalized variables in each cluster are integrated with group elastic-net model to improve the performance of predictive modeling. Both simulation and real-world case studies showed that the proposed methodology not only effectively reveals the nonlinear interdependence structures among variables but also outperforms traditional variable clustering algorithms such as hierarchical clustering.

  16. By-product mutualism and the ambiguous effects of harsher environments - A game-theoretic model.

    PubMed

    De Jaegher, Kris; Hoyer, Britta

    2016-03-21

    We construct two-player two-strategy game-theoretic models of by-product mutualism, where our focus lies on the way in which the probability of cooperation among players is affected by the degree of adversity facing the players. In our first model, cooperation consists of the production of a public good, and adversity is linked to the degree of complementarity of the players׳ efforts in producing the public good. In our second model, cooperation consists of the defense of a public, and/or a private good with by-product benefits, and adversity is measured by the number of random attacks (e.g., by a predator) facing the players. In both of these models, our analysis confirms the existence of the so-called boomerang effect, which states that in a harsh environment, the individual player has few incentives to unilaterally defect in a situation of joint cooperation. Focusing on such an effect in isolation leads to the "common-enemy" hypothesis that a larger degree of adversity increases the probability of cooperation. Yet, we also find that a sucker effect may simultaneously exist, which says that in a harsh environment, the individual player has few incentives to unilaterally cooperate in a situation of joint defection. Looked at in isolation, the sucker effect leads to the competing hypothesis that a larger degree of adversity decreases the probability of cooperation. Our analysis predicts circumstances in which the "common enemy" hypothesis prevails, and circumstances in which the competing hypothesis prevails.

  17. A theoretical reassessment of microbial maintenance and implications for microbial ecology modeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gangsheng; Post, Wilfred M

    2012-09-01

    We attempted to reconcile three microbial maintenance models (Herbert, Pirt, and Compromise) through a theoretical reassessment. We provided a rigorous proof that the true growth yield coefficient (Y(G)) is the ratio of the specific maintenance rate (a in Herbert) to the maintenance coefficient (m in Pirt). Other findings from this study include: (1) the Compromise model is identical to the Herbert for computing microbial growth and substrate consumption, but it expresses the dependence of maintenance on both microbial biomass and substrate; (2) the maximum specific growth rate in the Herbert (μ(max,H)) is higher than those in the other two models (μ(max,P) and μ(max,C)), and the difference is the physiological maintenance factor (m(q) = a); and (3) the overall maintenance coefficient (m(T)) is more sensitive to m(q) than to the specific growth rate (μ(G)) and Y(G). Our critical reassessment of microbial maintenance provides a new approach for quantifying some important components in soil microbial ecology models.

  18. Actin-crosslinking protein regulation of filament movement in motility assays: a theoretical model.

    PubMed Central

    Janson, L W; Taylor, D L

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of single actin filaments on a myosin-coated coverslip has been modeled by several authors. One model adds a component of "frictional drag" by myosin heads that oppose movement of the actin filaments. We have extended this concept by including the resistive drag from actin crosslinking proteins to understand better the relationship among crosslinking number, actin-myosin force generation, and motility. The validity of this model is supported by agreement with the experimental results from a previous study in which crosslinking proteins were added with myosin molecules under otherwise standard motility assay conditions. The theoretical relationship provides a means to determine many physical parameters that characterize the interaction between a single actin filament and a single actin-crosslinking molecule (various types). In particular, the force constant of a single filamin molecule is calculated as 1.105 pN, approximately 3 times less than a driving myosin head (3.4 pN). Knowledge of this parameter and others derived from this model allows a better understanding of the interaction between myosin and the actin/actin-binding protein cytoskeleton and the role of actin-binding proteins in the regulation and modulation of motility. PMID:7811954

  19. A Novel Information-Theoretic Approach for Variable Clustering and Predictive Modeling Using Dirichlet Process Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun; Yang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    In the era of big data, there are increasing interests on clustering variables for the minimization of data redundancy and the maximization of variable relevancy. Existing clustering methods, however, depend on nontrivial assumptions about the data structure. Note that nonlinear interdependence among variables poses significant challenges on the traditional framework of predictive modeling. In the present work, we reformulate the problem of variable clustering from an information theoretic perspective that does not require the assumption of data structure for the identification of nonlinear interdependence among variables. Specifically, we propose the use of mutual information to characterize and measure nonlinear correlation structures among variables. Further, we develop Dirichlet process (DP) models to cluster variables based on the mutual-information measures among variables. Finally, orthonormalized variables in each cluster are integrated with group elastic-net model to improve the performance of predictive modeling. Both simulation and real-world case studies showed that the proposed methodology not only effectively reveals the nonlinear interdependence structures among variables but also outperforms traditional variable clustering algorithms such as hierarchical clustering.

  20. Vaporization dynamics of volatile perfluorocarbon droplets: A theoretical model and in vitro validation

    SciTech Connect

    Doinikov, Alexander A. Bouakaz, Ayache; Sheeran, Paul S.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Perfluorocarbon (PFC) microdroplets, called phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs), are a promising tool in ultrasound imaging and therapy. Interest in PCCAs is motivated by the fact that they can be triggered to transition from the liquid state to the gas state by an externally applied acoustic pulse. This property opens up new approaches to applications in ultrasound medicine. Insight into the physics of vaporization of PFC droplets is vital for effective use of PCCAs and for anticipating bioeffects. PCCAs composed of volatile PFCs (with low boiling point) exhibit complex dynamic behavior: after vaporization by a short acoustic pulse, a PFC droplet turns into a vapor bubble which undergoes overexpansion and damped radial oscillation until settling to a final diameter. This behavior has not been well described theoretically so far. The purpose of our study is to develop an improved theoretical model that describes the vaporization dynamics of volatile PFC droplets and to validate this model by comparison with in vitro experimental data. Methods: The derivation of the model is based on applying the mathematical methods of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics to the process of the acoustic vaporization of PFC droplets. The used approach corrects shortcomings of the existing models. The validation of the model is carried out by comparing simulated results with in vitro experimental data acquired by ultrahigh speed video microscopy for octafluoropropane (OFP) and decafluorobutane (DFB) microdroplets of different sizes. Results: The developed theory allows one to simulate the growth of a vapor bubble inside a PFC droplet until the liquid PFC is completely converted into vapor, and the subsequent overexpansion and damped oscillations of the vapor bubble, including the influence of an externally applied acoustic pulse. To evaluate quantitatively the difference between simulated and experimental results, the L2-norm errors were calculated for all cases where the